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Sample records for tannins cardiac glycosides

  1. Oleandrin: A cardiac glycosides with potent cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arvind; De, Tanmoy; Mishra, Amrita; Mishra, Arun K.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac glycosides are used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and arrhythmia. Current trend shows use of some cardiac glycosides in the treatment of proliferative diseases, which includes cancer. Nerium oleander L. is an important Chinese folk medicine having well proven cardio protective and cytotoxic effect. Oleandrin (a toxic cardiac glycoside of N. oleander L.) inhibits the activity of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B chain (NF-?B) in various cultured cell lines (U937, CaOV3, human epithelial cells and T cells) as well as it induces programmed cell death in PC3 cell line culture. The mechanism of action includes improved cellular export of fibroblast growth factor-2, induction of apoptosis through Fas gene expression in tumor cells, formation of superoxide radicals that cause tumor cell injury through mitochondrial disruption, inhibition of interleukin-8 that mediates tumorigenesis and induction of tumor cell autophagy. The present review focuses the applicability of oleandrin in cancer treatment and concerned future perspective in the area. PMID:24347921

  2. Evaluating the Cancer Therapeutic Potential of Cardiac Glycosides

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Montaño, José Manuel; Burgos-Morón, Estefanía; Orta, Manuel Luis; Maldonado-Navas, Dolores; García-Domínguez, Irene; López-Lázaro, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac glycosides, also known as cardiotonic steroids, are a group of natural products that share a steroid-like structure with an unsaturated lactone ring and the ability to induce cardiotonic effects mediated by a selective inhibition of the Na+/K+-ATPase. Cardiac glycosides have been used for many years in the treatment of cardiac congestion and some types of cardiac arrhythmias. Recent data suggest that cardiac glycosides may also be useful in the treatment of cancer. These compounds typically inhibit cancer cell proliferation at nanomolar concentrations, and recent high-throughput screenings of drug libraries have therefore identified cardiac glycosides as potent inhibitors of cancer cell growth. Cardiac glycosides can also block tumor growth in rodent models, which further supports the idea that they have potential for cancer therapy. Evidence also suggests, however, that cardiac glycosides may not inhibit cancer cell proliferation selectively and the potent inhibition of tumor growth induced by cardiac glycosides in mice xenografted with human cancer cells is probably an experimental artifact caused by their ability to selectively kill human cells versus rodent cells. This paper reviews such evidence and discusses experimental approaches that could be used to reveal the cancer therapeutic potential of cardiac glycosides in preclinical studies. PMID:24895612

  3. Cardiac glycosides from the bark of Antiaris toxicaria.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-San; Hu, Meng-Jie; Liu, Jie; Liu, Qian; Huang, Zhi-Xing; Li, Shun-Lin; Hao, Xiao-Jiang; Zhang, Xiao-Kun; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Tang, Jin-Shan

    2014-09-01

    Five new cardiac glycosides (1-5, namely antiaroside Y-ZC) together with 19 known compounds were obtained from the bark of Antiaris toxicaria. Their chemical structures were determined by IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR (HSQC, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HMBC, ROESY). The absolute configuration of sugar unit was defined by acid hydrolysis and appropriate derivatization. Compound 1 was rare 5?-H-10?-H-19-nor-cardenolide, which might derive from decarboxylative derivative of 19-COOH cardenolide. The inhibitory effects of cardiac glycosides 1-11 on the viability of NIH-H460 lung cancer cells and their induction of Nur77 expression were evaluated and preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) was also discussed. PMID:24879902

  4. Molluscicidal activity of cardiac glycosides from Nerium indicum against Pomacea canaliculata and its implications for the mechanisms of toxicity.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lingpeng; Wang, Wanxian; Dong, Xinjiao; Hu, Renyong; Nan, Xuyang

    2011-09-01

    Cardiac glycosides from fresh leaves of Nerium indicum were evaluated for its molluscicidal activity against Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail: GAS) under laboratory conditions. The results showed that LC(50) value of cardiac glycosides against GAS was time dependent and the LC(50) value at 96 h was as low as 3.71 mg/L, which was comparable with that of metaldehyde at 72 h (3.88 mg/L). These results indicate that cardiac glycosides could be an effective molluscicide against GAS. The toxicological mechanism of cardiac glucosides on GAS was also evaluated through changes of selected biochemical parameters, including cholinesterase (ChE) and esterase (EST) activities, glycogen and protein contents in hepatopancreas tissues of GAS. Exposure to sublethal concentrations of cardiac glycosides, GAS showed lower activities of EST isozyme in the later stages of the exposure period as well as drastically decreased glycogen content, although total protein content was not affected at the end of 24 and 48 h followed by a significant depletion at the end of 72 and 96 h. The initial increase followed by a decline of ChE activity was also observed during the experiment. These results suggest that cardiac glycosides seriously impair normal physiological metabolism, resulting in fatal alterations in major biochemical constituents of hepatopancreas tissues of P. canaliculata. PMID:21843803

  5. Cardiac Glycoside Activities Link Na+/K+ ATPase Ion-Transport to Breast Cancer Cell Migration via Correlative SAR

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The cardiac glycosides ouabain and digitoxin, established Na+/K+ ATPase inhibitors, were found to inhibit MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration through an unbiased chemical genetics screen for cell motility. The Na+/K+ ATPase acts both as an ion-transporter and as a receptor for cardiac glycosides. To delineate which function is related to breast cancer cell migration, structure–activity relationship (SAR) profiles of cardiac glycosides were established at the cellular (cell migration inhibition), molecular (Na+/K+ ATPase inhibition), and atomic (computational docking) levels. The SAR of cardiac glycosides and their analogs revealed a similar profile, a decrease in potency when the parent cardiac glycoside structure was modified, for each activity investigated. Since assays were done at the cellular, molecular, and atomic levels, correlation of SAR profiles across these multiple assays established links between cellular activity and specific protein–small molecule interactions. The observed antimigratory effects in breast cancer cells are directly related to the inhibition of Na+/K+ transport. Specifically, the orientation of cardiac glycosides at the putative cation permeation path formed by transmembrane helices ?M1–M6 correlates with the Na+ pump activity and cell migration. Other Na+/K+ ATPase inhibitors that are structurally distinct from cardiac glycosides also exhibit antimigratory activity, corroborating the conclusion that the antiport function of Na+/K+ ATPase and not the receptor function is important for supporting the motility of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Correlative SAR can establish new relationships between specific biochemical functions and higher-level cellular processes, particularly for proteins with multiple functions and small molecules with unknown or various modes of action. PMID:25334087

  6. High sensitivity of the Na+, K+-pump of human red blood cells to genins of cardiac glycosides.

    PubMed

    Senn, N; Lelièvre, L G; Braquet, P; Garay, R

    1988-04-01

    1. Four different cardiac glycosides (ouabain, digitoxin, digoxin and gitoxin) and their corresponding genins were tested on Na+, K+-pump fluxes measured under steady-state and initial rate conditions (non equilibrium conditions) in human and rat erythrocytes and in mouse macrophages. 2. In human red cells, Na+, K+-pump fluxes exhibited up to 8 fold higher sensitivity to genins than to glycosides. In addition genins, but not the corresponding glycosides, exhibited double reactivity with regard to the erythrocyte Na+, K+-pump (with the exception of gitoxigenin). A weak reactivity component was similar to the one of the corresponding glycosides (IC50 of about 10(-6) M) and a high reactivity component exhibited IC50 values varying from 0.1 to 0.5 X 10(-6) M for digitoxigenin and ouabagenin respectively. 3. In contrast with human red cells, the initial rate of Na+, K+-pump fluxes in rat erythrocytes and mouse macrophages was less sensitive to genins than to the corresponding cardiac glycosides. 4. Dihydroouabain was 3, 10 and 75 times less active than ouabain in inhibiting the initial rate of Na+, K+-pump fluxes in human and rat erythrocytes and in mouse macrophages respectively. 5. In conclusion, Na+, K+-pump fluxes measured under initial rate conditions in human erythrocytes exhibit an unusually high sensitivity to genins of cardiac glycosides. This property probably results from the fast binding rate constants of genins and the slow association rates of glycosides to human red cells. PMID:3390651

  7. Metabolic fate of cardiac glycosides and flavonoids upon fermentation of aqueous sea squill (Drimia maritima L.) extracts.

    PubMed

    Knittel, Diana N; Stintzing, Florian C; Kammerer, Dietmar R

    2015-06-10

    Sea squill (Drimia maritima L.) extracts have been used for centuries for the medical treatment of heart diseases. A procedure for the preparation of Drimia extracts applied for such purposes comprising a fermentation step is described in the German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia (GHP). However, little is known about the secondary metabolite profile of such extracts and the fate of these components upon processing and storage. Thus, in the present study sea squill extracts were monitored during fermentation and storage by HPLC-DAD-MS(n) and GC-MS to characterise and quantitate individual cardiac glycosides and phenolic compounds. For this purpose, a previously established HPLC method for the separation and quantitation of pharmacologically relevant cardiac glycosides (bufadienolides) was validated. Within 12 months of storage, total bufadienolide contents decreased by about 50%, which was attributed to microbial and plant enzyme activities. The metabolisation and degradation rates of individual bufadienolide glycosides significantly differed, which was attributed to differing structures of the aglycones. Further degradation of bufadienolide aglycones was also observed. Besides reactions well known from human metabolism studies, dehydration of individual compounds was monitored. Quantitatively predominating flavonoids were also metabolised throughout the fermentation process. The present study provides valuable information about the profile and stability of individual cardiac glycosides and phenolic compounds in fermented Drimia extracts prepared for medical applications, and expands the knowledge of cardiac glycoside conversion upon microbial fermentation. PMID:25841205

  8. Cardiac glycosides induced toxicity in human cells expressing ?1-, ?2-, or ?3-isoforms of Na-K-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Cherniavsky Lev, Marina; Karlish, Steven J D; Garty, Haim

    2015-07-15

    The Na+-K+-ATPase is specifically inhibited by cardiac glycosides, some of which may also function as endogenous mammalian hormones. Previous studies using Xenopus oocytes, yeast cells, or purified isoforms demonstrated that affinities of various cardiac glycosides for three isoforms of the Na+-K+-ATPase (?1-?3?1) may differ, a finding with potential clinical implication. The present study investigates isoform selectivity and effects of cardiac glycosides on cultured mammalian cells under more physiological conditions. H1299 cells (non-small cell lung carcinoma) were engineered to express only one ?-isoform (?1, ?2, or ?3) by combining stable transfection of isoforms and silencing endogenous ?1. Cardiac glycoside binding was measured by displacement of bound 3H-ouabain. The experiments confirm moderate ?1/?3:?2 selectivity of ouabain, moderate ?2:?1 selectivity of digoxin, and enhanced ?2:?1 selectivity of synthetic derivatives (Katz A, Tal DM, Heller D, Haviv H, Rabah B, Barkana Y, Marcovich AL, Karlish SJD. J Biol Chem 289: 21153-21162, 2014). Relative ?2:?1 selectivity of digoxin vs. ouabain was also manifested by enhanced internalization of ?2 in response to digoxin. Cellular proliferation assays of H1299 cells confirmed the patterns of ?2:?1 selectivity for ouabain, digoxin, and a synthetic derivative and reveal a crucial role of surface pump density on sensitivity to cardiac glycosides. Because cardiac glycosides are being considered as drugs for treatment of cancer, effects of ouabain on proliferation of 12 cancer and noncancer cell lines, with variable plasma membrane expression of ?1, have been tested. These demonstrated that sensitivity to ouabain indeed depends linearly on the plasma membrane surface density of Na+-K+-ATPase irrespective of status, malignant or nonmalignant. PMID:25994790

  9. BDNF mediates neuroprotection against oxygen-glucose deprivation by the cardiac glycoside oleandrin.

    PubMed

    Van Kanegan, Michael J; He, Dong Ning; Dunn, Denise E; Yang, Peiying; Newman, Robert A; West, Anne E; Lo, Donald C

    2014-01-15

    We have previously shown that the botanical drug candidate PBI-05204, a supercritical CO2 extract of Nerium oleander, provides neuroprotection in both in vitro and in vivo brain slice-based models for focal ischemia (Dunn et al., 2011). Intriguingly, plasma levels of the neurotrophin BDNF were increased in patients treated with PBI-05204 in a phase I clinical trial (Bidyasar et al., 2009). We thus tested the hypothesis that neuroprotection provided by PBI-05204 to rat brain slices damaged by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) is mediated by BDNF. We found, in fact, that exogenous BDNF protein itself is sufficient to protect brain slices against OGD, whereas downstream activation of TrkB receptors for BDNF is necessary for neuroprotection provided by PBI-05204, using three independent methods. Finally, we provide evidence that oleandrin, the principal cardiac glycoside component of PBI-05204, can quantitatively account for regulation of BDNF at both the protein and transcriptional levels. Together, these findings support further investigation of cardiac glycosides in providing neuroprotection in the context of ischemic stroke. PMID:24431454

  10. BDNF Mediates Neuroprotection against Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation by the Cardiac Glycoside Oleandrin

    PubMed Central

    Van Kanegan, Michael J.; He, Dong Ning; Dunn, Denise E.; Yang, Peiying; Newman, Robert A.; West, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that the botanical drug candidate PBI-05204, a supercritical CO2 extract of Nerium oleander, provides neuroprotection in both in vitro and in vivo brain slice-based models for focal ischemia (Dunn et al., 2011). Intriguingly, plasma levels of the neurotrophin BDNF were increased in patients treated with PBI-05204 in a phase I clinical trial (Bidyasar et al., 2009). We thus tested the hypothesis that neuroprotection provided by PBI-05204 to rat brain slices damaged by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) is mediated by BDNF. We found, in fact, that exogenous BDNF protein itself is sufficient to protect brain slices against OGD, whereas downstream activation of TrkB receptors for BDNF is necessary for neuroprotection provided by PBI-05204, using three independent methods. Finally, we provide evidence that oleandrin, the principal cardiac glycoside component of PBI-05204, can quantitatively account for regulation of BDNF at both the protein and transcriptional levels. Together, these findings support further investigation of cardiac glycosides in providing neuroprotection in the context of ischemic stroke. PMID:24431454

  11. Extraction of Cs-137 by alcohol-water solvents from plants containing cardiac glycosides

    E-print Network

    Dzyubak, S N; Dzyubak, O P; Sorokin, P V; Popov, V F; Orlov, A A; Krasnov, V P; Gubin, Yu.I.

    2001-01-01

    As a result of nuclear power plant accidents, large areas receive radioactive inputs of Cs-137. This cesium accumulates in herbs growing in such territories. The problem is whether the herbs contaminated by radiocesium may be used as a raw material for medicine. The answer depends on the amount of Cs-137 transfered from the contaminated raw material to the medicine. We have presented new results of the transfer of Cs-137 from contaminated Digitalis grandiflora Mill. and Convallaria majalis L. to medicine. We found that the extraction of Cs-137 depends strongly on the hydrophilicity of the solvent. For example 96.5%(vol.) ethyl alcohol extracts less Cs-137 (11.6%) than 40%(vol.) ethyl alcohol or pure water (66.2%). The solubility of the cardiac glycosides is inverse to the solubility of cesium, which may be of use in the technological processes for manufacturing ecologically pure herbal medicine.

  12. Effects of cardiac glycosides on excitation-contraction coupling in frog skeletal muscle fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Sárközi, S; Szentesi, P; Jona, I; Csernoch, L

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of digoxin and ouabain on the calcium release flux from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), isometric tension and intramembrane charge movement were studied in voltage clamped skeletal muscle fibres of the frog. 2. Both cardiac glycosides increased both calcium transients and simultaneously recorded tension at all membrane potentials, showing different effects on the peak and on the steady components of the calcium release flux. These effects were attained at an extracellular digoxin concentration of 5 nM and an estimated intracellular ouabain concentration of 1-2 nM. Digoxin and ouabain thus exerted their effects at the same concentration on calcium release in skeletal muscle as previously observed in isolated cardiac-type ryanodine receptor (RyR) calcium release channels. 3. The peak of SR calcium release increased at all voltages, with the largest potentiation at intermediate membrane potentials. This increase in calcium release flux was attained despite an unchanged SR calcium content. The attenuated release rate therefore reflected an increased number of open RyR channels rather than increased SR loading. 4. These effects could be attributed to an increase in calcium release activation and not a decrease in the rate of inactivation. Rather, the rate of inactivation was enhanced at all voltages as expected from the increased calcium concentration in the triadic junction. 5. In contrast, CMA (17 alpha-acetoxy-6-chloro-4, 6-pregnadiene-3,20-dione; 5 microM), a Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase inhibitor with no positive inotropic effects on the heart, neither influenced SR calcium release nor antagonized the effects of ouabain. 6. Both digoxin and ouabain preserved total intramembrane charge apart from a small negative shift in the mid-point voltage and increase in slope factor. 7. Both digoxin and ouabain induced calcium release from heavy SR vesicles at rates comparable to that induced by ryanodine or caffeine. 8. It is concluded that at least part of the inactivating component of SR calcium release involves distinct RyR calcium release channels that resemble the cardiac RyR isoform in its specific sensitivity to cardiac glycosides. PMID:8887770

  13. Effects of cardiac glycosides on excitation-contraction coupling in frog skeletal muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Sárközi, S; Szentesi, P; Jona, I; Csernoch, L

    1996-09-15

    1. The effects of digoxin and ouabain on the calcium release flux from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), isometric tension and intramembrane charge movement were studied in voltage clamped skeletal muscle fibres of the frog. 2. Both cardiac glycosides increased both calcium transients and simultaneously recorded tension at all membrane potentials, showing different effects on the peak and on the steady components of the calcium release flux. These effects were attained at an extracellular digoxin concentration of 5 nM and an estimated intracellular ouabain concentration of 1-2 nM. Digoxin and ouabain thus exerted their effects at the same concentration on calcium release in skeletal muscle as previously observed in isolated cardiac-type ryanodine receptor (RyR) calcium release channels. 3. The peak of SR calcium release increased at all voltages, with the largest potentiation at intermediate membrane potentials. This increase in calcium release flux was attained despite an unchanged SR calcium content. The attenuated release rate therefore reflected an increased number of open RyR channels rather than increased SR loading. 4. These effects could be attributed to an increase in calcium release activation and not a decrease in the rate of inactivation. Rather, the rate of inactivation was enhanced at all voltages as expected from the increased calcium concentration in the triadic junction. 5. In contrast, CMA (17 alpha-acetoxy-6-chloro-4, 6-pregnadiene-3,20-dione; 5 microM), a Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase inhibitor with no positive inotropic effects on the heart, neither influenced SR calcium release nor antagonized the effects of ouabain. 6. Both digoxin and ouabain preserved total intramembrane charge apart from a small negative shift in the mid-point voltage and increase in slope factor. 7. Both digoxin and ouabain induced calcium release from heavy SR vesicles at rates comparable to that induced by ryanodine or caffeine. 8. It is concluded that at least part of the inactivating component of SR calcium release involves distinct RyR calcium release channels that resemble the cardiac RyR isoform in its specific sensitivity to cardiac glycosides. PMID:8887770

  14. Cardiac glycosides induce autophagy in human non-small cell lung cancer cells through regulation of dual signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Qiu, Qiang; Shen, Jia-Jia; Li, Dian-Dong; Jiang, Xue-Jun; Si, Shu-Yi; Shao, Rong-Guang; Wang, Zhen

    2012-11-01

    Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase targeted cancer therapy has attracted increasing interests of oncologists in lung cancer field. Although multiple anti-cancer mechanisms of cardiac glycosides as Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitors are revealed, the role of autophagy and related molecular signaling pathway for the class of compounds in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been systematically examined. We herein investigated the anti-cancer effects of two representative cardiac glycosides, digoxin and ouabain, in A549 and H460 cell lines. Both agents caused significant growth inhibition at nanomolar level. The cardiac glycosides were found to induce moderate G(2)/M arrest but not apoptosis at IC(50) level in the NSCLC cell lines. Moreover, autophagy was markedly induced by both agents, as evidenced by the time- and dose-dependent increase of LC3-II, up-regulation of Atg5 and Beclin1, as well as by the observations through acridine orange staining, transmission electron microscopy and quantification of GFP-LC3 fluorescence. Importantly, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway was activated, resulting in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) deactivation during autophagy induction. Moreover, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation was simultaneously found to be involved in the autophagy regulation. Co-treatment with respective inhibitors or siRNAs could either block the autophagic phenotypes and signals, or significantly increase the cellular viability, indicating the drugs-induced autophagy plays tumor-suppressing role. This work provides first evidence showing that the cardiac glycosides induce autophagy in human NSCLC cells through regulation of both mTOR and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. The autophagy may at least partially account for the growth inhibitory effects of the compounds in human NSCLC cells. PMID:22750415

  15. Transport and epithelial secretion of the cardiac glycoside, digoxin, by human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cavet, M. E.; West, M.; Simmons, N. L.

    1996-01-01

    1. Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells have been used to investigate the transepithelial permeation of the cardiac glycoside, digoxin. 2. Transepithelial basal to apical [3H]-digoxin flux exceeds apical to basal flux, a net secretion of [3H]-digoxin being observed. At 200 microM digoxin, net secretory flux (Jnet) was 10.8 +/- 0.6 nmol cm-2 h-1. Maximal secretory flux (Jmax) of vinblastine was 1.3 +/- 0.1 nmol cm-2 h-1. Cellular uptake of digoxin was different across apical and basal cell boundaries. It was greatest across the basal surface at 1 microM, whereas at 200 microM, apical uptake exceeded basal uptake. 3. Net secretion of [3H]-digoxin was subject to inhibition by digitoxin and bufalin but was not inhibited by ouabain, convallatoxin, and strophanthidin (all 100 microM). Inhibition was due to both a decrease in Jb-a and an increase in Ja-b. Uptake of [3H]-digoxin at the apical surface was increased by digitoxin and bufalin. All cardiac glycosides decreased [3H]-digoxin uptake at the basal cell surface (except for 100 microM digitoxin). 4. The competitive P-glycoprotein inhibitors, verapamil (100 microM), nifedipine (50 microM) and vinblastine (50 microM) all abolished net secretion of [3H]-digoxin due to both a decrease in Jb-a and an increase in Ja-b. Cellular accumulation of [3H]-digoxin was also increased across both the apical and basal cell surfaces. I-Chloro-2,4,-dinitrobenzene (10 microM), a substrate for glutathione-S-transferase and subsequent ATP-dependent glutathione-S-conjugate secretion, failed to inhibit net secretion of [3H]-digoxin. The increase in absorptive permeability Pa-b (= Ja-b/Ca) and cellular [3H]-digoxin uptake upon P-glycoprotein inhibition, showed that the intestinal epithelium was rendered effectively impermeable by ATP-dependent extrusion at the apical surface. 5. A model for [3H]-digoxin secretion by the intestinal epithelium is likely to involve both diffusional uptake and Na(+)-K+ pump-mediated endocytosis, followed by active extrusion at the apical membrane. PMID:8832062

  16. Early downregulation of Mcl-1 regulates apoptosis triggered by cardiac glycoside UNBS1450

    PubMed Central

    Cerella, C; Muller, F; Gaigneaux, A; Radogna, F; Viry, E; Chateauvieux, S; Dicato, M; Diederich, M

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac glycosides (CGs), prescribed to treat cardiovascular alterations, display potent anti-cancer activities. Despite their well-established target, the sodium/potassium (Na+/K+)-ATPase, downstream mechanisms remain poorly elucidated. UNBS1450 is a hemi-synthetic cardenolide derived from 2?-oxovorusharin extracted from the plant Calotropis procera, which is effective against various cancer cell types with an excellent differential toxicity. By comparing adherent and non-adherent cancer cell types, we validated Mcl-1 as a general and early target of UNBS1450. A panel of CGs including cardenolides ouabain, digitoxin and digoxin as well as bufadienolides cinobufagin and proscillaridin A allowed us to generalize our findings. Our results show that Mcl-1, but not Bcl-xL nor Bcl-2, is rapidly downregulated prior to induction of apoptosis. From a mechanistic point of view, we exclude an effect on transcription and demonstrate involvement of a pathway affecting protein stability and requiring the proteasome in the early CG-induced Mcl-1 downregulation, without the involvement of caspases or the BH3-only protein NOXA. Strategies aiming at preventing UNBS1450-induced Mcl-1 downregulation by overexpression of a mutated, non-ubiquitinable form of the protein or the use of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 inhibited the compound's ability to induce apoptosis. Altogether our results point at Mcl-1 as a ubiquitous factor, downregulated by CGs, whose modulation is essential to achieve cell death. PMID:26068790

  17. Early downregulation of Mcl-1 regulates apoptosis triggered by cardiac glycoside UNBS1450.

    PubMed

    Cerella, C; Muller, F; Gaigneaux, A; Radogna, F; Viry, E; Chateauvieux, S; Dicato, M; Diederich, M

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac glycosides (CGs), prescribed to treat cardiovascular alterations, display potent anti-cancer activities. Despite their well-established target, the sodium/potassium (Na(+)/K(+))-ATPase, downstream mechanisms remain poorly elucidated. UNBS1450 is a hemi-synthetic cardenolide derived from 2?-oxovorusharin extracted from the plant Calotropis procera, which is effective against various cancer cell types with an excellent differential toxicity. By comparing adherent and non-adherent cancer cell types, we validated Mcl-1 as a general and early target of UNBS1450. A panel of CGs including cardenolides ouabain, digitoxin and digoxin as well as bufadienolides cinobufagin and proscillaridin A allowed us to generalize our findings. Our results show that Mcl-1, but not Bcl-xL nor Bcl-2, is rapidly downregulated prior to induction of apoptosis. From a mechanistic point of view, we exclude an effect on transcription and demonstrate involvement of a pathway affecting protein stability and requiring the proteasome in the early CG-induced Mcl-1 downregulation, without the involvement of caspases or the BH3-only protein NOXA. Strategies aiming at preventing UNBS1450-induced Mcl-1 downregulation by overexpression of a mutated, non-ubiquitinable form of the protein or the use of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 inhibited the compound's ability to induce apoptosis. Altogether our results point at Mcl-1 as a ubiquitous factor, downregulated by CGs, whose modulation is essential to achieve cell death. PMID:26068790

  18. In vitro and in vivo neuroprotective activity of the cardiac glycoside oleandrin from Nerium oleander in brain slice-based stroke models.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Denise E; He, Dong Ning; Yang, Peiying; Johansen, Mary; Newman, Robert A; Lo, Donald C

    2011-11-01

    The principal active constituent of the botanical drug candidate PBI-05204, a supercritical CO(2) extract of Nerium oleander, is the cardiac glycoside oleandrin. PBI-05204 shows potent anticancer activity and is currently in phase I clinical trial as a treatment for patients with solid tumors. We have previously shown that neriifolin, which is structurally related to oleandrin, provides robust neuroprotection in brain slice and whole animal models of ischemic injury. However, neriifolin itself is not a suitable drug development candidate and the FDA-approved cardiac glycoside digoxin does not cross the blood-brain barrier. We report here that both oleandrin as well as the full PBI-05204 extract can also provide significant neuroprotection to neural tissues damaged by oxygen and glucose deprivation as occurs in ischemic stroke. Critically, we show that the neuroprotective activity of PBI-05204 is maintained for several hours of delay of administration after oxygen and glucose deprivation treatment. We provide evidence that the neuroprotective activity of PBI-05204 is mediated through oleandrin and/or other cardiac glycoside constituents, but that additional, non-cardiac glycoside components of PBI-05204 may also contribute to the observed neuroprotective activity. Finally, we show directly that both oleandrin and the protective activity of PBI-05204 are blood brain barrier penetrant in a novel model for in vivo neuroprotection. Together, these findings suggest clinical potential for PBI-05204 in the treatment of ischemic stroke and prevention of associated neuronal death. PMID:21950737

  19. Cardiac glycoside ouabain induces autophagic cell death in non-small cell lung cancer cells via a JNK-dependent decrease of Bcl-2.

    PubMed

    Trenti, Annalisa; Grumati, Paolo; Cusinato, Federico; Orso, Genny; Bonaldo, Paolo; Trevisi, Lucia

    2014-05-15

    Cardiac glycosides are Na/K-ATPase inhibitors, clinically used for congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias. Epidemiological studies have reported that patients on cardiac glycosides treatment are protected from some types of cancers. This evidence together with the demonstration that cardiac glycosides show selective cytotoxicity against cancer cells has raised new interest on the anticancer properties of these drugs. This study examines the mechanism involved in the anticancer effect of ouabain in non-small cell lung cancer cells lines (A549 and H1975). Ouabain inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. Cell death was caspase-independent and showed classical patterns of autophagic cell death: conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II, increase of LC3 puncta and increase of autophagic flux. Moreover, cell death was completely blocked by the class III phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase inhibitor 3-methyladenine. Here we show that ouabain caused the reduction of Bcl-2 protein levels, with no change in the expression of the autophagic protein Beclin 1. Early signalling events of ouabain exposure were ERK1/2 and JNK activation, however only JNK inhibition with SP600125 or JNK knockdown by shRNA were able to prevent Bcl-2 decrease, conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and cell death. We propose that JNK activation by ouabain leads to a decrease of Bcl-2 levels, resulting in disruption of the inhibitory interaction of Bcl-2 with Beclin 1, that promotes autophagy. These findings indicate that pharmacological modulation of autophagy by cardiac glycosides could be exploited for anticancer therapy. PMID:24630927

  20. Plasma concentration, uptake by liver, and biliary excretion of tritiated cardiac glycosides in the isolated perfused guinea-pig liver

    PubMed Central

    Kolenda, K.-D.; Lüllmann, H.; Peters, T.; Seiler, K.-U.

    1971-01-01

    1. Investigations were carried out on isolated perfused guinea-pig livers. Different doses of tritiated ouabain, digoxin, and digitoxin were added to the perfusion medium and the subsequent plasma elimination, hepatic uptake, and biliary excretion quantitatively measured. After the perfusion, extracts of liver, bile and plasma were subjected to thin layer chromatography in order to detect the radioactively labelled glycosides and their metabolites. 2. The ouabain concentration in the plasma approached the equilibrium stage within 45 minutes. At this time 40% of the administered dose had been taken up by the liver, and no further elimination occurred. The elimination curve for ouabain followed a simple exponential function. After 1 h the tissue medium (T/M) ratio was approximately 3. In bile hardly any radioactivity could be detected. Ouabain was therefore not excreted by the liver. 3. Up to 80% of the digitoxin was eliminated from the plasma within 4 hours. The elimination of radioactive material for the dose range studied could be described by a hyperbolic function. The T/M ratio in the liver varied with time. At the beginning it was as high as 10 and after 4 h reduced to approximately 3. After 45-60 min the concentration of radioactive material in the bile was 500 times as high as that in the plasma. Almost 70% of the administered radioactivity was excreted with the bile within 4 hours. At the end of the perfusion almost all the identifiable substances in plasma and bile were polar metabolites, as shown by thin layer radiochromatography. 4. Digoxin behaved similarly to digitoxin. 5. The findings led to the following hypothesis: uptake of cardiac glycosides into the liver cells occurs by a passive diffusion process and is related to their lipid solubility. On the other hand excretion in the bile occurs in general if polar metabolites are formed in the liver cells. PMID:5579463

  1. Glycoside vs. Aglycon: The Role of Glycosidic Residue in Biological Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K?en, Vladimír

    A large number of biologically active compounds are glycosides. Sometimes the glycosidic residue is crucial for their activity, in other cases glycosylation only improves pharmacokinetic parameters. Recent developments in molecular glycobiology brought better understanding of aglycon vs. glycoside activities, and made possible the development of new, more active or more effective glycodrugs based on these findings - a very illustrative recent example is vancomycin. The new enzymatic methodology "glycorandomization" enabled preparation of glycoside libraries and opened up paths to the preparation of optimized or entirely novel glycoside antibiotics. This chapter deals with an array of glycosidic compounds currently used in medicine but also covers the biological activity of some glycosidic metabolites of known drugs. The chapter discusses glycosides of vitamins, polyphenolic glycosides (flavonoids), alkaloid glycosides, glycosides of antibiotics, glycopeptides, cardiac glycosides, steroid and terpenoid glycosides etc. The physiological role of the glycosyl moiety and structure-activity relations (SAR) in the glycosidic moiety (-ies) are also discussed.

  2. Cardiac glycosides correct aberrant splicing of IKBKAP-encoded mRNA in familial dysautonomia derived cells by suppressing expression of SRSF3.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Anderson, Sylvia L; Qiu, Jinsong; Rubin, Berish Y

    2013-08-01

    The ability to modulate the production of the wild-type transcript in cells bearing the splice-altering familial dysautonomia (FD) causing mutation in the IKBKAP gene prompted a study of the impact of a panel of pharmaceuticals on the splicing of this transcript, which revealed the ability of the cardiac glycoside digoxin to increase the production of the wild-type, exon-20-containing, IKBKAP-encoded transcript and the full-length I?B-kinase-complex-associated protein in FD-derived cells. Characterization of the cis elements and trans factors involved in the digoxin-mediated effect on splicing reveals that this response is dependent on an SRSF3 binding site(s) located in the intron 5' of the alternatively spliced exon and that digoxin mediates its effect by suppressing the level of the SRSF3 protein. Characterization of the digoxin-mediated effect on the RNA splicing process was facilitated by the identification of several RNA splicing events in which digoxin treatment mediates the enhanced inclusion of exonic sequence. Moreover, we demonstrate the ability of digoxin to impact the splicing process in neuronal cells, a cell type profoundly impacted by FD. This study represents the first demonstration that digoxin possesses splice-altering capabilities that are capable of reversing the impact of the FD-causing mutation. These findings support the clinical evaluation of the impact of digoxin on the FD patient population. PMID:23711097

  3. Joun~al r~fChemical Ecology. Vol. 21. No. 9, 1995 PRESERVING LEAVES FOR TANNIN AND PHENOLIC

    E-print Network

    Orians, Colin

    Joun~al r~fChemical Ecology. Vol. 21. No. 9, 1995 PRESERVING LEAVES FOR TANNIN AND PHENOLIC 8, 1995) Abstract--Members of the Salicaceae often produce phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins Ior phenolic glyct~sides, unlcss done in a manner to prevent thawing during the drying process

  4. Saliva tannin interactions.

    PubMed

    Prinz, J F; Lucas, P W

    2000-11-01

    Many plant foods contain tannins, compounds that bind proteins, such as mammalian enzymes. Although described as tasteless, tannins can be detected orally by their astringency. However, the actual mechanism of oral detection and the effect of tannins on mastication and swallowing have been little investigated. Here, we show from in vitro tests that tannic acid, a common standard in tests used to detect tannins, significantly reduces the lubricating qualities of human saliva both by decreasing its viscosity and increasing friction, both factors lending support to the notion that astringency is a tactile phenomenon. From the literature, it is clear that this effect depends on the presence of salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP). In a mammalian context, ingestion of tannin-rich foods in a species with salivary PRP will be signalled by interference with bolus formation during mastication while the increase in friction may also be detectable and lead to increased tooth wear if the signal is ignored. In a human context, cross-cultural preferences for tannin-rich beverages such as tea, coffee and red wine at the end of meals may be explained by reduction in adhesion of food particles to the oral mucosa allowing their rapid oral clearance. PMID:11106991

  5. Src mediates extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation and autophagic cell death induced by cardiac glycosides in human non-small cell lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zhan, Yuechen; Xu, Rong; Shao, Rongguang; Jiang, Jiandong; Wang, Zhen

    2015-06-01

    Aberrant Na(+) /K(+) -ATPases (NKA) expression is closely related to the incidence and development of cancer, making NKA targeted cancer therapy more intriguing. Cardiac glycosides (CGs) belong to NKA inhibitors and possess potent anti-cancer properties in many cancers. Our previous work demonstrates that CGs family member digoxin or ouabain induces autophagic cell death in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines through regulation of both mammalian target of rapamycin and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway. However, what acts as an upstream regulator of ERK1/2 activation during autophagy induction remains obscure. In the present study, the role of Src in the ERK1/2 signaling pathway as well as autophagic cell death induced by either digoxin or ouabain was examined in A549 and H460 cells. Src is significantly activated simultaneously with mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2) and ERK1/2 activation upon the drug treatment. Moreover, Src inhibitor PP2 could block either drug induced MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, together with autophagic phenotypes in the cells. Knockdown of Src with siRNA causes the similar effect as PP2, both of which markedly alleviate the drugs' cytotoxicity. In addition, increased levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) are found to be involved in Src mediated autophagy. Together, this work provides evidences showing that Src mediates MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 pathway as well as ROS generation, and regulates autophagic cell death induced by the cardiac glycosides. These observations may further help understand the molecular mechanisms of autophagy induced by NKA inhibitors in NSCLC cells. PMID:24610665

  6. Cardiac glycoside induces cell death via FasL by activating calcineurin and NF-AT, but apoptosis initially proceeds through activation of caspases

    PubMed Central

    Raghavendra, Pongali B.; Sreenivasan, Yashin; Ramesh, Govindarajan T.

    2009-01-01

    Decrease in caspase activity is a common phenomenon in drug resistance. For effective therapeutic intervention, detection of such agents, which affects other pathway independent of caspases to promote cell death, might be important. Oleandrin, a polyphenolic glycoside induced cell death through activation of caspases in a variety of human tumour cells. In this report we provide evidence that besides caspases activation, oleandrin interacts with plasma membrane, changes fluidity of the membrane, disrupts Na+/K+-ATPase pump, enhances intracellular free Ca2+ and thereby activates calcineurin. Calcineurin, in turns, activates nuclear transcription factor NF-AT and its dependent genes such as FasL, which induces cell death as a late response of oleandrin. Cell death at early stages is mediated by caspases where inhibitors partially protected oleandrin-mediated cell death in vector-transfected cells, but almost completely in Bcl-xL-overexpressed cells. Overall, our data suggest that oleandrin might be important therapeutic molecule in case of tumors where cell death pathway occurs due to deregulation of caspase-mediated pathway PMID:17203245

  7. Les tannins : Les tannins (ou tanins, du franais tan, corce, mot issu du gaulois) sont des

    E-print Network

    . Enfin, des tannins particuliers, ou phlorotannins, existent chez les algues hétérocontes (Phéophytes ou'astringence en bouche des végétaux verts et des vins trop jeunes (réaction tannins vacuolaires / protéines

  8. Tannins, Peptic Ulcers and Related Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Neyres Zinia Taveira; de Souza Falcão, Heloina; Gomes, Isis Fernandes; de Almeida Leite, Thiago Jose; de Morais Lima, Gedson Rodrigues; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria; Tavares, Josean Fechine; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; de Athayde-Filho, Petrônio Filgueiras; Batista, Leonia Maria

    2012-01-01

    This review of the current literature aims to study correlations between the chemical structure and gastric anti-ulcer activity of tannins. Tannins are used in medicine primarily because of their astringent properties. These properties are due to the fact that tannins react with the tissue proteins with which they come into contact. In gastric ulcers, this tannin-protein complex layer protects the stomach by promoting greater resistance to chemical and mechanical injury or irritation. Moreover, in several experimental models of gastric ulcer, tannins have been shown to present antioxidant activity, promote tissue repair, exhibit anti Helicobacter pylori effects, and they are involved in gastrointestinal tract anti-inflammatory processes. The presence of tannins explains the anti-ulcer effects of many natural products. PMID:22489149

  9. Variability in tannin content, chemistry and activity in a diverse group of tannin containing sorghum cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tannins are large polyphenolic polymers and are known to bind proteins, limiting their digestibility. Tannins are also known for having excellent antioxidant potential. To examine the precise impact of tannin content and composition on the biological activities (protein binding, protein digestibil...

  10. Variants of glycoside hydrolases

    DOEpatents

    Teter, Sarah; Ward, Connie; Cherry, Joel; Jones, Aubrey; Harris, Paul; Yi, Jung

    2013-02-26

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  11. Variants of glycoside hydrolases

    DOEpatents

    Teter, Sarah (Davis, CA); Ward, Connie (Hamilton, MT); Cherry, Joel (Davis, CA); Jones, Aubrey (Davis, CA); Harris, Paul (Carnation, WA); Yi, Jung (Sacramento, CA)

    2011-04-26

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  12. Sorption of polyphenolics (tannins) to natural soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tannins enter soil systems via rainfall through the leaf canopy, leaf litter decomposition, and root exudation and decomposition. For tannins released into soils, the relative importance of sorption to soil; chemical reactions with soil minerals; and biological decomposition is unknown. Determinin...

  13. Sorption of polyphenolics (tannins) to natural soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plant secondary metabolites known as tannins (polyphenolics) comprise up to 40% of the dry mass of plant tissue. Tannins have potent bioactivities ranging from protein precipitation to metal binding and radical quenching, and can affect nutrient metal availability, nitrogen availability, and so...

  14. Colloidal stability of tannins: astringency, wine tasting and beyond

    E-print Network

    D. Zanchi; C. Poulain; P. Konarev; C. Tribet; D. I. Svergun

    2008-10-07

    Tannin-tannin and tannin-protein interactions in water-ethanol solvent mixtures are studied in the context of red wine tasting. While tannin self-aggregation is relevant for visual aspect of wine tasting (limpidity and related colloidal phenomena), tannin affinities for salivary proline-rich proteins is fundamental for a wide spectrum of organoleptic properties related to astringency. Tannin-tannin interactions are analyzed in water-ethanol wine-like solvents and the precipitation map is constructed for a typical grape tannin. The interaction between tannins and human salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP) are investigated in the framework of the shell model for micellization, known for describing tannin-induced aggregation of beta-casein. Tannin-assisted micellization and compaction of proteins observed by SAXS are described quantitatively and discussed in the case of astringency.

  15. Colloidal stability of tannins: astringency, wine tasting and beyond

    E-print Network

    Zanchi, D; Konarev, P; Tribet, C; Svergun, D I

    2008-01-01

    Tannin-tannin and tannin-protein interactions in water-ethanol solvent mixtures are studied in the context of red wine tasting. While tannin self-aggregation is relevant for visual aspect of wine tasting (limpidity and related colloidal phenomena), tannin affinities for salivary proline-rich proteins is fundamental for a wide spectrum of organoleptic properties related to astringency. Tannin-tannin interactions are analyzed in water-ethanol wine-like solvents and the precipitation map is constructed for a typical grape tannin. The interaction between tannins and human salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP) are investigated in the framework of the shell model for micellization, known for describing tannin-induced aggregation of beta-casein. Tannin-assisted micellization and compaction of proteins observed by SAXS are described quantitatively and discussed in the case of astringency.

  16. Transgenic upregulation of the condensed tannin pathway in poplar leads to a dramatic shift in leaf palatability for two tree-feeding Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Boeckler, G Andreas; Towns, Megan; Unsicker, Sybille B; Mellway, Robin D; Yip, Lynn; Hilke, Ines; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Constabel, C Peter

    2014-02-01

    Transgenic hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x tremuloides) overexpressing the MYB134 tannin regulatory gene show dramatically enhanced condensed tannin (proanthocyanidin) levels, as well as shifts in other phenolic metabolites. A series of insect bioassays with forest tent caterpillars (Malacosoma disstria) and gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillars was carried out to determine how this metabolic shift affects food preference and performance of generalist tree-feeding lepidopterans. Both species showed a distinct preference for the high-tannin MYB134 overexpressor plants, and L. dispar performance was enhanced relative to controls. L. dispar reached greater pupal weight and showed reduced time to pupation when reared on the MYB134 overexpressing poplar. These results were unexpected since enhanced condensed tannin levels were predicted to act as feeding deterrents. However, the data may be explained by the observed decrease in the salicinoids (phenolic glycosides) salicortin and tremulacin that accompanied the upregulation of the condensed tannins in the transgenics. We conclude that for these two lepidopteran species, condensed tannin levels are unlikely to be a major determinant of caterpillar food preference or performance. However, our experiments show that overexpression of a single regulatory gene in transgenic aspen can have a significant impact on herbivorous insects. PMID:24496605

  17. Cytotoxicity of pregnane glycosides of Cynanchum otophyllum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mi; Li, Xiang; Xiang, Cheng; Qin, Yi; He, Jing; Li, Bao-Cai; Li, Peng

    2015-12-01

    Fourteen new pregnane glycosides, including nine caudatin glycosides (1-9), three qinyangshengenin glycosides (10-12), one kidjoranin glycosides (13) and one gagaminin glycosides (14), along with twelve known analogs (15-26) were isolated from roots of Cynanchum otophyllum Schneid. Their structures were deduced by detailed analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectra, as well as HRESIMS. In this study, all pregnane glycosides obtained (1-26) were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities using three cancer cell lines (HepG2, Hela, U251). As results, except 6 and 10, other twenty-four pregnane glycosides showed cytotoxicities at different degrees against three cell lines. PMID:26297951

  18. Tannin rich peanut skins lack anthelmintic properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) resistance to synthetic anthelmintics in small ruminants has led to the evaluation of feed sources containing naturally occurring bioactive secondary metabolites that lessen parasite activity. Plants rich in condensed tannins (CT) can have beneficial anthelmintic pro...

  19. Isoflavone glycosides from Derris scandens.

    PubMed

    Rukachaisirikul, Vatcharin; Sukpondma, Yaowapa; Jansakul, Chaweewan; Taylor, Walter C

    2002-08-01

    Five isoflavone glycosides, named derriscandenosides A-E (1-5), were isolated from the stems of Derris scandens, together with ten known compounds comprising one isoflavone, two benzoic acid derivatives, three glucosyl isoflavones and four rhamnosyl-(1-->6)-glucosyl isoflavones. The structures of the glycosides were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data, especially of the acetate derivatives. Three known rhamnosyl-(1-->6)-glucosyl isoflavones isolated from a crude fraction were retested for hypotensive activity with varying results. PMID:12150808

  20. Interaction of gut microflora with tannins in feeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Gunjan; Puniya, A. K.; Aguilar, C. N.; Singh, Kishan

    2005-11-01

    Tannins (hydrolyzable and condensed) are water-soluble polyphenolic compounds that exert antinutritional effects on ruminants by forming complexes with dietary proteins. They limit nitrogen supply to animals, besides inhibiting the growth and activity of ruminal microflora. However, some gastrointestinal microbes are able to break tannin-protein complexes while preferentially degrading hydrolyzable tannins (HTs). Streptococcus gallolyticus, Lonepinella koalarum and Selenomonas ruminantium are the dominant bacterial species that have the ability to degrade HTs. These tanninolytic microorganisms possess tannin-degrading ability and have developed certain mechanisms to tolerate tannins in feeds. Hence, selection of efficient tanninolytic microbes and transinoculation among animals for long-term benefits become areas of intensive interest. Here, we review the effects of tannins on ruminants, the existence and significance of tannin-degrading microorganisms in diverse groups of animals and the mechanisms that tannin-degrading microorganisms have developed to counter the toxic effects of tannin.

  1. A new glycosidic flavonoid from Jwarhar mahakashay (antipyretic) Ayurvedic preparation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mradu; Shaw, B. P.; Mukherjee, A.

    2010-01-01

    The aqueous extract of Jwarhar mahakashay Ayurvedic preparation (from the roots of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br., Rubia cordifolia L., Cissampelos pareira L.; fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz., Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Terminalia bellirica Roxb., Vitis vinifera L., Grewia asiatica L., Salvadora persica L. and granules of Saccharum officinarum L.) has been used as a traditional antipyretic. Experimental studies confirmed its antipyretic–analgesic effect with very low ulcerogenicity and toxicity. Flavonoids, glycosides and tannins were later found to be present in the extract. Detailed chemical investigations were undertaken after hydrolysis of extract using spectroscopic and chromatography methods to determine its active chemical constituent. UV-Visible spectroscopy showed absorbance maxima at 220 and 276 nm, while fourier transform infra-red investigations indicated an end carboxylic O–H structure at 2940 cm?1 suggesting the presence of glycoside-linked flavonoids. Thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography also confirmed the possibility of at least one major and two minor compounds in this abstract. Detailed examination using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of the principal component as 2-(1-oxopropyl)-benzoic acid, which is quite similar to the active compound found in the standard drug Aspirin (2-acetyl-oxybenzoic acid). PMID:20814525

  2. Accumulation of uranium by immobilized persimmon tannin

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaguchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Akira )

    1994-01-01

    We have discovered that the extracted juice of unripe astringent persimmon fruit, designated as kakishibu or shibuol, has an extremely high affinity for uranium. To develop efficient adsorbents for uranium, we tried to immobilize kakishibu (persimmon tannin) with various aldehydes and mineral acids. Persimmon tannin immobilized with glutaraldehyde can accumulate 1.71 g (14 mEq U) of uranium per gram of the adsorbent. The uranium accumulating capacity of this adsorbent is several times greater than that of commercially available chelating resins (2-3 mEq/g). Immobilized persimmon tannin has the most favorable features for uranium recovery; high selective adsorption ability, rapid adsorption rate, and applicability in both column and batch systems. The uranium retained on immobilized persimmon tannin can be quantitatively and easily eluted with a very dilute acid, and the adsorbent can thus be easily recycled in the adsorption-desorption process. Immobilized persimmon tannin also has a high affinity for thorium. 23 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Multifunctional porous solids derived from tannins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celzard, Alain; Fierro, Vanessa; Pizzi, Antonio; Zhao, Weigang

    2013-03-01

    Tannins are extremely valuable, non toxic, wood extractives combining reactivity towards aldehydes, low cost, natural origin and easy handling. When polymerized in the presence of suitable chemicals including blowing agent, ultra lightweight rigid tannin-based foams are obtained. If pyrolyzed under inert gas, reticulated carbon foams having the same pore structure and the same density are obtained. The most remarkable features of tannin-based foams are the following: mechanical resistance similar to, or higher than, that of commercial phenolic foams, tuneable pore size and permeability, infusibility, very low thermal conductivity, cheapness, ecological character, high resistance to flame and to chemicals. Carbon foams have even better properties and are also electrically conducting. Consequently, various applications are suggested for organic foams: cores of sandwich composite panels, sound and shock absorbers and thermal insulators, whereas carbon foams can be used as porous electrodes, filters for molten metals and corrosive chemicals, catalyst supports and adsorbents.

  4. Tannin extracts abate ammonia emissions from dairy barn floors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding more tannin and less crude protein (CP) to dairy cows may have compound positive impacts on reducing NH3 emissions from dairy barns. Mixtures of feces-urine from lactating Holstein dairy cows (Bos taurus) fed four levels (g kg-1) of dietary tannin extract: 0 (0T), 4.5 (low tannin, LT), 9.0 (...

  5. Powdered hide model for vegetable tanning II. hydrolyzable tannin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable tannages employ both condensed and hydrolyzable tannins. As part of our exploration of tanning mechanisms, we reported last year on interactions of the condensed tannin, quebracho, with powdered hide. In this study, the interactions of chestnut extract, a hydrolyzable tannin, with powdere...

  6. Flavonol Glycosides from Gaura Biennis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytochemical investigation of the native American plant Gaura biennis led to the isolation of three new flavonol glycosides (1-3), along with eight known ones. Their structures were established primarily by spectroscopic data as quercetin 3-O-(2"-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-6"-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-ß-D- gluco...

  7. Phenylpropanoid glycosides from Penstemon serrulatus.

    PubMed

    Skrzypek, Z; Wysoki?ska, H; Swiatek, L; Wróblewski, A E

    1999-01-01

    Two new phenylpropanoid glycosides named cis-martynoside (1) and cis-leucosceptoside A (3) were recognized in cell suspension cultures of Penstemon serrulatus Menz. The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of 1H NMR spectral data. PMID:9917298

  8. Tannin content of tea and coffee.

    PubMed

    Savolainen, H

    1992-06-01

    The tannin content of over-the-counter Indian tea, of green coffee beans and of the roasted coffee beans prepared from the same green beans was determined with a radial diffusion-protein precipitation technique and with a spectrophotometric method. The green beans contained 6.6 +/- 0.6 mg g-1 weight tannic acid equivalents as found by protein precipitation (n = 5, +/- SD) or 6.8 +/- 2.3 mg g-1 by spectrophotometry. The same figures for roasted beans were 18 +/- 1.7 and 17 +/- 2.7 mg g-1, respectively. Tea contained 37 +/- 2.6 mg g-1 weight tannic acid equivalents as analysed by spectrophotometry and 24 +/- 2.8 mg g-1 by the protein precipitation technique. The latter finding may show that the biological reactivity of tannins is variable, although no major changes in the tannin-precipitated albumin occurred as shown by electrophoretic analysis. Both methods provide an easy analysis of the reportedly carcinogenic plant tannins. PMID:1629514

  9. Science Study Aids 5: Tannin - Nature's Filter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeschen, John; Randall, John M.

    This publication is the fifth in a series of seven supplementary investigative materials for use in secondary science classes providing up-to-date research-related investigations. This unit is structured for grade levels 9 through 12. It is concerned with the removal of heavy divalent metals from water with the use of tannin-containing…

  10. Interactions of Condensed Tannins with Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast Cells and Cell Walls: Tannin Location by Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mekoue Nguela, Julie; Vernhet, Aude; Sieczkowski, Nathalie; Brillouet, Jean-Marc

    2015-09-01

    Interactions between grape tannins/red wine polyphenols and yeast cells/cell walls was previously studied within the framework of red wine aging and the use of yeast-derived products as an alternative to aging on lees. Results evidenced a quite different behavior between whole cells (biomass grown to elaborate yeast-derived products, inactivated yeast, and yeast inactivated after autolysis) and yeast cell walls (obtained from mechanical disruption of the biomass). Briefly, whole cells exhibited a high capacity to irreversibly adsorb grape and wine tannins, whereas only weak interactions were observed for cell walls. This last point was quite unexpected considering the literature and called into question the real role of cell walls in yeasts' ability to fix tannins. In the present work, tannin location after interactions between grape and wine tannins and yeast cells and cell walls was studied by means of transmission electron microscopy, light epifluorescence, and confocal microscopy. Microscopy observations evidenced that if tannins interact with cell walls, and especially cell wall mannoproteins, they also diffuse freely through the walls of dead cells to interact with their plasma membrane and cytoplasmic components. PMID:26223789

  11. Glycosidic monoterpenes from Linaria capraria.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Armandodoriano; Guiso, Marcella; Ballero, Mauro; Foddai, Sebastiano; Nicoletti, Marcello; Piccin, Antonella; Serafini, Mauro; Tomassini, Lamberto

    2004-06-01

    During our systematic study on the species of genus Linaria (Scrophulariaceae) present in Italy, we examined the glycosidic fraction of Linaria capraria Moris et De Not., a species endemic of Tuscany archipelago. This fraction is particularly complex and we considered in this article only the medium polarity components. In accordance with previous studies, L. capraria shows acyl derivatives of antirrhinoside 1 as specific chemotaxonomic iridoidic markers. L. capraria exhibits a complex composition, with regard to iridoidic constituents, with several chromatographic problems to be resolved. We then isolated, besides the known antirrhinoside 1, two acyl derivatives of antirrhinoside, the 6'-O-senecioyl derivative, 2, and the 6'-O-angeloyl derivative, 3. In addition a glucoside of an acyclic monoterpene, 4, was also isolated, which may be correlated to the other monoterpenic glycosides isolated from other species of Scrophulariaceae. PMID:15143834

  12. Diterpene glycosides from Egletes viscosa.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dongho; Li, Chen; Graf, Tyler N; Vigo, Jose Schunke; Graham, James G; Cabieses, Fernando; Farnsworth, Norman R; Cordell, Geoffrey A; Kinghorn, A Douglas; Kroll, David J; Wani, Mansukh C; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2005-08-01

    A phytochemical investigation of the CHCl (3)-soluble extract of the entire plant of Egletes viscosa (Asteraceae), collected in Peru, afforded two new labdane glycosides, 13-hydroxy-7-oxolabda-8,14-diene 13( R)- O-alpha- L-arabinopyranoside and 13-hydroxylabda-7,14-diene 13( R)- O-alpha- L-arabinopyranoside, along with four known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods. PMID:16142652

  13. Phenolic glycosides from Potalia amara.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing-Cong; ElSohly, Hala N; Walker, Larry A; Clark, Alice M

    2005-10-01

    Investigation of the stem bark of the unique Amazonian herbal plant Potalia amara yielded two new phenolic glycosides, potalioside A (1) and B (2), along with di-O-methylcrenatin (3), 2,6-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenol 1-glucoside and sweroside. The structures of potalioside A and B were established by interpretation of spectral data as 4-hydroxymethyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenyl 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside and 4-hydroxymethyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenyl 1-O-beta- D-xylopyranosyl(1-->6)- beta-D-glucopyranoside, respectively. PMID:16254836

  14. Two New Triterpene Glycosides from Centella asiatica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Centella asiatica resulted in the isolation and characterization of one new ursane type triterpene glycoside; asiaticoside G along with nine known compounds, that were characterized as ursane type triterpenes and /or their glycoside; asiatic acid (2), mad...

  15. Wheat Forages Contain Variable Levels of Condensed Tannin Reactive Substances

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Even though winter wheat pasture in the southern Great Plains is considered excellent forage, devastating losses of stocker cattle can occur due to pasture bloat. Tannins are known to reduce the incidence and severity of bloat. We examined tannins in adapted wheat varieties that are commonly grazed ...

  16. Improved Characterization of Sorghum Tannins Using Size-Exclusion Chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tannins are large polyphenolic polymers consisting of flavan-3-ol subunits that are deposited in the pigmented testa layer of sorghum kernels. Tannins have been characterized in several different species of plants using a multitude of techniques. Most of the methods are very time and resource consum...

  17. Antibiofilm phenylethanoid glycosides from Penstemon centranthifolius.

    PubMed

    Ye, Miao; Zhao, Yun; Norman, Vanessa L; Starks, Courtney M; Rice, Stephanie M; Goering, Matt G; O'Neil-Johnson, Mark; Eldridge, Gary R; Hu, Jin-Feng

    2010-05-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the antibacterial ethyl acetate-ethanol (50 : 50) extract obtained from the aerial parts of Penstemon centranthifolius led to the isolation of six phenylethanoid glycosides (1-6) and eleven iridoid glycosides (7-17). Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and comparison with the literature. Among them, two phenylethanoid glycosides, 4'''-O-acetylverbascoside (1) and verbascoside (2), were found to show significant inhibition of the formation of bacterial biofilms by Escherichia coli UTI89. Compound 1 showed 77% biofilm inhibition at 2.5 microg/mL, and compound 2 showed 60% inhibition at 5 microg/mL. PMID:19827017

  18. Natural glycosides containing allopyranose from the passion fruit plant and circular dichroism of benzaldehyde cyanohydrin glycosides.

    PubMed

    Christensen, J; Jaroszewski, J W

    2001-07-12

    [structure: see text] Leaves of the edible passion fruit plant, Passiflora edulis, contain benzylic beta-D-allopyranosides 1 and 2, representatives of a rare class of natural glycosides with D-allose as the only sugar constituent. The glycoside 1 is the first known cyanogenic glycoside containing a sugar different from D-glucose attached directly to the cyanohydrin center. Asymmetric perturbation of the (1)L(b) transition of the benzene chromophore was shown to be useful for determination of absolute configuration of the cyanohydrin center of aromatic cyanogenic glycosides. PMID:11440577

  19. Condensed tannins increase nitrogen recovery by trees following insect defoliation.

    PubMed

    Madritch, Michael D; Lindroth, Richard L

    2015-10-01

    While the importance of plant secondary metabolites to belowground functioning is gaining recognition, the perception remains that secondary metabolites are produced for herbivore defense, whereas their belowground impacts are ecological by-products, or 'afterlife' effects. However, plants invest a significant amount of resources into production of secondary metabolites that have minimal effects on herbivore resistance (e.g. condensed tannins and insect herbivores). We show that genetically mediated variation in condensed tannin concentration is correlated with plant nitrogen recovery following a severe defoliation event. We used single-tree mesocosms labeled with (15) N to track nitrogen through both the frass and litter cycling pathways. High concentrations of leaf tannins in Populus tremuloides were correlated with (15) N recovery from frass within the same growing season and in the following growing season. Likewise, leaf tannin concentrations were also correlated with (15) N recovery from the litter of defoliated trees in the growing season following the defoliation event. Conversely, tannins were not well correlated with nitrogen uptake under conditions of nominal herbivory. Our results suggest that tannins may confer benefits in response to herbivore pressure through conserved belowground nitrogen cycling, rather than via defensive properties. Consequently, tannins may be considered as chemical mediators of tolerance rather than resistance. PMID:25952793

  20. Effects of different tannin-rich extracts and rapeseed tannin monomers on methane formation and microbial protein synthesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wischer, G; Boguhn, J; Steingaß, H; Schollenberger, M; Rodehutscord, M

    2013-11-01

    Tannins, polyphenolic compounds found in plants, are known to complex with proteins of feed and rumen bacteria. This group of substances has the potential to reduce methane production either with or without negative effects on digestibility and microbial yield. In the first step of this study, 10 tannin-rich extracts from chestnut, mimosa, myrabolan, quebracho, sumach, tara, valonea, oak, cocoa and grape seed, and four rapeseed tannin monomers (pelargonidin, catechin, cyanidin and sinapinic acid) were used in a series of in vitro trials using the Hohenheim gas test, with grass silage as substrate. The objective was to screen the potential of various tannin-rich extracts to reduce methane production without a significant effect on total gas production (GP). Supplementation with pelargonidin and cyanidin did not reduce methane production; however, catechin and sinapinic acid reduced methane production without altering GP. All tannin-rich extracts, except for tara extract, significantly reduced methane production by 8% to 28% without altering GP. On the basis of these results, five tannin-rich extracts were selected and further investigated in a second step using a Rusitec system. Each tannin-rich extract (1.5 g) was supplemented to grass silage (15 g). In this experiment, nutrient degradation, microbial protein synthesis and volatile fatty acid production were used as additional response criteria. Chestnut extract caused the greatest reduction in methane production followed by valonea, grape seed and sumach, whereas myrabolan extract did not reduce methane production. Whereas chestnut extract reduced acetate production by 19%, supplementation with grape seed or myrabolan extract increased acetate production. However, degradation of fibre fractions was reduced in all tannin treatments. Degradation of dry matter and organic matter was also reduced by tannin supplementation, and no differences were found between the tannin-rich extracts. CP degradation and ammonia-N accumulation in the Rusitec were reduced by tannin treatment. The amount and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis were not significantly affected by tannin supplementation. The results of this study indicated that some tannin-rich extracts are able to reduce methane production without altering microbial protein synthesis. We hypothesized that chestnut and valonea extract have the greatest potential to reduce methane production without negative side effects. PMID:23915496

  1. Stereoselective Synthesis of ?-manno-Glycosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiwata, Akihiro; Ito, Yukishige

    Among the various types of O-glycosides with biological relevance, the ?-glycoside of D-mannose (?-manno-glycoside) has been considered as one of the most challenging targets from a synthetic point of view. The majority of synthetic approaches to ?-manno-glycoside can be put into two categories (the direct glycosylation and the glycosylation-inversion approaches). Additionally, a variety of intriguing approaches have been investigated with substantial success (alkylative glycosylation of 1,2-stannylene acetal, reductive manipulation of orthoester, intramolecular aglycon delivery, and enzymatic glycosylation). In this chapter, progress in the conceptually demanding ?-mannosylation technology will be discussed, including current state of the art, with particular focus upon applications related to the synthesis of glycoprotein-related oligosaccharides.

  2. Hydrolyzable and condensed tannins resistance in Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Redondo, L M; Dominguez, J E; Rabinovitz, B C; Redondo, E A; Fernández Miyakawa, M E

    2015-08-01

    Tannins added in the diet are being used to improve nutrition and health in farm animals as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters and to control enteric clostridial diseases. However, the capacity of Clostridium perfringens to develop resistance under the selective pressure of tannins is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if C. perfringens possess the ability to develop resistance against tannins in comparison with antimicrobial agents. Susceptibility for 7 AGPs (antimicrobial growth promoters), 9 therapeutic antimicrobials and 2 tannin based extracts was determined for 30 C. perfringens strains isolated from poultry and cattle. Two susceptible strains were selected and cultured in presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of tannins and AGPs for resistant sub-populations selection. Tannin resistance of C. perfringens isolates from both animal species revealed no statistically significant differences in MICs (minimum inhibitory concentration). Poultry isolates showed higher MICs to several AGPs compared with cattle isolates. All isolates were susceptible to the therapeutic antimicrobials tested, but avian isolates showed a significantly lower susceptibility to these antimicrobials which was highly correlated with an increased resistance to bacitracin and others AGPs. In-vitro selection of resistant clones suggests that C. perfringens was unable to develop resistance against tannins at least compared to AGPs like bacitracin and avilamycin. Avian origin strains, which were previously exposed to antibiotics showed higher resistance, compared to cattle origin strains. These results suggest that the evolution of resistance against tannins in C. perfringens would be more difficult and slower than to the determined AGPs. PMID:26037239

  3. Enzymatic Processing of Bioactive Glycosides from Natural Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weignerová, Lenka; K?en, Vladimír

    A number of biologically active natural products are glycosides. Often, the glycosidic residue is crucial for their activity. In other cases, glycosylation only improves their pharmacokinetic parameters. Enzymatic modification of these glycosides - both extension of the glycoside moiety and its selective trimming - is advantageous due to their selectivity and mildness of the reaction conditions in the presence of reactive and sensitive complex aglycones. Enzymatic reactions enable the resulting products to be used as "natural products", e.g., in nutraceuticals. This chapter concentrates on naturally occurring glycosides used in medicine but also in the food and flavor industry (e.g., sweeteners). Both "classical" and modern methods will be discussed.

  4. Tannin bark Melalauca cajuputi powell (gelam) as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talib, Nur Atiqah Abu; Zakaria, Sarani; Hua, Chia Chin; Othman, Norinsan Kamil

    2014-09-01

    Tannin was extracted from gelam bark and used to produce corrosion inhibitor for mild steel. Tannin was extracted from gelam bark using 70% aqueous acetone for 6 hour. Tannin powder was characterization using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to analyse chemical component in tannin and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) for tannin physical structure. The tannin effect on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel has been investigated in 1Mol HCl solution for 6 hour followed ASTM. The weight loss method were applied to study the mild steel corrosion behavior in the present and absend of different concentration of tannin (250, 300, 350)ppm. Tannin act good inhibitor as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in acid medium. Surface morphology of carbon steel with and without inhibitor was investigated by scanning electron microscopy.

  5. Tannin bark Melalauca cajuputi powell (gelam) as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel

    SciTech Connect

    Talib, Nur Atiqah Abu; Zakaria, Sarani; Hua, Chia Chin; Othman, Norinsan Kamil

    2014-09-03

    Tannin was extracted from gelam bark and used to produce corrosion inhibitor for mild steel. Tannin was extracted from gelam bark using 70% aqueous acetone for 6 hour. Tannin powder was characterization using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to analyse chemical component in tannin and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) for tannin physical structure. The tannin effect on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel has been investigated in 1Mol HCl solution for 6 hour followed ASTM. The weight loss method were applied to study the mild steel corrosion behavior in the present and absend of different concentration of tannin (250, 300, 350)ppm. Tannin act good inhibitor as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in acid medium. Surface morphology of carbon steel with and without inhibitor was investigated by scanning electron microscopy.

  6. Two new phenolic glycosides from Syringa reticulata.

    PubMed

    Machida, Koichi; Ohkawa, Naomi; Ohsawa, Asami; Kikuchi, Masao

    2009-04-01

    Two new phenolic glycosides-3'-O-beta-D: -glucopyranosysalidroside (1) and cis-echinacoside (2)-together with four known ones-forsythoside B (3), decaffeoylacteoside (4), osmanthuside F (5) and (-)-olivil-4'-O-beta-D: -glucopyranoside (6)-were isolated from the leaves of Syringa reticulata. Their structures were established on the basis of spectral and chemical data. PMID:18985282

  7. Twisting of glycosidic bonds by hydrolases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patterns of scissile bond twisting have been found in crystal structures of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) that are complexed with substrates and inhibitors. To estimate the increased potential energy in the substrates that results from this twisting, we have plotted torsion angles for the scissile bond...

  8. A new isoflavone glycoside from Pueraria alopecuroides.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junlin; Fan, Qingfei; Zhang, Huanli; Song, Qishi

    2016-01-01

    A new isoflavone glycoside, (-)-tuberosin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (1), along with 10 known compounds 1a-10, was isolated from Pueraria alopecuroides. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral data including 1D and 2D NMR and HREIMS. These compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:26525177

  9. A new withanolide glycoside from physalis peruviana

    PubMed

    Ahmad; Malik; Afza; Yasmin

    1999-03-01

    A new withanolide glycoside, 17beta-hydroxy-14, 20-epoxy-1-oxo-[22R]-3beta-[O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-witha-5, 24-dienolide (1), has been isolated from the whole plant of Physalis peruviana. Its identity was determined using a combination of spectroscopic data including 2D NMR techniques and chemical transformations. PMID:10096867

  10. Anticancer activity of sea cucumber triterpene glycosides.

    PubMed

    Aminin, Dmitry L; Menchinskaya, Ekaterina S; Pisliagin, Evgeny A; Silchenko, Alexandra S; Avilov, Sergey A; Kalinin, Vladimir I

    2015-03-01

    Triterpene glycosides are characteristic secondary metabolites of sea cucumbers (Holothurioidea, Echinodermata). They have hemolytic, cytotoxic, antifungal, and other biological activities caused by membranotropic action. These natural products suppress the proliferation of various human tumor cell lines in vitro and, more importantly, intraperitoneal administration in rodents of solutions of some sea cucumber triterpene glycosides significantly reduces both tumor burden and metastasis. The anticancer molecular mechanisms include the induction of tumor cell apoptosis through the activation of intracellular caspase cell death pathways, arrest of the cell cycle at S or G2/M phases, influence on nuclear factors, NF-?B, and up-down regulation of certain cellular receptors and enzymes participating in cancerogenesis, such as EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), Akt (protein kinase B), ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases), FAK (focal adhesion kinase), MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) and others. Administration of some glycosides leads to a reduction of cancer cell adhesion, suppression of cell migration and tube formation in those cells, suppression of angiogenesis, inhibition of cell proliferation, colony formation and tumor invasion. As a result, marked growth inhibition of tumors occurs in vitro and in vivo. Some holothurian triterpene glycosides have the potential to be used as P-gp mediated MDR reversal agents in combined therapy with standard cytostatics. PMID:25756523

  11. Anticancer Activity of Sea Cucumber Triterpene Glycosides

    PubMed Central

    Aminin, Dmitry L.; Menchinskaya, Ekaterina S.; Pisliagin, Evgeny A.; Silchenko, Alexandra S.; Avilov, Sergey A.; Kalinin, Vladimir I.

    2015-01-01

    Triterpene glycosides are characteristic secondary metabolites of sea cucumbers (Holothurioidea, Echinodermata). They have hemolytic, cytotoxic, antifungal, and other biological activities caused by membranotropic action. These natural products suppress the proliferation of various human tumor cell lines in vitro and, more importantly, intraperitoneal administration in rodents of solutions of some sea cucumber triterpene glycosides significantly reduces both tumor burden and metastasis. The anticancer molecular mechanisms include the induction of tumor cell apoptosis through the activation of intracellular caspase cell death pathways, arrest of the cell cycle at S or G2/M phases, influence on nuclear factors, NF-?B, and up-down regulation of certain cellular receptors and enzymes participating in cancerogenesis, such as EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), Akt (protein kinase B), ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases), FAK (focal adhesion kinase), MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) and others. Administration of some glycosides leads to a reduction of cancer cell adhesion, suppression of cell migration and tube formation in those cells, suppression of angiogenesis, inhibition of cell proliferation, colony formation and tumor invasion. As a result, marked growth inhibition of tumors occurs in vitro and in vivo. Some holothurian triterpene glycosides have the potential to be used as P-gp mediated MDR reversal agents in combined therapy with standard cytostatics. PMID:25756523

  12. Iridoid and aromatic glycosides from Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. and their inhibition of [Ca2+](i) increase induced by KCl.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Liu, Yan; Liu, Hong-Wei; Wang, Nai-Li; Yang, Bao-Feng; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2008-09-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of EtOH extract of the roots of Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. resulted in the isolation of three new iridoid glycosides, i.e., 6''-O-caffeoylharpagide (1), 6''-O-feruloylharpagide (2), and 6''-O-beta-glucopyranosylharpagoside (3), and five new aromatic glycosides, i.e., 2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl O-alpha-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->6)-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)-O-beta-glucopyranoside (4), phenyl O-beta-xylopyranosyl-(1-->6)-O-beta-glucopyranoside (5), 3-methylphenyl O-beta-xylopyranosyl-(1-->6)-O-beta-glucopyranoside (6), 6-O-cinnamoyl beta-fructofuranosyl-(2-->1)-O-alpha-glucopyranosyl-(6-->1)-O-alpha-glucopyranoside (7), and 6-O-feruloyl beta-fructofuranosyl-(2-->1)-O-alpha-glucopyranosyl-(6-->1)-O-alpha-glucopyranoside (8), together with four known compounds, i.e., 6''-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl harpagoside (9), 6''-O-(p-coumaroyl) harpagide (10), harpagoside (11), and angoroside C (12). Activity of the isolated compounds on [Ca2+](i) increase induced by KCl was evaluated on rat cardiac myocytes using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Iridoid glycosides 1, 10, and 11, and aromatic glycosides 5 and 6 significantly inhibited the increase of [Ca2+](i) induced by KCl at 100 microM. PMID:18816525

  13. Response of ?? T cells to plant-derived tannins

    PubMed Central

    Holderness, Jeff; Hedges, Jodi F.; Daughenbaugh, Katie; Kimmel, Emily; Graff, Jill; Freedman, Brett; Jutila, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Many pharmaceutical drugs are isolated from plants used in traditional medicines. Through screening plant extracts, both traditional medicines and compound libraries, new pharmaceutical drugs continue to be identified. Currently, two plant-derived agonists for ?? T cells are described. These plant-derived agonists impart innate effector functions upon distinct ?? T cell subsets. Plant tannins represent one class of ?? T cell agonist and preferentially activate the mucosal population. Mucosal ?? T cells function to modulate tissue immune responses and induce epithelium repair. Select tannins, isolated from apple peel, rapidly induce immune gene transcription in ?? T cells, leading to cytokine production and increased responsiveness to secondary signals. Activity of these tannin preparations tracks to the procyanidin fraction, with the procyanidin trimer (C1) having the most robust activity defined to date. The response to the procyanidins is evolutionarily conserved in that responses are seen with human, bovine, and murine ?? T cells. Procyanidin-induced responses described in this review likely account for the expansion of mucosal ?? T cells seen in mice and rats fed soluble extracts of tannins. Procyanidins may represent a novel approach for treatment of tissue damage, chronic infection, and autoimmune therpies. PMID:19166386

  14. Lignin and tannin toxicity to Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bohlin).

    PubMed

    Libralato, Giovanni; Avezzù, Francesco; Volpi Ghirardini, Annamaria

    2011-10-30

    Lignin and tannin are widespread natural compounds traditionally used in tannery industries. Their presence is commonly detected in textile wastewater showing potential toxicity effects within various endpoints onto sea water organisms that generally represent the ultimate target of discharged effluents. Most data are available only as nominal concentrations or percentage volume of wastewater having an unknown lignin and tannin content. The aim of this study was to provide the ecotoxicological characterisation of both compounds considering as testing species the marine alga Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bohlin). Lignin and tannin showed an E(r)C(50) of 113.84(100.90-128.45)mg/L and 26.04(20.10-33.95)mg/L, respectively. NOEC and LOEC values were together <0.1mg/L and 0.1mg/L, in that order. Moreover, it was observed a morphological change of the algae fusiform shape occurring only at tannin concentrations ? 75 mg/L and <185 mg/L. PMID:21868164

  15. Methane emission by goats consuming different sources of condensed tannins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-four yearling Boer x Spanish wethers (7/8 Boer; initial body weight [BW] of 37.5 plus/minus 0.91 kg) were used to assess effects of different condensed tannin (CT) sources on methane emission. Diets were Kobe lespedeza (Lespedeza striata; K), K plus quebracho providing CT at 5% of dry matter...

  16. The susceptibility of soil enzymes to inhibition by leaf litter tannins is dependent on the tannin chemistry, enzyme class and vegetation history.

    PubMed

    Triebwasser, Daniella J; Tharayil, Nishanth; Preston, Caroline M; Gerard, Patrick D

    2012-12-01

    By inhibiting soil enzymes, tannins play an important role in soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mineralization. The role of tannin chemistry in this inhibitory process, in conjunction with enzyme classes and isoforms, is less well understood. Here, we compared the inhibition efficiencies of mixed tannins (MTs, mostly limited to angiosperms) and condensed tannins (CTs, produced mostly by gymnosperms) against the potential activity of ?-glucosidase (BG), N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG), and peroxidase in two soils that differed in their vegetation histories. Compared with CTs, MTs exhibited 50% more inhibition of almond (Prunus dulcis) BG activity and greater inhibition of the potential NAG activity in the gymnosperm-acclimatized soils. CTs exhibited lower BG inhibition in the angiosperm-acclimated soils, whereas both types of tannins exhibited higher peroxidase inhibition in the angiosperm soils than in gymnosperm soils. At all of the tested tannin concentrations, irrespective of the tannin type and site history, the potential peroxidase activity was inhibited two-fold more than the hydrolase activity and was positively associated with the redox-buffering efficiency of tannins. Our finding that the inhibitory activities and mechanisms of MTs and CTs are dependent on the vegetative history and enzyme class is novel and furthers our understanding of the role of tannins and soil isoenzymes in decomposition. PMID:23025512

  17. Cardiac Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Birnie, David; Ha, Andrew C T; Gula, Lorne J; Chakrabarti, Santabhanu; Beanlands, Rob S B; Nery, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Studies suggest clinically manifest cardiac involvement occurs in 5% of patients with pulmonary/systemic sarcoidosis. The principal manifestations of cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) are conduction abnormalities, ventricular arrhythmias, and heart failure. Data indicate that an 20% to 25% of patients with pulmonary/systemic sarcoidosis have asymptomatic (clinically silent) cardiac involvement. An international guideline for the diagnosis and management of CS recommends that patients be screened for cardiac involvement. Most studies suggest a benign prognosis for patients with clinically silent CS. Immunosuppression therapy is advocated for clinically manifest CS. Device therapy, with implantable cardioverter defibrillators, is recommended for some patients. PMID:26593140

  18. Tannin concentration enhances seed caching by scatter-hoarding rodents: An experiment using artificial ‘seeds’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Jin

    2008-11-01

    Tannins are very common among plant seeds but their effects on the fate of seeds, for example, via mediation of the feeding preferences of scatter-hoarding rodents, are poorly understood. In this study, we created a series of artificial 'seeds' that only differed in tannin concentration and the type of tannin, and placed them in a pine forest in the Shangri-La Alpine Botanical Garden, Yunnan Province of China. Two rodent species ( Apodemus latronum and A. chevrieri) showed significant preferences for 'seeds' with different tannin concentrations. A significantly higher proportion of seeds with low tannin concentration were consumed in situ compared with seeds with a higher tannin concentration. Meanwhile, the tannin concentration was significantly positively correlated with the proportion of seeds cached. The different types of tannin (hydrolysable tannin vs condensed tannin) did not differ significantly in their effect on the proportion of seeds eaten in situ vs seeds cached. Tannin concentrations had no significant effect on the distance that cached seeds were carried, which suggests that rodents may respond to different seed traits in deciding whether or not to cache seeds and how far they will transport seeds.

  19. Phenotypic and Phylogenetic Characterization of Ruminal Tannin-Tolerant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Karen E.; Thonney, Michael L.; Woolston, Tina K.; Zinder, Stephen H.; Pell, Alice N.

    1998-01-01

    The 16S rRNA sequences and selected phenotypic characteristics were determined for six recently isolated bacteria that can tolerate high levels of hydrolyzable and condensed tannins. Bacteria were isolated from the ruminal contents of animals in different geographic locations, including Sardinian sheep (Ovis aries), Honduran and Colombian goats (Capra hircus), white-tail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from upstate New York, and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) from Oregon. Nearly complete sequences of the small-subunit rRNA genes, which were obtained by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing, were used for phylogenetic characterization. Comparisons of the 16S rRNA of the six isolates showed that four of the isolates were members of the genus Streptococcus and were most closely related to ruminal strains of Streptococcus bovis and the recently described organism Streptococcus gallolyticus. One of the other isolates, a gram-positive rod, clustered with the clostridia in the low-G+C-content group of gram-positive bacteria. The sixth isolate, a gram-negative rod, was a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae in the gamma subdivision of the class Proteobacteria. None of the 16S rRNA sequences of the tannin-tolerant bacteria examined was identical to the sequence of any previously described microorganism or to the sequence of any of the other organisms examined in this study. Three phylogenetically distinct groups of ruminal bacteria were isolated from four species of ruminants in Europe, North America, and South America. The presence of tannin-tolerant bacteria is not restricted by climate, geography, or host animal, although attempts to isolate tannin-tolerant bacteria from cows on low-tannin diets failed. PMID:9758806

  20. ent-Kaurene Glycosides from Ageratina cylindrica.

    PubMed

    Bustos-Brito, Celia; Sánchez-Castellanos, Mariano; Esquivel, Baldomero; Calderón, José S; Calzada, Fernando; Yépez-Mulia, Lilian; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro; Cuevas, Gabriel; Quijano, Leovigildo

    2015-11-25

    The aqueous extract of the leaves of Ageratina cylindrica afforded six new ent-kaurenoic acid glycosides together with the known diterpenoid paniculoside V, the flavonoid astragalin, chlorogenic acid, and l-chiro-inositol. The structures were elucidated mainly by NMR and MS methods, and the absolute configuration was established by vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy. The new compounds showed moderate antiprotozoal activity against Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia trophozoites. PMID:26517282

  1. ?-cyclodextrin assistant flavonoid glycosides enzymatic hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Zhang, Zhen-hai; Sun, E.; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Background: The content of icaritin and genistein in herba is very low, preparation with relatively large quantities is an important issue for extensive pharmacological studies. Objective: This study focuses on preparing and enzymic hydrolysis of flavonoid glycosides /?-cyclodextrin inclusion complex to increase the hydrolysis rate. Materials and Methods: The physical property of newly prepared inclusion complex was tested by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis were optimized for the bioconversion of flavonoid glycosides /?-cyclodextrin inclusion complex by mono-factor experimental design. The experiments are using the icariin and genistein as the model drugs. Results: The solubility of icariin and genistein were increased almost 17 times from 29.2 ?g/ml to 513.5 ?g/ml at 60°C and 28 times from 7.78 ?g/ml to 221.46 ?g/ml at 50°C, respectively, demonstrating that the inclusion complex could significantly increase the solubility of flavonoid glycosides. Under the optimal conditions, the reaction time of icariin and genistin decreased by 68% and 145%, when compared with that without ?-CD inclusion. By using this enzymatic condition, 473 mg icaritin (with the purity of 99.34%) and 567 mg genistein(with the purity of 99.46%), which was finally determined by melt point, ESI-MS, UV, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR, was obtained eventually by transforming the inclusion complex(contains 1.0 g substrates). Conclusion: This study can clearly indicate a new attempt to improve the speed of enzyme-hydrolysis of poorly water-soluble flavonoid glycosides and find a more superior condition which is used to prepare icaritin and genistein. PMID:24143039

  2. Molecular Weight of Condensed Tannins from Warm-season Perennial Legumes and Its Effect on Condensed Tannin Biological Activity 

    E-print Network

    Naumann, Harley Dean

    2013-05-21

    and development as though she was. v I would like to thank my parents, Claudia and Richard, for their great generosity and willingness to help out. Their sacrifice, especially during times of my absence, was greatly appreciated. And thanks to my brother... ................................................ 48 Condensed Tannin Molecular Weight .......................................... 49 In vitro Fermentation .................................................................... 49 Statistical Analyses...

  3. The Identification of Perillyl Alcohol Glycosides with Improved Antiproliferative Activity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A facile route to perillyl alcohol (POH) differential glycosylation and the corresponding synthesis of a set of 34 POH glycosides is reported. Subsequent in vitro studies revealed a sugar dependent antiproliferative activity and the inhibition of S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation as a putative mechanism of representative POH glycosides. The most active glycoside from this cumulative study (4?-azido-d-glucoside, PG9) represents one of the most cytotoxic POH analogues reported to date. PMID:25121720

  4. A tannin-blocking agent does not modify the preference of sheep towards tannin-containing plants.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Orduño, G; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Capetillo-Leal, C M; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Alonso-Díaz, M A

    2015-06-01

    Sheep have been suggested to use their senses to perceive plant properties and associate their intake with consequences after ingestion. However, sheep with browsing experience do not seem to select against tannin-rich browsing materials in cafeteria trials. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the chemical composition, selectivity index (SI), preference and intake rate (IR) of tannin-containing forage trees offered to sheep in cafeteria experiments. Four trees were selected for their condensed tannin content and their varying biological activities. Havardia albicans (high biological activity), Leucaena leucocephala (medium biological activity), Acacia gaumeri (low biological activity) and Brosimum alicastrum (very low biological activity) were used in this study. Ten hair sheep (23.7kg±1.43LW) with eight months of browsing experience in native vegetation were used in this study. Polyethylene glycol (PEG 3600MW) was administered to five sheep during all experiments. In experiment 1, fresh foliage from all trees was offered ad libitum for 4h. In experiment 2, B. alicastrum was withdrawn and the preference was determined again. The forage preference in experiment 1 was A. gaumeri (14.77gDM/kgLW)>B. alicastrum (11.77gDM/kgLW)>H. albicans (3.71gDM/kgLW)=L. leucocephala (1.87gDM/kgLW) (P<0.05). The preference in experiment 2 was A. gaumeri>H. albicans=L. leucocephala. PEG administration had no effect on the preference or IR. The intake rate seemed to have been affected by the plant density. Moreover, fiber compounds were found to be better predictors of DM intake than polyphenolic compounds at levels typically found in the evaluated forages. It was concluded that tannins and PEG did not modify the preferences of sheep in cafeteria trials. Thus, tannins are not involved in the preference regulation of animals with browsing experience. PMID:25843904

  5. Evidence for functional heterogeneity both between and within four sources of condensed tannin

    SciTech Connect

    Asquith, T.N.

    1985-01-01

    Condensed tannins are polymers of flavan-3-ols that are produced by many plants in a wide variety of tissues. The ability of these compounds to actively precipitate proteins has been linked to nutritional deficiencies in many animals. Four purified tannins (quebracho, wattle, pinto bean and sorghum) were compared to chemical assays and astringency towards (/sup 14/C)-BSA. Quebracho and wattle tannins were much less astringent and had longer chain lengths that sorghum or pinto bean tannins. Quebracho tannin had a very high affinity for salivary proline-rich glycoproteins (PRPs) and pinto bean tannin alone had a measurable affinity for soybean trypsin inhibitor. This suggests that tannin/protein interactions in vivo may be very specific. Protein bound carbohydrate enhanced the binding of PRPs to tanning and conferred specificity on the interactions. Carbohydrate also increases the solubility of protein/tanning complexes, which may aid the animal in eliminating the complexes. (/sup 125/I)-labeled condensed tannin was shown to retain the ability to discriminate between high and low affinity proteins. (/sup 125/I)-labeled phenols were isolated from livers and kidneys of rats fed (/sup 125/I)-labeled tannin. The techniques described in this thesis should be widely applicable to studying in vivo functions of condensed tannins.

  6. Endothelial cell cytotoxicity of cotton bracts tannin and aqueous cotton bracts extract: tannin is the predominant cytotoxin present in aqueous cotton bracts extract.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C M; Hanson, M N; Rohrbach, M S

    1986-01-01

    Using an in vitro cytotoxicity assay based on the release of 51Cr from cultured porcine thoracic aortic and pulmonary arterial endothelial cells, we have demonstrated that cotton bracts tannin is a potent endothelial cell cytotoxin. It produces dose-dependent lethal injury to both types of endothelial cells with the aortic cells being somewhat more sensitive to tannin-mediated injury than the pulmonary arterial cells. Cytotoxic injury to the cells was biphasic. During the first 3 hr of exposure to tannin, no lethal injury was detected. However, during this period, profound changes in morphology were observed suggesting sublethal injury to the cells preceded the ultimate toxic damage. Comparison of the cytotoxicity dose curves for aqueous bracts extracts with those for tannin demonstrated that tannin was the major cytotoxin present in bracts. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. PMID:3709489

  7. Anti-inflammatory Hydrolyzable Tannins from Myricaria bracteata.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Bao; Ding, Ya-Si; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Jia-Bao; Cui, Bao-Song; Bai, Jin-Ye; Lin, Ming-Bao; Hou, Qi; Zhang, Pei-Cheng; Li, Shuai

    2015-05-22

    Twelve hydrolyzable tannins were obtained from the twigs of Myricaria bracteata, including two new hellinoyl-type dimers, bracteatinins D1 (1) and D2 (2); a new hellinoyl-type trimer, bracteatinin T1 (3); two known monomers, nilotinin M4 (4) and 1,3-di-O-galloyl-4,6-O-(aS)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-?-d-glucose (5); six known dimers, tamarixinin A (6), nilotinin D8 (7), hirtellins A (10), B (9), and E (8), and isohirtellin C (11); and a known trimer, hirtellin T3 (12). The structures of the tannins were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis and comparisons to known tannins. All compounds were evaluated as free radical scavengers using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxy radicals and compared to the activity of BHT and Trolox. Compound 6 showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect on croton oil-induced ear edema in mice (200 mg/kg, inhibition rate 69.8%) and on collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1 mice (20 mg/kg, inhibition rate 46.0% at day 57). PMID:25918997

  8. Two pentasaccharide resin glycosides from Argyreia acuta.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yong-Qin; Pan, Jie-Tao; Yu, Bang-Wei; Cui, Hong-Hua; Yan, You-Shao; Chen, Yan-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Two new compounds of acutacosides 1 and 2, pentasaccharide resin glycosides were isolated from the aerial parts of Argyreia acuta. The core of the two compounds was operculinic acid A, and they were esterfied at the same position, just one substituent group was linked at C-2 of Rha. The absolute configuration of the aglycone in the two compounds was established by Mosher's method, which was (11S)-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid (jalapinolic acid). Their structures were established by a combination of spectroscopic and chemical methods. PMID:25925631

  9. Flavonol glycosides from Calendula officinalis flowers.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Ollivier, E; Elias, R; Faure, F; Babadjamian, A; Crespin, F; Balansard, G; Boudon, G

    1989-02-01

    Seven flavonol 3- O-glycosides were isolated from the flowers of CALENDULA OFFICINALIS L. Their structures were elucidated as isorhamnetin 3- O-glucoside, rutinoside, neohesperidoside, 2 (G)-rhamnosylrutinoside, quercetin glucoside, neohesperidoside, and 2 (G)-rhamnosylrutinoside by paper and thin layer chromatography, UV, (13)C-NMR, and mass spectroscopy. The interglycosidic linkages of isorhamnetin 3- O-neohesperidoside, 2 (G)-rhamnosylrutinoside, quercetin 3- O-neohesperidoside and structural determination of quercetin 2 (G)-rhamnosylrutinoside are described for the first time in CALENDULA OFFICINALIS. PMID:17262260

  10. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steryl ferulates and steryl glycosides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steryl ferulates and steryl glycosides are phytosterol conjugates found characteristically in cereals. Their properties in enzymatic hydrolysis are, however, not yet well known. Steryl ferulates and steryl glycosides were extracted and purified from rye and wheat bran. Their rates of hydrolysis with...

  11. Impact of condensed tannin size as individual and mixed polymers on bovine serum albumin precipitation.

    PubMed

    Harbertson, James F; Kilmister, Rachel L; Kelm, Mark A; Downey, Mark O

    2014-10-01

    Condensed tannins composed of epicatechin from monomer to octamer were isolated from cacao (Theobroma cacao, L.) seeds and added to bovine serum albumin (BSA) individually and combined as mixtures. When added to excess BSA the amount of tannin precipitated increased with tannin size. The amount of tannin required to precipitate BSA varied among the polymers with the trimer requiring the most to precipitate BSA (1000 ?g) and octamer the least (50 ?g). The efficacy of condensed tannins for protein precipitation increased with increased degree of polymerisation (or size) from trimers to octamers (monomers and dimers did not precipitate BSA), while mixtures of two sizes primarily had an additive effect. This study demonstrates that astringent perception is likely to increase with increasing polymer size. Further research to expand our understanding of astringent perception and its correlation with protein precipitation would benefit from sensory analysis of condensed tannins across a range of polymer sizes. PMID:24799203

  12. Cardiac Catheterization

    MedlinePLUS

    ... done during a cardiac catheterization include: closing small holes inside the heart repairing leaky or narrow heart ... bandage. It's normal for the site to be black and blue, red, or slightly swollen for a ...

  13. Pyrolysis-GC/MS of charred purified condensed tannin: towards identification of tannin-derived black carbon in environmental samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaal, Joeri; Nierop, Klaas G. J.; Kraal, Peter; Preston, Caroline M.

    2010-05-01

    Tannins account for a significant proportion of plant biomass and are therefore a possible source of Black C in the charred remains from wildfires. Nonetheless, in contrast with other major biocomponents such as lignin and cellulose, the thermal degradation of tannins has not been investigated in laboratory charring experiments. We used pyrolysis-GC/MS to investigate the effects of furnace charring (30 min at fixed temperatures up to 600 °C under limited oxygen supply) on the degradation of pure condensed tannin (CT) isolated from Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) needles. The experiments showed a rapid loss (at 300 °C and higher) of the pyrogallol moieties of the B-ring of prodelphinidin-type CT, due to dehydroxylation. The relative abundance of catechols (from procyanidin-type CT) decreased at 350 °C and higher temperatures. This led to the formation of phenols that were strongly enriched between 300 and 400 °C. At higher temperatures, further dehydroxylation caused a decline in contributions of phenols producing a series of monocyclic aromatics ((alkyl)benzenes) and condensation of aromatics produced polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), i.e. the typical pyrolysis fingerprint of strongly charred biomass. We conclude that (i) the thermal degradation of CT can be successfully monitored by pyrolysis-GC/MS, (ii) thermal degradation of CT is characterized by dehydroxylation of phenolic groups and condensation of aromatics that increase with temperature and (iii) CT-derived Black C may be recognized by catechol enrichments at low temperatures and possibly (relative) abundance of phenol and biphenyl at higher levels of thermal breakdown. Applying the same method to natural charcoal from gorse bushfires indicated that pyrolysis-GC/MS fingerprinting may allow for tannin identification in environmental Black C samples.

  14. The Evaluation of High Tannin Cotton Lines for Resistance to Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium aphanidermatum 

    E-print Network

    Kennett, Raymond Matthew

    2011-02-22

    -tasting plant polyphenols that bind and precipitate proteins. The term tannin originated from the leather industry and was used to describe substances that were capable of turning animal hide into leather; however, the term is widely applied to any large... polyphenolic compound containing sufficient hydroxyls and other suitable groups (such as carboxyls) to form strong complexes with proteins and other macromolecules. Tannins have molecular weights ranging from 500 to over 3,000. Tannins are considered...

  15. Application of Mössbauer spectroscopy to the study of tannins inhibition of iron and steel corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaén, Juan A.; de Obaldía, J.; Rodríguez, M. V.

    2011-11-01

    The inhibitory effect of tannins was investigated using, among others, potentiodynamic polarizations and Mössbauer spectroscopy. These techniques confirmed that the nature, pH and concentration of tannic solution are of upmost importance in the inhibitory properties of the solutions. It is observed that at low tannin concentration or pH, both, hydrolizable and condensed tannins, effectively inhibit iron corrosion, due to the redox properties of tannins. At pH ? 0, Mössbauer spectra of the frozen aqueous solutions of iron(III) with the tannin solutions showed that iron is in the form of a monomeric species [Fe(H2O)6]3 + , without coordination with the functional hydroxyl groups of the tannins. The suspended material consisted of amorphous ferric oxide and oxyhydroxides, though with quebracho tannin partly resulted in complex formation and in an iron (II) species from a redox process. Other tannins, such as chestnut hydrolysable tannins, do not complex iron at this low pH. Tannins react at high concentrations or pH (3 and 5) to form insoluble blue-black amorphous complexes of mono-and bis-type tannate complexes, with a relative amount of the bis-ferric tannate generally increasing with pH. Some Fe2 + in the form of hydrated polymeric ferrous tannate could be obtained. At pH 7, a partially hydrolyzed ferric tannate complex was also formed. The latter two phases do not provide corrosion protection. Tannin solutions at natural pH react with electrodeposited iron films (approx. 6 ?m) to obtain products consisting only on the catecholate mono-complex of ferric tannate. Some aspects of the mechanism of tannins protection against corrosion are discussed.

  16. Enzymatic synthesis of epothilone A glycosides

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Epothilones are extremely cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents with epoxide, thiazole, and ketone groups that share equipotent kinetic similarity with taxol. The in vitro glycosylation catalyzed by uridine diphosphate glucosyltransferase (YjiC) from Bacillus licheniformis generated six novel epothilone A glycoside analouges including epothilone A 7-O-?-D-glucoside, epothilone A 7-O-?-D-galactoside, epothilone A 3,7-O-?-D-digalactoside, epothilone A 7-O-?-D-2-deoxyglucoside, epothilone A 7-O-?-L-rhamnoside, and epothilone A 7-O-?-L-fucoside. Epothilone A 7-O-?-D-glucoside was structurally elucidated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array (UPLC-PDA) conjugated with high resolution quantitative time-of-flight-electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (HR-QTOF ESI-MS/MS) supported by one-and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance studies whereas other epothilone A glycosides were characterized by UPLC-PDA and HR-QTOF ESI-MS/MS analyses. The time dependent conversion study of epothilone A to epothilone A 7-O-?-D-glucoside found to be maximum (~26%) between 3 h to 5 h incubation. PMID:24949266

  17. Synergistic inhibition of Haemonchus contortus exsheathment by flavonoid monomers and condensed tannins

    PubMed Central

    Klongsiriwet, Chaweewan; Quijada, Jessica; Williams, Andrew R.; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Williamson, Elizabeth M.; Hoste, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the separate and combined anthelmintic (AH) effects of different phenolic compounds, including condensed tannins and flavonoids, all of which are known to occur in willow leaves, a potentially valuable dry season feed. A range of contrasting model tannins, which span the whole range of willow tannins, were isolated from tilia flowers, goat willow leaves, black currant leaves and red currant leaves. All together, the tested compounds represented the major tannin types (procyanidins and prodelphinidins) and flavonoid types (flavonols, flavones and flavanones). The larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA) was used to assess their in vitro effects on Haemonchus contortus third stage larvae. Arbutin, vanillic acid, and taxifolin proved to be ineffective whereas naringenin, quercetin and luteolin were highly effective at 250 ?M concentrations. Procyanidin (PC) tannins tended to be less active than prodelphinidin tannins (PD). Experiments with combinations of tannins and quercetin or luteolin revealed for the first time the existence of synergistic AH effects between tannins and flavonoid monomers. They also provided evidence that synergistic effects appear to occur at slightly lower concentrations of PC than PD. This suggests that the AH activity of condensed tannins can be significantly enhanced by the addition of quercetin or luteolin. This information may prove useful for plant breeding or selection and for designing optimal feed mixtures. PMID:26199861

  18. Condensed Tannins from Ficus virens as Tyrosinase Inhibitors: Structure, Inhibitory Activity and Molecular Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Wei-Ming; Feng, Hui-Ling; Zhuang, Jiang-Xing; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2014-01-01

    Condensed tannins from Ficus virens leaves, fruit, and stem bark were isolated and their structures characterized by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The results showed that the leaves, fruit, and stem bark condensed tannins were complex mixtures of homo- and heteropolymers of B-type procyanidins and prodelphinidins with degrees of polymerization up to hexamer, dodecamer, and pentadecamer, respectively. Antityrosinase activities of the condensed tannins were studied. The results indicated that the condensed tannins were potent tyrosinase inhibitors. The concentrations for the leaves, fruit, and stem bark condensed tannins leading to 50% enzyme activity were determined to be 131.67, 99.89, and 106.22 ?g/ml on monophenolase activity, and 128.42, 43.07, and 74.27 ?g/ml on diphenolase activity. The inhibition mechanism, type, and constants of the condensed tannins on the diphenolase activity were further investigated. The results indicated that the condensed tannins were reversible and mixed type inhibitors. Fluorescence quenching, copper interacting, and molecular docking techniques were utilized to unravel the molecular mechanisms of the inhibition. The results showed that the hydroxyl group on the B ring of the condensed tannins could chelate the dicopper irons of the enzyme. Moreover, the condensed tannins could reduce the enzyme product o-quinones into colourless compounds. These results would contribute to the development and design of antityrosinase agents. PMID:24637701

  19. Synergistic inhibition of Haemonchus contortus exsheathment by flavonoid monomers and condensed tannins.

    PubMed

    Klongsiriwet, Chaweewan; Quijada, Jessica; Williams, Andrew R; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Williamson, Elizabeth M; Hoste, Hervé

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the separate and combined anthelmintic (AH) effects of different phenolic compounds, including condensed tannins and flavonoids, all of which are known to occur in willow leaves, a potentially valuable dry season feed. A range of contrasting model tannins, which span the whole range of willow tannins, were isolated from tilia flowers, goat willow leaves, black currant leaves and red currant leaves. All together, the tested compounds represented the major tannin types (procyanidins and prodelphinidins) and flavonoid types (flavonols, flavones and flavanones). The larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA) was used to assess their in vitro effects on Haemonchus contortus third stage larvae. Arbutin, vanillic acid, and taxifolin proved to be ineffective whereas naringenin, quercetin and luteolin were highly effective at 250 ?M concentrations. Procyanidin (PC) tannins tended to be less active than prodelphinidin tannins (PD). Experiments with combinations of tannins and quercetin or luteolin revealed for the first time the existence of synergistic AH effects between tannins and flavonoid monomers. They also provided evidence that synergistic effects appear to occur at slightly lower concentrations of PC than PD. This suggests that the AH activity of condensed tannins can be significantly enhanced by the addition of quercetin or luteolin. This information may prove useful for plant breeding or selection and for designing optimal feed mixtures. PMID:26199861

  20. Assessment of tannin variation in Tamarisk foliage across a latitudinal gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hussey, A.M.; Kimball, B.A.; Friedman, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Certain phenotypic traits of plants vary with latitude of origin. To understand if tannin concentration varies among populations of tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) according to a latitudinal gradient, an analytical method was adapted from an enological tannin assay. The tannin content (wet basis) of tamarisk foliage collected from 160 plants grown in a common garden ranged from 8.26 to 62.36 mg/g and was not correlated with the latitude of the original North American plant collection site. Tannins do not contribute to observed differences in herbivory observed among these tamarisk populations.

  1. Condensed tannins from acacia mangium bark: Characterization by spot tests and FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharudin, Muhammad Azizi; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes the adaptation and evaluation of one chemical tests for tannins characterization in acacia mangium bark. Acid butanol test developed to identify respectively condensed tannins is described. The two traditional tests used for tannin characterization namely ferric test and vanillin test were also performed and their functional also discussed. Condensed tannins were extracted from acacia mangium bark using water medium in presence of three different concentration basic reagent of NaOH(5%,10% and 15%) and were characterized by FT-IR spectrometry.

  2. Enhancing water repellence and mechanical properties of gelatin films by tannin addition.

    PubMed

    Peña, Cristina; de la Caba, Koro; Eceiza, Arantxa; Ruseckaite, Roxana; Mondragon, Iñaki

    2010-09-01

    In order to reduce pollution caused by traditional non-biodegradable plastic films, renewable raw materials from plants and wastes of meat industries have been employed in this work. A hydrolysable chestnut-tree tannin was used for gelatin modification. Films of gelatin and gelatin-tannin were obtained by casting at room conditions. Transition temperatures of both gelatin and gelatin-tannin systems were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Glass transition temperatures of modified gelatin occurred at higher temperatures than for neat gelatin. Enthalpy and temperature of helix-coil transition decreased when tannin content increased due to variations in the helical structure of gelatin as a consequence of tannin presence in agreement with X-ray analysis. Mechanical and thermal behaviour varied as a function of the content of tannin, showing optimum values for films modified with 10 wt% tannin. The transparency of films was maintained after modification with tannin. Solubility and swelling tests of the films revealed that the presence of tannin reduced the water affinity of gelatin. PMID:20400296

  3. Steryl Glycoside Formation in Seedlings of Nicotiana tabacum L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Parshall B.; Grunwald, C.

    1974-01-01

    Particulate enzyme preparations from tobacco seedlings (Nicotiana tabacum L.) were used in the synthesis of steryl glycoside. The data obtained by measuring cholesterol-4-14C incorporation generally agree with results obtained with UDP-glucose-14C. The in vitro reaction was linear for the first 10 minutes and had a pH optimum of 7.0 to 7.4. Addition of ATP activated while UDP-glucose inhibited slightly the reaction. In short term experiments, the percentage disappearance of endogenous and added sterol was about the same. Intact tobacco seedlings incorporated cholesterol-4-14C and sitosterol-4-14C into their steryl glycosides. The acylated steryl glycosides were more rapidly labeled than the nonacylated form. After 12 hours of incubation with cholesterol-4-14C, about 5% of the radioactivity was recovered as steryl glycoside and 12% as acylated steryl glycoside. Incubation for 12 hours with authentic cholesteryl-14C glucoside gave only a 4% acylation, and under these conditions 21% of the radioactivity was recovered as free cholesterol. It is suggested that acylated steryl glycosides may be formed through the acylation of steryl glycosides or the transfer of an acyl-glycosyl group to sterol. PMID:16658662

  4. Determination of phenylethanoid glycosides and iridoid glycosides from therapeutically used Plantago species by CE-MEKC.

    PubMed

    Gonda, Sándor; Nguyen, Nhat Minh; Batta, Gyula; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Máthé, Csaba; Vasas, Gábor

    2013-09-01

    CE methods are valuable tools for medicinal plant quality management, screening, and analysis. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to optimize and validate a CE-MEKC method for simultaneous quantification of four chief bioactive metabolites from Plantago species. The two most important secondary metabolite groups were aimed to be separated. Different electrolyte and surfactant types were tested. Surfactant concentration, BGE pH, electrolyte concentration, and buffering capacity were optimized. The final BGE consisted of 15 mM sodium tetraborate, 20 mM TAPS, and 250 mM DOC at pH 8.50. Acceptable precision, good stability, and accuracy were achieved, with high resolution for phenylethanoid glycosides. Analytes were separated within 20 min. The method was shown to be suitable for the quantification of the iridoid glycosides aucubin and catalpol, and the phenylethanoid glycosides acteoside (verbascoside) and plantamajoside from water extracts of different samples. The method was shown to be applicable to leaf extracts of Plantago lanceolata, Plantago major, and Plantago asiatica, the main species with therapeutic applications, and a biotechnological product, plant tissue cultures (calli) of P. lanceolata. Baseline separation of the main constituents from minor peaks was achieved, regardless of the matrix type. PMID:23784714

  5. Steviol glycoside safety: are highly purified steviol glycoside sweeteners food allergens?

    PubMed

    Urban, Jonathan D; Carakostas, Michael C; Taylor, Steve L

    2015-01-01

    Steviol glycoside sweeteners are extracted from the plant Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), a member of the Asteraceae (Compositae) family. Many plants from this family can induce hypersensitivity reactions via multiple routes of exposure (e.g., ragweed, goldenrod, chrysanthemum, echinacea, chamomile, lettuce, sunflower and chicory). Based on this common taxonomy, some popular media reports and resources have issued food warnings alleging the potential for stevia allergy. To determine if such allergy warnings are warranted on stevia-based sweeteners, a comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify all available data related to allergic responses following the consumption of stevia extracts or highly purified steviol glycosides. Hypersensitivity reactions to stevia in any form are rare. The few cases documented in the peer-reviewed literature were reported prior to the introduction of high-purity products to the market in 2008 when many global regulatory authorities began to affirm the safety of steviol glycosides. Neither stevia manufacturers nor food allergy networks have reported significant numbers of any adverse events related to ingestion of stevia-based sweeteners, and there have been no reports of stevia-related allergy in the literature since 2008. Therefore, there is little substantiated scientific evidence to support warning statements to consumers about allergy to highly purified stevia extracts. PMID:25449199

  6. Synthesis and sensory evaluation of ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Indra; Campbell, Mary; San Miguel, Rafael Ignacio; Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Catalytic hydrogenation of the three ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides isolated from Stevia rebaudiana, namely rubusoside, stevioside, and rebaudioside-A has been carried out using Pd(OH)? and their corresponding dihydro derivatives have been isolated as the products. Synthesis of reduced steviol glycosides was performed using straightforward chemistry and their structures were characterized on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral data and chemical studies. Also, we report herewith the sensory evaluation of all the reduced compounds against their corresponding original steviol glycosides and sucrose for the sweetness property of these molecules. PMID:22836210

  7. New steroidal glycosides from Tribulus terrestris L.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Liu, Tao; Lu, Xuan; Wang, Hai-Feng; Hua, Hui-Ming; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2012-01-01

    Two new steroidal glycosides were isolated from Tribulus terrestris L. Their structures were elucidated as 26-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-5?-furostan-12-one-20(22)-ene-3?,23,26-triol-3-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-[?-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 ? 3)]-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)]-?-D-galactopyranoside (1) and 26-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-5?-furostan-20(22)-ene-3?,23,26-triol-3-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-[?-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 ? 3)]-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)]-?-D-galactopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR experiments. PMID:22694659

  8. A new iridoid glycoside from Scrophularia ningpoensis.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zheng-Rui; Wang, Ru-Feng; Shang, Ming-Ying; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2009-01-01

    A new iridoid glycoside, named 6'-O-cinnamoylharpagide (1), has been isolated from the roots of Scrophularia ningpoensis (Scrophulariaceae) together with nine known compounds, harpagide (2), harpagoside (3), 8-O-feruloylharpagide (4), 8-O-(p-coumaroyl)harpagide (5), 6-O-methylcatalpol (6), aucubin (7), buergerinin B (8), teuhircoside (9) and 6-O-cinnamoyl-D-glucopyranose (10). Compound 10 was obtained as an inseparable mixture of 6-O-cinnamoyl-alpha-D-glucopyranose and 6-O-cinnamoyl-beta-D-glucopyranose at a ratio of 1 : 1, which is presumably formed by cleavage of compound 1. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectral analysis. PMID:19731136

  9. PII S0016-7037(01)00641-X Tannin diagenesis in mangrove leaves from a tropical estuary: A novel

    E-print Network

    Hernes, Peter J.

    PII S0016-7037(01)00641-X Tannin diagenesis in mangrove leaves from a tropical estuary: A novel--Molecular-level condensed tannin analyses were conducted on a series of mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) leaves at various

  10. Anthelmintic effect of plant extracts containing condensed and hydrolyzable tannins on Caenorhabditis elegans and their antioxidant capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although tannin-rich forages are known to increase protein uptake and to reduce gastrointestinal nematode infections in grazing ruminants, most published research involves forages with condensed tannins (CT), while published literature lacks information on the anthelmintic capacity, nutritional bene...

  11. Research observation: Hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in plants of northwest Spain forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, M. P.; Karchesy, J.; Starkey, E.E.

    2003-01-01

    Tannins are secondary metabolites that may influence feeding by mammals on plants. We analyzed hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in 30 plant species consumed by livestock and deer, as a preliminary attempt to study their possible implications on browsing and grazing in forest ecosystems. Heathers (Ericaceae) and plants of the Rose (Rosaceae) family had tannins, while forbs, grasses and shrubs other than the heathers did not show astringency properties. We found the highest tannin content of all the species in Rubus sp., with the highest value around 180 mg TAE/g dry weight in spring. Potentilla erecta, Alnus glutinosa and Quercus robur were next with 57 to 44 mg TAE/g dw. Total tannins in heathers ranged from 22 to 36 mg TAE/g dw. Levels of condensed tannins were higher than hydrolyzable for most of the species. Only Betula alba, Calluna vulgaris, Pteridium aquilinum and Vaccinium myrtillus had 100% hydrolyzable tannins. Tannin content of the species changed seasonally with highest values during the growing season, corresponding to late winter or early spring, depending on the species.

  12. TANNIN-CONTAINING ALFALFA: A WAY TO IMPROVE NITROGEN-USE AND PROFITABILITY OF DAIRY FARMS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Binding of condensed tannins to protein can prevent excessive proteolysis in forages during ensiling, ruminal digestion, and decay of residues in soil. Plant breeding and biotechnology efforts are underway in the U.S. and abroad to develop alfalfa and other forages with adequate levels of tannin for...

  13. High-throughput micro plate vanillin assay for determination of tannin in sorghum grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum tannins are phenolic compounds that offer health promoting antioxidant properties. The conventional HCl-vanillin assay for determining tannin content is a time-consuming method for screening large sample sets as seen in association mapping panels or breeder nursery samples. The objective of ...

  14. Tannin content and rate of ruminal protein degradation of legume hays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work evaluated ruminal protein degradation rates of legume hays that varied in tannin content. Two cuttings of 5 varieties of birdsfoot trefoil, (Lotus corniculatus), selected for different tannin contents but similar NDF and CP contents, and Spredor 4 alfalfa (control) were conserved as hay. S...

  15. Influence of high tannin grain sorghum on gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that condensed tannin-rich forages such as sericea lespedeza can control gastrointestinal nematode infection (GIN) in goats. The objective of three experiments (EXP) was to determine the influence of high tannin grain sorghum on GIN in goats. Naturally infected B...

  16. Degradation of tannins in spent coffee grounds by Pleurotus sajor-caju.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y S; Wang, X

    1991-09-01

    Pleurotus sajor-caju PL27, a white rot fungus, degraded up to 87% of the tannins in spent coffee grounds as a solid substrate over 32 days. Degradation of tannins was enhanced if potato and dextrose were included. The potential nutritive value of the substrate as animal feed may be improved by this process. PMID:24425201

  17. Characterization of condensed tannins and carbohydrates in hot water bark extracts of European softwood species.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Sauro; Kroslakova, Ivana; Janzon, Ron; Mayer, Ingo; Saake, Bodo; Pichelin, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    Condensed tannins extracted from European softwood bark are recognized as alternatives to synthetic phenolics. The extraction is generally performed in hot water, leading to simultaneous extraction of other bark constituents such as carbohydrates, phenolic monomers and salts. Characterization of the extract's composition and identification of the extracted tannins' molecular structure are needed to better identify potential applications. Bark from Silver fir (Abies alba [Mill.]), European larch (Larix decidua [Mill.]), Norway spruce (Picea abies [Karst.]), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.]) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) were extracted in water at 60°C. The amounts of phenolic monomers, condensed tannins, carbohydrates, and inorganic compounds in the extract were determined. The molecular structures of condensed tannins and carbohydrates were also investigated (HPLC-UV combined with thiolysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, anion exchange chromatography). Distinct extract compositions and tannin structures were found in each of the analysed species. Procyanidins were the most ubiquitous tannins. The presence of phenolic glucosides in the tannin oligomers was suggested. Polysaccharides such as arabinans, arabinogalactans and glucans represented an important fraction of all extracts. Compared to traditionally used species (Mimosa and Quebracho) higher viscosities as well as faster chemical reactivities are expected in the analysed species. The most promising species for a bark tannin extraction was found to be larch, while the least encouraging results were detected in pine. A better knowledge of the interaction between the various extracted compounds is deemed an important matter for investigation in the context of industrial applications of such extracts. PMID:26547588

  18. EFFECTS OF TANNINS ON SOIL CARBON, CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY, AND METAL SOLUBILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tannins sorb to soil, affect the solubility of soil nitrogen, and soil chemical processes that may be important for the formation of soil organic matter and nutrient cycling. However, studies are needed, comparing different classes of tannins and related compounds, to determine if soils have a maxi...

  19. Characterization of tannin-metal complexes by UV-visible spectrophotometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tannins enter soils by plant decay and rain throughfall, but little is known of their effects on soils. Tannins may influence bioavailability and toxicity of metals by forming complexes and by mediating redox reactions. We evaluated the affinity and stoichiometry of Al(III) for a gallotannin, pent...

  20. Cardiac Rehabilitation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... prevent future heart problems and even death. Exercise training as part of cardiac rehab might not be safe for all patients. For example, if you have very high blood pressure or severe heart disease, you might not be ready for exercise. However, ...

  1. Changes in the structural composition and reactivity of Acer rubrum leaf litter tannins exposed to warming and

    E-print Network

    Dukes, Jeffrey

    Changes in the structural composition and reactivity of Acer rubrum leaf litter tannins exposed the composition, structure, and biological reactivity of leaf litter tannins in Acer rubrum at the Boston the concentration of total tannins, which reached 30% of leaf-litter DW. This treatment also produced condensed

  2. A new acylated flavonol glycoside from Derris triofoliata.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lu-Rong; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Si

    2006-01-01

    A new acylated flavonol glycoside, kaempferol 3-O-[(6''''-feruloyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)]-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside and two known cyclolignan glycosides, (+)-lyoniresinol-3alpha-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and ( - )-lyoniresinol-3alpha-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside were isolated from n-BuOH extracts of the aerial parts of Derris triofoliata, their structures were determined from spectroscopic and chemical evidences. PMID:16753776

  3. Verbascoside derivatives and iridoid glycosides from Penstemon crandallii.

    PubMed

    Ismail, L D; el-Azizi, M M; Khalifa, T I; Stermitz, F R

    1995-08-01

    The new phenylethanoid glycosides 2-O-acetyl-3'''-O-methylverbascoside and 2,4"-di-O-acetyl-3'''-O-methylverbascoside were isolated and identified from Penstemon crandallii. The major iridoid glycoside was plantarenaloside and no aucubin type iridoids were found. This contrasted with a previous analysis of P. teucrioides, from the same Penstemon subsection, which was dominated by aucubin derivatives. PMID:7669280

  4. Trans-fused iridoid glycosides from Penstemon mucronatus.

    PubMed

    Krull, R E; Stermitz, F R

    1998-12-01

    Two new trans-fused iridoid glycosides (5 alpha H)-6 alpha-8-epidihydrocornin and (5 alpha H)-6 alpha-8-hydroxy-8-epiloganin, were isolated from Penstemon mucronatus, along with cornin, penstemoside and three hastatosides. The trans-fused iridoids are only the second and third known among over 900 described cis-fused iridoid glycosides. Two pairs of iridoids, identical except for the stereochemistry at C-8, were found. Structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. PMID:9887533

  5. Acylated Steryl Glycoside Synthesis in Seedlings of Nicotiana tabacum L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Frasch, Wayne; Grunwald, Claus

    1976-01-01

    In tobacco seedlings (Nicotiana tabacum L.), glucose from supplied uridine diphosphate-[U-14C]glucose was first incorporated into steryl glycosides and later into acylated steryl glycosides. However, when [14C]cholesterol was used as substrate, the acylated steryl glycosides became labeled earlier than the steryl glycosides. With [14C]cholesteryl glucoside as substrate, most of the radioactive label was recovered as free sterol, and the acylated steryl glycosides were not readily labeled; however, palmitoyl [14C]cholesteryl glucoside was rapidly converted to steryl glycoside. In feeding experiments with free sterol, an unknown, highly radioactive steroid component was isolated. Incorporation of radioactivity into the unknown occurred before the acylated steryl glycosides were labeled. It is postulated that two pathways exist for the biosynthesis of acylated steryl glycoside: one through steryl glycosides, and the other through an unidentified steroid component. It is the latter pathway which appears to be dominant in the in vivo tobacco system. PMID:16659758

  6. Cardiac lipoma

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Imtiaz; Al-Khafaji, Khalid; Mutyala, Monica; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Cotter, William; Hakim, Hosam; Khosla, Sandeep; Arora, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Lipomas of the heart are encapsulated tumors that are composed primarily of mature fat cells. Cardiac lipomas can originate either from subendocardium (approximately 50%), subpericardium (25%), or from the myocardium (25%) and may be located more frequently in left ventricle or right atrium. We report a 74-year-old female who presented with dyspnea on exertion and was found to have 5×5 cm mass occupying most of the right atrium on a transesophageal echocardiogram. PMID:26486106

  7. Cardiac optogenetics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Optogenetics is an emerging technology for optical interrogation and control of biological function with high specificity and high spatiotemporal resolution. Mammalian cells and tissues can be sensitized to respond to light by a relatively simple and well-tolerated genetic modification using microbial opsins (light-gated ion channels and pumps). These can achieve fast and specific excitatory or inhibitory response, offering distinct advantages over traditional pharmacological or electrical means of perturbation. Since the first demonstrations of utility in mammalian cells (neurons) in 2005, optogenetics has spurred immense research activity and has inspired numerous applications for dissection of neural circuitry and understanding of brain function in health and disease, applications ranging from in vitro to work in behaving animals. Only recently (since 2010), the field has extended to cardiac applications with less than a dozen publications to date. In consideration of the early phase of work on cardiac optogenetics and the impact of the technique in understanding another excitable tissue, the brain, this review is largely a perspective of possibilities in the heart. It covers the basic principles of operation of light-sensitive ion channels and pumps, the available tools and ongoing efforts in optimizing them, overview of neuroscience use, as well as cardiac-specific questions of implementation and ideas for best use of this emerging technology in the heart. PMID:23457014

  8. Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Weisse, Allen B.

    2011-01-01

    Well into the first decades of the 20th century, medical opinion held that any surgical attempts to treat heart disease were not only misguided, but unethical. Despite such reservations, innovative surgeons showed that heart wounds could be successfully repaired. Then, extracardiac procedures were performed to correct patent ductus arteriosus, coarctation of the aorta, and tetralogy of Fallot. Direct surgery on the heart was accomplished with closed commissurotomy for mitral stenosis. The introduction of the heart-lung machine and cardiopulmonary bypass enabled the surgical treatment of other congenital and acquired heart diseases. Advances in aortic surgery paralleled these successes. The development of coronary artery bypass grafting greatly aided the treatment of coronary heart disease. Cardiac transplantation, attempts to use the total artificial heart, and the application of ventricular assist devices have brought us to the present day. Although progress in the field of cardiovascular surgery appears to have slowed when compared with the halcyon times of the past, substantial challenges still face cardiac surgeons. It can only be hoped that sufficient resources and incentive can carry the triumphs of the 20th century into the 21st. This review covers past developments and future opportunities in cardiac surgery. PMID:22163121

  9. Interference of condensed tannin in lignin analyses of dry bean and forage crops.

    PubMed

    Marles, M A Susan; Coulman, Bruce E; Bett, Kirstin E

    2008-11-12

    Legumes with high concentrations of condensed tannin (pinto bean [Phaseolus vulgaris L.], sainfoin [Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.], and big trefoil [Lotus uliginosus Hoff.]), were compared to a selection of forages, with low or zero condensed tannin (smooth bromegrass [ Bromus inermis Leyss], Lotus japonicus [Regel] K. Larsen, and alfalfa [Medicago sativa L.]), using four methods to estimate fiber or lignin. Protocols were validated by using semipurified condensed tannin polymers in adulteration assays that tested low-lignin tissue with polyphenolic-enriched samples. The effect on lignin assay methods by condensed tannin concentration was interpreted using a multivariate analysis. There was an overestimation of fiber or lignin in the presence of condensed tannin in the acid detergent fiber (ADF) and Klason lignin (KL) assays compared to that in the thioglycolic acid (TGA) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) methods. Sulfite reagents (present in TGA lignin method) or sequential acidic digests at high temperatures (ADF followed by ADL) were required to eliminate condensed tannin. The ADF (alone) and KL protocols are not recommended to screen nonwoody plants, such as forages, where condensed tannin has accumulated in the tissue. PMID:18841900

  10. Resin Glycosides from the Morning Glory Family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Rosas-Ramírez, Daniel; Castañeda-Gómez, Jhon

    Resin glycosides are part of a very extensive family of secondary metabolites known as glycolipids or lipo-oligosaccharides and are constituents of complex resins (glycoresins) (1) unique to the morning glory family, Convolvulaceae (2). These active principles are responsible for the drastic purgative action of all the important Convolvulaceous species used in traditional medicine throughout the world since ancient times. Several commercial purgative crude drugs can be prepared from the roots of different species of Mexican morning glories. Their incorporation as therapeutic agents in Europe is an outstanding example of the assimilation of botanical drugs from the Americas as substitutes for traditional Old World remedies (3). Even though phytochemical investigations on the constituents of these drugs were initiated during the second half of the nineteenth century, the structure of their active ingredients still remains poorly known for some examples of these purgative roots. During the last two decades, the higher resolution capabilities of modern analytical isolation techniques used in conjunction with powerful spectroscopic methods have facilitated the elucidation of the active principles of these relevant herbal products.

  11. Antioxidant flavonol glycosides from Schinus molle.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, Mohamed S; Moharram, Fatma A; Haggag, Eman G; Ibrahim, Magda T; Badary, Osama A

    2006-03-01

    Chromatographic separation of aqueous MeOH extract of the leaves of Schinus molle L. has yielded two new acylated quercetin glycosides, named isoquercitrin 6''-O-p-hydroxybenzoate (12) and 2''-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-hyperin 6''-O-gallate (13), together with 12 known polyphenolic metabolites for the first time from this species, namely gallic acid (1), methyl gallate (2), chlorogenic acid (3), 2''-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-hyperin (4), quercetin 3-O-beta-D-neohesperidoside (5), miquelianin (6), quercetin 3-O-beta-D-galacturonopyranoside (7), isoquercitrin (8), hyperin (9), isoquercitrin 6''-gallate (10), hyperin 6''-O-gallate (11) and (+)-catechin (14). Their structures were established on the basis of chromatographic properties, chemical, spectroscopic (UV, 1H, 13C NMR) and ESI-MS (positive and negative modes) analyses. Compounds 4-9 and 11 exhibited moderate to strong radical scavenging properties on lipid peroxidation, hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion generations with the highest activities shown by 6 and 7 in comparison with that of quercetin as a positive control in vitro. PMID:16521111

  12. Specific polyphenols and tannins are associated with defense against insect herbivores in the tropical oak Quercus oleoides.

    PubMed

    Moctezuma, Coral; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Heil, Martin; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Méndez-Alonzo, Rodrigo; Oyama, Ken

    2014-05-01

    The role of plant polyphenols as defenses against insect herbivores is controversial. We combined correlative field studies across three geographic regions (Northern Mexico, Southern Mexico, and Costa Rica) with induction experiments under controlled conditions to search for candidate compounds that might play a defensive role in the foliage of the tropical oak, Quercus oleoides. We quantified leaf damage caused by four herbivore guilds (chewers, skeletonizers, leaf miners, and gall forming insects) and analyzed the content of 18 polyphenols (including hydrolyzable tannins, flavan-3-ols, and flavonol glycosides) in the same set of leaves using high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Foliar damage ranged from two to eight percent per region, and nearly 90% of all the damage was caused by chewing herbivores. Damage due to chewing herbivores was positively correlated with acutissimin B, catechin, and catechin dimer, and damage by mining herbivores was positively correlated with mongolinin A. By contrast, gall presence was negatively correlated with vescalagin and acutissimin B. By using redundancy analysis, we searched for the combinations of polyphenols that were associated to natural herbivory: the combination of mongolinin A and acutissimin B had the highest association to herbivory. In a common garden experiment with oak saplings, artificial damage increased the content of acutissimin B, mongolinin A, and vescalagin, whereas the content of catechin decreased. Specific polyphenols, either individually or in combination, rather than total polyphenols, were associated with standing leaf damage in this tropical oak. Future studies aimed at understanding the ecological role of polyphenols can use similar correlative studies to identify candidate compounds that could be used individually and in biologically meaningful combinations in tests with herbivores and pathogens. PMID:24809533

  13. Nickel-catalyzed proton-deuterium exchange (HDX) procedures for glycosidic linkage analysis of complex carbohydrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The structural analysis of complex carbohydrates typically requires the assignment of three parameters: monosaccharide composition, the position of glycosidic linkages between monosaccharides, and the position and nature of non-carbohydrate substituents. The glycosidic linkage positions are often de...

  14. ISOFLAVONE CONJUGATES AND MINOR GLYCOSIDES EXTRACTED FROM PEANUT HEARTS USING HPLC-MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High performance liquid chromatography and electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI) was used to characterize isoflavone glycosidic conjugates and minor glycosides extracted from peanut meal. The selected extraction method combined the removal of isoflavones and their conjugates with an alcoholic solvent...

  15. Purity assessment of condensed tannin fractions by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unambiguous investigation of condensed tannin (CT) structure-activity relationships in biological systems requires the use of highly enriched CT fractions of defined chemical purity. Purification of CTs from Sorghum bicolor, Trifolium repens, Theobroma cacao, Lespedeza cuneata, Lotus pedunculatus, a...

  16. 2-methyl-L-erythritol glycosides from Gardenia jasminoides.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liguo; Peng, Kaifeng; Zhao, Shizhe; Zhao, Feng; Chen, Lixia; Qiu, Feng

    2013-09-01

    Two new glycosides, 2-methyl-L-erythritol-4-O-(6-O-trans-sinapoyl)-?-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 2-methyl-L-erythritol-1-O-(6-O-trans-sinapoyl)-?-D-glucopyranoside (2), along with two known triterpenoids (3-4), four quinic acid derivatives (5-8) and one flavonoid (9) were isolated from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides. Their structures were elucidated through MS and 2D NMR experiments (HMQC and HMBC). Inhibitory effects of the isolated compounds on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages were evaluated. Though 2-methyl-D-erythritol and its glycosides have been reported in a few references, this is the first report about 2-methyl-L-erythritol glycosides. Based on this finding, we propose that 2-methyl-L-erythritol might be a new intermediate in the non-mevalonate biosynthesis of terpenoids. PMID:23727470

  17. Preferred conformation of the glycosidic linkage of methyl-?-mannose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coskuner, Orkid

    2007-07-01

    The conformational preference of the glycosidic linkage of methyl-?-mannose was studied in the gas phase and in aqueous solution by ab initio calculations, and by molecular dynamics (MD) and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations. MD simulations were performed with various water potential functions to study the impact of the chosen water potential on the predicted conformational preference of the glycosidic linkage of the carbohydrate in solution. This study shows that the trans (t) orientation of the glycosidic linkage of methyl-?-mannose is preferred over its gauche clockwise (g+) orientation in solution. CPMD simulations clearly indicate that this preference is due to intermolecular hydrogen bonding with surrounding water molecules, whereas no such information could be demonstrated by MD simulations. This study demonstrates the importance of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations in studying the structural properties of carbohydrate-water interactions.

  18. Synthesis and photosensitivity of isoxazolin-5-one glycosides.

    PubMed

    Becker, Tobias; Kartikeya, Prashant; Paetz, Christian; von Reuss, Stephan H; Boland, Wilhelm

    2015-04-01

    A novel procedure for the synthesis of isoxazolin-5-one glycosides starting from unprotected carbohydrates is described. The substrate scope of the one-pot synthetic protocol was explored using D-configured glucose, xylose, maltose, fructose, ribose and 2-deoxyribose. Naturally occurring 2-(?-D-glucopyranosyl)-3-isoxazolin-5-one and four novel isoxazolin-5-one glycosides derived from xylose, maltose and fructose were synthesized and purified by flash chromatography. The compounds were characterized in terms of chemical structure, photophysical properties as well as pH stability. The photohydrolysis rates of the synthesized glycosides were compared with uridine as a standard to determine the quantum yields for the photoreactions in water. PMID:25723136

  19. Acceleration of the rate of ethanol fermentation by addition of nitrogen in high tannin grain sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, J.T.; NeSmith, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    In this communication, the authors show that accelerated rates of ethanol production, comparable to sorghum varieties containing low levels of tannins and to corn, can occur without the removal of the tannins. The basis of the inhibition appears to be a lack of sufficient nitrogen in the mash for protein synthesis required to support an accelerated fermentative metabolism in Saccharomyces. No inhibition of the enzymes used for starch hydrolysis was found.

  20. Seed removal by scatter-hoarding rodents: the effects of tannin and nutrient concentration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Yang, Xiaolan

    2015-04-01

    The mutualistic interaction between scatter-hoarding rodents and seed plants have a long co-evolutionary history. Plants are believed to have evolved traits that influence the foraging behavior of rodents, thus increasing the probability of seed removal and caching, which benefits the establishment of seedlings. Tannin and nutrient content in seeds are considered among the most essential factors in this plant-animal interaction. However, most previous studies used different species of plant seeds, rendering it difficult to tease apart the relative effect of each single nutrient on rodent foraging behavior due to confounding combinations of nutrient contents across seed species. Hence, to further explore how tannin and different nutritional traits of seed affect scatter-hoarding rodent foraging preferences, we manipulated tannin, fat, protein and starch content levels, and also seed size levels by using an artificial seed system. Our results showed that both tannin and various nutrients significantly affected rodent foraging preferences, but were also strongly affected by seed size. In general, rodents preferred to remove seeds with less tannin. Fat addition could counteract the negative effect of tannin on seed removal by rodents, while the effect of protein addition was weaker. Starch by itself had no effect, but it interacted with tannin in a complex way. Our findings shed light on the effects of tannin and nutrient content on seed removal by scatter-hoarding rodents. We therefore, believe that these and perhaps other seed traits should interactively influence this important plant-rodent interaction. However, how selection operates on seed traits to counterbalance these competing interests/factors merits further study. PMID:25625425

  1. Iridoid glycoside biosynthesis in Penstemon secundiflorus. Another H-5, H-9 trans-iridoid glycoside.

    PubMed

    Krull, R E; Stermitz, F R; Franzyk, H; Jensen, S R

    1998-11-01

    Isolation and characterization of the new iridoid 10-hydroxy-(5 alpha H)-6-epidihydrocornin from Penstemon secundiflorus (Scrophulariaceae) is described. In biosynthetic experiments, deoxyloganic acid was incorporated into the trans-fused iridoid glycosides (5 alpha H)-6-epidihydrocornin and 10-hydroxy-(5 alpha H)-6-epidihydrocornin in P. secundiflorus. Formation of the trans-fused compounds is therefore a late event in the biosynthesis and does not occur during iridoid formation by cyclization of the open chain monoterpene precursor. In the same plant, 8-epideoxyloganic acid was not incorporated into the trans-iridoids. Deoxyloganic acid was also incorporated into 10-hydroxyhastatoside (which bears an 8 beta-methyl group), while 8-epideoxyloganic acid was incorporated into penstemoside (with an 8 alpha-methyl group). Thus, iridoid biosynthetic pathways leading from both deoxyloganic acid and 8-epideoxyloganic acid were found in the same plant. PMID:9862136

  2. Novel Soluble Dietary Fiber-Tannin Self-Assembled Film: A Promising Protein Protective Material.

    PubMed

    Song, Guo-Bin; Xu, Juan; Zheng, Hua; Feng, Ying; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Li, Kun; Ge, Shuang-shuang; Li, Kai; Zhang, Hong

    2015-06-24

    In this experiment, a natural promising protein protective film was fabricated through soluble dietary fiber (SDF)-tannin nanocluster self-assembly. FT-IR, XRD, and DSC tests were employed to investigate the interaction between the SDF and tannins before and after cross-linking induced by calcium ion. On the other hand, referring to the SEM and TEM results, the self-assembly process of the protein protective film could be indicated as follows: first, calcium ion, with its cross-ability, served as the "nucleus"; SDF and tannins were combined to prepare the nanoscale SDF-tannin clusters; then, the clusters were homogeneously deposited on the surface of protein to form a protective film by self-assembling hydrogen bond between tannin component of clusters as "adhesive" and protein in aqueous solutions under very mild conditions. Film thickness could also be controlled by tannin of different concentrations ranging from 114 to 1384 ?m. Antibacterial test and in vitro cytotoxicity test proved that the film had a broad spectrum of antimicrobial properties and excellent cell biocompatibility, respectively, which might open up new applications in the food preservation and biomedical fields. PMID:26051153

  3. One new cycloartane triterpene glycoside from Beesia calthaefolia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jin-Yuan; Mu, Li-Hua; Dong, Xian-Zhe; Hu, Yuan; Liu, Ping

    2016-02-01

    One new cycloartane triterpene glycoside (1) was isolated from the whole plant of Beesia calthaefolia. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analysis. Its inhibitory effect was measured by the classical pathway of the complement system, and compared with those of known related cycloartane glycosides 2 and 3, previously isolated by us from the same plant. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited inhibitory activity of complement system with IC50 of 395.3 and 214 ?M, respectively. The results suggested that OH at C-12, C-18 and C-15 along with the polarity could affect the inhibitory activity. PMID:26305784

  4. Xanthone glycosides from Swertia bimaculata with ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yao-Dong; Zhang, Yu-Tang; Liu, Zhao-Xia; Min, Qiu-Xia; Wan, Luo-Sheng; Wang, Yong-Long; Xiao, Zuo-Qi; Chen, Jia-Chun

    2014-04-01

    Seven new xanthone glycosides (1-7) were isolated from the n-butanol extract of Swertia bimaculata, together with six known compounds (8-13). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses (1D- and 2D-NMR, HRESIMS, UV, and IR) and comparison with data reported in the literature. All the compounds were evaluated for their ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities in vitro, and compounds 3, 4, and 7 exhibited significant activities to inhibit ?-glucosidase. Meanwhile the effects of different substitutions on the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity of xanthone glycosides from S. bimaculata are also discussed. PMID:24687743

  5. Steroidal sapogenins and glycosides from the rhizomes of Dioscorea bulbifera.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai; Chou, Gui-Xin; Wu, Tao; Guo, Yin-Long; Wang, Shun-Chun; Wang, Chang-Hong; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2009-11-01

    Four new steroidal sapogenins (1-4), named diosbulbisins A-D, two new spirostane glycosides, diosbulbisides A (5) and B (6), one new cholestane glycoside, diosbulbiside C (7), and the known compounds 8-10 were isolated from rhizomes of Dioscorea bulbifera. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR techniques, HRFTMS, and chemical methods. The unusual furospirostanol sapogenin skeletons, as found in compounds 3 and 4, are reported in the family Dioscoreaceae for the first time. Cytotoxicity of compounds 1-10 was evaluated using two human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines (Bel-7402 and SMMC7721). PMID:19842682

  6. Phenylethanoid and flavone glycosides from Ruellia tuberosa L.

    PubMed

    Phakeovilay, Chiobouaphong; Disadee, Wannaporn; Sahakitpichan, Poolsak; Sitthimonchai, Somkit; Kittakoop, Prasat; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kanchanapoom, Tripetch

    2013-01-01

    A new phenylethanoid glycoside, isocassifolioside (8), and two new flavone glycosides, hispidulin 7-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1'? ? 2?)-O-?-D-glucuronopyranoside (11) and pectolinaringenin 7-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1'? ? 2?)-O-?-D-glucuronopyranoside (12) were isolated from the aerial portions of Ruellia tuberosa L., together with verbascoside (1), isoverbascoside (2), nuomioside (3), isonuomioside (4), forsythoside B (5), paucifloside (6), cassifolioside (7), hispidulin 7-O-?-D-glucuronopyranoside (9) and comanthoside B (10). The structure elucidations were based on analyses of chemical and spectroscopic data including 1D- and 2D-NMR. The isolated compounds 1-12 exhibited radical scavenging activity using ORAC assay. PMID:22447282

  7. Synthesis and Photochromic Properties of Configurationally Varied Azobenzene Glycosides

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Vijayanand; Johannes, Eugen; Kobarg, Hauke; Sönnichsen, Frank D; Lindhorst, Thisbe K

    2014-01-01

    Spatial orientation of carbohydrates is a meaningful parameter in carbohydrate recognition processes. To vary orientation of sugars with temporal and spatial resolution, photosensitive glycoconjugates with favorable photochromic properties appear to be opportune. Here, a series of azobenzene glycosides were synthesized, employing glycoside synthesis and Mills reaction, to allow “switching” of carbohydrate orientation by reversible E/Z isomerization of the azobenzene N=N double bond. Their photochromic properties were tested and effects of azobenzene substitution as well as the effect of anomeric configuration and the orientation of the sugars 2-hydroxy group were evaluated. PMID:25050228

  8. Evaluation of Direct Phloroglucinolysis and Colorimetric Depolymerization Assays and Their Applicability for Determining Condensed Tannins in Grape Marc.

    PubMed

    Hixson, Josh L; Bindon, Keren A; Smith, Paul A

    2015-11-18

    To determine the optimum methods for determining condensed tannin (CT) content in grape marc, butanol-hydrochloric acid assays and phloroglucinolysis were adapted for use, applied to a range of grape marc types, and the methods compared. Porter's assay (butanol-HCl) was found to give unreliable results due to nonlinear color responses to grape skin and seed tannin concentrations, whereas the modification to include acetone (Grabber's assay) overcame this. Differences between skin and seed tannin responses highlighted the need to adequately select the correct grape tannin standard, and the formation of pH-dependent color was accounted for through acidification of blank samples. For phloroglucinolysis, the inability to remove highly bound tannins from cell wall material was highlighted, although a measure of tannins remaining post-phloroglucinolysis (Grabber's assay) showed a trend with the level of exposure to oxidative storage or processing conditions. The comparison of CT concentrations from phloroglucinolysis and Grabber's assay gave poor correlation coefficients. PMID:26551987

  9. Encapsulation of tannase for the hydrolysis of tea tannins.

    PubMed

    Boadi, D K.; Neufeld, R J.

    2001-05-01

    Tannase was encapsulated in alginate, chitosan, carrageenan or pectin gel matrices, and in the case of alginate, coated with high or low molecular weight chitosan to reduce enzyme release. Cross-linking with glutaraldehyde also improved enzyme retention. Active enzyme preparations were obtained, although carrageenan gels were unstable in tea. Tannase activity was evaluated by reduction in centrifugable (flocculated) tea solids, and a reduction in tea cream measured turbidimetrically after removal of flocculated solids. Tannin interactions with the polysaccharide gels increased the level of centrifugable solids (flocculent) in the tea. An optimum bead formulation consisted of an alginate core, coated with chitosan and cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Both core and coating materials contained active enzyme. Beads were prepared in a single step procedure involving extrusion of alginate/tannase solution into a hardening bath containing tannase-loaded, chitosan solution. Tannase retained hydrolytic activity through three successive batch cycles, for a total period of 39h processing, and tea cream was visibly removed by treatment with the immobilized tannase. Activity remained stable during 1-month bead storage under refrigeration. PMID:11339939

  10. Melanogenesis inhibitory activity of monoterpene glycosides from Gardeniae Fructus.

    PubMed

    Akihisa, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Kensuke; Yamamoto, Ayako; Zhang, Jie; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Fukatsu, Makoto

    2012-08-01

    A new iridoid glycoside, 10-O-(4"-O-methylsuccinoyl)geniposide (7), and two new pyronane glycosides, jasminosides Q and R (13 and 14, resp.), along with nine known iridoid glycosides, 1-6 and 8-10, and two known pyronane glycosides, 11 and 12, were isolated from a MeOH extract of Gardeniae Fructus, the dried ripe fruit of Gardenia jasminoides (Rubiaceae). The structures of new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and comparison with literature. Upon evaluation of compounds 1-14 on the melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells induced with ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH), three compounds, i.e., 6-O-p-coumaroylgeniposide (3), 7, and 6'-O-sinapoyljasminoside (12), exhibited inhibitory effects with 21.6-41.0 and 37.5-47.7% reduction of melanin content at 30 and 50 ?M, respectively, with almost no toxicity to the cells (83.7-106.1% of cell viability at 50 ?M). PMID:22899609

  11. Curation of characterized glycoside hydrolases of Fungal origin

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Caitlin; Powlowski, Justin; Wu, Min; Butler, Greg; Tsang, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Fungi produce a wide range of extracellular enzymes to break down plant cell walls, which are composed mainly of cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose. Among them are the glycoside hydrolases (GH), the largest and most diverse family of enzymes active on these substrates. To facilitate research and development of enzymes for the conversion of cell-wall polysaccharides into fermentable sugars, we have manually curated a comprehensive set of characterized fungal glycoside hydrolases. Characterized glycoside hydrolases were retrieved from protein and enzyme databases, as well as literature repositories. A total of 453 characterized glycoside hydrolases have been cataloged. They come from 131 different fungal species, most of which belong to the phylum Ascomycota. These enzymes represent 46 different GH activities and cover 44 of the 115 CAZy GH families. In addition to enzyme source and enzyme family, available biochemical properties such as temperature and pH optima, specific activity, kinetic parameters and substrate specificities were recorded. To simplify comparative studies, enzyme and species abbreviations have been standardized, Gene Ontology terms assigned and reference to supporting evidence provided. The annotated genes have been organized in a searchable, online database called mycoCLAP (Characterized Lignocellulose-Active Proteins of fungal origin). It is anticipated that this manually curated collection of biochemically characterized fungal proteins will be used to enhance functional annotation of novel GH genes. Database URL: http://mycoCLAP.fungalgenomics.ca/ PMID:21622642

  12. Glycosidation of Methanol with Ribose: An Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Erin; Cook, Katie; Pritchard, Meredith R.; Stripe, Wayne; Bruch, Martha; Bendinskas, Kestutis

    2010-01-01

    This exercise provides students hands-on experience with the topics of glycosidation, hemiacetal and acetal formation, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ([superscript 1]H NMR) spectroscopy, and kinetic and thermodynamic product formation. In this laboratory experiment, the methyl acetal of ribose is synthesized, and the kinetic and thermodynamic…

  13. Botanical traceability of commercial tannins using the mineral profile and stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Bertoldi, Daniela; Santato, Alessandro; Paolini, Mauro; Barbero, Alice; Camin, Federica; Nicolini, Giorgio; Larcher, Roberto

    2014-09-01

    Commercial tannins are natural polyphenolic compounds extracted from different plant tissues such as gall, the wood of different species and fruit. In the food industry they are mainly used as flavourings and food ingredients, whereas in winemaking they are classified as clarification agents for wine protein stabilisation, although colour stabilisation, metal removal, unpleasant thiol removal and rheological correction are also well-known and desired effects. Due to their particular technical properties and very different costs, the possibility of correct identification of the real botanical origin of tannins can be considered a primary target in oenology research and in fulfilling the technical and economic requirements of the wine industry. For some categories of tannins encouraging results have already been achieved by considering sugar or polyphenolic composition. For the first time this work verifies the possibility of determining the botanical origin of tannins on the basis of the mineral element profile and analysis of the (13) C/(12) C isotopic ratio. One hundred two commercial tannins originating from 10 different botanical sources (grapes, oak, gall, chestnut, fruit trees, quebracho, tea, acacia, officinal plants and tara) were analysed to determine 57 elements and the (13) C/(12) C isotopic ratio, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry, respectively. Forward stepwise discriminant analysis provided good discrimination between the 8 most abundant groups, with 100% correct re-classification. The model was then validated five times on subsets of 10% of the overall samples, randomly extracted, achieving satisfactory results. With a similar approach it was also possible to distinguish toasted and untoasted oak tannins as well as tannins from grape skin and grape seeds. PMID:25230175

  14. Rigidity, conformation, and solvation of native and oxidized tannin macromolecules in water-ethanol solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchi, Dražen; Konarev, Petr V.; Tribet, Christophe; Baron, Alain; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Guyot, Sylvain

    2009-06-01

    We studied by light scattering and small angle x-rays scattering (SAXS) conformations and solvation of plant tannins (oligomers and polymers) in mixed water-ethanol solutions. Their structures are not simple linear chains but contain about 6% of branching. Ab initio reconstruction reveals that monomers within a branch are closely bound pairwise. The chains are rather rigid, with the Kuhn length b =13±3 nm, corresponding to about 35 linearly bound monomers. Contribution of solvation layer to SAXS intensity varies in a nonmonotonic way with ethanol content ?A, which is an indication of amphipathic nature of tannin molecules. Best solvent composition ?AB is a decreasing function of polymerization degree N, in agreement with increasing water solubility of tannins with N. Polymers longer than b present a power-law behavior I ˜Q-d in the SAXS profile at high momentum transfer Q. The monotonic decrease in d with increasing ?A (from 2.4 in water to 1.9 in ethanol) points that the tannins are more compact in water than in ethanol, presumably due to attractive intramolecular interactions in water. Tannins were then oxidized in controlled conditions similar to real biological or food systems. Oxidation does not produce any intermolecular condensation, but generates additional intramolecular links. Some oxidation products are insoluble in water rich solvent. For that reason, we identify these species as a fraction of natural tannins called "T1" in the notation of Zanchi et al. [Langmuir 23, 9949 (2007)]. Within the fraction left soluble after oxidation, conformations of polymeric tannins, despite their higher rigidity, remain sensitive to solvent composition.

  15. Inhibition of hydrogen sulfide, methane, and total gas production and sulfate-reducing bacteria in in vitro swine manure by tannins, with focus on condensed quebracho tannins.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Terence R; Spence, Cheryl; Cotta, Michael A

    2013-09-01

    Management practices from large-scale swine production facilities have resulted in the increased collection and storage of manure for off-season fertilization use. Odor and emissions produced during storage have increased the tension among rural neighbors and among urban and rural residents. Production of these compounds from stored manure is the result of microbial activity of the anaerobic bacteria populations during storage. In the current study, the inhibitory effects of condensed quebracho tannins on in vitro swine manure for reduction of microbial activity and reduced production of gaseous emissions, including the toxic odorant hydrogen sulfide produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), was examined. Swine manure was collected from a local swine facility, diluted in anaerobic buffer, and mixed with 1 %?w/v fresh feces. This slurry was combined with quebracho tannins, and total gas and hydrogen sulfide production was monitored over time. Aliquots were removed periodically for isolation of DNA to measure the SRB populations using quantitative PCR. Addition of tannins reduced overall gas, hydrogen sulfide, and methane production by greater than 90 % after 7 days of treatment and continued to at least 28 days. SRB population was also significantly decreased by tannin addition. qRT-PCR of 16S rDNA bacteria genes showed that the total bacterial population was also decreased in these incubations. These results indicate that the tannins elicited a collective effect on the bacterial population and also suggest a reduction in the population of methanogenic microorganisms as demonstrated by reduced methane production in these experiments. Such a generalized effect could be extrapolated to a reduction in other odor-associated emissions during manure storage. PMID:23149758

  16. CARDIAC MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Joachim R.; Johnson, Edward A.

    1968-01-01

    With light and electron microscopy a comparison has been made of the morphology of ventricular (V) and Purkinje (P) fibers of the hearts of guinea pig, rabbit, cat, dog, goat, and sheep. The criteria, previously established for the rabbit heart, that V fibers are distinguished from P fibers by the respective presence and absence of transverse tubules is shown to be true for all animals studied. No evidence was found of a permanent connection between the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the extracellular space. The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of V fibers formed couplings with the sarcolemma of a transverse tubule (interior coupling) and with the peripheral sarcolemma (peripheral coupling), whereas in P fibers the SR formed only peripheral couplings. The forms of the couplings were identical. The significance, with respect to excitation-contraction coupling, of the difference in the form of the couplings in cardiac versus skeletal muscle is discussed together with the electrophysiological implications of the differing geometries of bundles of P fibers from different animals. PMID:5645545

  17. Novel Strategies for Upstream and Downstream Processing of Tannin Acyl Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Durán, Luis V.; Valdivia-Urdiales, Blanca; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C.; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal N.

    2011-01-01

    Tannin acyl hydrolase also referred as tannase is an enzyme with important applications in several science and technology fields. Due to its hydrolytic and synthetic properties, tannase could be used to reduce the negative effects of tannins in beverages, food, feed, and tannery effluents, for the production of gallic acid from tannin-rich materials, the elucidation of tannin structure, and the synthesis of gallic acid esters in nonaqueous media. However, industrial applications of tannase are still very limited due to its high production cost. Thus, there is a growing interest in the production, recovery, and purification of this enzyme. Recently, there have been published a number of papers on the improvement of upstream and downstream processing of the enzyme. These papers dealt with the search for new tannase producing microorganisms, the application of novel fermentation systems, optimization of culture conditions, the production of the enzyme by recombinant microorganism, and the design of efficient protocols for tannase recovery and purification. The present work reviews the state of the art of basic and biotechnological aspects of tannin acyl hydrolase, focusing on the recent advances in the upstream and downstream processing of the enzyme. PMID:21941633

  18. Inactivation of tannins in milled sorghum grain through steeping in dilute NaOH solution.

    PubMed

    Adetunji, Adeoluwa I; Duodu, Kwaku G; Taylor, John R N

    2015-05-15

    Steeping milled sorghum in up to 0.4% NaOH was investigated as a method of tannin inactivation. NaOH steeping substantially reduced assayable total phenols and tannins in both Type III and Type II sorghums and with Type III sorghum caused a 60-80% reduction in ?-amylase inhibition compared to a 20% reduction by water steeping. NaOH treatment also reduced starch liquefaction time and increased free amino nitrogen. Type II tannin sorghum did not inhibit ?-amylase and consequently the NaOH treatment had no effect. HPLC and LC-MS of the tannin extracts indicated a general trend of increasing proanthocyanidin/procyanidin size with increasing NaOH concentration and steeping time, coupled with a reduction in total area of peaks resolved. These show that the NaOH treatment forms highly polymerised tannin compounds, too large to assay and to interact with the ?-amylase. NaOH pre-treatment of Type III sorghums could enable their utilisation in bioethanol production. PMID:25577074

  19. Composition and biological activities of hydrolyzable tannins of fruits of Phyllanthus emblica.

    PubMed

    Yang, Baoru; Liu, Pengzhan

    2014-01-22

    Fruits of emblic leafflower have been used as food and traditional medicine in Asia. A wide range of biological activities have been shown in modern research suggesting potential of the fruits as healthy food and raw material for bioactive ingredients of food. Hydrolyzable tannins are among the major bioactive components of the fruits. Mucic acid gallate, mucic acid lactone gallate, monogalloylglucose, gallic acid, digalloylglucose, putranjivain A, galloyl-HHDP-glucose, elaeocarpusin, and chebulagic acid are the most abundant hydrolyzable tannins. The compositional profiles of tannins in the fruits vary depending on the cultivars as well as ripening stages. Fruits and tannin-rich extracts of fruits have shown antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and immune-regulating activities in vitro and in animal studies. The fruits and fruit extracts have manifested protective effects on organs/tissues from damages induced by chemicals, stresses, and aging in animal models. The fruits and fruit extracts have potential in inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and reducing DNA damage induced by chemicals and radiation. Antioxidative activities are likely among the mechanisms of the biological activities and physiological effects. Human intervention/clinical studies are needed to investigate the bioavailability and metabolism of the tannins and to substantiate the health benefits in humans. Emblic leafflower may be a potential raw material for natural food preservatives. PMID:24369850

  20. Effect of plant sterols and tannins on Phytophthora ramorum growth and sporulation.

    PubMed

    Stong, Rachel A; Kolodny, Eli; Kelsey, Rick G; González-Hernández, M P; Vivanco, Jorge M; Manter, Daniel K

    2013-06-01

    Elicitin-mediated acquisition of plant sterols is required for growth and sporulation of Phytophthora spp. This study examined the interactions between elicitins, sterols, and tannins. Ground leaf tissue, sterols, and tannin-enriched extracts were obtained from three different plant species (California bay laurel, California black oak, and Oregon white oak) in order to evaluate the effect of differing sterol/tannin contents on Phytophthora ramorum growth. For all three species, high levels of foliage inhibited P. ramorum growth and sporulation, with a steeper concentration dependence for the two oak samples. Phytophthora ramorum growth and sporulation were inhibited by either phytosterols or tannin-enriched extracts. High levels of sterols diminished elicitin gene expression in P. ramorum; whereas the tannin-enriched extract decreased the amount of 'functional' or ELISA-detectable elicitin, but not gene expression. Across all treatment combinations, P. ramorum growth and sporulation correlated strongly with the amount of ELISA-detectable elicitin (R (2)?= 0.791 and 0.961, respectively). PMID:23689874

  1. Kinetics of the hydrothermal treatment of tannin for producing carbonaceous microspheres.

    PubMed

    Braghiroli, F L; Fierro, V; Izquierdo, M T; Parmentier, J; Pizzi, A; Celzard, A

    2014-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of condensed tannins were submitted to hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) in a stainless steel autoclave, and the kinetics of hydrothermal carbon formation was investigated by changing several parameters: amount of tannin (0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0 g in 16 mL of water), HTC temperature (130, 160, 180 and 200°C) and reaction times (from 1 to 720 h). The morphology and the structure of the tannin-based hydrothermal carbons were studied by TEM, krypton adsorption at -196°C and helium pycnometry. These materials presented agglomerated spherical particles, having surface areas ranging from 0.6 to 10.0 m(2) g(-1). The chemical composition of the hydrothermal carbons was found to be constant and independent of reaction time. HTC kinetics of tannin were determined and shown to correspond to first-order reaction. Temperature-dependent measurements led to an activation energy of 91 kJ mol(-1) for hydrothermal conversion of tannin into carbonaceous microspheres separable by centrifugation. PMID:24246483

  2. What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation?

    MedlinePLUS

    ANSWERS by heart Treatments + Tests What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation? A cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) program takes place in a hospital or ... special help in making lifestyle changes. During your rehabilitation program you’ll… • Have a medical evaluation to ...

  3. Cardiac conduction system

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... cardiac muscle cells in the walls of the heart that send signals to the heart muscle causing it to contract. The main components ... the cardiac conduction system’s electrical activity in the heart.

  4. Levels of Tannins and Flavonoids in Medicinal Plants: Evaluating Bioprospecting Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, Clarissa Fernanda de Queiroz; Cabral, Daniela Lyra Vasconcelos; Peixoto Sobrinho, Tadeu José da Silva; de Amorim, Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti; de Melo, Joabe Gomes; Araújo, Thiago Antônio de Sousa; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2012-01-01

    There are several species of plants used by traditional communities in the Brazilian semiarid. An approach used in the search for natural substances that possess therapeutic value is ethnobotany or ethnopharmacology. Active substances that have phenolic groups in their structure have great pharmacological potential. To establish a quantitative relationship between the species popularly considered to be antimicrobial, antidiabetic, and antidiarrheal, the contents of tannins and flavonoids were determined. The plant selection was based on an ethnobotanical survey conducted in a community located in the municipality of Altinho, northeastern Brazil. For determination of tannin content was utilized the technique of radial diffusion, and for flavonoids, an assay based on the complexation of aluminum chloride. The group of plants with antimicrobial indications showed a higher content of tannins compared to the control groups. The results evidence suggests a possible relationship between these compounds and the observed activity. PMID:21969842

  5. Turbidimetric and photometric determination of total tannins in tea using a micro-flow-batch analyzer.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marcelo B; Andrade, Stéfani I E; Harding, David P; Pistonesi, Marcelo F; Band, Beatriz S F; Araújo, Mário C U

    2012-01-15

    Both turbidimetric and photometric determinations of total tannins in samples of green and black tea, using a micro-flow-batch analyzer (?FBA) were studied. The miniaturized system was formed using photocurable urethane-acrylate resin and ultraviolet lithography technique. The turbidimetric method was based on the precipitation reaction of Cu (II) with tannins in acetate medium at a pH of 4.5. The photometric method was based on the complexation reaction of tannins with ferrous tartrate. The turbidimetric ?FBA was able to test 200 samples per hour. The photometric ?FBA allowed 300 analyses per hour, generating 136?L of residue per analysis. The paired t test, at a 95% confidence level, showed no statistically significant differences between results obtained by both methods and the reference method. The urethane-acrylate ?FBA maintained satisfactory physical and chemical properties, and represents an improvement over conventional flow-batch analyzer. PMID:22265564

  6. Thermal properties of tannin extracted from Anacardium occidentale L. using TGA and FT-IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Vinod; Leo, Vincent Vineeth; Sabna Prabha, S; Prabhakumari, C; Potty, V P; Jisha, M S

    2016-01-01

    The chemical nature of the polyphenols of cashew kernel testa has been determined. Testa contains tannins, which present large molecular complexity and has an ancient use as tanning agents. The use of tannins extracted from cashew testa, considered in many places as a waste, grants an extra value to the cashew. In this work we have analysed through high performance liquid chromatography, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermo gravimetric analysis the average molecular weight, main functional groups and thermal properties of tannins extracted from Anacardium occidentale L. The results of these analyses are compared with the commercial grade tannic acid. The FT-IR spectra showed bands characteristic of C = C, C-C and OH bonds. This important bioactive compound present in the cashew nut kernel testa was suggested as an interesting economical source of antioxidants for use in the food and nutraceutical industry. PMID:26119693

  7. Effects of condensed tannins on hydrogen sulfide production and the sulfate-reducing bacterial population of swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Condensed tannins are natural plant compounds that have antibacterial properties and have been used in studies to reduce methane emissions and frothy bloat in cattle. The objective of this study was to test the effects of condensed tannins on swine manure to target bacterial groups responsible for ...

  8. Effects of plant tannin extracts supplementation on animal performance and gastrointestinal parasites infestation in steers grazing winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-six stocker cattle (286.1 ± 25.7 kg) were used to quantify the effect of commercial plant tannin extracts (control vs. mimosa and chestnut tannins) on animal performance, gastrointestinal parasites control, and plasma metabolite changes in heifers grazing winter wheat forage (Triticum aestivu...

  9. High-throughput micro-plate HCL-vanillin assay for screening tannin content in sorghum grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum contains tannin which is a phenolic compound that offers health promoting antioxidant capacity. The HCl-vanillin assay is a common and time consuming method for determining tannin content, but is not efficient for screening large sample sets as seen in association mapping panels or breeding ...

  10. Cardiac tamponade: atypical presentations after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Kirti, Ravi; Karadi, Rangaprasad

    2012-01-01

    We present two cases of cardiac tamponade presenting in the aftermath of cardiac surgery. We have briefly discussed the aetiology, presentation, diagnosis and management of the condition with emphasis on its atypical presentation in postoperative patients. A high index of suspicion and early access to echocardiography is necessary for prompt recognition and treatment of this life threatening emergency. PMID:22860267

  11. Direct Anthelmintic Effects of Condensed Tannins from Diverse Plant Sources against Ascaris suum

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew R.; Fryganas, Christos; Ramsay, Aina; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2014-01-01

    Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of ascariosis. PMID:24810761

  12. Two new pregnane glycoside diesters from Caralluma russeliana.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Mogib, Mamdouh; Raghib, Hanaa M

    2013-01-01

    Two new pregnane glycoside diesters, 1 and 2, in addition to two triterpenoids, 3 and 4, and two sterols, 5 and 6 were isolated and identified from Caralluma russeliana (family Asclepiadaceae). The new pregnane glycosides, 14?-benzoyloxy-15?-isovaleroyloxy-16?-hydroxypregn-20-on-3-O-[?-D-3-O-methyl-6-deoxyoleandrosopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-?-D-cymaropyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-?-D-cymaropyranoside] (1) and 14?-isovaleroyloxy-15?-benzoyloxy-16?-hydroxypregn-20-on-3-O-[?-D-3-O-methyl-6-deoxyoleandrosopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-?-D-cymaropyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-?-D-cymaropyranoside] (2), are different from those isolated previously from the same species in the sugar moiety, in being diester, in being 20-one and in being 5,6 saturated by hydrogen. The isolated compounds were identified on the basis of spectral data. PMID:23061816

  13. Cytotoxic triterpene glycosides from the roots of Sanguisorba officinalis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiang; Song, Yan; Li, Hui; Yang, Benshou; Mao, Xia; Zhao, Yongmao; Shi, Xiaodong

    2015-06-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the ethanol extract of the roots of Sanguisorba officinalis resulted in the isolation of three new triterpene glycosides, 3?-[(?-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-19?,23-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-[6-O-acetyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (1), 2?,3?,19?,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-[6-O-acetyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (2), and 3?-[(?-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-19?-hydroxyurs-12,20(30)-dien-28-oic acid 28-[6-O-acetyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (3). All the triterpene glycosides exhibited the significant cytotoxic potential with low IC50 values (IC50 < 5.0 ?M) against six tumor cell lines (MCF-7, HeLa, HepG2, SGC-7901, NCI-H460, and BGC-823). PMID:25193625

  14. New terpenoid glycosides obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis L. aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Adelakun, Tiwalade Adegoke; Qu, Lu; Li, Xiaoxia; Li, Jian; Han, Lifeng; Wang, Tao

    2014-12-01

    Five new terpenoid glycosides, named as officinoterpenosides A? (1), A? (2), B (3), C (4), and D (5), together with 11 known ones, (1S,4S,5S)-5-exo-hydrocamphor 5-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (6), isorosmanol (7), rosmanol (8), 7-methoxyrosmanol (9), epirosmanol (10), ursolic acid (11), micromeric acid (12), oleanolic acid (13), niga-ichigoside F? (14), glucosyl tormentate (15), and asteryunnanoside B (16), were obtained from the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, HRESI-TOF-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). Among the new ones, 1 and 2, 3 and 4 are diterpenoid and triterpenoid glycosides, respectively; and 5 is a normonoterpenoid. For the known ones, 6 was isolated from the Rosmarinus genus first, and 15, 16 were obtained from this species for the first time. PMID:25200369

  15. Phenylpropanoid glycosides from the leaves of Paulownia coreana.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Kyu; Si, Chuan-Ling; Bae, Young-Soo

    2008-02-15

    Study on the water soluble fraction from the leaves of Paulownia coreana led to the isolation of verbascoside (1), isoverbascoside (2), campneoside II (3), and a new phenylpropanoid glycoside, (R,S)-7-hydroxy-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethyl-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 --> 3)-beta-d-(6-O-caffeoyl)-glucopyranoside (4). The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. PMID:18266154

  16. Stability of aminooxy glycosides to glycosidase catalysed hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Amjid; Chibli, Hicham; Hamilton, Chris J

    2013-08-01

    The stability of the amino(methoxy) beta-glycosidic bond to glycosidase catalysed hydrolysis is reported. Beta-O-benzyl glucose and beta-O-benzyl galactose are substrates hydrolysed by beta-glucosidase and beta-galactosidase from almonds and Escherichia coli, respectively. However their beta-N-benzyl-(O-methoxy)-glucoside and beta-N-benzyl-(O-methoxy)-galactoside derivatives are competitive inhibitors. PMID:23764956

  17. Diterpenoid and phenolic glycosides from the roots of Rhododendron molle.

    PubMed

    Bao, Guan-Hu; Wang, Li-Quan; Cheng, Kin-Fai; Feng, Yong-Hong; Li, Xiao-Yu; Qin, Guo-Wei

    2003-05-01

    Two new grayanane diterpenoid glucosides, rhodomosides A (1), B (2) and two new phenolic glycosides 3, 4 together with a known glucosyringic acid (5) were isolated from the roots of Rhododendron molle G. Don (Ericaceae). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis. Compounds 3, 4 and 5 were found to inhibit the proliferation of murine B lymphocytes in vitro, while compound 3 also showed stimulatory activity on the proliferation of murine T lymphocytes in vitro. PMID:12802725

  18. Study on tannin–metal interaction in aqueous solution using spectrophotometric titration and micelle-mediated separation/atomic absorption spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tannins, including hydrolysable and condensed tannins, are important secondary metabolites of vascular plants and are a major plant-derived carbon source in the environment. Due to the many phenolic hydroxyl groups characteristic of tannins, these compounds have been long been thought to play signi...

  19. Minor diterpene glycosides from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Rodenburg, Douglas L; Alves, Kamilla; Fronczek, Frank R; McChesney, James D; Wu, Chongming; Nettles, Brian J; Venkataraman, Sylesh K; Jaksch, Frank

    2014-05-23

    Two new diterpene glycosides in addition to five known glycosides have been isolated from a commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. Compound 1 (rebaudioside KA) was shown to be 13-[(O-?-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid 2-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-?-d-glucopyranosyl ester and compound 2, 12-?-[(2-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-?-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid ?-d-glucopyranosyl ester. Five additional known compounds were identified, rebaudioside E, rebaudioside M, rebaudioside N, rebaudioside O, and stevioside, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis of stevioside afforded the known ent-kaurane aglycone 13-hydroxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (steviol) (3). The isolated metabolite 1 possesses the ent-kaurane aglycone steviol (3), while compound 2 represents the first example of the isomeric diterpene 12-?-hydroxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid existing as a glycoside in S. rebaudiana. The structures of the isolated metabolites 1 and 2 were determined based on comprehensive 1D- and 2D-NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) studies. A high-quality crystal of compound 3 has formed, which allowed the acquisition of X-ray diffraction data that confirmed its structure. The structural similarities between the new metabolites and the commercially available stevioside sweeteners suggest the newly isolated metabolites should be examined for their organoleptic properties. Accordingly rebaudiosides E, M, N, O, and KA have been isolated in greater than gram quantities. PMID:24758242

  20. Sweet Poisons: Honeys Contaminated with Glycosides of the Neurotoxin Tutin.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Lesley; Joyce, Nigel I; Sansom, Catherine E; Cooney, Janine M; Jensen, Dwayne J; Perry, Nigel B

    2015-06-26

    Poisonings due to consumption of honeys containing plant toxins have been reported widely. One cause is the neurotoxin tutin, an oxygenated sesquiterpene picrotoxane, traced back to honeybees (Apis mellifera) collecting honeydew produced by passionvine hoppers (Scolypopa australis) feeding on sap of the poisonous shrub tutu (Coriaria spp.). However, a pharmacokinetic study suggested that unidentified conjugates of tutin were also present in such honeys. We now report the discovery, using ion trap LC-MS, of two tutin glycosides and their purification and structure determination as 2-(?-d-glucopyranosyl)tutin (4) and 2-[6'-(?-d-glucopyranosyl)-?-d-glucopyranosyl]tutin (5). These compounds were used to develop a quantitative triple quadrupole LC-MS method for honey analysis, which showed the presence of tutin (3.6 ± 0.1 ?g/g honey), hyenanchin (19.3 ± 0.5), tutin glycoside (4) (4.9 ± 0.4), and tutin diglycoside (5) (4.9 ± 0.1) in one toxic honey. The ratios of 4 and 5 to tutin varied widely in other tutin-containing honeys. The glycosidation of tutin may represent detoxification by one or both of the insects involved in the food chain from plant to honey. PMID:25993882

  1. Glycosidically bound flavor compounds of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.).

    PubMed

    Mayorga, H; Knapp, H; Winterhalter, P; Duque, C

    2001-04-01

    The bound volatile fraction of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) fruit harvested in Colombia has been examined by HRGC and HRGC-MS after enzymatic hydrolysis using a nonselective pectinase (Rohapect D5L). Forty bound volatiles could be identified, with 21 of them being reported for the first time in cape gooseberry. After preparative isolation of the glycosidic precursors on XAD-2 resin, purification by multilayer coil countercurrent chromatography and HPLC of the peracetylated glycosides were carried out. Structure elucidation by NMR, ESI-MS/MS, and optical rotation enabled the identification of (1S,2S)-1-phenylpropane-1,2-diol 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and p-menth-4(8)-ene-1,2-diol 1-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2). Both glycosides have been identified for the first time in nature. They could be considered as immediate precursors of 1-phenylpropane-1,2-diol and p-menth-4(8)-ene-1,2-diol, typical volatiles found in the fruit of cape gooseberry. PMID:11308344

  2. Enzymatic Biosynthesis of Novel Resveratrol Glucoside and Glycoside Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Parajuli, Prakash; Shin, Ju Yong; Lee, Jisun; Lee, Seul; Hong, Young-Soo; Park, Yong Il; Kim, Joong Su

    2014-01-01

    A UDP glucosyltransferase from Bacillus licheniformis was overexpressed, purified, and incubated with nucleotide diphosphate (NDP) d- and l-sugars to produce glucose, galactose, 2-deoxyglucose, viosamine, rhamnose, and fucose sugar-conjugated resveratrol glycosides. Significantly higher (90%) bioconversion of resveratrol was achieved with ?-d-glucose as the sugar donor to produce four different glucosides of resveratrol: resveratrol 3-O-?-d-glucoside, resveratrol 4?-O-?-d-glucoside, resveratrol 3,5-O-?-d-diglucoside, and resveratrol 3,5,4?-O-?-d-triglucoside. The conversion rates and numbers of products formed were found to vary with the other NDP sugar donors. Resveratrol 3-O-?-d-2-deoxyglucoside and resveratrol 3,5-O-?-d-di-2-deoxyglucoside were found to be produced using TDP-2-deoxyglucose as a donor; however, the monoglycosides resveratrol 4?-O-?-d-galactoside, resveratrol 4?-O-?-d-viosaminoside, resveratrol 3-O-?-l-rhamnoside, and resveratrol 3-O-?-l-fucoside were produced from the respective sugar donors. Altogether, 10 diverse glycoside derivatives of the medically important resveratrol were generated, demonstrating the capacity of YjiC to produce structurally diverse resveratrol glycosides. PMID:25239890

  3. Tannins from Hamamelis virginiana Bark Extract: Characterization and Improvement of the Antiviral Efficacy against Influenza A Virus and Human Papillomavirus

    PubMed Central

    Theisen, Linda L.; Erdelmeier, Clemens A. J.; Spoden, Gilles A.; Boukhallouk, Fatima; Sausy, Aurélie; Florin, Luise; Muller, Claude P.

    2014-01-01

    Antiviral activity has been demonstrated for different tannin-rich plant extracts. Since tannins of different classes and molecular weights are often found together in plant extracts and may differ in their antiviral activity, we have compared the effect against influenza A virus (IAV) of Hamamelis virginiana L. bark extract, fractions enriched in tannins of different molecular weights and individual tannins of defined structures, including pseudotannins. We demonstrate antiviral activity of the bark extract against different IAV strains, including the recently emerged H7N9, and show for the first time that a tannin-rich extract inhibits human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 infection. As the best performing antiviral candidate, we identified a highly potent fraction against both IAV and HPV, enriched in high molecular weight condensed tannins by ultrafiltration, a simple, reproducible and easily upscalable method. This ultrafiltration concentrate and the bark extract inhibited early and, to a minor extent, later steps in the IAV life cycle and tannin-dependently inhibited HPV attachment. We observed interesting mechanistic differences between tannin structures: High molecular weight tannin containing extracts and tannic acid (1702 g/mol) inhibited both IAV receptor binding and neuraminidase activity. In contrast, low molecular weight compounds (<500 g/mol) such as gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate or hamamelitannin inhibited neuraminidase but not hemagglutination. Average molecular weight of the compounds seemed to positively correlate with receptor binding (but not neuraminidase) inhibition. In general, neuraminidase inhibition seemed to contribute little to the antiviral activity. Importantly, antiviral use of the ultrafiltration fraction enriched in high molecular weight condensed tannins and, to a lesser extent, the unfractionated bark extract was preferable over individual isolated compounds. These results are of interest for developing and improving plant-based antivirals. PMID:24498245

  4. Tannins from Hamamelis virginiana bark extract: characterization and improvement of the antiviral efficacy against influenza A virus and human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Theisen, Linda L; Erdelmeier, Clemens A J; Spoden, Gilles A; Boukhallouk, Fatima; Sausy, Aurélie; Florin, Luise; Muller, Claude P

    2014-01-01

    Antiviral activity has been demonstrated for different tannin-rich plant extracts. Since tannins of different classes and molecular weights are often found together in plant extracts and may differ in their antiviral activity, we have compared the effect against influenza A virus (IAV) of Hamamelis virginiana L. bark extract, fractions enriched in tannins of different molecular weights and individual tannins of defined structures, including pseudotannins. We demonstrate antiviral activity of the bark extract against different IAV strains, including the recently emerged H7N9, and show for the first time that a tannin-rich extract inhibits human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 infection. As the best performing antiviral candidate, we identified a highly potent fraction against both IAV and HPV, enriched in high molecular weight condensed tannins by ultrafiltration, a simple, reproducible and easily upscalable method. This ultrafiltration concentrate and the bark extract inhibited early and, to a minor extent, later steps in the IAV life cycle and tannin-dependently inhibited HPV attachment. We observed interesting mechanistic differences between tannin structures: High molecular weight tannin containing extracts and tannic acid (1702 g/mol) inhibited both IAV receptor binding and neuraminidase activity. In contrast, low molecular weight compounds (<500 g/mol) such as gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate or hamamelitannin inhibited neuraminidase but not hemagglutination. Average molecular weight of the compounds seemed to positively correlate with receptor binding (but not neuraminidase) inhibition. In general, neuraminidase inhibition seemed to contribute little to the antiviral activity. Importantly, antiviral use of the ultrafiltration fraction enriched in high molecular weight condensed tannins and, to a lesser extent, the unfractionated bark extract was preferable over individual isolated compounds. These results are of interest for developing and improving plant-based antivirals. PMID:24498245

  5. Annotation and comparative analysis of the glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium distachyon

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, Ludmila; Bragg, Jennifer; Wu, Jiajie; Yang, Xiaohan; Tuskan, Gerald A; Vogel, John

    2010-01-01

    Background Glycoside hydrolases cleave the bond between a carbohydrate and another carbohydrate, a protein, lipid or other moiety. Genes encoding glycoside hydrolases are found in a wide range of organisms, from archea to animals, and are relatively abundant in plant genomes. In plants, these enzymes are involved in diverse processes, including starch metabolism, defense, and cell-wall remodeling. Glycoside hydrolase genes have been previously cataloged for Oryza sativa (rice), the model dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and the fast-growing tree Populus trichocarpa (poplar). To improve our understanding of glycoside hydrolases in plants generally and in grasses specifically, we annotated the glycoside hydrolase genes in the grasses Brachypodium distachyon (an emerging monocotyledonous model) and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum). We then compared the glycoside hydrolases across species, both at the whole-genome level and at the level of individual glycoside hydrolase families. Results We identified 356 glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium and 404 in sorghum. The corresponding proteins fell into the same 34 families that are represented in rice, Arabidopsis, and poplar, helping to define a glycoside hydrolase family profile which may be common to flowering plants. Examination of individual glycoside hydrolase familes (GH5, GH13, GH18, GH19, GH28, and GH51) revealed both similarities and distinctions between monocots and dicots, as well as between species. Shared evolutionary histories appear to be modified by lineage-specific expansions or deletions. Within families, the Brachypodium and sorghum proteins generally cluster with those from other monocots. Conclusions This work provides the foundation for further comparative and functional analyses of plant glycoside hydrolases. Defining the Brachypodium glycoside hydrolases sets the stage for Brachypodium to be a monocot model for investigations of these enzymes and their diverse roles in planta. Insights gained from Brachypodium will inform translational research studies, with applications for the improvement of cereal crops and bioenergy grasses.

  6. Controlled Cardiac Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenglin; Liu, Ying; Wang, Ge

    2006-01-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) has been a hot topic for years because of the clinical importance of cardiac diseases and the rapid evolution of CT systems. In this paper, we propose a novel strategy for controlled cardiac CT that may effectively reduce image artifacts due to cardiac and respiratory motions. Our approach is radically different from existing ones and is based on controlling the X-ray source rotation velocity and powering status in reference to the cardiac motion. We theoretically show that by such a control-based intervention the data acquisition process can be optimized for cardiac CT in the cases of periodic and quasiperiodic cardiac motions. Specifically, we formulate the corresponding coordination/control schemes for either exact or approximate matches between the ideal and actual source positions, and report representative simulation results that support our analytic findings. PMID:23165017

  7. Cardiac gated ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, C.W. III; Hoffman, E.A.

    1995-12-31

    There are several theoretic advantages to synchronizing positive pressure breaths with the cardiac cycle, including the potential for improving distribution of pulmonary and myocardial blood flow and enhancing cardiac output. The authors evaluated the effects of synchronizing respiration to the cardiac cycle using a programmable ventilator and electron beam CT (EBCT) scanning. The hearts of anesthetized dogs were imaged during cardiac gated respiration with a 50 msec scan aperture. Multi slice, short axis, dynamic image data sets spanning the apex to base of the left ventricle were evaluated to determine the volume of the left ventricular chamber at end-diastole and end-systole during apnea, systolic and diastolic cardiac gating. The authors observed an increase in cardiac output of up to 30% with inspiration gated to the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle in a non-failing model of the heart.

  8. Cardiac gated ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, C. William, III; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1995-05-01

    There are several theoretic advantages to synchronizing positive pressure breaths with the cardiac cycle, including the potential for improving distribution of pulmonary and myocardial blood flow and enhancing cardiac output. We evaluated the effects of synchronizing respiration to the cardiac cycle using a programmable ventilator and electron beam CT (EBCT) scanning. The hearts of anesthetized dogs were imaged during cardiac gated respiration with a 50msec scan aperture. Multislice, short axis, dynamic image data sets spanning the apex to base of the left ventricle were evaluated to determine the volume of the left ventricular chamber at end-diastole and end-systole during apnea, systolic and diastolic cardiac gating. We observed an increase in cardiac output of up to 30% with inspiration gated to the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle in a nonfailing model of the heart.

  9. A comparison of flavonoid glycosides by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, Raymond E.; Lewars, Errol G.; Stadey, Christopher J.; Miao, Xiu-Sheng; Zhao, Xiaoming; Metcalfe, Chris D.

    2006-01-01

    A comparison is presented of product ion mass spectra of protonated and deprotonated molecules of kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, quercitin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercitrin), quercitin-3-O-galactoside (hyperoin), apigenin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, genistein-7-O-glucoside, naringenin-7-O-glucoside (prunin), luteolin-4'-O-glucoside, luteolin-6-C-glucoside (homoorientin, known also as isoorientin), apigenin-8-C-glucoside (vitexin), and luteolin-8-C-glucoside (orientin) together with the product ion mass spectrum of deprotonated kaempferol-7-O-glucoside. All isomeric ions were distinguishable on the basis of their product ion mass spectra. For protonated 3-O-, 7-O-, and 4'-O-glycosides at a collision energy of 46-47 eV, homolytic cleavage of the O-glycosidic bond yielded aglycon Y+ ions, whereas in deprotonated 3-O-, 7-O-, and 4'-O-glycosides, heterolytic and homolytic cleavage of the O-glycosidic bond yielded radical aglycon (Y-H)- and aglycon (Y-) ions. In each case, fragmentation of either the glycan or the aglycon or both was observed. For 6-C- and 8-C-glycosides at a collision energy of 46-47 eV, fragmentation was restricted almost exclusively to the glycan. For luteolin-6-C-glucoside, the integrity of the aglycon structure is preserved at the expense of the glycan for which some 30 fragmentations were observed. Breakdown curves were determined as a function of collision energy for protonated and deprotonated luteolin-6-C-glucoside. An attempt has been made to rationalize the product ion mass spectra derived from C-O- and C-C-luteolin glucosides in terms of computed structures that indicate significant intramolecular hydrogen bonding and rotation of the B-ring to form a coplanar luteolin structure. It is proposed that protonated and deprotonated luteolin-6-C-glucoside may afford examples of cooperative interactive bonding that plays a major role in directing fragmentation.

  10. Three new alkaloids and three new phenolic glycosides from Liparis odorata.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Piao; Liu, Hongdong; Xu, Xianghong; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Dongming; Lai, Xuewen; Zhu, Genghua; Xu, Peng; Li, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Three new alkaloids, liparis alkaloid A (1), B (2), C (3), and three new phenolic glycosides, liparis glycoside H (4), I (5), J (6), together with three known phenolic glycosides (7-9) were isolated from the whole plant of Liparis odorata. Their structures were characterized on the basis of extensive 1D-, 2D-NMR and HR-ESI-MS experiments. In addition, compounds 1-3 revealed hypolipidemic effects in the in vitro bioassays, and the ability to inhibit LPS-induced NO production of these isolated phenolic glycosides (4-9) was also evaluated. PMID:26481137

  11. Comparative antimicrobial activity of tannin extracts from perennial plants on mastitis pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three strains of pathogenic bacteria were treated with condensed tannins (CT) purified from eight different woody plant species to investigate their inhibition effect on the growth of these bacteria in vitro. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus were tested against low...

  12. Molecular diversity in phenolic and polyphenolic precursors of tannin-inspired nanocoatings

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Devin G.; Sileika, Tadas S.; Messersmith, Phillip B.

    2014-01-01

    The strong interfacial properties of selected plant polyphenols were recently exploited in forming functionally versatile nanocoatings via dip-coating. Here, we screened a library of ~20 natural and synthetic phenols and polyphenols, identifying eight catechol-, gallol- and resorcinol-rich precursors capable of forming coatings. Several newly identified compounds expand the molecular diversity of tannin-inspired coatings. PMID:24871486

  13. Condensed tannin in drinking water reduces greenhouse gas precursor urea in sheep and cattle urine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ingestion of small amounts of naturally-occurring condensed tannin (CT) by ruminants can provide several benefits including potential reduction of ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions over the long-term by reducing their urine urea excretion. However, providing grazing ruminants with sufficient amou...

  14. Bactericidal effect of hydrolysable and condensed tannin extracts on Campylobacter jejuni in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strategies are sought to reduce intestinal colonization of food-producing animals by Campylobacter jejuni, a leading bacterial cause of human foodborne illness worldwide. Presently, we tested the antimicrobial activity of hydrolysable-rich blackberry, cranberry, chestnut tannin extracts, and conden...

  15. Effect of high tannin grain sorghum on gastrointestinal parasite fecal egg counts in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of three experiments was to determine the influence of high condensed tannin (CT) grain sorghum on gastrointestinal parasite fecal egg counts (FEC) in goats. Sixteen naturally-infected Boer crossbred mixed sex goats were used at 124 plus minus 2.9 days of age in Experiment 1, 24 mixe...

  16. [HPLC-fingerprint-based quality evaluation on a Tibetan medicine Phyllanthus emblica and its tannin parts].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xue-Fei; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Xia, Qing; Zhao, Hai-Juan; Wu, Ling-Fang; Zhang, Lan-Zhen; Shi, Ren-Bing

    2014-04-01

    This study is to establish the fingerprint for Phyllanthus emblica and their tannin parts from different habitats by HPLC for its quality control. The determination was carried out on a Diamonsil C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) column, with methanol-0.2% glacial acetic acid as mobile phase with gradient elution at a flow rate of 1 mL x min(-1). The temperature was maintained at 30 degrees C and the detected wavelength is 260 nm, Thirteen chromatographic peaks were extracted as the common peaks of the fingerprint of P. emblica, and eleven as the common peaks of P. emblica tannin parts, and five peaks were identified by comparing with referent samples. The fingerprints of 8 samples were compared and classified by similarity evaluation, cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). The similarity degrees of eight P. emblica were between 0.763 and 0.993, while tannin parts were between 0.903 and 0.991. All the samples of P. emblica and their tannin parts were classified into 3 categories. The method was so highly reproducible, simple and reliable that it could provide basis for quality control and evaluation of P. emblica from different habitats. PMID:25011249

  17. Impact by condensed tannins with different mean degrees of polymerization on protein precipitation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Condensed tannins (CTs) isolated from white clover (Trifolium repens) flowers and big trefoil (Lotus pedunculatus) leaves were evaluated in precipitation studies with bovine serum albumin (BSA), lysozyme (LYS), and alfalfa leaf protein (ALF). The CTs were of similar compositions, but differed in the...

  18. Impacts of flavanoid monomers and simple hydrolyzable tannins on ammonia emissions from dairy manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inhibition of ammonia production in manure provides for a healthier environment for dairy farmers working in confined quarters. The resulting conservation of urea provides for an enhanced nitrogen concentration, and thus, fertilizing capacity, of the manure. The use of a mixture of tannins from queb...

  19. Dietary CP and Tannin Extracts Impact Ammonia Emissions From Manure Deposited On Dairy Barn Floors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of dietary CP and Quebracho-Chestnut tannin extracts on dairy cow performance and N partitioning are reported elsewhere at this meeting. Mixtures of feces/urine from these studies were applied to lab-scale ventilated chambers to measure ammonia-N emissions (ANE) from simulated concrete ba...

  20. Dietary crude protein and tannin impact dairy manure chemistry and ammonia emissions from soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excess crude protein (CP) in dairy cow diets is excreted mostly as urea nitrogen (N), which increases ammonia (NH3) emissions from dairy farms, and heightens human health and environmental concerns. Feeding less CP and more tannin to dairy cows may enhance feed N use and milk production, abate NH3 e...

  1. Occurrence of condensed tannins in wheat and feasibility for reducing pasture bloat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frothy bloat can be a serious problem with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) pastures, the primary source of cool-season forage in the southern Great Plains. Some forage contains tannins that reduce the incidence and severity of bloat and promote better use of forage protein. The objective of our ...

  2. Removal of lead from aqueous solutions by condensed tannin gel adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xin-Min; Zhao, Xuan; Miyazaki, Akane; Nakano, Yoshio

    2003-01-01

    Lead has caused serious environmental pollution due to its toxicity, accumulation in food chains and persistence in nature. In this paper, lead removal from aqueous solutions was investigated using condensed tannin gel adsorbent synthesized from a natural tannin compound. It is found that the adsorption is strongly affected by pH values of aqueous solutions. Within pH range of 3.5-6, when initial lead concentration is 100 mg/L, removal efficiency is more than 90%. Adsorption equilibrium is reached within 150 minutes. The adsorption isotherm fits well with the Langmuir equation, by which the saturated adsorption uptake of 190 mg Pri2+ /g dry tannin gel adsorbent is obtained. By means of thermodynanamics analysis, it is revealed that the process is exothermic and the adsorption heat is up to 38.4 kJ/mol. With respect to high efficiency, moderate pH requirement and minimized second pollution, the tannin gel adsorbent exhibits a promising potential in the removal of lead from wastewater. PMID:12602612

  3. Plant-Based Tannins as Antioxidants in Pre-Cooked Ground Beef Patties 

    E-print Network

    Cruzen, Shannon Michelle

    2011-10-21

    2010 Major Subject: Animal Science iii ABSTRACT Plant-Based Tannins as Antioxidants in Pre-Cooked Ground Beef Patties. (August 2010) Shannon Michelle Cruzen, B.S., Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Rhonda K. Miller... .......................................................................................... 98 APPENDIX A ....................................................................................................... 106 APPENDIX B ........................................................................................................ 120...

  4. Cardiac Coordination and Mechanics 1 CARDIAC ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY*

    E-print Network

    Prestwich, Ken

    of the sympathetic nervous system. We will also see how to found cardiac output using A. The purpose of the heart's electrical system is to initiate muscle cells and does not come from the nervous system. Likewise, we can

  5. Stimulating endogenous cardiac repair

    PubMed Central

    Finan, Amanda; Richard, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    The healthy adult heart has a low turnover of cardiac myocytes. The renewal capacity, however, is augmented after cardiac injury. Participants in cardiac regeneration include cardiac myocytes themselves, cardiac progenitor cells, and peripheral stem cells, particularly from the bone marrow compartment. Cardiac progenitor cells and bone marrow stem cells are augmented after cardiac injury, migrate to the myocardium, and support regeneration. Depletion studies of these populations have demonstrated their necessary role in cardiac repair. However, the potential of these cells to completely regenerate the heart is limited. Efforts are now being focused on ways to augment these natural pathways to improve cardiac healing, primarily after ischemic injury but in other cardiac pathologies as well. Cell and gene therapy or pharmacological interventions are proposed mechanisms. Cell therapy has demonstrated modest results and has passed into clinical trials. However, the beneficial effects of cell therapy have primarily been their ability to produce paracrine effects on the cardiac tissue and recruit endogenous stem cell populations as opposed to direct cardiac regeneration. Gene therapy efforts have focused on prolonging or reactivating natural signaling pathways. Positive results have been demonstrated to activate the endogenous stem cell populations and are currently being tested in clinical trials. A potential new avenue may be to refine pharmacological treatments that are currently in place in the clinic. Evidence is mounting that drugs such as statins or beta blockers may alter endogenous stem cell activity. Understanding the effects of these drugs on stem cell repair while keeping in mind their primary function may strike a balance in myocardial healing. To maximize endogenous cardiac regeneration, a combination of these approaches could ameliorate the overall repair process to incorporate the participation of multiple cellular players. PMID:26484341

  6. Ozonation of synthetic versus natural textile tannins: recalcitrance and toxicity towards Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Germirli Babuna, F; Yilmaz, Z; Okay, O S; Arslan Alaton, I; Iskender, G

    2007-01-01

    A sound in-plant pollution control strategy can only be defined by paying due attention to bio-recalcitrance and toxicity. In this context the levels of toxicity and inert COD introduced to textile dyebath discharges by two alternative auxiliary chemicals, namely natural tannin (NT) and synthetic tannin (ST), were investigated. The effect of 40 minutes ozonation at 1,000 mg h(-1) at pH 3.5 on the segregated effluent streams containing the above-mentioned tannin formulations was evaluated in terms of changes in toxicity and recalcitrance. The effect of ozonation on the COD distribution of raw and ozonated NT and ST samples according to their molecular weight cut-offs was also assessed. Both untreated tannin formulations exerted high acute toxicity towards marine microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Moderate decrease in the toxicity levels of both tannins was observed upon ozonation. The raw NT formulation with a COD content more than twice that of its alternative raw ST had an initially inert soluble COD content of only 25 mg/L, while the initially inert COD was 135 mg/L for ST. As the initially inert soluble COD content of NT was considerably lower, this textile auxiliary did not need chemical pretreatment to improve its biodegradability. On the other hand, the initially inert soluble COD content of ST was reduced by 70% by ozone pretreatment. In terms of residual COD contents achievable after passing through a biological treatment system, raw NT and pretreated ST formulations yielded 100 and 95 mg/L COD, respectively. The highest proportion of COD (46% for NT and 88% for ST) was found in the <1 kDa range. The same fraction increased to 93% for NT after ozonation, while for ST no significant change was observed in the COD distribution of the molecular weight cut-offs after ozonation. PMID:17564369

  7. The gastroprotective effects of Eugenia dysenterica (Myrtaceae) leaf extract: the possible role of condensed tannins.

    PubMed

    Prado, Ligia Carolina da Silva; Silva, Denise Brentan; de Oliveira-Silva, Grasielle Lopes; Hiraki, Karen Renata Nakamura; Canabrava, Hudson Armando Nunes; Bispo-da-Silva, Luiz Borges

    2014-01-01

    We applied a taxonomic approach to select the Eugenia dysenterica (Myrtaceae) leaf extract, known in Brazil as "cagaita," and evaluated its gastroprotective effect. The ability of the extract or carbenoxolone to protect the gastric mucosa from ethanol/HCl-induced lesions was evaluated in mice. The contributions of nitric oxide (NO), endogenous sulfhydryl (SH) groups and alterations in HCl production to the extract's gastroprotective effect were investigated. We also determined the antioxidant activity of the extract and the possible contribution of tannins to the cytoprotective effect. The extract and carbenoxolone protected the gastric mucosa from ethanol/HCl-induced ulcers, and the former also decreased HCl production. The blockage of SH groups but not the inhibition of NO synthesis abolished the gastroprotective action of the extract. Tannins are present in the extract, which was analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI); the tannins identified by fragmentation pattern (MS/MS) were condensed type-B, coupled up to eleven flavan-3-ol units and were predominantly procyanidin and prodelphinidin units. Partial removal of tannins from the extract abolished the cytoprotective actions of the extract. The extract exhibits free-radical-scavenging activity in vitro, and the extract/FeCl3 sequence stained gastric surface epithelial cells dark-gray. Therefore, E. dysenterica leaf extract has gastroprotective effects that appear to be linked to the inhibition of HCl production, the antioxidant activity and the endogenous SH-containing compounds. These pleiotropic actions appear to be dependent on the condensed tannins contained in the extract, which bind to mucins in the gastric mucosa forming a protective coating against damaging agents. Our study highlights the biopharmaceutical potential of E. dysenterica. PMID:24789995

  8. The effects of high-tannin leaf litter from transgenic poplars on microbial communities in microcosm soils

    PubMed Central

    Winder, Richard S.; Lamarche, Josyanne; Constabel, C. Peter; Hamelin, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of leaf litter from genetically modified hybrid poplar accumulating high levels of condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins) were examined in soil microcosms consisting of moss growing on sieved soil. Moss preferentially proliferated in microcosms with lower tannin content; DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) detected increased fungal diversity in microcosms with low-tannin litter. The proportion of cloned rDNA sequences from Actinobacteria decreased with litter addition while Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and ?-Proteobacteria significantly increased. ?-Proteobacteria were proportionally more numerous at high-tannin levels. Tannins had no significant impact on overall diversity of bacterial communities analyzed with various estimators. There was an increased proportion of N-fixing bacteria corresponding to the addition of litter with low-tannin levels. The addition of litter increased the proportion of Ascomycota/Basidiomycota. Dothideomycetes, Pucciniomycetes, and Tremellomycetes also increased and Agaricomycetes decreased. Agaricomycetes and Sordariomycetes were significantly more abundant in controls, whereas Pucciniomycetes increased in soil with litter from transformed trees (P = 0.051). Richness estimators and diversity indices revealed no significant difference in the composition of fungal communities; PCoA (principal coordinate analyses) partitioned the fungal communities into three groups: (i) those with higher amounts of added tannin from both transformed and untransformed treatments, (ii) those corresponding to soils without litter, and (iii) those corresponding to microcosms with litter added from trees transformed only with a ?-glucuronidase control vector. While the litter from transformed poplars had significant effects on soil microbe communities, the observed impacts reflected known impacts on soil processes associated with tannins, and were similar to changes that would be expected from natural variation in tannin levels. PMID:24133486

  9. Bacterial and Protozoal Communities and Fatty Acid Profile in the Rumen of Sheep Fed a Diet Containing Added Tannins ?

    PubMed Central

    Vasta, Valentina; Yáñez-Ruiz, David R.; Mele, Marcello; Serra, Andrea; Luciano, Giuseppe; Lanza, Massimiliano; Biondi, Luisa; Priolo, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of tannins on ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) due to shifts in the ruminal microbial environment in sheep. Thirteen lambs (45 days of age) were assigned to two dietary treatments: seven lambs were fed a barley-based concentrate (control group) while the other six lambs received the same concentrate with supplemental quebracho tannins (9.57% of dry matter). At 122 days of age, the lambs were slaughtered, and the ruminal contents were subjected to fatty acid analysis and sampled to quantify populations of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, which converts C18:2 c9-c12 (linoleic acid [LA]) to C18:2 c9-t11 (rumenic acid [RA]) and then RA to C18:1 t11 (vaccenic acid [VA]); we also sampled for Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus, which converts VA to C18:0 (stearic acid [SA]). Tannins increased (P < 0.005) VA in the rumen compared to the tannin-free diet. The concentration of SA was not affected by tannins. The SA/VA ratio was lower (P < 0.005) for the tannin-fed lambs than for the controls, suggesting that the last step of the BH process was inhibited by tannins. The B. proteoclasticus population was lower (?30.6%; P < 0.1), and B. fibrisolvens and protozoan populations were higher (+107% and +56.1%, respectively; P < 0.05) in the rumen of lambs fed the tannin-supplemented diet than in controls. These results suggest that quebracho tannins altered BH by changing ruminal microbial populations. PMID:20173064

  10. Cardiac innervation and sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Keiichi; Kanazawa, Hideaki; Aizawa, Yoshiyasu; Ardell, Jeffrey L; Shivkumar, Kalyanam

    2015-06-01

    Afferent and efferent cardiac neurotransmission via the cardiac nerves intricately modulates nearly all physiological functions of the heart (chronotropy, dromotropy, lusitropy, and inotropy). Afferent information from the heart is transmitted to higher levels of the nervous system for processing (intrinsic cardiac nervous system, extracardiac-intrathoracic ganglia, spinal cord, brain stem, and higher centers), which ultimately results in efferent cardiomotor neural impulses (via the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves). This system forms interacting feedback loops that provide physiological stability for maintaining normal rhythm and life-sustaining circulation. This system also ensures that there is fine-tuned regulation of sympathetic-parasympathetic balance in the heart under normal and stressed states in the short (beat to beat), intermediate (minutes to hours), and long term (days to years). This important neurovisceral/autonomic nervous system also plays a major role in the pathophysiology and progression of heart disease, including heart failure and arrhythmias leading to sudden cardiac death. Transdifferentiation of neurons in heart failure, functional denervation, cardiac and extracardiac neural remodeling has also been identified and characterized during the progression of disease. Recent advances in understanding the cellular and molecular processes governing innervation and the functional control of the myocardium in health and disease provide a rational mechanistic basis for the development of neuraxial therapies for preventing sudden cardiac death and other arrhythmias. Advances in cellular, molecular, and bioengineering realms have underscored the emergence of this area as an important avenue of scientific inquiry and therapeutic intervention. PMID:26044253

  11. Active site and laminarin binding in glycoside hydrolase family 55.

    PubMed

    Bianchetti, Christopher M; Takasuka, Taichi E; Deutsch, Sam; Udell, Hannah S; Yik, Eric J; Bergeman, Lai F; Fox, Brian G

    2015-05-01

    The Carbohydrate Active Enzyme (CAZy) database indicates that glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) contains both endo- and exo-?-1,3-glucanases. The founding structure in the GH55 is PcLam55A from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Ishida, T., Fushinobu, S., Kawai, R., Kitaoka, M., Igarashi, K., and Samejima, M. (2009) Crystal structure of glycoside hydrolase family 55 ?-1,3-glucanase from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 10100-10109). Here, we present high resolution crystal structures of bacterial SacteLam55A from the highly cellulolytic Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E with bound substrates and product. These structures, along with mutagenesis and kinetic studies, implicate Glu-502 as the catalytic acid (as proposed earlier for Glu-663 in PcLam55A) and a proton relay network of four residues in activating water as the nucleophile. Further, a set of conserved aromatic residues that define the active site apparently enforce an exo-glucanase reactivity as demonstrated by exhaustive hydrolysis reactions with purified laminarioligosaccharides. Two additional aromatic residues that line the substrate-binding channel show substrate-dependent conformational flexibility that may promote processive reactivity of the bound oligosaccharide in the bacterial enzymes. Gene synthesis carried out on ?30% of the GH55 family gave 34 active enzymes (19% functional coverage of the nonredundant members of GH55). These active enzymes reacted with only laminarin from a panel of 10 different soluble and insoluble polysaccharides and displayed a broad range of specific activities and optima for pH and temperature. Application of this experimental method provides a new, systematic way to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic space for functional properties. PMID:25752603

  12. Cardiac developmental toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Mahler, Gretchen J.; Butcher, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital heart disease is a highly prevalent problem with mostly unknown origins. Many cases of CHD likely involve an environmental exposure coupled with genetic susceptibility, but practical and ethical considerations make nongenetic causes of CHD difficult to assess in humans. The development of the heart is highly conserved across all vertebrate species, making animal models an excellent option for screening potential cardiac teratogens. This review will discuss exposures known to cause cardiac defects, stages of heart development that are most sensitive to teratogen exposure, benefits and limitations of animal models of cardiac development, and future considerations for cardiac developmental toxicity research. PMID:22271678

  13. Adsorption of Glycosidic Surfactants at the Mercury Electrode

    PubMed

    Mousty; Maurice; Mousset; Schollhorn; Lefeuvre; Plusquellec

    1996-12-25

    The adsorption of glycosidic surfactants from aqueous electrolyte solutions on a mercury electrode was studied by means of differential capacitive measurements (tensammetric method). The adsorption behavior of the mono- and disaccharidic surfactants studied is discussed in relation to their micellar properties, in particular their respective critical micellar concentration (CMC). With monosaccharidic surfactants, a broad and bell-shaped peak is observed on the tensammetric curves and it suggests the formation of a monolayer called hemimicelle at the mercury electrode. For disaccharidic compounds, the split capacity peak observed at concentrations above the CMC suggests the formation of a multilayer of micelles throughout the electrical double layer. PMID:8978573

  14. A new cembrane glycoside in Asterothamnus centrali-asiaticus from Gobi Desert.

    PubMed

    Todorova, Milka; Trendafilova, Antoaneta; Javsmaa, Namshir; Altantsetseg, Shatarin; Shatar, Sanduin

    2013-09-01

    A new cembrane glycoside, nephthenol 15-O-?-d-quinovoside, was isolated from the aerial parts of Asterothamnus centrali-asiaticus. Its structure was elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis, as well as by mass spectrometry. This is the first report of the occurrence of a cembrane glycoside in vascular plants. PMID:23944908

  15. Three new iridoid glycosides from the fruit of gardenia jasminoides var. radicans.

    PubMed

    Qin, Fang-Min; Meng, Ling-Jie; Zou, Hui-Liang; Zhou, Guang-Xiong

    2013-01-01

    Three new iridoid glycosides, 6?-O-trans-feruloylgenipin gentiobioside (1), 2'-O-trans-p-coumaroylgardoside (2), 2'-O-trans-feruloylgardoside (3), were isolated from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides var. radicans MAKINO (Rubiaceae). The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of MS, NMR spectra analysis, glycoside hydrolysis, and sugar derivatization coupled with HPLC analysis. PMID:24088698

  16. Environment and Genotype Affect Sweetpotato Storage Root Periderm Resin Glycoside Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resin glycosides are complex compounds composed primarily of fatty acids and sugars that contribute to allelopathic potential and pest resistance in sweetpotato. Total periderm resin glycoside (PRG) contents of 10 sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) clones grown in three different field trials was det...

  17. Stimulation of steviol glycoside accumulation in Stevia rebaudiana by red LED light.

    PubMed

    Ceunen, Stijn; Werbrouck, Stefaan; Geuns, Jan M C

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether steviol glycoside accumulation is under phytochrome control. The results indicate that Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plants grown under short-day conditions showed precocious flowering and stagnation of steviol glycoside accumulation. Long night interruption by red LED light stimulated and sustained the vegetative growth as well as the accumulation of steviol glycosides in the leaves. After 7 weeks of treatment, steviol glycoside content was about two-fold higher in LED-treated plants than in the short-day control group. The effects of red LED light were measured both in a greenhouse and in a phytotron, irrespective of cultivar-specific differences. Therefore, it can be concluded that a mid-night interruption by red LED light during short photoperiods provides an easy and inexpensive method to increase vegetative leaf biomass production with an increased steviol glycoside yield. PMID:22341569

  18. Angling for Uniqueness in Enzymatic Preparation of Glycosides

    PubMed Central

    Trincone, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In the early days of biocatalysis, limitations of an enzyme modeled the enzymatic applications; nowadays the enzyme can be engineered to be suitable for the process requirements. This is a general bird’s-eye view and as such cannot be specific for articulated situations found in different classes of enzymes or for selected enzymatic processes. As far as the enzymatic preparation of glycosides is concerned, recent scientific literature is awash with examples of uniqueness related to the features of the biocatalyst (yield, substrate specificity, regioselectivity, and resistance to a particular reaction condition). The invention of glycosynthases is just one of the aspects that has thrust forward the research in this field. Protein engineering, metagenomics and reaction engineering have led to the discovery of an expanding number of novel enzymes and to the setting up of new bio-based processes for the preparation of glycosides. In this review, new examples from the last decade are compiled with attention both to cases in which naturally present, as well as genetically inserted, characteristics of the catalysts make them attractive for biocatalysis. PMID:24970171

  19. Oleanane-type glycosides from Tremastelma palaestinum (L.) Janchen.

    PubMed

    ?enel, Gökhan; Gülcemal, Derya; Masullo, Milena; Piacente, Sonia; Karay?ld?r?m, Tamer

    2014-03-01

    Three new oleanane-type glycosides, 1-3, were isolated from the whole plant of Tremastelma palaestinum (L.) Janchen, along with eight known triterpene glycosides. The structures of the new compounds were established as 3-O-[?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?3)-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?3)-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?3)-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-l-arabinopyranosyl]hederagenin (1), 3-O-[?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?3)-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?3)-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?3)-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-l-arabinopyranosyl]hederagenin 28-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-d-glucopyranosyl ester (2), and 3-O-[?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?3)-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?3)-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-l-arabinopyranosyl]oleanolic acid 28-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-d-glucopyranosyl ester (3) by using 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques and mass spectrometry. This is the first report on the phytochemical investigation of a species belonging to Tremastelma genus. PMID:24634070

  20. Synthesis of Indoxyl-glycosides for Detection of Glycosidase Activities.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Stephan; Thiem, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Indoxyl glycosides proved to be valuable and versatile tools for monitoring glycosidase activities. Indoxyls are released by enzymatic hydrolysis and are rapidly oxidized, for example by atmospheric oxygen, to indigo type dyes. This reaction enables fast and easy screening in vivo without isolation or purification of enzymes, as well as rapid tests on agar plates or in solution (e.g., blue-white screening, micro-wells) and is used in biochemistry, histochemistry, bacteriology and molecular biology. Unfortunately the synthesis of such substrates proved to be difficult, due to various side reactions and the low reactivity of the indoxyl hydroxyl function. Especially for glucose type structures low yields were observed. Our novel approach employs indoxylic acid ester as key intermediates. Indoxylic acid esters with varied substitution patterns were prepared on scalable pathways. Phase transfer glycosylations with those acceptors and peracetylated glycosyl halides can be performed under common conditions in high yields. Ester cleavage and subsequent mild silver mediated glycosylation yields the peracetylated indoxyl glycosides in high yields. Finally deprotection is performed according to Zemplén. PMID:26068577

  1. Allosteric indicator displacement enzyme assay for a cyanogenic glycoside.

    PubMed

    Jose, D Amilan; Elstner, Martin; Schiller, Alexander

    2013-10-18

    Indicator displacement assays (IDAs) represent an elegant approach in supramolecular analytical chemistry. Herein, we report a chemical biosensor for the selective detection of the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin in aqueous solution. The hybrid sensor consists of the enzyme ?-glucosidase and a boronic acid appended viologen together with a fluorescent reporter dye. ?-Glucosidase degrades the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin into hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde. Only the released cyanide binds at the allosteric site of the receptor (boronic acid) thereby inducing changes in the affinity of a formerly bound fluorescent indicator dye at the other side of the receptor. Thus, the sensing probe performs as allosteric indicator displacement assay (AIDA) for cyanide in water. Interference studies with inorganic anions and glucose revealed that cyanide is solely responsible for the change in the fluorescent signal. DFT calculations on a model compound revealed a 1:1 binding ratio of the boronic acid and cyanide ion. The fluorescent enzyme assay for ?-glucosidase uses amygdalin as natural substrate and allows measuring Michaelis-Menten kinetics in microtiter plates. The allosteric indicator displacement assay (AIDA) probe can also be used to detect cyanide traces in commercial amygdalin samples. PMID:24123550

  2. [Cardiac involvement in polymyositis].

    PubMed

    Romdhane, M B; Mahdhaoui, A; Khelifa, M B; Lagren, A; Hajri, S E; Bouraoui, H; Trimeche, B; Ghannouchi, N; Jeridi, G; Bahri, F

    2012-08-01

    Cardiovascular involvement in polymyositis constitutes a major cause of death. However, the cardiac location is rarely symptomatic and does not usually represent the principle clinical feature at the time of the initial presentation. We present here an unusual case of polymyositis with severe and polymorph cardiac disturbances that predominant the muscular signs. PMID:20709312

  3. Functional cardiac tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Liau, Brian; Zhang, Donghui; Bursac, Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Heart attack remains the leading cause of death in both men and women worldwide. Stem cell-based therapies, including the use of engineered cardiac tissues, have the potential to treat the massive cell loss and pathological remodeling resulting from heart attack. Specifically, embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells are a promising source for generation of therapeutically relevant numbers of functional cardiomyocytes and engineering of cardiac tissues in vitro. This review will describe methodologies for successful differentiation of pluripotent stem cells towards the cardiovascular cell lineages as they pertain to the field of cardiac tissue engineering. The emphasis will be placed on comparing the functional maturation in engineered cardiac tissues and developing heart and on methods to quantify cardiac electrical and mechanical function at different spatial scales. PMID:22397609

  4. Studies on Emblica officinalis derived tannins for their immunostimulatory and protective activities against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kaleem, Qari Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Zafar, Muddassar; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir; Anwar, Muhammad Irfan

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis. PMID:24578631

  5. Studies on Emblica officinalis Derived Tannins for Their Immunostimulatory and Protective Activities against Coccidiosis in Industrial Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kaleem, Qari Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Zafar, Muddassar; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis. PMID:24578631

  6. Effect of yeast strain and some nutritional factors on tannin composition and potential astringency of model wines.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Alessandra; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Aponte, Maria; Moio, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Nine Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures, isolated from different sources, were tested for their ability to reduce tannins reactive towards salivary proteins, and potentially responsible for wine astringency. Strains were preliminary genetically characterized and evaluated for physiological features of technological interest. Laboratory-scale fermentations were performed in three synthetic media: CT) containing enological grape tannin; CTP) CT supplemented with organic nitrogen sources; CTPV) CTP supplemented with vitamins. Adsorption of total tannins, tannins reactive towards salivary proteins, yellow pigments, phenolics having antioxidant activity, and total phenols, characterizing the enological tannin, was determined by spectrophotometric methods after fermentation. The presence of vitamins and peptones in musts greatly influenced the adsorption of tannins reactive towards salivary proteins (4.24 g/L gallic acid equivalent), thus promoting the reduction of the potential astringency of model wines. With reference to the different phenolic classes, yeast strains showed different adsorption abilities. From a technological point of view, the yeast choice proved to be crucial in determining changes in gustative and mouthfeel profile of red wines and may assist winemakers to modulate colour and astringency of wine. PMID:26678140

  7. Evaluation of the content variation of anthraquinone glycosides in rhubarb by UPLC-PDA

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rhubarb is an important Chinese medicinal herb with a long history of over 2000 years and has been commonly used as a laxative. It is the radix and rhizome of Rheum officinale Baill., R. palmatum L. and R. tanguticum Maxim, all of which are mainly distributed in a broad region in the Tibetan plateau. Anthraquinone glycosides are a series of major active ingredients found in all three species. They are key intermediates in the anthraquinone secondary metabolism and the sennnoside biosynthesis. The variation of the anthraquinone glycoside content in rhubarb in response to specific factors remains an attractive topic. Results A simple and sensitive Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with Photo-Diode Array (UPLC-PDA) detector was developed for the simultaneous determination of six anthraquinone glycosides in rhubarb, i.e., aloeemodin-8-O-glucoside, rhein-8-O-glucoside, chrysophanol-1-O-glucoside, emodin-1-O-glucoside, chrysophanol-8-O-glucoside, emodin-8-O-glucoside. Twenty-seven batches from three species were submitted to the multi-component analysis. The results showed that the anthraquinone glycoside content varied significantly even within the same species. The results showed that the anthraquinone glycoside content varied significantly within the same species but not between different species. The PCA and content analysis results confirmed that the plant species has no obvious effect on the content variation. Neither was any significant correlation observed between the anthraquinone glycoside content and the geographic distribution of the rhubarb. Through correlational analysis, altitude was found to be the main factor that affects the anthraquinone glycoside content in rhubarb. Rhubarb grown at higher altitude has higher anthraquinone glycoside content. Conclusions This work provides a rapid, sensitive and accurate UPLC-PDA method for the simultaneous determination of six anthraquinone glycosides in rhubarb. The anthraquinone glycoside content varied significantly within the same species. The relationship of the anthraquinone glycoside content with plant species, geographic distribution and altitude were studied using correlational analysis, principal component analysis and spatial autocorrelation analysis through SPSS and ArcGIS. Plant species and geographic distribution were found not to affect the content of the six anthraquinone glycosides in rhubarb. The variations in the anthraquinone glycoside content were primarily due to the different altitude where the plant was grown. PMID:24160332

  8. Hormetic versus toxic effects of vegetable tannin in a multitest study.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, E; Gallo, M; Iaccarino, M; Meriç, S; Oral, R; Russo, T; Sorrentino, T; Tünay, O; Vuttariello, E; Warnau, M; Pagano, G

    2004-04-01

    Tannin from mimosa trees (Acacia sp.) utilized in traditional leather tanning was tested for toxicity in sea urchin (Sphaerechinus granularis and Paracentrotus lividus) embryos and sperm, marine, and freshwater algae (Selenastrum capricornutum and Dunaliella tertiolecta), and Daphnia magna. Based on a two-step tanning procedure used in traditional tanneries, two mimosa tannin preparations, i.e., fresh tannin (FT) and used tannin (UT), were tested as suspensions. The early results in S. granularis embryos showed that UT exerted lower acute toxicity than FT, namely, 1 vs 100 mg/L, to obtain 100% mortality, respectively. Subsequent bioassays were conducted on fresh tannin water extracts (TWE) corresponding to nominal tannin concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 30 mg/L. Developmental toxicity, up to embryonic mortality was exerted by TWE at levels > 1 mg/L, S. granularis being more sensitive than P. lividus embryos/larvae. At the concentration of 0.1 mg/L, the frequencies of larval malformations were significantly lower than in controls. This positive stimulatory effect (currently termed as hormesis) was observed in extended numbers of culture replicates (up to 14) and was significant in the embryo cultures characterized by a relatively poor control quality (with < 70% viable larvae in controls), whereas this effect was not observed in good-quality cultures (with > or = 70% viable larvae in controls). Cytogenetic analysis of S. granularis embryos reared in FT or UT suspensions (1 mg/L to 1 g/L) showed mitotoxic effects (decrease in active mitoses per embryo) in FT-exposed, but not in UT-exposed embryos. Mitotic aberrations were significantly increased by 10 mg/L UT. Sperm fertilization success in both sea urchin species showed an increasing fertilization rate (FR) up to 0.3 mg/L TWE and a dose-related decrease in FR up to 30 mg/L. Again, the offspring of P. lividus sperm exposed to TWE (0.1 and 0.3 mg/L) showed a decrease in larval malformations compared to controls, whereas a dose-related increase in developmental defects was observed in the offspring of P. lividus sperm exposed to higher TWE levels (1 to 30 mg/L). Algal cell growth bioassays in two species (S. capricornutum and D. tertiolecta) also showed a maximum growth at TWE levels ranging from 0.3 to 3 mg/L and a subsequent decline up to 30 mg/L TWE. D. magna bioassays resulted in daphnid immobilization by TWE concentrations ranging from 100 to 300 mg/L. The results demonstrate that tannins utilized in traditional leather tanning industry may raise concern of environmental damage at relatively high concentrations, whereas low-level tannins may result in hormetic effects. The present study also points to the need for bioassay design that should rely on adequate criteria in control quality, allowing to detect both inhibitory and hormetic effects. PMID:15195805

  9. The complexity of condensed tannin binding to bovine serum albumin--An isothermal titration calorimetry study.

    PubMed

    Kilmister, Rachel L; Faulkner, Peta; Downey, Mark O; Darby, Samuel J; Falconer, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry was applied to study the binding of purified proanthocyanidin oligomers to bovine serum albumin (BSA). The molecular weight of the proanthocyanidin oligomer had a major impact on its binding to BSA. The calculated change in enthalpy (?H) and association constant (Ka) became greater as the oligomer size increased then plateaued at the heptameric oligomer. These results support a model for precipitation of proteins by proanthocyanidin where increased oligomer size enhanced the opportunity for cross linkages between proteins ultimately forming sediment-able complexes. The authors suggest tannin binding to proteins is opportunistic and involves multiple sites, each with a different Ka and ?H of binding. The ?H of binding comprises both an endothermic hydrophobic interaction and exothermic hydrogen bond component. This suggests the calculated entropy value (?S) for tannin-protein interactions is subject to a systematic error and should be interpreted with caution. PMID:26212957

  10. Tannins from Hamamelis virginiana: identification of proanthocyanidins and hamamelitannin quantification in leaf, bark, and stem extracts.

    PubMed

    Vennat, B; Pourrat, H; Pouget, M P; Gross, D; Pourrat, A

    1988-10-01

    The tannins in leaf, bark, and stem extracts of HAMAMELIS VIRGINIANA were analyzed. Four proanthocyanidins were isolated by HPLC. One was a procyanidin polymer containing only one type of flavanol unit; the other three were polymers of procyanidin and prodelphinidin containing two types of flavanol units. A method of assay of hamamelitannin showed the bark extract to be 31 times richer in hamamelitannin than the leaf extract and 87 times richer than the stem extract. PMID:17265314

  11. Tannins of tamarind seed husk: preparation, structural characterization, and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Sinchaiyakit, Puksiri; Ezure, Yohji; Sriprang, Sarin; Pongbangpho, Supakorn; Povichit, Nasapon; Suttajit, Maitree

    2011-06-01

    The high content (about 39%) of polymeric tannins in tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed husk (TSH) was demonstrated, and an extract (crude TSE) with a high content (about 94%) of polymeric tannins was prepared from TSH with a one pot extraction using ethanol/water (3:2, v/v). The crude TSE was further purified with Sephadex LH20 to give one fraction (metTSE) eluted with methanol/water (3:2, v/v) and another (acTSE) eluted with acetone/water (3:2, v/v). The tannins of acTSE were established as polymeric proanthocyanidins (PA) by 13C NMR spectroscopy; this was further confirmed by IR and UV spectroscopy, n-BuOH/HCl and vanillin assays, and from HPLC pattern. The ratio of procyanidins to prodelphinidins was 2:3, and the average degree of polymerization of acTSE was 7. Galloylated flavan-3-ols were not detected in acTSE. The main ingredients of metTSE were confirmed to be polymeric PA by 13C NMR spectroscopy. The antioxidant activities using DPPH and ABTS assays were investigated. The IC50 values of acTSE were 4.2 +/- 0.2 (DPPH assay) and 6.2 +/- 0.3 microg/mL (ABTS assay). PMID:21815420

  12. Hydrolyzable tannins of tamaricaceous plants. IV: Micropropagation and ellagitannin production in shoot cultures of Tamarix tetrandra.

    PubMed

    Orabi, Mohamed A A; Taniguchi, Shoko; Terabayashi, Susumu; Hatano, Tsutomu

    2011-11-01

    Shoot cultures of Tamarix tetrandra on Linsmaier-Skoog (LS) agar medium with 30 g l(-1) sucrose, 2.13 mg l(-1) indoleacetic acid and 2.25 mg l(-1) benzyl adenine produced ellagitannins found in intact plants of the Tamaricaceae. This was demonstrated by the isolation of 14 monomeric-tetrameric ellagitannins from the aq. Me2CO extract of the cultured tissues. This is the first report on the production of ellagitannin tetramers by plant tissue culture. The effects of light and certain medium constituents on tissue growth and ellagitannin production were examined. The contents of representative tannins of different types [i.e., tellimagrandin II (monomer), hirtellin A (linear GOG-type dimer), hirtellin B (hellinoyl-type dimer), hirtellin C (macrocyclic-type dimer), and hirtellin T1 (linear GOG-type trimer)] in the resultant tissues in response to these factors were estimated by HPLC, and the optimal condition for production of these tannins were established. Shoots cultured on LS hormone-free medium promoted root development, and regenerated plants could adapt to ordinary soil and climate. Acclimatized and intact T. tetrandra plants that were collected in November and May, respectively, demonstrated seasonal differences in individual ellagitannin contents. HPLC comparison of individual ellagitannin contents in different plant materials (i.e., leaves, stems, and roots) of intact T. tetrandra plants is also reported. The results are discussed with respect to cellular deposition and biosynthetic relationship of tannins. PMID:21831401

  13. Agrobacterium Mediated Transient Gene Silencing (AMTS) in Stevia rebaudiana: Insights into Steviol Glycoside Biosynthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guleria, Praveen; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background Steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway has emerged as bifurcation from ent-kaurenoic acid, substrate of methyl erythritol phosphate pathway that also leads to gibberellin biosynthesis. However, the genetic regulation of steviol glycoside biosynthesis has not been studied. So, in present study RNA interference (RNAi) based Agrobacterium mediated transient gene silencing (AMTS) approach was followed. SrKA13H and three SrUGTs (SrUGT85C2, SrUGT74G1 and SrUGT76G1) genes encoding ent-kaurenoic acid-13 hydroxylase and three UDP glycosyltransferases of steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway were silenced in Stevia rebaudiana to understand its molecular mechanism and association with gibberellins. Methodology/Principal Findings RNAi mediated AMTS of SrKA13H and three SrUGTs has significantly reduced the expression of targeted endogenous genes as well as total steviol glycoside accumulation. While gibberellins (GA3) content was significantly enhanced on AMTS of SrUGT85C2 and SrKA13H. Silencing of SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 was found to block the metabolite flux of steviol glycoside pathway and shifted it towards GA3 biosynthesis. Further, molecular docking of three SrUGT proteins has documented highest affinity of SrUGT76G1 for the substrates of alternate pathways synthesizing steviol glycosides. This could be a plausible reason for maximum reduction in steviol glycoside content on silencing of SrUGT76G1 than other genes. Conclusions SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 were identified as regulatory genes influencing carbon flux between steviol glycoside and gibberellin biosynthesis. This study has also documented the existence of alternate steviol glycoside biosynthesis route. PMID:24023961

  14. A genomics investigation of partitioning into and among flavonoid-derived condensed tannins for carbon sequestration in Populus

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, Scott, A; Tsai, Chung-jui; Lindroth, Richard, L

    2013-03-24

    The project set out to use comparative (genotype and treatment) and transgenic approaches to investigate the determinants of condensed tannin (CT) accrual and chemical variability in Populus. CT type and amount are thought to effect the decomposition of plant detritus in the soil, and thereby the sequestering of carbon in the soil. The stated objectives were: 1. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling (microarrays) to analyze structural gene, transcription factor and metabolite control of CT partitioning; 2. Transcriptomic (microarray) and chemical analysis of ontogenetic effects on CT and PG partitioning; and 3. Transgenic manipulation of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes to modify the control of CT composition. Objective 1: A number of approaches for perturbing CT content and chemistry were tested in Objective 1, and those included nitrogen deficit, leaf wounding, drought, and salicylic acid spraying. Drought had little effect on CTs in the genotypes we used. Plants exhibited unpredictability in their response to salicylic acid spraying, leading us to abandon its use. Reduced plant nitrogen status and leaf wounding caused reproducible and magnitudinally striking increases in leaf CT content. Microarray submissions to NCBI from those experiments are the following: GSE ID 14515: Comparative transcriptomics analysis of Populus leaves under nitrogen limitation: clone 1979. Public on Jan 04, 2010; Contributor(s) Harding SA, Tsai C GSE ID 14893: Comparative transcriptomics analysis of Populus leaves under nitrogen limitation: clone 3200. Public on Feb 19, 2009; Contributor(s) Harding SA, Tsai C GSE ID 16783 Wound-induced gene expression changes in Populus: 1 week; clone RM5. Status Public on Dec 01, 2009; Contributor(s) Harding SA, Tsai C GSE ID 16785 Wound-induced gene expression changes in Populus: 90 hours; clone RM5 Status Public on Dec 01, 2009; Contributor(s) Harding SA, Tsai C Although CT amount changed in response to treatments, CT composition was essentially conserved. Overall phenylpropanoid composition exhibited changes due to large effects on phenolic glycosides containing a salicin moiety. There were no effects on lignin content. Efforts to publish this work continue, and depend on additional data which we are still collecting. This ongoing work is expected to strengthen our most provocative metabolic profiling data which suggests as yet unreported links controlling the balance between the two major leaf phenylpropanoid sinks, the CTs and the salicin-PGs. Objective 2: Ontogenic effects on leaf CT accrual and phenylpropanoid complexity (Objective 2) have been reported in the past and we contributed two manuscripts on how phenylpropanoid sinks in roots and stems could have an increasing effect on leaf CT as plants grow larger and plant proportions of stem, root and leaf change. Tsai C.-J., El Kayal W., Harding S.A. (2006) Populus, the new model system for investigating phenylpropanoid complexity. International Journal of Applied Science and Engineering 4: 221-233. We presented evidence that flavonoid precursors of CT rapidly decline in roots under conditions that favor CT accrual in leaves. Harding SA, Jarvie MM, Lindroth RL, Tsai C-J (2009) A comparative analysis of phenylpropanoid metabolism, N utilization and carbon partitioning in fast- and slow-growing Populus hybrid clones. Journal of Experimental Botany. 60:3443-3452. We presented evidence that nitrogen delivery to leaves as a fraction of nitrogen taken up by the roots is lower in high leaf CT genotypes. We presented a hypothesis from our data that N was sequestered in proportion to lignin content in stem tissues. Low leaf N content and high leaf CT in genotypes with high stem lignin was posited to be a systemic outcome of N demand in lignifiying stem tissues. Thereby, stem lignin and leaf CT accrual might be systemically linked, placing control of leaf phenylpropanoids under systemic rather than solely organ specific determinants. Analyses of total structural and non-structural carbohydrates contributed to the model presented. Harding SA, Xue L, Du L, Nyamd

  15. Cardiac Arrest Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Guyette, Francis X; Reynolds, Joshua C; Frisch, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Cardiac arrest is a dynamic disease that tests the multitasking and leadership abilities of emergency physicians. Providers must simultaneously manage the logistics of resuscitation while searching for the cause of cardiac arrest. The astute clinician will also realize that he or she is orchestrating only one portion of a larger series of events, each of which directly affects patient outcomes. Resuscitation science is rapidly evolving, and emergency providers must be familiar with the latest evidence and controversies surrounding resuscitative techniques. This article reviews evidence, discusses controversies, and offers strategies to provide quality cardiac arrest resuscitation. PMID:26226873

  16. Characterization of high-tannin fractions from humus by carbon-13 cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Klaus; Preston, Caroline M

    2002-01-01

    Condensed tannins can be found in various parts of many plants. Unlike lignin there has been little study of their fate as they enter the soil organic matter pool and their influence on nutrient cycling, especially through their protein-binding properties. We extracted and characterized tannin-rich fractions from humus collected in 1998 from a black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton et al.] forest in Canada where a previous study (1995) showed high levels (3.8% by weight) of condensed tannins. A reference tannin purified from black spruce needles was characterized by solution 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as a pure procyanidin with mainly cis stereochemistry and an average chain length of four to five units. The colorimetric proanthocyanidin (PA) assay, standardized against the black spruce tannin, showed that both extracted humus fractions had higher tannin contents than the original humus (2.84% and 11.17% vs. 0.08%), and accounted for 32% of humus tannin content. Consistent with the results from the chemical assay, the aqueous fraction showed higher tannin signals in the 13C cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR spectrum than the emulsified one. As both tannin-rich humus fractions were depleted in N and high in structures derived from lignin and cutin, they did not have properties consistent with recaldtrant tannin-protein complexes proposed as a mechanism for N sequestration in humus. Further studies are needed to establish if tannin-protein structures in humus can be detected or isolated, or if tannins contribute to forest management problems observed in these ecosystems by binding to and slowing down the activity of soil enzymes. PMID:11931430

  17. The Evaluation of High Tannin Cotton Lines and Their Use in Breeding for Resistance to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum, Pythium aphanidermatum and Rhizoctonia solani 

    E-print Network

    Kennett, Raymond

    2012-02-14

    to R. solani and while they were able to identify significant differences, no cultivar had a final survival rate of over 57%. 1.3 Tannin Tannins are astringent, bitter-tasting plant polyphenols that bind and precipitate proteins. The term tannin... originated from the leather industry and was used to describe substances that were capable of turning animal hide into leather; however, the term is applied widely to any large polyphenolic compound containing sufficient hydroxyls and other suitable groups...

  18. Steroidal glycosides from the underground parts of Yucca glauca and their cytotoxic activities.

    PubMed

    Yokosuka, Akihito; Suzuki, Tomoka; Tatsuno, Satoru; Mimaki, Yoshihiro

    2014-05-01

    Six steroidal glycosides and 14 known compounds were isolated from the underground parts of Yucca glauca (Agavaceae). Their structures were determined from extensive spectroscopic analysis, including analysis of two-dimensional NMR data, and from chemical transformations. The compounds were also evaluated for cytotoxic activities against HL-60 human leukemia cells and A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Four spirostanol glycosides and three furostanol glycosides exhibited cytotoxic activities against both HL-60 and A549 cells. Two of the compounds induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells. PMID:24612536

  19. Iridoid and phenylpropanoid glycosides from Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. and their ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Hua, Jing; Qi, Jin; Yu, Bo-Yang

    2014-03-01

    A new phenylpropanoid glycoside, designated Scrophuside (1) and two new iridoid glycosides, respectively named Ningposide I (2) and Ningposide II (3), along with twelve known (4-15) iridoid and phenylpropanoid glycosides were obtained from the roots of Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. by various chromatographic techniques and their structures were established through chemical methods and spectroscopic analyses. Most of the obtained compounds have been screened for ?-Glucosidase inhibitory activity, in which compounds 4, 5, 7, 11, 12, 13, and 14 show significant activity. PMID:24321577

  20. Three pairs of diastereoisomeric flavanone glycosides from Viscum articulatum.

    PubMed

    Li, Haizhen; Hou, Zhun; Li, Chao; Zhang, Yao; Shen, Tao; Hu, Qingwen; Ren, Dongmei

    2015-04-01

    Phytochemical examination of the leaves and stems of Viscum articulatum resulted in the isolation of three pairs of new flavanone glycosides, 2R/2S-viscarticulide A-C (1a/1b-3a/3b), together with eight known compounds (7-14). Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic data analyses. The diastereoisomers were separated by HPLC on a chiral phase and the absolute configuration at C-2 was determined by circular dichroism (CD) spectra. The protective effects of compounds 1-3 against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity with EA.hy926 cells were tested. The results showed that compounds 1-3 improved the survival of EA.hy926 cells after H2O2 exposure at the tested concentrations. PMID:25771122

  1. A new cyclolignan glycoside from the tubers of Pinellia ternata.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying-Ying; Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Wu, Jie; Zhou, Le; Li, Dan-Qi; Liu, Qing-Bo; Li, Ling-Zhi; Yan, Xin-Jia; Song, Shao-Jiang

    2015-11-01

    A new 2,7'-type cyclolignan glycoside, cyclolignanyingoside A (1), together with six known compounds (2-7) were isolated from the tubers of Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Breit. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectral analysis, including 1D, 2D NMR analyses, HR-ESI-MS, and CD spectrometry. The cytotoxic, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibiting activities of all the isolates were determined. However, all the isolates exhibited no activity on the selected cell lines (Hep-3B, Bcap-37, and MCF-7). In addition, compounds 1-3 and 7 exhibited strong 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) free radical scavenging activity, and compounds 2 and 4 showed a moderate mushroom tyrsinase inhibitory activity. PMID:25989151

  2. A new antibacterial benzophenone glycoside from Psidium guajava (Linn.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Ukwueze, Stanley E; Osadebe, Patience O; Okoye, Festus B C

    2015-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of methanol extract from the leaves of Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) yielded a new benzophenone glycoside, Guajaphenone A (2) together with two known compounds, Garcimangosone D (1) and Guaijaverin (3). Their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data including 1D and 2D NMR and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The isolated compounds were screened against standard strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using broth dilution assay method, and the MIC values determined and compared with reference antibiotic ceftriaxone. They were found to have significant antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with all of them showing better activities against S. aureus, but displaying weaker activities, in comparison to ceftriaxone. However, despite reduced effect of these compounds against the organisms, this work opens the perspective to use these molecules as 'leads' for the design of novel and selective drug candidates for some tropical infectious diseases. PMID:25631395

  3. Additional minor diterpene glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Indra; Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Two additional novel minor diterpene glycosides were isolated from the commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. The structures of the new compounds were identified as 13-{?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 3)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-oxy} ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid {?-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 3)]-O-?-D-glucupyranosyl-ester} (1), and 13-{?-D-6-deoxy-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 3)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-oxy} ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid {?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 3)-?-D-gluco-pyranosyl-ester} (2), on the basis of extensive 1D (1H- and 13C-) 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC and HMBC) and MS spectroscopic data as well as chemical studies. PMID:24184820

  4. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steryl glycosides for their analysis in foods.

    PubMed

    Münger, Linda H; Nyström, Laura

    2014-11-15

    Steryl glycosides (SG) contribute significantly to the total intake of phytosterols. The standard analytical procedure involving acid hydrolysis fails to reflect the correct sterol profile of SG due to isomerization of some of the labile sterols. Therefore, various glycosylases were evaluated for their ability to hydrolyse SG under milder conditions. Using a pure SG mixture in aqueous solution, the highest glycolytic activity, as demonstrated by the decrease in SG and increase in free sterols was achieved using inulinase preparations (decrease of >95%). High glycolytic activity was also demonstrated using hemicellulase (63%). The applicability of enzymatic hydrolysis using inulinase preparations was further verified on SG extracted from foods. For example in potato peel ?(5)-avenasteryl glucoside, a labile SG, was well preserved and contributed 26.9% of the total SG. Therefore, enzymatic hydrolysis is suitable for replacing acid hydrolysis of SG in food lipid extracts to accurately determine the sterol profile of SG. PMID:24912717

  5. Uncommon Glycosidases for the Enzymatic Preparation of Glycosides

    PubMed Central

    Trincone, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Most of the reports in literature dedicated to the use of glycosyl hydrolases for the preparation of glycosides are about gluco- (?- and ?-form) and galacto-sidase (?-form), reflecting the high-availability of both anomers of glucosides and of ?-galactosides and their wide-ranging applications. Hence, the idea of this review was to analyze the literature focusing on hardly-mentioned natural and engineered glycosyl hydrolases. Their performances in the synthetic mode and natural hydrolytic potential are examined. Both the choice of articles and their discussion are from a biomolecular and a biotechnological perspective of the biocatalytic process, shedding light on new applicative ideas and on the assortment of biomolecular diversity. The hope is to elicit new interest for the development of biocatalysis and to gather attention of biocatalyst practitioners for glycosynthesis. PMID:26404386

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Proteolytic Ruminal Bacteria from Sheep and Goats Fed the Tannin-Containing Shrub Legume Calliandra calothyrsus

    PubMed Central

    McSweeney, Christopher S.; Palmer, Brian; Bunch, Rowan; Krause, Denis O.

    1999-01-01

    Tannins in forages complex with protein and reduce the availability of nitrogen to ruminants. Ruminal bacteria that ferment protein or peptides in the presence of tannins may benefit digestion of these diets. Bacteria from the rumina of sheep and goats fed Calliandra calothyrsus (3.6% N and 6% condensed tannin) were isolated on proteinaceous agar medium overlaid with either condensed (calliandra tannin) or hydrolyzable (tannic acid) tannin. Fifteen genotypes were identified, based on 16S ribosomal DNA-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and all were proteolytic and fermented peptides to ammonia. Ten of the isolates grew to high optical density (OD) on carbohydrates (glucose, cellobiose, xylose, xylan, starch, and maltose), while the other isolates did not utilize or had low growth on these substrates. In pure culture, representative isolates were unable to ferment protein that was present in calliandra or had been complexed with tannin. One isolate, Lp1284, had high protease activity (80 U), a high specific growth rate (0.28), and a high rate of ammonia production (734 nmol/min/ml/OD unit) on Casamino Acids and Trypticase Peptone. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA sequence showed that Lp1284 was related (97.6%) to Clostridium botulinum NCTC 7273. Purified plant protein and casein also supported growth of Lp1284 and were fermented to ammonia. This is the first report of a proteolytic, ammonia-hyperproducing bacterium from the rumen. In conclusion, a diverse group of proteolytic and peptidolytic bacteria were present in the rumen, but the isolates could not digest protein that was complexed with condensed tannin. PMID:10388706

  7. Sudden Cardiac Arrest

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cardiac Arrest ( SCA ) occurs when the heart stops beating, abruptly and without warning. If this happens, blood ... when SCA occurs. During SCA , the heart stops beating and no blood is pumped to the rest ...

  8. Cardiac ablation procedures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for performing cardiac ablation: Radiofrequency ablation uses heat energy to eliminate the problem area. Cryoablation uses very ... is used to send electrical (or sometimes cold) energy to the problem area. This creates a small ...

  9. Cardiac Risk Assessment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... helpful? Formal name: Cardiac Risk Assessment Related tests: Lipid Profile , VLDL Cholesterol , hs-CRP , Lp(a) Overview | ... on Coronary artery disease: Tests and diagnosis .) The lipid profile is the most important blood test for ...

  10. Missed cardiac tamponade

    PubMed Central

    Thomson-Moore, Alexandra Louise

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac tamponade can have an insidious onset, becoming life threatening when an adequate cardiac output can no longer be maintained. This case provides an example of a presentation where all the classic signs were present but unfortunately they were missed, in this way providing good revision of what these signs are. It gives some anaesthetic and procedure based perspectives for this rare presentation. It is noteworthy for the speed at which symptoms and signs resolved after the tamponade was relieved. PMID:22679253

  11. Cardiac Applications of Optogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosi, Christina M.; Klimas, Aleksandra; Yu, Jinzhu; Entcheva, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    In complex multicellular systems, such as the brain or the heart, the ability to selectively perturb and observe the response of individual components at the cellular level and with millisecond resolution in time, is essential for mechanistic understanding of function. Optogenetics uses genetic encoding of light sensitivity (by the expression of microbial opsins) to provide such capabilities for manipulation, recording, and control by light with cell specificity and high spatiotemporal resolution. As an optical approach, it is inherently scalable for remote and parallel interrogation of biological function at the tissue level; with implantable miniaturized devices, the technique is uniquely suitable for in vivo tracking of function, as illustrated by numerous applications in the brain. Its expansion into the cardiac area has been slow. Here, using examples from published research and original data, we focus on optogenetics applications to cardiac electrophysiology, specifically dealing with the ability to manipulate membrane voltage by light with implications for cardiac pacing, cardioversion, cell communication, and arrhythmia research, in general. We discuss gene and cell delivery methods of inscribing light sensitivity in cardiac tissue, functionality of the light-sensitive ion channels within different types of cardiac cells, utility in probing electrical coupling between different cell types, approaches and design solutions to all-optical electrophysiology by the combination of optogenetic sensors and actuators, and specific challenges in moving towards in vivo cardiac optogenetics. PMID:25035999

  12. Cardiac applications of optogenetics.

    PubMed

    Ambrosi, Christina M; Klimas, Aleksandra; Yu, Jinzhu; Entcheva, Emilia

    2014-08-01

    In complex multicellular systems, such as the brain or the heart, the ability to selectively perturb and observe the response of individual components at the cellular level and with millisecond resolution in time, is essential for mechanistic understanding of function. Optogenetics uses genetic encoding of light sensitivity (by the expression of microbial opsins) to provide such capabilities for manipulation, recording, and control by light with cell specificity and high spatiotemporal resolution. As an optical approach, it is inherently scalable for remote and parallel interrogation of biological function at the tissue level; with implantable miniaturized devices, the technique is uniquely suitable for in vivo tracking of function, as illustrated by numerous applications in the brain. Its expansion into the cardiac area has been slow. Here, using examples from published research and original data, we focus on optogenetics applications to cardiac electrophysiology, specifically dealing with the ability to manipulate membrane voltage by light with implications for cardiac pacing, cardioversion, cell communication, and arrhythmia research, in general. We discuss gene and cell delivery methods of inscribing light sensitivity in cardiac tissue, functionality of the light-sensitive ion channels within different types of cardiac cells, utility in probing electrical coupling between different cell types, approaches and design solutions to all-optical electrophysiology by the combination of optogenetic sensors and actuators, and specific challenges in moving towards in vivo cardiac optogenetics. PMID:25035999

  13. High-throughput cloning, expression and purification of glycoside hydrolases using Ligation-Independent Cloning (LIC).

    PubMed

    Camilo, Cesar M; Polikarpov, Igor

    2014-07-01

    Recent advances in DNA sequencing techniques have led to an explosion in the amount of available genome sequencing data and this provided an inexhaustible source of uncharacterized glycoside hydrolases (GH) to be studied both structurally and enzymatically. Ligation-Independent Cloning (LIC), an interesting alternative to traditional, restriction enzyme-based cloning, and commercial recombinatorial cloning, was adopted and optimized successfully for a high throughput cloning, expression and purification pipeline. Using this platform, 130 genes encoding mainly uncharacterized glycoside hydrolases from 13 different organisms were cloned and submitted to a semi-automated protein expression and solubility screening in Escherichia coli, resulting in 73 soluble targets. The high throughput approach proved to be a powerful tool for production of recombinant glycoside hydrolases for further structural and biochemical characterization and confirmed that thioredoxin fusion tag (TRX) is a better choice to increase solubility of recombinant glycoside hydrolases expressed in E. coli, when compared to His-tag alone. PMID:24680731

  14. Enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of heptyl-?-glycosides: effect of water coalescence at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Carmina; Bustos-Jaimes, Ismael; Bárzana, Eduardo

    2013-09-01

    Alkyl glycosides can be synthesized by glycosidases in organic media with limited amounts of water. These systems, however, limit the solubility of the sugar substrates and decrease reaction yields. Herein we report the enzymatic synthesis of heptyl-?-glycosides in heptanol catalyzed by a hyperthermophilic ?-glycosidase at 90°C. Our results indicate that dispersion of water in heptanol changes with time producing coalescence of water at the bottom of the reactor, playing a key role in the reaction yield. Water-soluble substrate, enzyme and products are concentrated in the aqueous phase, according to their partition coefficients, promoting side reactions that inactivate the enzyme. Reaction yield of heptyl-?-glycosides was 35% relative to lactose, at 7% water. The increase in the water phase to 12% diminished the enzyme inactivation and increased the heptyl-?-glycosides yield to 52%. Surface-active compounds, SDS and octyl glucoside, increased water dispersion but were unable to prevent coalescence. PMID:23863873

  15. Solubility Enhancement of Steviol Glycosides and Characterization of Their Inclusion Complexes with Gamma-Cyclodextrin

    PubMed Central

    Upreti, Mani; Strassburger, Ken; Chen, You L.; Wu, Shaoxiong; Prakash, Indra

    2011-01-01

    Steviol glycosidesrebaudioside (reb) A, C and D have low aqueous solubilities. To improve their aqueous solubilities, inclusion complex of steviol glycosides, reb A, C and D and gamma cyclodextrin were prepared by freeze drying method and further characterized by means of differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The effect of gamma cyclodextrin on chemical shifts of the steviol glycosides was also studied in proton NMR experiments as well as in solid state 13C CP/MAS NMR experiments. These results indicated that the steviol glycosides were clearly in inclusion complex formation with the gamma cyclodextrin which also results in solubility enhancement of these steviol glycosides. Phase solubility studies showed that amounts of soluble reb A, C and D increased with increasing amounts of gamma cyclodextrin indicating formation of 1:1 stoichiometric and higher order inclusion complexes. PMID:22174615

  16. Resin glycosides from the yellow-skinned variety of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas).

    PubMed

    Rosas-Ramírez, Daniel; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio

    2013-10-01

    Native to tropical America, Ipomoea batatas has been cultivated for over 5000 years in Mexico. The yellow-skinned tuber crop variety, with an orange flesh, has a higher nutritional value than potato. Raw sweet potato can cause a purge due to its resin glycoside content. Purification of the chloroform-soluble resin glycosides from the roots of this variety was accomplished by preparative-scale HPLC, which allowed for the collection of six oligosaccharides, batatin VII (1) and batatinosides VII-IX (2-4), all of novel structure, together with the known resin glycosides pescaprein I and batatinoside IV. High-field NMR spectroscopy and FAB mass spectrometry were used to characterize each structure, identifying operculinic acid A for compounds 2 and 4, and simonic acid B for 3, as their pentasaccharide glycosidic cores. Batatin VII (1) represents a dimer of the know batatinoside IV, consisting of two units of simonic acid B. PMID:24053411

  17. Cyclic Steroid Glycosides from the Starfish Echinaster luzonicus: Structures and Immunomodulatory Activities.

    PubMed

    Kicha, Alla A; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I; Malyarenko, Timofey V; Ivanchina, Natalia V; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Menchinskaya, Ekaterina S; Yurchenko, Ekaterina A; Pislyagin, Evgeny A; Aminin, Dmitry L; Huong, Trinh T T; Long, Pham Quoc; Stonik, Valentin A

    2015-06-26

    Five new steroid glycosides, luzonicosides B-E (2-5), belonging to a rare structure group of marine glycosides, containing carbohydrate moieties incorporated into a macrocycle, and a related open carbohydrate chain steroid glycoside, luzonicoside F (6), were isolated from the starfish Echinaster luzonicus along with the previously known cyclic steroid glycoside luzonicoside A (1). The structures of compounds 2-6 were established by extensive NMR and ESIMS techniques as well as chemical transformations. Luzonicoside A (1) at concentrations of 0.01-0.1 ?M was shown to be potent in lysosomal activity stimulation, intracellular ROS level elevation, and NO synthesis up-regulation in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. Luzonicoside D (4) was less active in these biotests. PMID:26068600

  18. Characterization and Modeling of the Collision Induced Dissociation Patterns of Deprotonated Glycosphingolipids: Cleavage of the Glycosidic Bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rožman, Marko

    2015-08-01

    Glycosphingolipid fragmentation behavior was investigated by combining results from analysis of a series of negative ion tandem mass spectra and molecular modeling. Fragmentation patterns extracted from 75 tandem mass spectra of mainly acidic glycosphingolipid species (gangliosides) suggest prominent cleavage of the glycosidic bonds with retention of the glycosidic oxygen atom by the species formed from the reducing end (B and Y ion formation). Dominant product ions arise from dissociation of sialic acids glycosidic bonds whereas product ions resulting from cleavage of other glycosidic bonds are less abundant. Potential energy surfaces and unimolecular reaction rates of several low-energy fragmentation pathways leading to cleavage of glycosidic bonds were estimated in order to explain observed dissociation patterns. Glycosidic bond cleavage in both neutral (unsubstituted glycosyl group) and acidic glycosphingolipids was the outcome of the charge-directed intramolecular nucleophilic substitution (SN2) mechanism. According to the suggested mechanism, the nucleophile in a form of carboxylate or oxyanion attacks the carbon at position one of the sugar ring, simultaneously breaking the glycosidic bond and yielding an epoxide. For gangliosides, unimolecular reaction rates suggest that dominant product ions related to the cleavage of sialic acid glycosidic bonds are formed via direct dissociation channels. On the other hand, low abundant product ions related to the dissociation of other glycosidic bonds are more likely to be the result of sequential dissociation. Although results from this study mainly contribute to the understanding of glycosphingolipid fragmentation chemistry, some mechanistic findings regarding cleavage of the glycosidic bond may be applicable to other glycoconjugates.

  19. Aggregation of the salivary proline-rich protein IB5 in the presence of the tannin EgCG.

    PubMed

    Canon, Francis; Paté, Franck; Cheynier, Véronique; Sarni-Manchado, Pascale; Giuliani, Alexandre; Pérez, Javier; Durand, Dominique; Li, Joaquim; Cabane, Bernard

    2013-02-12

    In the mouth, proline-rich proteins (PRP), which are major components of stimulated saliva, interact with tannins contained in food. We report in vitro interactions of the tannin epigallocatechin gallate (EgCG), with a basic salivary PRP, IB5, studied through electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). In dilute protein (IB5) solutions of low ionic strength (1 mM), the proteins repel each other, and the tannins bind to nonaggregated proteins. ESI-MS experiments determine the populations of nonaggregated proteins that have bound various numbers of tannin molecules. These populations match approximately the Poisson distribution for binding to n = 8 sites on the protein. MS/MS experiments confirm that complexes containing n = 1 to 8 EgCG molecules are dissociated with the same energy. Assuming that the 8 sites are equivalent, we calculate a binding isotherm, with a binding free energy ?? = 7.26RT(a) (K(d) = 706 ?M). In protein solutions that are more concentrated (0.21 mM) and at higher ionic strength (50 mM, pH 5.5), the tannins can bridge the proteins together. DLS experiments measure the number of proteins per aggregate. This number rises rapidly when the EgCG concentration exceeds a threshold (0.2 mM EgCG for 0.21 mM of IB5). SAXS experiments indicate that the aggregates have a core-corona structure. The core contains proteins that have bound at least 3 tannins and the corona has proteins with fewer bound tannins. These aggregates coexist with nonaggregated proteins. Increasing the tannin concentration beyond the threshold causes the transfer of proteins to the aggregates and a fast rise of the number of proteins per aggregate. A poisoned growth model explains this fast rise. Very large cationic aggregates, containing up to 10,000 proteins, are formed at tannin concentrations (2 mM) slightly above the aggregation threshold (0.2 mM). PMID:23297743

  20. Two New Flavonol Glycosides from Polygala sibirica L. var megalopha Fr.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Jie; Zhou, Ling-Yun; Wang, Jun-Min; Li, Qiang; Geng, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Hai-Yang; Hua, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Two new flavonol glycosides, named polygalin H (1) and polygalin I (2), as well as the known compound polygalin D (3), were isolated from the whole plant of Polygala sibirica L. var megalopha Fr. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. These flavonol glycosides exhibited strong inhibitory activities against xanthine oxidase in vitro. Their half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were calculated, which were 9.48, 8.31, 16.00 ?M, respectively. PMID:26633343

  1. Controlling selectivity and enhancing yield of flavonoid glycosides in recombinant yeast.

    PubMed

    Werner, Sean R; Morgan, John A

    2010-09-01

    Flavonoid glycosides are known for their medicinal properties and potential use as natural sweeteners. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing a flavonoid glucosyltransferase from Dianthus caryophyllus was used as a whole-cell biocatalyst. The yeast system's performance was characterized using the flavanone naringenin as a model substrate for the production of naringenin glycosides. It was found that final naringenin glycoside yields increased in a dose-dependent manner with increasing initial naringenin substrate concentrations. However, naringenin concentrations >0.5 mM did not give further enhancements in glycoside yield. In addition, a method for controlling overall selectivity was discovered where the glucose content in the culture medium could be altered to control the selectivity, making either naringenin-7-O-glucoside (N7O) or naringenin-4'-O-glucoside (N4O) the major products. The highest yields achieved were 87 mg/L of N7O and 82 mg/L of N4O using 40MSGI and 2xMSGI media, respectively. The effects of two intermediates involved in UDP-glucose biosynthesis, uridine 5'-monophosphate (UMP) and orotic acid, on glycoside yields were also determined. Addition of UMP to the culture medium significantly decreased glycoside yield. In contrast, addition of orotic acid to the culture medium significantly enhanced the glycoside yield and shifted the selectivity toward N7O. The highest naringenin glycoside yield achieved using 10 mM orotic acid in the 40MSGI media was 155 mg/L, a 71% conversion of substrate to product. PMID:20148267

  2. Serruloside and Serrulatoside, two New Iridoid Glycosides from Penstemon serrulatus1.

    PubMed

    Junior, P

    1984-10-01

    From leaves of PENSTEMON SERRULATUS Menz. two new iridoid glycosides have been isolated. Both glycosides have the same aglycon part, but differ in their carbohydrate moieties. The structure of serru-loside (penstemidaglucon-11- O-beta- D-ribohexos -3-uloside) and serrulatoside (penstemidaglucon-ll- O-beta-4'-desoxyaltropyranosido-6'- O-beta- D-glucopyranoside) was established by spectroscopic methods (mainly (1)H- and (13)C-NMR) and comparison with known compounds. PMID:17340343

  3. Stereoselective Synthesis of 2-Deoxy-?-Glycosides Using Anomeric O-Alkylation/Arylation

    PubMed Central

    Morris, William J.; Shair, Matthew D.

    2009-01-01

    Anomeric O-alkylation/arylation is applied to the synthesis of 2-deoxy-?-glycosides. Treatment of lactols with NaH in dioxane followed by the addition of electrophiles leads to the formation of 2-deoxy-?-glycosides in high yield and high selectivity. The high ?-selectivity observed here demonstrates a powerful stereoelectronic effect for the stereoselective formation of acetals under kinetic control. PMID:19061365

  4. Iridoid glycosides isolated from Scrophularia dentata Royle ex Benth. and their anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liuqiang; Zhu, Tiantian; Qian, Fei; Xu, Jinwen; Dorje, Gaawe; Zhao, Zhili; Guo, Fujiang; Li, Yiming

    2014-10-01

    Scrodentosides A-E (1-5), five new acylated iridoid glycosides, together with 19 known ones, were isolated from the whole plant of Scrophularia dentata Royle ex Benth. The structures of these isolated glycosides were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Bioassay showed that compounds 7 and 11 had significant inhibitory effect against NF-?B activation with IC50 value of 43.7 ?M and 1.02 ?M respectively. PMID:25016952

  5. Domestication and defence: Foliar tannins and C/N ratios in cassava and a close wild relative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondolot, Laurence; Marlas, Amandine; Barbeau, Damien; Gargadennec, Annick; Pujol, Benoît; McKey, Doyle

    2008-09-01

    Plant domestication is accompanied by shifts in resource allocation, as a result of farmer selection for genotypes that give high yields in agricultural habitats. Relaxed natural selection for chemical and physical defences in these habitats could facilitate resource allocation to yield. We compared the concentrations of tannins, and C/N ratios, which are often correlated with investment in cell-wall compounds, in leaves of landraces of domesticated cassava ( Manihot esculenta) and a close wild relative in French Guiana. Foliar concentrations of tannins were about 1.9 times higher in the wild relative than in domesticated cassava. Histochemical analyses showed that tannins were present in nearly all palisade and spongy parenchyma cells of the wild taxon, but in only some cells of these tissues in M. esculenta. C/N ratios were also 1.9 times higher in leaves of the wild relative than in those of domesticated cassava. Tannins accounted for only a small proportion of total carbon, and the higher C/N ratio in wild than in domesticated cassava may reflect higher investment in carbon-containing compounds additional to tannins, such as cell-wall compounds. The divergence in these traits between cassava and this close wild relative mirrors a broad pattern observed in wild plant species across habitats varying in resource availability. One explanation for our results is that domestication in cassava may have favoured a shift from a resource conservation strategy to a resource acquisition strategy.

  6. Assessment of Anti-nutritive Activity of Tannins in Tea By-products Based on In vitro Rumen Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Makoto; Hirano, Yoshiaki; Ikai, Noriyuki; Kita, Kazumi; Jayanegara, Anuraga; Yokota, Hiro-omi

    2014-01-01

    Nutritive values of green and black tea by-products and anti-nutritive activity of their tannins were evaluated in an in vitro rumen fermentation using various molecular weights of polyethylene glycols (PEG), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and polyvinyl polypyrrolidone as tannin-binding agents. Significant improvement in gas production by addition of PEG4000, 6000 and 20000 and PVP was observed only from black tea by-product, but not from green tea by-product. All tannin binding agents increased NH3-N concentration from both green and black tea by-products in the fermentation medium, and the PEG6000 and 20000 showed relatively higher improvement in the NH3-N concentration. The PEG6000 and 20000 also improved in vitro organic matter digestibility and metabolizable energy contents of both tea by-products. It was concluded that high molecular PEG would be suitable to assess the suppressive activity of tannins in tea by-products by in vitro fermentation. Higher responses to gas production and NH3-N concentration from black tea by-product than green tea by-product due to PEG indicate that tannins in black tea by-product could suppress rumen fermentation more strongly than that in green tea by-product. PMID:25358316

  7. Conversion of Natural Tannin to Hydrothermal and Graphene-Like Carbons Studied by Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering.

    PubMed

    Jurkiewicz, Karolina; Hawe?ek, ?ukasz; Balin, Katarzyna; Szade, Jacek; Braghiroli, Flavia L; Fierro, Vanessa; Celzard, Alain; Burian, Andrzej

    2015-08-13

    The atomic structure of carbon materials prepared from natural tannin by two different techniques, high-temperature pyrolysis and low-temperature hydrothermal carbonization, was studied by wide-angle X-ray scattering. The obtained diffraction data were converted to the real space representation in the form of pair distribution functions. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements provided information about the chemical state of carbon in tannin-based materials that was used to construct final structural models of the investigated samples. The results of the experimental data in both reciprocal and real spaces were compared with computer simulations based on the PM7 semiempirical quantum chemical method. Using the collected detailed information, structural models of the tannin-based carbons were proposed. The characteristics of the investigated materials at the atomic level were discussed in relation to their preparation method. The rearrangement of the tannin molecular structure and its transformation to graphene-like structure was described. The structure of tannin-based carbons pyrolyzed at 900 °C exhibited coherently scattering domains about 20 Å in size, consisting of two defected atomic layers and resembling a graphene-like arrangement. PMID:26186659

  8. Effect of addition of commercial grape seed tannins on phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of red wine.

    PubMed

    Neves, Ana C; Spranger, Maria I; Zhao, Yuqing; Leandro, Maria C; Sun, Baoshan

    2010-11-24

    The effect of addition of grape seed tannins on the phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of red wine was studied. Two highly pure commercial grape seed tannins (GSE100 and GSE300) were selected, and their phenolic compositions were determined. Two types of red wines were made with Castela?o/Tinta Miu?da (3/2, w/w) grapevine varieties by fermentation on skin using two different maceration times, which correspond to the wines rich and poor in polyphenols, respectively. Each of these wines was used for experimentation with the addition of GSE100 and GSE300 before and immediately after alcoholic fermentation. Phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of the finished red wines were analyzed by HPLC-DAD, CIElab 76 convention, and DPPH radical test, respectively. The results showed that the addition of grape seed tannins had obvious effects of increasing color intensity and antioxidant activity only in the wines poor in polyphenols. Although GSE300 contained much higher amounts of di- and trimer procyanidins and a lower amount of polymeric proanthocyanidins, it provided effects of increasing the color intensity and antioxidant activity of the wines poor in polyphenols similar to those of GSE100. Furthermore, GSE100 released more gallic acid to wines than GSE300, although no gallic acid was detected in GSE100. Tannins added after alcoholic fermentation had a better effect on phenolic composition of red wine than tannins added before alcoholic fermentation. PMID:21028822

  9. New oleyl glycoside as anti-cancer agent that targets on neutral sphingomyelinase.

    PubMed

    Romero-Ramírez, Lorenzo; García-Álvarez, Isabel; Casas, Josefina; Barreda-Manso, M Asunción; Yanguas-Casás, Natalia; Nieto-Sampedro, Manuel; Fernández-Mayoralas, Alfonso

    2015-09-15

    We designed and synthesized two anomeric oleyl glucosaminides as anti-cancer agents where the presence of a trifluoroacetyl group close to the anomeric center makes them resistant to hydrolysis by hexosaminidases. The oleyl glycosides share key structural features with synthetic and natural oleyl derivatives that have been reported to exhibit anti-cancer properties. While both glycosides showed antiproliferative activity on cancer cell lines, only the ?-anomer caused endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and cell death on C6 glioma cells. Analysis of sphingolipids and glycosphingolipds in cells treated with the glycosides showed that the ?-anomer caused a drastic accumulation of ceramide and glucosylceramide and reduction of lactosylceramide and GM3 ganglioside at concentrations above a threshold of 20 ?M. In order to understand how ceramide levels increase in response to ?-glycoside treatment, further investigations were done using specific inhibitors of sphingolipid metabolic pathways. The pretreatment with 3-O-methylsphingomyelin (a neutral sphingomyelinase inhibitor) restored sphingomyelin levels together with the lactosylceramide and GM3 ganglioside levels and prevented the ER stress and cell death caused by the ?-glycoside. The results indicated that the activation of neutral sphingomyelinase is the main cause of the alterations in sphingolipids that eventually lead to cell death. The new oleyl glycoside targets a key enzyme in sphingolipid metabolism with potential applications in cancer therapy. PMID:26206186

  10. Influence of steviol glycosides on the stability of vitamin C and anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Wo?niak, ?ukasz; Marsza?ek, Krystian; Sk?pska, Sylwia

    2014-11-19

    A high level of sweetness and health-promoting properties make steviol glycosides an interesting alternative to sugars or artificial sweeteners. The radical oxygen species scavenging activity of these compounds may influence the stability of labile particles present in food. Model buffer solutions containing steviol glycosides, a selected food antioxidant (vitamin C or anthocyanins), and preservative were analyzed during storage. The addition of steviol glycosides at concentrations of 50, 125, and 200 mg/L increased the stability of both ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acid (degradation rates decreased up to 3.4- and 4.5-fold, respectively); the effect was intensified by higher sweetener concentrations and higher acidity of the solutions. Glycosides used alone did not affect the stability of anthocyanins; however, they enhanced the protective effect of sugars; half-life times increased by ca. 33% in the presence of sucrose (100 g/L) and by ca. 52% when both sucrose (100 g/L) and glycosides (total 200 mg/L) were used. Steviol glycosides concentrations remained stable during experiments. PMID:25376304

  11. Fecalase: a model for activation of dietary glycosides to mutagens by intestinal flora

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, G.; Gold, C.; Ferro-Luzzi, A.; Ames, B.N.

    1980-08-01

    Many substances in the plant kingdom and in man's diet occur as glycosides. Recent studies have indicated that many glycosides that are not mutagenic in tests such as the Salmonella test become mutagenic upon hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkages. The Salmonella test utilizes a liver homogenate to approximate mammalian metabolism but does not provide a source of the enzymes present in intestinal bacterial flora that hydrolyze the wide variety of glycosides present in nature. We describe a stable cell-free extract of human feces, fecalase, which is shown to contain various glycosidases that allow the in vitro activation of many natural glycosides to mutagens in the Salmonella/liver homogenate test. Many beverages, such as red wine (but apparently not white wine) and tea, contain glycosides of the mutagen quercetin. Red wine, red grape juice, and teas were mutagenic in the test when fecalase was added, and red wine contained considerable direct mutagenic activity in the absence of fecalase. The implications of quercetin mutagenicity and carcinogenicity are discussed.

  12. Pediatric cardiac emergencies.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Mason, L J

    2001-06-01

    Successful management of pediatric cardiac emergencies requires an accurate diagnosis to institute an appropriate plan of therapy. The diagnosis, however, is not always straightforward, as evidenced by the nonspecific clinical picture that can be presented by congenital heart defects. Entertaining the possibility of a cardiac problem in neonates with pulmonary symptoms unresponsive to standard therapies is crucial for successful management of patients with congenital heart disease. In addition to ventilatory support, prostaglandin E1 infusions or emergency interventional cardiac catheterization is often a life-saving initial measure in patients with acutely decompensated congenital cardiac lesions that require a patent ductus arteriosus for survival. Pericardial tamponade is associated with various acquired and iatrogenic causes. Emergent pericardiocentesis is mandatory when cardiovascular compromise occurs. The goal of anesthetic management is to maintain cardiac output. With the increasing use of central venous catheters in neonatal ICUs and the high mortality rate for central venous catheter-related cardiac tamponade, the diagnosis must be considered in any patient with a central venous catheter in situ who acutely develops unexplained hypotension, bradycardia, and diminished pulses. Arrhythmias also can cause hemodynamic instability in infants and children. Supraventricular tachycardia is by far the most common emergently presenting arrhythmia in the pediatric population. Unstable patients require immediate intravenous adenosine or synchronized cardioversion. Complete heart block is rare, but it can lead to congestive heart failure and occasionally to cardiovascular collapse and sudden death. Emergency treatment of complete heart block includes pharmacologic support and temporary or permanent pacemaker placement as indicated. In infants, congestive heart failure usually is related to congenital heart disease, whereas in older children, it tends to be secondary to an acquired cause. Supportive measures, fluid restriction, and inotropic support are the principles of initial treatment. Prompt recognition and initiation of appropriate therapy in pediatric cardiac emergencies are essential for favorable outcomes. PMID:11469066

  13. Prevention of hydrolysable tannin toxicity in goats fed Clidemia hirta by calcium hydroxide supplementation.

    PubMed

    Murdiati, T B; McSweeney, C S; Campbell, R S; Stoltz, D S

    1990-10-01

    Although plants containing hydrolysable tannins can be hepatotoxic, such poisoning has not been reported in Indonesia despite the presence of these plants. In order to determine the hepatotoxic potential of Indonesian plants, goats were intoxicated experimentally with the Indonesian plant Climedia hirta (harendong), which contained 19% hydrolysable tannin. The prophylactic effect of Ca(OH)2 supplementation on the disease was also examined. Two groups of goats were fed for 28 days with grain-based pellets containing 50% harendong leaf or 50% harendong leaf + 8% Ca(OH)2. Two control groups were fed similar pellets containing 50% of the non-toxic elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) with and without 8% Ca(OH)2. Serum enzymes indicative of liver damage were monitored during the experiment and histopathological examination of selected tissues was done at the conclusion of the experiment. In goats given unsupplemented harendong pellets there was a significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase from 50.2 and 20.6 U l-1 to 219.6 and 63.3 U l-1, respectively. These changes were associated with moderate to severe nuclear plemorphism, vacuolation and megalocytosis of hepatocytes and deposits of brown pigment in the Kupffer cells. There was also nephrosis of the renal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts, abomasitis and enteritis. Biochemical and histological changes were reduced significantly in the harendong + Ca(OH)2 group and virtually absent from control groups. It is concluded that hydrolysable tannins in harendong leaf are hepato- and nephrotoxic and associated with gastroenteritis, but that poisoning may be ameliorated by Ca(OH)2 supplementation. PMID:2254583

  14. Wastewater toxicity of tannin- versus chromium-based leather tanneries in Marrakesh, Morocco.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, E; Meriç, S; Della Rocca, C; Gallo, M; Iaccarino, M; Manini, P; Petruzzelli, D; Belgiorno, V; Cheggour, M; Di Gennaro, A; Moukrim, A; Tünay, O; Pagano, G

    2007-10-01

    The toxicity of leather tanning wastewater from a traditional tannery (TT), which is based on vegetable tannin (VT), was compared with wastewater from a tannery combining the use of chromium-based tanning (CT) with VT-based tanning operations. Wastewater samples from a TT and a CT plant as well as from five sewer sampling points were collected in Marrakesh, Morocco, and the concentrations of VT and some selected inorganics were measured. A set of bioassays were used to test wastewater toxicity in sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos and sperm, in Daphnia magna, and in marine microalgae (Dunaliella tertiolecta). Toxicity end points included: (1) developmental defects, embryonic mortality, sperm fertilization success, and offspring damage in sea urchins; (2) D. magna immobilization; and (3) algal growth rate inhibition. Toxicity tests on TT and CT effluents (TTE and CTE) were run at dilutions ranging from 0.1% to 2% (sea urchins and algae) or up to 12% in D. magna. Parallel bioassays were run on VT extract (VTE) at nominal tannin concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg l(-1). The results showed higher toxicity of CTE compared with TTE. CTE toxicity in sea urchins and algae showed concentration-related trends, whereas TTE exerted hormetic effects at levels of 0.1% to 0.2% and toxic effects at levels >or=1%. The same trends were observed for VTE, suggesting a prevailing role of tannin in TTE-associated effects. The moderate wastewater toxicity of VT-based tanneries might prompt interest in the VT tanning process. PMID:17728989

  15. Regulated deficit irrigation alters anthocyanins, tannins and sensory properties of cabernet sauvignon grapes and wines.

    PubMed

    Casassa, Luis Federico; Keller, Markus; Harbertson, James F

    2015-01-01

    Four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) regimes were applied to Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, which were analyzed for phenolics and also made into wine over three consecutive growing seasons. Relative to an industry standard regime (IS), yield was reduced over the three years by 37% in a full-deficit (FD) regime and by 18% in an early deficit (ED) regime, whereas no yield reduction occurred with a late deficit (LD) regime. Relative to IS, skin anthocyanin concentration (fresh weight basis) was 18% and 24% higher in ED and FD, respectively, whereas no effect was seen in LD. Seed tannin concentration was 3% and 8% higher in ED and FD, respectively, relative to the other two RDI regimes, whereas seed tannin content (amount per berry) was higher in IS than in FD. There were no practically relevant effects on the basic chemistry of the wines. The finished wines showed concentrations of tannins and anthocyanins that generally mirrored observed differences in skin and seed phenolic concentrations, although these were amplified in FD wines. Descriptive sensory analysis of the 2008 wines showed that FD wines were the most saturated in color, with higher purple hue, roughness, dryness and harshness, followed by ED wines, whereas IS and LD wines were less saturated in color and with higher brown and red hues. Overall, FD and ED seemed to yield fruit and wine with greater concentrations of phenolics than IS and LD, with the additional advantage of reducing water usage. However, these apparent benefits need to be balanced out with reductions in crop yields and potential long-term effects associated with pre-véraison water deficits. PMID:25939070

  16. Microwave-assisted synthesis of carbon nanotubes from tannin, lignin, and derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, Tito

    2014-06-17

    A method of synthesizing carbon nanotubes. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of: (a) dissolving a first amount of a first transition-metal salt and a second amount of a second transition-metal salt in water to form a solution; (b) adding a third amount of tannin to the solution to form a mixture; (c) heating the mixture to a first temperature for a first duration of time to form a sample; and (d) subjecting the sample to a microwave radiation for a second duration of time effective to produce a plurality of carbon nanotubes.

  17. Effects of gamma radiation on total phenolics, trypsin and tannin inhibitors in soybean grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Toledo, T. C. F.; Canniatti-Brazaca, S. G.; Arthur, V.; Piedade, S. M. S.

    2007-10-01

    The objective was determining possible radiation-induced alterations (with doses of 2, 4 and 8 kGy) in raw or cooked grains from five soybean cultivars through the analysis of some antinutrient. Total phenolic ranged from 2.46 to 10.83 mg/g, the trypsin inhibited from 18.19 to 71.64 UTI/g and tannins from 0.01 to 0.39 mg/g. All the antinutrient studied underwent reduction with increases in the doses and cooking process was effective too.

  18. Cardiac applications of PET.

    PubMed

    Sarikaya, Ismet

    2015-10-01

    Routine use of cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) applications has been increasing but has not replaced cardiac single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) studies yet. The majority of cardiac PET tracers, with the exception of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG), are not widely available, as they require either an onsite cyclotron or a costly generator for their production. 18F-FDG PET imaging has high sensitivity for the detection of hibernating/viable myocardium and has replaced Tl-201 SPECT imaging in centers equipped with a PET/CT camera. PET myocardial perfusion imaging with various tracers such as Rb-82, N-13 ammonia, and O-15 H2O has higher sensitivity and specificity than myocardial perfusion SPECT for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD). In particular, quantitative PET measurements of myocardial perfusion help identify subclinical coronary stenosis, better define the extent and severity of CAD, and detect ischemia when there is balanced reduction in myocardial perfusion due to three-vessel or main stem CAD. Fusion images of PET perfusion and CT coronary artery calcium scoring or CT coronary angiography provide additional complementary information and improve the detection of CAD. PET studies with novel 18F-labeled perfusion tracers such as 18F-flurpiridaz and 18F-FBnTP have yielded high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of CAD. These tracers are still being tested in humans, and, if approved for clinical use, they will be commercially and widely available. In addition to viability studies, 18F-FDG PET can also be utilized to detect inflammation/infection in various conditions such as endocarditis, sarcoidosis, and atherosclerosis. Some recent series have obtained encouraging results for the detection of endocarditis in patients with intracardiac devices and prosthetic valves. PET tracers for cardiac neuronal imaging, such as C-11 HED, help assess the severity of heart failure and post-transplant cardiac reinnervation, and understand the pathogenesis of arrhytmias. The other uncommon applications of cardiac PET include NaF imaging to identify calcium deposition in atherosclerotic plaques and ?-amyloid imaging to diagnose cardiac amyloid involvement. 18F-FDG imaging with a novel PET/MR camera has been reported to be very sensitive and specific for the differentiation between malignant and nonmalignant cardiac masses. The other potential applications of PET/MR are cardiac infectious/inflammatory conditions such as endocarditis. PMID:26035516

  19. Effects of plant tannins supplementation on animal response and in vivo ruminal bacterial populations associated with bloat in heifers grazing wheat forage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research was conducted to determine the effects of sources of tannins on in vitro ruminal gas and foam production, in vivo ruminal bacterial populations, bloat dynamics and ADG of heifers grazing wheat forage. Two experiments were conducted to 1) enumerate the effect of tannins supplementation on bi...

  20. Effects of feed-supplementation and hide-spray application of two sources of tannins on enteric and hide bacteria of feedlot cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative pre-harvest interventions have to be evaluated to prevent carcass contamination at the slaughter house. The objectives of this study were to examine the antimicrobial effects of hydrolysable tannin-rich chestnut and condensed tannin-rich mimosa extracts on bacterial indicators of foodbo...

  1. Radiation from Cardiac Imaging Tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... User Name Password Sign In Cardiology Patient Page Radiation From Cardiac Imaging Tests Questions You Should Ask ... cardiac imaging techniques computed tomography imaging nuclear medicine radiation Next Section Introduction Many patients are referred by ...

  2. Fetal cardiac scanning today.

    PubMed

    Allan, Lindsey

    2010-07-01

    The ability to examine the structure of the fetal heart in real-time started over 30 years ago now. The field has seen very great advances since then, both in terms of technical improvements in ultrasound equipment and in dissemination of operator skills. A great deal has been learnt about normal cardiac function in the human fetus throughout gestation and how it is affected by pathologies of pregnancy. There is increasing recognition of abnormal heart structure during routine obstetric scanning, allowing referral for specialist diagnosis and counselling. It is now possible to make accurate diagnosis of cardiac malformations as early as 12 weeks of gestation. Early diagnosis of a major cardiac malformation in the fetus can provide the parents with a comprehensive prognosis, enabling them to make the most informed choice about the management of the pregnancy. PMID:20572107

  3. New lab-made coagulant based on Schinopsis balansae tannin extract: synthesis optimization and preliminary tests on refractory water pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Martín, J.; Beltrán-Heredia, J.; Coco-Rivero, B.

    2014-09-01

    Quebracho colorado tannin extract was used as a coagulant raw material for water and wastewater treatment. The chemical synthesis follows a Mannich reaction mechanism and provides a fully working coagulant that can remove several pollutants from water. This paper addresses the optimization of such synthesis and confirms the feasibility of the coagulant by testing it in a preliminary screening for the elimination of dyes and detergents. The optimum combination of reagents was 6.81 g of diethanolamine (DEA) and 2.78 g of formaldehyde (F) per g of tannin extract. So obtained coagulant was succesfully tested on the removal of 9 dyes and 8 detergents.

  4. Extracellular Glycoside Hydrolase Activities in the Human Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Inui, Taichi; Walker, Lauren C; Dodds, Michael W J; Hanley, A Bryan

    2015-08-15

    Carbohydrate availability shifts when bacteria attach to a surface and form biofilm. When salivary planktonic bacteria form an oral biofilm, a variety of polysaccharides and glycoproteins are the primary carbon sources; however, simple sugar availabilities are limited due to low diffusion from saliva to biofilm. We hypothesized that bacterial glycoside hydrolase (GH) activities would be higher in a biofilm than in saliva in order to maintain metabolism in a low-sugar, high-glycoprotein environment. Salivary bacteria from 13 healthy individuals were used to grow in vitro biofilm using two separate media, one with sucrose and the other limiting carbon sources to a complex carbohydrate. All six GHs measured were higher in vitro when grown in the medium with complex carbohydrate as the sole carbon source. We then collected saliva and overnight dental plaque samples from the same individuals and measured ex vivo activities for the same six enzymes to determine how oral microbial utilization of glycoconjugates shifts between the planktonic phase in saliva and the biofilm phase in overnight dental plaque. Overall higher GH activities were observed in plaque samples, in agreement with in vitro observation. A similar pattern was observed in GH activity profiles between in vitro and ex vivo data. 16S rRNA gene analysis showed that plaque samples had a higher abundance of microorganisms with larger number of GH gene sequences. These results suggest differences in sugar catabolism between the oral bacteria located in the biofilm and those in saliva. PMID:26048943

  5. Antioxidant chalcone glycosides and flavanones from Maclura (Chlorophora) tinctoria.

    PubMed

    Cioffi, Giuseppina; Morales Escobar, Luis; Braca, Alessandra; De Tommasi, Nunziatina

    2003-08-01

    Four chalcone glycosides (1-4), including three new natural products, and three flavanones (5-7) were isolated from the methanol extract of stem bark of Maclura tinctoria. The new compounds have been characterized as 4'-O-beta-D-(2' '-p-coumaroyl)glucopyranosyl-4,2',3'-trihydroxychalcone (1), 4'-O-beta-D-(2' '-p-coumaroyl-6' '-acetyl)glucopyranosyl-4,2',3'-trihydroxychalcone (2), and 3'-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-4,2'-dihydroxychalcone (3); the known derivatives were elucidated as 4'-O-beta-D-(2' '-acetyl-6' '-cinnamoyl)glucopyranosyl-4,2',3'-trihydroxychalcone (4), eriodictyol 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), naringenin (6), and naringenin 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7). Their structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR and ESIMS. The antioxidant activity of all the isolated compounds was determined by measuring free-radical-scavenging effects using two different assays, namely, the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assay and the coupled oxidation of beta-carotene and linoleic acid (autoxidation assay). The results showed that compound 3 was the most active in both antioxidant assays. PMID:12932124

  6. Steroidal glycosides from the marine sponge Pandaros acanthifolium.

    PubMed

    Cachet, Nadja; Regalado, Erik L; Genta-Jouve, Grégory; Mehiri, Mohamed; Amade, Philippe; Thomas, Olivier P

    2009-09-01

    The chemical composition of the Caribbean sponge Pandaros acanthifolium was investigated and led to the isolation of seven new steroidal glycosides namely pandarosides A-D (1, 3, 4 and 6) along with the three methyl esters of pandarosides A, C, and D (2, 5 and 7). Their structures were characterized as 3beta-[beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranosyloxyuronic acid]-16-hydroxy-5alpha,14beta-poriferast-16-ene-15,23-dione (1) and its methyl ester (2), 3beta-[beta-glucopyranosyloxyuronic acid]-16-hydroxy-5alpha,14beta-poriferast-16-ene-15,23-dione (3), 3beta-[beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranosyloxyuronic acid]-16-hydroxy-5alpha,14beta-cholest-16-ene-15,23-dione (4) and its methyl ester (5), 3beta-(beta-glucopyranosyloxyuronic acid)-16-hydroxy-5alpha,14beta-cholest-16-ene-15,23-dione (6) and its methyl ester (7) on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses, including 2D NMR and HRESIMS studies. Pandarosides A-D and their methyl esters (1-7) are all characterized by a rare 2-hydroxycyclopentenone D-ring with a 14beta configuration. The absolute configuration of the aglycon part of pandaroside A (1) was assigned by comparison between experimental and TDDFT calculated circular dichroism spectra on the more stable conformer. PMID:19541002

  7. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Phenolic Glycosides from Clematis tashiroi.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Jie; Huang, Hung-Tse; Huang, Shih-Yen; Lin, Zhi-Hu; Shen, Chien-Chang; Tsai, Wei-Jern; Kuo, Yao-Haur

    2015-07-24

    From the 95% EtOH extract of dried aerial parts of Clematis tashiroi, eight new and four known phenolic (caffeic acid, coumaric acid, ferrulic acid) glycosides were isolated and characterized. The structures of the new isolates (clematisides A-H) were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation as trans-4-O-(6-O-trans-caffeoyl-?-D- glucopyranosyl)-9-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl caffeic acid (1), trans-4-O-(6-O-trans-feruloyl-?-D-glucopyranosyll)-9-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl caffeic acid (2), trans-4-O-(6-O-trans-p-coumaroyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-9-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl caffeic acid (3), trans-4-O-(6-O-trans-caffeoyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-9-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl p-coumaric acid (4), trans-3-O-(6-O-trans-caffeoyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-9-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl caffeic acid (5), trans-3-O-(6-O-trans-p-coumaroyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-9-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl caffeic acid (6), 6-(3',4'-dihydroxystyryl)-2-pyrone-4-O-(6-O-trans-caffeoyl)-?-D-glucopyranoside (7), and 6-(3',4'-dihydroxystyryl)-2-pyrone-4-O-{6-O-[4-O-(6-O-trans-caffeoyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl]-trans-caffeoyl}-?-D-glucopyranoside (8), respectively. In a DPPH radical-scavenging test, compounds 1, 7, and 8 showed more potent antioxidant activity than that of the positive control, vitamin E. In addition, compound 7 also showed inhibitory activity in an antinitric oxide release assay. PMID:26143931

  8. Host dependent iridoid glycoside sequestration patterns in Cionus hortulanus.

    PubMed

    Baden, Christian Ulrich; Franke, Stephan; Dobler, Susanne

    2013-08-01

    Weevils of the genus Cionus (Curculionidae, Mecininae) sequester the iridoid glycosides (IGs) aucubin and catalpol from their host plants Scrophularia or Verbascum (Scrophulariaceae). Cionus hortulanus is the only member of the genus that feeds on both plant genera. We previously showed that sequestration patterns in C. hortulanus depend on the local host. To investigate whether IG patterns are driven by their availability in the hosts or genetic differences between populations, we collected C. hortulanus from S. nodosa in the field and reared them either on S. nodosa or on V. nigrum. The differences in IG concentrations were specific for the host plant upon which the weevils developed. Similar to monophagous species of the Cionini, individuals from S. nodosa had more aucubin than catalpol and mirrored the concentrations of their host plants. Specimens from V. nigrum, on the other hand, had higher concentrations of aucubin and of catalpol than their host. On V. nigrum, the ratio of catalpol to aucubin differed significantly between plant and beetle samples due to much higher catalpol concentrations in the weevils. Our data thus contradict genetically fixed differences between populations living on either plant but rather document the host plants' influence on the beetles' metabolism. PMID:23846185

  9. A recycling pathway for cyanogenic glycosides evidenced by the comparative metabolic profiling in three cyanogenic plant species.

    PubMed

    Pi?manová, Martina; Neilson, Elizabeth H; Motawia, Mohammed S; Olsen, Carl Erik; Agerbirk, Niels; Gray, Christopher J; Flitsch, Sabine; Meier, Sebastian; Silvestro, Daniele; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Bjarnholt, Nanna

    2015-08-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are phytoanticipins involved in plant defence against herbivores by virtue of their ability to release toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) upon tissue disruption. In addition, endogenous turnover of cyanogenic glycosides without the liberation of HCN may offer plants an important source of reduced nitrogen at specific developmental stages. To investigate the presence of putative turnover products of cyanogenic glycosides, comparative metabolic profiling using LC-MS/MS and high resolution MS (HR-MS) complemented by ion-mobility MS was carried out in three cyanogenic plant species: cassava, almond and sorghum. In total, the endogenous formation of 36 different chemical structures related to the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin, lotaustralin, prunasin, amygdalin and dhurrin was discovered, including di- and tri-glycosides derived from these compounds. The relative abundance of the compounds was assessed in different tissues and developmental stages. Based on results common to the three phylogenetically unrelated species, a potential recycling endogenous turnover pathway for cyanogenic glycosides is described in which reduced nitrogen and carbon are recovered for primary metabolism without the liberation of free HCN. Glycosides of amides, carboxylic acids and 'anitriles' derived from cyanogenic glycosides appear as common intermediates in this pathway and may also have individual functions in the plant. The recycling of cyanogenic glycosides and the biological significance of the presence of the turnover products in cyanogenic plants open entirely new insights into the multiplicity of biological roles cyanogenic glycosides may play in plants. PMID:26205491

  10. Giant Cardiac Cavernous Hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Unger, Eric; Costic, Joseph; Laub, Glenn

    2015-07-01

    We report the case of an asymptomatic giant cardiac cavernous hemangioma in a 71-year-old man. The intracardiac mass was discovered incidentally during surveillance for his prostate cancer; however, the patient initially declined intervention. On presentation to our institution 7 years later, the lesion had enlarged significantly, and the patient consented to excision. At surgery, an 8 × 6.5 × 4.8 cm intracardiac mass located on the inferior heart border was excised with an intact capsule through a median sternotomy approach. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course. We discuss the diagnostic workup, treatment, and characteristics of this rare cardiac tumor. PMID:26140782

  11. Cardiac Syndrome X: Update.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Shilpa; Mehta, Puja K; Bairey Merz, C Noel

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac Syndrome X (CSX), characterized by angina-like chest discomfort, ST segment depression during exercise, and normal epicardial coronary arteries at angiography, is highly prevalent in women. CSX is not benign, and linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes and a poor quality of life. Coronary microvascular and endothelial dysfunction and abnormal cardiac nociception have been implicated in the pathogenesis of CSX. Treatment includes life-style modification, anti-anginal, anti-atherosclerotic, and anti-ischemic medications. Non-pharmacological options include cognitive behavioral therapy, enhanced external counterpulsation, neurostimulation, and stellate ganglionectomy. Studies have shown the efficacy of individual treatments but guidelines outlining the best course of therapy are lacking. PMID:26567981

  12. Cardiac disease in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Nqayana, T; Moodley, J; Naidoo, DP

    2008-01-01

    Summary Summary This study was a retrospective review of patient charts of a relatively large number of patients with cardiac disease in pregnancy in a developing country. Ninety-five patients were evaluated; the majority (n = 36) were in the age group 21?25 years. Rheumatic heart disease was the commonest aetiology; eight women required balloon mitral valvuloplasty and one had a valve replacement at 32 weeks’ gestation. There were no maternal deaths but morbidity was high; 13 patients were admitted in cardiac failure, nine had atrial fibrillation and three required intensive-care management. There were 86 live births of the 97 deliveries. PMID:18568175

  13. Endogenous cardiac stem cells.

    PubMed

    Barile, Lucio; Messina, Elisa; Giacomello, Alessandro; Marbán, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    In the past few years it has been established that the heart contains a reservoir of stem and progenitor cells. These cells are positive for various stem/progenitor cell markers (Kit, Sca-1, Isl-1, and Side Population (SP) properties). The relationship between the various cardiac stem cells (CSC) and progenitor cells described awaits clarification. Furthermore, they may open a new therapeutic strategies of cardiac repair based on the regeneration potential of cardiac stem cells. Currently, cellular cardiomyoplasty is actively explored as means of regenerating damaged myocardium using several different cell types. CSCs seem a logical cell source to exploit for cardiac regeneration therapy. Their presence into the heart, the frequent co-expression of early cardiac progenitor transcription factors, and the capability for ex vivo and in vivo differentiation toward the cardiac lineages offer promise of enhanced cardiogenicity compared to other cell sources. CSCs, when isolated from various animal models by selection based on c-Kit, Sca-1, and/or MDR1, have shown cardiac regeneration potential in vivo following injection in the infracted myocardium. Recently, we have successfully isolated CSCs from small biopsies of human myocardium and expanded them ex vivo by many folds without losing differentiation potential into cardiomyocytes and vascular cells, bringing autologous transplantation of CSCs closer to clinical evaluation. These cells are spontaneously shed from human surgical specimens and murine heart samples in primary culture. This heterogeneous population of cells forms multi-cellular clusters, dubbed cardiospheres (CSs), in suspension culture. CSs are composed of clonally-derived cells, consist of proliferating c-Kit positive cells primarily in their core and differentiating cells expressing cardiac and endothelial cell markers on their periphery. Although the intracardiac origin of adult myocytes has been unequivocally documented, the potential of an extracardiac source of cells, able to repopulate the lost CSCs in pathological conditions (infarct) cannot be excluded and will be discussed in this review. The delivery of human CSs or of CSs-derived cells into the injured heart of the SCID mouse resulted in engraftment, migration, myocardial regeneration and improvement of left ventricular function. Our method for ex vivo expansion of resident CSCs for subsequent autologous transplantation back into the heart, may give these cell populations, the resident and the transplanted one, the combined ability to mediate myocardial regeneration to an appreciable degree, and may change the way in which cardiovascular disease will be approached in the future. PMID:17631436

  14. Flavonoid Glycosides of Polygonum capitatum Protect against Inflammation Associated with Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shu; Mo, Fei; Luo, Zhaoxun; Huang, Jian; Sun, Chaoqin; Zhang, Ran

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities, and protective effects of extracts (flavonoid glycosides) of Polygonum capitatum were investigated to detect the evidence for the utilization of the herb in the clinical therapy of gastritis caused by H. pylori. A mouse gastritis model was established using H. pylori. According to treating methods, model mice were random assigned into a model group (MG group), a triple antibiotics group (TG group, clarithromycin, omeprazole and amoxicillin), low/middle/high concentrations of flavonoid glycosides groups (LF, MF and HF groups) and low/middle/high concentrations of flavonoid glycosides and amoxicillin groups (LFA, MFA and HFA groups). A group with pathogen-free mice was regarded as a control group (CG group). The eradicate rates of H. pylori were 100%, 93%, 89% in TG, MFA and HF groups. The serum levels of IFN-gamma and gastrin were higher in a MG group than those from all other groups (P < 0.05). The serum levels of IFN-gamma and gastrin were reduced significantly in LF, MF and HF groups (P < 0.05) while little changes were observed in LFA, MFA and HFA groups. In contrast, the serum levels of IL-4 were lower and higher in MG and CG groups compared with other groups (P<0.05). The serum levels of IL-4 were increased significantly in LF, MF and HF groups (P < 0.05) while little changes were found in LFA, MFA and HFA groups. According to pathological scores, flavonoid glycosides therapy showed better protection for gastric injuries than the combination of flavonoid glycoside and amoxicillin (P < 0.05). The results suggested that flavonoid glycoside has repairing functions for gastric injuries. The results suggest that the plant can treat gastritis and protect against gastric injuries. The flavonoid glycosides from Polygonum capitatum should be developed as a potential drug for the therapy of gastritis caused by H. pylori. PMID:25993258

  15. Hypotheses on the effects of enological tannins and total red wine phenolic compounds on Oenococcus oeni.

    PubMed

    Chasseriaud, Laura; Krieger-Weber, Sibylle; Déléris-Bou, Magali; Sieczkowski, Nathalie; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre Louis; Claisse, Olivier; Lonvaud-Funel, Aline

    2015-12-01

    Lot of articles report on the impact of polyphenols on wine lactic acid bacteria, but it is clear that the results still remain confusing, because the system is complicated both in term of chemical composition and of diversity of strains. In addition, red wines polyphenols are multiple, complex and reactive molecules. Moreover, the final composition of wine varies according to grape variety and to extraction during winemaking. Therefore it is nearly impossible to deduce their effects on bacteria from experiments in oversimplified conditions. In the present work, effect of tannins preparations, currently considered as possible technological adjuvants, was assessed on growth and malolactic fermentation for two malolactic starters. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory medium and in a white wine. Likewise, impact of total polyphenolic extracts obtained from different grape variety red wines was evaluated in the white wine as culture medium. As expected growth and activity of both strains were affected whatever the additions. Results suggest some interpretations to the observed impacts on bacterial populations. Influence of tannins should be, at least partly, due to redox potential change. Results on wine extracts show the need for investigating the bacterial metabolism of some galloylated molecules. Indeed, they should play on bacterial physiology and probably affect the sensory qualities of wines. PMID:26338126

  16. Effect of irradiation on anti-nutrients (total phenolics, tannins and phytate) in Brazilian beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Greiner, Ralf

    2000-03-01

    The Brazilian bean varieties Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp var. Macaçar were irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The anti-nutrients phenolic compounds, tannins and phytate were determined to be 0.48 mg g -1 dry basis, 1.8 mg g -1 dry basis and 13.5 ?mol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Carioca beans and 0.30 mg g -1 dry basis, 0.42 mg g -1 dry basis and 7.5 ?mol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Macaçar beans. After soaking and cooking a higher content of phenolic compounds and a lower phytate content was observed in both bean varieties. Tannin content was not affected by soaking and cooking of Carioca beans, but higher after soaking and cooking of Macaçar beans. Using radiation doses relevant for food did not effect the content of the anti-nutrients under investigation in both bean varieties.

  17. Advanced Cardiac Life Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document contains materials for an advanced college course in cardiac life support developed for the State of Iowa. The course syllabus lists the course title, hours, number, description, prerequisites, learning activities, instructional units, required text, six references, evaluation criteria, course objectives by units, course…

  18. Gold-catalyzed glycosidation for the synthesis of trisaccharides by applying the armed–disarmed strategy

    PubMed Central

    Kayastha, Abhijeet K

    2013-01-01

    Summary The synthesis of oligosaccharides is still a challenging task as there is no universal glycosyl donor for the synthesis of all oligosaccharides. The gold catalysis for glycosidation reactions, in which alkynylated glycosides are used, has emerged as one of the versatile options in this regard. A cleavage of the interglycosidic bond that was thought to be due to the higher reaction temperature and the acidic medium was observed during the synthesis of trisaccharides. In addition, a very little percentage of deprotection of benzyl protecting groups at the C-6 position was observed and no deprotection of benzyl ethers in aliphatic molecules was noticed. In order to overcome this fact, a collection of leaving groups that contain an alkynyl moiety were screened. It was found that 1-ethynylcyclohexanyl (Ech) glycosides are suitable for carrying out the glycosidation at 25 °C in the presence of 5 mol % each of AuCl3 and AgSbF6. Subsequently, Ech-glycosides were observed to be suitable for the synthesis of trisaccharides under gold catalysis conditions. PMID:24204427

  19. Bioprospecting metagenomics of decaying wood: mining for new glycoside hydrolases

    SciTech Connect

    Li L. L.; van der Lelie D.; Taghavi, S.; McCorkle, S. M.; Zhang, Y.-B.; Blewitt, M. G.; Brunecky, R.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Brumm, P.; Drinkwater, C.; Mead, D. A.; Tringe, S. G.

    2011-08-01

    To efficiently deconstruct recalcitrant plant biomass to fermentable sugars in industrial processes, biocatalysts of higher performance and lower cost are required. The genetic diversity found in the metagenomes of natural microbial biomass decay communities may harbor such enzymes. Our goal was to discover and characterize new glycoside hydrolases (GHases) from microbial biomass decay communities, especially those from unknown or never previously cultivated microorganisms. From the metagenome sequences of an anaerobic microbial community actively decaying poplar biomass, we identified approximately 4,000 GHase homologs. Based on homology to GHase families/activities of interest and the quality of the sequences, candidates were selected for full-length cloning and subsequent expression. As an alternative strategy, a metagenome expression library was constructed and screened for GHase activities. These combined efforts resulted in the cloning of four novel GHases that could be successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. Further characterization showed that two enzymes showed significant activity on p-nitrophenyl-{alpha}-L-arabinofuranoside, one enzyme had significant activity against p-nitrophenyl-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, and one enzyme showed significant activity against p-nitrophenyl-{beta}-D-xylopyranoside. Enzymes were also tested in the presence of ionic liquids. Metagenomics provides a good resource for mining novel biomass degrading enzymes and for screening of cellulolytic enzyme activities. The four GHases that were cloned may have potential application for deconstruction of biomass pretreated with ionic liquids, as they remain active in the presence of up to 20% ionic liquid (except for 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate). Alternatively, ionic liquids might be used to immobilize or stabilize these enzymes for minimal solvent processing of biomass.

  20. Acetone enhances the direct analysis of total condensed tannins in plant tissues by the butanol-HCl-iron assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The butanol-HCl spectrophotometric assay is widely used to quantify extractable and insoluble forms of condensed tannin (CT, syn. proanthocyanidin) in foods, feeds, and foliage of herbaceous and woody plants. However, this method underestimates total CT content when applied directly to plant materia...

  1. Inhibition of Pancreatic Lipase and Triacylglycerol Intestinal Absorption by a Pinhão Coat (Araucaria angustifolia) Extract Rich in Condensed Tannin.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Roselene Ferreira; Gonçalves, Geferson Almeida; Inácio, Fabíola Dorneles; Koehnlein, Eloá Angélica; de Souza, Cristina Giatti Marques; Bracht, Adelar; Peralta, Rosane Marina

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the present work was to characterize the possible inhibition of pancreatic lipase by a tannin-rich extract obtained from the pinhão (Araucaria angustifolia seed) coat, based on the previous observation that this preparation inhibits ?-amylases. Kinetic measurements of pancreatic lipase revealed that the pinhão coat tannin is an effective inhibitor. Inhibition was of the parabolic non-competitive type. The inhibition constants, Ki1 and Ki2, were equal to 332.7 ± 146.1 ?g/mL and 321.2 ± 93.0 ?g/mL, respectively, corresponding roughly to the inhibitor concentration producing 50% inhibition ([I]50). Consistently, the pinhão coat extract was also effective at diminishing the plasma triglyceride levels in mice after an olive oil load; 50% diminution of the area under the plasma concentration versus the time curve occurred at a dose of 250 mg/kg. This observation is most probably the consequence of an indirect inhibition of triglyceride absorption via inhibition of pancreatic lipase. For the pinhão coat tannin, this is the second report of a biological activity, the first one being a similar inhibition of the absorption of glucose derived from starch as a consequence of an inhibitory action on ?-amylases. Taken together, these effects represent a potential anti-obesity action, as suggested for other polyphenol or tannin-rich preparations. PMID:26184295

  2. Protein precipitation behavior of condensed tannins from Lotus pedunculatus and Trifolium repens with different mean degrees of polymerization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The precipitation of bovine serum albumin (BSA), lysozyme (LYS), and alfalfa leaf protein (ALF) by two large- and two medium-sized condensed tannin (CT) fractions of similar flavan-3-ol subunit composition is described. CT fractions isolated from white clover flowers and big trefoil leaves exhibited...

  3. Inhibition of Pancreatic Lipase and Triacylglycerol Intestinal Absorption by a Pinhão Coat (Araucaria angustifolia) Extract Rich in Condensed Tannin

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Roselene Ferreira; Gonçalves, Geferson Almeida; Inácio, Fabíola Dorneles; Koehnlein, Eloá Angélica; de Souza, Cristina Giatti Marques; Bracht, Adelar; Peralta, Rosane Marina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to characterize the possible inhibition of pancreatic lipase by a tannin-rich extract obtained from the pinhão (Araucaria angustifolia seed) coat, based on the previous observation that this preparation inhibits ?-amylases. Kinetic measurements of pancreatic lipase revealed that the pinhão coat tannin is an effective inhibitor. Inhibition was of the parabolic non-competitive type. The inhibition constants, K¯i1 and K¯i2, were equal to 332.7 ± 146.1 ?g/mL and 321.2 ± 93.0 ?g/mL, respectively, corresponding roughly to the inhibitor concentration producing 50% inhibition ([I]50). Consistently, the pinhão coat extract was also effective at diminishing the plasma triglyceride levels in mice after an olive oil load; 50% diminution of the area under the plasma concentration versus the time curve occurred at a dose of 250 mg/kg. This observation is most probably the consequence of an indirect inhibition of triglyceride absorption via inhibition of pancreatic lipase. For the pinhão coat tannin, this is the second report of a biological activity, the first one being a similar inhibition of the absorption of glucose derived from starch as a consequence of an inhibitory action on ?-amylases. Taken together, these effects represent a potential anti-obesity action, as suggested for other polyphenol or tannin-rich preparations. PMID:26184295

  4. Acetone Enhances the Direct Analysis of Total Condensed Tannins in Forage Legumes by the Butanol-HCl Assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depending on concentration, condensed tannins (CT) in forages have no effect, enhance, or impede protein utilization and performance of ruminants. Defining optimal forage CT levels has been elusive, partly because current methods for estimating total soluble plus insoluble CT are laborious or inaccu...

  5. Summary We examined the effects of fertilization and gyp-sy moth defoliation on condensed tannin concentration (%CT)

    E-print Network

    Parry, Dylan

    control) and fertilization treatments (100 kg nitrogen (N) ha­1 and an unfertilized control). Gypsy moth of severe defoliation by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) and of N fertilization on fine root condensedSummary We examined the effects of fertilization and gyp- sy moth defoliation on condensed tannin

  6. Challenges in quantifying condensed tannins and their impact on the ruminal degradability of protein in birdsfoot trefoil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is considerable interest in defining optimal concentrations of condensed tannins (CT) for limiting wasteful pregastric proteolysis of protein in forage legumes. The butanol-HCl assay is widely used for quantifying extractable CT in forages, but the assay underestimates total CT when applied di...

  7. INDICATORS OF GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITISM AFTER AN EXPERIMENTAL HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS INFECTION IN YOUNG GOATS RECEIVING DIETARY QUEBRACHO TANNIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With an increase in resistance of trichostrongylid parasites to commercial anthelmintics, the search for alternative means of parasite control in small ruminants has intensified. Condensed tannins in certain legumes and browse plants have been associated with anthelmintic activity in different stud...

  8. Protective role of tannin-rich fraction of Camellia sinensis in tissue arsenic burden in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Chandronitha, C; Ananthi, S; Ramakrishnan, G; Lakshmisundaram, R; Gayathri, V; Vasanthi, Hannah R

    2010-09-01

    The protective effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis) was tested against arsenic-induced toxicity. However, the possible role of tannins in green tea in alleviating hepatic and renal oxidative injury has also been studied. Administration of sodium arsenite (100 mg/kg/day) for 28 days in Sprague Dawley female rats resulted in significant reduction of biochemical parameters such as delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the index of nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels. The tissue arsenic burden was increased after arsenic exposure for a period of 28 days. Green tea crude fraction (GTC) co-treated with sodium arsenite for 28 days caused significant (p < .01) elevation of ALAD, GSH, GPx, SOD, and nitrate/nitrite levels and reduction of the TBARS level and tissue burden when compared to detannified green tea fraction (GTDT)-treated groups. The protective role of tannin-rich fraction of C. sinensis when compared to the detannified fraction was also confirmed by histological examinations. The greater activity of GTC than that of detannified green tea fraction correlates with the higher content of tannins in green tea. Overall, these results indicate that the tannin-rich green tea could have improved the defense mechanism against arsenic-induced oxidative stress and reduced the tissue arsenic burden. PMID:20144955

  9. Potential of tannin-rich plants for modulating ruminal microbes and ruminal fermentation in sheep.

    PubMed

    Rira, M; Morgavi, D P; Archimède, H; Marie-Magdeleine, C; Popova, M; Bousseboua, H; Doreau, M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study nutritional strategies for decreasing methane production by ruminants fed tropical diets, combining in vitro and in vivo methods. The in vitro approach was used to evaluate the dose effect of condensed tannins (CT) contained in leaves of Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, and Manihot esculenta (39, 75, and 92 g CT/kg DM, respectively) on methane production and ruminal fermentation characteristics. Tannin-rich plants (TRP) were incubated for 24 h alone or mixed with a natural grassland hay based on Dichanthium spp. (control plant), so that proportions of TRP were 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0. Methane production, VFA concentration, and fermented OM decreased with increased proportions of TRP. Numerical differences on methane production and VFA concentration among TRP sources may be due to differences in their CT content, with greater effects for L. leucocephala and M. esculenta than for G. sepium. Independently of TRP, the response to increasing doses of CT was linear for methane production but quadratic for VFA concentration. As a result, at moderate tannin dose, methane decreased more than VFA. The in vivo trial was conducted to investigate the effect of TRP on different ruminal microbial populations. To this end, 8 rumen-cannulated sheep from 2 breeds (Texel and Blackbelly) were used in two 4 × 4 Latin square designs. Diets were fed ad libitum and were composed of the same feeds used for the in vitro trial: control plant alone or combined with pellets made from TRP leaves at 44% of the diet DM. Compared to TRP, concentration of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was greater for the control diet and concentration of Ruminococcus albus was least for the control diet. The methanogen population was greater for Texel than for Blackbelly. By contrast, TRP-containing diets did not affect protozoa or Fibrobacter succinogenes numbers. Hence, TRP showed potential for mitigating methane production by ruminants. These findings suggest that TRP fed as pellets could be used to decrease methane production. PMID:25568379

  10. A galloylated cyanogenic glycoside from the Australian endemic rainforest tree Elaeocarpus sericopetalus (Elaeocarpaceae).

    PubMed

    Miller, Rebecca E; Stewart, Michael; Capon, Robert J; Woodrow, Ian E

    2006-07-01

    A cyanogenic glycoside - 6'-O-galloylsambunigrin - has been isolated from the foliage of the Australian tropical rainforest tree species Elaeocarpus sericopetalus F. Muell. (Elaeocarpaceae). This is the first formal characterisation of a cyanogenic constituent in the Elaeocarpaceae family, and only the second in the order Malvales. 6'-O-galloylsambunigrin was identified as the principal glycoside, accounting for 91% of total cyanogen in a leaf methanol extract. Preliminary analyses indicated that the remaining cyanogen content may comprise small quantities of sambunigrin, as well as di- and tri-gallates of sambunigrin. E. sericopetalus was found to have foliar concentrations of cyanogenic glycosides among the highest reported for tree leaves, up to 5.2 mg CN g(-1) dry wt. PMID:16716370

  11. Unusual fernane and gammacerane glycosides from the aerial parts of Spergula fallax.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Arafa I; Masullo, Milena; Pecio, Lukasz; Gallotta, Dario; Mahalel, Usama A; Pawelec, Sylwia; Stochmal, Anna; Piacente, Sonia

    2014-03-28

    The aerial parts of Spergula fallax afforded four glycosides (1-4) based on two new triterpene aglycones (1a and 2a), along with the known hopane glycoside succulentoside A. Compound 1 was identified as belonging to the fernane class, unusual migrated hopane triterpenoids, mainly isolated from ferns and only rarely from higher plants. Compounds 2-4 were assigned as gammacerane glycosides, having as aglycone a hydroxylated derivative of tetrahymanol. The structures of the isolated compounds 1-4 and their aglycones 1a and 2a obtained by acid hydrolysis were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation. The growth inhibitory activity of the isolated compounds and their aglycones was evaluated against the HeLa and DLD-1 cancer cell lines. PMID:24527835

  12. Studies on Kochiae Fructus. V. Antipruritic effects of oleanolic acid glycosides and the structure-requirement.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, H; Dai, Y; Ido, Y; Murakami, T; Matsuda, H; Yoshikawa, M; Kubo, M

    1998-11-01

    We examined the antipruritic effects of various oleanolic acid glycosides from natural medicines such as Kochiae Fructus (the fruit of Kochia scoparia SCHRAD.) and Momordicae Radix (the roots of Momordica cochinchinensis SPRENG.) using a compound 48/80-induced pruritic model in mice. Oleanolic acid 3-O-monodesmosides showed an antipruritic effect, while oleanolic acid 3,28-O-bisdesmosides and their common sapogenol oleanolic acid lacked the activity. This evidence indicated that the 3-O-glycoside moiety and the 28-carboxyl group in oleanolic acid glycosides were essential for exhibiting the antipruritic effect. Furthermore, it was found that the 3-O-glucuronides showed more potent activity than the corresponding 3-O-glucosides. PMID:9853421

  13. Partial characterization of a biologically active steroid glycoside isolated from the starfish Marthasterias glacialis

    PubMed Central

    Mackie, A. M.; Turner, A. B.

    1970-01-01

    1. A steroid glycoside (M2), which induces avoidance and other reactions in the mollusc Buccinum undatum, has been isolated from extracts of the starfish Marthasterias glacialis by ion-exchange chromatography. 2. The steroid glycoside was homogeneous by t.l.c. and contained glucose, quinovose, fucose and sulphate in the molar proportions 1:2:1:1, in addition to a water-insoluble aglycone. 3. The aglycone was identified as a cholestane derivative containing an unusual ?24-23-ketone system, two secondary hydroxyl groups and an olefinic double bond, and had the molecular formula C27H42O3. 4. The rates of release of sugars and sulphate suggested that fucose was at the non-reducing end of the oligosaccharide, with glucose glycosidically linked to the steroid. The sulphate group appeared to be linked to the other hydroxyl group of the steroid. PMID:5419749

  14. Two new quinochalcone C-glycosides from the florets of Carthamus tinctorius.

    PubMed

    Yue, Shijun; Tang, Yuping; Xu, Chengmei; Li, Shujiao; Zhu, Yue; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2014-01-01

    Two new quinochalcone C-glycosides, named hydroxysafflor yellow B (1) and hydroxysafflor yellow C (2), along with two known quinochalcone C-glycosides, safflomin C (3) and saffloquinoside C (4), and one known flavanone, (2R)-4',5-dihydroxyl-6, 7-di-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl flavanone (5), were isolated from the florets of Carthamus tinctorius. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic (UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR) analyses. In addition, these quinochalcone C-glycosides together with hydroxysafflor yellow A and anhydrosafflor yellow B were evaluated for their anti-oxidative effects against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in cultured H9c2 cells. Among them, compound 2 exhibited significant anti-oxidative effects. PMID:25247575

  15. Re-evaluating the role of ascorbic acid and phenolic glycosides in ozone scavenging in the leaf apoplast of

    E-print Network

    Jones, Alan M.

    Re-evaluating the role of ascorbic acid and phenolic glycosides in ozone scavenging in the leaf and peroxidase substrates, suggesting that compounds in addition to ascorbate may have functional importance of ascorbic acid (AA) and phenolic glycosides in Arabidopsis thaliana L. Col-0 wild-type plants were

  16. Differential EI Fragmentation Pathways for Peracetylated C-Glycoside Ketones as a Consequence of Bicyclic Ketal Ring Structures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several C-glycoside ketones and peracetylated C-glycoside ketones have been synthesized from 13 structurally-diverse aldoses sugars (including isotope labeled [1-**13C]Glc, [U-**13C]Glc, and [6,6’-**2H2]Glc) via an aqueous-based Knoevanagel condensation with aliphatic 1,3-diketones. Sodium adduct m...

  17. Anthelmintic activity of acetone-water extracts against Haemonchus contortus eggs: interactions between tannins and other plant secondary compounds.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Magaña, J J; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Hoste, H; Chan-Pérez, J A

    2014-12-15

    This study aimed at (i) describing the effects of acetone-water extracts obtained from a range of different plant materials, on the hatching process of Haemonchus contortus eggs under in vitro conditions and (ii) identifying the role of tannins and other plant secondary compounds (PSC), on these AH effects by using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP), an inhibitor of tannins and other polyphenols. An egg hatch assay (EHA) was used to determine the AH effect. Acetone-water (70:30) extracts from different foliages (Lysiloma latisiliquum, Laguncularia racemosa, Rizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans) and plant by-products (Theobroma cacao seed husk and pulp, and percolated Coffea arabica) were obtained. Fresh H. contortus eggs were incubated in PBS with increasing concentrations of each extract (0, 600, 1200, 2400 and 3600 ?g/ml PBS). A general linear model was used to determine the dose effect of each extract. A mild ovicidal activity was only recorded for T. cacao extracts (seed husk and pulp). The main anthelmintic (AH) effect for all the extracts, except for C. arabica, was to block the eclosion of larvated eggs. The use of PVPP at 3600 ?g/ml PBS showed that tannins of the L. racemosa extract were responsible for blocking eclosion of larvated eggs. Extracts of L. latisiliquum, A. germinans, T. cacao seed husk and pulp also blocked eclosion of larvated eggs but the addition of PVPP indicated that tannins were not responsible for that activity. In contrast, it suggested unfavorable interactions between polyphenols and other PSC contained in those extracts, limiting the AH effect on the egg hatching process. The present results suggest that the interactions between tannins and other PSC are complex and may reduce the AH effects against H. contortus eggs. PMID:25468031

  18. Temporary reduction of radiation does not permanently reduce flavonoid glycosides and phenolic acids in red lettuce.

    PubMed

    Becker, Christine; Kläring, Hans-Peter; Kroh, Lothar W; Krumbein, Angelika

    2013-11-01

    Applying transparent daytime screens in greenhouses in cool seasons reduces the amount of energy needed for heating, but also the solar radiation available for crops. This can reduce yield and product quality of leafy vegetables because of constrained photosynthesis and altered biosynthesis. To study this, we cultivated five-week old red leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) for four weeks in growth chambers under a photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 225 and 410 ?mol m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Some plants were exchanged between radiation intensities after two weeks. We investigated the concentration of five flavonoid glycosides, three caffeic acid derivatives, reducing sugars as well as plant growth. Remarkably, no significant influence of radiation intensity on the concentration of phenolic acids or anthocyanin glycosides was observed. In contrast, quercetin and luteolin glycoside concentration was between 14 and 34% lower in plants growing under lower compared to higher PPFD. Already after two weeks of cultivation, plants grown under lower PPFD contained less quercetin and luteolin glycosides but they completely compensated if subsequently transferred to higher PPFD until harvest. Hence, marketable lettuce heads which experienced temporary shading followed by an unshaded phase did not contain lower concentrations of flavonoid glycosides or phenolic acids. Also, there was no reduction of head mass in this variant. Our results suggest that saving energy in early growth stages is feasible without losses in yield or health promoting phenolic substances. In addition, there was a close correlation between the concentration of reducing sugars and some flavonoid glycosides, indicating a close metabolic connection between their biosynthesis and the availability of carbohydrates. PMID:23735845

  19. Tannin containing legumes as a model for nutraceuticals against digestive parasites in livestock.

    PubMed

    Hoste, H; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Mueller-Harvey, I; Sotiraki, S; Louvandini, H; Thamsborg, S M; Terrill, T H

    2015-08-15

    Parasitic infections with gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) still represent a worldwide major pathological threat associated with the outdoor production of various livestock species. Because of the widespread resistance to synthetic chemical anthelmintics, there is a strong impetus to explore novel approaches for a more integrated management of these infections. The use of nutraceuticals in the control of GINs is one of the alternatives which has been widely studied for 20 years. The objectives of this review are: (i) to define and illustrate the concept of 'nutraceutical' in the context of veterinary parasitology based on data obtained on the most studied models to control GINs in small ruminants, the tannin-containing legumes (Fabaceae); (ii) to illustrate how the 'nutraceutical concept' could be expanded to other plants, other livestock production systems and other GI parasitic diseases, and (iii) to explain how this concept is opening up new research fields for better understanding the interactions between the host, the digestive parasites and the environment. PMID:26190131

  20. Phenolic acids, hydrolyzable tannins, and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from the stingless bee Melipona fasciculata Smith.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Richard Pereira; Abreu, Bruno Vinicius de Barros; Cunha, Mayara Soares; Batista, Marisa Cristina Aranha; Torres, Luce Maria Brandão; Nascimento, Flavia Raquel Fernandes; Ribeiro, Maria Nilce Sousa; Guerra, Rosane Nassar Meireles

    2014-03-26

    Geopropolis is a mixture of plant resins, waxes, and soil produced by the stingless bee Melipona fasciculata Smith. This paper describes the antioxidant activity and chemical composition of geopropolis produced by M. fasciculata. The total phenolic content determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was highest in the ethyl acetate fraction and hydroalcoholic extract. Antioxidant activity was assayed by the in vitro DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. The hydroalcoholic extract and fractions of geopropolis, except for the hexane fraction, exhibited antioxidant activity against DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP. The phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC-DAD-MS on the basis of the evaluation of their UV-vis absorption maxima (?max) and mass spectral analysis. Eleven compounds belonging to the classes of phenolic acids and hydrolyzable tannins (gallotannins and ellagitannins) were tentatively identified. These compounds are responsible for the antioxidant activity and high phenolic content of geopropolis produced by M. fasciculata. PMID:24571707

  1. Electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry of mixtures of triterpene glycosides with paracetamol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekar, A. V.; Vetrova, E. V.; Borisenko, N. I.; Yakovishin, L. A.; Grishkovets, V. I.

    2010-11-01

    Molecular complexation of paracetamol with hederagenin 3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-O-?-L-arabinopyranoside (?-hederin) and its 28-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 6)-O-?-Dglucopyranosyl ether (hederasaponin C) was investigated for the first time using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The glycosides form complexes with paracetamol in a 1:1 molar ratio. The hederasaponin C complex is more stable. The structures of the glycosides and paracetamol are concluded to have an impact on the complexation process.

  2. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of mixtures of triterpene glycosides with L-phenylalanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekar, A. V.; Vetrova, E. V.; Borisenko, N. I.; Yakovishin, L. A.; Grishkovets, V. I.; Borisenko, S. N.

    2011-09-01

    Electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was used to investigate for the first time the molecular complexation of L-phenylalanine with hederagenin 3-O- ?- L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-O- ?- L-arabinopyranoside ( ?-hederin) and its 28-O- ?- L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-O-?- D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 6)-O-?- D-glucopyranosyl ester (hederasaponin C). The glycoside/ L-phenylalanine complexes with a 1:1 molar ratio turned out to be most stable. The structures of the glycosides and L-phenylalanine have been concluded to have an impact on the complexation process.

  3. Phenylpropanoid and lignan glycosides from the aerial parts of Lespedeza cuneata.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Li, Chuang-Jun; Yang, Jing-Zhi; Ma, Jie; Wu, Lian-Qiu; Wang, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Dong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Four phenylpropanoid glucosides (1-4) and five lignan glycosides (5-9) were isolated from the aerial parts of Lespedeza cuneata, together with three known lignan glycosides (10-12). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, and the absolute configurations of compounds 5-9 were determined from the CD spectra. In addition, the compounds were tested for their ability to activate the transcription effect on xbp1 promoter. Compounds 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, and 12 could activate the transcription of xbp1 to varying degrees, with EC50 values ranging from 0.18 to 0.64?M. PMID:26475664

  4. Phenolic glycosides and other constituents from the bark of Magnolia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ren-Yi; Liu, Hong-Liang; Zhang, Jian-Yong; Yang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    A new phenolic glycoside, syringic acid 4-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 5)-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (1), together with 12 known compounds consisting of eight phenolic glycosides (2-9), two phenolic acids (10 and 11), and two norsesquiterpenoids (12 and 13), was isolated from the methanol extract of the bark of Magnolia officinalis. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. Compounds 1-11 were evaluated for their inhibitory activities against fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, aldose reductase, lipase, dipeptidyl peptidase-IV, ?-glucosidase, and three cancer cell lines. However, all the compounds showed weak or no activities in these tests. PMID:23909378

  5. Cholestane steroid glycosides from the root of Dioscorea villosa (wild yam)

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Zulfiqar; Smillie, Troy J.; Khan, Ikhlas A.

    2014-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the MeOH extract of Dioscorea villosa root resulted in the isolation of two new bidesmosidic cholestane steroid glycosides, dioscoreavillosides A and B (1 and 2). In addition, the extract yielded 12 previously known furostane and spirostane steroid glycosides (3-14), along with diosgenin (15). Compounds 3-7, 9, 14, and 15 were isolated for the first time from D. villosa. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined using spectroscopic and chemical methods including 1D and 2D NMR. The antimicrobial action of most of these compounds was tested against five fungal and five bacterial strains. PMID:23454141

  6. Identification of Novel Phenyl Butenonyl C-Glycosides with Ureidyl and Sulfonamidyl Moieties as Antimalarial Agents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A new series of C-linked phenyl butenonyl glycosides bearing ureidyl(thioureidyl) and sulfonamidyl moieties in the phenyl rings were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their in vitro antimalarial activities against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 (CQ sensitive) and K1 (CQ resistant) strains. Among all the compounds screened the C-linked phenyl butenonyl glycosides bearing sulfonamidyl moiety (5a) and ureidyl moiety in the phenyl ring (7d and 8c) showed promising antimalarial activities against both 3D7 and K1 strains with IC50 values in micromolar range and low cytotoxicity offering new HITS for further exploration. PMID:25147607

  7. A New Diterpene Glycoside: 15?-Hydroxy-Rebaudioside M Isolated from Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Indra; Ma, Gil; Bunders, Cynthia; Devkota, Krishna P; Charan, Romila D; Ramirez, Catherine; Snyder, Tara M; Priedemann, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    In a continued search for novel diterpenoid glycosides, we recently isolated and characterized a Rebaudioside M derivative with a hydroxyl group at position 15 in the central diterpene core from an extract of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Here we report the complete structure elucidation of 15?-hydroxy-Rebaudioside M (2) on the basis of NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC-DEPT, HMBC, 1D TOCSY, NOESY) and mass spectral data. Steviol glycoside with a hydroxyl group at C-15 in the central diterpene core has not been previously reported. PMID:26410999

  8. A steryl glycoside fraction with hemolytic activity from tubers of Momordica cochinchinensis.

    PubMed

    Ng, T B; Li, W W; Yeung, H W

    1986-10-01

    A hemolytic fraction has been obtained from fresh tubers of Momordica cochinchinensis. The fraction was strongly adsorbed on DEAE-Sepharose CL6B. It did not stain with Coomassie brilliant blue in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and it gave no immunoprecipitin arcs in immunoelectrophoresis. The hemolytic activity of the fraction was resistant to heat and proteolytic enzymes. The behavior of the fraction in thin-layer chromatography and its positive reaction in Liebermann-Burchard test indicated that the hemolytic activity of the fraction can be attributed to a steryl glycoside(s). PMID:3821135

  9. New Labdane Diterpenes and Their Glycoside Derivatives from the Roots of Isodon adenantha.

    PubMed

    Wu, La-Bin; Xiao, Chao-Jiang; Jiang, Xue; Qiu, Lin; Dong, Xiang; Jiang, Bei

    2015-08-01

    Two new labdane-type diterpenes (adenanthic acids A and B; 1 and 2, resp.) and three new labdane diterpene glycosides (adenanthosides A-C; 3-5, resp.) were isolated from the roots of Isodon adenantha, together with 23 known constituents including seven diterpenoids (6-12), eight triterpenoids (13-20), one lignan glycoside (21), six steroids (22-27), and one ceramide (28). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including extensive 2D-NMR techniques. Cytotoxicity and antibacterial activities of the samples were measured by the MTT method and the filter paper disc agar diffusion method. But none of them showed significant activities. PMID:26265575

  10. [Cardiac auscultation in children].

    PubMed

    Ratti, Carlo; Grassi, Laura; De Maria, Elia; Bonetti, Lorenzo; Borghi, Adriana; Cappelli, Stefano

    2014-12-01

    Cardiac auscultation permits to distinguish between the innocent heart murmurs and pathologic murmurs; characteristics of pathologic murmurs include a holosystolic or diastolic murmur, maximal murmur intensity at the upper left sternal border and increased intensity when the patient stands. Murmurs should be described by their timing in the cardiac cycle, intensity, shape, pitch, location, radiation, and response to dynamic maneuvers. When the medical history and physical examination support the diagnosis of innocent heart murmur, neither further investigation nor referal is indicated. On the contrary, echocardiography is recommended for patients with any other abnormal physical examination findings that increase the likelihood of structural heart disease. In this review we discuss the definition and classification of murmurs, how to evaluate it. PMID:25533235

  11. Perspectives in the use of tannins as alternative to antimicrobial growth promoter factors in poultry

    PubMed Central

    Redondo, Leandro M.; Chacana, Pablo A.; Dominguez, Johana E.; Fernandez Miyakawa, Mariano E.

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics have been included in the formulation of feed for livestock production for more than 40 years as a strategy to improve feed conversion rates and to reduce costs. The use of antimicrobials as growth-promoting factors (AGP) in sub-therapeutic doses for long periods is particularly favorable for the selection of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms. In the last years, global concern about development of antimicrobial resistance and transference of resistance genes from animal to human strains has been rising. Removal of AGP from animal diets involves tremendous pressure on the livestock and poultry farmers, one of the main consequences being a substantial increase in the incidence of infectious diseases with the associated increase in the use of antibiotics for therapy, and concomitantly, economic cost. Therefore, alternatives to AGP are urgently needed. The challenge is to implement new alternatives without affecting the production performances of livestock and avoiding the increase of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms. Plant extracts and purified derived substances are showing promising results for animal nutrition, either from their efficacy as well as from an economical point of view. Tannins are plant derived compounds that are being successfully used as additives in poultry feed to control diseases and to improve animal performance. Successful use of any of these extracts as feed additives must ensure a product of consistent quality in enough quantity to fulfill the actual requirements of the poultry industry. Chestnut (hydrolysable) and Quebracho (condensed) tannins are probably the most readily available commercial products that are covering those needs. The present report intends to analyze the available data supporting their use. PMID:24723916

  12. Characterization and Modeling of the Collision Induced Dissociation Patterns of Deprotonated Glycosphingolipids: Cleavage of the Glycosidic Bond.

    PubMed

    Rožman, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Glycosphingolipid fragmentation behavior was investigated by combining results from analysis of a series of negative ion tandem mass spectra and molecular modeling. Fragmentation patterns extracted from 75 tandem mass spectra of mainly acidic glycosphingolipid species (gangliosides) suggest prominent cleavage of the glycosidic bonds with retention of the glycosidic oxygen atom by the species formed from the reducing end (B and Y ion formation). Dominant product ions arise from dissociation of sialic acids glycosidic bonds whereas product ions resulting from cleavage of other glycosidic bonds are less abundant. Potential energy surfaces and unimolecular reaction rates of several low-energy fragmentation pathways leading to cleavage of glycosidic bonds were estimated in order to explain observed dissociation patterns. Glycosidic bond cleavage in both neutral (unsubstituted glycosyl group) and acidic glycosphingolipids was the outcome of the charge-directed intramolecular nucleophilic substitution (SN2) mechanism. According to the suggested mechanism, the nucleophile in a form of carboxylate or oxyanion attacks the carbon at position one of the sugar ring, simultaneously breaking the glycosidic bond and yielding an epoxide. For gangliosides, unimolecular reaction rates suggest that dominant product ions related to the cleavage of sialic acid glycosidic bonds are formed via direct dissociation channels. On the other hand, low abundant product ions related to the dissociation of other glycosidic bonds are more likely to be the result of sequential dissociation. Although results from this study mainly contribute to the understanding of glycosphingolipid fragmentation chemistry, some mechanistic findings regarding cleavage of the glycosidic bond may be applicable to other glycoconjugates. Graphical Abstract ?. PMID:26297186

  13. Cardiac outflow tract anomalies.

    PubMed

    Neeb, Zachary; Lajiness, Jacquelyn D; Bolanis, Esther; Conway, Simon J

    2013-07-01

    The mature outflow tract (OFT) is, in basic terms, a short conduit. It is a simple, although vital, connection situated between contracting muscular heart chambers and a vast embryonic vascular network. Unfortunately, it is also a focal point underlying many multifactorial congenital heart defects (CHDs). Through the use of various animal models combined with human genetic investigations, we are beginning to comprehend the molecular and cellular framework that controls OFT morphogenesis. Clear roles of neural crest cells (NCC) and second heart field (SHF) derivatives have been established during OFT formation and remodeling. The challenge now is to determine how the SHF and cardiac NCC interact, the complex reciprocal signaling that appears to be occurring at various stages of OFT morphogenesis, and finally how endocardial progenitors and primary heart field (PHF) communicate with both these colonizing extra-cardiac lineages. Although we are beginning to understand that this dance of progenitor populations is wonderfully intricate, the underlying pathogenesis and the spatiotemporal cell lineage interactions remain to be fully elucidated. What is now clear is that OFT alignment and septation are independent processes, invested via separate SHF and cardiac neural crest (CNC) lineages. This review will focus on our current understanding of the respective contributions of the SHF and CNC lineage during OFT development and pathogenesis. PMID:24014420

  14. Cardiac surgery for arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Cox, James L

    2004-02-01

    Cardiac arrhythmia surgery was initiated in 1968 with the first successful division of an accessory AV connection for the Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome. Subsequent surgical procedures included the left atrial isolation procedure and the right atrial isolation procedure for automatic atrial tachycardias, discrete cryosurgery of the AV node for AV nodal reentry tachycardia, the atrial transection procedure, corridor procedure and Maze procedure for atrial fibrillation, the right ventricular disconnection procedure for arrhythmogenic right ventricular tachycardia, the encircling endocardial ventriculotomy, subendocardial resection procedure, endocardial cryoablation, the Jatene procedure, and the Dor procedure for ischemic ventricular tachycardia. Because of monumental strides in the treatment of most refractory arrhythmias by endocardial catheter techniques during the past decade, the only remaining viable surgical procedures for cardiac arrhythmias are the Maze procedure for atrial fibrillation and the Dor procedure for ischemic ventricular tachycardia. Nevertheless, the 25-30 years of intense activity in the field of cardiac arrhythmia surgery provided the essential foundation for the development of these catheter techniques and represent one of the most exciting and productive eras in the history of medicine. In one short professional career, we have witnessed the birth of arrhythmia surgery, its adolescence as an "esoteric" specialty, its prime as an enlightening yet exhausting period, and finally its waning years as a source of knowledge and wisdom on which better methods of treatment have been founded. One could hardly ask for a more rewarding experience. PMID:14764186

  15. Cardiac surgery for arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Cox, James L

    2004-02-01

    Cardiac arrhythmia surgery was initiated in 1968 with the first successful division of an accessory AV connection for the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Subsequent surgical procedures included the left atrial isolation procedure and right atrial isolation procedure for automatic atrial tachycardias, discrete cryosurgery of the AV node for AV nodal reentrant tachycardia, the atrial transection procedure, the corridor procedure, and the maze procedure for atrial fibrillation, the right ventricular disconnection procedure for arrhythmogenic right ventricular tachycardia, and the encircling endocardial ventriculotomy, subendocardial resection procedure, endocardial cryoablation, the Jatene procedure, and the Dor procedure for ischemic ventricular tachycardia. Because of monumental strides in the treatment of most refractory arrhythmias by endocardial catheter techniques during the past decade, the only remaining viable surgical procedures for cardiac arrhythmias are the maze procedure for atrial fibrillation and the Dor procedure for ischemic ventricular tachycardia. Nevertheless, the 25 to 30 years of intense activity in the field of cardiac arrhythmia surgery provided the essential foundation for the development of these catheter techniques and represent one of the most exciting and productive eras in the history of medicine. In one short professional career, we have witnessed the birth of arrhythmia surgery, its adolescence as an "esoteric" specialty, its prime as an enlightening yet exhausting period, and finally its waning years as a source of knowledge and wisdom upon which better methods of treatment have been founded. One could hardly ask for a more rewarding experience. PMID:15028063

  16. Cardiac surgery for arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Cox, James L

    2004-11-01

    Cardiac arrhythmia surgery was initiated in 1968 with the first successful division of an accessory AV connection for the Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome. Subsequent surgical procedures included the left atrial isolation procedure and the right atrial isolation procedure for automatic atrial tachycardias, discrete cryosurgery of the AV node for AV nodal reentry tachycardia, the atrial transection procedure, corridor procedure and Maze procedure for atrial fibrillation, the right ventricular disconnection procedure for arrhythmogenic right ventricular tachycardia, the encircling endocardial ventriculotomy, subendocardial resection procedure, endocardial cryoablation, the Jatene procedure, and the Dor procedure for ischemic ventricular tachycardia. Because of monumental strides in the treatment of most refractory arrhythmias by endocardial catheter techniques during the past decade, the only remaining viable surgical procedures for cardiac arrhythmias are the Maze procedure for atrial fibrillation and the Dor procedure for ischemic ventricular tachycardia. Nevertheless, the 25-30 years of intense activity in the field of cardiac arrhythmia surgery provided the essential foundation for the development of these catheter techniques and represent one of the most exciting and productive eras in the history of medicine. In one short professional career, we have witnessed the birth of arrhythmia surgery, its adolescence as an "esoteric" specialty, its prime as an enlightening yet exhausting period, and finally its waning years as a source of knowledge and wisdom on which better methods of treatment have been founded. One could hardly ask for a more rewarding experience. PMID:23570110

  17. Cardiac emergencies in children.

    PubMed

    Schamberger, M S

    1996-06-01

    Pediatric cardiac emergencies require very specific treatment in the emergency room setting. Considering the possibility of a cardiac problem as the cause for the presenting symptoms is the initial step in successful management. Many patients present with what is initially considered a primary pulmonary disorder such as pneumonia, asthma, or bronchiolitis. Airway stabilization and ventilatory support, if needed, remain the first steps in stabilizing the patient. Many neonates with acutely decompensating heart disease may require the patency of the ductus arteriosus for survival. Prostaglandin E given as continuous infusion is the treatment of choice. Congestive heart failure can present at any age. In older patients, it is often due to myocarditis and is characterized by low cardiac output. Supportive measures, fluid restriction, and inotropic support are the basic concepts for initial treatment. Supraventricular tachycardia is a frequent arrhythmia, especially in young children. If the patient is unstable, immediate intravenous administration of adenosine or synchronized cardioversion are the initial interventions. In stable patients, vagal maneuvers may be attempted to abort the arrhythmia. PMID:8793920

  18. Cardiac Signatures of Personality

    PubMed Central

    Koelsch, Stefan; Enge, Juliane; Jentschke, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Background There are well-established relations between personality and the heart, as evidenced by associations between negative emotions on the one hand, and coronary heart disease or chronic heart failure on the other. However, there are substantial gaps in our knowledge about relations between the heart and personality in healthy individuals. Here, we investigated whether amplitude patterns of the electrocardiogram (ECG) correlate with neurotisicm, extraversion, agreeableness, warmth, positive emotion, and tender-mindedness as measured with the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness (NEO) personality inventory. Specifically, we investigated (a) whether a cardiac amplitude measure that was previously reported to be related to flattened affectivity (referred to as values) would explain variance of NEO scores, and (b) whether correlations can be found between NEO scores and amplitudes of the ECG. Methodology/Principal Findings NEO scores and rest ECGs were obtained from 425 healthy individuals. Neuroticism and positive emotion significantly differed between individuals with high and low values. In addition, stepwise cross-validated regressions indicated correlations between ECG amplitudes and (a) agreeableness, as well as (b) positive emotion. Conclusions/Significance These results are the first to demonstrate that ECG amplitude patterns provide information about the personality of an individual as measured with NEO personality scales and facets. These findings open new perspectives for a more efficient personality assessment using cardiac measures, as well as for more efficient risk-stratification and pre-clinical diagnosis of individuals at risk for cardiac, affective and psychosomatic disorders. PMID:22363649

  19. Cardiac surgery 2014 reviewed.

    PubMed

    Doenst, Torsten; Strüning, Constanze; Moschovas, Alexandros; Gonzalez-Lopez, David; Valchanov, Ilija; Kirov, Hristo; Diab, Mahmoud; Faerber, Gloria

    2015-12-01

    For the year 2014, more than 17,000 published references can be found in Pubmed when entering the search term "cardiac surgery". The last year has been characterized by a vivid discussion in the fields where classic cardiac surgery and modern interventional techniques overlap. Specifically, there have been important contributions in the field of coronary revascularization with either percutaneous coronary intervention or bypass surgery as well as in the fields of interventional valve therapy. Here, the US core valve trial with the first demonstration of a survival advantage at 1 year with transcatheter valves compared to surgical aortic valve replacement or the 5-year outcome of the SYNTAX trial with significant advantages for bypass surgery has been the landmark. However, in addition to these most visible publications, there have been several highly relevant and interesting contributions. This review article will summarize the most pertinent publications in the fields of coronary revascularization, surgical treatment of valve disease, heart failure (i.e., transplantation and ventricular assist devices) and aortic surgery. This condensed summary will provide the reader with "solid ground" for up-to-date decision-making in cardiac surgery. PMID:26404007

  20. Nuclear imaging for cardiac amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Noordzij, Walter; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Longhi, Simone; Slart, Riemer H J A; Lorenzini, Massimiliano; Hazenberg, Bouke P C; Rapezzi, Claudio

    2015-03-01

    Histological analysis of endomyocardial tissue is still the gold standard for the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis, but has its limitations. Accordingly, there is a need for non-invasive modalities to diagnose cardiac amyloidosis. Echocardiography and ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging can show characteristics which may not be very specific for cardiac amyloid. Nuclear medicine has gained a precise role in this context: several imaging modalities have become available for the diagnosis and prognostic stratification of cardiac amyloidosis during the last two decades. The different classes of radiopharmaceuticals have the potential to bind different constituents of the amyloidotic infiltrates, with some relevant differences among the various aetiologic types of amyloidosis and the different organs and tissues involved. This review focuses on the background of the commonly used modalities, their present clinical applications, and future clinical perspectives in imaging patients with (suspected) cardiac amyloidosis. The main focus is on conventional nuclear medicine (bone scintigraphy, cardiac sympathetic innervation) and positron emission tomography. PMID:25424887

  1. Cardiac sarcoidosis: a comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Sekhri, Vishal; Sanal, Shireen; DeLorenzo, Lawrence J.; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Maguire, George P.

    2011-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown etiology characterized by noncaseating granulomas in involved organs. Organs involved with sarcoidosis include lymph nodes, skin, lung, central nervous system, and eye. Only 40-50% of patients with cardiac sarcoidosis diagnosed at autopsy have the diagnosis made during their lifetime. Cardiac sarcoidosis can manifest itself as complete heart block, ventricular arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, pericardial effusion, pulmonary hypertension, and ventricular aneurysms. Diagnostic tests such as the electrocardiogram, two-dimensional echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography scan, radionuclide scan, and endomyocardial biopsy can be helpful in the early detection of cardiac sarcoidosis. Considering the increased risk of sudden death, cardiac sarcoidosis is an indication for early treatment with corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive agents. Other treatments include placement of a pacemaker or implantable defibrillator to prevent sudden death. In refractory cases, cardiac transplantation should be considered. PMID:22291785

  2. Sudden cardiac death and obesity.

    PubMed

    Plourde, Benoit; Sarrazin, Jean-François; Nault, Isabelle; Poirier, Paul

    2014-09-01

    For individuals and the society as a whole, the increased risk of sudden cardiac death in obese patients is becoming a major challenge, especially since obesity prevalence has been increasing steadily around the globe. Traditional risk factors and obesity often coexist. Hypertension, diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea and metabolic syndrome are well-known risk factors for CV disease and are often present in the obese patient. Although the bulk of evidence is circumstantial, sudden cardiac death and obesity share common traditional CV risk factors. Structural, functional and metabolic factors modulate and influence the risk of sudden cardiac death in the obese population. Other risk factors such as left ventricular hypertrophy, increased number of premature ventricular complexes, altered QT interval and reduced heart rate variability are all documented in both obese and sudden cardiac death populations. The present review focuses on out-of-hospital sudden cardiac death and potential mechanisms leading to sudden cardiac death in this population. PMID:25160995

  3. Lotus corniculatus condensed tannins decrease in vivo populations of proteolytic bacteria and affect nitrogen metabolism in the rumen of sheep.

    PubMed

    Min, B R; Attwood, G T; Reilly, K; Sun, W; Peters, J S; Barry, T N; McNabb, W C

    2002-10-01

    Condensed tannins in forage legumes improve the nutrition of sheep by reducing ruminal degradation of plant protein and increasing crude protein flow to the intestine. However, the effects of condensed tannins in forage legumes on rumen bacterial populations in vivo are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific effects of condensed tannins from Lotus corniculatus on four proteolytic rumen bacteria in sheep during and after transition from a ryegrass (Lolium perenne)-white clover (Trifolium repens) diet (i.e., low condensed tannins) to a Lotus corniculatus diet (i.e., higher condensed tannins). The bacterial populations were quantified using a competitive polymerase chain reaction. Lotus corniculatus was fed with or without ruminal infusions of polyethylene glycol (PEG), which binds to and inactivates condensed tannins, enabling the effect of condensed tannins on bacterial populations to be examined. When sheep fed on ryegrass-white clover, populations of Clostridium proteoclasticum B316T, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens C211a, Eubacterium sp. C12b, and Streptococcus bovis B315 were 1.5 x 10(8), 1.1 x 10(6), 4.6 x 10(8), and 7.1 x 10(6) mL(-1), respectively. When the diet was changed to Lotus corniculatus, the average populations (after 8-120 h) of C. proteoclasticum, B. fibrisolvens, Eubacterium sp., and S. bovis decreased (P < 0.001) to 2.4 x 10(7), 1.1 x 10(5), 1.1 x 10(8), and 2.5 x 10(5) mL(-1), respectively. When PEG was infused into the rumen of sheep fed Lotus corniculatus, the populations of C. proteoclasticum, B. fibrisolvens, Eubacterium sp., and S. bovis were higher (P < 0.01-0.001) than in sheep fed Lotus corniculatus without the PEG infusion, with average populations (after 8-120 h) of 4.9 x 10(7), 3.8 x 10(5), 1.9 x 10(8), and 1.0 x 10(6), respectively. Sheep fed the Lotus corniculatus diet had lower rumen proteinase activity, ammonia, and soluble nitrogen (P < 0.05-0.001) than sheep that were fed Lotus corniculatus plus PEG. The Lotus corniculatus diet reduced rumen nitrogen digestibility (P < 0.05) and ammonia pool size and increased the flow of undegraded feed nitrogen to the abomasum. The nitrogen intake, rumen non-ammonia nitrogen pool size, rumen microbial non-ammonia nitrogen pool size, and abomasal microbial non-ammonia nitrogen fluxes were similar both in sheep fed only Lotus corniculatus and in sheep fed Lotus corniculatus plus PEG, but nonmicrobial non-ammonia nitrogen flux to the abomasum was higher (P < 0.01) for the sheep fed only Lotus corniculatus. Although condensed tannins in Lotus corniculatus reduced the populations of some proteolytic bacteria, total ruminal microbial protein and microbial protein outflow to the abomasum were unchanged, suggesting a species-specific effect of condensed tannins on bacteria in the rumen. PMID:12489781

  4. Evaluation of the glycoside hydrolase activity of a Brettanomyces strain on glycosides from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) used in the production of special fruit beers.

    PubMed

    Daenen, Luk; Sterckx, Femke; Delvaux, Freddy R; Verachtert, Hubert; Derdelinckx, Guy

    2008-11-01

    The glycoside hydrolase activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Brettanomyces custersii was examined on sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) glycosides with bound volatile compounds. Refermentations by the beta-glucosidase-negative S. cerevisiae strains LD25 and LD40 of sour cherry juice-supplemented beer demonstrated only a moderate increase of volatiles. In contrast, the beta-glucosidase-positive B. custersii strain LD72 showed a more pronounced activity towards glycosides with aliphatic alcohols, aromatic compounds and terpenoid alcohols. Important contributors to sour cherry aroma such as benzaldehyde, linalool and eugenol were released during refermentation as shown by analytical tools. A gradually increasing release was observed during refermentations by B. custersii when whole sour cherries, sour cherry pulp or juice were supplemented in the beer. Refermentations with whole sour cherries and with sour cherry stones demonstrated an increased formation of benzyl compounds. Thus, amygdalin was partially hydrolysed, and a large part of the benzaldehyde formed was mainly reduced to benzyl alcohol and some further esterified to benzyl acetate. These findings demonstrate the importance and interesting role of certain Brettanomyces species in the production of fruit lambic beers such as 'Kriek'. PMID:18673394

  5. [Sudden cardiac death in athletes].

    PubMed

    Parikka, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    Sudden deaths occurring during exercise are rare and are most commonly due to cardiac arrest. It is most commonly underlain by symptomless cardiomyopathy or coronary artery disease. Preventive work comes up against a diagnostic problem in distinguishing adaptational changes of the athletic heart from a heart disorder. To reveal the danger of cardiac arrest and reduce human tragedies international sports organizations and cardiologic expert groups recommend screening of cardiac disorders among competing athletes. PMID:24163971

  6. Registry of Unexplained Cardiac Arrest

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-13

    Cardiac Arrest; Long QT Syndrome; Brugada Syndrome; Catecholaminergi Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia; Idiopathic VentricularFibrillation; Early Repolarization Syndrome; Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy

  7. Sudden cardiac death – Historical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Abhilash, S.P.; Namboodiri, Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is an unexpected death due to cardiac causes that occurs in a short time period (generally within 1 h of symptom onset) in a person with known or unknown cardiac disease. It is believed to be involved in nearly a quarter of human deaths, with ventricular fibrillation being the most common mechanism. It is estimated that more than 7 million lives per year are lost to SCD worldwide. Historical perspectives of SCD are analyzed with a brief description on how the developments in the management of sudden cardiac arrest evolved over time. PMID:24568828

  8. Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of digitoxin by cholestyramine. II. Effect on metabolic disposition of tritium-labeled digitoxin and cardiac systolic intervals in man.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, J H; Bush, C A; Greenberger, N J

    1971-12-01

    Previous studies of digitalis glycoside metabolism and excretion have indicated that these compounds undergo a significant enterohepatic cycle in some species. It has been suggested that the existence of such a cycle in man contributes to the prolonged action of certain cardiac glycosides. Previous studies have demonstrated that cholestyramine binds digitoxin and digoxin in vitro and accelerates the metabolic disposition of digitoxin in rats and guinea pigs, presumably by interrupting the enterohepatic circulation. In order to assess the role of the enterohepatic circulation in the metabolism of digitalis glycosides in humans, maintenance doses of cholestyramine were administered to 7 of 15 normal human subjects beginning 8 hr after digitalization with 1.2 mg of digitoxin-(3)H. All subjects had frequent measurements of serum radioactivity, left ventricular ejection time (LVET), and electromechanical systole (QS(2)), the latter recorded as the interval from onset of Q wave to first major component of second heart sound. Measurement of the LVET and QS(2) intervals affords a sensitive index of the cardiac response to digitalis. In addition, chloroform extraction of serum was performed to separate unchanged digitoxin and active metabolites from cardioinactive metabolites of digitoxin. Cholestyramine treatment resulted in reduction in half-life to total serum radioactivity from 11.5 to 6.6 days, and in chloroform-extractable radioactivity from 6.0 to 4.5 days, as compared to controls. In addition, cholestyramine treatment was accompanied by more rapid return to base line values of digitoxin-induced changes in the LVET and QS(2) intervals. A significant positive correlation was found between QS(2) values and chloroform-extractable radioactivity, the latter reflecting unchanged digitoxin-H(3) (r=0.64; P=<0.01). The results indicate that administration of cholestyramine to digitalized human subjects accelerates the metabolic disposition of digitoxin and abbreviates the physiologic response to the glycoside. This effect is presumably mediated by interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of digitoxin by cholestyramine. PMID:5129315

  9. Supplementation of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) with condensed tannin-containing pellets of sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata): Effects on ruminant urinary urea excretion and digestibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some feedstuffs that contain condensed tannins can reduce urinary urea excretion without compromising nutrition for ruminant livestock. This results in reducing environmental impact, improving productivity and enhancing sustainability of ruminant farming operations. In some situations there are adva...

  10. Developing Promiscuous Glycosidases for Glycoside Synthesis: Residues W433 and E432

    E-print Network

    Davis, Ben G.

    .[4] Howev- er, although the expense of the nucleotide sugar substrates has been overcome at the anomeric centre.[10,11] The 2.6 -resolution crystal structure[12,13] of SsbG revealed a (a/b)8 triose aldose donor with an excess of an acceptor, such as an alcohol or sugar, to give a glycoside and water

  11. Enhanced profiling of flavonol glycosides in the fruits of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides).

    PubMed

    Fang, Rui; Veitch, Nigel C; Kite, Geoffrey C; Porter, Elaine A; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2013-04-24

    Use of enhanced LC-MS/MS methods to identify common glycosyl groups of flavonoid glycosides enabled better characterization of the flavonoids in fruits of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides). The saccharide moieties of 48 flavonol O-glycosides detected in a methanol extract were identified by these methods. Several of the flavonol glycosides were acylated, two of which were isolated and found to be new compounds. Their structures were determined using spectroscopic and chemical methods as isorhamnetin 3-O-(6-O-E-sinapoyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-(1?2)-?-D-glucopyranoside-7-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (24) and isorhamnetin 3-O-(6-O-E-feruloyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-(1?2)-?-D-glucopyranoside-7-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (30). Analysis of the acylated glycosyl groups of 24 and 30 by serial mass spectrometry provided evidence to suggest the acylation position of 11 other minor flavonol glycosides acylated with hydroxycinnamic or hydroxybenzoic acids. The nitric oxide scavenging activities of 24 and 30 were compared with those of other flavonoids and with ascorbic acid and the potassium salt of 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1H-imidazolyl-1-oxy-3-oxide (carboxy-PTIO). PMID:23517173

  12. Cloning, Expression and Characterization of a Glycoside Hydrolase Family 39 Xylosidase from Bacillus Halodurans C-125

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gene encoding a glycoside hydrolase family 39 xylosidase (BH1068) from the alkaliphile Bacillus halodurans strain C-125 was cloned with a C-terminal His-tag and the recombinant gene product termed XylBH1068 was expressed in E. coli. Of the artificial substrates tested, XylBH1068 hydrolyzed nitro...

  13. Total Synthesis of Linckosides A and B, the Representative Starfish Polyhydroxysteroid Glycosides with Neuritogenic Activities.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dapeng; Yu, Biao

    2015-12-01

    Linckosides A and B, two starfish metabolites with promising neuritogenic activities, are synthesized in a longest linear sequence of 32 steps and 0.5% overall yield; this represents the first synthesis of members of the polyhydroxysteroid glycoside family, which occur widely in starfishes. PMID:26595819

  14. Clerodane and Ent-kaurane Diterpene Glycosyl and Glycoside Derivatives from the Leaves of Casearia sylvestris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five new clerodane diterpene glycosides caseariasides A-E (1-4) and three new ent-kaurane diterpene glucosides sylvestrisides C-E (6-8) were isolated from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris. Their structures were determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analyses....

  15. Anti-hepatitis B virus activities and absolute configurations of sesquiterpenoid glycosides from Phyllanthus emblica.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jun-Jiang; Wang, Ya-Feng; Zhang, Jing-Min; Yu, Shan; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Hong-Tao; Cheng, Rong-Rong; Yang, Chong-Ren; Xu, Min; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2014-11-21

    During the process exploring anti-viral compounds from Phyllanthus species, eight new highly oxygenated bisabolane sesquiterpenoid glycoside phyllaemblicins G1–G8 (1–8) were isolated from Phyllanthus emblica, along with three known compounds, phyllaemblicin F (9), phyllaemblic acid (10) and glochicoccin D (11). Phyllaemblicin G2 (2), bearing a tricyclo [3.1.1.1] oxygen bridge ring system, is an unusual sesquiterpenoid glycoside, while phyllaemblicins G6–G8 (6–8) are dimeric sesquiterpenoid glycosides with two norbisabolane units connecting through a disaccharide. All the structures were elucidated by the extensive analysis of HRMS and NMR data. The relative configuration of phyllaemblicin G2 was constructed based on heteronuclear coupling constants measurement, and the absolute configurations for all new compounds were established by calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) using time dependent density functional theory. The sesquiterpenoid glycoside dimers 6–9 displayed potential anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) activities, especially for the new compound 6 with IC50 of 8.53 ± 0.97 and 5.68 ± 1.75 ?M towards the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV excreted antigen (HBeAg) secretion, respectively. PMID:25268491

  16. Potential anti-inflammatory phenolic glycosides from the medicinal plant Moringa oleifera fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay-guided isolation and purification of the ethyl acetate extract of Moringa oleifera fruits yielded three new phenolic glycosides; 4-[(2'-O-acetyl-a-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl]isothiocyanate (1), 4-[(3'-O-acetyl-a-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate (2), and S-methyl-N-{4-[(a-L-rhamnosyloxy)benz...

  17. An anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial flavone glycoside from flowers of Cleome viscosa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Natural products isolated from plant sources have been demonstrated as potential candidates against several ailments. The scientific investigations on the underlying principles of phytotherapy can pave way for the convergence of traditional medicines and modern science and technologies. Results Quercetin 3-O-(2??-acetyl)-glucoside obtained from ethyl acetate fraction of Cleome viscosa is studied against inflammatory of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema ( in vivo) and microbial activity on ( in vitro). The structure of the glycoside is confirmed by means of hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, attached proton test, and mass spectrum. The flavonoid glycoside showed significant anti-inflammatory activity of on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema ( in vivo) and anti-microbial activity ( in vitro) on Staphylococcus aureus (gram positive) and Escherichia coli (gram negative). The anti-inflammatory effect of the flavonoid glycoside may be due to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. Selective toxicity with flavonoid glycoside towards the gram-positive bacteria was found on S. aureus. Conclusions The present study reveals the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of an isolated quercetin 3-O-(2??-acetyl)-glucoside from a natural source ( C. viscosa). PMID:22613049

  18. Rehabilitation of faulty kinetic determinations and misassigned glycoside hydrolase family of retaining mechanism ß-xylosidases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We obtained Cx1 from a commercial supplier, whose catalog listed it as a ß-xylosidase of glycoside hydrolase family 43. NMR experiments indicate retention of anomeric configuration in its reaction stereochemistry, opposing the assignment of GH43, which follows an inverting mechanism. Partial protein...

  19. Highly active ß-xylosidases of glycoside hydrolase family 43 operating on natural and artificial substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hemicellulose xylan constitutes a major portion of plant biomass, a renewable feedstock available for conversion to biofuels and other bioproducts. ß-xylosidase operates in the deconstruction of the polysaccharide to fermentable sugars. Glycoside hydrolase family 43 has been identified as a so...

  20. Characterization of two-step deglycosylation via oxidation by glycoside oxidoreductase and defining their subfamily

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Mi; Seo, Joo-Hyun; Baek, Kiheon; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report a two-step deglycosylation mediated by the oxidation of glycoside which is different from traditional glycoside hydrolase (GH) mechanism. Previously, we reported a novel flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent glycoside oxidoreductase (FAD-GO) having deglycosylation activity. Various features of the reaction of FAD-GO such as including mechanism and catalytic residue and substrate specificity were studied. In addition, classification of novel FAD-GO subfamily was attempted. Deglycosylation of glycoside was performed spontaneously via oxidation of 3-OH of glycone moiety by FAD-GO mediated oxidation reaction. His493 residue was identified as a catalytic residue for the oxidation step. Interestingly, this enzyme has broad glycone and aglycon specificities. For the classification of FAD-GO enzyme subfamily, putative FAD-GOs were screened based on the FAD-GO from Rhizobium sp. GIN611 (gi 365822256) using BLAST search. The homologs of R. sp. GIN611 included the putative FAD-GOs from Stenotrophomonas strains, Sphingobacterium strains, Agrobacterium tumefaciens str. C58, and etc. All the cloned FAD-GOs from the three strains catalyzed the deglycosylation via enzymatic oxidation. Based on their substrate specificities, deglycosylation and oxidation activities to various ginsenosides, the FAD-GO subfamily members can be utilized as novel biocatalysts for the production of various aglycones. PMID:26057169

  1. Utilisation of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) by lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in in vitro conditions.

    PubMed

    Kunová, Gabriela; Rada, Vojt?ch; Vidaillac, Adrien; Lisova, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    In the current study, eight strains of bifidobacteria and seven strains of lactobacilli were tested for their ability to grow in the presence of rebaudioside A and steviol glycosides from the sweetener Natusweet M001 originating from herb Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni). Stevia is gaining popularity as a natural, non-caloric sugar substitute, and recently, it was allowed as a food additive by European Union too. Utilisation of steviol glycosides by intestinal microbiota suggests that they might have potential prebiotic effect. Based on the evaluation of bacterial density and pH values in our in vitro study, it was found that lactobacilli and bifidobacteria tested were able to utilise steviol glycosides as a carbon source only to a very limited extent. All strains tested showed significantly lower change in the absorbance A540 (P?glycosides. PMID:24249153

  2. KOLOKOSIDES A-D: TRITERPENOID GLYCOSIDES FROM A HAWAIIAN ISOLATE OF XYLARIA SP.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four new triterpenoid glycosides, kolokosides A-D (1-4), along with the known compound 19, 20-epoxycytochalasin N, were isolated from cultures of a Hawaiian wood-decay fungus (Xylaria sp.) The structures and relative configurations of 1-4 were determined primarily by analysis of NMR data, and the ab...

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF FLAVONE AGLYCONES AND GLYCOSIDES IN SOYBEAN PODS BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-APCI-MS) was used to identify flavone aglycones and glycosides in soybean pods. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and MS3) and photodiode array detection were also utilized in flavone characterizat...

  4. DFT STUDY OF ALPHA-MALTOSE: INFLUENCE OF HYDROXYL ORIENTATIONS ON THE GLYCOSIDIC BOND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The result of DFT geometry optimization of 68 unique alpha-maltose conformers at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory is described. Particular attention is paid to the hydroxyl group rotational positions and their influence on the glycosidic bond dihedral angles. The orientation of lone pair elect...

  5. Theoretical Calculation of Electronic Circular Dichroism of a Hexahydroxydiphenoyl-Containing Flavanone Glycoside

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) was employed for theoretical calculation of electronic circular dichroism (ECD) of a hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP)-containing flavanone glycoside, mattucinol-7-O-[4'',6''-O-(aS)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl]-ß-d-glucopyranoside (2). It identified the roles of t...

  6. Synthesis of glycosyl fluorides from (phenylthio)glycosides using IF5-pyridine-HF.

    PubMed

    Kunigami, Masataka; Hara, Shoji

    2015-11-19

    IF5-pyridine-HF, an air- and moisture-stable fluorinating reagent, was applied to the synthesis of glycosyl fluorides from (phenylthio)glycosides. Common protecting groups of alcohol and diol can tolerate the reaction conditions performed, and therefore, the present method is applicable to the synthesis of various glycosyl fluorides. PMID:26432611

  7. Neoadenoloside A, a highly functionalized diterpene C-glycoside, from Isodon adenolomus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Wei-Guang; Li, Xiao-Nian; Du, Xue; Zhan, Rui; Zou, Juan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Hai-Bo; He, Fei; Pu, Jian-Xin; Sun, Han-Dong

    2012-08-11

    Neoadenoloside A (1), an unprecedented diterpene C-glycoside with a unique C(26) framework, along with lasiokaurin (3) were isolated from the leaves of Isodon adenolomus. The absolute configuration of 2, a derivative of 1, was determined by spectroscopic methods and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. PMID:22743545

  8. Crypthophilic Acids A, B, and C: Resin Glycosides from Aerial Parts of Scrophularia crypthophila

    E-print Network

    Rüedi, Peter

    Crypthophilic Acids A, B, and C: Resin Glycosides from Aerial Parts of Scrophularia crypthophilaVed October 16, 2006 The water-soluble part of the methanolic extract from the aerial parts of Scrophularia, taxonomically unrelated family (Scrophulariaceae). In the flora of Turkey, the genus Scrophularia is represented

  9. Detection of tannins in modern and fossil barks and in plant residues by high-resolution solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, M.A.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Bark samples isolated from brown coal deposits in Victoria, Australia, and buried wood from Rhizophora mangle have been studies by high-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. Dipolar dephasing 13C NMR appears to be a useful method of detecting the presence of tannins in geochemical samples including barks, buried woods, peats and leaf litter. It is shown that tannins are selectively preserved in bark during coalification to the brown coal stage. ?? 1988.

  10. Fermentation Characteristics, Tannin Contents and In vitro Ruminal Degradation of Green Tea and Black Tea By-products Ensiled at Different Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Makoto; Hirano, Yoshiaki; Kita, Kazumi; Jayanegara, Anuraga; Yokota, Hiro-Omi

    2014-07-01

    Green and black tea by-products, obtained from ready-made tea industry, were ensiled at 10°C, 20°C, and 30°C. Green tea by-product silage (GTS) and black tea by-product silage (BTS) were opened at 5, 10, 45 days after ensiling. Fermentation characteristics and nutrient composition, including tannins, were monitored and the silages on day 45 were subjected to in vitro ruminal fermentation to assess anti-nutritive effects of tannins using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a tannin-binding agent. Results showed that the GTS and BTS silages were stable and fermented slightly when ensiled at 10°C. The GTS stored at 20°C and 30°C showed rapid pH decline and high acetic acid concentration. The BTS was fermented gradually with moderate change of pH and acid concentration. Acetic acid was the main acid product of fermentation in both GTS and BTS. The contents of total extractable phenolics and total extractable tannins in both silages were unaffected by storage temperatures, but condensed tannins in GTS were less when stored at high temperature. The GTS showed no PEG response on in vitro gas production, and revealed only a small increase by PEG on NH3-N concentration. Storage temperature of GTS did not affect the extent of PEG response to both gas production and NH3-N concentration. On the other hand, addition of PEG on BTS markedly increased both the gas production and NH3-N concentration at any ensiled temperature. It can be concluded that tannins in both GTS and BTS suppressed rumen fermentation, and tannins in GTS did more weakly than that in BTS. Ensiling temperature for both tea by-products did not affect the tannin's activity in the rumen. PMID:25050034

  11. Structural investigations of flavonol glycosides from sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides) pomace by NMR spectroscopy and HPLC-ESI-MS(n).

    PubMed

    Rösch, Daniel; Krumbein, Angelika; Mügge, Clemens; Kroh, Lothar W

    2004-06-30

    Four flavonol glycosides were isolated from an extract of sea buckthorn pomace (Hippophaë rhamnoides) by Sephadex LH-20 gel chromatography and semipreparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by hydrolysis studies, ESI-MS(n), UV, and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The occurrence of the major flavonol glycoside kaempferol 3-O-beta-sophoroside-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside in sea buckthorn is described here for the first time. A further 21 flavonol glycosides of Sephadex LH-20 fractions of sea buckthorn pomace were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. The characteristic MS-MS and MS(3) fragmentation pattern of flavonol glycosides previously identified in sea buckthorn juice and of flavonol glycosides identified by NMR spectroscopy gave valuable indications for their identification. The results demonstrate that loss of the sugar moiety from C-7 of the aglycon is more favored than fission of the glycosidic linkage at the C-3 position. Thus, most of the compounds identified were 7-rhamnosides of isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin, which exhibit different substitution patterns at the C-3 position, mainly glucosides, rutinosides, and sophorosides. In addition, numerous flavonol glycosides were detected lacking a sugar moiety at C-7. Finally, eight flavonol derivatives were identified that are acylated by hydroxybenzoic or hydoxycinnamic acids. PMID:15212446

  12. Determination of the triterpene glycosides in sea cucumbers by liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering and mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Wang, Yuanhong; Zhang, Ran; Jiang, Tifngfu; Lv, Zhihua

    2015-04-01

    Holothurian triterpene glycosides possess various kinds of biological activities, including antifungal, cytotoxic, hemolytic, cytostatic, and immunomodulatory effects. In this study, a rapid extraction method of triterpene glycosides from sea cucumbers using a small column of C18 solid phase was first developed. Furthermore, a novel high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with evaporative light scattering detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was established for the determination of each triterpene glycosides from different sea cucumbers. Simultaneous separation of all kind of triterpene glycoside were achieved on a C18 column. A gradient of aqueous acetonitrile was applied, and the method was validated. The liquid chromatography method was applied to the online mass detection to identify the triterpene glycosides in the purified extraction of eight kinds of pulverized sea cucumber from the market of Qingdao, China. The negative mode of [M-H](-)/[M-Na](-) exclusively shown signals corresponding to the triterpene glycosides previously reported and the MS(2) product ions of those ions indicate the specific structure of each triterpene glycoside. PMID:25604752

  13. Colochirosides B1, B2, B3 and C, Novel Sulfated Triterpene Glycosides from the Sea Cucumber Colochirus robustus (Cucumariidae, Dendrochirotida).

    PubMed

    Silchenko, Alexandra S; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I; Avilov, Sergey A; Andryjaschenko, Pelageya V; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Kalinin, Vladimir I; Yurchenko, Ekaterina A; Dolmatov, Igor Yu

    2015-10-01

    Four new triterpene glycosides, colochirosides B1 (1), B2 (2), B3 (3) and C (4) have been isolated from the sea cucumber Colochirus robustus (Cucumariidae, Dendrochirotida). Six known earlier glycosides from representatives of two families of the order Dendrochirotida have also been found in C. robustus. Structures of the glycosides have been elucidated by 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. All the glycosides belong to the holostane series and contain tetrasaccharide linear carbohydrate chains with one or two sulfate groups. Cytotoxic activities of glycosides 1-4 against the ascite form of mouse Ehrlich carcinoma cells and hemolytic activities against mouse erythrocytes have been studied. Hemolytic activity of the glycosides was higher than cytotoxic. Glycosides 3 and 4 demonstrated strong effects, whereas compounds 1 and 2 containing the hydroxy-group in the side chains showed moderate hemolytic activity and were not cytotoxic. PMID:26669103

  14. Phenylethanoid glycosides in tepals of Magnolia salicifolia and their occurrence in flowers of Magnoliaceae.

    PubMed

    Porter, Elaine A; Kite, Geoffrey C; Veitch, Nigel C; Geoghegan, Ivey A; Larsson, Sonny; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2015-09-01

    Phenylethanoid glycosides were among the major UV-absorbing components in 80% aq. CH3OH extracts of the tepals of Magnolia salicifolia (Siebold & Zucc.) Maxim. (Magnoliaceae; Magnolia subgenus Yulania). Structural characterisation of isolated compounds by spectroscopic and chemical methods revealed three previously unrecorded examples, yulanoside A, yulanoside B and 2'-rhamnoechinacoside, and the known compounds echinacoside and crassifolioside; chromatographic methods also identified verbascoside in the tepal extract. Yulanoside A is the first reported example of a phenylethanoid pentaglycoside, namely hydroxytyrosol 1-O-{?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?6)-[3,4-dihydroxycinnamoyl-(?4)][?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?3)][?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)]-?-D-glucopyranoside}. A survey of Magnolia sensu lato and Liriodendron (the two genera of Magnoliaceae) suggested that yulanoside A and its deglucosyl derivative (yulanoside B) were a feature of the tepal chemistry of Magnolia subgenus Yulania (except Magnolia acuminata, the sole member of section Tulipastrum, which did not accumulate phenylethanoid glycosides). The two species of Liriodendron and examined examples of Magnolia subgenus Magnolia sections Magnolia and Rytidospermum (subsection Oyama) also accumulated phenylethanoid glycosides in their tepals and in these species, and in subgenus Yulania, the major compounds were one or more of echinacoside, 2'-rhamnoechinacoside, crassifolioside and verbascoside. Levels of phenylethanoid glycosides were found to be much lower in species studied from Magnolia sections Gwillimia, Macrophylla and Rytidospermum (subsection Rytidospermum), although yulanoside A was detectable in M. macrophylla and this may have some bearing on the placement of section Macrophylla, which is currently uncertain. In the isolates of yulanoside B and echinacoside, minor phenylethanoid glycosides were determined to be analogues of these compounds with ?-D-xylose at C-3' of the primary glucose rather than ?-L-rhamnose. PMID:26093323

  15. Health Instruction Packages: Cardiac Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Gwen; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nurses, students, and other health care professionals in cardiac anatomy and functions and in fundamental electrocardiographic techniques. The first module, "Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology: A Review" by Gwen Phillips, teaches the learner to draw and label…

  16. GPCR signaling and cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Capote, Leany A; Mendez Perez, Roberto; Lymperopoulos, Anastasios

    2015-09-15

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), such as ?-adrenergic and angiotensin II receptors, located in the membranes of all three major cardiac cell types, i.e. myocytes, fibroblasts and endothelial cells, play crucial roles in regulating cardiac function and morphology. Their importance in cardiac physiology and disease is reflected by the fact that, collectively, they represent the direct targets of over a third of the currently approved cardiovascular drugs used in clinical practice. Over the past few decades, advances in elucidation of their structure, function and the signaling pathways they elicit, specifically in the heart, have led to identification of an increasing number of new molecular targets for heart disease therapy. Here, we review these signaling modalities employed by GPCRs known to be expressed in the cardiac myocyte membranes and to directly modulate cardiac contractility. We also highlight drugs and drug classes that directly target these GPCRs to modulate cardiac function, as well as molecules involved in cardiac GPCR signaling that have the potential of becoming novel drug targets for modulation of cardiac function in the future. PMID:25981298

  17. Redox Control of Cardiac Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Nitin T.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been associated with various human diseases, and considerable attention has been paid to investigate their physiological effects. Various ROS are synthesized in the mitochondria and accumulate in the cytoplasm if the cellular antioxidant defense mechanism fails. The critical balance of this ROS synthesis and antioxidant defense systems is termed the redox system of the cell. Various cardiovascular diseases have also been affected by redox to different degrees. ROS have been indicated as both detrimental and protective, via different cellular pathways, for cardiac myocyte functions, electrophysiology, and pharmacology. Mostly, the ROS functions depend on the type and amount of ROS synthesized. While the literature clearly indicates ROS effects on cardiac contractility, their effects on cardiac excitability are relatively under appreciated. Cardiac excitability depends on the functions of various cardiac sarcolemal or mitochondrial ion channels carrying various depolarizing or repolarizing currents that also maintain cellular ionic homeostasis. ROS alter the functions of these ion channels to various degrees to determine excitability by affecting the cellular resting potential and the morphology of the cardiac action potential. Thus, redox balance regulates cardiac excitability, and under pathological regulation, may alter action potential propagation to cause arrhythmia. Understanding how redox affects cellular excitability may lead to potential prophylaxis or treatment for various arrhythmias. This review will focus on the studies of redox and cardiac excitation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 432–468. PMID:22897788

  18. Steroidal sapogenins and glycosides from the fibrous roots of Polygonatum odoratum with inhibitory effect on tissue factor (TF) procoagulant activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Chen, Ling; Kou, Jun-Ping; Zhu, Dan-Ni; Qi, Jin; Yu, Bo-Yang

    2014-11-01

    Six new spirostane glycosides (1-6), named polygodosides A-F, one new furostanol glycoside, polygodoside G (7), one new cholestane glycoside, polygodoside H (8), and one new steroidal sapogenin, polygodosin A (9), together with thirteen known compounds (10-22) were isolated from a 90% MeOH extract of the fibrous roots of Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses and mass spectrometry. The effects on TF procoagulant activity in THP-1 cells were tested for most of the compounds. PMID:25042471

  19. The method of integrated kinetics and its applicability to the exo-glycosidase-catalyzed hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl glycosides.

    PubMed

    Borisova, Anna S; Reddy, Sumitha K; Ivanen, Dina R; Bobrov, Kirill S; Eneyskaya, Elena V; Rychkov, Georgy N; Sandgren, Mats; Stålbrand, Henrik; Sinnott, Michael L; Kulminskaya, Anna A; Shabalin, Konstantin A

    2015-08-14

    In the present work we suggest an efficient method, using the whole time course of the reaction, whereby parameters kcat, Km and product KI for the hydrolysis of a p-nitrophenyl glycoside by an exo-acting glycoside hydrolase can be estimated in a single experiment. Its applicability was demonstrated for three retaining exo-glycoside hydrolases, ?-xylosidase from Aspergillus awamori, ?-galactosidase from Penicillium sp. and ?-galactosidase from Thermotoga maritima (TmGalA). During the analysis of the reaction course catalyzed by the TmGalA enzyme we had observed that a non-enzymatic process, mutarotation of the liberated ?-d-galactose, affected the reaction significantly. PMID:26005928

  20. Biochemical changes in phenols, flavonoids, tannins, vitamin E, ?-carotene and antioxidant activity during soaking of three white sorghum varieties

    PubMed Central

    Afify, Abd El-Moneim MR; El-Beltagi, Hossam S; El-Salam, Samiha M Abd; Omran, Azza A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes in total phenols, flavonoids, tannins, vitamin E, ?-carotene and antioxidant activity during soaking of three white sorghum varieties. Methods The changes in total phenols, total flavonoids, tannins, phenolic acids compounds, flavonoid components, vitamin E, ?-carotene and antioxidant activity during soaking of sorghum grains were determined. Results Total phenols, total flavonoids, tannins, vitamin E, ?-carotene and antioxidant activity in raw sorghum were ranged from 109.21 to 116.70, 45.91 to 54.69, 1.39 to 21.79 mg/100 g, 1.74 to 5.25, 0.54 to 1.19 mg/kg and 21.72% to 27.69% and 25.29% to 31.97%, respectively. The above measured compounds were significantly decreased after soaking. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid and cinnamic acid represent the major phenolic acids in Dorado variety. While ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid and caffeic acid represent the major phenolic acids in Shandaweel-6. On the other hand, protocatechuic acid represents the major phenolic acids in Giza-15. Regarding flavonoids components, Dorado was the highest variety in kampferol and naringenin while Shandaweel-6 was the highest variety in luteolin, apigenin, hypersoid, quercetin and christen. Finally, Giza-15 was the highest variety in catechin. Phenolic acids, flavonoid compounds and antioxidant activities were decreased after soaking. Conclusions Sorghum varieties have moderate quantities from total phenols, total flavonoids, tannins, phenolic acids compounds, flavonoid components, vitamin E, ?-carotene and antioxidant activity which decreased after soaking. PMID:23569898

  1. [No compression of cardiac cavities in transthoracic ultrasound does not exclude cardiac tamponade.

    PubMed

    Juhl-Olsen, Peter; Frederiksen, Christina Alcaraz; Sloth, Erik

    2014-11-24

    The clinical presentation of cardiac tamponade is difficult to distinguish from other causes of shock. Pericardial fluid is easy to visualize with cardiac ultrasound and a key sign of overt cardiac tamponade is the compression of right side cavities. We present two cases in which cardiac tamponade was present, but where compression of cardiac cavities could not be demon-strated with transthoracic cardiac ultrasound. This emphasizes that cardiac tamponade is still a clinical diagnosis. PMID:25430575

  2. Supplementing lactating dairy cows fed high-quality pasture with black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) tannin.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, W M; Clark, C E F; Clark, D A; Waghorn, G C

    2013-11-01

    A reduction in urinary nitrogen (N) excretion from dairy cows fed pasture containing a high N concentration in the dry matter (DM) will have environmental benefits, because losses to soil water and air by leachate and nitrous oxides (N2O) will be reduced. Condensed tannins (CT) reduce digestion of N, and provision as a dietary additive could have nutritional benefits for production, but the amount required and the responses to different sources of CT on milk production have not been defined. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of supplementation with CT extracted from black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) on milk production and faecal N concentration by lactating dairy cows grazing a vegetative Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)-based pasture. In one experiment, CT was administered as a drench, twice daily, to 38 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows assigned to four treatments; control (CONT, 0 g/day), low CT (LCT, 111 g/day), medium CT (MCT, 222 g/day) and high CT (HCT, 444 g/day), grazing as a single group. The CT supplementation affected milk yield (P < 0.001) with a trend of declining milk yield as CT concentration increased from about 0.6 to about 2.9% of dietary DM. Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) decreased at MCT and HCT levels of supplementation (P < 0.01) but milk fat, CP and lactose percentage were not affected by CT supplementation. The CT supplementation increased N concentration in faeces for LCT and MCT treatments (P < 0.05), suggesting partitioning of dietary N away from urine. When CT was pelleted with grain, in a second experiment and fed twice daily as a supplement at milking, it reduced the acceptability relative to pellets without CT, and tended to lower milk production from 25.4 to 24.5 kg/day, although the decline was not significant (P > 0.05). The diet of cows fed pellets with CT contained about 1.2% CT in the DM but neither milk constituents nor MUN were affected by CT-supplemented grain (P > 0.05). These findings demonstrate beneficial effects for production of low concentrations (c. 0.6% DM) of CT from black wattle when given to cows grazing pasture with an N concentration of 3.8%, and suggest a diversion of N from urine, but when CT exceeded about 1.4% of dietary DM, milk production was depressed. The value of supplementing a pasture diet for lactating dairy cows with black wattle tannin extract will depend on costs of supplementation, returns from milk production and liabilities associated with N losses to urine. PMID:23899456

  3. Leadership in cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Rao, Christopher; Patel, Vanash; Ibrahim, Michael; Ahmed, Kamran; Wong, Kathie A; Darzi, Ara; von Segesser, Ludwig K; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2011-06-01

    Despite the efficacy of cardiac surgery, less invasive interventions with more uncertain long-term outcomes are increasingly challenging surgery as first-line treatment for several congenital, degenerative and ischemic cardiac diseases. The specialty must evolve if it is to ensure its future relevance. More importantly, it must evolve to ensure that future patients have access to treatments with proven long-term effectiveness. This cannot be achieved without dynamic leadership; however, our contention is that this is not enough. The demands of a modern surgical career and the importance of the task at hand are such that the serendipitous emergence of traditional charismatic leadership cannot be relied upon to deliver necessary change. We advocate systematic analysis and strategic leadership at a local, national and international level in four key areas: Clinical Care, Research, Education and Training, and Stakeholder Engagement. While we anticipate that exceptional individuals will continue to shape the future of our specialty, the creation of robust structures to deliver collective leadership in these key areas is of paramount importance. PMID:20884217

  4. Cardiac Remodeling in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    ABEL, E. DALE; LITWIN, SHELDON E.; SWEENEY, GARY

    2010-01-01

    The dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity and its strong association with cardiovascular disease have resulted in unprecedented interest in understanding the effects of obesity on the cardiovascular system. A consistent, but puzzling clinical observation is that obesity confers an increased susceptibility to the development of cardiac disease, while at the same time affording protection against subsequent mortality (termed the obesity paradox). In this review we focus on evidence available from human and animal model studies and summarize the ways in which obesity can influence structure and function of the heart. We also review current hypotheses regarding mechanisms linking obesity and various aspects of cardiac remodeling. There is currently great interest in the role of adipokines, factors secreted from adipose tissue, and their role in the numerous cardiovascular complications of obesity. Here we focus on the role of leptin and the emerging promise of adiponectin as a cardioprotective agent. The challenge of understanding the association between obesity and heart failure is complicated by the multifaceted interplay between various hemodynamic, metabolic, and other physiological factors that ultimately impact the myocardium. Furthermore, the end result of obesity-associated changes in the myocardial structure and function may vary at distinct stages in the progression of remodeling, may depend on the individual pathophysiology of heart failure, and may even remain undetected for decades before clinical manifestation. Here we summarize our current knowledge of this complex yet intriguing topic. PMID:18391168

  5. Decoding the Cardiac Message

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Gerald W

    2012-01-01

    This review reflects and expands upon the contents of the author’s presentation at The Thomas W. Smith Memorial Lecture at AHA Scientific Sessions, 2011. “Decoding the cardiac message” refers to accumulating results from ongoing microRNA research that is altering longstanding concepts of the mechanisms for, and consequences of, messenger RNA (mRNA) regulation in the heart. First, I provide a brief historical perspective of the field of molecular genetics, touching upon seminal research that paved the way for modern molecular cardiovascular research and helped establish the foundation for current concepts of mRNA regulation in the heart. I follow with some interesting details about the specific research that led to the discovery and appreciation of microRNAs as highly conserved pivotal regulators of RNA expression and translation. Finally, I provide a personal viewpoint as to how agnostic genome-wide techniques for measuring microRNAs, their mRNA targets, and their protein products can be applied in an integrated multi-systems approach to uncover direct and indirect effects of microRNAs. Experimental designs integrating next-generation sequencing and global proteomics have the potential to address unanswered questions regarding microRNA-mRNA interactions in cardiac disease, how disease alters mRNA targeting by specific microRNAs, and how mutational and polymorphic nucleotide variation in microRNAs can affect end-organ function and stress-response. PMID:22383710

  6. Rhubarb Tannins Extract Inhibits the Expression of Aquaporins 2 and 3 in Magnesium Sulphate-Induced Diarrhoea Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunfang; Zheng, Yanfang; Xu, Wen; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Tannins, a group of major active components of Chinese rhubarb and widely distributed in nature, have a significant antidiarrhoeal activity. Aquaporins (AQPs) 2 and 3 play important roles in regulating water transfer during diarrhoea. The present study aims to determine the effect of the total tannins extract of rhubarb on aquaporins (AQPs) 2 and 3 in diarrhoea mice and HT-29 cells both induced by magnesium sulphate (MgSO4). Our results showed that rhubarb tannins extract (RTE) significantly decreased the faecal water content in colon and evaluation index of defecation of diarrhoea mice. Interestingly, RTE could markedly reduce the mRNA and protein expression levels of AQPs 2 and 3 in apical and lateral mucosal epithelial cells in the colons of diarrhoea mice and HT-29 cells both induced by MgSO4 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, RTE suppressed the production of cyclic monophosphate- (cAMP-) dependent protein kinase A catalytic subunits ? (PKA C-?) and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB, Ser133) in MgSO4-induced HT-29 cells. Our data showed for the first time that RTE inhibit AQPs 2 and 3 expression in vivo and in vitro via downregulating PKA/p-CREB signal pathway, which accounts for the antidiarrhoeal effect of RTE. PMID:25215286

  7. Molecular analysis of herbivore-induced condensed tannin synthesis: cloning and expression of dihydroflavonol reductase from trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides).

    PubMed

    Peters, Darren J; Constabel, C Peter

    2002-12-01

    In order to study condensed tannin synthesis and its induction by herbivory, a dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR) cDNA was isolated from trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides). Bacterial overexpression demonstrated that this cDNA encodes a functional DFR enzyme, and Southern analysis revealed that DFR likely is a single-copy gene in the aspen genome. Aspen plants that were mechanically wounded showed a dramatic increase in DFR expression after 24 h in both wounded leaves and unwounded leaves on wounded trees. Feeding by forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) and satin moth (Leucoma salicis) larvae, and treatment with methyl jasmonate, all strongly induced DFR expression. DFR enzyme activity was also induced in wounded aspen leaves, and phytochemical assays revealed that condensed tannin concentrations significantly increased in wounded and systemic leaves. The expression of other genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway were also induced by wounding. Our findings suggest that the induction of condensed tannins, compounds known to be important for defense against herbivores, is mediated by increased expression of DFR and other phenylpropanoid genes. PMID:12472686

  8. Beneficial effect of amrinone on murine cardiac allograft survival.

    PubMed Central

    Hirozane, T; Matsumori, A; Furukawa, Y; Matsui, S; Sato, Y; Matoba, Y; Sasayama, S

    1995-01-01

    Amrinone is a non-glycoside positive inotropic agent with an inhibitory effect on a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) phosphodiesterase isoenzyme. In the present study, we examined the immunosuppressive action of amrinone, since several other cyclic AMP-elevating agents have been shown to suppress T lymphocyte activation. First, the in vivo effects of amrinone were investigated. Oral amrinone treatment, at 40 mg/kg per day, significantly prolonged median cardiac allograft survival compared with non-treated controls (22.0 days versus 10.5 days, P < 0.01) when DBA/2 mouse hearts (H-2d) were heterotopically transplanted into C57B1/6 mice (H-2b). Histopathological examination showed that there was less prominent cellular infiltration in the amrinone-treated than in the non-treated allografts. Plasma amrinone concentrations of mice after a single oral dose of 40 mg/kg were within the range of clinical relevance. To clarify the mechanism of action, in vitro studies were done. The generation of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes after mixed lymphocyte culture was significantly suppressed by addition of amrinone to the culture medium at 5 micrograms/ml. The production of IL-2 and the interferon-gamma during mixed lymphocyte culture was also suppressed by amrinone at 5 micrograms/ml. However, the level of intracellular cyclic AMP in mouse splenic lymphocytes was not affected significantly by the same dose of amrinone. In conclusion, amrinone has immunosuppressive actions at the therapeutic doses, and it may be a beneficial agent for therapy against acute cardiac allograft rejection. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7554388

  9. Mesothelial/monocytic incidental cardiac excrescence mimicking cardiac tumor.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Saumyaranjan; Arava, Sudheer; Muthukumaran, Subramanian; Sharma, Bhavna; Choudhary, Shiv Kumar; Ray, Ruma

    2016-01-01

    Mesothelial incidental cardiac excrescence is a non-neoplastic tumor-like lesion commonly occurring in the intracardiac region. The exact etiology is unclear. A 32-year-old woman presented with respiratory distress on exertion. Echocardiography showed severe aortic, mitral, and tricuspid regurgitation, for which triple-valve replacement was performed. A small cardiac excrescence was found over the aortic valve, measuring 0.6?×?0.3?×?0.3-cm, which on microscopy showed features of mesothelial/monocytic incidental cardiac excrescence. This condition is very rare but it must be recognized because it mimics a metastatic malignancy. PMID:24838237

  10. Tannin-based flax fibre reinforced composites for structural applications in vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Abhyankar, H.; Nassiopoulos, E.; Njuguna, J.

    2012-09-01

    Innovation is often driven by changes in government policies regulating the industries, especially true in case of the automotive. Except weight savings, the strict EU regulation of 95% recyclable material-made vehicles drives the manufactures and scientists to seek new 'green materials' for structural applications. With handing at two major drawbacks (production cost and safety), ECHOSHELL is supported by EU to develop and optimise structural solutions for superlight electric vehicles by using bio-composites made of high-performance natural fibres and resins, providing enhanced strength and bio-degradability characteristics. Flax reinforced tannin-based composite is selected as one of the candidates and were firstly investigated with different fabric lay-up angles (non-woven flax mat, UD, [0, 90°]4 and [0, +45°, 90°, -45°]2) through authors' work. Some of the obtained results, such as tensile properties and SEM micrographs were shown in this conference paper. The UD flax reinforced composite exhibits the best tensile performance, with tensile strength and modulus of 150 MPa and 9.6 MPa, respectively. It was observed that during tension the oriented-fabric composites showed some delamination process, which are expected to be eliminated through surface treatment (alkali treatment etc.) and nanotechnology, such as the use of nano-fibrils. Failure mechanism of the tested samples were identified through SEM results, indicating that the combination of fibre pull-out, fibre breakage and brittle resins failure mainly contribute to the fracture failure of composites.

  11. Hydrogenolytic depolymerization of procyanidin polymers from hi-tannin sorghum bran.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Zeng, Jijiao; Tong, Zhaohui; Qi, Yajing; Gu, Liwei

    2015-12-01

    Depolymerization of procyanidin polymers into oligomers enhances their bioavailability and bioactivity because oligomers are bioavailable. Hydrogenolysis was applied in this study to depolymerize hi-tannin sorghum bran procyanidin polymers into oligomers. The yield and composition of oligomers under different hydrogenolysis conditions was investigated. Results showed that raising temperature from 50 to 100 °C significantly increased total yield of oligomers. Higher temperatures (150 and 200 °C) produced monomers with lower yield. The highest yield of oligomers (38.8%) was obtained using 1 MPa hydrogen whereas 3 MPa hydrogen in reaction vessel decreased yield. Total yield of oligomers reached the highest at 1-3 h and then decreased with prolonged reaction time. Yield increased with palladium-on-carbon (Pd/C, a catalyst) amount from 0.5 to 3 mg and plateaued with Pd/C amount from 3 to 10 mg. The maximum yield of produced oligomers was achieved under 100 °C, 1 MPa hydrogen pressure, 1-3 h, and 3-10 mg Pd/C. PMID:26041201

  12. Biosorption of palladium(II) from aqueous solution by grafting chitosan on persimmon tannin extract.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhide; Liu, Fenglei; Huang, Yong; Wang, Zhongmin; Li, Guiyin

    2015-06-01

    A low-cost and environmentally green biosorbent (PTCS) was prepared by grafting chitosan onto persimmon tannin extract and its potentiality for efficient adsorption of palladium ion (Pd(II)) from aqueous solution was evaluated. Various adsorption parameters such as pH, the initial Pd(II) concentration and temperature were investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity reached 330mg/g at 323K and pH 5.0 when the initial Pd(II) concentration was 100mg/L. The equilibrium adsorption data were satisfactorily fitted with Freundlich isotherm model and biosorption kinetics was found to be in good agreement with pseudo-second-order kinetics model. Thermodynamic calculations indicated that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous in nature because of the negative value of free energy change (?G) and positive value of enthalpy change (?H). The positive value of entropy change (?S) revealed the increased randomness at the solid-liquid interface. FT-IR and XRD analysis verified that Pd(II) adsorption on PTCS was electrostatic interaction and redox reaction. Moreover, selective adsorption study revealed that the adsorbent exhibited good adsorption ability to Pd(II) in the mixture metal ions solutions. All these results indicated that the PTCS biosorbent could be used as a low-cost alternative for the adsorption of Pd(II) in waste-water treatment. PMID:25841373

  13. Tannins and extracts of fruit byproducts: antibacterial activity against foodborne bacteria and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Widsten, Petri; Cruz, Cristina D; Fletcher, Graham C; Pajak, Marta A; McGhie, Tony K

    2014-11-19

    The shelf life of fresh fish and meat transported over long distances could be extended by using plant-based extracts to control spoilage bacteria. The goals of the present study were to identify plant-based extracts that effectively suppress the main spoilage bacteria of chilled fish and lamb and to assess their antioxidant capacity. The phenolic compounds in wood-based tannins and extracts isolated from byproducts of the fruit processing industry were identified and/or quantified. The total phenol content, but not the flavonoid to total phenol ratio, was strongly associated with higher antibacterial activity against several fish and lamb spoilage bacteria in zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration assays as well as greater antioxidant capacity in the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical assay. The most promising compounds in both cases, and thus good candidates for antibacterial packaging or antioxidant dietary supplements, were mango seed extract and tannic acid containing mostly polygalloyl glucose type phenols. PMID:25339414

  14. Short- to medium-term effects of consumption of quebracho tannins on saliva production and composition in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Salem, A Z M; López, S; Ranilla, M J; González, J S

    2013-03-01

    Eight Merino sheep (49.4 ± 4.23 kg BW) and 8 Alpine goats (53.2 ± 2.51 kg BW) were used to study the effect of ingestion of quebracho tannins on salivation. Four sheep and 4 goats were individually fed a daily allotment of 20 g DM of alfalfa hay/kg BW (Control). Another 4 sheep and 4 goats were also given 20 g DM of alfalfa hay/kg BW supplemented with 50 g of quebracho/kg DM (Tannin) for a period of 64 d. The saliva secretion from the left parotid gland was collected by insertion of a polyvinyl chloride catheter into the parotid duct and the amount of parotid saliva produced recorded over three 48-h periods on d 1 and 2 (P1), d 31 and 32 (P2), and d 61 and 62 (P3) after the tannin feeding was initiated. The total amount of saliva produced was estimated from rumen water kinetics determined on d 4, d 34, and d 64 of the experiment. Experimental design was completely randomized, with repeated measures on each experimental unit, performing separate analysis for sheep and goats. Parotid saliva production was not affected by the sampling period in either animal species receiving the Control diet. Corresponding values for sheep were 2.04, 2.12, and 2.27 L/d (P = 0.89) and for goats 1.65, 1.79, and 1.86 L/d (P = 0.95). Sheep fed the Tannin diet produced 55, 73, and 107% of the amount of saliva recorded in sheep fed the Control diet on P1, P2, or P3, respectively. Corresponding values in goats were 88, 130, and 134% on P1, P2, or P3, respectively. Estimated total saliva production was not affected (P = 0.50 for sheep and P = 0.97 for goats) by the ingestion of quebracho. There was no difference (P > 0.10) in osmotic pressure, P, Mg, Ca, urea, and protein concentrations in parotid saliva. There were, however, differences in Na and K concentrations in response to the ingestion of quebracho tannins, with Na concentrations increasing (P = 0.05) and K concentrations decreasing (P = 0.04) in sheep saliva and pH increasing (P = 0.05) in goat saliva. In conclusion, the inclusion of quebracho at 50 g/kg DM for 64 d does not appear to alter saliva production in sheep and goats. PMID:23296827

  15. Trends in Cardiac Pacemaker Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Mallela, Venkateswara Sarma; Ilankumaran, V; Rao, N.Srinivasa

    2004-01-01

    Batteries used in Implantable cardiac pacemakers-present unique challenges to their developers and manufacturers in terms of high levels of safety and reliability. In addition, the batteries must have longevity to avoid frequent replacements. Technological advances in leads/electrodes have reduced energy requirements by two orders of magnitude. Micro-electronics advances sharply reduce internal current drain concurrently decreasing size and increasing functionality, reliability, and longevity. It is reported that about 600,000 pacemakers are implanted each year worldwide and the total number of people with various types of implanted pacemaker has already crossed 3 million. A cardiac pacemaker uses half of its battery power for cardiac stimulation and the other half for housekeeping tasks such as monitoring and data logging. The first implanted cardiac pacemaker used nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery, later on zinc-mercury battery was developed and used which lasted for over 2 years. Lithium iodine battery invented and used by Wilson Greatbatch and his team in 1972 made the real impact to implantable cardiac pacemakers. This battery lasts for about 10 years and even today is the power source for many manufacturers of cardiac pacemakers. This paper briefly reviews various developments of battery technologies since the inception of cardiac pacemaker and presents the alternative to lithium iodine battery for the near future. PMID:16943934

  16. Repair of a Complex Congenital Cardiac Defect

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... 00:00:14 ANNOUNCER: Over the next hour, live from Children's Hospital Boston's cardiac OR, see cardiac surgeons repair a complex congenital cardiac defect. Each year the pediatric cardiac surgery program provides surgical care to approximately 1,100 patients, including more than 700 cases of open ...

  17. Cardiac cone-beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Manzke, Robert . E-mail: robert.manzke@philips.com

    2005-10-15

    This doctoral thesis addresses imaging of the heart with retrospectively gated helical cone-beam computed tomography (CT). A thorough review of the CT reconstruction literature is presented in combination with a historic overview of cardiac CT imaging and a brief introduction to other cardiac imaging modalities. The thesis includes a comprehensive chapter about the theory of CT reconstruction, familiarizing the reader with the problem of cone-beam reconstruction. The anatomic and dynamic properties of the heart are outlined and techniques to derive the gating information are reviewed. With the extended cardiac reconstruction (ECR) framework, a new approach is presented for the heart-rate-adaptive gated helical cardiac cone-beam CT reconstruction. Reconstruction assessment criteria such as the temporal resolution, the homogeneity in terms of the cardiac phase, and the smoothness at cycle-to-cycle transitions are developed. Several reconstruction optimization approaches are described: An approach for the heart-rate-adaptive optimization of the temporal resolution is presented. Streak artifacts at cycle-to-cycle transitions can be minimized by using an improved cardiac weighting scheme. The optimal quiescent cardiac phase for the reconstruction can be determined automatically with the motion map technique. Results for all optimization procedures applied to ECR are presented and discussed based on patient and phantom data. The ECR algorithm is analyzed for larger detector arrays of future cone-beam systems throughout an extensive simulation study based on a four-dimensional cardiac CT phantom. The results of the scientific work are summarized and an outlook proposing future directions is given. The presented thesis is available for public download at www.cardiac-ct.net.

  18. Physics of Cardiac Arrhythmogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karma, Alain

    2013-04-01

    A normal heartbeat is orchestrated by the stable propagation of an excitation wave that produces an orderly contraction. In contrast, wave turbulence in the ventricles, clinically known as ventricular fibrillation (VF), stops the heart from pumping and is lethal without prompt defibrillation. I review experimental, computational, and theoretical studies that have shed light on complex dynamical phenomena linked to the initiation, maintenance, and control of wave turbulence. I first discuss advances made to understand the precursor state to a reentrant arrhythmia where the refractory period of cardiac tissue becomes spatiotemporally disordered; this is known as an arrhythmogenic tissue substrate. I describe observed patterns of transmembrane voltage and intracellular calcium signaling that can contribute to this substrate, and symmetry breaking instabilities to explain their formation. I then survey mechanisms of wave turbulence and discuss novel methods that exploit electrical pacing stimuli to control precursor patterns and low-energy pulsed electric fields to control turbulence.

  19. Cardiac action potential imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qinghai; Lipp, Peter; Kaestner, Lars

    2013-06-01

    Action potentials in cardiac myocytes have durations in the order of magnitude of 100 milliseconds. In biomedical investigations the documentation of the occurrence of action potentials is often not sufficient, but a recording of the shape of an action potential allows a functional estimation of several molecular players. Therefore a temporal resolution of around 500 images per second is compulsory. In the past such measurements have been performed with photometric approaches limiting the measurement to one cell at a time. In contrast, imaging allows reading out several cells at a time with additional spatial information. Recent developments in camera technologies allow the acquisition with the required speed and sensitivity. We performed action potential imaging on isolated adult cardiomyocytes of guinea pigs utilizing the fluorescent membrane potential sensor di-8-ANEPPS and latest electron-multiplication CCD as well as scientific CMOS cameras of several manufacturers. Furthermore, we characterized the signal to noise ratio of action potential signals of varying sets of cameras, dye concentrations and objective lenses. We ensured that di-8-ANEPPS itself did not alter action potentials by avoiding concentrations above 5 ?M. Based on these results we can conclude that imaging is a reliable method to read out action potentials. Compared to conventional current-clamp experiments, this optical approach allows a much higher throughput and due to its contact free concept leaving the cell to a much higher degree undisturbed. Action potential imaging based on isolated adult cardiomyocytes can be utilized in pharmacological cardiac safety screens bearing numerous advantages over approaches based on heterologous expression of hERG channels in cell lines.

  20. Videoscope-assisted cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Robert Jeen-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Videoscope-assisted cardiac surgery (VACS) offers a minimally invasive platform for most cardiac operations such as coronary and valve procedures. It includes robotic and thoracoscopic approaches and each has strengths and weaknesses. The success depends on appropriate hardware setup, staff training, and troubleshooting efficiency. In our institution, we often use VACS for robotic left-internal-mammary-artery takedown, mitral valve repair, and various intra-cardiac operations such as tricuspid valve repair, combined Maze procedure, atrial septal defect repair, ventricular septal defect repair, etc. Hands-on reminders and updated references are provided for reader’s further understanding of the topic. PMID:24455172

  1. Videoscope-assisted cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Kuan-Ming; Chen, Robert Jeen-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Videoscope-assisted cardiac surgery (VACS) offers a minimally invasive platform for most cardiac operations such as coronary and valve procedures. It includes robotic and thoracoscopic approaches and each has strengths and weaknesses. The success depends on appropriate hardware setup, staff training, and troubleshooting efficiency. In our institution, we often use VACS for robotic left-internal-mammary-artery takedown, mitral valve repair, and various intra-cardiac operations such as tricuspid valve repair, combined Maze procedure, atrial septal defect repair, ventricular septal defect repair, etc. Hands-on reminders and updated references are provided for reader's further understanding of the topic. PMID:24455172

  2. Epigenetic regulation in cardiac fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Li-Ming; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac fibrosis represents an adoptive response in the heart exposed to various stress cues. While resolution of the fibrogenic response heralds normalization of heart function, persistent fibrogenesis is usually associated with progressive loss of heart function and eventually heart failure. Cardiac fibrosis is regulated by a myriad of factors that converge on the transcription of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins, a process the epigenetic machinery plays a pivotal role. In this mini-review, we summarize recent advances regarding the epigenetic regulation of cardiac fibrosis focusing on the role of histone and DNA modifications and non-coding RNAs. PMID:26635926

  3. Induction of apoptosis in colon cancer cells treated with isorhamnetin glycosides from Opuntia ficus-indica pads.

    PubMed

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Moreno-García, Beatriz E; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Aráiz-Hernández, Diana; Alvarez, Mario M; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O

    2014-12-01

    (OFI) contains health-promoting compounds like flavonoids, being the isorhamnetin glycosides the most abundant. We evaluated the effect of OFI extracts with different isorhamnetin glycosides against two different human colon cancer cells (HT-29 and Caco2). The extracts were obtained by alkaline hydrolysis with NaOH at 40 °C during 15, 30 or 60 min. Tri and diglycosides were the most abundant isorhamnetin glycosides, therefore these compounds were isolated to compare their cytotoxic effect with the obtained from the extracts. The OFI extracts and purified isorhamnetin glycosides were more cytotoxic against HT-29 cells than Caco2 cells. OFI-30 exhibited the lowest IC50 value against HT-29 (4.9?±?0.5 ?g/mL) and against Caco2 (8.2?±?0.3 ?g/mL). Isorhamnetin diglycosides IG5 and IG6 were more cytotoxic than pure isorhamnetin aglycone or triglycosides when they were tested in HT-29 cells. Bioluminescent analysis revealed increased activity of caspase 3/7 in OFI extracts-treated cells, particularly for the extract with the highest concentration of isorhamnetin triglycosides. Flow cytometry analysis confirmed that OFI extract and isorhamnetin glycosides induced a higher percentage of apoptosis in HT-29 than in Caco2, while isorhamnetin was more apoptotic in Caco2. This research demonstrated that glycosilation affected antiproliferative effect of pure isorhamnetin glycosides or when they are mixed with other phytochemicals in an extract obtained from OFI. PMID:25186940

  4. Identification of cardiac stem cells within mature cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Belostotskaya, Galina; Nevorotin, Alexey; Galagudza, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Cardiac stem cells are described in a number of mammalian species including humans. Cardiac stem cell clusters consisting of both lineage-negative and partially committed cells are generally identified between contracting cardiac myocytes. In the present study, c-kit(+), Sca(+), and Isl1(+) stem cells were revealed to be located inside the sarcoplasm of cardiac myocytes in myocardial cell cultures derived from newborn, 20-, and 40-day-old rats. Intracellularly localized cardiac stem cells had a coating or capsule with a few pores that opened into the host cell sarcoplasm. The similar structures were also identified in the suspension of freshly isolated myocardial cells (ex vivo) of 20- and 40-day-old rats. The results from this study provide direct evidence for the replicative division of encapsulated stem cells, followed by their partial cardiomyogenic differentiation. The latter is substantiated by the release of multiple transient amplifying cells following the capsule rupture. In conclusion, functional cardiac stem cells can reside not only exterior to but also within cardiomyocytes. PMID:26280107

  5. Terpene glycosides and cytotoxic constituents from the seeds of Amomum xanthioides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Choi, Jung Wook; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Kang Ro

    2010-03-01

    Column chromatographic isolation of the MeOH extract of the seeds of Amomum xanthioides afforded a new diterpene glycoside, amoxanthoside A (1), two new monoterpene glycosides, (1 S,4 S,5 S)-5- EXO-hydroxycamphor 5-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2) and (1 R,4 R,5 S)-5-ENDO-hydroxycamphor 5-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), together with four known compounds, hedychiol A (4), pygmol (5), (1 S,4 R,6 R)-(+)-6- ENDO-hydroxycamphor (6), and dihydroyashabushiketol (7). The structures of the new compounds were determined through spectral analysis, including extensive 2D NMR data. The isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against four human cancer cell lines IN VITRO using a sulforhodamine B bioassay. PMID:19830656

  6. Forsythoneosides A-D, Neuroprotective Phenethanoid and Flavone Glycoside Heterodimers from the Fruits of Forsythia suspensa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Yang, Ya-Nan; Song, Xiu-Yun; Shao, Si-Yuan; Feng, Zi-Ming; Jiang, Jian-Shuang; Li, Li; Chen, Nai-Hong; Zhang, Pei-Cheng

    2015-10-23

    Forsythoneosides A-D (1-4), four unusual adducts of a flavonoid unit fused to a phenylethanoid glycoside through a pyran ring or carbon-carbon bond, and four new phenylethanoid glycosides (5-8) were isolated from the fruits of Forsythia suspensa, together with nine known compounds. The structures of 1-8, including their absolute configurations, were elucidated by spectroscopic data as well as experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism analysis. Compounds 2 and 4 inhibited PC12 cell damage induced by rotenone, and increased cell viability from 53.9 ± 7.1% to 70.1 ± 4.0% and 67.9 ± 5.2% at 0.1 ?M, respectively. PMID:26422318

  7. Two new quercetin glycoside derivatives from the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides var. radicans.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shaofu; Fu, Shuna; Liu, Bailian; Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Guangxiong

    2015-01-01

    Two new quercetin glycoside derivatives named quercetin-3-O-[2-O-trans-caffeoyl-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 6)-?-D-glucopyranoside] (1) and quercetin-3-O-[2-O-trans-caffeoyl-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 6)-?-D-glucopyranoside] (2) along with three known flavonoids, 5-hydroxy-6,7,3',4',5'-pentamethoxyflavone (3), 5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone (4) and kaempferol 3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (5), were isolated from the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides var. radicans. The structures of the new compounds were determined by means of extensive spectroscopic analysis (1D, 2D NMR and HR-ESI-MS), glycoside hydrolysis and sugar HPLC analysis after derivatisation. This is the first report on the isolation of a pair of compounds with ? or ?-L-rhamnopyranosyl configuration from plant and the first detail assignment of their NMR data. PMID:25656831

  8. Cardenolides and bufadienolide glycosides from Kalanchoe tubiflora and evaluation of cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Chi; Lin, Ming-Kuem; Yang, Hsin-Ling; Hseu, You-Cheng; Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Tseng, Yen-Hsueh; Tsuzuki, Minoru; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2013-09-01

    Two new cardenolides, kalantubolide A (1) and kalantubolide B (2), and two bufadienolide glycosides, kalantuboside A (3) and kalantuboside B (4), as well as eleven known compounds were isolated and characterized from the EtOH extract of Kalanchoe tubiflora. The structures of compounds were assigned based on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses including HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY. Biological evaluation indicated that cardenolides (1-2) and bufadienolide glycosides (3-7) showed strong cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines (A549, Cal-27, A2058, and HL-60) with IC50 values ranging from 0.01 µM to 10.66 µM. Cardenolides (1-2) also displayed significant cytotoxicity toward HL-60 tumor cell line. In addition, compounds 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 blocked the cell cycle in the G2/M-phase and induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells. PMID:23877916

  9. Relationships between chemical structures and functions of triterpene glycosides isolated from sea cucumbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joo-In; Bae, Hae-Rahn; Kim, Chang Gun; Stonik, Valentin; Kwak, Jong-Young

    2014-09-01

    Many marine triterpene glycosides have in vitro and in vivo activities with very low toxicity, suggesting that they are suitable agents for the prevention and treatment of different diseases, particularly cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of action of natural marine compounds in cancer, immune and other various cells are not fully known. This review focuses on the structural characteristics of marine triterpene glycosides and how these affect their biological activities and molecular mechanisms. In particular, the membranotropic and membranolytic activities of frondoside A and cucumariosides from sea cucumbers and their ability to induce cytotoxicity and apoptosis have been discussed, with a focus on structure-activity relationships. In addition, the structural characteristics and antitumor effects of stichoposide C and stichoposide D have been reviewed along with underlying their molecular mechanisms.

  10. Relationships between chemical structures and functions of triterpene glycosides isolated from sea cucumbers

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joo-In; Bae, Hae-Rahn; Kim, Chang Gun; Stonik, Valentin A.; Kwak, Jong-Young

    2014-01-01

    Many marine triterpene glycosides have in vitro and in vivo activities with very low toxicity, suggesting that they are suitable agents for the prevention and treatment of different diseases, particularly cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of action of natural marine compounds in cancer, immune, and other various cells are not fully known. This review focuses on the structural characteristics of marine triterpene glycosides and how these affect their biological activities and molecular mechanisms. In particular, the membranotropic and membranolytic activities of frondoside A and cucumariosides from sea cucumbers and their ability to induce cytotoxicity and apoptosis have been discussed, with a focus on structure-activity relationships. In addition, the structural characteristics and antitumor effects of stichoposide C and stichoposide D have been reviewed along with underlying their molecular mechanisms. PMID:25250309

  11. Synthesis of thymol glycosides under SCCO2 conditions using amyloglucosidase from Rhizopus mold.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Tiruppur Venkatachallam Suresh; Sankar, Kadimi-Udaya; Divakar, Soundar

    2013-08-01

    Enzymatic synthesis of water soluble thymol glycosides were carried out using amyloglucosidase from Rhizopus mold under supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) conditions of 120 bar pressure at 50 °C. Thymol 1 formed glycosides with D-galactose 2, D-mannose 3, D-fructose 4, D-ribose 5 and D-arabinose 6 in yields ranging from 20.6% to 54.2%. Spectral characterization studies revealed that the reaction occurred between the phenolic OH group of thymol and 1-O/2-O groups of D-fructose and C-1 group of D-galactose, D-mannose, D-ribose and D-arabinose resulting in monoglycosylated/arylated derivatives. PMID:24425985

  12. Pseudoglycosyltransferase Catalyzes Non-Glycosidic C-N Coupling in Validamycin A Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Asamizu, Shumpei; Yang, Jongtae; Almabruk, Khaled H.; Mahmud, Taifo

    2011-01-01

    Glycosyltransferases are ubiquitous in nature. They catalyze a glycosidic bond formation between sugar donors and sugar or non-sugar acceptors to produce oligo/polysaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, glycosylated natural products, and other sugar-containing entities. However, a trehalose 6-phosphate synthase-like protein has been found to catalyze an unprecedented non-glycosidic C-N bond formation in the biosynthesis of the aminocyclitol antibiotic validamycin A. This dedicated ‘pseudoglycosyltransferase’ catalyzes a condensation between GDP-valienol and validamine 7-phosphate to give validoxylamine A 7?-phosphate with net retention of the ‘anomeric’ configuration of the donor cyclitol in the product. The enzyme operates in sequence with a phosphatase, which dephosphorylates validoxylamine A 7?-phosphate to validoxylamine A. PMID:21766819

  13. Mycotoxins and cyanogenic glycosides in staple foods of three indigenous people of the Colombian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Gonzalo J; Krska, Rudolf; Sulyok, Michael

    2015-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the incidence and levels of mycotoxins in the main staple foods of three indigenous people of the Colombian Amazon. A total of 20 corn, 24 rice and 59 cassava samples were analysed by a multi-analyte liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method covering the major classes of mycotoxins. In addition, cassava samples were also analysed for cyanogenic glycosides. The indigenous Amazon communities tested are exposed to potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins (particularly aflatoxins), as well as other mycotoxins, mainly through the intake of locally grown corn. Citrinin content in this corn was unusually high and has not been reported elsewhere. Two cassava samples contained high levels of cyanogenic glycosides. It is strongly recommended not to grow corn in the Amazon but instead purchase it from vendors capable of guaranteeing mycotoxin levels below the maximum allowable concentration in Colombia. PMID:26391446

  14. An inverting ?-1,2-mannosidase belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 130 from Dyadobacter fermentans.

    PubMed

    Nihira, Takanori; Chiku, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Erika; Nishimoto, Mamoru; Fushinobu, Shinya; Kitaoka, Motomitsu; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi; Nakai, Hiroyuki

    2015-11-30

    The glycoside hydrolase family (GH) 130 is composed of inverting phosphorylases that catalyze reversible phosphorolysis of ?-d-mannosides. Here we report a glycoside hydrolase as a new member of GH130. Dfer_3176 from Dyadobacter fermentans showed no synthetic activity using ?-d-mannose 1-phosphate but it released ?-d-mannose from ?-1,2-mannooligosaccharides with an inversion of the anomeric configuration, indicating that Dfer_3176 is a ?-1,2-mannosidase. Mutational analysis indicated that two glutamic acid residues are critical for the hydrolysis of ?-1,2-mannotriose. The two residues are not conserved among GH130 phosphorylases and are predicted to assist the nucleophilic attack of a water molecule in the hydrolysis of the ?-d-mannosidic bond. PMID:26476324

  15. BACE1 (beta-secretase) inhibitory chromone glycosides from Aloe vera and Aloe nobilis.

    PubMed

    Lv, Liang; Yang, Qing-Yun; Zhao, Ying; Yao, Chun-Suo; Sun, Yang; Yang, Eun-Ju; Song, Kyung-Sik; Mook-Jung, Inhee; Fang, Wei-Shuo

    2008-04-01

    Four new chromone glycosides allo-aloeresin D (2) , C-2'-decoumaroyl-aloeresin G (8), 2'-O-coumaroyl-(S)-aloesinol (9), 2'-O-[ P-methoxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-(S)-aloesinol (10) and nine known chromone glycosides ( 1, 3 - 7, 11 - 13) were isolated from two Aloe spp. plants, A. vera and A. nobilis. Among them, 1 and 8 showed significant inhibitory activity against BACE1 (beta-secretase) with IC (50) values of 39.0 and 20.5 x 10 (-6) M, as well as inhibition of Abeta (1-42) production by 7.4 and 12.3 %, respectively, in B103 neuroblastoma cells at 30 ppm. The preliminary structure-activity relationships of ALOE chromone glucosides were also discussed. PMID:18543151

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Hapten-Protein Conjugates for Antibody Production against Cyanogenic Glycosides.

    PubMed

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat Folashade

    2015-07-01

    Consumption of cyanogenic plants can cause serious health problems for humans. The ability to detect and quantify cyanogenic glycosides, capable of generating cyanide, could contribute to prevention of cyanide poisoning from the consumption of improperly processed cyanogenic plants. Hapten-protein conjugates were synthesized with amygdalin and linamarin by using a novel approach. Polyclonal antibodies were generated by immunizing four New Zealand White rabbits with synthesized amygdalin-bovine serum albumin and linamarin-bovine serum albumin immunogen. This is the first time an antibody was produced against linamarin. Antibody titer curves were obtained from all the four rabbits by using a noncompetitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. High antibody titer was obtained at dilutions greater than 1:50,000 from both immunogens. This new method is an important step forward in preventing ingestion of toxic cyanogenic glycosides. PMID:26197297

  17. Three new pentasaccharide resin glycosides from the roots of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas).

    PubMed

    Yin, Yong-Qin; Huang, Xue-Feng; Kong, Ling-Yi; Niwa, Masatake

    2008-12-01

    Three new pentasaccharide resin glycosides, batatosides III-V (1-3), were isolated from the roots of Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). Saponification of the crude resin glycoside mixture yielded substituents and simonic acid B. The structures of the isolated compounds (1-3) were established through spectroscopic analyses, including high field NMR spectroscopy and HR-ESI-MS, and chemical correlation. The major characteristics of 3 are the presence of three different substituents, especially the substituent of cinnamic acid was seldom. The monosaccharides of 1-3 were proved by GC-MS and the absolute configuration of aglycone was further established as S by Mosher's method with R-methyloxyphenylacetic acid (MPA) and S-MPA. PMID:19043237

  18. Anti-inflammatory properties of a triterpenoidal glycoside from Momordica cochinchinensis in LPS-stimulated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kiwon; Chin, Young-Won; Yoon, Kee dong; Chae, Hee-Sung; Kim, Chul Young; Yoo, Hunseung; Kim, Jinwoong

    2013-02-01

    Two triterpenoidal saponins were isolated from the seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis Sprenger (Cucurbitaceae). Identification of chemical structures has been performed by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography (GC). One of the saponins is a new gypsogenin glycoside, named as gypsogenin 3-O-?-D-galactopyranosyl(1?2)-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1?3)]-?-D-glucuronopyranoside (compound 1), which is reported for the first time from natural resources. The other saponin is a quillaic acid glycoside (compound 2), which showed anti-inflammatory activities in RAW 264.7 cells. The mechanistic understanding of anti-inflammatory activities demonstrates that compound 2 inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of nitric oxide and IL-6 via NF-?B pathway. PMID:22916793

  19. Two new phenylpropanoid glycosides with interesterification from Scrophularia dentata Royle ex Benth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liuqiang; Yang, Zhuo; Jia, Qi; Dorje, Gaawe; Zhao, Zhili; Guo, Fujiang; Li, Yiming

    2013-10-01

    Two new phenylpropanoid glycosides (1-2), along with seven known ones (3-9), were isolated from the whole plant of Scrophularia dentata Royle ex Benth. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Among them, compounds 1 and 2 failed to separated, because they can easily transform into each other by acyl migrant reaction. In this paper, the interesterification mechanism was discussed firstly and the rule can be used in the similar structure elucidation in future.

  20. [Flavone C-glycosides from seeds of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke-xian; Zhao, Li-mei; Ji, Chang-jiu; Tan, Ning-hua

    2015-04-01

    Five flavone C-glycosides were isolated from the methanol extract of the degrease seeds of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa though various column chromatography methods including silica gel, MPLC, and HPLC. The structures were elucidated as 6"-feruloyl- 6'''-vanillylspinosin(1), 6",6'"-diferuloylspinosin(2), spinosin(3), swertisin(4) and isoswertisin(5) based on the NMR and MS spectral data. 1 is a new compound. PMID:26281588

  1. New cytotoxic triterpene glycoside from the East China Sea cucumber Holothuria nobilis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-Jia; Zhu, Qi-Ke; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Hui-Wen

    2015-02-01

    A new cytotoxic triterpene glycoside named nobiliside E (1) has been obtained from the East China Sea cucumber Holothuria nobilis Selenka. Its structure was determined on the basis of NMR spectroscopic and MS analyses, together with chemical evidence. The new compound showed significant cytotoxicity to eight human tumor cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 0.53-4.06 ?g/mL. PMID:25920252

  2. Production of Hesperetin Glycosides by Xanthomonas campestris and Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase and Their Anti-allergic Activities

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Kei; Hamada, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    The production of hesperetin glycosides was investigated using glycosylation with Xanthomonas campestris and cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase). X. campestris glucosylated hesperetin to its 3'-, 5-, and 7-O-glucosides, and CGTase converted hesperetin glucosides into the corresponding maltosides. The resulting 7-O-glucoside and 7-O-maltoside of hesperetin showed inhibitory effects on IgE antibody production and on O2- generation from rat neutrophils. PMID:22254014

  3. Palladium-catalyzed glycosylation: novel synthetic approach to diverse N-heterocyclic glycosides.

    PubMed

    Ji, Li; Xiang, Shao-Hua; Leng, Wei-Lin; Hoang, Kim Le Mai; Liu, Xue-Wei

    2015-03-20

    An efficient and highly stereoselective method for the construction of N-heterocyclic glycosides is reported. This method is based on a palladium-catalyzed allylation which proceeded to provide N-heterocyclic glycosyl compounds in good-to-excellent yields with ?- or ?-selectivity. Various N-nucleophiles were examined for this reaction and selected N-glycosyl isatin substrates were further elaborated to bis-indole sugars which have potential as antiproliferative drugs. PMID:25730324

  4. [Isolation and properties of Sarothamnoside, a novel isoflavone glycoside from various Sarothamnus species].

    PubMed

    Brum-Bousquet, M; Lallemand, J Y; Tillequin, F; Faugeras, G; Delaveau, P

    1981-12-01

    Sarothamnoside (genistein 7,4'-di-O-[4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-beta-D-apiofuranoside]), a novel isoflavone glycoside, has been isolated from Sarothamnus scoparius and S. patens seeds. The structure, in agreement with acid and enzymatic hydrolysis experiments, has been unambiguously determined, using spectral methods: SM, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. (1)H NMR spectra showed the beta configuration of the two apioses, whereas (13)C NMR provided evidence of the sugar linkages. PMID:17402061

  5. A new steroidal glycoside from Corypha taliera Roxb., a globally endangered species.

    PubMed

    Shoeb, Mohammad; Khondker, Moniruzzaman; Nahar, Nilufar

    2016-02-01

    The reversed-phased HPLC analysis of the methanol extract of the pericarp of C. taliera Roxb. (Talipalm), a rare species of Arecaceae family, afforded a new steroidal glycoside, ?-sitosterol-3-O-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-d-glucopyranoside (1). The structure of the compound was elucidated unequivocally by UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic studies. PMID:26196451

  6. Image guidance in cardiac electrophysiology

    E-print Network

    Malchano, Zachary John

    2006-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are characterized by a disruption or abnormal conduction of electrical signals within the heart. Treatment of arrhythmias has dramatically evolved over the past half-century, and today, minimally-invasive ...

  7. Blood Conservation in Cardiac Surgery 

    E-print Network

    Slight, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac surgery is traditionally a heavy user of blood and blood products. Until recently, the benefits of transfusion have been largely assumed and the risks relatively ignored. This has prompted us to examine new ways ...

  8. Robot-assisted cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Norihiko; Watanabe, Go

    2015-01-01

    Recognition of the significant advantages of minimizing surgical trauma has resulted in the development of minimally invasive surgical procedures. Endoscopic surgery offers patients the benefits of minimally invasive surgery, and surgical robots have enhanced the ability and precision of surgeons. Consequently, technological advances have facilitated totally endoscopic robotic cardiac surgery, which has allowed surgeons to operate endoscopically rather than through a median sternotomy during cardiac surgery. Thus, repairs for structural heart conditions, including mitral valve plasty, atrial septal defect closure, multivessel minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting (MIDCAB), and totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), can be totally endoscopic. Robot-assisted cardiac surgery as minimally invasive cardiac surgery is reviewed. PMID:26134073

  9. Symptoms of Sudden Cardiac Arrest

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... you need to protect your health. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Cardiac Arrest About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  10. Computational cardiac anatomy using MRI.

    PubMed

    Beg, Mirza Faisal; Helm, Patrick A; McVeigh, Elliot; Miller, Michael I; Winslow, Raimond L

    2004-11-01

    Ventricular geometry and fiber orientation may undergo global or local remodeling in cardiac disease. However, there are as yet no mathematical and computational methods for quantifying variation of geometry and fiber orientation or the nature of their remodeling in disease. Toward this goal, a landmark and image intensity-based large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping (LDDMM) method to transform heart geometry into common coordinates for quantification of shape and form was developed. Two automated landmark placement methods for modeling tissue deformations expected in different cardiac pathologies are presented. The transformations, computed using the combined use of landmarks and image intensities, yields high-registration accuracy of heart anatomies even in the presence of significant variation of cardiac shape and form. Once heart anatomies have been registered, properties of tissue geometry and cardiac fiber orientation in corresponding regions of different hearts may be quantified. PMID:15508155

  11. A novel ?-xylosidase structure from Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius: the first crystal structure of a glycoside hydrolase family GH52 enzyme reveals unpredicted similarity to other glycoside hydrolase folds.

    PubMed

    Espina, Giannina; Eley, Kirstin; Pompidor, Guillaume; Schneider, Thomas R; Crennell, Susan J; Danson, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius is a thermophilic bacterium that is able to ferment both C6 and C5 sugars to produce ethanol. During growth on hemicellulose biomass, an intracellular ?-xylosidase catalyses the hydrolysis of xylo-oligosaccharides to the monosaccharide xylose, which can then enter the pathways of central metabolism. The gene encoding a G. thermoglucosidasius ?-xylosidase belonging to CAZy glycoside hydrolase family GH52 has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme has been characterized and a high-resolution (1.7 Å) crystal structure has been determined, resulting in the first reported structure of a GH52 family member. A lower resolution (2.6 Å) structure of the enzyme-substrate complex shows the positioning of the xylobiose substrate to be consistent with the proposed retaining mechanism of the family; additionally, the deep cleft of the active-site pocket, plus the proximity of the neighbouring subunit, afford an explanation for the lack of catalytic activity towards the polymer xylan. Whilst the fold of the G. thermoglucosidasius ?-xylosidase is completely different from xylosidases in other CAZy families, the enzyme surprisingly shares structural similarities with other glycoside hydrolases, despite having no more than 13% sequence identity. PMID:24816105

  12. Inhibition of aldose reductase by phenylethanoid glycoside isolated from the seeds of Paulownia coreana.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Yeon Sil; Kim, Seon Ha; Bae, Young Soo; Lim, Soon Sung

    2011-01-01

    Aldose reductase (AR) inhibitors have considerable therapeutic potential against diabetic complications and do not increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Through bioassay-guided fractionation of the 70% acetone extract obtained from Paulownia coreana seeds, phenylpropanoid glycosides (compounds 1-4) and 5 phenolic compounds were isolated (compounds 5-9). Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and comparison with reported data. All the isolates were subjected to in vitro bioassays to evaluate their inhibitory activities against recombinant human aldose reductase (rhAR) and sorbitol formation in human erythrocytes. Phenylethanoid glycosides showed more effective than the phenolic compounds in inhibiting rhAR. Among the compounds, isocampneoside II (3) was found to significantly inhibit rhAR with an IC(50) value of 9.72 µM. In kinetic analyses performed using Lineweaver-Burk plots of 1/velocity and 1/concentration of substrate, isocampneoside II (3) showed uncompetitive inhibition against rhAR. Furthermore, it inhibited sorbitol formation in a rat lens incubated with a high concentration of glucose; this finding indicated that isocampneoside II (3) may effectively prevent osmotic stress in hyperglycemia. Thus, the P. coreana-derived phenylethanoid glycoside isocampneoside II (3) may have a potential therapeutics against diabetic complications. PMID:21212537

  13. A male gift to its partner? Cyanogenic glycosides in the spermatophore of longwing butterflies (Heliconius)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Márcio Zikán; Gilbert, Lawrence E.

    2007-01-01

    Males of several insect species transfer nuptial gifts to females during mating, typically in the form of a protein-rich spermatophore. In chemically defended species, males could potentially enhance such a gift with chemicals that help protect the female, her eggs, or both. This was shown for lepidopteran species that accumulate pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Most Heliconius butterflies are presumably protected from predators by virtue of de novo synthesized and/or sequestered cyanogenic glycosides. Males of Heliconius species are known to transfer nutritional gifts to the females but whether defensive chemicals could also be transferred is not known. To ascertain whether transfer of cyanogens occurs, we dissected freshly mated females from nine different Heliconius species and analyzed spermatophores for cyanogenic glycosides. We found cyanogens in the spermatophores of all nine species. This is the first time cyanogenic glycosides are reported in the spermatophores of arthropods. We discuss the implications of these findings for Heliconius biology and for other cyanogenic insects as well. We suggest that chemically defended species commonly lace their nuptial gifts with defensive chemicals to improve gift quality.

  14. Influence of Extraction Methods on the Yield of Steviol Glycosides and Antioxidants in Stevia rebaudiana Extracts.

    PubMed

    Periche, Angela; Castelló, Maria Luisa; Heredia, Ana; Escriche, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the application of ultrasound techniques and microwave energy, compared to conventional extraction methods (high temperatures at atmospheric pressure), for the solid-liquid extraction of steviol glycosides (sweeteners) and antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity) from dehydrated Stevia leaves. Different temperatures (from 50 to 100 °C), times (from 1 to 40 min) and microwave powers (1.98 and 3.30 W/g extract) were used. There was a great difference in the resulting yields according to the treatments applied. Steviol glycosides and antioxidants were negatively correlated; therefore, there is no single treatment suitable for obtaining the highest yield in both groups of compounds simultaneously. The greatest yield of steviol glycosides was obtained with microwave energy (3.30 W/g extract, 2 min), whereas, the conventional method (90 °C, 1 min) was the most suitable for antioxidant extraction. Consequently, the best process depends on the subsequent use (sweetener or antioxidant) of the aqueous extract of Stevia leaves. PMID:25726419

  15. Sph3 Is a Glycoside Hydrolase Required for the Biosynthesis of Galactosaminogalactan in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Bamford, Natalie C; Snarr, Brendan D; Gravelat, Fabrice N; Little, Dustin J; Lee, Mark J; Zacharias, Caitlin A; Chabot, Josée C; Geller, Alexander M; Baptista, Stefanie D; Baker, Perrin; Robinson, Howard; Howell, P Lynne; Sheppard, Donald C

    2015-11-13

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most virulent species within the Aspergillus genus and causes invasive infections with high mortality rates. The exopolysaccharide galactosaminogalactan (GAG) contributes to the virulence of A. fumigatus. A co-regulated five-gene cluster has been identified and proposed to encode the proteins required for GAG biosynthesis. One of these genes, sph3, is predicted to encode a protein belonging to the spherulin 4 family, a protein family with no known function. Construction of an sph3-deficient mutant demonstrated that the gene is necessary for GAG production. To determine the role of Sph3 in GAG biosynthesis, we determined the structure of Aspergillus clavatus Sph3 to 1.25 Å. The structure revealed a (?/?)8 fold, with similarities to glycoside hydrolase families 18, 27, and 84. Recombinant Sph3 displayed hydrolytic activity against both purified and cell wall-associated GAG. Structural and sequence alignments identified three conserved acidic residues, Asp-166, Glu-167, and Glu-222, that are located within the putative active site groove. In vitro and in vivo mutagenesis analysis demonstrated that all three residues are important for activity. Variants of Asp-166 yielded the greatest decrease in activity suggesting a role in catalysis. This work shows that Sph3 is a glycoside hydrolase essential for GAG production and defines a new glycoside hydrolase family, GH135. PMID:26342082

  16. Nickel-Catalyzed Proton-Deuterium Exchange (HDX) Procedures for Glycosidic Linkage Analysis of Complex Carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Price, Neil P J; Hartman, Trina M; Vermillion, Karl E

    2015-07-21

    The structural analysis of complex carbohydrates typically requires the assignment of three parameters: monosaccharide composition, the position of glycosidic linkages between monosaccharides, and the position and nature of noncarbohydrate substituents. The glycosidic linkage positions are often determined by permethylation analysis, but this can be complicated by high viscosity or poor solubility, resulting in under-methylation. This is a drawback because an under-methylated position may be misinterpreted as the erroneous site of a linkage or substituent. Here, we describe an alternative approach to linkage analysis that makes use of a nonreversible deuterium exchange of C-H protons on the carbohydrate backbone. The exchange reaction is conducted in deuterated water catalyzed by Raney nickel, and results in the selective exchange of C-H protons adjacent to free hydroxyl groups. Hence, the position of the residual C-H protons is indicative of the position of glycosidic linkages or other substituents and can be readily assigned by heteronuclear single quantum coherence-nuclear magnetic resonance (HSQC-NMR) or, following suitable derivatization, by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis. Moreover, because the only changes to the parent sugar are proton/deuterium exchanges, the composition and linkage analysis can be determined in a single step. PMID:26075577

  17. Cardiac manifestations in systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lambova, Sevdalina

    2014-01-01

    Primary cardiac involvement, which develops as a direct consequence of systemic sclerosis (SSc), may manifest as myocardial damage, fibrosis of the conduction system, pericardial and, less frequently, as valvular disease. In addition, cardiac complications in SSc may develop as a secondary phenomenon due to pulmonary arterial hypertension and kidney pathology. The prevalence of primary cardiac involvement in SSc is variable and difficult to determine because of the diversity of cardiac manifestations, the presence of subclinical periods, the type of diagnostic tools applied, and the diversity of patient populations. When clinically manifested, cardiac involvement is thought to be an important prognostic factor. Profound microvascular disease is a pathognomonic feature of SSc, as both vasospasm and structural alterations are present. Such alterations are thought to predict macrovascular atherosclerosis over time. There are contradictory reports regarding the prevalence of atherosclerosis in SSc. According to some authors, the prevalence of atherosclerosis of the large epicardial coronary arteries is similar to that of the general population, in contrast with other rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. However, the level of inflammation in SSc is inferior. Thus, the atherosclerotic process may not be as aggressive and not easily detectable in smaller studies. Echocardiography (especially tissue Doppler imaging), single-photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and cardiac computed tomography are sensitive techniques for earlier detection of both structural and functional scleroderma-related cardiac pathologies. Screening for subclinical cardiac involvement via modern, sensitive tools provides an opportunity for early diagnosis and treatment, which is of crucial importance for a positive outcome. PMID:25276300

  18. FGF21 and Cardiac Physiopathology

    PubMed Central

    Planavila, Anna; Redondo-Angulo, Ibon; Villarroya, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    The heart is not traditionally considered either a target or a site of fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) production. However, recent findings indicate that FGF21 can act as a cardiomyokine; that is, it is produced by cardiac cells at significant levels and acts in an autocrine manner on the heart itself. The heart is sensitive to the effects of FGF21, both systemic and locally generated, owing to the expression in cardiomyocytes of ?-Klotho, the key co-receptor known to confer specific responsiveness to FGF21 action. FGF21 has been demonstrated to protect against cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac inflammation, and oxidative stress. FGF21 expression in the heart is induced in response to cardiac insults, such as experimental cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial infarction in rodents, as well as in failing human hearts. Intracellular mechanisms involving PPAR? and Sirt1 mediate transcriptional regulation of the FGF21 gene in response to exogenous stimuli. In humans, circulating FGF21 levels are elevated in coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis, and are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. These findings provide new insights into the role of FGF21 in the heart and may offer potential therapeutic strategies for cardiac disease. PMID:26379627

  19. Cardiac Regeneration and Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Mignone, John; MacLellan, W Robb

    2015-10-01

    After decades of believing the heart loses the ability to regenerate soon after birth, numerous studies are now reporting that the adult heart may indeed be capable of regeneration, although the magnitude of new cardiac myocyte formation varies greatly. While this debate has energized the field of cardiac regeneration and led to a dramatic increase in our understanding of cardiac growth and repair, it has left much confusion in the field as to the prospects of regenerating the heart. Studies applying modern techniques of genetic lineage tracing and carbon-14 dating have begun to establish limits on the amount of endogenous regeneration after cardiac injury, but the underlying cellular mechanisms of this regeneration remained unclear. These same studies have also revealed an astonishing capacity for cardiac repair early in life that is largely lost with adult differentiation and maturation. Regardless, this renewed focus on cardiac regeneration as a therapeutic goal holds great promise as a novel strategy to address the leading cause of death in the developed world. PMID:26269526

  20. Drosophila Models of Cardiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Nicole; Wessells, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a useful model for cardiac diseases, both developmental abnormalities and adult functional impairment. Using the tools of both classical and molecular genetics, the study of the developing fly heart has been instrumental in identifying the major signaling events of cardiac field formation, cardiomyocyte specification, and the formation of the functioning heart tube. The larval stage of fly cardiac development has become an important model system for testing isolated preparations of living hearts for the effects of biological and pharmacological compounds on cardiac activity. Meanwhile, the recent development of effective techniques to study adult cardiac performance in the fly has opened new uses for the Drosophila model system. The fly system is now being used to study long-term alterations in adult performance caused by factors such as diet, exercise, and normal aging. The fly is a unique and valuable system for the study of such complex, long-term interactions, as it is the only invertebrate genetic model system with a working heart developmentally homologous to the vertebrate heart. Thus, the fly model combines the advantages of invertebrate genetics (such as large populations, facile molecular genetic techniques, and short lifespan) with physiological measurement techniques that allow meaningful comparisons with data from vertebrate model systems. As such, the fly model is well situated to make important contributions to the understanding of complicated interactions between environmental factors and genetics in the long-term regulation of cardiac performance. PMID:21377627

  1. Defensive strategies in Geranium sylvaticum, Part 2: Roles of water-soluble tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids against natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Anu

    2013-11-01

    Geranium sylvaticum is a common herbaceous plant in Fennoscandia, which has a unique phenolic composition. Ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, galloylglucoses, gallotannins, galloyl quinic acids and flavonoids possess variable distribution in its different organs. These phenolic compounds are thought to have an important role in plant-herbivore interactions. The aim of this study was to quantify these different water-soluble phenolic compounds and measure the biological activity of the eight organs of G. sylvaticum. Compounds were characterized and quantified using HPLC-DAD/MS, in addition, total proanthocyanidins were determined by BuOH-HCl assay and total phenolics by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Two in vitro biological activity measurements were used: the prooxidant activity was measured by the browning assay and antioxidant activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Organ extracts were fractionated using column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and the activities of fractions was similarly measured to evaluate which polyphenol groups contributed the most to the biological activity of each organ. The data on the activity of fractions were examined by multivariate data analysis. The water-soluble extracts of leaves and pistils, which contained over 30% of the dry weight as ellagitannins, showed the highest pro-oxidant activity among the organ extracts. Fraction analysis revealed that flavonoids and galloyl quinic acids also exhibited high pro-oxidant activity. In contrast, the most antioxidant active organ extracts were those of the main roots and hairy roots that contained high amounts of proanthocyanidins in addition to ellagitannins. Analysis of the fractions showed that especially ellagitannins and galloyl quinic acids have high antioxidant activity. We conclude that G. sylvaticum allocates a significant amount of tannins in those plant parts that are important to the fitness of the plant and susceptible to natural enemies, i.e. pistil and leaf tannins protect against insect herbivores and root tannins against soil pathogens. PMID:24050514

  2. Characterization, stoichiometry, and stability of salivary protein-tannin complexes by ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Canon, Francis; Paté, Franck; Meudec, Emmanuelle; Marlin, Thérèse; Cheynier, Véronique; Giuliani, Alexandre; Sarni-Manchado, Pascale

    2009-12-01

    Numerous protein-polyphenol interactions occur in biological and food domains particularly involving proline-rich proteins, which are representative of the intrinsically unstructured protein group (IUP). Noncovalent protein-ligand complexes are readily detected by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), which also gives access to ligand binding stoichiometry. Surprisingly, the study of interactions between polyphenolic molecules and proteins is still an area where ESI-MS has poorly benefited, whereas it has been extensively applied to the detection of noncovalent complexes. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry has been applied to the detection and the characterization of the complexes formed between tannins and a human salivary proline-rich protein (PRP), namely IB5. The study of the complex stability was achieved by low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) measurements, which are commonly implemented using triple quadrupole, hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight, or ion trap instruments. Complexes composed of IB5 bound to a model polyphenol EgCG have been detected by ESI-MS and further analyzed by MS/MS. Mild ESI interface conditions allowed us to observe intact noncovalent PRP-tannin complexes with stoichiometries ranging from 1:1 to 1:5. Thus, ESI-MS shows its efficiency for (1) the study of PRP-tannin interactions, (2) the determination of stoichiometry, and (3) the study of complex stability. We were able to establish unambiguously both their stoichiometries and their overall subunit architecture via tandem mass spectrometry and solution disruption experiments. Our results prove that IB5.EgCG complexes are maintained intact in the gas phase. PMID:19838685

  3. Direct synthesis of C-glycosides from unprotected 2-N-acyl-aldohexoses via aldol condensation-oxa-Michael reactions with unactivated ketones.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sherida; Tanaka, Fujie

    2016-01-01

    C-glycosides are important compounds as they are used as bioactive molecules and building blocks. We have developed methods to concisely synthesize C-glycosides from unprotected 2-N-acyl-aldohexoses and unactivated ketones; we designed aldol-condensation-oxa-Michael addition reactions catalyzed by amine-based catalysts using additives. Depending on the conditions used, C-glycosides were stereoselectively obtained. Our methods allowed the C-C bond formations at the anomeric centers of unprotected carbohydrates under mild conditions to lead the C-glycosides in atom- and step-economical ways. PMID:26565955

  4. Cardiac Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Although not available to all patients with narrowed arteries, balloon angioplasty has expanded dramatically since its introduction with an estimated further growth to 562,000 procedures in the U.S. alone by 1992. Growth has fueled demand for higher quality imaging systems that allow the cardiologist to be more accurate and increase the chances of a successful procedure. A major advance is the Digital Cardiac Imaging (DCI) System designed by Philips Medical Systems International, Best, The Netherlands and marketed in the U.S. by Philips Medical Systems North America Company. The key benefit is significantly improved real-time imaging and the ability to employ image enhancement techniques to bring out added details. Using a cordless control unit, the cardiologist can manipulate images to make immediate assessment, compare live x-ray and roadmap images by placing them side-by-side on monitor screens, or compare pre-procedure and post procedure conditions. The Philips DCI improves the cardiologist's precision by expanding the information available to him.

  5. Women's compliance with cardiac rehabilitation programs.

    PubMed

    Ginzel, A R

    1996-01-01

    As the incidence of cardiovascular disease in women increases, the process of cardiac rehabilitation in women is becoming increasingly important to nurses. Specifically, the issue of women's compliance with cardiac rehabilitation needs to be addressed by nurses. Most past and current research on cardiac rehabilitation and compliance with rehabilitation programs has been conducted on male subjects and cannot be accurately generalized to the female population. This article reviews current literature which addresses the issues of heart disease in women, cardiac rehabilitation and compliance in the general population, gender differences in cardiac rehabilitation, and compliance of women in cardiac rehabilitation. PMID:8657707

  6. Fragmentation study of iridoid glycosides and phenylpropanoid glycosides in Radix Scrophulariae by rapid resolution liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian; Yuan, Quan; Liu, E-Hu; Qi, Lian-Wen; Bi, Zhi-Ming; Li, Ping

    2010-08-01

    Rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC) coupled with diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF MS) method was applied to the mass spectral study of a series of naturally occurring iridoid glycosides and phenylpropanoid glycosides in Radix Scrophulariae, which provides higher speed and increased sensitivity without loss of resolution. With dynamic adjustment as the key role of the fragmentor voltage and confirmed with authentic standards, valuable structural information regarding the nature of both the glycoside skeletons was thus obtained. Most compositions were found to possess organic acid moiety such as cinnamoyl, caffeoyl and ferulyol. Besides extensive fragmentation of the carbohydrate moiety, losses of the hydroxyl and glucose residue units showed in the spectra, permitting the exploration of the skeleton and the identity of substituents in the molecule. Ten major iridoid glycosides and 10 phenylpropanoid glycosides were identified or tentatively characterized based on their retention times, UV and TOF MS data. The major fragmentation pathways of PGs in Radix Scrophulariae obtained through the MS data was schemed systematically for the first time, which provides a reference for other PGs derivatives. PMID:20017212

  7. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and PSD fragmentation as means for the analysis of condensed tannins in plant leaves and needles.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Anke; Maie, Nagamitsu; Knicker, Heike; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2003-04-01

    MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and 13C NMR spectroscopy were applied to unveil typical characteristics of condensed tannins of leaves and needles from willow (Salix alba), spruce (Picea abies) and beech (Fagus sylvatica) of three tree species that are ubiquitous in German forests and landscapes. For further evaluation, lime (Tilia cordata) was included. The 13C NMR spectroscopy confirmed the purity of the condensed tannin fractions and the efficiency of the procedure used for their extraction. While signals representative for procyanidin units are observable in all liquid-state 13C NMR spectra, resonance lines of prodelphinidin were only detected in those obtained from the condensed tannins of spruce needles and beech leaves. Typical signals in the chemical shift region between 70 and 90 ppm demonstrated the presence of stereoisomers (catechin/epicatechin; gallocatechin/ epigallocatechin). The MALDI-TOF mass spectra of the condensed tannins show signals of polymers of up to undecamers. Supporting the observations from the NMR spectroscopy, the mass spectra of the willow and lime leaf condensed tannins were identified as polymers with mainly procyanidin units, while the polymers of the spruce needle and beech leaves exhibit varying procyanidin/prodelphinidin ratios. Post source decay (PSD) fragmentation lead to a sequential loss of monomers and allowed a detailed characterization and sequencing of individual chains. In the case of the condensed tannins of lime this technique clearly excludes a pelargonidin terminal unit followed by a prodelphinidin unit, which would result in the same molecular masses as a polymer solely built up of procyanidin units. PMID:12591272

  8. Inactivation of pathogenic viruses by plant-derived tannins: strong effects of extracts from persimmon (Diospyros kaki) on a broad range of viruses.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kyoko; Kawabata, Ryoko; Irie, Takashi; Nakai, Yoshiaki; Tohya, Yukinobu; Sakaguchi, Takemasa

    2013-01-01

    Tannins, plant-derived polyphenols and other related compounds, have been utilized for a long time in many fields such as the food industry and manufacturing. In this study, we investigated the anti-viral effects of tannins on 12 different viruses including both enveloped viruses (influenza virus H3N2, H5N3, herpes simplex virus-1, vesicular stomatitis virus, Sendai virus and Newcastle disease virus) and non-enveloped viruses (poliovirus, coxsachievirus, adenovirus, rotavirus, feline calicivirus and mouse norovirus). We found that extracts from persimmon (Diospyros kaki), which contains ca. 22% of persimmon tannin, reduced viral infectivity in more than 4-log scale against all of the viruses tested, showing strong anti-viral effects against a broad range of viruses. Other tannins derived from green tea, acacia and gallnuts were effective for some of the viruses, while the coffee extracts were not effective for any of the virus. We then investigated the mechanism of the anti-viral effects of persimmon extracts by using mainly influenza virus. Persimmon extracts were effective within 30 seconds at a concentration of 0.25% and inhibited attachment of the virus to cells. Pretreatment of cells with the persimmon extracts before virus infection or post-treatment after virus infection did not inhibit virus replication. Protein aggregation seems to be a fundamental mechanism underlying the anti-viral effect of persimmon tannin, since viral proteins formed aggregates when purified virions were treated with the persimmon extracts and since the anti-viral effect was competitively inhibited by a non-specific protein, bovine serum albumin. Considering that persimmon tannin is a food supplement, it has a potential to be utilized as a safe and highly effective anti-viral reagent against pathogenic viruses. PMID:23372851

  9. Genotypic Tannin Levels in Populus tremula Impact the Way Nitrogen Enrichment Affects Growth and Allocation Responses for Some Traits and Not for Others

    PubMed Central

    Bandau, Franziska; Decker, Vicki Huizu Guo; Gundale, Michael J.; Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber

    2015-01-01

    Plant intraspecific variability has been proposed as a key mechanism by which plants adapt to environmental change. In boreal forests where nitrogen availability is strongly limited, nitrogen addition happens indirectly through atmospheric N deposition and directly through industrial forest fertilization. These anthropogenic inputs of N have numerous environmental consequences, including shifts in plant species composition and reductions in plant species diversity. However, we know less about how genetic differences within plant populations determine how species respond to eutrophication in boreal forests. According to plant defense theories, nitrogen addition will cause plants to shift carbon allocation more towards growth and less to chemical defense, potentially enhancing vulnerability to antagonists. Aspens are keystone species in boreal forests that produce condensed tannins to serve as chemical defense. We conducted an experiment using ten Populus tremula genotypes from the Swedish Aspen Collection that express extreme levels of baseline investment into foliar condensed tannins. We investigated whether investment into growth and phenolic defense compounds in young plants varied in response to two nitrogen addition levels, corresponding to atmospheric N deposition and industrial forest fertilization. Nitrogen addition generally caused growth to increase, and tannin levels to decrease; however, individualistic responses among genotypes were found for height growth, biomass of specific tissues, root:shoot ratios, and tissue lignin and N concentrations. A genotype’s baseline ability to produce and store condensed tannins also influenced plant responses to N, although this effect was relatively minor. High-tannin genotypes tended to grow less biomass under low nitrogen levels and more at the highest fertilization level. Thus, the ability in aspen to produce foliar tannins is likely associated with a steeper reaction norm of growth responses, which suggests a higher plasticity to nitrogen addition, and potentially an advantage when adapting to higher concentrations of soil nitrogen. PMID:26488414

  10. Direct Cardiac Reprogramming: From Developmental Biology to Cardiac Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Li; Srivastava, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Heart disease affects millions worldwide and is a progressive condition involving loss of cardiomyocytes. The human heart has limited endogenous regenerative capacity and is thus an important target for novel regenerative medicine approaches. While cell-based regenerative therapies hold promise, cellular reprogramming of endogenous cardiac fibroblasts, which represent more than half of the cells in the mammalian heart, may be an attractive alternative strategy for regenerating cardiac muscle. Recent advances leveraging years of developmental biology point to the feasibility of generating de novo cardiomyocyte-like cells from terminally differentiated non-myocytes in the heart in situ after ischemic damage. Here, we review the progress in cardiac reprogramming methods and consider the opportunities and challenges that lie ahead in refining this technology for regenerative medicine. PMID:24030021

  11. Cardiac pacing and aviation.

    PubMed

    Toff, W D; Edhag, O K; Camm, A J

    1992-12-01

    Certain applicants with stable disturbances of rhythm or conduction requiring cardiac pacing, in whom no other disqualifying condition is present, may be considered fit for medical certification restricted to multi-crew operations. The reliability of modern pacing systems appears adequate to permit restricted certification even in pacemaker dependent subjects except for certain models of pacemakers and leads known to be at increased risk of failure. These are to be avoided. There is little evidence to suggest that newer devices are any more reliable than their predecessors. Single and dual chamber systems appear to have similar reliability up to 4 years, after which time significant attrition of dual chamber devices occurs, principally due to battery depletion. All devices require increased scrutiny as they approach their end of life as predicted from longevity data and pacing characteristics. Unipolar and bipolar leads are of similar reliability, apart from a number of specific bipolar polyurethane leads which have been identified. Atrial leads, particularly those without active fixation, are less secure than ventricular leads and applicants who are dependent on atrial sensing or pacing should be denied certification. Bipolar leads are to be preferred due to the lower risk of myopotential and exogenous EMI. Sensor-driven adaptive-rate pacing systems using active sensors may have reduced longevity and require close scrutiny. Activity-sensing devices using piezoelectric crystal sensors may be subject to significant rate rises in rotary wing aircraft. The impracticality of restricted certification in helicopters will, in any event, preclude certification. Such devices would best be avoided in hovercraft (air cushioned vehicle) pilots. Only minor rate rises are likely in fixed-wing aircraft which are unlikely to be of significance. Anti-tachycardia devices and implanted defibrillators are inconsistent with any form of certification to fly. PMID:1493823

  12. Cardiac factors in orthostatic hypotension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löllgen, H.; Dirschedl, P.; Koppenhagen, K.; Klein, K. E.

    Cardiac function is determined by preload, afterload, heart rate and contractility. During orthostatic stress, the footward blood shift is compensated for by an increase of afterload. LBNP is widely used to analyze effects of volume displacement during orthostatic stress. Comparisons of invasive ( right heart catheterization) and non-invasive approach (echocardiography) yielded similar changes. Preload and afterload change with graded LBNP, heart rate increases, and stroke volume and cardiac output decrease. Thus, the working point on the left ventricular function curve is shifted to the left and downward, similar to hypovolemia. However, position on the Frank-Starling curve, the unchanged ejection fraction, and the constant Vcf indicate a normal contractile state during LBNP. A decrease of arterial oxygen partial pressure during LBNP shwos impaired ventilation/perfusion ratio. Finally, LBNP induced cardiac and hemodynamic changes can be effectively countermeasured by dihydroergotamine, a potent venoconstrictor. Comparison of floating catheter data with that of echocardiography resulted in close correlation for cardiac output and stroke volume. In addition, cardiac dimensions changed in a similar way during LBNP. From our findings, echocardiography as a non-invasive procedure can reliably used in LBNP and orthostatic stress tests. Some informations can be obtained on borderline values indicating collaps or orthostatic syncope. Early fainters can be differentiated from late fainters by stroke volume changes.

  13. Effects of pregnane glycosides on food intake depend on stimulation of the melanocortin pathway and BDNF in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Komarnytsky, Slavko; Esposito, Debora; Rathinasabapathy, Thirumurugan; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya

    2013-02-27

    Pregnane glycosides appear to modulate food intake by possibly affecting the hypothalamic feeding circuits; however, the mechanisms of the appetite-regulating effect of pregnane glycosides remain obscure. Here, we show that pregnane glycoside-enriched extracts from swamp milkweed Asclepias incarnata at 25-100 mg/kg daily attenuated food intake (up to 47.1 ± 8.5% less than controls) and body weight gain in rats (10% for males and 9% for females, respectively) by activating melanocortin signaling and inhibiting gastric emptying. The major milkweed pregnane glycoside, ikemagenin, exerted its appetite-regulating effect by decreasing levels of agouti-related protein (0.6-fold) but not NPY satiety peptides. Ikemagenin treatment also increased secretion of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) downstream of melanocortin receptors in the hypothalamus (1.4-fold) and in the C6 rat glioma cell culture in vitro (up to 6-fold). These results support the multimodal effects of pregnane glycosides on feeding regulation, which depends on the activity of the melanocortin signaling pathway and BDNF. PMID:23308358

  14. Flavan hetero-dimers in the Cymbopogon citratus infusion tannin fraction and their contribution to the antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Costa, Gustavo; González-Manzano, Susana; González-Paramás, Ana; Figueiredo, Isabel Vitória; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Batista, Maria Teresa

    2015-03-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) leaf infusion, a commonly used ingredient in Asian, African and Latin American cuisines, is also used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several pathological conditions; however, little is known about their bioactive compounds. Recent studies revealed the crucial role of the phenolic compounds namely flavonoids and tannins on the infusion bioactivity. Flavonoids have already been characterized; however the tannin fraction of lemongrass infusion is still uncharted. The aim of the present work is to characterize this fraction, and to evaluate its contribution to the antioxidant potential of this plant. Chemical characterization was achieved by HPLC-DAD-ESI/tandem MS and the antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays. Hetero-dimeric flavan structures have been described for the first time in lemongrass consisting of apigeniflavan or luteoliflavan units linked to a flavanone, either naringenin or eriodictyol, which may occur as aglycone or glycosylated forms. The antioxidant capacity of the fraction containing these compounds was significantly higher than the infusion, indicating its potential as a source of natural antioxidants. PMID:25652784

  15. Response of the Rumen Microbiota of Sika Deer (Cervus nippon) Fed Different Concentrations of Tannin Rich Plants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhipeng; Wright, André-Denis G.; Liu, Hanlu; Fan, Zhongyuan; Yang, Fuhe; Zhang, Zhigang; Li, Guangyu

    2015-01-01

    High throughput sequencing was used to examine the rumen microbiota of sika deer fed high (OLH) and low concentration (OLL) of tannin rich oak leaves. The results showed that Prevotella spp. were the most dominant bacteria. The most predominant methanogens were the members of the order Methanoplasmatales. The dominant rumen protozoa were Entodinium longinucleatum, Eudiplodinium maggii, and Epidinium caudatum, and the fungal communities were mostly represented by Piromyces spp. Moreover, the relative abundance of Pseudobutyrivibrio spp. (P=0.026), unidentified bacteria (P=0.028), and Prevotella spp. (P=0.022) was lower in the OLH group than in the OLL group. The concentration of propionate in the OLH group was greater than in the OLL group (P=0.006). Patterns of relationships showed that methanogens belonging to the order Methanoplasmatales were negatively correlated with Treponema spp., Ent. Longinucleatum, and acetate. Methanosphaera stadtmanae was positively correlated to propionate, while Methanobrevibacter ruminantium was negatively associated with Methanobrevibacter thaueri and Methanobrevibacter millerae. Tannins altered the rumen microbes and fermentation patterns. However, the response of the entire rumen microbiota and the relationship between rumen microorganisms and the fermentation parameters were not fully understood. PMID:25955033

  16. Haematobiochemical parameters of goats fed tannin rich Psidium guajava and Carissa spinarum against Haemonchus contortus infection in India.

    PubMed

    Jan, Owais Qadir; Kamili, Neyaz; Ashraf, Ajmal; Iqbal, Asif; Sharma, R K; Rastogi, Ankur

    2015-03-01

    The antihelminthic properties of tannin-rich plants are being explored as an alternative to chemical drugs to minimise the effects of gastro intestinal nematodes (GIN). The present study was, therefore, conducted to investigate the effect of condensed tannins (CT), obtained from regional tanniferous tree leaves, in the Haemonchus contortus infected goats on the heamatobiochemical parameters to assess the goat health. Twelve adult male goats were randomly divided into three equal groups, namely negative control, infected control and treatment. H. contortus infected goats were allocated into infected control and treatment groups and their feeds contained 0 and 1.96 % of CT, respectively. Feeding trial was conducted for the duration of 90 days during which haematological and serum biochemical parameters were monitored on fortnightly basis. The animals ingesting the CT-rich leaf meal mixture had increased levels of haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total protein, globulin, glucose and calcium, and decreased levels of blood urea; indicating a beneficial effect of CT supplementation at the selected level. However, the phosphorus balance, serum albumin levels and serum enzyme activity were not affected significantly. The study revealed that inclusion of CT in the diets of the adult male goats did not pose any threat to the health of the goats. Further, the CT based diet had beneficial impact on the haematological parameters and could therefore be included in small ruminant diets to minimize the impact of GIN. PMID:25698858

  17. Spectroscopic investigations on the binding of persimmon tannin to phospholipase A 2 from Chinese cobra ( Naja naja atra)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Zhong, Li; Zou, Bo; Tian, Yan; Xu, Shu-fen; Yao, Ping; Li, Chun-mei

    2012-01-01

    To understand the anti-venom mechanism of persimmon tannin, the interaction between persimmon tannin (PT) and phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2) under physiological conditions was investigated by fluorescence quenching technique in combination with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectra techniques. The results revealed that gradual fluorescence quenching was observed by titration of PLA 2 (2.0 ?M) with increasing concentrations of PT (from 0 to 2.025 ?M), and the type of quenching was found to be a static quenching process. Stern-Volmer plots were not linear but had an intersection at CPT ? 1.0 ?M, indicating that PT binded to more than one class of sites on PLA 2. The binding sites calculated on basis of Scatchard plots were about 2, supporting this result. The enthalpy change (? H) and entropy change (? S) of the binding sites were -17.44 kJ/mol and 59.90 kJ/mol·, separately, suggesting that hydrophobic interaction played a main role in the binding. In addition, synchronous fluorescence, FT-IR and CD spectra showed that dramatic conformational changes in PLA 2 were induced by its interaction with PT.

  18. The role of bioactive tannins in the postpartum energy retention and productive performance of goats browsed in a natural rangeland.

    PubMed

    Kabasa, J D; Opuda-Asibo, J; Thinggaard, G; ter Meulen, U

    2004-08-01

    The role of bioactive tannins in browse in the postpartum performance of goats grazed under natural range conditions was studied using 40 yearling Mubende goats (20+/-0.32 kg). In a completely randomized design, goats of one group (n = 20) received a daily drench of 50 g per goat of polyethylene glycol (PEG) of molecular weight 4000 given as a condensed tannin (CT) deactivator, and goats of the other group (n = 20) acted as the control (no PEG). Mean birth weights, live weight gains, abortion and twinning rates, litter size and tissue energy retention were measured. The PEG drench resulted in lower postpartum weight gains and tissue energy retention (p < 0.05). Postpartum weekly weight loss per doe was 0.65 kg in the PEG group and 0.46 kg in the control group, while tissue energy loss was 17.7 MJ per goat in the PEG group and 10.23 MJ per goat in the control group in the first 8 weeks. Net weight gain was observed in the control group at the 11 th week but was delayed in the PEG group (15th week). The PEG group had lower birth weights and higher kids mortalities (p <0.05). Selective feeding in the Ankole rangeland exposes goats to beneficial concentrations of dietary CT with apparent cumulative effects leading to improved postpartum performance of does and kids. PMID:15560517

  19. Cardiac manifestations in Behcet's disease

    PubMed Central

    Demirelli, Selami; Degirmenci, Husnu; Inci, Sinan; Arisoy, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Summary Behcet's disease (BD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder, with vasculitis underlying the pathophysiology of its multisystemic effects. Venous pathology and thrombotic complications are hallmarks of BD. However, it has been increasingly recognised that cardiac involvement and arterial complications are also important aspects of the course of the disease. Cardiac lesions include pericarditis, endocarditis, intracardiac thrombosis, myocardial infarction, endomyocardial fibrosis, and myocardial aneurysm. Treatment of cardiovascular involvement in BD is largely empirical, and is aimed towards suppressing the vasculitis. The most challenging aspect seems to be the treatment of arterial aneurysms and thromboses due to the associated risk of bleeding. When the prognosis of cardiac involvement in BD is not good, recovery can be achieved through oral anticoagulation, immunosuppressive therapy, and colchicine use. In this review, we summarise the cardiovascular involvement, different manifestations, and treatment of BD. PMID:25984424

  20. Cardiac myofilaments: mechanics and regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    de Tombe, Pieter P.; Bers, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the cardiac myofilament are an important determinant of pump function of the heart. This report is focused on the regulation of myofilament function in cardiac muscle. Calcium ions form the trigger that induces activation of the thin filament which, in turn, allows for cross-bridge formation, ATP hydrolysis, and force development. The structure and protein-protein interactions of the cardiac sarcomere that are responsible for these processes will be reviewed. The molecular mechanism that underlies myofilament activation is incompletely understood. Recent experimental approaches have been employed to unravel the mechanism and regulation of myofilament mechanics and energetics by activator calcium and sarcomere length, as well as contractile protein phosphorylation mediated by protein kinase A. Central to these studies is the question whether such factors impact on muscle function simply by altering thin filament activation state, or whether modulation of cross-bridge cycling also plays a part in the responses of muscle to these stimuli.

  1. Mechanical regulation of cardiac development

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Stephanie E.; Butcher, Jonathan T.; Yalcin, Huseyin C.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical forces are essential contributors to and unavoidable components of cardiac formation, both inducing and orchestrating local and global molecular and cellular changes. Experimental animal studies have contributed substantially to understanding the mechanobiology of heart development. More recent integration of high-resolution imaging modalities with computational modeling has greatly improved our quantitative understanding of hemodynamic flow in heart development. Merging these latest experimental technologies with molecular and genetic signaling analysis will accelerate our understanding of the relationships integrating mechanical and biological signaling for proper cardiac formation. These advances will likely be essential for clinically translatable guidance for targeted interventions to rescue malforming hearts and/or reconfigure malformed circulations for optimal performance. This review summarizes our current understanding on the levels of mechanical signaling in the heart and their roles in orchestrating cardiac development. PMID:25191277

  2. [Pathophysiology of ischemic cardiac pain.].

    PubMed

    Münzel, T; Bassenge, E

    1988-09-01

    Cardiac pain is a conscious experience that can be explored only indirectly with experimental approaches. The exact machanisms eliciting cardiac pain still remain obscure. The afferent fibres running in the cardiac sympathetic nerves are regarded as the essential pathway for the transmission of cardiac pain. Atria and ventricle are abundantly supplied with sympathetic sensory innervation. In the spinal cord, impulses transmitted by the sympathetic pathway converge with impulses from somatic thoracic structures onto the same ascending spinothalamic neuron which probably explains the mechanism of referred pain (=projection of pain to another organ). Two hypotheses have been put forward to explain the peripheral mechanism for nociception. The intensity mechanism assumes that pain results from an excessive stimulation of receptive structures normally stimulated at lower levels whereas a specific sensation is considered to result from an excitation of a well defined nociceptive apparatus. Ventricular sympathetic afferent fibres whether myelinated or unmyelinated, always possess some mechanosensitivity and respond to normal chemical and mechanical stimuli, thus displaying properties of polymodal receptors. Afferent vagal fibres may contribute to the mechanisms of cardiac nociception by modulating the threshold and characteristics of pain. Experimental studies identified three main mechanisms, which may be responsible for eliciting cardiac pain during ischemic periods in humans: a) nonphysiological motion of the ischemic left ventricular wall (bulging) and an excitation of mechanical receptors by passive stretching. b) The excitation of free sensory nerve endings by chemicals such as bradykinin, PGE(2), adenosin, histamin or potassium. c) A combination of a and b: algogenic chemicals may sensitize mechanical receptors and therefore lower their threshold for nociception. PMID:18415323

  3. [Cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Ghannem, M; Ghannem, L; Ghannem, L

    2015-12-01

    Although the proofs of the benefits of cardiac rehabilitation accumulate, many patients are not sent to rehabilitation units, especially younger and very elderly patients. As the length of stay in acute care units decreases, rehabilitation offers more time to fully assess the patients' conditions and needs. Meta-analyses of randomised trials suggest that mortality can be improved by as much as 20-30%. In addition, rehabilitation helps managing risk factors, including hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking and sedentary behaviours. Physical training also helps improving exercise capacity. Because of all of these effects, cardiac rehabilitation for post-myocardial infarction patients has been given a class IA recommendation in current guidelines. PMID:26548984

  4. Identification, quantification and antioxidant activity of acylated flavonol glycosides from sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chu; Xu, Xue-Min; Chen, Yang; Yu, Meng-Yao; Wen, Fei-Yan; Zhang, Hao

    2013-12-01

    A novel acylated flavonol glycoside: isorhamnetin (3-O-[(6-O-E-sinapoyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)]-?-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside) (1), together with two known acylated flavonol glycosides: quercetin (3-O-[(6-O-E-sinapoyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)]-?-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside) (2) and kaempferol (3-O-[(6-O-E-sinapoyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)]-?-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside) (3) were isolated from the n-butanol fraction of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis) berries for the first time by chromatographic methods, and their structures were elucidated using UV, MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR, and 2D NMR. Compounds 1-3 showed good scavenging activities, with respective IC50 values of 8.91, 4.26 and 30.90 ?M toward the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical; respective Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacities of 2.89, 4.04 and 2.44 ?M ?M(-1) toward 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulphonate (ABTS) radical. The quantitative analysis of the isolated acylated flavonol glycosides was performed by HPLC-DAD method. The contents of compounds 1-3 were in the range of 12.2-31.4, 4.0-25.3, 7.5-59.7 mg/100 g dried berries and 9.1-34.5, 75.1-182.1, 29.2-113.4 mg/100 g dried leaves, respectively. PMID:23870862

  5. Biological and taxonomic perspective of triterpenoid glycosides of sea cucumbers of the family Holothuriidae (Echinodermata, Holothuroidea).

    PubMed

    Honey-Escandón, Magali; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto; Solís-Marín, Francisco Alonso; Samyn, Yves

    2015-02-01

    Since the discovery of saponins in sea cucumbers, more than 150 triterpene glycosides have been described for the class Holothuroidea. The family Holothuriidae has been increasingly studied in search for these compounds. With many species awaiting recognition and formal description this family currently consists of five genera and the systematics at the species-level taxonomy is, however, not yet fully understood. We provide a bibliographic review of the triterpene glycosides that has been reported within the Holothuriidae and analyzed the relationship of certain compounds with the presence of Cuvierian tubules. We found 40 species belonging to four genera and 121 compounds. Holothurin A and B are the most common saponins for Actinopyga, Holothuria, and Pearsonothuria. The genus Bohadschia presents mainly bivittoside C and D. Actinopyga has only sulfated saponins mainly oxidized, Bohadschia non-sulfated ones mainly non-oxidized, Holothuria and Pearsonothuria contain both types of compounds, mainly oxidized. Within the genus Holothuria, the subgenus Panningothuria only has non-sulfated saponins. The presence of sulfated and non-sulfated compounds seemingly relates to the expellability or the absence of Cuvierian tubules and the temporal or permanent concealing habits of the species. Our study concludes that better insights into the systematic distribution of saponins in Holothuriidae will only be possible if the identifications of the investigated species are confirmed by a taxonomist, especially in this group wherein cryptic species and variation between life-history stages are common and yet poorly understood. Understanding of saponin distribution within the Holothuriidae would also benefit from a stabilization of triterpene glycoside nomenclature. PMID:25263252

  6. Induction of cytotoxic and genotoxic responses by natural and novel quercetin glycosides.

    PubMed

    Engen, Anya; Maeda, Junko; Wozniak, David E; Brents, Colleen A; Bell, Justin J; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Aizawa, Yasushi; Kato, Takamitsu A

    2015-06-01

    The flavonoids quercetin, and its natural glycosides isoquercetin and rutin, are phytochemicals commonly consumed in plant-derived foods. Semi-synthetic water-soluble isoquercetin and rutin glycosides, maltooligosyl isoquercetin, monoglucosyl rutin and maltooligosyl rutin were developed by synthetic glycosylation to overcome solubility challenges for improved incorporation in food and medicinal applications. Quercetin and its natural glycosides are known to induce genetic instability and decrease cell proliferation. Using a system of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, this study examined the differences in cytotoxic and genotoxic responses induced by natural and synthetic flavonoids. Bioactivity evaluations using poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) ELISA showed that the synthetic flavonoids were less effective in inhibiting PARP than the natural flavonoids, where PARP inhibitory effects decreased with glycosylation of flavonoids. In the genotoxic studies, treatments with flavonoids at a concentration range of 0.2 ?M-1 mM induced significant frequencies of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronuclei in CHO cells compared to spontaneous occurrences. The synthetic flavonoids monoglucosyl rutin and maltooligosyl rutin induced less genotoxic effects than the natural flavonoids. However, maltooligosyl isoquercetin induced similar responses as isoquercetin and rutin. The growth inhibition studies showed glycosylation dependent cytotoxicity in natural flavonoids. The quercetin aglycone exhibited the highest toxicity out of all the flavonoids studied. Differences in growth inhibition were not observed between the synthetic flavonoids, maltooligosyl isoquercetin and monoglucosyl rutin, and natural isoquercetin and rutin, respectively. Maltooligosyl rutin induced less cytotoxicity than rutin and monoglucosyl rutin. Our in vitro studies demonstrated that the synthetic flavonoids generally induced less genotoxic responses than their natural counterparts. PMID:26046972

  7. DNA-N-glycosylases process novel O-glycosidic sites in DNA.

    PubMed

    Admiraal, Suzanne J; O'Brien, Patrick J

    2013-06-11

    After the hydrolysis of the N-glycosyl bond between a damaged base and C1' of a deoxyribosyl moiety of DNA, human alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG) and Escherichia coli 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase II (AlkA) bind tightly to their abasic DNA products, potentially protecting these reactive species. Here we show that both AAG and AlkA catalyze reactions between bound abasic DNA and small, primary alcohols to form novel DNA-O-glycosides. The synthesis reactions are reversible, as the DNA-O-glycosides are converted back into abasic DNA upon being incubated with AAG or AlkA in the absence of alcohol. AAG and AlkA are therefore able to hydrolyze O-glycosidic bonds in addition to N-glycosyl bonds. The newly discovered DNA-O-glycosidase activities of both enzymes compare favorably with their known DNA-N-glycosylase activities: AAG removes both methanol and 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine (?A) from DNA with single-turnover rate constants that are 2.9 × 10(5)-fold greater than the corresponding uncatalyzed rates, whereas the rate enhancement of 3.7 × 10(7) for removal of methanol from DNA by AlkA is 300-fold greater than its rate enhancement for removal of ?A from DNA. Although the biological significance of the DNA-O-glycosidase reactions is not known, the evolution of new DNA repair pathways may be aided by enzymes that practice catalytic promiscuity, such as these two unrelated DNA glycosylases. PMID:23688261

  8. Mathematics and the Heart: Understanding Cardiac Output

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champanerkar, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    This paper illustrates a biological application of the concepts of relative change and area under a curve, from mathematics. We study two biological measures "relative change in cardiac output" and "cardiac output", which are predictors of heart blockages and other related ailments. Cardiac output refers to the quantity of…

  9. Health Literacy Predicts Cardiac Knowledge Gains in Cardiac Rehabilitation Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Colleen C.; Rawson, Katherine; Hughes, Joel W.; Waechter, Donna; Rosneck, James

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Health literacy is increasingly recognised as a potentially important patient characteristic related to patient education efforts. We evaluated whether health literacy would predict gains in knowledge after completion of patient education in cardiac rehabilitation. Method: This was a re-post observational analysis study design based on…

  10. Ophiopojaponin D, a new phenylpropanoid glycoside from Ophiopogon japonicus Ker-Gawl.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hao Fu; Mei, Wen Li

    2005-11-01

    A new phenolic glycoside, ophiopojaponin D (1), together with two known compounds, was isolated from the tubers of a famous traditional Chinese herb-Ophiopogon japonicus Ker-Gawl. The spectroscopic and chemical data revealed their structures to be 3-tetradecyloxy-4-hydroxy-allylbenzene-4-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), 3, 4-dihydroxy-allylbenzene-4-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2) and L-pyroglutamic acid (3). PMID:16350848

  11. Fast repair of thymine-hydroxyl radical adduct by phenylpropanoid glycosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenyan, Li; Zhihua, Zou; Rongliang, Zheng; Changzeng, Wang; Zhongjian, Jia; Side, Yao; Nianyun, Lin

    1997-04-01

    The repair effect on thymine-hydroxyl adduct by phenylpropanoid glycosides (PPG): verbascoside, and pedicularioside A, isolated from Pedicularis, were studied using pulse radiolysis technique. From the analysis of transient absorption spectra, the rapid electron transfer from PPG to T-OH - was observed. Phenoxyl radical of PPG were generated via one-electron-transfer reaction. This result showed that two PPG exhibited repair activities on oxidizing T-OH -. The reaction rate constants of electron transfer from PPGs were 1.27 × 10 9 and 1.29 × 10 9 dm 3·mol -1s -1 respectively.

  12. Two new ent-kaurane-type diterpene glycosides from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Ando, Hiromi; Maekawa, Ken-Ichiro; Arie, Hiroki; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2015-12-01

    Two new ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides; 12?-(?-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-7?-hydroxykaurenolide (1) and 7?-(?-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-12?-hydroxykaurenolide (2), a new steroid; (24S)-stigmasta-7,22E,25-trien-3-one (12), and known compounds (3-11, 13-14) were isolated from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds. The absolute structures of 1 and 2 were determined by acid hydrolysis and application of a modified Moscher's method. Furthermore, isolated compounds (1-14), and a derivative, 1a, were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on macrophage activation by an inhibitory assay of nitric oxide (NO) production. PMID:26420344

  13. A New Benzofuran Glycoside and Indole Alkaloids from a Sponge-Associated Rare Actinomycete, Amycolatopsis sp.

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yun; Kim, Seong-Hwan; Shin, Yoonho; Bae, Munhyung; Kim, Byung-Yong; Lee, Sang Kook; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon; Oh, Dong-Chan

    2014-01-01

    Three new secondary metabolites, amycofuran (1), amycocyclopiazonic acid (2), and amycolactam (3), were isolated from the sponge-associated rare actinomycete Amycolatopsis sp. Based on combined spectroscopic analyses, the structures of 1–3 were determined to be a new benzofuran glycoside and new indole alkaloids related to cyclopiazonic acids, a class that has previously only been reported in fungi. The absolute configurations of 1 and 3 were deduced by ECD calculations, whereas that of 2 was determined using the modified Mosher method. Amycolactam (3) displayed significant cytotoxicity against the gastric cancer cell line SNU638 and the colon cancer cell line HCT116. PMID:24759001

  14. A set of two diastereomers of cyanogenic glycosides from Passiflora quadrangularis.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Daisuke; Yamada, Takeshi; Kajimoto, Tetsuya; Muraoka, Osamu; Tanaka, Reiko

    2011-08-01

    A set of two diastereomers of phenylcyano glycosides, (7S)- and (7R)-phenylcyanomethyl 1'-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1, 2), were isolated from the methanol extract of dried vines of P. quadrangularis. The absolute configurations of the benzylic methine centers were determined mainly by the comparison of 13C NMR spectra of these compounds, prunasin (3) and sambunigrin (4), of which the last two cyanoglycosides are known to have (R)- and (S)-configurations, respectively. PMID:21922906

  15. Steroidal saponins obtained by biotransformation of total furostanol glycosides from Dioscorea zingiberensis with Absidia coerulea.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xu; Wen, Di; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Yu, Li-Yan; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2015-01-30

    Five new steroidal saponins (1-5) were isolated from the fermentation broth of total furostanol glycosides from tubers of Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H. Wright incubated with a fungal, Absidia coerulea AS 3.3389, along with known saponins, zingiberensis new saponin (6), deltonin (7), prosapogenin A of dioscin (8), and protobioside (9), and their structures were established by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry as well as by comparison with previously reported spectral data in the literatures. The induced effects in vitro on rat platelet aggregation of all compounds were evaluated. PMID:25498025

  16. A new antimicrobial and radical-scavenging glycoside from Paullinia pinnata var. cameroonensis.

    PubMed

    Lunga, Paul-Keilah; Qin, Xu-Jie; Yang, Xing-Wei; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Du, Zhi-Zhi; Gatsing, Donatien

    2015-01-01

    A new glycoside, pinnatoside A (1), together with two known compounds (2 and 3), were isolated from the stems of Paullinia pinnata. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. Compound 1 showed significant antibacterial activity with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 1.56 ?g/mL against Escherichia coli, and 2 displayed significant antibacterial activity with a MIC value of 1.56 ?g/mL against Enterobacter aerogenes and E. coli. Equally, compound 1 exhibited the best radical-scavenging activity (RSa50 = 25.07 ± 0.49 ?g/mL). PMID:25563339

  17. Two new flavonoid glycosides from the whole herbs of Hyssopus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2010-12-01

    Two new flavonoid glycosides, quercetin 7-O-?-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 ? 2)-?-D-xylopyranoside (1) and quercetin 7-O-?-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 ? 2)-?-D-xylopyranoside 3'-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (2), together with nine known flavonoids were isolated from the whole herbs of Hyssopus officinalis L. cultivated in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. All structures were characterized by the spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, ESI-MS, 1D, and 2D NMR. Their potent free radical scavenging activity against the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical was evaluated. PMID:21128145

  18. A new flavonol glycoside from the florets of Carthamus tinctorius L.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xue; Zhou, Jianming; Sun, Lin; Zhang, Hongda; Zhao, Yiwu; Song, Yaling; Wang, Xuejing; Ni, Fuyong; Huang, Wenzhe; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xiao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    One new flavonol glycoside, 6-hydroxykaempferol-3-O-?-D-glucoside-7-O-?-D-glucuronide (1), together with eight known flavonoids and three known quinochalcones, was isolated from the florets of Carthamus tinctorius L. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses. Their cardioprotective effects against H2O2-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells were also evaluated; compounds 1, 2, 4-5, 7-10 and 12 provided significant protective effects on H2O2-induced H9c2 cells at the concentration of 25 ?g/mL. PMID:26185946

  19. A new ent-kaurane diterpenoid glycoside from Isodon japonica var. glaucocalyx.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Zhao-Bao; Wang, Guang-Li; Huang, Lan-Zhi; Heng, Lin-Sen; Li, Xiao-Hui

    2013-01-01

    A new ent-kaurane diterpenoid glycoside (1), named glaucocalyxin G, has been isolated from the n-butanol-soluble fraction of the dried whole plants of Isodon japonica var. glaucocalyx along with two known compounds, namely arjunglucoside (2) and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (3). The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of their (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra including two-dimensional NMR techniques such as HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY experiments and comparison with the literature data. PMID:23614395

  20. In silico analysis and molecular docking studies of potential angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor using quercetin glycosides

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Syed Aun; Fatima, Nighat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the inhibitory action of quercetin glycosides by computational docking studies. For this, natural metabolite quercetin glycosides isolated from buckwheat and onions were used as ligand for molecular interaction. The crystallographic structure of molecular target angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) (peptidyl-dipeptidase A) was obtained from PDB database (PDB ID: 1O86). Enalapril, a well-known brand of ACE inhibitor was taken as the standard for comparative analysis. Computational docking analysis was performed using PyRx, AutoDock Vina option based on scoring functions. The quercetin showed optimum binding affinity with a molecular target (angiotensin-converting-enzyme) with the binding energy of ?8.5 kcal/mol as compared to the standard (?7.0 kcal/mol). These results indicated that quercetin glycosides could be one of the potential ligands to treat hypertension, myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure. PMID:26109757

  1. In silico analysis and molecular docking studies of potential angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor using quercetin glycosides.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Syed Aun; Fatima, Nighat

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the inhibitory action of quercetin glycosides by computational docking studies. For this, natural metabolite quercetin glycosides isolated from buckwheat and onions were used as ligand for molecular interaction. The crystallographic structure of molecular target angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) (peptidyl-dipeptidase A) was obtained from PDB database (PDB ID: 1O86). Enalapril, a well-known brand of ACE inhibitor was taken as the standard for comparative analysis. Computational docking analysis was performed using PyRx, AutoDock Vina option based on scoring functions. The quercetin showed optimum binding affinity with a molecular target (angiotensin-converting-enzyme) with the binding energy of -8.5 kcal/mol as compared to the standard (-7.0 kcal/mol). These results indicated that quercetin glycosides could be one of the potential ligands to treat hypertension, myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure. PMID:26109757

  2. Effect of harvest timing on leaf production and yield of diterpene glycosides in Stevia rebaudiana Bert: a specialty perennial crop for Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stevia rebaundiana (Bertoni), a perennial shrub of the Asteraceae, is one of the most important sources of non-caloric natural sweeteners. Stevia’s plant extracts and glycosides have been used for several years in Paraguay and Brazil. Several studies suggest that Stevia and its glycosides exert ben...

  3. Studies on the constituents of Syringa species. X. Five new iridoid glycosides from the leaves of Syringa reticulata (Blume) Hara.

    PubMed

    Machida, Koichi; Kaneko, Atsuko; Hosogai, Tomokazu; Kakuda, Rie; Yaoita, Yasunori; Kikuchi, Masao

    2002-04-01

    Five new iridoid glycosides, (8Z)-ligstroside (1), (8Z)-nüzhenide (3), 6'-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosylsyringopicroside (4), 3'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylsyringopicroside (5) and 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylsyringopicroside (6) were isolated, together with a known one, (8E)-nüzhenide (2), from the leaves of Syringa reticulata. Their structures were established on the basis of chemical and spectral data. Compounds 1 and 3 are the first findings of a (8Z)-oleoside-type secoiridoid. Compound 4 is the first naturally occurring iridoid di-glycoside having an isomaltose. PMID:11963996

  4. Studies on the constituents of Syringa species. XII. New glycosides from the leaves of Syringa reticulata (BLUME) HARA.

    PubMed

    Machida, Koichi; Unagami, Eriko; Ojima, Hiromi; Kikuchi, Masao

    2003-07-01

    Three new glycosides, 6'-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosylsyringopicroside (1), secologanoside 7-methyl ester (2) and (+)-lariciresinol 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), were isolated from the leaves of Syringa reticulata. Their structures were established on the basis of chemical and spectral data. Compound 1 is the first naturally occurring iridoid di-glycoside having melibiose. Comparison of the spectral data of 2 and that previously recognized as secologanoside 7-methyl ester led to the conclusion that the recognized structure should be revised to the sodium salt of secoxyloganin (2'). PMID:12843604

  5. Phenomics of Cardiac Chloride Channels

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Dayue Darrel

    2014-01-01

    Forward genetic studies have identified several chloride (Cl?) channel genes, including CFTR, ClC-2, ClC-3, CLCA, Bestrophin, and Ano1, in the heart. Recent reverse genetic studies using gene targeting and transgenic techniques to delineate the functional role of cardiac Cl? channels have shown that Cl? channels may contribute to cardiac arrhythmogenesis, myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure, and cardioprotection against ischemia reperfusion. The study of physiological or pathophysiological phenotypes of cardiac Cl? channels, however, is complicated by the compensatory changes in the animals in response to the targeted genetic manipulation. Alternatively, tissue-specific conditional or inducible knockout or knockin animal models may be more valuable in the phenotypic studies of specific Cl? channels by limiting the effect of compensation on the phenotype. The integrated function of Cl? channels may involve multiprotein complexes of the Cl? channel subproteome. Similar phenotypes can be attained from alternative protein pathways within cellular networks, which are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The phenomics approach, which characterizes phenotypes as a whole phenome and systematically studies the molecular changes that give rise to particular phenotypes achieved by modifying the genotype under the scope of genome/proteome/phenome, may provide more complete understanding of the integrated function of each cardiac Cl? channel in the context of health and disease. PMID:23720326

  6. Bifurcation theory and cardiac arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Karagueuzian, Hrayr S; Stepanyan, Hayk; Mandel, William J

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we review two types of dynamic behaviors defined by the bifurcation theory that are found to be particularly useful in describing two forms of cardiac electrical instabilities that are of considerable importance in cardiac arrhythmogenesis. The first is action potential duration (APD) alternans with an underlying dynamics consistent with the period doubling bifurcation theory. This form of electrical instability could lead to spatially discordant APD alternans leading to wavebreak and reentrant form of tachyarrhythmias. Factors that modulate the APD alternans are discussed. The second form of bifurcation of importance to cardiac arrhythmogenesis is the Hopf-homoclinic bifurcation that adequately describes the dynamics of the onset of early afterdepolarization (EAD)-mediated triggered activity (Hopf) that may cause ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF respectively). The self-termination of the triggered activity is compatible with the homoclinic bifurcation. Ionic and intracellular calcium dynamics underlying these dynamics are discussed using available experimental and simulation data. The dynamic analysis provides novel insights into the mechanisms of VT/VF, a major cause of sudden cardiac death in the US. PMID:23459417

  7. Cardiac arrest during dipyridamole imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenthal, M.S.; McCauley, C.S.

    1988-05-01

    A case of cardiac arrest and subsequent acute myocardial infarction occurring during thallium-201 imaging with oral dipyridamole augmentation is presented. Previous reports emphasizing the safety of this procedure are briefly reviewed and a recommendation for close hemodynamic and arrhythmia monitoring during the study is made. Large doses of oral dipyridamole may be contraindicated in patients with unstable angina.

  8. Device Assists Cardiac Chest Compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichstadt, Frank T.

    1995-01-01

    Portable device facilitates effective and prolonged cardiac resuscitation by chest compression. Developed originally for use in absence of gravitation, also useful in terrestrial environments and situations (confined spaces, water rescue, medical transport) not conducive to standard manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) techniques.

  9. Acetone enhances the direct analysis of Procyanidin- and Prodelphinidin-based condensed tannins in lotus species by the butanol-HCl-iron assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The butanol-HCl spectrophotometric assay is widely used for quantifying extractable and insoluble condensed tannins (CT, syn. proanthocyanidins) in foods, feeds, and foliage of herbaceous and woody plants, but the method underestimates total CT content when applied directly to plant material. To imp...

  10. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2003.09.015 Tannin signatures of barks, needles, leaves, cones, and wood at the molecular level

    E-print Network

    Hernes, Peter J.

    doi:10.1016/j.gca.2003.09.015 Tannin signatures of barks, needles, leaves, cones, and wood. Dicotyledon leaves were characterized by the presence of flavones and triterpenoids. Barks were marked parameters were developed for distinguishing needles, leaves, and barks as possible components of litter

  11. Effect of replacing dietary lucerne silage with birdsfoot trefoil silage containing different levels of condensed tannin on production of lactating dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive degradation of crude protein (CP) in ensiled legumes impairs N utilization when these silages are fed to dairy cattle. Previously, we reported that feeding birdsfoot trefoil (BFT; Lotus corniculatus) with elevated levels of condensed tannin (CT) reduced silage nonprotein N and was associat...

  12. Effects of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) tannins on alpha-amylase activity and in vitro digestibility of starch in raw and processed flours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of condensed tannins (CT) on in vitro starch digestibility in cooked, wholegrain sorghum flours and on corn starch was investigated. CT extracts were also tested for their inhibitory effect on alpha-amylases. Rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch, and resistant starch were n...

  13. Effects of one-seed juniper and polyethylene glycol on intake, rumen fermentation, and plasma amino acids in sheep and goats fed supplemental protein and tannins.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on juniper and total intake, rumen fermentation, and plasma amino acids (AA) of 12 does and 12 ewes fed sudangrass and basal diets containing 10% quebracho tannins with no protein supplement (Control; 5% CP) or high rumen degradable (RDP 15% CP) or u...

  14. Ruminal Methane Emissions by Goats Consuming Dry Hay of Condensed Tannin-Containing Lespedeza With or Without Polyethylene Glycol, Alfalfa, or Sorghum-Sudangrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-four yearling Boer x Spanish wethers (initial BW of 37.7 +/- 1.09) were used to assess effects of different sources of dry hay on ruminal methane emission. Treatments were a legume (Sericea lespedeza, Lespedeza cuneata) high in condensed tannins (CT; 15.3%) without (S) or with (P)polyethylene...

  15. Effects of condensed tannins supplementation level on weight gain and in vitro and in vivo bloat precursors in steers grazing winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research was conducted to determine the effects of level of supplementation with quebracho condensed tannins (CT) on in vitro ruminal fluid gas production, in vivo ruminal fluid protein fractions, bloat dynamics, and ADG of steers grazing winter wheat. Two experiments were conducted to 1) enumerate ...

  16. Effect of tannins on the in viro growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and in vivo growth of generic Escherichia coli excreted from steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of commercially available chestnut and mimosa tannins in vitro (experiment 1) or in vivo (experiment 2) on the growth or recovery of Escherichia coli O157:H7 or generic fecal E. coli was evaluated. In experiment 1, the mean growth rate of E. coli O157:H7, determined via the measurement o...

  17. Estimation of procyanidin/prodelphinidin and cis/trans flavanol ratios of condensed tannin fractions by 1H-13C HSQC NMR spectroscopy: Correlation with thiolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integration of cross-peak contours of H/C-2’,6’ signals from prodelphinidin (PD) and of H/C-6’ signals from procyanidin (PC) units in 1H-13C HSQC nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of condensed tannins yielded nuclei-adjusted PC/PD estimates that were highly correlated with PC/PD ratios obtain...

  18. Molecular Modeling of Cardiac Troponin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Edward P.

    The cardiac thin filament regulates interactions of actin and myosin, the force-generating elements of muscular contraction. Over the past several decades many details have been discovered regarding the structure and function of the cardiac thin filament and its components, including cardiac troponin (cTn). My hypothesis is that signal propagation occurs between distant ends of the cardiac troponin complex through calcium-dependent alterations in the dynamics of cTn and tropomyosin (Tm). I propose a model of the thin filament that encompasses known structures of cTn, Tm and actin to gain insight into cardiac troponin's allosteric regulation of thin filament dynamics. By performing molecular dynamics simulations of cTn in conjunction with overlapping Tm in two conditions, with and without calcium bound to site II of cardiac troponin C (cTnC), I found a combination of calcium-dependent changes in secondary structure and dynamics throughout the cTn-Tm complex. I then applied this model to investigate familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC), a disease of the sarcomere that is one of the most commonly occurring genetic causes of heart disease. Approximately 15% of known FHC-related mutations are found in cardiac troponin T (cTnT), most of which are in or flank the alpha-helical N-tail domain TNT1. TNT1 directly interacts with overlapping Tm coiled coils. Using this model I identified effects of TNT1 mutations that propagate to the cTn core where site II of cTnC, the regulatory site of calcium binding in the thin filament, is located. Specifically, I found that mutations in TNT1 alter the flexibility of TNT1 and that the flexibility of TNT1 is inversely proportional to the cooperativity of calcium activation of the thin filament. Further, I identified a pathway of propagation of structural and dynamic changes linking TNT1 to site II of cTnC. Mutation-induced changes at site II cTnC alter calcium coordination which corresponds to biophysical measurements of calcium sensitivity. I compared this pathway of mutational propagation with the pathway of the calcium activation of the thin filament and found that they are identical in terms of location but opposite in direction.

  19. The effect of canola meal tannins on the intestinal absorption capacity of broilers using a D-xylose test.

    PubMed

    Mansoori, B; Rogiewicz, A; Slominski, B A

    2015-12-01

    In three D-xylose absorption experiments, the effect of 1% HCl/methanol, 70% methanol or 70% acetone extracts of canola meal (CM) or 70% acetone extract of soybean meal (SBM) containing polyphenols, phenolic acids, tannins and phytic acid on intestinal absorption capacity of broilers was determined. In Exp. 1, the experimental groups received orally D-xylose solution alone or with methanol/HCl, methanol or acetone extracts of CM. In Exp. 2, the experimental groups received D-xylose alone or with acetone extracts of CM or SBM. In Exp. 3, the experimental groups received D-xylose plus sucrose solution or D-xylose plus acetone extracts of CM or SBM. In Exps. 2 and 3, the CM extracts contained 2.7 and 2.6, 2.4 and 2.3, 3.2 and 3.2, and 2.4 and 2.2 times higher polyphenols, phenolic acids, tannins and condensed tannins than the corresponding SBM extracts respectively. Blood samples were collected in 40-min intervals, and plasma D-xylose was measured. Compared to the Control, plasma D-xylose in Exp. 1 was lower (p < 0.001) by 81, 69 and 73% at 40-min, by 41, 44 and 37% at 80-min and by 22, 31, and 23% at 120-min post-ingestion of the HCl/methanol, methanol and acetone extracts respectively. In both Exps. 2 and 3, plasma D-xylose level was lower (p < 0.001) in groups dosed with CM extract or SBM extract at each time of blood collection, when compared to the respective Control group. However, in Exp. 3, birds dosed with SBM extract had higher plasma D-xylose than CM extract-dosed birds by 28, 8 and 21% at 40, 80 and 120 min respectively (p < 0.01). In conclusion, although CM extract caused a lower absorption of D-xylose, based on 5 to 10% of CM inclusion levels in practical broiler rations, the soluble bioactive components of CM will likely have minor impact on the absorption capacity of the chicken intestine. PMID:25865561

  20. Differential Recognition and Hydrolysis of Host Carbohydrate Antigens by Streptococcus pneumoniae Family 98 Glycoside Hydrolases

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, M.; Whitworth, G; El Warry, N; Randriantsoa, M; Samain, E; Burke, R; Vocadlo, D; Boraston, A

    2009-01-01

    The presence of a fucose utilization operon in the Streptococcus pneumoniae genome and its established importance in virulence indicates a reliance of this bacterium on the harvesting of host fucose-containing glycans. The identities of these glycans, however, and how they are harvested is presently unknown. The biochemical and high resolution x-ray crystallographic analysis of two family 98 glycoside hydrolases (GH98s) from distinctive forms of the fucose utilization operon that originate from different S. pneumoniae strains reveal that one enzyme, the predominant type among pneumococcal isolates, has a unique endo-{beta}-galactosidase activity on the LewisY antigen. Altered active site topography in the other species of GH98 enzyme tune its endo-{beta}-galactosidase activity to the blood group A and B antigens. Despite their different specificities, these enzymes, and by extension all family 98 glycoside hydrolases, use an inverting catalytic mechanism. Many bacterial and viral pathogens exploit host carbohydrate antigens for adherence as a precursor to colonization or infection. However, this is the first evidence of bacterial endoglycosidase enzymes that are known to play a role in virulence and are specific for distinct host carbohydrate antigens. The strain-specific distribution of two distinct types of GH98 enzymes further suggests that S. pneumoniae strains may specialize to exploit host-specific antigens that vary from host to host, a factor that may feature in whether a strain is capable of colonizing a host or establishing an invasive infection.