Sample records for tannins cardiac glycosides

  1. Cardiac glycosides from erysimum cheiranthoides.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhen Huan; Jin, Zhe Xion; Ma, Ying Li; Tai, Bao Shan; Kong, Qi; Yahara, Shoji; Nohara, Toshihiro

    1998-11-20

    Two new cardiac glycosides were isolated from the seeds of Erysimum cheiranthoides. Their structures were characterized as strophanthidin glycosides of 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-3-O-acetyl-beta-D-digitoxopyranosyl and 3-O-beta-D-glucpyranosyl-(1-->4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-3-O-acetyl-beta-D-digitoxopyranosyl. PMID:11711105

  2. Cardiac glycosides from Erysimum cheiranthoides.

    PubMed

    Lei, Z H; Yahara, S; Nohara, T; Tai, B S; Xiong, J Z; Ma, Y L

    2000-02-01

    Two new cardiac glycosides called cheiranthosides VI (2) and VII (3) were isolated together with a known one, glucoerysimoside (1) from the seeds of Erysimum cheiranthoides. Based on spectroscopic data, the structures of 2 and 3 were characterized as periplogenin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->4)-beta-D-fucopyranoside and periplogenin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->4)-beta-D-antiaropyranoside, respectively. PMID:10705523

  3. Cardiac glycosides from Erysimum cheiranthoides.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhen-Huan; Nakayama, Hitoshi; Kuniyasu, Akihiko; Tai, Bao-Shan; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2002-06-01

    Three new cardiac glycosides named cheiranthoside VIII (1), cheiranthoside IX (2) and cheiranthoside X (3) were isolated from the seeds of Erysimum cheiranthoides. Based on spectroscopic data, the structures of 1-3 were characterized as strophanthidin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-antiaropyranoside, cheiranthidin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-boiviopyranoside and cheiranthidin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-digitoxopyranoside, respectively. The aglycone moiety possessing a carboxyl group at C-10 of 2 and 3 was regarded to be determined for the first time. PMID:12045350

  4. Immunological detection of cardiac glycosides in plants.

    PubMed

    Radford, D J; Cheung, K; Urech, R; Gollogly, J R; Duffy, P

    1994-08-01

    Australian native and introduced plants were examined, using digoxin immunoassays, to detect the presence of cross-reacting cardiac glycosides. These compounds were found in 27 species from 20 genera. The assay technique can also be used on serum samples to confirm cardiac glycoside ingestion. PMID:7986184

  5. Preserving leaves for tannin and phenolic glycoside analyses: A comparison of methods using three willow taxa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin M. Orians

    1995-01-01

    Members of the Salicaceae often produce phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins. There is much debate on the best method for the preservation of leaf material prior to chemical analysis. Published results indicate freeze-drying, a method commonly used for tannin analysis, may be inappropriate for phenolic glycosides, unless done in a manner to prevent thawing during the drying process. Another commonly

  6. Preserving leaves for tannin and phenolic glycoside analyses: A comparison of methods using three willow taxa.

    PubMed

    Orians, C M

    1995-09-01

    Members of the Salicaceae often produce phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins. There is much debate on the best method for the preservation of leaf material prior to chemical analysis. Published results indicate freeze-drying, a method commonly used for tannin analysis, may be inappropriate for phenolic glycosides, unless done in a manner to prevent thawing during the drying process. Another commonly employed method, air-drying, is appropriate for phenolic glycosides but inappropriate for condensed tannins. I present evidence using willow leaves that demonstrates that: (1) leaves freeze-dried in external flasks without temperature control contain lower concentrations of phenolic glycosides (salicortin and 2'-cinnamoylsalicortin), (2) air-dried leaves have reduced concentrations of condensed tannins, while (3) vacuum-dried fresh leaves have high concentrations of both phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins. Freeze-drying caused salicortin and 2'-cinnamoyl salicortin concentrations to drop by 20 mg/g and 4 mg/g, respectively. Salicin, a product of salicortin and 2'-cinnamoyl salicortin degradation, is absent in vacuum-dried leaves, present in air-dried leaves and very high in freeze-dried leaves. Thus, the presence of salicin in this system is an artifact of the preservation technique. Condensed tannin concentrations dropped nearly 20 mg/g when leaves were air-dried. Thus, vacuum-drying fresh leaves allows researchers to quantify phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins from the same leaf material. PMID:24234623

  7. Plant cardiac glycosides and digoxin Fab antibody.

    PubMed

    Cheung, K; Urech, R; Taylor, L; Duffy, P; Radford, D

    1991-10-01

    The potential application of the Digoxin Fab antibody (Wellcome Digibind) in the clinical management of plant poisoning was investigated. The cardiac glycoside contents of various Australian plants were studied using immunoassay techniques. The cross-reactions of the Fab antibody and two digoxin assay antibodies against extracts of these plants were also studied. Results obtained indicated that the Digibind antibody cross-reacted with a wide range of glycosides contained in Australian plants and therefore could be of use in the treatment of life-threatening plant poisoning. PMID:1931226

  8. Cardiac glycosides in traditional Chinese medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lu Fu-hua

    1987-01-01

    Summary  The effect of cardiac glycosides containing medicinal herbs, e.g. Ting Li Zi (Descurainia sophia), against heart failure was detected by traditional Chinese doctors at the beginning of the first century, more than 16 centuries\\u000a before Withering’s discovery of digitalis to promote diuresis. We ran infer the diagnosis from the description of the symptom\\u000a complex, for which the herb as the

  9. Secondary chemistry of hybrid and parental willows: Phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins in Salix sericea, S. eriocephala , and their hybrids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin M. Orians; Robert S. Fritz

    1995-01-01

    Salix sericea andS. eriocephala differ markedly in secondary chemistry.S. sericea produces phenolic glycosides, salicortin and 2?-cinnamoylsalicortin, and low concentrations of condensed tannin. In contrast,S. eriocephala produces no phenolic glycosides, but high concentrations of condensed tannins. Hybrid chemistry is intermediate for both types of chemicals, suggesting predominantly additive inheritance of these two defensive chemical systems from the parental species. However, there

  10. Cardiac glycosides and pregnanes from Adenium obesum (studies on the constituents of Adenium. I).

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, T; Abe, F

    1990-03-01

    Cardiac glycosides and pregnanes from the roots and the stems of Adenium obesum Roem. et Schult. were investigated. Among 30 cardiac glycosides including 15 known glycosides and 15 new combinations of the known aglycones and sugars, the structures of 11 glycosides were elucidated. Oleandrigenin beta-gentiobiosyl-beta-D-thevetoside was the main glycoside. Neridienone A and 16,17-dihydroneridienone A, common pregnanes in Apocynaceae, were also isolated. PMID:2347008

  11. Phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins in Salix sericea, S. eriocephala and their F1 hybrids: not all hybrids are created equal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin M. Orians; Megan E Griffiths; Bernadette M. Roche; Robert S. Fritz

    2000-01-01

    The performance of hybrids depends upon the inheritance and expression of resistance traits. Secondary chemicals are one such resistance trait. In this study, we measured the concentrations of phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins in parental and F1 hybrid willows to examine the sources of chemical variation among hybrids. S. sericea produces phenolic glycosides, salicortin and 2?-cinnamoylsalicortin, and low concentrations of

  12. Phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins in Salix sericea, S. eriocephala and their F1 hybrids: not all hybrids are created equal.

    PubMed

    Orians; Griffiths; Roche1b; Fritz

    2000-08-01

    The performance of hybrids depends upon the inheritance and expression of resistance traits. Secondary chemicals are one such resistance trait. In this study, we measured the concentrations of phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins in parental and F1 hybrid willows to examine the sources of chemical variation among hybrids. S. sericea produces phenolic glycosides, salicortin and 2'-cinnamoylsalicortin, and low concentrations of condensed tannin in its leaves. In contrast, S. eriocephala produces no phenolic glycosides but high concentrations of condensed tannins in its leaves. These traits are inherited quantitatively in hybrids. On average, F1 hybrids are intermediate for condensed tannins, suggesting predominantly additive inheritance or balanced ambidirectional dominance of this defensive chemical from the parental species. In contrast, the concentration of phenolic glycosides is lower than the parental midpoint, indicating directional dominance. However, there is extensive variation among F1 hybrids. The concentration of tannin and phenolic glycosides in F1 hybrid families is either (1) lower than the midpoint, (2) higher than the midpoint, or (3) indistinguishable from the midpoint of the two parental taxa. It appears that the production of the phenolic glycosides, especially 2'-cinnamoylsalicortin, is controlled by one or more recessive alleles. We also observed a two-fold or greater difference in concentration between some hybrid families. We discuss how chemical variation may effect the relative susceptibility of hybrid willows to herbivores. PMID:10854738

  13. Cytotoxic cardiac glycosides and coumarins from Antiaris toxicaria

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Li-Shian; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Sun, Han-Dong; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2015-01-01

    Eight new cardiac glycosides/aglycones (antiaritoxiosides A–G, 1–7, and antiarotoxinin B, 8), two new coumarins (anticarins A–B, 41–42), and two new flavanones (antiarones L–K, 43–44) were isolated from trunk bark of Antiaris toxicaria together with 53 known compounds. The new structures were established by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data. Compound 1 (10-carboxy and 3?-hydroxy) and compounds 3–6 (10-hydroxy) contain unique substituents that are rarely found in cardiac glycosides. The cytotoxic effects of isolated compounds against ten human cancer cell lines, KB, KB-VIN, A549, MCF-7, U-87-MG, PC-3, 1A9, CAKI-1, HCT-9 and S-KMEL-2, were tested using the sulforhodamine B assay. Five compounds (12, 16, 20, 22, and 31) showed significant cytotoxicity against all ten cancer cell lines, with notable potency at the ng/mL level against some cell lines, which merits further development as clinical trial candidates. PMID:24582402

  14. Variation in cardiac glycoside content of monarch butterflies from natural populations in eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Brower, L P; McEvoy, P B; Williamson, K L; Flannery, M A

    1972-08-01

    A new spectrophotometric assay has been used to determine the gross concentration of cardiac glycoside in individual monarch butterflies. Adults sampled during the fall migration in four areas of eastern North America exhibited a wide variation in cardiac glycoside concentration. The correlation between spectrophotometrically measured concentrations and emetic dose determinations supports the existence of a broad palatability spectrum in wild monarch butterflies. The cardiac gylcoside concentration is greater in females than in males and is independent of the dry weight of the butterflies; contrary to prediction, both the concentration mean and variance decrease southward. The defensive advantage of incorporating cardiac glycosides may be balanced by detrimental effects on individual viability. PMID:5043141

  15. Morphological basis of cardiac glycoside sequestration by Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. E. Scudder; J. Meredith

    1982-01-01

    The integument of Oncopeltus fasciatus is made up of a vacuolated and a pigmented epidermal cell layer. This double layered integument is present from late embryo to adult in male and female animals reared on milkweed or sunflower seeds. Experiments with a labelled glycoside as well as retrograde ink injections suggest that O. fasciatus concentrates cardiac glycosides, normally derived from

  16. Na+,K(+)-ATPase inhibiting activity of cardiac glycosides from Erysimum cheiranthoides.

    PubMed

    Lei, Z H; Kuniyasu, A; Tai, B S; Nakayama, H; Nohara, T

    2001-06-01

    We previously reported the isolation of eleven new cardiac glycosides called cheiranthosides I-XI together with two known ones (olitoriside and erysimoside) from the seeds of Erysimum cheiranthoides L. The glycosides were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against Na+,K(+)-ATPase by comparing with typical cardiac glycosides. Two of them, cheiranthoside III and VIII, showed high inhibiting activity which was equivalent to that of digitoxin. Cheiranthoside XI containing a rhamnopyranosyl digitoxopyranosyl moiety and a carboxyl group showed the lowest activity which was similar to that of the inactive aglycone, strophanthidin. Some characteristics in the structure-activity relationship are also discussed. PMID:11458460

  17. Secondary chemistry of hybrid and parental willows: Phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins inSalix sericea, S. eriocephala, and their hybrids.

    PubMed

    Orians, C M; Fritz, R S

    1995-09-01

    Salix sericea andS. eriocephala differ markedly in secondary chemistry.S. sericea produces phenolic glycosides, salicortin and 2'-cinnamoylsalicortin, and low concentrations of condensed tannin. In contrast,S. eriocephala produces no phenolic glycosides, but high concentrations of condensed tannins. Hybrid chemistry is intermediate for both types of chemicals, suggesting predominantly additive inheritance of these two defensive chemical systems from the parental species. However, there is extensive variation among hybrids. This variation may be due to genetic variation among parental genotypes, which genes were passed on, or to subsequent back-crossing. The differences in chemistry are likely to exert a strong effect on the relative susceptibility of hybrid and parental willows to herbivores. PMID:24234624

  18. Cardiac Glycosides Induce Cell Death in Human Cells by Inhibiting General Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Steinrueck, Magdalena; Craig-Mueller, Nils; Mayerhofer, Julia; Schwarzinger, Ilse; Sloane, Mathew; Uras, Iris Z.; Hoermann, Gregor; Nijman, Sebastian M. B.; Mayerhofer, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Background Cardiac glycosides are Na+/K+-pump inhibitors widely used to treat heart failure. They are also highly cytotoxic, and studies have suggested specific anti-tumor activity leading to current clinical trials in cancer patients. However, a definitive demonstration of this putative anti-cancer activity and the underlying molecular mechanism has remained elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an unbiased transcriptomics approach, we found that cardiac glycosides inhibit general protein synthesis. Protein synthesis inhibition and cytotoxicity were not specific for cancer cells as they were observed in both primary and cancer cell lines. These effects were dependent on the Na+/K+-pump as they were rescued by expression of a cardiac glycoside-resistant Na+/K+-pump. Unlike human cells, rodent cells are largely resistant to cardiac glycosides in vitro and mice were found to tolerate extremely high levels. Conclusions/Significance The physiological difference between human and mouse explains the previously observed sensitivity of human cancer cells in mouse xenograft experiments. Thus, published mouse xenograft models used to support anti-tumor activity for these drugs require reevaluation. Our finding that cardiac glycosides inhibit protein synthesis provides a mechanism for the cytotoxicity of CGs and raises concerns about ongoing clinical trials to test CGs as anti-cancer agents in humans. PMID:20016840

  19. Effects of cardiac depression and of anesthesia on the myocardial action of a cardiac glycoside

    PubMed Central

    Vatner, Stephen F.; Higgins, Charles B.; Patrick, Thomas; Franklin, Dean; Braunwald, Eugene

    1971-01-01

    The effects of ouabain (G-strophanthin) 20 ?g/kg, on left ventricular (LV) pressure (P), diameter (D), velocity of contraction (dD/dt), and dP/dt were studied in conscious dogs instrumented with ultrasonic diameter gauges and miniature pressure gauges. The effects of ouabain were compared on separate occasions in the same dogs after cardiac depression with propranolol, 3.0 mg/kg, and also after general anesthesia with Na pentobarbital, 30 mg/kg. Maximal pressor effects were observed in the first 10 min, but maximal effects on the contractile state occurred at 30 min after ouabain. At this time, in conscious dogs, ouabain had increased LV isolength systolic pressure by 5%, LV isolength velocity by only 9%, and LV (dP/dt)/P by 21%, while end systolic diameter (ESD) decreased slightly and end diastolic diameter (EDD) and heart rate (HR) were unchanged. After anesthesia, ouabain increased LV systolic pressure by 8%, velocity 32%, (dP/dt)/P by 47%, and ESD decreased by 1.2 mm while EDD rose slightly and HR fell by 26 beats/min. Returning HR to control with atrial pacing decreased EDD 0.9 mm below control. After cardiac depression with propranolol, ouabain caused responses similar to those observed in the anesthetized dogs. Thus, the cardiac glycoside was found to exert only minor inotropic effects on the nonfailing heart of conscious dogs but far more striking inotropic responses in the anesthetized state. Images PMID:5129310

  20. Simultaneous analysis of cardiac glycosides in blood and urine by thermoresponsive LC-MS-MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanae Kanno; Kanako Watanabe; Itaru Yamagishi; Seishiro Hirano; Kayoko Minakata; Kunio Gonmori; Osamu Suzuki

    2011-01-01

    A new thermoresponsive polymer separation column was applied to simultaneous analysis of four cardiac glycosides (CGs) being\\u000a widely used for the treatment of arrhythmias and heart failure in human blood and urine. This column is composed of an N-isopropylacrylamide polymer, the surface of which undergoes a reversible alteration from hydrophilic to hydrophobic by changing\\u000a temperature. The chromatographic separation and retention

  1. Cardiac glycoside activities link Na(+)/K(+) ATPase ion-transport to breast cancer cell migration via correlative SAR.

    PubMed

    Magpusao, Anniefer N; Omolloh, George; Johnson, Joshua; Gascón, José; Peczuh, Mark W; Fenteany, Gabriel

    2015-02-20

    The cardiac glycosides ouabain and digitoxin, established Na(+)/K(+) ATPase inhibitors, were found to inhibit MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration through an unbiased chemical genetics screen for cell motility. The Na(+)/K(+) ATPase acts both as an ion-transporter and as a receptor for cardiac glycosides. To delineate which function is related to breast cancer cell migration, structure-activity relationship (SAR) profiles of cardiac glycosides were established at the cellular (cell migration inhibition), molecular (Na(+)/K(+) ATPase inhibition), and atomic (computational docking) levels. The SAR of cardiac glycosides and their analogs revealed a similar profile, a decrease in potency when the parent cardiac glycoside structure was modified, for each activity investigated. Since assays were done at the cellular, molecular, and atomic levels, correlation of SAR profiles across these multiple assays established links between cellular activity and specific protein-small molecule interactions. The observed antimigratory effects in breast cancer cells are directly related to the inhibition of Na(+)/K(+) transport. Specifically, the orientation of cardiac glycosides at the putative cation permeation path formed by transmembrane helices ?M1-M6 correlates with the Na(+) pump activity and cell migration. Other Na(+)/K(+) ATPase inhibitors that are structurally distinct from cardiac glycosides also exhibit antimigratory activity, corroborating the conclusion that the antiport function of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase and not the receptor function is important for supporting the motility of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Correlative SAR can establish new relationships between specific biochemical functions and higher-level cellular processes, particularly for proteins with multiple functions and small molecules with unknown or various modes of action. PMID:25334087

  2. Molluscicidal activity of cardiac glycosides from Nerium indicum against Pomacea canaliculata and its implications for the mechanisms of toxicity.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lingpeng; Wang, Wanxian; Dong, Xinjiao; Hu, Renyong; Nan, Xuyang

    2011-09-01

    Cardiac glycosides from fresh leaves of Nerium indicum were evaluated for its molluscicidal activity against Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail: GAS) under laboratory conditions. The results showed that LC(50) value of cardiac glycosides against GAS was time dependent and the LC(50) value at 96 h was as low as 3.71 mg/L, which was comparable with that of metaldehyde at 72 h (3.88 mg/L). These results indicate that cardiac glycosides could be an effective molluscicide against GAS. The toxicological mechanism of cardiac glucosides on GAS was also evaluated through changes of selected biochemical parameters, including cholinesterase (ChE) and esterase (EST) activities, glycogen and protein contents in hepatopancreas tissues of GAS. Exposure to sublethal concentrations of cardiac glycosides, GAS showed lower activities of EST isozyme in the later stages of the exposure period as well as drastically decreased glycogen content, although total protein content was not affected at the end of 24 and 48 h followed by a significant depletion at the end of 72 and 96 h. The initial increase followed by a decline of ChE activity was also observed during the experiment. These results suggest that cardiac glycosides seriously impair normal physiological metabolism, resulting in fatal alterations in major biochemical constituents of hepatopancreas tissues of P. canaliculata. PMID:21843803

  3. BDNF mediates neuroprotection against oxygen-glucose deprivation by the cardiac glycoside oleandrin.

    PubMed

    Van Kanegan, Michael J; He, Dong Ning; Dunn, Denise E; Yang, Peiying; Newman, Robert A; West, Anne E; Lo, Donald C

    2014-01-15

    We have previously shown that the botanical drug candidate PBI-05204, a supercritical CO2 extract of Nerium oleander, provides neuroprotection in both in vitro and in vivo brain slice-based models for focal ischemia (Dunn et al., 2011). Intriguingly, plasma levels of the neurotrophin BDNF were increased in patients treated with PBI-05204 in a phase I clinical trial (Bidyasar et al., 2009). We thus tested the hypothesis that neuroprotection provided by PBI-05204 to rat brain slices damaged by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) is mediated by BDNF. We found, in fact, that exogenous BDNF protein itself is sufficient to protect brain slices against OGD, whereas downstream activation of TrkB receptors for BDNF is necessary for neuroprotection provided by PBI-05204, using three independent methods. Finally, we provide evidence that oleandrin, the principal cardiac glycoside component of PBI-05204, can quantitatively account for regulation of BDNF at both the protein and transcriptional levels. Together, these findings support further investigation of cardiac glycosides in providing neuroprotection in the context of ischemic stroke. PMID:24431454

  4. Alteration of cardiac glycoside positive inotropic action by modulators of protein synthesis and degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Nosek, T.M.; Adams, R.J.

    1986-03-05

    Numerous membrane bound and cytoplasmic proteins participate in the cardiac expression of the positive inotropic action (PIA) of digitalis glycosides including the Na,K-ATPase (NKA). Exposure of the myocardium to an inhibitor of protein synthesis (cycloheximide, CYC) or of protein degradation (leupeptin, LEU) alters the PIA of ouabain in isolated, paced guinea pig papillary muscles (PM) in opposite ways. In vivo exposure to CYC for 3 hr resulted in a 30% depression of the in vitro PIA of ouabain at 1.7..mu..M compared to control. In vivo exposure to LEU for 1 hr resulted in a 47% enhancement of the in vitro PIA of 1.7..mu..M ouabain. Neither drug had an apparent effect on the ouabain PIA ED50. Neither CYC nor LEU exposure to PM in vitro affect resting or developed tension or the response of skinned PM to calcium. The mechanisms of the PIA alterations by CYC or LEU do not involve a direct effect on the digitalis receptor. Exposure of isolated cardiac sarcolemma enriched in NKA to 10-100..mu..M CYC or LEU did not affect NKA activity or /sup 3/H-ouabain binding. Although direct physicochemical effects of CYC or LEU may be involved in the alterations of the ouabain PIA, it is possible that modulation of the cellular levels or turnover rate of short-lived proteins may affect cardiac regulation of the digitalis PIA.

  5. Extraction of Cs-137 by alcohol-water solvents from plants containing cardiac glycosides

    E-print Network

    Dzyubak, S N; Dzyubak, O P; Sorokin, P V; Popov, V F; Orlov, A A; Krasnov, V P; Gubin, Yu.I.

    2001-01-01

    As a result of nuclear power plant accidents, large areas receive radioactive inputs of Cs-137. This cesium accumulates in herbs growing in such territories. The problem is whether the herbs contaminated by radiocesium may be used as a raw material for medicine. The answer depends on the amount of Cs-137 transfered from the contaminated raw material to the medicine. We have presented new results of the transfer of Cs-137 from contaminated Digitalis grandiflora Mill. and Convallaria majalis L. to medicine. We found that the extraction of Cs-137 depends strongly on the hydrophilicity of the solvent. For example 96.5%(vol.) ethyl alcohol extracts less Cs-137 (11.6%) than 40%(vol.) ethyl alcohol or pure water (66.2%). The solubility of the cardiac glycosides is inverse to the solubility of cesium, which may be of use in the technological processes for manufacturing ecologically pure herbal medicine.

  6. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor signaling by the cardiac glycoside ouabain in medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Wolle, Daniel; Lee, Seung Joon; Li, Zhiqin; Litan, Alisa; Barwe, Sonali P; Langhans, Sigrid A

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling regulates cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. Upon receptor binding, EGF triggers cascades of downstream signaling, including the MAPK and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathways. Aberrant expression/activation of EGFR is found in multiple human cancers, including medulloblastoma, the most prevalent pediatric brain cancer, and often has been associated with metastasis, poor prognosis, and resistance to chemotherapy. Na,K-ATPase is an ion pump well known for its role in intracellular ion homeostasis. Recent studies showed that Na,K-ATPase also functions as a signaling platform and revealed a role in EGFR, MAPK, and PI3K signaling. While both EGFR and Na,K-ATPase seem to modulate similar signaling pathways, cardiac glycosides that are steroid-like inhibitors of Na,K-ATPase, exhibit antiproliferative and proapoptotic properties in cancer cells. Thus, we sought to better understand the relationship between EGF and cardiac glycoside signaling. Here, we show that in medulloblastoma cells, both EGF and ouabain activate Erk1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling. Nevertheless, in medulloblastoma cells ouabain did not transactivate EGFR as has been reported in various other cell lines. Indeed, ouabain inhibited EGF-induced Erk1/2 and Akt activation and, moreover, prevented EGF-induced formation of actin stress fibers and cell motility, probably by activating a stress signaling response. Na,K-ATPase has been proposed to act as a signaling scaffold and our studies suggest that in medulloblastoma cells Na,K-ATPase might act as a check point to integrate EGF-associated signaling pathways. Thus, Na,K-ATPase might serve as a valid target to develop novel therapeutic approaches in tumors with aberrant activation of the EGFR signaling cascades. PMID:25052069

  7. Mediation of cardiac glycoside insensitivity in the monarch butterfly ( Danaus plexippus ): Role of an amino acid substitution in the ouabain binding site of Na + ,K + ATPase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Holzinger; M. Wink

    1996-01-01

    The Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) sequesters cardiac glycosides (CG) for its chemical defense against predators. Larvae and adults of this butterfly are insensitive towards dietary cardiac glycosides, whereas other Lepidoptera are sensitive and intoxicated by ouabain. Ouabain inhibits Na+,K+-ATPase by binding to its ?-subunit. We have amplified and cloned the DNA-sequence encoding the respective ouabain binding site. Instead of the

  8. Uptake and sequestration of ouabain and other cardiac glycosides in Danaus plexippus (Lepidoptera: Danaidae): Evidence for a carrier-mediated process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Frick; M. Wink

    1995-01-01

    Larvae ofDanaus plexippus feed almost exclusively on milkweed species of the genusAsclepias, whose characteristic secondary metabolites are cardiac glycosides (CGs). Aposematic last-instar larvae were fed with ouabain and other cardiac glycosides of differing polarities. Time course experiments show that ouabain is sequestered in the integument within 48 hr after feeding, whereas midgut tissue and hemolymph function as transient CG storage

  9. Transport and epithelial secretion of the cardiac glycoside, digoxin, by human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cavet, M. E.; West, M.; Simmons, N. L.

    1996-01-01

    1. Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells have been used to investigate the transepithelial permeation of the cardiac glycoside, digoxin. 2. Transepithelial basal to apical [3H]-digoxin flux exceeds apical to basal flux, a net secretion of [3H]-digoxin being observed. At 200 microM digoxin, net secretory flux (Jnet) was 10.8 +/- 0.6 nmol cm-2 h-1. Maximal secretory flux (Jmax) of vinblastine was 1.3 +/- 0.1 nmol cm-2 h-1. Cellular uptake of digoxin was different across apical and basal cell boundaries. It was greatest across the basal surface at 1 microM, whereas at 200 microM, apical uptake exceeded basal uptake. 3. Net secretion of [3H]-digoxin was subject to inhibition by digitoxin and bufalin but was not inhibited by ouabain, convallatoxin, and strophanthidin (all 100 microM). Inhibition was due to both a decrease in Jb-a and an increase in Ja-b. Uptake of [3H]-digoxin at the apical surface was increased by digitoxin and bufalin. All cardiac glycosides decreased [3H]-digoxin uptake at the basal cell surface (except for 100 microM digitoxin). 4. The competitive P-glycoprotein inhibitors, verapamil (100 microM), nifedipine (50 microM) and vinblastine (50 microM) all abolished net secretion of [3H]-digoxin due to both a decrease in Jb-a and an increase in Ja-b. Cellular accumulation of [3H]-digoxin was also increased across both the apical and basal cell surfaces. I-Chloro-2,4,-dinitrobenzene (10 microM), a substrate for glutathione-S-transferase and subsequent ATP-dependent glutathione-S-conjugate secretion, failed to inhibit net secretion of [3H]-digoxin. The increase in absorptive permeability Pa-b (= Ja-b/Ca) and cellular [3H]-digoxin uptake upon P-glycoprotein inhibition, showed that the intestinal epithelium was rendered effectively impermeable by ATP-dependent extrusion at the apical surface. 5. A model for [3H]-digoxin secretion by the intestinal epithelium is likely to involve both diffusional uptake and Na(+)-K+ pump-mediated endocytosis, followed by active extrusion at the apical membrane. PMID:8832062

  10. Systemic anticancer neural stem cells in combination with a cardiac glycoside for glioblastoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Teng, Jian; Hejazi, Seyedali; Badr, Christian E; Tannous, Bakhos A

    2014-08-01

    The tumor-tropic properties of neural stem cells (NSCs) have been shown to serve as a novel strategy to deliver therapeutic genes to tumors. Recently, we have reported that the cardiac glycoside lanatoside C (Lan C) sensitizes glioma cells to the anticancer agent tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Here, we engineered an FDA-approved human NSC line to synthesize and secrete TRAIL and the Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) blood reporter. We showed that upon systemic injection, these cells selectively migrate toward tumors in the mice brain across the blood-brain barrier, target invasive glioma stem-like cells, and induce tumor regression when combined with Lan C. Gluc blood assay revealed that 30% of NSCs survived 1 day postsystemic injection and around 0.5% of these cells remained viable after 5 weeks in glioma-bearing mice. This study demonstrates the potential of systemic injection of NSCs to deliver anticancer agents, such as TRAIL, which yields glioma regression when combined with Lan C. PMID:24801379

  11. Systemic Anticancer Neural Stem Cells in Combination with a Cardiac Glycoside for Glioblastoma Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Jian; Hejazi, Seyedali; Badr, Christian E.; Tannous, Bakhos A.

    2015-01-01

    The tumor-tropic properties of neural stem cells (NSCs) have been shown to serve as a novel strategy to deliver therapeutic genes to tumors. Recently, we have reported that the cardiac glycoside lanatoside C (Lan C) sensitizes glioma cells to the anticancer agent tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Here, we engineered an FDA-approved human NSC line to synthesize and secrete TRAIL and the Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) blood reporter. We showed that upon systemic injection, these cells selectively migrate toward tumors in the mice brain across the blood-brain barrier, target invasive glioma stem-like cells, and induce tumor regression when combined with Lan C. Gluc blood assay revealed that 30% of NSCs survived 1 day postsystemic injection and around 0.5% of these cells remained viable after 5 weeks in glioma-bearing mice. This study demonstrates the potential of systemic injection of NSCs to deliver anticancer agents, such as TRAIL, which yields glioma regression when combined with Lan C. PMID:24801379

  12. Effect of cardiac glycosides from Nerium indicum on feeding rate, digestive enzymes activity and ultrastructural alterations of hepatopancreas in Pomacea canaliculata.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lingpeng; Qian, Xiaowei; Nan, Xuyang; Zhang, Yejian

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac glycosides from Nerium indicum showed potent molluscicide activity against Pomacea canaliculata (GAS), but the toxicological mechanism is still far less understood. Effects of sublethal treatments of cardiac glycosides on feeding rate, digestive enzymes and ultrastructural alterations of the hepatopancreas in GAS were evaluated in this study. Exposure of GAS to sublethal concentrations of cardiac glycosides resulted in a significant reduction of feeding rate of GAS. The amylase, cellulose and protease activity were increase significantly at the end of 24 h followed by significant inhibition after 48 h of exposure while lipase activity was not affected significantly at the end of 24 h followed by a significant inhibition after 48 h of exposure during experimental period. The main ultrastructural alterations of hepatopancreas observed in snails under cardiac glycosides treatment comprised disruption of nuclear membrane, increased vesiculation and dilatation of endoplasmic reticulum, and vacuolization and swelling of mitochondrial compared to the untreated GAS. These results, for the first time, provide systematic evidences showing that cardiac glycosides seriously impairs the hepatopancreas tissues of GAS, resulting in inhibition of digestive enzymes activity and feeding rate and cause GAS death in the end. PMID:24361644

  13. New cardiac glycosides containing 2-deoxyhexoses from the defensive secretion of adult Chrysolina banksi (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Désiré Daloze; Fabienne Broeders; Jean-Claude Braekman; Jorge Araujo; Jacques M. Pasteels

    1995-01-01

    Four new cardenolides, 2–5, have been isolated together with adenosine from the defensive secretion of adult Chrysolina banksi beetles and their structures determined by spectroscopic methods. All these glycosides contain periplogenin as aglycone and are characterized by the unprecedented occurrence of 2-deoxy-ß-lyxo-hexopyranose and 2-deoxy-ß-xylo-hexopyranose. The taxonomic implications of these results are discussed.

  14. Glycoside vs. Aglycon: The Role of Glycosidic Residue in Biological Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K?en, Vladimír

    A large number of biologically active compounds are glycosides. Sometimes the glycosidic residue is crucial for their activity, in other cases glycosylation only improves pharmacokinetic parameters. Recent developments in molecular glycobiology brought better understanding of aglycon vs. glycoside activities, and made possible the development of new, more active or more effective glycodrugs based on these findings - a very illustrative recent example is vancomycin. The new enzymatic methodology "glycorandomization" enabled preparation of glycoside libraries and opened up paths to the preparation of optimized or entirely novel glycoside antibiotics. This chapter deals with an array of glycosidic compounds currently used in medicine but also covers the biological activity of some glycosidic metabolites of known drugs. The chapter discusses glycosides of vitamins, polyphenolic glycosides (flavonoids), alkaloid glycosides, glycosides of antibiotics, glycopeptides, cardiac glycosides, steroid and terpenoid glycosides etc. The physiological role of the glycosyl moiety and structure-activity relations (SAR) in the glycosidic moiety (-ies) are also discussed.

  15. Joun~al r~fChemical Ecology. Vol. 21. No. 9, 1995 PRESERVING LEAVES FOR TANNIN AND PHENOLIC

    E-print Network

    Orians, Colin

    ). Salix sericea Marshall and Salix eriocephala Michx. produce different sec- ondary chemicals. S. sericea) and very low concen- trations of condensed tannins. S. eriocephala produces high concentrations. eriocephala hybrids produce both tannins and phenolic glycosides at intermediate concentrations (Orians

  16. Cardiac glycoside overdose

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be vague, particularly in the elderly. Eyes, ears, nose, and throat: Blurred vision Halos around objects (yellow, green, white) * Skin: Allergic reaction (See also: Stevens-Johnson syndrome ) Hives Rash Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea Loss of appetite* Nausea ...

  17. Does propolis contain tannins?

    PubMed

    Mayworm, Marco A S; Lima, Carolina A; Tomba, Augusto C B; Fernandes-Silva, Caroline C; Salatino, Maria L F; Salatino, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Although polyphenols have been reported as common constituents of propolis, tannins have rarely been mentioned as its constituents. Propolis samples from seven localities in Brazil were analyzed for detection of proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) and determination of the tannin content. Positive reaction for proanthocyanidins was observed for all samples tested. The contents of tannins varied in the range 0.6-4.1%. A high degree of correlation was noted between total phenols and tannin content. Red and green propolis contained high contents of tannins, while in brown propolis the content was lower. It is suggested that the contents of tannins should be a parameter to be considered in propolis characterization. PMID:24959188

  18. The carbohydrate moieties of the beta-subunit of Na+, K(+)-ATPase: their lateral motions and proximity to the cardiac glycoside site.

    PubMed Central

    Amler, E; Abbott, A; Malak, H; Lakowicz, J; Ball, W J

    1996-01-01

    The beta-subunit associated with the catalytic (alpha) subunit of the mammalian Na+, K(+) -ATPase is a transmembrane glycoprotein with three extracellularly located N-glycosylation sites. Although beta appears to be essential for a functional enzyme, the role of beta and its sugars remains unknown. In these studies, steady-state and dynamic fluorescence measurements of the fluorophore lucifer yellow (LY) covalently linked to the carbohydrate chains of beta have demonstrated that the bound probes are highly solvent exposed but restricted in their diffusional motions. Furthermore, the probes' environments on beta were not altered by Na+ or K+ or ouabain-induced enzyme conformational changes, but both divalent cation and oligomycin addition evoked modest changes in LY fluorescence. Frequency domain measurements reflecting the Förster fluorescence energy transfer (FET) occurring between anthroylouabain (AO) bound to the cardiac glycoside receptor site on alpha and the carbohydrate-linked LY demonstrated their close proximity (18 A). Additional FET determinations made between LY as donor and erythrosin-5-isothiocyanate, covalently bound at the enzyme's putative ATP binding site domain, indicated that a distance of about 85 A separates these two regions and that this distance is reduced upon divalent cation binding and increased upon the Na+E1-->K+E2 conformational transition. These data suggest a model for the localization of the terminal moieties of the oligosaccharides that places them, on average, about 18 A from the AO binding site and this distance or less from the extracellular membrane surface. Images FIGURE 5 PMID:8770197

  19. Influence of the cardiac glycoside digoxin on cardiac troponin I, acid–base and electrolyte balance, and haematobiochemical profiles in healthy donkeys (Equus asinus)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of digoxin administration on the serum concentration of the cardiac troponin I (cTnI) has not been reported to date in equidae. This study was therefore designed to evaluate the effect of digoxin on cardiac cell damage in donkeys (Equus asinus) as assessed by cTnI, acid–base and electrolyte balance and haematobiochemical profiles. Ten clinically healthy donkeys were given an IV infusion of digoxin at a dose of 14 ?g/kg. Blood samples were collected from the donkeys up through 72 h post-injection. Results Three of the donkeys exhibited increased heart and respiratory rates post-injection. In the other seven animals, the heart and respiratory rates were lower 4 h post-injection. The serum digoxin concentration increased significantly at many time points after injection. The serum concentration of cTnI did not differ significantly between pre- and post-injection. An increase in blood pH was noted at 3 h after digoxin injection. There were also increases in PO2 and in oxygen saturation. Decreases in PCO2 at 2 to 48 h post-injection as well as a decrease in blood lactate at 4 h post-injection were observed. The serum concentration of glucose remained significantly elevated at all-time points after digoxin injection. Conclusions It is concluded that administration of digoxin to healthy donkeys (14 ?g/kg) did not result in elevations of serum cTnI concentration, signs of digoxin intoxication, ECG abnormalities and did not increase serum concentrations of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. PMID:24621180

  20. Role of homologous ASP334 and GLU319 in human non-gastric H,K-and Na,K-ATPases in cardiac glycoside binding

    E-print Network

    Brand, Paul H.

    Role of homologous ASP334 and GLU319 in human non-gastric H,K- and Na,K-ATPases in cardiac 334 in the human non-gastric H,K-ATPase (D334R mutation) rendered it completely resistant to 2 m of human a1 Na,K-ATPase, on the other hand this mutation had no effect on the affinity for the aglycone

  1. Microbial degradation of tannins – A current perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tej K. Bhat; Bhupinder Singh; Om P. Sharma

    1998-01-01

    Tannins are water-soluble polyphenolic compounds having wide prevalence in plants. Hydrolysable and condensed tannins are the two major classes of tannins. These compounds have a range of effects on various organisms – from toxic effects on animals to growth inhibition of microorganisms. Some microbes are, however, resistant to tannins, and have developed various mechanisms and pathways for tannin degradation in

  2. The cardiac sodium pump: structure and function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alicia A. McDonough; Jeffrey B. Velotta; Robert H. G. Schwinger; Kenneth D. Philipson; Robert A. Farley

    2002-01-01

    Cardiac sodium pumps (Na,K-ATPase) influence cell calcium and contractility by generating the Na + gradient driving Ca ++ extrusion via the Na +\\/Ca ++ exchanger (NCX), and are the receptors for cardiac glycosides such as digitalis which increases cardiac contractility by decreasing the Na + gradient driving Ca ++ extrusion. There are multiple isoforms of the sodium pump expressed in

  3. Tannins and human health: a review.

    PubMed

    Chung, K T; Wong, T Y; Wei, C I; Huang, Y W; Lin, Y

    1998-08-01

    Tannins (commonly referred to as tannic acid) are water-soluble polyphenols that are present in many plant foods. They have been reported to be responsible for decreases in feed intake, growth rate, feed efficiency, net metabolizable energy, and protein digestibility in experimental animals. Therefore, foods rich in tannins are considered to be of low nutritional value. However, recent findings indicate that the major effect of tannins was not due to their inhibition on food consumption or digestion but rather the decreased efficiency in converting the absorbed nutrients to new body substances. Incidences of certain cancers, such as esophageal cancer, have been reported to be related to consumption of tannins-rich foods such as betel nuts and herbal teas, suggesting that tannins might be carcinogenic. However, other reports indicated that the carcinogenic activity of tannins might be related to components associated with tannins rather than tannins themselves. Interestingly, many reports indicated negative association between tea consumption and incidences of cancers. Tea polyphenols and many tannin components were suggested to be anticarcinogenic. Many tannin molecules have also been shown to reduce the mutagenic activity of a number of mutagens. Many carcinogens and/or mutagens produce oxygen-free radicals for interaction with cellular macromolecules. The anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic potentials of tannins may be related to their antioxidative property, which is important in protecting cellular oxidative damage, including lipid peroxidation. The generation of superoxide radicals was reported to be inhibited by tannins and related compounds. The antimicrobial activities of tannins are well documented. The growth of many fungi, yeasts, bacteria, and viruses was inhibited by tannins. We have also found that tannic acid and propyl gallate, but not gallic acid, were inhibitory to foodborne bacteria, aquatic bacteria, and off-flavor-producing microorganisms. Their antimicrobial properties seemed to be associated with the hydrolysis of ester linkage between gallic acid and polyols hydrolyzed after ripening of many edible fruits. Tannins in these fruits thus serve as a natural defense mechanism against microbial infections. The antimicrobial property of tannic acid can also be used in food processing to increase the shelf-life of certain foods, such as catfish fillets. Tannins have also been reported to exert other physiological effects, such as to accelerate blood clotting, reduce blood pressure, decrease the serum lipid level, produce liver necrosis, and modulate immunoresponses. The dosage and kind of tannins are critical to these effects. The aim of this review is to summarize and analyze the vast and sometimes conflicting literature on tannins and to provide as accurately as possible the needed information for assessment of the overall effects of tannins on human health. PMID:9759559

  4. Glycosides from Bougainvillea glabra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    András Simon; Gábor Tóth; Helmut Duddeck; Hesham S. M. Soliman; Ibrahim I. Mahmoud; Hanan Samir

    2006-01-01

    Three glycosides were isolated from Bougainvillea glabra and their structures were determined by extensive use of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy (H and C). Compound 1 was identical to momordin IIc (quinoside D) [?-D-glucopyranosyl 3-O-[?-D-xylopyranosyl-(1???3)-O-(?-D-glucopyranosyluronic acid)] oleanolate], compound 2 was quercetin 3-O-?-L-(rhamnopyranosyl)(1???6)-[?-L-rhamnopy-ranosyl(1???2)]-?-D-galactopyranoside and compound 3 was its derivative quercetin 3-O-?-L-(4-caffeoylrhamnopyranosyl)(1???6)-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1???2)]-?-D-galactopyranoside, a new natural product.

  5. Colloidal stability of tannins: astringency, wine tasting and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchi, D.; Poulain, C.; Konarev, P.; Tribet, C.; Svergun, D. I.

    2008-12-01

    Tannin-tannin and tannin-protein interactions in water-ethanol solvent mixtures are studied in the context of red wine tasting. While tannin self-aggregation is relevant for the visual aspect of wine tasting (limpidity and related colloidal phenomena), tannin affinities for salivary proline-rich proteins is fundamental for a wide spectrum of organoleptic properties related to astringency. Tannin-tannin interactions are analyzed in water-ethanol wine-like solvents and the precipitation map is constructed for a typical grape tannin. The interaction between tannins and human salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP) are investigated in the framework of the shell model for micellization, known for describing tannin-induced aggregation of ?-casein. Tannin-assisted micellization and compaction of proteins observed by SAXS are described quantitatively and discussed in the case of astringency.

  6. Tannins and Human Health: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    King-Thom Chung; Tit Yee Wong; Cheng-I Wei; Yao-Wen Huang; Yuan Lin

    1998-01-01

    Tannins (commonly referred to as tannic acid) are water-soluble polyphenols that are present in many plant foods. They have been reported to be responsible for decreases in feed intake, growth rate, feed efficiency, net metabolizable energy, and protein digestibility in experimental animals. Therefore, foods rich in tannins are considered to be of low nutritional value. However, recent findings indicate that

  7. Sorption of polyphenolics (tannins) to natural soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tannins enter soil systems via rainfall through the leaf canopy, leaf litter decomposition, and root exudation and decomposition. For tannins released into soils, the relative importance of sorption to soil; chemical reactions with soil minerals; and biological decomposition is unknown. Determinin...

  8. On the differences between ouabain and digitalis glycosides.

    PubMed

    Fuerstenwerth, Hauke

    2014-01-01

    Digoxin and digitoxin are widely used in the treatment of heart diseases. The exact mechanism of action of these drugs has remained an enigma. Ouabain has become the standard tool to investigate the mode of action of cardiotonic steroids, and results with ouabain are regarded as generally valid for all cardiac glycosides. However, there are marked differences between the effects of ouabain and digitalis glycosides. Ouabain has a different therapeutic profile from digitalis derivatives. Unlike digitalis glycosides, ouabain has a fast onset of action and stimulates myocardial metabolism. The inotropic effect of cardiotonic steroids is not related to inhibition of the Na-K-ATPase. Ouabain and digitalis derivatives develop their effects in different cellular spaces. Digitalis glycosides increase the intracellular calcium concentration by entering the cell interior and acting on the ryanodine receptors and by forming transmembrane calcium channels. Ouabain, by activation of the Na-K-ATPase from the extracellular side, triggers release of calcium from intracellular stores via signal transduction pathways and activates myocardial metabolism. These data no longer support the concept that all cardiotonic steroids exhibit their therapeutic effects by partial inhibition of the ion-pumping function of the Na-K-ATPase. Hence, it is suggested that this deeply rooted dogma be revised. PMID:21642827

  9. Naturally occurring methyl salicylate glycosides.

    PubMed

    Mao, Ping; Liu, Zizhen; Xie, Meng; Jiang, Rui; Liu, Weirui; Wang, Xiaohong; Meng, Shen; She, Gaimei

    2014-01-01

    As an important part of non steroids anti-inflammation drug (NSAIDs), salicylate has developed from natural substance salicylic acid to natrium salicylicum, to aspirin. Now, methyl salicylate glycoside, a new derivative of salicylic acid, is modified with a -COOH group integrated one methyl radical into formic ether, and a -OH linked with a monosaccharide, a disaccharide or a trisaccharide unit by glycosidic linkage. It has the similar pharmacological activities, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and antithrombotic as the previous salicylates' without resulting in serious side effects, particularly the gastrointestinal toxicity. Owing to the superiority of those significant bioactivities, methyl salicylate glycosides have became a hot research area in NSAIDs for several years. This paper compiles all 9 naturally occurring methyl salicylate glycosides, their distribution of the resource and pharmacological mechanism, which could contribute to the new drug discovery. PMID:24329991

  10. Transgenic upregulation of the condensed tannin pathway in poplar leads to a dramatic shift in leaf palatability for two tree-feeding Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Boeckler, G Andreas; Towns, Megan; Unsicker, Sybille B; Mellway, Robin D; Yip, Lynn; Hilke, Ines; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Constabel, C Peter

    2014-02-01

    Transgenic hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x tremuloides) overexpressing the MYB134 tannin regulatory gene show dramatically enhanced condensed tannin (proanthocyanidin) levels, as well as shifts in other phenolic metabolites. A series of insect bioassays with forest tent caterpillars (Malacosoma disstria) and gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillars was carried out to determine how this metabolic shift affects food preference and performance of generalist tree-feeding lepidopterans. Both species showed a distinct preference for the high-tannin MYB134 overexpressor plants, and L. dispar performance was enhanced relative to controls. L. dispar reached greater pupal weight and showed reduced time to pupation when reared on the MYB134 overexpressing poplar. These results were unexpected since enhanced condensed tannin levels were predicted to act as feeding deterrents. However, the data may be explained by the observed decrease in the salicinoids (phenolic glycosides) salicortin and tremulacin that accompanied the upregulation of the condensed tannins in the transgenics. We conclude that for these two lepidopteran species, condensed tannin levels are unlikely to be a major determinant of caterpillar food preference or performance. However, our experiments show that overexpression of a single regulatory gene in transgenic aspen can have a significant impact on herbivorous insects. PMID:24496605

  11. Antioxidant activity of crude tannins of canola and rapeseed hulls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Amarowicz; M. Naczk; F. Shahidi

    2000-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of crude tannins of canola and rapeseed hulls was evaluated by ?-carotene-linoleate, ?,?-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl\\u000a (DPPH) radical, and reducing power assays. Crude tannins were extracted from three samples of Cyclone canola (high-tannin)\\u000a hulls and Kolner, Ligaret, and Leo Polish rapeseed (low-tannin) hulls with 70% (vol\\/vol) acetone. The total phenolic content\\u000a in crude tannin extracts ranged between 128 and 296

  12. Defensive strategies in Geranium sylvaticum. Part 1: organ-specific distribution of water-soluble tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Anu; Toivonen, Eija; Mutikainen, Pia; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

    2013-11-01

    A combination of high-resolution mass spectrometry and modern HPLC column technology, assisted by diode array detection, was used for accurate characterization of water-soluble polyphenolic compounds in the pistils, stamens, petals, sepals, stems, leaves, roots and seeds of Geranium sylvaticum. The organs contained a large variety of polyphenols, five types of tannins (ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, gallotannins, galloyl glucoses and galloyl quinic acids) as well as flavonoids and simple phenolic acids. In all, 59 compounds were identified. Geraniin and other ellagitannins dominated in all the green photosynthetic organs. The other organs seem to produce distinctive polyphenol groups: pistils accumulated gallotannins; petals acetylglucose derivatives of galloylglucoses; stamens kaempferol glycosides, and seeds and roots accumulated proanthocyanidins. The intra-plant distribution of the different polyphenol groups may reflect the different functions and importance of various types of tannins as the defensive chemicals against herbivory. PMID:23790750

  13. Effect of marine glycosides on adenosinetriphosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Gorshkov, B A; Gorshkova, I A; Stonik, V A; Elyakov, G B

    1982-01-01

    Marine glycosides from the sea cucumbers Actinopyga agassizi, Holothuria atra, Bohadschia argus, Cucumaria fraudatrix, Astichopus multifidus and Thelenota ananas inhibit both Na+-K+ ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase of rat brain in vitro. The glycoside-cholesterol complex of these compounds does not influence ATPase activity. Asterosaponins from starfishes Linckia guildingi and Linckia laevigata possess a slight inhibiting effect. The triterpene glycosides from sea cucumbers are more powerful inhibitors than steroidal glycosides from starfishes. PMID:6213068

  14. [Phenyl glycosides from Curculigo orchioides].

    PubMed

    Xu, J P; Xu, R S

    1992-01-01

    One new phenyl glycoside and two new chlorophenyl glycosides were isolated from rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides (Chinese name: Xian Mao, Hypoxidaceae). Based on HRMS, FABMS, 1H-, 13C-NMR and other spectral data as well as chemical evidence, the structures of curculigoside B, curculigine B and C were elucidated to be 2-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-5-hydroxybenzyl-2'-methoxy-6'-hydroxybe nzoate (I),24-dichloro-3-methyl-5-methoxy-phenol-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl (1-6)-beta-D-glucopyanoside (III) and 2,4,6-trichloro-3-methyl-5-methoxyphenol-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1-6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (IV), respectively. PMID:1442056

  15. Phenolic glycosides from Phagnalon rupestre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Góngora; Salvador Máñez; Rosa M Giner; M Carmen Recio; Alexander I Gray; José-Luis R??os

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the butanol-soluble fraction from the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Phagnalon rupestre (Asteraceae) has led to the isolation of seven phenolic compounds. Three have been identified on the basis of their NMR spectra as new natural compounds: the lignan 7,7?-bis-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-8,8?-dihydroxymethyl-tetrahydrofuran-4-O-?-glucopyranoside (1), the prenylhydroquinone glycoside 1-O-?-glucopyranosyl-1,4-dihydroxy-2-(3?-hydroxy-3?-methylbutyl) benzene (2) and the acetophenone glycoside 12-O-?-glucopyranosyl-9?,12-dihydroxytremetone (3). The known flavonoids

  16. Flavanone glycosides from Alhagi pseudalhagi.

    PubMed

    Singh, V P; Yadav, B; Pandey, V B

    1999-06-01

    Two new flavanone glycosides, alhagitin and alhagidin, have been isolated from the whole plant of Alhagi pseudalhagi and their structures established respectively as naringenin 5-methyl ether 4'-glucoside and hesperitin 7-galactosyl(1-->2)[rhamnosyl(1-->6)]glucoside by chemical and spectroscopic methods. PMID:10389270

  17. Bacterial Mechanisms to Overcome Inhibitory Effects of Dietary Tannins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra H. Smith; Erwin Zoetendal; Roderick I. Mackie

    2005-01-01

    High concentrations of tannins in fodder plants inhibit gastrointestinal bacteria and reduce ruminant performance. Increasing\\u000a the proportion of tannin-resistant bacteria in the rumen protects ruminants from antinutritional effects. The reason for the\\u000a protective effect is unclear, but could be elucidated if the mechanism(s) by which tannins inhibit bacteria and the mechanisms\\u000a of tannin resistance were understood. A review of the

  18. Tannin extracts abate ammonia emissions from dairy barn floors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding more tannin and less crude protein (CP) to dairy cows may have compound positive impacts on reducing NH3 emissions from dairy barns. Mixtures of feces-urine from lactating Holstein dairy cows (Bos taurus) fed four levels (g kg-1) of dietary tannin extract: 0 (0T), 4.5 (low tannin, LT), 9.0 (...

  19. Tannin inhibition of protein kinase C in airway epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Cloutier; L. Guernsey

    1995-01-01

    Tannin, a polydisperse polyphenol extracted from cotton bracts (CBE), has been implicated in the pathogenesis of byssinosis, a lung disease of mill workers. CBE tannin inhibits chloride secretion in airway epithelial cells by means of an unknown mechanism(s). Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) in airway cells increases chloride secretion. The effect of tannin on

  20. Megastigmane glycosides from Salvia nemorosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshio Takeda; Hongjie Zhang; Takashi Matsumoto; Hideaki Otsuka; Yasushi Oosio; Gisho Honda; Mamoru Tabata; Tetsuro Fujita; Handong Sun; Ekrem Sezik; Erdem Yesilada

    1997-01-01

    From the aerial parts of Salvia nemorosa, three new megastigmane glycosides, salvionosides A-C, were isolated, along with the known compounds, (6S,9R)- and (6S,9S)-roseosides, (6R,9R)- and (6R,9S)-3-oxo-?-ionol glucosides and blumeol C glucoside. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence.

  1. Megastigmane glycosides from Salvia nemorosa.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Y; Zhang, H; Matsumoto, T; Otsuka, H; Oosio, Y; Honda, G; Tabata, M; Fujita, T; Sun, H; Sezik, E; Yesilada, E

    1997-01-01

    From the aerial parts of Salvia nemorosa, three new megastigmane glycosides, salvionosides A-C, were isolated, along with the known compounds, (6S,9R)- and (6S,9R)-roseosides, (6R,9R)- and (6R,9S)-3-oxo-alpha-ionol glucosides and blumeol C glucoside. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence. PMID:8983215

  2. [The antifungal action of polygalacic acid glycosides].

    PubMed

    Bader, G; Kulhanek, Y; Ziegler-Böhme, H

    1990-07-01

    Triterpenoid glycosides obtained from Solidago virgaurea L. and Bellis perennis L. (Asteraceae) inhibit the growth of human-pathogenic yeasts (Candida and Cryptococcus species). First results are given of the investigations on the mode of action and the relationships between structure and activity of these compounds. The intensity of growth inhibition is influenced particularly by the carbohydrate chains of the glycosides. Monodesmosidic as well as bisdesmosidic glycosides of polygalacic acid exert fungicidic effects. PMID:2080212

  3. A new phenolic constituent and a cyanogenic glycoside from Balanophora involucrata (Balanophoraceae).

    PubMed

    She, Gai-Mei; Zhang, Ying-Jun; Yang, Chong-Ren

    2013-06-01

    Balanophora involucrata HOOK.f. & THOMSON (Balanophoraceae) is a parasite plant often growing on the roots of leguminous plants. The whole herb has been used medicinally for the treatment of irregular menstruation, cough, hemoptysis, traumatic injury and bleeding, dizziness and gastralgia in Yunnan Province, China. The 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay on the 60% aq. acetone extract of the fresh whole plant of B. involucrata showed considerable radical-scavenging activity (SC?? 15.3 ?g/ml). Further purification on the extract led to the isolation of one new phenolic glycoside, sieboldin-3'-ketocarboxylic acid (1), and one new cyanogenic glycoside, proacacipetalin 6'-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (2), together with 26 known compounds including three 4"-O-galloyl and 2",3"-O-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP) derivatives of dihydrochalcone glucosides, seven hydrolyzable tannins, and alkane glycosides. The cyanogenic compound isolated from the Balanophoraceae family for the first time might be a signal molecule between B. involucrata and its hosts. The free-radical-scavenging activity of the isolated compounds was also examined by DPPH assay. PMID:23776023

  4. Schoepfiajasmins A-H: C-glycosyl dihydrochalcones, dihydrochalcone glycoside, C-glucosyl flavanones, flavanone glycoside and flavone glycoside from the branches of Schoepfia jasminodora.

    PubMed

    Ukida, Kouki; Doi, Takashi; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Takeda, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    From the branches of Schoepfia jasminodora collected in Okinawa, three new dihydrochalcone C-glycosides, one dihydrochalcone di-O-glucopyranoside, two flavanone C-glycosides, one flavanone O-glycoside and one flavone O-glycoside were isolated. Their structures were elucidated by extensive study of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic data. PMID:24189301

  5. Cardiac Rehabilitation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation? Cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) is a medically supervised program ... be designed to meet your needs. The Cardiac Rehabilitation Team Cardiac rehab involves a long-term commitment ...

  6. Two phenolic glycosides from Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.

    PubMed

    Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Shrestha, Bharat Babu; Comai, Stefano; Innocenti, Gabbriella; Gewali, Mohan Bikram; Jha, Pramod Kumar

    2009-07-01

    One new glycoside derivative from syringic acid and one new phenol glycoside, curculigoside E (1) and orchioside D (2), were isolated and characterized from the rootstock of Curculigo orchioides collected in the Nawalparasi District (Nepal). The structures of the new isolated compounds were elucidated by means of spectroscopic methods such as 1D, 2D NMR and MS. PMID:19285123

  7. Two New Triterpene Glycosides from Centella asiatica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Centella asiatica resulted in the isolation and characterization of one new ursane type triterpene glycoside; asiaticoside G along with nine known compounds, that were characterized as ursane type triterpenes and /or their glycoside; asiatic acid (2), mad...

  8. Effects and fate of tannins in ruminant animals, adaptation to tannins, and strategies to overcome detrimental effects of feeding tannin-rich feeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. P. S. Makkar

    2003-01-01

    Trees and shrub foliage and agro-industrial by-products are of importance in animal production because they do not compete with human food and can provide significant protein supplements, especially in the dry season. But, these feed resources are generally rich in antinutritional factors, particularly tannins. The amount of tannins that they contain vary widely and largely unpredictably, and their effects on

  9. Tannin-binding salivary proteins in three captive rhinoceros species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus Clauss; Janin Gehrke; Jean-Michel Hatt; Ellen S. Dierenfeld; Edmund J. Flach; Robert Hermes; Johanna Castell; W. Juergen Streich; Joerns Fickel

    2005-01-01

    Tannin-binding salivary proteins (TBSP) are considered to be counter-defences acquired in the course of evolution by animals whose natural forage contains such tannins. As tannins mostly occur in browse material but not in grasses, it is assumed that grazers do not have a need for TBSP. Whereas it has been shown in several non-ungulate species that TBSP can be induced

  10. MALDI–TOF mass spectrometry of polyflavonoid tannins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Pasch; A. Pizzi; K. Rode

    2001-01-01

    Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption\\/Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI–TOF) appears to be a suitable method for examining polyflavonoid tannin oligomers. It appears capable to determine aspects of the structure and characteristics of polyflavonoid tannins, which are otherwise too difficult to determine by other techniques. It has been possible to determine by MALDI–TOF for the two major industrial polyflavonoid tannins which exist, namely mimosa and

  11. Phenolic glycosides from Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-Hui; Huang, Jian; Ma, Xiao-Ci; Li, Guo-Yu; Ma, Yue-Ping; Li, Ning; Wang, Jin-Hui

    2013-04-01

    Five new chlorophenolic glucosides, curculigine E (1), curculigine F (2), curculigine G (3), curculigine H (5), curculigine I (6) and one new phenolic glycoside, orcinoside H (4), together with eight known phenolic glycosides (7-14) were isolated from the Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. Their structures were established by spectroscopic techniques (IR, UV, MS, 1D and 2D NMR). The isolated phenolic glycosides were evaluated for antiosteoporotic activity against MC3T3-E1 cell line using MTT assays. Compounds 1, 2, 3, and 5 showed moderate antiosteoporotic activity with the proliferation rate of 10.1-14.1%. PMID:23353659

  12. Increasing the Oxidative Stress Response Allows Escherichia coli To Overcome Inhibitory Effects of Condensed Tannins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra H. Smith; James A. Imlay; Roderick I. Mackie

    2003-01-01

    Received 29 July 2002\\/Accepted 25 February 2003 Tannins are plant-derived polyphenols with antimicrobial effects. The mechanism of tannin toxicity towards Escherichia coli was determined by using an extract from Acacia mearnsii (Black wattle) as a source of condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins). E. coli growth was inhibited by tannins only when tannins were exposed to oxygen. Tannins auto-oxidize, and substantial hydrogen peroxide

  13. Flavanone glycosides from Miconia trailii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhizhen; ElSohly, Hala N; Li, Xing-Cong; Khan, Shabana I; Broedel, Sheldon E; Raulli, Robert E; Cihlar, Ronald L; Walker, Larry A

    2003-01-01

    Assay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract of the twigs and leaves of Miconia trailii yielded two new flavanone glycosides, matteucinol 7-O-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl(1-->6)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (miconioside A, 1) and farrerol 7-O-beta-d-apiofuranosyl(1-->6)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (miconioside B, 2), along with the known compounds matteucinol 7-O-beta-d-apiofuranosyl(1-->6)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (3), matteucinol (4), 2alpha,3beta,19alpha-trihydroxyolean-12-ene-24,28-dioic acid (bartogenic acid, 5), 2alpha,3beta,23-trihydroxyolean-12-ene-28-oic acid (arjunolic acid, 6), 2alpha,3alpha,19alpha, 23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid (myrianthic acid, 7), and stigmast-4-ene-3,6-dione (8). The structures of 1-8 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR. PMID:12542342

  14. Synthesis of the Rhodiola rosea glycoside rosavin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Patov; V. V. Punegov; A. V. Kuchin

    2006-01-01

    A synthetic scheme was proposed for the glycoside rosavin that includes a one-step glycosylation of cinnamyl alcohol with\\u000a a disaccharide. The structure of the product was confirmed by PMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy.

  15. Triterpene glycosides of Dianthus deltoides. I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. G. Bukharov; S. P. Shcherbak; A. P. Beshchekova

    1971-01-01

    Summary FromDianthus deltoides L. we have isolated three new triterpene glycosides: dianthosides A, B, and C. It has been shown that dianthoside A is the 3-O-ß-glucopyranoside and dianthoside B the 3-O-[O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 6)-ß-glucopyranoside] of gypsogenic acid. Some information on the structure of dianthoside C — a new glycoside of gypsogenin — has been obtained.

  16. Two Flavonoid Glycosides from Cassia occidentalis Pods.

    PubMed

    Singh, M; Singh, J

    1985-12-01

    From the ethanolic extract of the pods of CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS, two flavonoid glycosides namely 3,5,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-7-methoxyflavone 3- O-(2''-rhamnosyl glucoside) and 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3,6,3'-trimethoxy-flavone 7- O-(2''-rhamnosyl glucoside) have been isolated and their structures characterised. Both these aglycones (1, 2) are known but their glycosides are being reported for the first time. PMID:17345279

  17. Adsorbent Derived from Pinus pinaster Tannin for Cationic Surfactant Removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Sánchez-Martín; J. Beltrán-Heredia; I. J. Seabra; M. E. M. Braga; H. C. de Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Pinus tannin gel (PTG) has proven to be an effective adsorbent for removing various cationic pollutants including heavy metals, dyes, and surfactants. The form of obtaining these condensed tannins from Pinus pinaster bark was conventional aqueous extraction using 5.0% ethanol as additive. The present study focused on the removal of the surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) from aqueous solutions using PTG.

  18. Improved Characterization of Sorghum Tannins Using Size-Exclusion Chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tannins are large polyphenolic polymers consisting of flavan-3-ol subunits that are deposited in the pigmented testa layer of sorghum kernels. Tannins have been characterized in several different species of plants using a multitude of techniques. Most of the methods are very time and resource consum...

  19. Applicability of insoluble tannin to treatment of waste containing americium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuro Matsumura; Shigekazu Usuda

    1998-01-01

    The applicability of insoluble tannin adsorbent to the treatment of aqueous waste contaminated with americium has been investigated. Insoluble tannin is considered highly applicable because it consists of only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and so its volume can be easily reduced by incineration. This report describes measurements of the americium distribution coefficient in low concentration nitric acid. The americium distribution

  20. THE BIOCHEMISTRY OF TANNINS: ROLE IN RUMINANT NUTRITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tannins are high molecular weight, water-soluble polyphenols that form reversible complexes with proteins through pH-dependent hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. Hydrolyzable tannins (HT) contain a carbohydrate core esterified with gallic or hexahydroxydiphenic acids. Binding of HT to ...

  1. Vegetable oil thermosets reinforced by tannin-lipid formulations.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chunhua; Grigsby, Warren J; Edmonds, Neil R; Al-Hakkak, Jafar

    2013-02-01

    Totally bio-based thermosetting polymers which are comparable to synthetic polyester thermosets have been prepared from copolymerization of condensed tannin-fatty acid esters with vegetable oils. Oxidative copolymerization of tannin linoleate/acetate mixed esters with linseed oil and tung oil produced polymer films ranging from soft rubbers to rigid thermosets. Tannin incorporation into the formulations was essential for the final product to achieve necessary mechanical strength. Films had ambient modulus values between 0.12 and 1.6 GPa, with glass transition temperatures ranging from 32 to 72 °C and calculated crosslink densities of 1020-57,700 mol m?³. Film stiffness, T(g) and crosslink density increase with greater tannin linoeate/acetate content due mainly to this tannin component providing rigidity through polyphenolic aromatic rings and unsaturated chains as crosslinking sites. PMID:22975626

  2. Tannin-binding salivary proteins in three captive rhinoceros species.

    PubMed

    Clauss, Marcus; Gehrke, Janin; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Dierenfeld, Ellen S; Flach, Edmund J; Hermes, Robert; Castell, Johanna; Streich, W Juergen; Fickel, Joerns

    2005-01-01

    Tannin-binding salivary proteins (TBSP) are considered to be counter-defences acquired in the course of evolution by animals whose natural forage contains such tannins. As tannins mostly occur in browse material but not in grasses, it is assumed that grazers do not have a need for TBSP. Whereas it has been shown in several non-ungulate species that TBSP can be induced by dietary tannins, their presence or absence in ungulates has, so far, been shown to be a species-specific characteristic independent of dietary manipulations. We investigated saliva from three rhinoceros species from zoological gardens fed comparable, conventional zoo diets. As expected, saliva from white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherum simum, grazer) had lower tannin-binding capacities than that from black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis, browser). Surprisingly, however, Indian rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis), commonly regarded as grazers as well, displayed the highest tannin-binding capacities of the three species investigated. It is speculated that this discrepancy might be a result of an evolutionarily recent switch to a grass-dominated diet in Indian rhinoceroses, and that the black rhinoceros, which is closer related to the white rhinoceros than the Indian species, has evolved an inducible mechanism of TBSP production. In separate trials during which the tannin content of the diets of black rhinoceroses was increased by the addition of either tannic acid or quebracho, the tannin-binding capacity of black rhinoceros saliva was increased to levels within the same range as that of Indian rhinoceroses on the conventional diets. While induction trials in white and Indian rhinoceroses remain to be performed for a full understanding of salivary anti-tannin defence in rhinoceroses, these results are the first report of an induced salivary response to increased dietary tannin levels in an ungulate species. PMID:15664314

  3. [Flavonol glycosides from Lysimachia clethroides].

    PubMed

    Liang, Dong; Liu, Yan-Fei; Hao, Zhi-You; Luo, Huan; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Zhang, Qing-Jian; Chen, Ruo-Yun; Yu, De-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Eleven flavonol glycosides were isolated from the ethanol extract of Lysimachia clethroides by a combination of various chromatographic techniques including column chromatography over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and reversed-phase HPLC. Their structures were identified as astragalin (1), isoquercitrin (2), isorhamnetin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (3), quercetin-3-O-?-D-6"-acetylglucopyranoside (4), quercetin-7-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (5), prunin (6), 2-hydroxynaringin-5-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (7), kaempferol-3-O-rutinonoside (8), kaempferol-3-O-robinobioside (9), rutin (10) and kaempferol-3,7-di-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (11). Among them, compounds 4, 7 and 11 were obtained from the Lysimachia genus for the first time, while compounds 3, 5 and 9 were firstly reported from this plant. In the preliminary assays, compounds 2, 6 and 8 possessed significant inhibition against aldose reduc- tase, with IC50 values of 2.69, 1.00, 1.80 ?mol · L(-1), respectively; none of compounds 1-11 exhibited obvious cytotoxic activity (IC50 > 10 ?mol · L(-1)). PMID:25993797

  4. The Influence of Condensed Tannin Structure on Rate of Microbial Mineralization and Reactivity to Chemical Assays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charlotte E. Norris; Caroline M. Preston; Karen E. Hogg; Brian D. Titus

    2011-01-01

    We examined how tannin structure influences reactivity in tannin assays and carbon and nitrogen mineralization. Condensed\\u000a tannins from the foliage of ten tree and shrub species and from pecan shells (Carya illinoensis) had different proportions of: (a) epicatechin (cis) and catechin (trans) isomers, (b) procyanidin (PC) and prodelphinidin (PD) monomers, and (c) different chain lengths. The response of each tannin

  5. Comparison of tannin-binding proteins in saliva of Scandinavian and North American moose ( Alces alces)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marja-Riitta Juntheikki

    1996-01-01

    Differences in the ability of salivary proteins from Scandinavian and North American moose (Alces alces) to bind tannins from various preferred food plant sources were studied. Both Scandinavian and North American moose produce a salivary tannin-binding protein which binds only condensed tannins common in their diet. The tannins of winter-browsed stems of Pinus sylvestris and Salix pentandra were more effectively

  6. Diterpene glycosides from Stevia phlebophylla A. Gray.

    PubMed

    Ceunen, Stijn; Wim, De Borggraeve; Compernolle, Frans; Mai, Anh Hung; Geuns, Jan M C

    2013-09-20

    The rare Mexican species Stevia phlebophylla A. Gray was long considered to be the only known Stevia species, beside the well-known S. rebaudiana, containing the highly sweet diterpenoid steviol glycosides. We report a re-evaluation of this claim after phytochemically screening leaves obtained from two herbarium specimens of S. phlebophylla for the presence of steviol glycosides. Despite extensive MS analyses, no steviol glycosides could be unambiguously verified. Instead, the main chromatographic peak eluting at retention times similar to those of steviol glycosides was identified as a new compound, namely 16?-hydroxy-17-acetoxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid-(6-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl) ester (1) on the basis of extensive NMR and MS data as well as the characterization of its acid hydrolysate. Seven more compounds were detected by ESIMS which are possibly structurally related to 1. It can therefore be concluded that S. phlebophylla is unlikely to contain significant amounts of steviol glycosides, if any. PMID:23831634

  7. Tannin extracted from Sumac inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Zargham, Hanieh; Zargham, Ramin

    2008-01-01

    Background Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration is integral in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Sumac (Rhus coriaria) berries are believed to have atheroprotective effects. Therefore, Sumac, which is a rich source of tannin antioxidants, was tested for its capacity to inhibit VSMC migratory activity. Materials & Methods Tannin was extracted and purified from ground Sumac. Cultured rat carotid VSMCs were treated with different concentrations of tannin. After 10 days of tannin treatment, VSMC migratory activity in response to platelet-derived growth factor-BB was measured by transmembrane migration assay. An equal number of VSMCs was loaded on top of the inserts and at the bottom of the wells. After fixation and staining, cells migrating through the inserts and cells seeded at the bottom of the wells were counted. Results A significant reduction (62%) of VSMC migration was evident in tannin-treated cells. To rule out any possible toxicity and cell death, cells at the bottom of the wells were also counted. No difference between the tannin-treated group and the controls was observed in the number of cells seeded at the bottom of the wells. Conclusion Our data suggest that tannin extracted from Sumac possesses potent antimigratory activity. Sumac may have potential for the prevention or treatment of atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations. Further experiments, especially in vivo, are required to examine the atheroprotective effect of Sumac. PMID:19148309

  8. Effects of different tannin-rich extracts and rapeseed tannin monomers on methane formation and microbial protein synthesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wischer, G; Boguhn, J; Steingaß, H; Schollenberger, M; Rodehutscord, M

    2013-11-01

    Tannins, polyphenolic compounds found in plants, are known to complex with proteins of feed and rumen bacteria. This group of substances has the potential to reduce methane production either with or without negative effects on digestibility and microbial yield. In the first step of this study, 10 tannin-rich extracts from chestnut, mimosa, myrabolan, quebracho, sumach, tara, valonea, oak, cocoa and grape seed, and four rapeseed tannin monomers (pelargonidin, catechin, cyanidin and sinapinic acid) were used in a series of in vitro trials using the Hohenheim gas test, with grass silage as substrate. The objective was to screen the potential of various tannin-rich extracts to reduce methane production without a significant effect on total gas production (GP). Supplementation with pelargonidin and cyanidin did not reduce methane production; however, catechin and sinapinic acid reduced methane production without altering GP. All tannin-rich extracts, except for tara extract, significantly reduced methane production by 8% to 28% without altering GP. On the basis of these results, five tannin-rich extracts were selected and further investigated in a second step using a Rusitec system. Each tannin-rich extract (1.5 g) was supplemented to grass silage (15 g). In this experiment, nutrient degradation, microbial protein synthesis and volatile fatty acid production were used as additional response criteria. Chestnut extract caused the greatest reduction in methane production followed by valonea, grape seed and sumach, whereas myrabolan extract did not reduce methane production. Whereas chestnut extract reduced acetate production by 19%, supplementation with grape seed or myrabolan extract increased acetate production. However, degradation of fibre fractions was reduced in all tannin treatments. Degradation of dry matter and organic matter was also reduced by tannin supplementation, and no differences were found between the tannin-rich extracts. CP degradation and ammonia-N accumulation in the Rusitec were reduced by tannin treatment. The amount and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis were not significantly affected by tannin supplementation. The results of this study indicated that some tannin-rich extracts are able to reduce methane production without altering microbial protein synthesis. We hypothesized that chestnut and valonea extract have the greatest potential to reduce methane production without negative side effects. PMID:23915496

  9. The insulin receptor glycosidic moiety : its characterization and role

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The insulin receptor glycosidic moiety : its characterization and role Martine CARON, Gisèle exoglycosidases and/or lectins as specific glycosidic probes, we characterized the insulin receptor carbohydrate components in normal or transformed cells and investigated their importance in the insulin

  10. Toxicity of the isolated tannin from Quercus havardi 

    E-print Network

    Pigeon, Robert F

    1961-01-01

    swelling. The tannin was then given orally to a rabbit at a dose of 133. 3 mg/kg of body weight which pro- duced no discernable physiological effect. 4 4 week old calf died within 24 hours after receiving an intraperitoneal in)ection of the acorn tannin... of tannin were then given orally to an 8 week old calf (weight not recorded) which then ruminated normally, but was a little sleepy for the next 7 days. The calf was then given 3 daily doses of 25 grams with no observable effects; the calf remained...

  11. Steviol glycosides: chemical diversity, metabolism, and function.

    PubMed

    Ceunen, Stijn; Geuns, Jan M C

    2013-06-28

    Steviol glycosides are a group of highly sweet diterpene glycosides discovered in only a few plant species, most notably the Paraguayan shrub Stevia rebaudiana. During the past few decades, the nutritional and pharmacological benefits of these secondary metabolites have become increasingly apparent. While these properties are now widely recognized, many aspects related to their in vivo biochemistry and metabolism and their relationship to the overall plant physiology of S. rebaudiana are not yet understood. Furthermore, the large size of the steviol glycoside pool commonly found within S. rebaudiana leaves implies a significant metabolic investment and poses questions regarding the benefits S. rebaudiana might gain from their accumulation. The current review intends to thoroughly discuss the available knowledge on these issues. PMID:23713723

  12. Electrochemical removal of tannins from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Buso, A.; Balbo, L.; Giomo, M.; Farnia, G.; Sandona, G.

    2000-02-01

    The application of electrochemical methods to remove tannins from wastewater was investigated. Gallotannic acid was used as the reference substance. Electrochemical experiments were performed using platinum electrodes. Macroscale potentiostatic or galvanostatic electrolyses were carried out with sodium sulfate or sodium chloride as supporting electrolytes, to analyze direct and indirect oxidation processes. Operating variables such as pH and chloride concentration were considered to determine their influence on the efficiency and energy consumption of the process. The simulation of a pilot plant was carried out with a mathematical model, the parameters of which were determined by fitting of experimental profiles. The results of a preliminary investigation on the oxidation-coagulation process using sacrificial electrodes are also reported.

  13. Antifungal active triterpene glycosides from sea cucumber Holothuria scabra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HAN Hua; YI Yang-hua; LI Ling; LIU Bao-shu; LA Ming-ping; ZHANG Hong-wei

    To study the new antifungal active triterpene glycosides of sea cucumber Holothuria scabra. Triterpene glycosides from Holothuria scabra were separated and purified by silica gel chromatography, reversed-phase silica ge1 chromatography and RP-HPLC. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral data and chemical evidence. Three triterpene glycosides were identified as scabraside A (1), echinoside A ( 2) and holothurin

  14. Neolignan and flavonoid glycosides in Juniperus communis var. depressa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsutomu Nakanishi; Naoki Iida; Yuka Inatomi; Hiroko Murata; Akira Inada; Jin Murata; Frank A. Lang; Munekazu Iinuma; Toshiyuki Tanaka

    2004-01-01

    Two neolignan glycosides (junipercomnosides A and B) were isolated from aerial parts of Juniperus communis var. depressa along with two known neolignan glycosides and seven flavonoid glycosides. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by spectral analysis, in particular by 2D-NMR analysis. The significance of distribution of flavonoids in the chemotaxonomy of genus Juniperus was also discussed.

  15. Use of whole grain and refined flour from tannin and non-tannin sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) varieties in frybread.

    PubMed

    Rose, Devin J; Williams, Emily; Mkandawire, Nyambe L; Weller, Curtis L; Jackson, David S

    2014-07-01

    Frybreads were prepared using wheat flour and wheat-sorghum composite flours (refined and whole grain; white, tannin-free and red, tannin-containing) at 0, 25, 50, and 75% sorghum flour. Hardness, volume, specific volume, color, and oil uptake were determined. Frybreads made with refined white, tannin-free sorghum were also evaluated in a sensory panel. Substitution of sorghum flour for wheat flour reduced the volume and increased the darkness of the fried dough pieces compared with wheat flour controls. Oil absorption was unaffected when using white, tannin-free sorghum. When using red, tannin-containing sorghum, oil absorption increased for refined flour and decreased for whole grain flour, suggesting that a component only present in the whole grain tannin-containing Sorghum--perhaps tannins themselves--may decrease oil uptake. Panelists rated frybreads containing up to 50% white, tannin-free sorghum flour as not significantly different from control frybreads made with refined wheat flour. PMID:23744121

  16. Tannins from Canarium album with potent antioxidant activity*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang-liang; Lin, Yi-ming

    2008-01-01

    The contents of total phenolics and extractable condensed tannins in the leaves, twigs and stem bark of Canarium album were determined. The structural heterogeneity of condensed tannins from stem bark was characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. The results show the predominance of signals representative of procyanidins and prodelphinidins. In addition, epicatechin and epigallocatechin polymers with galloylated procyanidin or prodelphinidin were also observed. The tannins were screened for their potential antioxidant activities using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) model systems. Tannins extracted from leaves, twigs and stem bark all showed a very good DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power. PMID:18500781

  17. Flavanone and diphenylpropane glycosides and glycosidic acyl esters from Viscum articulatum.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yu-Jen; Yang, Yu-Ching; Zhang, Li-Jie; Wu, Ming-Der; Kuo, Li-Ming Yang; Kuo, Yuh-Chi; Hwang, Syh-Yuan; Chou, Cheng-Jen; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Ho, Hsiu-O; Kuo, Yao-Haur

    2010-02-26

    Seven new compounds including three flavanone glycosides, visartisides A-C (1-3), three glycoside acyl esters, visartisides D-F (4-6), and one diphenylpropane glycoside, (4'-hydroxy-2',3',6',3''-tetramethoxy-1,3-diphenylpropane)-4''-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside (7), along with four known flavanone glycosides (8-11) were isolated from the leaves and stems of Viscum articulatum. The structure elucidation of 1-7 was based on spectroscopic data analysis. Biological evaluation showed that 1, 2, and 10 exhibited antioxidant activity using a DPPH method and that compounds 1, 3, and 11 were active in a lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide assay. PMID:20121165

  18. Hydrolyzable and condensed tannins resistance in Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Redondo, L M; Dominguez, J E; Rabinovitz, B C; Redondo, E A; Fernández Miyakawa, M E

    2015-08-01

    Tannins added in the diet are being used to improve nutrition and health in farm animals as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters and to control enteric clostridial diseases. However, the capacity of Clostridium perfringens to develop resistance under the selective pressure of tannins is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if C. perfringens possess the ability to develop resistance against tannins in comparison with antimicrobial agents. Susceptibility for 7 AGPs (antimicrobial growth promoters), 9 therapeutic antimicrobials and 2 tannin based extracts was determined for 30 C. perfringens strains isolated from poultry and cattle. Two susceptible strains were selected and cultured in presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of tannins and AGPs for resistant sub-populations selection. Tannin resistance of C. perfringens isolates from both animal species revealed no statistically significant differences in MICs (minimum inhibitory concentration). Poultry isolates showed higher MICs to several AGPs compared with cattle isolates. All isolates were susceptible to the therapeutic antimicrobials tested, but avian isolates showed a significantly lower susceptibility to these antimicrobials which was highly correlated with an increased resistance to bacitracin and others AGPs. In-vitro selection of resistant clones suggests that C. perfringens was unable to develop resistance against tannins at least compared to AGPs like bacitracin and avilamycin. Avian origin strains, which were previously exposed to antibiotics showed higher resistance, compared to cattle origin strains. These results suggest that the evolution of resistance against tannins in C. perfringens would be more difficult and slower than to the determined AGPs. PMID:26037239

  19. Enzymatic Processing of Bioactive Glycosides from Natural Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weignerová, Lenka; K?en, Vladimír

    A number of biologically active natural products are glycosides. Often, the glycosidic residue is crucial for their activity. In other cases, glycosylation only improves their pharmacokinetic parameters. Enzymatic modification of these glycosides - both extension of the glycoside moiety and its selective trimming - is advantageous due to their selectivity and mildness of the reaction conditions in the presence of reactive and sensitive complex aglycones. Enzymatic reactions enable the resulting products to be used as "natural products", e.g., in nutraceuticals. This chapter concentrates on naturally occurring glycosides used in medicine but also in the food and flavor industry (e.g., sweeteners). Both "classical" and modern methods will be discussed.

  20. Mechanisms for nucleophilic aliphatic substitution at glycosides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole A. Horenstein

    2006-01-01

    Much of carbohydrate chemistry and biochemistry is centered on bond forming and bond breaking reactions at the anomeric carbon of glycosides. No single mechanism adequately covers the scope of these reactions, because differences in sugar substituents, stereochemistry, leaving groups, nucleophiles, and catalysts can influence the mechanistic pathway taken. The influence of solvent is only now beginning to become apparent in

  1. Two new secoiridoid glycosides from Gentiana algida.

    PubMed

    Tan, R X; Hu, J; Dong, L D; Wolfender, J L; Hostettmann, K

    1997-12-01

    Two new acylated secoiridoid glycosides were isolated from the aqueous acetone extract of the whole herb of Gentiana algida. The structures of these new products were established by spectral and chemical methods as 6'-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)sweroside and 6'-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)swertiamarin, respectively. PMID:17252380

  2. Antifungal steroid glycoside from sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Shimada, S

    1969-03-28

    An antifungal steroid glycoside, holotoxin, has been isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus (Selenka). In vitro, it exhibits high activity against various fungi, including vegetable pathogens, but has scarcely any activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and mycobacteria in vitro. PMID:5812983

  3. Four new glycosides from Pleurospermum franchetianum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying-Gang Luo; Bo-Gang Li; Guo-Lin Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Four new glycosides, pleurofranosides I-IV, together with eight known compounds were isolated from the whole plants of Pleurospermum franchetianum Hemsl. Based on the spectral data and chemical evidence, the structures of pleurofranosides I, II, III and IV were elucidated to be 16 g , 21 g , 23, 28-tetrahydroxyolean-12-ene-3 g -yl- O - g - d -glucopyranosyl-(1 M 2)- g

  4. Flavonoid glycosides and limonoids from Citrus molasses.

    PubMed

    Kuroyanagi, Masanori; Ishii, Hiromi; Kawahara, Nobuo; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Hideo; Okihara, Kiyoshi; Shirota, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    Molasses of tangerine orange (Citrus unshiu Markovich) is obtained as a waste product in the course of tangerine orange juice production. This molasses is expected to be a useful source of organic compounds such as flavonoids and limonoids. To elucidate a use for this molasses waste, we isolated and identified its organic constituents. Two new flavanonol glycosides were isolated from tangerine orange molasses, along with several flavonoids such as hesperidine, narirutin, eriodictyol, 3',4',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxy-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxyflavone, and 3',4',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxy- 3-beta-D-[4-O-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaloyl)]-glucopyranosyloxyflavone, and limonoids such as limonin, nomilin, and cyclic peptide, citrusin III. The structures of the new flavanonol glycosides were determined as (2R,3R)-7-O-(6-O-alpha-L-rahmnopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-aromadendrin and 7-O-(6-O-alpha-L-rahmnopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-3,3',5,7-tetrahydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone by means of spectral analyses using (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and 2D-NMR. Of these compounds, flavanone glycoside, hesperidin and narirutin were isolated as the main constituents. Thus, molasses is a promising source of flavonoid glycosides. PMID:18404354

  5. A flavone glycoside from Andrographis alata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Damu; B. Jayaprakasam; K. V. Rao; D. Gunasekar

    1998-01-01

    A new flavone glycoside, echioidinin 5-glucoside along with its known aglycone, echioidinin have been isolated from the whole plant of Andrographis alata. The structure of the new compound was established as 5,2?-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone 5-O-?-d-glucopyranoside on the basis of spectral and chemical studies.

  6. A flavone glycoside from Andrographis alata.

    PubMed

    Damu, A G.; Jayaprakasam, B; Rao, K V.; Gunasekar, D

    1998-11-20

    A new flavone glycoside, echioidinin 5-glucoside along with its known aglycone, echioidinin have been isolated from the whole plant of Andrographis alata. The structure of the new compound was established as 5,2'-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone 5-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside on the basis of spectral and chemical studies. PMID:11711108

  7. Two new triterpenoid glycosides from Curculigo orchioides.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Ai-Xue; Shen, Yong; Jiang, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Zhou, Jun; Lü, Jun; Chen, Ji-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Two new cycloartane triterpenoid glycosides, named curculigosaponin N and curculigosaponin O, were isolated from rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analysis including IR, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR (HSQC and HMBC). PMID:22316001

  8. Neoconvallatoxoloside — A cardenolide glycoside from Convallaria majalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ya. Bochvarov; N. F. Komissarenko

    1977-01-01

    Summary  A new cardinolide glycoside has been isolated from the leaves ofConvallaria majalis L.; it has been called neoconvallatoxolisode and its structure has been established as strophanthidol 3-O-[O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-?-L-rhamnopyranoside].

  9. Molecular Weight of Condensed Tannins from Warm-season Perennial Legumes and Its Effect on Condensed Tannin Biological Activity

    E-print Network

    Naumann, Harley Dean

    2013-05-21

    al. (1983) observed the effects of legume forages Astragalus cicer, Onobrychis viciifolia, two cultivars of Lotus corniculatus and Medicago sativa on CH4 production in vitro. Condensed tannin concentrations for these forages were 4.49, 48.5, 7...

  10. Triterpene glycosides of Sophora japonica seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Grishkovets; L. A. Gorbacheva

    1995-01-01

    We have isolated from the seeds of Sophora japonica the known soyasaponogenol B-3-[O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-ß-D-glucopyranuronoside] (adzukisaponin II), soyasapogenol B [3-O-ß-galactopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-ß-L-glucopyranuronoside] (soyasaponin III), soyasapogenol B 3-(O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-ß-L-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-ß-D-glucopyranuronoside] (adzukisaponin V), soyasapogenol B 3-(O-ß-D-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-ß-D-galactopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-ß-D-glucopyranuronoside] (soyasaponin I), and the new glycoside (1) — soyasapogenol B 3-[O-ß-D-glucopyranuronoside]. The structure of this glycoside has been established on the basis of the results of enzymatic, complete, and partial hydrolyses and13C

  11. Plant-Based Tannins as Antioxidants in Pre-Cooked Ground Beef Patties

    E-print Network

    Cruzen, Shannon Michelle

    2011-10-21

    ., Spooner, WI), Chestnut (CN, Castanea sative mill, approximately 74-78% hydrolysable tannins, Chemtan? Chestnut Powder KPN, Chemtan Co., Exeter, NH), Mimosa (M, Acacia mearnsii black wattle, approximately 70% condensed tannins, Chemtan? Mimosa ME...

  12. Tannin bark Melalauca cajuputi powell (gelam) as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel

    SciTech Connect

    Talib, Nur Atiqah Abu; Zakaria, Sarani; Hua, Chia Chin; Othman, Norinsan Kamil [School of Applied Physic, Faculty Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Tannin was extracted from gelam bark and used to produce corrosion inhibitor for mild steel. Tannin was extracted from gelam bark using 70% aqueous acetone for 6 hour. Tannin powder was characterization using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to analyse chemical component in tannin and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) for tannin physical structure. The tannin effect on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel has been investigated in 1Mol HCl solution for 6 hour followed ASTM. The weight loss method were applied to study the mild steel corrosion behavior in the present and absend of different concentration of tannin (250, 300, 350)ppm. Tannin act good inhibitor as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in acid medium. Surface morphology of carbon steel with and without inhibitor was investigated by scanning electron microscopy.

  13. Detection of Triterpenoid Glycosides on Paper Chromatograms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Belic

    1956-01-01

    IN the course of our investigations of Echinocystis lobata seeds, it became desirable to locate triterpenoid glycosides on paper chromatograms by means of a colour reaction. A modification of the Liebermann-Burchard test described by Neher and Wettstein1 was unsatisfactory for this purpose. We found that the original Liebermann-Burchard reaction applied to paper chromatograms with comparatively little alterations gave more satisfactory

  14. Chalconoid and stilbenoid glycosides from Guibourtia tessmanii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Fuendjiep; J Wandji; F Tillequin; D. A Mulholland; H Budzikiewicz; Z. T Fomum; A. M Nyemba; M Koch

    2002-01-01

    Phytochemical studies on the stem bark of Guibourtia tessmanii yielded a dihydrochalcone glucoside, 2?,4-dihydroxy-4?-methoxy-6?-O-?-glucopyranoside dihydrochalcone and a new stilbene glycoside, 3,5-dimethoxy-4?-O-(?-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?6)-?- glucopyranoside) stilbene besides the known pterostilbene. Their structures were established on the basis of one and two dimensional NMR spectroscopic techniques, FABMS and chemical evidence.

  15. [Two new flavanone glycosides from Glycyrrhizia inflata].

    PubMed

    Wang, B; Zou, K; Yang, X B; He, W Y; Zhao, Y Y; Zhang, R Y

    1997-01-01

    Two new flavanone glycosides having two chains of sugar moeity were isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhizia inflata Bat by repeated CC and HPLC. They were identified to be liquiritigenin-7-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(I) and liquiritigenin-7-O-beta-D-(3-O-acetyl)-apiofuranosyl-4'-O-beta-D- glucopyranoside (II) on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic methods. PMID:11327021

  16. Flavonoid glycosides and limonoids from Citrus molasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masanori Kuroyanagi; Hiromi Ishii; Nobuo Kawahara; Hiroyuki Sugimoto; Hideo Yamada; Kiyoshi Okihara; Osamu Shirota

    2008-01-01

    Molasses of tangerine orange (Citrus unshiu Markovich) is obtained as a waste product in the course of tangerine orange juice production. This molasses is expected to\\u000a be a useful source of organic compounds such as flavonoids and limonoids. To elucidate a use for this molasses waste, we isolated\\u000a and identified its organic constituents. Two new flavanonol glycosides were isolated from

  17. Chalconoid and stilbenoid glycosides from Guibourtia tessmanii.

    PubMed

    Fuendjiep, V; Wandji, J; Tillequin, F; Mulholland, D A; Budzikiewicz, H; Fomum, Z T; Nyemba, A M; Koch, M

    2002-08-01

    Phytochemical studies on the stem bark of Guibourtia tessmanii yielded a dihydrochalcone glucoside, 2',4-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-6'-O-beta-glucopyranoside dihydrochalcone and a new stilbene glycoside, 3,5-dimethoxy-4'-O-(beta-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta- glucopyranoside) stilbene besides the known pterostilbene. Their structures were established on the basis of one and two dimensional NMR spectroscopic techniques, FABMS and chemical evidence. PMID:12150803

  18. ?-cyclodextrin assistant flavonoid glycosides enzymatic hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Zhang, Zhen-hai; Sun, E.; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Background: The content of icaritin and genistein in herba is very low, preparation with relatively large quantities is an important issue for extensive pharmacological studies. Objective: This study focuses on preparing and enzymic hydrolysis of flavonoid glycosides /?-cyclodextrin inclusion complex to increase the hydrolysis rate. Materials and Methods: The physical property of newly prepared inclusion complex was tested by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis were optimized for the bioconversion of flavonoid glycosides /?-cyclodextrin inclusion complex by mono-factor experimental design. The experiments are using the icariin and genistein as the model drugs. Results: The solubility of icariin and genistein were increased almost 17 times from 29.2 ?g/ml to 513.5 ?g/ml at 60°C and 28 times from 7.78 ?g/ml to 221.46 ?g/ml at 50°C, respectively, demonstrating that the inclusion complex could significantly increase the solubility of flavonoid glycosides. Under the optimal conditions, the reaction time of icariin and genistin decreased by 68% and 145%, when compared with that without ?-CD inclusion. By using this enzymatic condition, 473 mg icaritin (with the purity of 99.34%) and 567 mg genistein(with the purity of 99.46%), which was finally determined by melt point, ESI-MS, UV, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR, was obtained eventually by transforming the inclusion complex(contains 1.0 g substrates). Conclusion: This study can clearly indicate a new attempt to improve the speed of enzyme-hydrolysis of poorly water-soluble flavonoid glycosides and find a more superior condition which is used to prepare icaritin and genistein. PMID:24143039

  19. New maltol glycosides from Flos Sophorae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Qu, Lu; Liu, Lili; Li, Xiaoxia; Liu, Erwei; Han, Lifeng; Fang, Shiming; Gao, Xiumei; Wang, Tao

    2015-04-01

    Three new maltol glycosides, designated soyamalosides A (1), B (2), and C (3), together with eight known compounds (4-11), were obtained from a 70 % EtOH extract of Flos Sophorae. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Of the known compounds, this is the first report of 4-6, 9, and 11 in the Sophora genus. Compounds 2, 3, and 10 showed significant protective effects against antimycin A-induced L6 cell injury. PMID:25398298

  20. Vasorelaxant activity of 7-?-O-glycosides biosynthesized from flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Penso, Juliana; Cordeiro, Kelly C F A; da Cunha, Carla R M; da Silva Castro, Patricia F; Martins, Daniella R; Lião, Luciano M; Rocha, Matheus L; de Oliveira, Valéria

    2014-06-15

    In this work we report the vasorelaxant activity of 7-?-O-glycosides obtained with biosynthesis of naringenin-7-?-O-glycoside (3) and quercetin-7-?-O-glycoside (4). These compounds were obtained from naringenin (1) and quercetin (2) glycosylation catalyzed by Beauveria bassiana ATCC 7159. Screening of the best strain as a catalyst for glycosylation was carried out and the reaction conditions established. Cultures were grown in PDSM medium for 7 days at 27 °C. After purification by reverse-phase preparative HPLC, naringenin-7-?-O-glycoside (3) and quercetin-7-?-O-glycoside (4) were identified by (1)H and (13)C NMR. The right position and ?-configuration of the glucose was determined through HSQC and HMBC experiments. The vasorelaxation potential of naringenin, quercetin and its glycosylated derivatives was evaluated using isolated aorta in vitro models. Interestingly, results suggest that vasorelaxation properties of naringenin, rutin and its glycosides are due to different pathways. PMID:24704375

  1. Effects of Acomastylis rossii tannins on a mammalian herbivore, the North American pika, Ochotona princeps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Dearing

    1996-01-01

    I investigated the effects of tannin consumption, using plant tannins naturally occurring in the diet, on a herbivorous mammal,\\u000a the North American pika, Ochotona princeps. The objectives were to determine if a high-tannin diet influenced protein and dry matter apparent digestibility, fiber digestibility\\u000a and production of detoxification by-products. Additionally, I examined the possibility that pikas produce salivary tannin-binding\\u000a proteins, a

  2. Effect of Condensed Tannins on Bacterial Diversity and Metabolic Activity in the Rat Gastrointestinal Tract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra H. Smith; Roderick I. Mackie

    2004-01-01

    The effect of dietary condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins) on rat fecal bacterial populations was ascer- tained in order to determine whether the proportion on tannin-resistant bacteria increased and if there was a change in the predominant bacterial populations. After 3 weeks of tannin diets the proportion of tannin- resistant bacteria increased significantly (P < 0.05) from 0.3% 5.5% to 25.3% 8.3%

  3. Condensed tannins in Trifolium species and their significance for taxonomy and plant breeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael F. Fay; Philip J. Dale

    1993-01-01

    Populations of 59 Trifolium taxa were screened for condensed tannin content using the vanillin-HC1 test. Eight species (T. arvense, T. aureum, T. badium, T. campestre, T. dubium, T. micranthum, T. patens and T. spadiceum) were shown to contain tannins. These species are all found in Section Chronosemium or Section Trifolium Subsection Arvensia of the genus, and thus presence of tannins

  4. COMPARISON OF TANNINS FROM SORGHUM: DIFFERENCES IN CHEMISTRY, BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY AND NUTRITIONAL FACTORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tannins are large polyphenolic polymers consisting of flavan-3-ol subunits that are deposited in the pigmented testa layer of sorghum kernels. Tannins are known to bind proteins, limiting their digestibility, as well as having excellent antioxidant potential. Studies were done on seven tannin culti...

  5. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL ECOLOGY Effects of Paper Birch Condensed Tannin on Whitemarked Tussock

    E-print Network

    . 31(1): 10Ð14 (2002) ABSTRACT This research tested the effects of paper birch, Betula papyrifera leucostigma, Betula papyrifera, whitemarked tussock moth, condensed tannin, paper birch CONDENSED TANNINS. Smith), to evaluate the effects of paper birch, Betula papyrifera Marshall, condensed tannin on in- sect

  6. On the role of tannin vacuoles in several nastic leaf responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawn L. Hollins; Mordecai J. Jaffe

    1997-01-01

    Summary Experiments were done to relate the presence of tannin vacuoles to plant movements. When surveyed, 4 out of 10 species exhibited rapid thigmonastic or nyctinastic movements, and only those 4 species had tannin vacuoles in their motor cells. Interestingly, plants ofAlbizzia julibrissin whose seed was obtained in New Haven, Connecticut had rapid nyctinasty and tannin vacuoles in the tertiary

  7. Antifungal active triterpene glycosides from sea cucumber Holothuria scabra.

    PubMed

    Han, Hua; Yi, Yang-Hua; Li, Ling; Liu, Bao-Shu; La, Ming-Ping; Zhang, Hong-Wei

    2009-06-01

    To study the new antifungal active triterpene glycosides of sea cucumber Holothuria scabra. Triterpene glycosides from Holothuria scabra were separated and purified by silica gel chromatography, reversed-phase silica gel chromatography and RP-HPLC. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral data and chemical evidence. Three triterpene glycosides were identified as scabraside A (1), echinoidea A (2) and holothurin A1 (3). Scabraside A (1) is a new triterpene glycoside, and compounds 2 and 3 were isolated from Holothuria scabra for the first time. They showed antifungal activities (1 < or = MIC80 < or = 16 microg mL(-1)). PMID:19806893

  8. New benzophenone and quercetin galloyl glycosides from Psidium guajava L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiichi Matsuzaki; Rie Ishii; Kaori Kobiyama; Susumu Kitanaka

    2010-01-01

    New benzophenone and flavonol galloyl glycosides were isolated from an 80% MeOH extract of Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) together with five known quercetin glycosides. The structures of the novel glycosides were elucidated to be\\u000a 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzophenone 4-O-(6?-O-galloyl)-?-d-glucopyranoside (1, guavinoside A), 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3,5-dimethylbenzophenone 4-O-(6?-O-galloyl)-?-d-glucopyranoside (2, guavinoside B), and quercetin 3-O-(5?-O-galloyl)-?-l-arabinofuranoside (3, guavinoside C) by NMR, MS, UV, and IR spectroscopies. Isolated phenolic glycosides

  9. On the molluscicidal activity of tannin containing plants.

    PubMed

    Schaufelberger, D; Hostettmann, K

    1983-06-01

    The aqueous and methanolic extracts of a series of typical tannin containing plants exhibit strong molluscicidal properties against the freshwater snail biomphalaria glabrata, which is the intermediate host of schistosomiasis. The crude extracts of Krameria triandra (Krameriaceae) and Arctostaphylos uvaursi (Ericaceae) were active at concentrations of 50 ppm. Hydrolyzable and condensed tannins are responsable for the molluscicidal activity. This report indicates a new class of plant derived compounds which may have important practical application for the control of schistosomiasis in endemic areas. PMID:17404963

  10. A chlorinated monoterpene ketone, acylated beta-sitosterol glycosides and a flavanone glycoside from Mentha longifolia (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Shaiq Ali, Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Ahmad, Waqar; Parvez, Masood; Yamdagni, Raghav

    2002-04-01

    Mentha longifolia (Lamiaceae), an aromatic herb yielded a new halogenated chloro-derivative of menthone (longifone), two new derivatives of beta-sitosterol glycoside (longiside-A and -B) and a new flavanone-glycoside (longitin). The beta-sitosterol and flavanone glycosides were purified as their acetate derivatives. Structures of all the isolated constituents were elucidated with the aid of HMBC techniques. However, the structure of longifone was also determined through X-ray crystallography. PMID:11937172

  11. Condensed tannin biosynthesis and polymerization synergistically condition carbon use, defense, sink strength and growth in Populus.

    PubMed

    Harding, Scott A; Xue, Liang-Jiao; Du, Lei; Nyamdari, Batbayar; Lindroth, Richard L; Sykes, Robert; Davis, Mark F; Tsai, Chung-Jui

    2014-11-01

    The partitioning of carbon for growth, storage and constitutive chemical defenses is widely framed in terms of a hypothetical sink-source differential that varies with nutrient supply. According to this framework, phenolics accrual is passive and occurs in source leaves when normal sink growth is not sustainable due to a nutrient limitation. In assessing this framework, we present gene and metabolite evidence that condensed tannin (CT) accrual is strongest in sink leaves and sequesters carbon in a way that impinges upon foliar sink strength and upon phenolic glycoside (PG) accrual in Populus. The work was based on two Populus fremontii?×?angustifolia backcross lines with contrasting rates of CT accrual and growth, and equally large foliar PG reserves. However, foliar PG accrual was developmentally delayed in the high-CT, slow-growth line (SG), and nitrogen-limitation led to increased foliar PG accrual only in the low-CT, fast-growth line (FG). Metabolite profiling of developing leaves indicated comparatively carbon-limited amino acid metabolism, depletion of several Krebs cycle intermediates and reduced organ sink strength in SG. Gene profiling indicated that CT synthesis decreased as leaves expanded and PGs increased. A most striking finding was that the nitrogenous monoamine phenylethylamine accumulated only in leaves of SG plants. The potential negative impact of CT hyper-accumulation on foliar sink strength, as well as a mechanism for phenylethylamine involvement in CT polymerization in Populus are discussed. Starch accrual in source leaves and CT accrual in sink leaves of SG may both contribute to the maintenance of a slow-growth phenotype suited to survival in nutrient-poor habitats. PMID:24336515

  12. The susceptibility of soil enzymes to inhibition by leaf litter tannins is dependent on the tannin chemistry, enzyme class and vegetation history.

    PubMed

    Triebwasser, Daniella J; Tharayil, Nishanth; Preston, Caroline M; Gerard, Patrick D

    2012-12-01

    By inhibiting soil enzymes, tannins play an important role in soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mineralization. The role of tannin chemistry in this inhibitory process, in conjunction with enzyme classes and isoforms, is less well understood. Here, we compared the inhibition efficiencies of mixed tannins (MTs, mostly limited to angiosperms) and condensed tannins (CTs, produced mostly by gymnosperms) against the potential activity of ?-glucosidase (BG), N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG), and peroxidase in two soils that differed in their vegetation histories. Compared with CTs, MTs exhibited 50% more inhibition of almond (Prunus dulcis) BG activity and greater inhibition of the potential NAG activity in the gymnosperm-acclimatized soils. CTs exhibited lower BG inhibition in the angiosperm-acclimated soils, whereas both types of tannins exhibited higher peroxidase inhibition in the angiosperm soils than in gymnosperm soils. At all of the tested tannin concentrations, irrespective of the tannin type and site history, the potential peroxidase activity was inhibited two-fold more than the hydrolase activity and was positively associated with the redox-buffering efficiency of tannins. Our finding that the inhibitory activities and mechanisms of MTs and CTs are dependent on the vegetative history and enzyme class is novel and furthers our understanding of the role of tannins and soil isoenzymes in decomposition. PMID:23025512

  13. Tannin concentration enhances seed caching by scatter-hoarding rodents: An experiment using artificial ‘seeds’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Jin

    2008-11-01

    Tannins are very common among plant seeds but their effects on the fate of seeds, for example, via mediation of the feeding preferences of scatter-hoarding rodents, are poorly understood. In this study, we created a series of artificial 'seeds' that only differed in tannin concentration and the type of tannin, and placed them in a pine forest in the Shangri-La Alpine Botanical Garden, Yunnan Province of China. Two rodent species ( Apodemus latronum and A. chevrieri) showed significant preferences for 'seeds' with different tannin concentrations. A significantly higher proportion of seeds with low tannin concentration were consumed in situ compared with seeds with a higher tannin concentration. Meanwhile, the tannin concentration was significantly positively correlated with the proportion of seeds cached. The different types of tannin (hydrolysable tannin vs condensed tannin) did not differ significantly in their effect on the proportion of seeds eaten in situ vs seeds cached. Tannin concentrations had no significant effect on the distance that cached seeds were carried, which suggests that rodents may respond to different seed traits in deciding whether or not to cache seeds and how far they will transport seeds.

  14. Response of ?? T cells to plant-derived tannins

    PubMed Central

    Holderness, Jeff; Hedges, Jodi F.; Daughenbaugh, Katie; Kimmel, Emily; Graff, Jill; Freedman, Brett; Jutila, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Many pharmaceutical drugs are isolated from plants used in traditional medicines. Through screening plant extracts, both traditional medicines and compound libraries, new pharmaceutical drugs continue to be identified. Currently, two plant-derived agonists for ?? T cells are described. These plant-derived agonists impart innate effector functions upon distinct ?? T cell subsets. Plant tannins represent one class of ?? T cell agonist and preferentially activate the mucosal population. Mucosal ?? T cells function to modulate tissue immune responses and induce epithelium repair. Select tannins, isolated from apple peel, rapidly induce immune gene transcription in ?? T cells, leading to cytokine production and increased responsiveness to secondary signals. Activity of these tannin preparations tracks to the procyanidin fraction, with the procyanidin trimer (C1) having the most robust activity defined to date. The response to the procyanidins is evolutionarily conserved in that responses are seen with human, bovine, and murine ?? T cells. Procyanidin-induced responses described in this review likely account for the expansion of mucosal ?? T cells seen in mice and rats fed soluble extracts of tannins. Procyanidins may represent a novel approach for treatment of tissue damage, chronic infection, and autoimmune therpies. PMID:19166386

  15. Methane emission by goats consuming different sources of condensed tannins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-four yearling Boer x Spanish wethers (7/8 Boer; initial body weight [BW] of 37.5 plus/minus 0.91 kg) were used to assess effects of different condensed tannin (CT) sources on methane emission. Diets were Kobe lespedeza (Lespedeza striata; K), K plus quebracho providing CT at 5% of dry matter...

  16. Technical Notes Determination of Condensed Tannin Monomers in

    E-print Network

    Hernes, Peter J.

    up of gallic acid or its derivatives often esterified to polyols such as glucose. The most common Gas Chromatography of Acid Depolymerization Extracts Peter J. Hernes*, and John I. Hedges School-level quantification of condensed tannin is described that uses acid depolymerization and carbocation capture

  17. Structural properties of colloidal complexes between condensed tannins and polysaccharide hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Carn, Florent; Guyot, Sylvain; Baron, Alain; Pérez, Javier; Buhler, Eric; Zanchi, Dražen

    2012-03-12

    Interactions of plant tannins with polysaccharide hyaluronan are studied by means of light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). In this paper, we show that (1) the tannin-polysaccharide complexes remain stable in colloidal suspension; (2) the masses and structures of colloidal tannin-polysaccharide objects depend on the tannin degree of polymerization; and (3) the densities of tannin-polysaccharide aggregates are about 7 times lower than the density of a single solvated polysaccharide molecule. Short tannins and polysaccharides are aggregated in loose oligomeric structures whose sizes are comparable to a single polysaccharide molecule. Tannins longer than 10 nm and polysaccharides are aggregated in larger microgel-like particles whose sizes exceed 200 nm. PMID:22304685

  18. Chromone glycosides and flavonoids from hypericum japonicum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing-Li Wu; Sheng-Ping Wang; Li-Jun Du; Shu-Ming Zhang; Jun-Shan Yang; Pei-Gen Xiao

    1998-01-01

    From the aerial parts of Hypericum japonicum, two novel chromone glycosides, 5, 7-dihydroxy-2-(1-methylpropyl) chromone-8-?-d-glucoside and 5, 7-dihydroxy-2-isopropylchromone-8-?-d-glucoside, and two new flavonoids, 7, 8-(2?, 2?-dimethylpyrano)-5, 3?, 4?-trihydroxy-3-mehoxyflavone and (2R, 3R) dihydroquercetin-3, 7-O-?-l-dirhamnoside were isolated together with nine known flavonoids. Their structures were deduced from spectroscopic and chemical evidence. Some of the compounds were found to exert an interesting coagulant activity in

  19. Flavonol glycosides of Warburgia ugandensis leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence O. Arot Manguro; Ivar Ugi; Peter Lemmen; Rudolf Hermann

    2003-01-01

    Four new flavonol glycosides: kaempferide 3-O-?-xylosyl (1?2)-?-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-?-rhamnoside-7,4?-di-O-?-galactoside, kaempferol 3,7,4?-tri-O-?-glucoside and quercetin 3-O-[?-rhamnosyl (1?6)] [?-glucosyl (1?2)]-?-glucoside-7-O-?-rhamnoside, were characterized from a methanolic leaf extract of Warburgia ugandensis. The known flavonols: kaempferol, kaempferol 3-rhamnoside, kaempferol 3-rutinoside, myricetin, quercetin 3-rhamnoside, kaempferol 3-arabinoside, quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin, kaempferol 3-rhamnoside-4?-galactoside, myricetin 3-galactoside and kaempferol 3-glucoside were also isolated. Structures were established by spectroscopic and chemical

  20. A new flavonoid glycoside from Vaccaria hispanica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haijiang; Wang, Kuiwu; Wu, Jie; Chen, Yao; He, Peipei

    2011-11-01

    A profiling analysis for the methanol extract of the seeds of Vaccaria hispanica (Mill.) Rauschert was performed using a HPLC-ESI-MS technique. Five compounds were identified according to their retention times, UV spectroscopic and MS features, and by comparison with literature data. Among them, a new flavonoid glycoside, named vaccarin H, was isolated and the structure determined by spectral and chemical analysis as isovitexin 2"-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-4'-O-(6"-O-dihydroferuloyl)-3-beta-glucopyranoside. PMID:22224271

  1. Glycosidic constituents from in vitro Anoectochilus formosanus.

    PubMed

    Du, X M; Sun, N Y; Irino, N; Shoyama, Y

    2000-11-01

    The glycosidic constituents of whole plants of Anoectochilus formosanus propagated by tissue culture were investigated. A new compound, 2-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxymethyl)-5-hydroxymethylfuran, along with the known compounds, 3-(R)-3-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxybutanolide (kinsenoside), 3-(R)-3-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-4-hydroxybutanoic acid, 1-O-isopropyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, (R)-(+)-3,4-dihydroxy-butanoic acid y-lactone, 4-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)benzyl alcohol, (6R,9S)-9-hydroxy-megastigma-4,7-dien-3-one-9-O-beta-glucopy ranoside, and corchoionoside C were isolated. PMID:11086921

  2. Sesquiterpenoid tropolone glycosides from Liriosma ovata.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Pawar, Rahul S; Grundel, Erich; Mazzola, Eugene P; Ridge, Clark D; Masaoka, Takashi; Le Grice, Stuart F J; Wilson, Jennifer; Beutler, John A; Krynitsky, Alexander J

    2015-02-27

    Two new sesquiterpenoid tropolone glycosides, liriosmasides A (1) and B (2), along with two known compounds, secoxyloganin and oplopanpheside C, were isolated from a methanol extract of the roots of Liriosma ovata. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR and by high-resolution mass spectrometry involving an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-orbital ion trap mass spectrometric (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap MS) method. Compound 1 showed weak inhibitory activity against HIV RNase H. PMID:25587934

  3. Triterpene glycosides from the cultures of Phytolacca americana.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Namikawa, Y; Tanaka, M; Fukuyama, Y

    2001-02-01

    A new triterpene glycoside I was isolated together with the five known triterpene glycosides 2-6 from the cultures of Phytolacca americana. The structure of 1 was elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison of its NMR data with those of 2-7 and chemical degradation. PMID:11217119

  4. Differential effects of quercetin glycosides on GABAC receptor channel activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Choi, Sun-Hye; Jung, Seok-Won; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Joon-Hee; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Pyo, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Quercetin, a representative flavonoid, is a compound of low molecular weight found in various colored plants and vegetables. Quercetin shows a wide range of neuropharmacological activities. In fact, quercetin naturally exists as monomer-(quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside) (Rham1), dimer-(Rutin), or trimer-glycosides [quercetin-3-(2(G)-rhamnosylrutinoside)] (Rham2) at carbon-3 in fruits and vegetables. The carbohydrate components are removed after ingestion into gastrointestinal systems. The role of the glycosides attached to quercetin in the regulation of ?-aminobutyric acid class C (GABAC) receptor channel activity has not been determined. In the present study, we examined the effects of quercetin glycosides on GABAC receptor channel activity by expressing human GABAC alone in Xenopus oocytes using a two-electrode voltage clamp technique and also compared the effects of quercetin glycosides with quercetin. We found that GABA-induced inward current (I GABA ) was inhibited by quercetin or quercetin glycosides. The inhibitory effects of quercetin and its glycosides on I GABA were concentration-dependent and reversible in the order of Rutin ? quercetin ? Rham 1 > Rham 2. The inhibitory effects of quercetin and its glycosides on I GABA were noncompetitive and membrane voltage-insensitive. These results indicate that quercetin and its glycosides regulate GABAC receptor channel activity through interaction with a different site from that of GABA, and that the number of carbohydrate attached to quercetin might play an important role in the regulation of GABAC receptor channel activity. PMID:24895146

  5. Quercetin glycosides from European aquatic Ranunculus species of subgenus Batrachium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Gluchoff-Fiasson; J. L. Fiasson; H. Waton

    1997-01-01

    A chemical investigation of the leaves of aquatic Ranunculus species yielded six quercetin glycosides and eight acylated quercetin glycosides, three of which are reported for the first time: quercetin 3-(6?-malonylglucoside)-7-glucoside and the partially characterized quercetin 3-caffeylsophoroside-7-caffeylglucoside and quercetin 3-caffeylsophoroside-7-ferulylglucoside. © 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved

  6. Acetylated flavanone glycosides from the rhizomes of Cyclosorus acuminatus.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei; Ruan, Jinlan; Wang, Zhong; Zhao, Zhongxiang; Zou, Jian; Zhou, Daonian; Cai, Yaling

    2006-11-01

    Six new flavanone glycosides (1-6) were isolated from the methanol extract of the rhizomes of Cyclosorus acuminatus, together with the parent flavanone glycoside 2a. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods. All compounds showed moderate activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. PMID:17125239

  7. Identification of natural epimeric flavanone glycosides by NMR spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Federica Maltese; Cornelis Erkelens; Frank van der Kooy; Young Hae Choi; Robert Verpoorte

    2009-01-01

    Recently advanced analytical technology has provided evidence of the existence of stereoisomers of many natural products. Particularly, flavanones which might have two different configurations at C-2 exist in many food additives, e.g., citrus fruits. In this study, the possible stereoisomers of flavanone glycosides were identified by NMR spectroscopy. Based on NMR spectra of common flavanone glycosides such as naringin, hesperidin,

  8. Flavonol glycosides from flowers of Crocus speciosus and C. antalyensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rikke Nørbæk; Tadao Kondo

    1999-01-01

    From the flower extracts of Crocus speciosus and C. antalyensis nine flavonol glycosides have been isolated. One of these products is a new flavonol glycoside identified as kaempferol 3-O-?-(2,3-di-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl)rhamnopyranoside by UV, mass and NMR spectroscopy.

  9. Cycloartane glycosides from the rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides.

    PubMed

    Yokosuka, Akihito; Sato, Koji; Mimaki, Yoshihiro

    2010-12-01

    Cycloartane glycosides (1-9) were isolated from rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides (Hypoxidaceae), and this structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis and a few chemical transformations. Cytotoxic activity of glycosides (1-9) and their common aglycone (1a) against HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells was also examined. PMID:20965526

  10. Rebaudioside, a novel agent of glycoside clathration of pharmacons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. G. Tolstikova; A. O. Bryzgalov; M. V. Khvostov; G. A. Tolstikov

    2009-01-01

    Glycyrrhizinic acid and stevioside, glycosides of higher terpenoids, are capable of in vivo formation of clathrates with pharmacons with various types of activity. This property of glycosides allows the effective dose to be substantially decreased (by a factor of 10? 100), with the basic activity being preserved and novel pharmacological effects appearing [1?6]. The plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is known

  11. HPLC determination of the flavonoid glycosides from Betulae folium extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. G. Pietta; P. L. Mauri; E. Manera; P. L. Ceva

    1989-01-01

    The main flavonoid glycosides ofBetulae folium extracts (quercetin-3-glucuronide, myricetin-3-galactoside, hyperosid, quercetin-3-arabinoside and quercetin-3-rhamnoside) have been separated by isocratic elution on a C18 Aquapore RP-300 column. Elution was performed with 17% isopropanol at pH 6.2 confirming the validity of this eluent for the analysis of the flavonoid glycosides.

  12. Studies on phytochemical constituents of six Malaysian medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tannins, phlobatannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides and alkaloids distribution in six Malaysian medicinal plants, where each medicinal plant belongs to different families were examined and compared. The plants used are Azadirachta indica, Centella asiatica, Emblica officinalis, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Imperata cylindrica, and Moringa oleifera. Qualitative analysis carried out on each plant shows that tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids and alkaloids were

  13. Cardiac Catheterization

    MedlinePLUS

    ... done during a cardiac catheterization include: closing small holes inside the heart repairing leaky or narrow heart ... bandage. It's normal for the site to be black and blue, red, or slightly swollen for a ...

  14. Cardiac Sarcoidosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... do at National Jewish Health? We provide comprehensive cardiology evaluation and consultation and non-invasive cardiac testing. ... the whole person, not just the disease. Our cardiology team works with healthcare providers from all areas ...

  15. Nuclear cardiac

    SciTech Connect

    Slutsky, R.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear medicine and cardiology has continued to produce a surfeit of interesting, illuminating, and important reports involving the analysis of cardiac function, perfusion, and metabolism. To simplify the presentation, this review is broken down into three major subheadings: analysis of myocardial perfusion; imaging of the recent myocardial infarction; and the evaluation of myocardial function. There appears to be an increasingly important relationship between cardiology, particularly cardiac physiology, and nuclear imaging techniques. (KRM)

  16. Determination of phenylethanoid glycosides and iridoid glycosides from therapeutically used Plantago species by CE-MEKC.

    PubMed

    Gonda, Sándor; Nguyen, Nhat Minh; Batta, Gyula; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Máthé, Csaba; Vasas, Gábor

    2013-09-01

    CE methods are valuable tools for medicinal plant quality management, screening, and analysis. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to optimize and validate a CE-MEKC method for simultaneous quantification of four chief bioactive metabolites from Plantago species. The two most important secondary metabolite groups were aimed to be separated. Different electrolyte and surfactant types were tested. Surfactant concentration, BGE pH, electrolyte concentration, and buffering capacity were optimized. The final BGE consisted of 15 mM sodium tetraborate, 20 mM TAPS, and 250 mM DOC at pH 8.50. Acceptable precision, good stability, and accuracy were achieved, with high resolution for phenylethanoid glycosides. Analytes were separated within 20 min. The method was shown to be suitable for the quantification of the iridoid glycosides aucubin and catalpol, and the phenylethanoid glycosides acteoside (verbascoside) and plantamajoside from water extracts of different samples. The method was shown to be applicable to leaf extracts of Plantago lanceolata, Plantago major, and Plantago asiatica, the main species with therapeutic applications, and a biotechnological product, plant tissue cultures (calli) of P. lanceolata. Baseline separation of the main constituents from minor peaks was achieved, regardless of the matrix type. PMID:23784714

  17. Spectrophotometric estimation of individual flavone glycosides in three Euphorbia species.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, N A; El-Sayed, M; Khafagy, S M

    1975-06-01

    Two spectrophotometric methods (conventional and differential) are carried out for the estimation of flavone glycosides (hyperoside and/or kaempferol-3-beta-glucoside) in Euphorbia paralias L., and Euphorbia helioscopia L. The glycosides are extracted with methanol from the aerial parts of the different Euphorbia species, separated on silica gel chromatoplates, and eluted by refluxing with methanol (80%). The absorbance value (conventional method) and the delta absorbance value (differential method) of the prepared glycosidal solutions are measured. The results of both methods are of conveinent reproducibility. PMID:1161795

  18. A new phenolic glycoside from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Junfen; Xue, Yongbo; Lai, Yongji; Yao, Guangmin; Luo, Zengwei; Zhang, Yonghui; Zhang, Jinwen

    2014-01-01

    A new phenolic glycoside (1), named methyl 2-phenylpropanoate-2-O-?-D-apiofuranosyl-(1?6)-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, was isolated from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia, along with three known phenolic glycosides and four known lignan glycosides. The structure of 1 was elucidated by extensive interpretation of spectroscopic data and chemical method. Selected compounds were evaluated for their immunosuppressive activities against murine lymphocytes. Compounds 1, 2, 6 and 8 exhibited differential inhibition against ConA-induced T cells proliferation. PMID:25365297

  19. Anticancer diarylheptanoid glycosides from the inner bark of Betula papyrifera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vakhtang Mshvildadze; Jean Legault; Serge Lavoie; Charles Gauthier; André Pichette

    2007-01-01

    Phytochemical investigations of the MeOH extract of Betula papyrifera inner bark led to the isolation of ten phenolic compounds of the following types: diarylheptanoid glycosides (1–4), a diarylheptanoid (5), a lignan (6), flavonoids (7–8) and chavicol glycosides (9–10). Among them, the diarylheptanoid glycoside, (S)-1,7-bis-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-heptan-3-one-5-O-?-l-arabinofuranosyl-(1?6)-?-d-glucopyranoside, papyriferoside A (1), was isolated and its structure was determined on the basis of 1D and

  20. Acylated phenolic glycosides from Solenostemma argel.

    PubMed

    Kamel, M S

    2003-04-01

    From the aerial parts of Solenostemma argel, four new acylated phenolic glycosides sinapyl alcohol 9-O-feruloyl-4-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranoside, solargin I (1), sinapyl alcohol 9-O-caffeoyl-4-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranoside, solargin II (2), sinapyl alcohol 9-O-feruloyl-4-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranoside, solargin III (3) and sinapyl alcohol 9-O-caffeoyl-4-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranoside, solargin IV (4) have been isolated. The structures of the isolated compounds were verified by means of MS and NMR spectral analyses. PMID:12648546

  1. New steroidal glycosides from Tribulus terrestris L.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Liu, Tao; Lu, Xuan; Wang, Hai-Feng; Hua, Hui-Ming; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2012-01-01

    Two new steroidal glycosides were isolated from Tribulus terrestris L. Their structures were elucidated as 26-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-5?-furostan-12-one-20(22)-ene-3?,23,26-triol-3-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-[?-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 ? 3)]-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)]-?-D-galactopyranoside (1) and 26-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-5?-furostan-20(22)-ene-3?,23,26-triol-3-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-[?-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 ? 3)]-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)]-?-D-galactopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR experiments. PMID:22694659

  2. Impact of condensed tannin size as individual and mixed polymers on bovine serum albumin precipitation.

    PubMed

    Harbertson, James F; Kilmister, Rachel L; Kelm, Mark A; Downey, Mark O

    2014-10-01

    Condensed tannins composed of epicatechin from monomer to octamer were isolated from cacao (Theobroma cacao, L.) seeds and added to bovine serum albumin (BSA) individually and combined as mixtures. When added to excess BSA the amount of tannin precipitated increased with tannin size. The amount of tannin required to precipitate BSA varied among the polymers with the trimer requiring the most to precipitate BSA (1000 ?g) and octamer the least (50 ?g). The efficacy of condensed tannins for protein precipitation increased with increased degree of polymerisation (or size) from trimers to octamers (monomers and dimers did not precipitate BSA), while mixtures of two sizes primarily had an additive effect. This study demonstrates that astringent perception is likely to increase with increasing polymer size. Further research to expand our understanding of astringent perception and its correlation with protein precipitation would benefit from sensory analysis of condensed tannins across a range of polymer sizes. PMID:24799203

  3. No major role for binding by salivary proteins as a defense against dietary tannins in Mediterranean goats.

    PubMed

    Hanovice-Ziony, Michal; Gollop, Nathan; Landau, Serge Yan; Ungar, Eugene David; Muklada, Hussein; Glasser, Tzach Aharon; Perevolotsky, Avi; Walker, John Withers

    2010-07-01

    We investigated whether Mediterranean goats use salivary tannin-binding proteins to cope with tannin-rich forages by determining the affinity of salivary or parotid gland proteins for tannic acid or quebracho tannin. Mixed saliva, sampled from the oral cavity, or parotid gland contents were compared to the intermediate affinity protein bovine serum albumin with a competitive binding assay. Goats that consume tannin-rich browse (Damascus) and goats that tend to avoid tannins (Mamber) were sequentially fed high (Pistacia lentiscus L.), low (vetch hay), or zero (wheat hay) tannin forages. Affinity of salivary proteins for tannins did not differ between goat breeds and did not respond to presence or absence of tannins in the diet. Proteins in mixed saliva had slightly higher affinity for tannins than those in parotid saliva, but neither source contained proteins with higher affinity for tannins than bovine serum albumin. Similarly, 3 months of browsing in a tannin-rich environment had little effect on the affinity of salivary proteins for tannin in adult goats of either breed. We sampled mixed saliva from young kids before they consumed forage and after 3 months of foraging in a tannin-rich environment. Before foraging, the saliva of Mamber kids had higher affinity for tannic acid (but not quebracho tannin) than the saliva of Damascus kids, but there was no difference after 3 months of exposure to tannin-rich browse, and the affinity of the proteins was always similar to the affinity of bovine serum albumin. Our results suggest there is not a major role for salivary tannin-binding proteins in goats. Different tendencies of goat breeds to consume tannin-rich browse does not appear be related to differences in salivary tannin-binding proteins. PMID:20559693

  4. Cardiac amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Kingman, A; Pereira, N L

    2001-05-01

    Cardiac amyloidosis should be considered in a patient with heart failure, who is normotensive with decreased left ventricular systolic function and marked left ventricular hypertrophy by echocardiogram and has decreased voltage by ECG. Furthermore, when the diagnosis of cardiac amyloid is made, it is important to classify the subtype of disease to be able to offer appropriate treatment. Contrary to traditional belief that the prognosis for patients with amyloidosis is dismal, some forms of this disease are curable and other forms are characterized by slow progression of disease. PMID:11381776

  5. Cardiac sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Smedema, J.P.; Zondervan, P.E.; van Hagen, P.; ten Cate, F.J.; Bresser, P.; Doubell, A.F.; Pattynama, P.; Hoogsteden, H.C.; Balk, A.H.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multi-system granulomatous disorder of unknown aetiology. Symptomatic cardiac involvement occurs in approximately 5% of patients. The prevalence of sarcoidosis in the Netherlands is unknown, but estimated to be approximately 20 per 100,000 population (3200 patients). We report on five patients who presented with different manifestations of cardiac sarcoidosis, and give a brief review on the current management of this condition. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can be of great help in diagnosing this condition as well as in the follow-up of the response to therapy. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:25696121

  6. Fast vs. slow-reacting non-modified tannin extracts for exterior particleboard adhesives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Pizzi; A. Stephanou

    1994-01-01

    Non-fortified, non-modified tannin extracts, rather than chemically-modified tannin adhesives intermediates, can be used as\\u000a effectively to produce excellent exterior grade particleoboard at fast pressing times of industrial singnificance, with considerable\\u000a advantages in both handling and cost. This can be achieved by simple pH-controlled reactivity adjustments of the tannin extract\\u000a in the glue mix. This new concept is shown to be

  7. Adsorption of Cu (II) from Aqueous Solutions by Sumac ( Rhus coriaria L.) Tannins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmet Lütfi U?ur; Mahmure Üstün Özgür; Gül?ah Gümrükçü

    In this study, a new natural adsorbent (sumac leaves) for removing Cu (II) ion from the aqueous solutions has been investigated.\\u000a Leaves of sumac were obtained from Siirt, Turkey. The tannins were extracted with acetone:water (70:30, v\\/v) mixture from\\u000a the leaves of sumac. For the total tannin determination Folin-Ciocalteu method was used and tannin content was found 27%.\\u000a In batch

  8. A new lathyrane diterpene glycoside from Euphorbia helioscopia L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Sheng Feng; Li Gao; Xiao Ke Zheng; Yan Zhi Wang; Hui Chen

    2010-01-01

    A new lathyrane diterpene glycoside, named 3?, 7?, 15?-trihydroxy-14-oxolathyra-5E, 12E-dienyl-16-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, was isolated from Euphorbia helioscopia L. Its structure was established by spectroscopic techniques including 2D NMR.

  9. A new aryl glycoside from Euphorbia helioscopia L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Sheng Feng; Li Gao; Xiao Ke Zheng; Yan Zhi Wang

    2009-01-01

    A new aryl glycoside, 3?-O-galloyl-benzyl-O-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-d-glucopyranoside, was isolated from Euphorbia helioscopia L., and its structure was elucidated on the basis of various spectroscopic data analysis.

  10. A novel flavone glycoside from the stem of Bauhinia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Yadava, R N; Tripathi, P

    2000-02-01

    A novel flavone glycoside, 5,6-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone 6-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside (1) was isolated from the chloroform-soluble fraction of the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea stems. PMID:11449482

  11. Flavonol glycosides from the flowers of Bellis perennis.

    PubMed

    Gudej, J; Nazaruk, J

    2001-11-01

    Three flavonol glycosides, isorhamnetin 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-beta-D-(6"-acetyl)-galactopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside were isolated from the flowers of Bellis perennis. PMID:11677029

  12. Flavonol glycosides from the flowers of Bellis perennis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Gudej; J Nazaruk

    2001-01-01

    Three flavonol glycosides, isorhamnetin 3-O-?-d-galactopyranoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-?-d-(6?-acetyl)-galactopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-?-d-glucopyranoside were isolated from the flowers of Bellis perennis.

  13. New phenylpropanoid glycosides from Juniperus communis var. depressa.

    PubMed

    Iida, Naoki; Inatomi, Yuka; Murata, Hiroko; Murata, Jin; Lang, Frank A; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Nakanishi, Tsutomu; Inada, Akira

    2010-05-01

    Two new phenylpropanoid glycosides were isolated from the leaves and stems of Juniperus communis var. depressa (Cupressaceae) along with 14 known compounds. Their structures were determined by spectral analyses, in particular by 2D-NMR spectral evidence. PMID:20460808

  14. Condensed Tannins from Ficus virens as Tyrosinase Inhibitors: Structure, Inhibitory Activity and Molecular Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Wei-Ming; Feng, Hui-Ling; Zhuang, Jiang-Xing; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2014-01-01

    Condensed tannins from Ficus virens leaves, fruit, and stem bark were isolated and their structures characterized by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The results showed that the leaves, fruit, and stem bark condensed tannins were complex mixtures of homo- and heteropolymers of B-type procyanidins and prodelphinidins with degrees of polymerization up to hexamer, dodecamer, and pentadecamer, respectively. Antityrosinase activities of the condensed tannins were studied. The results indicated that the condensed tannins were potent tyrosinase inhibitors. The concentrations for the leaves, fruit, and stem bark condensed tannins leading to 50% enzyme activity were determined to be 131.67, 99.89, and 106.22 ?g/ml on monophenolase activity, and 128.42, 43.07, and 74.27 ?g/ml on diphenolase activity. The inhibition mechanism, type, and constants of the condensed tannins on the diphenolase activity were further investigated. The results indicated that the condensed tannins were reversible and mixed type inhibitors. Fluorescence quenching, copper interacting, and molecular docking techniques were utilized to unravel the molecular mechanisms of the inhibition. The results showed that the hydroxyl group on the B ring of the condensed tannins could chelate the dicopper irons of the enzyme. Moreover, the condensed tannins could reduce the enzyme product o-quinones into colourless compounds. These results would contribute to the development and design of antityrosinase agents. PMID:24637701

  15. Effects of tannin source and concentration from tree leaves on two species of tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Earl, Julia E; Semlitsch, Raymond D

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation in and around freshwater ecosystems can affect aquatic organisms through the production of secondary compounds, which are retained in leaves after senescence and are biologically active. Tannins can be toxic to tadpoles, but the plant source of tannins and tannin concentration have been confounded in experimental designs in previous studies. To examine the effects of the concentration and source of tannins (tree species), we examined the effects of 4 factors on tadpole survival, growth, and development: tannin source (red oak [Quercus rubra], white oak [Quercus alba], or sugar maple [Acer saccharum]); tannin concentration (including a control); diet protein level; and tadpole species (American toad [Anaxyrus americanus] and spring peepers [Pseudacris crucifer]). Tannin source and concentration affected spring peeper survival, but American toads had uniformly high survival. Spring peepers had a lower survival rate in high tannin concentrations of oak leachate but a high survival rate in both concentrations of sugar maple leachate. These differences in survival did not correspond with changes in dissolved oxygen, and no effect of dietary protein level on tadpole performance was observed. The presence of plant leachate resulted in increased tadpole growth in both species, but the mechanism for this finding is unclear. The results of the present study show that tannin concentration and source are important factors for tadpole performance, adding further evidence that plant chemistry can affect aquatic organisms. PMID:25319714

  16. Synergistic inhibition of Haemonchus contortus exsheathment by flavonoid monomers and condensed tannins.

    PubMed

    Klongsiriwet, Chaweewan; Quijada, Jessica; Williams, Andrew R; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Williamson, Elizabeth M; Hoste, Hervé

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the separate and combined anthelmintic (AH) effects of different phenolic compounds, including condensed tannins and flavonoids, all of which are known to occur in willow leaves, a potentially valuable dry season feed. A range of contrasting model tannins, which span the whole range of willow tannins, were isolated from tilia flowers, goat willow leaves, black currant leaves and red currant leaves. All together, the tested compounds represented the major tannin types (procyanidins and prodelphinidins) and flavonoid types (flavonols, flavones and flavanones). The larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA) was used to assess their in vitro effects on Haemonchus contortus third stage larvae. Arbutin, vanillic acid, and taxifolin proved to be ineffective whereas naringenin, quercetin and luteolin were highly effective at 250 ?M concentrations. Procyanidin (PC) tannins tended to be less active than prodelphinidin tannins (PD). Experiments with combinations of tannins and quercetin or luteolin revealed for the first time the existence of synergistic AH effects between tannins and flavonoid monomers. They also provided evidence that synergistic effects appear to occur at slightly lower concentrations of PC than PD. This suggests that the AH activity of condensed tannins can be significantly enhanced by the addition of quercetin or luteolin. This information may prove useful for plant breeding or selection and for designing optimal feed mixtures. PMID:26199861

  17. Formation of vacuolar tannin deposits in the chlorophyllous organs of Tracheophyta: from shuttles to accretions.

    PubMed

    Brillouet, Jean-Marc; Romieu, Charles; Lartaud, Marc; Jublanc, Elodie; Torregrosa, Laurent; Cazevieille, Chantal

    2014-11-01

    Most Tracheophyta synthesize-condensed tannins (also called proanthocyanidins), polymers of catechins, which appear in the vacuole as uniformly stained deposits-termed tannin accretions-lining the inner face of the tonoplast. A large body of evidence argues that tannins are formed in recently described thylakoid-derived organelles, the tannosomes, which are packed in membrane-bound shuttles (Brillouet et al. 2013); it has been suggested that shuttles agglomerate into tannin accretions. The aim of the study was to describe the ontogenesis of tannin accretions in members of the Tracheophyta. For this purpose, fresh specimens of young tissues from diverse Tracheophyta were cut, gently lacerated in paraformaldehyde, and examined using light, epifluorescence, confocal, and transmission electron microscopy. Fresh samples were also incubated with gelatin-Oregon Green, a fluorescent marker of condensed tannins. Our observations showed that vacuolar accretions (1???40 ?m), that constitute the typical form of tannin storage in tannin-producing Tracheophyta, are formed by agglomeration (not fusion) of shuttles containing various proportions of chlorophylls and tannins. PMID:24692039

  18. Effects of tannins on digestion and detoxification activity in gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis).

    PubMed

    Chung-MacCoubrey, A L; Hagerman, A E; Kirkpatrick, R L

    1997-01-01

    Acorn tannins may affect food preferences and foraging strategies of squirrels through effects on acorn palatability and digestibility and squirrel physiology. Captive eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) were fed 100% red oak (Quercus rubra) or white oak (Quercus alba) acorn diets to determine effects on intake, digestion, and detoxification activity. Red oak acorns had higher phenol and tannin levels, which may explain the lower dry matter intakes and apparent protein digestibilities and the higher glucuronidation activities observed in squirrels. Although the white oak acorn diet had lower apparent protein digestibilities than the reference diet, it did not suppress dry matter intake for a prolonged period or stimulate glucuronidation. Negative physiological effects of a 100% red oak acorn diet suggest gray squirrels may require other foods to dilute tannin intake and provide additional nutrients. To distinguish the roles of different tannin types in the observed effects of acorn diets on squirrels, squirrels were fed rat chow containing no tannins, 4% or 8% tannic acid (hydrolyzable tannin), or 3% or 6% quebracho (condensed tannin). Apparent protein digestibilities were reduced by tannic acid and quebracho diets. Only the 8% tannic acid diet tended to increase glucuronidation. Specific effects of tannins may largely depend on tannin type, composition, and source and on other nutritional and physiological factors. PMID:9231400

  19. Synergistic inhibition of Haemonchus contortus exsheathment by flavonoid monomers and condensed tannins

    PubMed Central

    Klongsiriwet, Chaweewan; Quijada, Jessica; Williams, Andrew R.; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Williamson, Elizabeth M.; Hoste, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the separate and combined anthelmintic (AH) effects of different phenolic compounds, including condensed tannins and flavonoids, all of which are known to occur in willow leaves, a potentially valuable dry season feed. A range of contrasting model tannins, which span the whole range of willow tannins, were isolated from tilia flowers, goat willow leaves, black currant leaves and red currant leaves. All together, the tested compounds represented the major tannin types (procyanidins and prodelphinidins) and flavonoid types (flavonols, flavones and flavanones). The larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA) was used to assess their in vitro effects on Haemonchus contortus third stage larvae. Arbutin, vanillic acid, and taxifolin proved to be ineffective whereas naringenin, quercetin and luteolin were highly effective at 250 ?M concentrations. Procyanidin (PC) tannins tended to be less active than prodelphinidin tannins (PD). Experiments with combinations of tannins and quercetin or luteolin revealed for the first time the existence of synergistic AH effects between tannins and flavonoid monomers. They also provided evidence that synergistic effects appear to occur at slightly lower concentrations of PC than PD. This suggests that the AH activity of condensed tannins can be significantly enhanced by the addition of quercetin or luteolin. This information may prove useful for plant breeding or selection and for designing optimal feed mixtures. PMID:26199861

  20. Three New Steroidal Glycosides from the Roots of Cynanchum stauntonii

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jin-Qian; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Deng, An-Jun; Qin, Hai-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Three new steroidal glycosides, named as stauntosides L, M, and N (1–3), along with one known C21 steroidal glycoside, anhydrohirundigenin monothevetoside (4), were isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of the roots of Cynanchum stauntonii. The structures of these new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses, mainly 1D and 2D NMR, HRESI-MS, and chemical methods. PMID:23555098

  1. Furostanol glycosides from the rhizomes of Helleborus orientalis.

    PubMed

    Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Matsuo, Yukiko; Watanabe, Kazuki; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2010-10-01

    Eight new furostanol glycosides (1-8), together with two known ones (9 and 10), have been isolated from a glycoside-enriched fraction prepared from the rhizomes of Helleborus orientalis (Ranunculaceae). The structures of 1-8 were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR, and the results of hydrolytic cleavage. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against HSC-2 cells. PMID:20563660

  2. Cytotoxic Flavonoid Glycosides from Rapistrum rugosum L.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Al-Taweel, Areej; Ahmed Fawzy, Ghada; Perveen, Shagufta

    2012-01-01

    Five flavonoid glycosides were isolated from the n-butanol soluble fraction of the ethanolic extract of Rapistrum rugosum and their structures were assigned from (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectra (DEPT) with 2D NMR as quercetin-3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (1), quercetin-3-O- ?-D-xyloside (2), quercetin, 3-O-?-L-arabinopyranoside,7-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (3), kaempferol 3-O-?-L-arabinopyranoside, 7-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (4) and rutin (5). The SRB cytotoxic assay was used to investigate the antitumor activities of n-butanol extract, compound 3 and its hexaacetate 3a, for the first time. Compounds 3 and 3a showed cytotoxic activity against the human cancer cell line, namely, HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma cell line) with IC50 (concentration of compound required to reduce cell survival by 50%) 0.86 ?g/mL and 3.50 ?g/mL, respectively. These results proved that compound 3, the major flavonoid of the n-butanol soluble fraction, has significant cytotoxic activity compared with the standard antitumor drug doxorubicin (0.60 ?g/mL). PMID:24250510

  3. Four new glycosides from Pleurospermum franchetianum.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ying-Gang; Li, Bo-Gang; Zhang, Guo-Lin

    2002-06-01

    Four new glycosides, pleurofranosides I-IV, together with eight known compounds were isolated from the whole plants of Pleurospermum franchetianum Hemsl. Based on the spectral data and chemical evidence, the structures of pleurofranosides 1, II, III and IV were elucidated to be 16beta, 21beta, 23, 28-tetrahydroxyolean-12-ene-3beta-yl-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 13beta, 28-epoxy-16beta, 23-dihydroxyolean-11-ene-3beta-yl-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)]-beta-D-fucopyranoside, 13beta, 28-epoxy-16beta, 23-dihydroxyolean-11-ene-3beta-yl-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-[beta-D-fucopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside and 12beta, 28-epoxy-16beta, 23-dihydroxyolean-11-ene-3beta-yl-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside. The known compounds identified were octadecyl caprate, beta-sitosterol, (22E, 20S, 24R)-5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxy-ergosta-6, 22-dien-3-beta-ol, daucosterol, alpha-spinasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin-3, 7-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3, 7-di-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside and kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside, respectively. PMID:12067162

  4. Cardiac Arrhythmias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Bonney; Ra-id Abdulla

    \\u000a An initial and crucial step in managing any child with a cardiac arrhythmia is to determine the hemodynamic stability of the\\u000a child. A healthy pink color of skin\\/mucosa, brisk capillary refill, good peripheral pulses, normal blood pressure, and absence\\u000a of respiratory distress are all reassuring signs that the hemodynamic status of the child is normal or near normal. Stable\\u000a hemodynamics

  5. Glycosidic inhibitors of melanogenesis from leaves of Passiflora edulis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Koike, Ryosuke; Yamamoto, Ayako; Ukiya, Motohiko; Fukatsu, Makoto; Banno, Norihiro; Miura, Motofumi; Motohashi, Shigeyasu; Tokuda, Harukuni; Akihisa, Toshihiro

    2013-10-01

    A new flavonoid glycoside, chrysin 6-C-?-rutinoside (chrysin ?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?6)-C-?-glucopyranoside; 2), and two new triterpene glycosides, (31R)-31-O-methylpassiflorine (7) and (31S)-31-O-methylpassiflorine (8), along with 14 known glycosides, including three flavonoid glycosides, 1, 3, and 4, six triterpene glycosides, 5, 6, and 9-12, three cyano glycosides, 13-15, and two other glycosides, 16 and 17, were isolated from a MeOH extract of the leaves of Passiflora edulis (passion flower; Passifloraceae). The structures of new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. Upon evaluation of compounds 1-17 against the melanogenesis in the B16 melanoma cells induced with ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH), three compounds, isoorientin (1), 2, and (6S,9R)-roseoside (17), exhibited inhibitory effects with 37.3-47.2% reduction of melanin content with no, or almost no, toxicity to the cells (90.8-100.2% cell viability) at 100??M. Western blot analysis showed that compound 2 reduced the protein levels of MITF, TRP-1, and tyrosinase, in a concentration-dependent manner while exerted almost no influence on the level of TRP-2, suggesting that this compound inhibits melanogenesis on the ?-MSH-stimulated B16 melanoma cells by, at least in part, inhibiting the expression of MITF, followed by decreasing the expression of TRP-1 and tyrosinase. In addition, compounds 1-17 were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against the Epstein?Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells. PMID:24130028

  6. Effects of Condensed Tannins on Endoglucanase Activity and Filter Paper Digestion by Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 †

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hee Dong; McAllister, Tim A.; Yanke, Jay; Cheng, K.-J.; Muir, A. D.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of condensed tannins from birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) on the cellulolytic rumen bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 was examined. Condensed tannins inhibited endoglucanase activity in the extracellular culture fluid, at concentrations as low as 25 ?g ml-1. In contrast, cell-associated endoglucanase activity increased in concentrations of condensed tannins between 100 and 300 ?g ml-1. Inhibition of endoglucanase activity in both the extracellular and the cell-associated fractions was virtually complete at 400 ?g of condensed tannins ml-1. Despite the sharp decline in extracellular endoglucanase activity with increasing concentrations of condensed tannins, filter paper digestion declined only moderately between 0 and 200 ?g of condensed tannins ml-1. However, at 300 ?g ml-1, filter paper digestion was dramatically reduced and at 400 ?g ml-1, almost no filter paper was digested. F. succinogenes S85 was seen to form digestive grooves on the surface of cellulose, and at 200 ?g ml-1, digestive pits were formed which penetrated into the interior of cellulose fibers. Cells grown with condensed tannins (100 to 300 ?g ml-1) possessed large amounts of surface material, and although this material may have been capsular carbohydrate, its osmiophilic nature suggested that it had arisen from the formation of tannin-protein complexes on the cell surface. The presence of electron-dense extracellular material suggested that similar complexes were formed with extracellular protein. Images PMID:16348990

  7. Tannins — a dietary problem for hand-reared grey partridge Perdix perdix after release?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tuija Liukkonen-Anttila; Airi Kentala; Raimo Hissa

    2001-01-01

    A 4-week feeding trial on 22 grey partridges Perdix perdix was conducted in this study. Seven birds were fed commercial poultry food, seven natural food and eight commercial poultry food containing 6% of quebracho–tannin. Our results suggest that 6% dietary tannin, when added to a commercial food with high protein content, effects the grey partridge only slightly. No difference was

  8. Condensed tannins deter feeding by browsing ruminants in a South African savanna

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Cooper; N. Owen-Smith

    1985-01-01

    The palatability of 14 species of woody plant was assessed for three species of browsing ruminant, namely kudus, impalas and goats. Results show that palatability was most clearly related to leaf contents of condensed tannins. The effect was a threshold one, with all plants containing more than 5% condensed tannins being rejected as food during the wet season period. In

  9. Degradation of tannins in spent coffee grounds by Pleurotus sajor-caju

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y.-S. Wong; X. Wang

    1991-01-01

    Pleurotus sajor-caju PL27, a white rot fungus, degraded up to 87% of the tannins in spent coffee grounds as a solid substrate over 32 days. Degradation of tannins was enhanced if potato and dextrose were included. The potential nutritive value of the substrate as animal feed may be improved by this process.

  10. Polyflavonoid tannins — a main cause of soft-rot failure in CCA-treated timber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Pizzi; A. Jansen

    1986-01-01

    Polyflavonoid tannins are proven to be fast-reacting with CCA solutions and hence, to be strong competitors of the structural wood constituents for fixation of CCA preservatives. The consequence of this effect is that even relatively small amounts of tannin cause severe undertreatment of the structural wood constituents which in turn badly affects the long term durability of CCA treated timber.

  11. A critical analysis of techniques for measuring tannins in ecological studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Mole; P. G. Waterman

    1987-01-01

    A series of seventeen plant extracts rich in phenolic materials, including condensed and hydrolysable tannins, have been subjected to a series of chemical analyses in an attempt to gather ecologically significant information about their structure. Procedures investigated were (i) the Folin-Denis and Hagerman and Butler methods for quantifying total phenolics, (ii) the vanillin and proanthocyanidin methods for quantifying condensed tannins,

  12. SORPTION OF TANNIN AND RELATED PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AND EFFECTS ON SOLUBLE-N IN SOIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some tannins, plant-derived polyphenolic compounds, can rapidly affix to soil and affect the solubility of labile soil-N but a more complete understanding of the nature and persistence of tannin-soil interactions is needed. Forest and pasture soils from two depths were treated for 1 h with cool (23...

  13. Combining ability for condensed tannin concentration among five cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genotypes

    E-print Network

    Altamarino, Teresita Protacio

    1989-01-01

    og d' Soh h), d Pld 't (ddt ~~h urticae Koch. ). This study was conducted to determine combining ability for condensed tannins among five cotton genotypes and to determine the correlation of tannin concentration with Helio~ larval growth rates. A...

  14. High-throughput micro plate vanillin assay for determination of tannin in sorghum grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum tannins are phenolic compounds that offer health promoting antioxidant properties. The conventional HCl-vanillin assay for determining tannin content is a time-consuming method for screening large sample sets as seen in association mapping panels or breeder nursery samples. The objective of ...

  15. The Evaluation of High Tannin Cotton Lines for Resistance to Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium aphanidermatum 

    E-print Network

    Kennett, Raymond Matthew

    2011-02-22

    to the resistant control, Tamcot Sphinx (El-Zik and Thaxton, 1996). This resistance was not shown to be correlated with tannin content, though it is still unclear whether or not this lack of correlation is real or due to limitations in measuring tannin in infected...

  16. Influence of high tannin grain sorghum on gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that condensed tannin-rich forages such as sericea lespedeza can control gastrointestinal nematode infection (GIN) in goats. The objective of three experiments (EXP) was to determine the influence of high tannin grain sorghum on GIN in goats. Naturally infected B...

  17. TANNIN-CONTAINING ALFALFA: A WAY TO IMPROVE NITROGEN-USE AND PROFITABILITY OF DAIRY FARMS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Binding of condensed tannins to protein can prevent excessive proteolysis in forages during ensiling, ruminal digestion, and decay of residues in soil. Plant breeding and biotechnology efforts are underway in the U.S. and abroad to develop alfalfa and other forages with adequate levels of tannin for...

  18. INCIDENCE OF THE TREATMENT WITH OENOLOGICAL TANNINS ON THE RED WINES' SENSORIAL PROFILE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CROITORU CONSTANTIN; DEACONU LORENA; Cramele Halewood; CODRESI CRISTIAN; HORTOLOMEI GINA

    Comparative experiments were done in order to study the influence of the treatment with various types of tannins of the latest generation on the red wines sensorial profile. It was noticed that the treatment with proanthocyanidolic tannins from grapes (seeds and skins) and from wood (oak) changes the sensorial profile of treated wines in a favourable manner, to the effect

  19. Isolation and Characterization of Proteolytic Ruminal Bacteria from Sheep and Goats Fed the Tannin-Containing Shrub Legume Calliandra calothyrsus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTOPHER S. MCSWEENEY; BRIAN PALMER; ROWAN BUNCH; DENIS O. KRAUSE

    1999-01-01

    Tannins in forages complex with protein and reduce the availability of nitrogen to ruminants. Ruminal bacteria that ferment protein or peptides in the presence of tannins may benefit digestion of these diets. Bacteria from the rumina of sheep and goats fed Calliandra calothyrsus (3.6% N and 6% condensed tannin) were isolated on proteinaceous agar medium overlaid with either condensed (calliandra

  20. Tannin-binding proteins in saliva of deer and their absence in saliva of sheep and cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Austin; Lisa A. Suchar; Charles T. Robbins; Ann E. Hagerman

    1989-01-01

    A method has been developed for detecting tannin-binding proteins in the saliva of herbivores. The method is simple and requires only small quantities of crude saliva. The saliva of deer, a browsing ruminant, has been compared to that of domestic sheep and cow, which are grazing ruminants. The browser, which normally ingests dietary tannin, produces tannin-binding proteins, while the grazers

  1. Anti-inflammatory actions of tannins isolated from the bark of Anacardium occidentale L.

    PubMed

    Mota, M L; Thomas, G; Barbosa Filho, J M

    1985-07-01

    A mixture of tannins (hydrolysable and non-hydrolysable) obtained from the bark of Anacardium occidentale L., on i.p. injection, demonstrated apparent anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan- and dextran-induced rat paw oedemas, cotton pellet granuloma test and adjuvant-induced polyarthritis in rats. At higher doses orally administered tannins also had activity in carrageenan paw oedema and adjuvant arthritis experiments. The tannins i.p. also inhibited acetic acid-induced "writhing responses" in mice and were found to antagonise the permeability-increasing effects in rats of certain mediators of inflammation and to inhibit the migration of leucocytes to an inflammatory site. While not appearing to act by the release of adrenal hormones, tannins may produce effects in a non-specific manner by their astringent properties on cell membranes thus affecting cell functions. The above results should be considered while studying the anti-inflammatory actions of plant extracts which contain tannins. PMID:2414605

  2. ISOFLAVONE CONJUGATES AND MINOR GLYCOSIDES EXTRACTED FROM PEANUT HEARTS USING HPLC-MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High performance liquid chromatography and electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI) was used to characterize isoflavone glycosidic conjugates and minor glycosides extracted from peanut meal. The selected extraction method combined the removal of isoflavones and their conjugates with an alcoholic solvent...

  3. A new acylated flavonol glycoside from the leaves of Eriobotrya japonica.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Nobuo; Satake, Motoyoshi; Goda, Yukihiro

    2002-12-01

    A new acylated flavonol glycoside was isolated from the leaves of Eriobotrya japonica along with two known flavonol glycosides. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic investigation. PMID:12499604

  4. Nickel-catalyzed proton-deuterium exchange (HDX) procedures for glycosidic linkage analysis of complex carbohydrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The structural analysis of complex carbohydrates typically requires the assignment of three parameters: monosaccharide composition, the position of glycosidic linkages between monosaccharides, and the position and nature of non-carbohydrate substituents. The glycosidic linkage positions are often de...

  5. Glycosidic Bond Cleavage is Not Required for Phytosteryl Glycoside-Induced Reduction of Cholesterol Absorption in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Moreau, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Phytosteryl glycosides occur in natural foods but little is known about their metabolism and bioactivity. Purified acylated steryl glycosides (ASG) were compared with phytosteryl esters (PSE) in mice. Animals on a phytosterol-free diet received ASG or PSE by gavage in purified soybean oil along with tracers cholesterol-d7 and sitostanol-d4. In a three-day fecal recovery study, ASG reduced cholesterol absorption efficiency by 45 ± 6% compared with 40 ± 6% observed with PSE. Four hours after gavage, plasma and liver cholesterol-d7 levels were reduced 86% or more when ASG was present. Liver total phytosterols were unchanged after ASG administration but were significantly increased after PSE. After ASG treatment both ASG and deacylated steryl glycosides (SG) were found in the gut mucosa and lumen. ASG was quantitatively recovered from stool samples as SG. These results demonstrate that ASG reduces cholesterol absorption in mice as efficiently as PSE while having little systemic absorption itself. Cleavage of the glycosidic linkage is not required for biological activity of ASG. Phytosteryl glycosides should be included in measurements of bioactive phytosterols. PMID:21538209

  6. Two new flavonol glycosides from Dimocarpus longan leaves.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yongmei; Wang, Wenjing; Liu, Yujiao; Zhan, Rui; Chen, Yegao

    2015-01-01

    From the extracts of Dimocarpus longan Lour leaves, 2 unusual flavonol glycosides, quercetin 3-O-(3?-O-2?-methyl-2?-hydroxylethyl)-?-D-xyloside (1) and quercetin 3-O-(3?-O-2?-methyl-2?-hydroxylethyl)-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (2), as well as 10 known compounds including 2 flavonol glycosides, afzelin (3) and kaempferol-3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (4), 2 flavans, (-)-epicatechin (5) and proanthocyanidin A-2 (6), 3 triterpenoids, friedelin (7), epifriedelanol (8) and ?-amyrin (9), a peptide, N-benzoylphenylalanyl-N-benzoylphenylalaninate (10), and 2 sterols, ?-sitosterol (11) and daucosterol (12) were isolated and identified by using combination of mass spectrometry and various 1D and 2D NMR techniques. This is the first report of flavonoid glycosides possessing a 2-methyl-2-hydroxylethoxyl group in sugar moiety from D. longan. PMID:25325562

  7. Anticancer diarylheptanoid glycosides from the inner bark of Betula papyrifera.

    PubMed

    Mshvildadze, Vakhtang; Legault, Jean; Lavoie, Serge; Gauthier, Charles; Pichette, André

    2007-10-01

    Phytochemical investigations of the MeOH extract of Betula papyrifera inner bark led to the isolation of ten phenolic compounds of the following types: diarylheptanoid glycosides (1-4), a diarylheptanoid (5), a lignan (6), flavonoids (7-8) and chavicol glycosides (9-10). Among them, the diarylheptanoid glycoside, (S)-1,7-bis-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-heptan-3-one-5-O-alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, papyriferoside A (1), was isolated and its structure was determined on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, HPLC-MS, as well as high resolution mass spectroscopic data. Platyphylloside (4) exerted the strongest cytotoxic activity of all isolated compounds with IC(50) values ranging from 10.3 to 13.8 microM. PMID:17599372

  8. Kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis of flavonoid glycosides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Alaniya

    1977-01-01

    Summary  1. In a study of the kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis of flavone glycosides it has been found that derivatives of 3,3?,4?,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone\\u000a hydrolyze faster than derivatives of 3,4?,5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone and of 3,4?,5,7-tetrahydroxy-3?-methoxyflavone.\\u000a \\u000a 2. In the hydrolysis of diglycosides of 3,3?,4?,5,7-pentahydroxyflavones the maximum amount of intermediate product is formed\\u000a after 2 min (3,4?,5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone glycoside), and in the case of 3,4?,5,7-tetrahydroxy-3?-methoxyflavone glycosides\\u000a after

  9. Synthesis and photosensitivity of isoxazolin-5-one glycosides.

    PubMed

    Becker, Tobias; Kartikeya, Prashant; Paetz, Christian; von Reuss, Stephan H; Boland, Wilhelm

    2015-04-01

    A novel procedure for the synthesis of isoxazolin-5-one glycosides starting from unprotected carbohydrates is described. The substrate scope of the one-pot synthetic protocol was explored using D-configured glucose, xylose, maltose, fructose, ribose and 2-deoxyribose. Naturally occurring 2-(?-D-glucopyranosyl)-3-isoxazolin-5-one and four novel isoxazolin-5-one glycosides derived from xylose, maltose and fructose were synthesized and purified by flash chromatography. The compounds were characterized in terms of chemical structure, photophysical properties as well as pH stability. The photohydrolysis rates of the synthesized glycosides were compared with uridine as a standard to determine the quantum yields for the photoreactions in water. PMID:25723136

  10. Differential Expression of Two Distinct Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase Genes in Condensed Tannin-Accumulating and Lignifying Cells of Quaking Aspen

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Yu-Ying; Harding, Scott A.; Tsai, Chung-Jui

    2002-01-01

    Lignins, along with condensed tannins (CTs) and salicylate-derived phenolic glycosides, constitute potentially large phenylpropanoid carbon sinks in tissues of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.). Metabolic commitment to each of these sinks varies during development and adaptation, and depends on l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), an enzyme catalyzing the deamination of l-phenylalanine to initiate phenylpropanoid metabolism. In Populus spp., PAL is encoded by multiple genes whose expression has been associated with lignification in primary and secondary tissues. We now report cloning two differentially expressed PAL cDNAs that exhibit distinct spatial associations with CT and lignin biosynthesis in developing shoot and root tissues of aspen. PtPAL1 was expressed in certain CT-accumulating, non-lignifying cells of stems, leaves, and roots, and the pattern of PtPAL1 expression varied coordinately with that of CT accumulation along the primary to secondary growth transition in stems. PtPAL2 was expressed in heavily lignified structural cells of shoots, but was also expressed in non-lignifying cells of root tips. Evidence of a role for Pt4CL2, encoding 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase, in determining CT sink strength was gained from cellular co-expression analysis with PAL1 and CTs, and from experiments in which leaf wounding increased PAL1 and 4CL2 expression as well as the relative allocation of carbon to CT with respect to phenolic glycoside, the dominant phenolic sink in aspen leaves. Leaf wounding also increased PAL2 and lignin pathway gene expression, but to a smaller extent. The absence of PAL2 in most CT-accumulating cells provides in situ support for the idea that PAL isoforms function in specific metabolic milieus. PMID:12376645

  11. The identification of flavonoids as glycosides in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Paganga, G; Rice-Evans, C A

    1997-01-13

    This study describes evidence for the absorption of flavonoids and their presence in human plasma in the glycosylated form by HPLC analysis with photodiode array detection. Rutin and other quercetin glycosides, phloridzin, as well as an anthocyanin are detected simultaneously. In addition, a compound eluting with the spectral properties of the aurone family is identified. The results reveal that phloretin and quercetin are absorbed from the diet as glycosides. The polyphenols are detected in plasma from non-supplemented humans at individual levels in the range 0.5-1.6 microM. PMID:9003810

  12. New flavonol glycosides from the leaves of Caragana brachyantha.

    PubMed

    Perveen, Shagufta; Al-Taweel, Areej Mohammad; Al-Musayeib, Nawal; Fawzy, Ghada Ahmed; Khan, Afsar; Mehmood, Rashad; Malik, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Two new flavonol glycosides, brachysides C and D, together with three known flavonol glycosides, were isolated from the leaves of Caragana brachyantha. The structures of brachysides C and D were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis as quercetin 5-O-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 6)-?-D-glucopyranoside]-7-O-[?-L-rhamnopyranoside] and quercetin 5-O-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 6)-?-D-glucopyranoside]-7-O-[?-L-rhamnopyranoside]-4'-O-[?-L-rhamnopyranoside], respectively. The presence of flavonol tetra- and triglycosides bearing a sugar moiety at position 5 was the first report from this genus Caragana. PMID:25422102

  13. A new biologically active flavonol glycoside from Psoralea corylifolia (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Yadava, R N; Verma, Vikash

    2005-08-01

    A new biologically active flavonol glycoside (1) mp 264-265 degrees C, C32H38O20, [M]+ 742 (EIMS) has been isolated from the methanol-soluble fraction of the defatted seeds of Psoralea corylifolia (Linn.). It was characterised as the new flavonol glycoside 3,5,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-7-methoxyflavone-3'-O-alpha-L-xylopyranosyl(1-->3)-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl(1-->4)-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside by several colour reactions, spectral analysis and chemical degradations. Compound 1 showed anti-microbial activity against various bacteria and fungi. PMID:16087643

  14. Flavonoid glycosides of the black locust tree, Robinia pseudoacacia (Leguminosae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nigel C. Veitch; Peter C. Elliott; Geoffrey C. Kite; Gwilym P. Lewis

    2010-01-01

    Four flavone glycosides isolated from extracts of the leaves of Robinia pseudoacacia (Leguminosae) were characterised by spectroscopic and chemical methods as the 7-O-?-d-glucuronopyranosyl-(1?2)[?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?6)]-?-d-glucopyranosides of acacetin (5,7-dihydroxy-4?-methoxyflavone), apigenin (5,7,4?-trihydroxyflavone), diosmetin (5,7,3?-trihydroxy-4?-methoxyflavone) and luteolin (5,7,3?,4?-tetrahydroxyflavone). Assignment of glycosidic 1H and 13C resonances in their NMR spectra was facilitated by 2JHC correlations detected using the H2BC (heteronuclear two-bond correlation) pulse sequence. Spectroscopic analysis

  15. Five naphthalene glycosides from the roots of Rumex patientia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ömür Demirezer; Ay?e Kuruüzüm; Isabelle Bergere; H.-J Schiewe; Axel Zeeck

    2001-01-01

    Three novel and two known naphthalene glycosides were isolated from the roots of Rumex patientia L. (Polygonaceae). The structures of the new compounds were established, respectively as 2-acetyl-3-methyl-6-carboxy-1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene-8-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, 4,4?-binaphthalene-8,8?-O,O-di-?-d-glucopyranoside and 2-acetyl-3-methyl-1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene-8-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl (1?3) ?-d-glucopyranoside on the basis of spectral analysis. The other napthalene glycosides were determined as nepodin-8-O-?-d-glucopyranoside and torachrysone-8-O-?-d-glucopyranoside by comparison of their spectral data with those previously reported.

  16. Bufadienolide and spirostanol glycosides from the rhizomes of helleborusorientalis.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuki; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Sashida, Yutaka

    2003-02-01

    The rhizomes of Helleborus orientalis have been analyzed for the bufadienolide glycoside and spirostanol saponin constituents, resulting in the isolation of a new bufadienolide rhamnoside (1), along with two known bufadienolide glycosides (2 and 3) and five new spirostanol saponins (4-8). The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR, and the results of hydrolytic cleavage. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against cultured tumor and normal cells. PMID:12608856

  17. Caucasicosides E-M, furostanol glycosides from Helleborus caucasicus.

    PubMed

    Muzashvili, Tamar; Perrone, Angela; Napolitano, Assunta; Kemertelidze, Ether; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2011-12-01

    Nine furostanol glycosides, namely caucasicosides E-M, were isolated from the MeOH extract of the leaves of Helleborus caucasicus, along with 11 known compounds including nine furostanol glycosides, a bufadienolide and an ecdysteroid. Their structures were established by the extensive use of 1D and 2D NMR experiments along with ESIMS(n) analyses. The steroidal composition of leaves of H. caucasicus shows as particular feature the occurrence of steroidal compounds belonging to the 5? series, unusual for Helleborus species, and in particular, caucasicosides F-H are based on a 5?-polyhydroxylated steroidal aglycon never reported before. PMID:21893324

  18. Antioxidant status of faeces of captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in relation to dietary tannin supplementation.

    PubMed

    Clauss, M; Pellegrini, N; Castell, J C; Kienzle, E; Dierenfeld, E S; Hummel, J; Flach, E J; Streich, W J; Hatt, J-M

    2006-08-01

    In context with the frequent observations of excessive iron (Fe) storage in captive black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis), it has been suggested that both an excessive dietary Fe content and a lack of dietary Fe-chelating substances, such as tannins, is the underlying cause. Therefore, studies on the effects of tannin supplementation to captive diet are warranted. Six captive rhinoceroses were fed their normal zoo diet (N), and a similar diet supplemented with either tannic acid (T, hydrolysable tannin) or quebracho (Q, condensed tannins), and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured as mmol Trolox equivalents per kg fresh faeces. The TAC values on diets N (1.24 +/- 0.39 mmol/kg fresh faeces) and T (1.34 +/- 0.33 mmol/kg fresh faeces) were similar, but significantly higher on diet Q (2.32 +/- 0.61 mmol/kg fresh faeces). In contrast to expectations, faecal TAC increased with increasing faecal Fe, possibly as a result of the fact that the faecal Fe content was positively correlated to the proportion of concentrate feeds in the diet, which also contain antioxidants, such as vitamin E, in addition to Fe. Increased antioxidant status caused by the use of tannin substances could have a beneficial effect on animal health, but if tannins should be incorporated in designed diets, other tannin sources, such as grape pomace should be tested. PMID:16901277

  19. The role of tannins in conventional and membrane treatment of tannery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Munz, G; De Angelis, D; Gori, R; Mori, G; Casarci, M; Lubello, C

    2009-05-30

    The role that tannins play in tannery wastewater treatment has been evaluated employing a pilot Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) plant and a full scale Conventional Activated Sludge Process (CASP) plant conducted in parallel. The proposed methodology has established the preliminary use of respirometry to examine the biodegradability of a selection of commercial products (synthetic and natural tannins); the subsequent analysis, by means of spectrophotometric reading and RP-IPC (Reverse-Phase Ion-Pair) liquid chromatography, estimates the concentrations of natural tannins and naphthalenesulfonic tanning agents in the influent and effluent samples. The results show that a consistent percentage of the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in the effluent of the biological phase of the plants is attributable to the presence of natural and synthetic (Sulfonated Naphthalene-Formaldehyde Condensates, SNFC) tannins (17% and 14% respectively). The titrimetric tests that were aimed at evaluating the levels of inhibition on the nitrifying biomass samples did not allow a direct inhibiting effect to be associated with the concentration levels of the tannin in the effluent. Nonetheless, the reduced specific growth rates of ammonium and nitrite oxidising bacteria imply that a strong environmental pressure is present, if not necessarily due to the concentration of tannins, due to the wastewater as a whole. The differences that have emerged by comparing the two technologies (CASP and MBR), in regards to the role that tannins play in terms of biodegradability, did not appear to be significant. PMID:18835658

  20. Preparation of adsorbent for phosphate recovery from aqueous solutions based on condensed tannin gel.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Takeshi; Morisada, Shintaro; Oinuma, Yasumi; Seida, Yoshimi; Nakano, Yoshio

    2011-08-30

    We have synthesized an iron-loaded tannin gel as an adsorbent for phosphate recovery in aqueous solutions. The use of the tannin gel prepared from condensed tannin, which is a ubiquitous and inexpensive natural polymer, is not only cost effective and environment-friendly, but interesting because the phosphate-adsorbed gel can be expected to use directly as a fertilizer. The amount of iron loaded into the tannin gel oxidized by nitric acid was much larger than that into the non-oxidized tannin gel. This increase in the amount of the loaded iron resulted in the significant increase in the adsorption amount of phosphate onto the gel. Mössbauer spectroscopy indicated that the morphology of iron in the gel is a mono-type complex, which is formed as a result of the reaction between Fe(III) and the oxidized tannin gel with carbonyl groups. The iron-loaded tannin gel showed the adsorption selectivity for phosphate over other anions and the pH independence of phosphate adsorption in the wide range of initial pH 3-12. The phosphate adsorption isotherm for the iron-loaded tannin gel followed the Freundlich equation with constants of K(F)=2.66 and 1/n=0.31, rather than the Langmuir equation. The adsorption amount of phosphate on iron weight basis for the iron-loaded tannin gel is 31.3mg-P/g-Fe, which indicates that iron in the gel was efficiently used for the phosphate adsorption compared with other phosphate adsorbents, such as iron hydroxides. PMID:21676543

  1. The influence of dietary tannin supplementation on digestive performance in captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis).

    PubMed

    Clauss, M; Castell, J C; Kienzle, E; Dierenfeld, E S; Flach, E J; Behlert, O; Ortmann, S; Streich, W J; Hummel, J; Hatt, J-M

    2007-12-01

    Free-ranging browsers such as the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) consume a diet that contains tannins, whereas the diets offered to them in captivity consist mostly of items known to contain hardly any such secondary plant compounds. Tannins could have potentially beneficial effects, including the chelation of dietary iron (iron storage disease is a common problem in black rhinos). Here, we tested the acceptance, and the consequences on digestion variables, of a low-dose tannin supplementation in captive animals. Eight black rhinoceroses from three zoological institutions were used. Faecal output was quantified by total faecal collection. Diets fed were regular zoo diets supplemented with either tannic acid (T, hydrolysable tannin) or quebracho (Q, condensed tannins); overall tannin source intake increased at 5-15 g/kg dry matter (DM) in relation to regular zoo diets. Adaptation periods to the new diets were >2 months. Additional data were taken from one hitherto unpublished study. Data were compared to measurements in the same animals on their regular zoo diets. All animals accepted the new diets without hesitation. There was no influence of tannin supplementation on digestion coefficients of DM and its constituents, or faecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids or lactate. Water intake did not increase during tannin supplementation. Should the inclusion of dietary tannin sources be an objective in the development of diets for captive rhinoceroses, moderate doses such as used in this study are unlikely to cause relevant depressions of digestive efficiency and will not interfere with bacterial fermentation in a relevant way. PMID:17988348

  2. Low formaldehyde emission, fast pressing, pine and pecan tannin adhesives for exterior particleboard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Pizzi; J. Valenezuela; C. Westermeyer

    1994-01-01

    Exterior grade particleboard satisfying the requirements of the V100 test, of formaldehyde emission well within the emission\\u000a standard E1 class, and of pressing times as fast as 8.5 sec\\/mm can be produced at higher moisture contents using fast-reacting\\u000a non-modified and non-fortified procyanidin\\/prodelphinidin tannin extracts such as pine bark tannin extract and pecan nut pith\\u000a tannin extract. Such results, under the

  3. Phenolic Glycosides with antiproteasomal activity from Centaurea urvillei DC. subsp. urvillei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derya Gülcemal; Özgen Alanku?-Çal??kan; Canan Karaalp; Ahmet Uygar Örs; Petek Ballar; Erdal Bedir

    2010-01-01

    A new flavanone glycoside, naringenin-7-O-?-d-glucuronopyranoside, and a new flavonol glycoside, 6-hydroxykaempferol-7-O-?-d-glucuronopyranoside were isolated together with 12 known compounds, 5 flavone glycoside; hispidulin-7-O-?-d-glucuronopyranoside, apigenin-7-O-?-d-methylglucuronopyranoside, hispidulin-7-O-?-d-methylglucuronopyranoside, hispidulin-7-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, apigenin-7-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, a flavonol; kaempferol, two flavone; apigenin, and luteolin, a flavanone glycoside; eriodictyol-7-O-?-d-glucuronopyranoside, and three phenol glycoside; arbutin, salidroside, and 3,5-dihydroxyphenethyl alcohol-3-O-?-d-glucopyranoside from Centaurea urvillei subsp. urvillei. The structure elucidation of the new compounds was

  4. Effects of Daniellia oliveri bark on isolated rat bladder.

    PubMed

    Onwukaeme, N D; Lot, T Y; Udoh, F V

    1999-08-01

    The stem bark of Daniellia oliveri was screened phytochemically and a methanol extract prepared.-Condensed tannins, saponins, cyanogenetic and cardiac glycosides were identified in the crude drug. The cardiac glycoside components in the methanol extract were precipitated with acetone to yield a reddish-brown residue. The n-butanol soluble fraction of an aqueous solution of this residue tested positive for cardiac glycosides and was shown by TLC to contain steroidal compounds. This fraction was subjected to pharmacological studies on isolated rat bladder smooth muscle. It had no effect on purinergic neurotransmission but was a noncompetitive antagonist for muscarinic receptors. PMID:10441782

  5. Cardiac aquaporins.

    PubMed

    Rutkovskiy, Arkady; Valen, Guro; Vaage, Jarle

    2013-11-01

    Aquaporins are a group of proteins with high-selective permeability for water. A subgroup called aquaglyceroporins is also permeable to glycerol, urea and a few other solutes. Aquaporin function has mainly been studied in the brain, kidney, glands and skeletal muscle, while the information about aquaporins in the heart is still scarce. The current review explores the recent advances in this field, bringing aquaporins into focus in the context of myocardial ischemia, reperfusion, and blood osmolarity disturbances. Since the amount of data on aquaporins in the heart is still limited, examples and comparisons from better-studied areas of aquaporin biology have been used. The human heart expresses aquaporin-1, -3, -4 and -7 at the protein level. The potential roles of aquaporins in the heart are discussed, and some general phenomena that the myocardial aquaporins share with aquaporins in other organs are elaborated. Cardiac aquaporin-1 is mostly distributed in the microvasculature. Its main role is transcellular water flux across the endothelial membranes. Aquaporin-4 is expressed in myocytes, both in cardiac and in skeletal muscle. In addition to water flux, its function is connected to the calcium signaling machinery. It may play a role in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Aquaglyceroporins, especially aquaporin-7, may serve as a novel pathway for nutrient delivery into the heart. They also mediate toxicity of various poisons. Aquaporins cannot influence permeability by gating, therefore, their function is regulated by changes of expression-on the levels of transcription, translation (by microRNAs), post-translational modification, membrane trafficking, ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. Studies using mice genetically deficient for aquaporins have shown rather modest changes in the heart. However, they might still prove to be attractive targets for therapy directed to reduce myocardial edema and injury caused by ischemia and reperfusion. PMID:24158693

  6. Biochemistry and Toxicology of the Diterpenoid Glycoside Atractyloside

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K Obatomi; P. H Bach

    1998-01-01

    Atractyloside (Atr) is a diterpenoid glycoside that occurs naturally in plants (many of which are used in ethnomedicines) found in Europe, Africa, South America, Asia and the far East. It is also present in animal grazing forage. Atr (and its analogues) may be present at levels as high as 600mg\\/kg dried plant material. Consumption of the plants containing Atr or

  7. A characteristic CH band in VCD of methyl glycosidic carbohydrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tohru Taniguchi; Kenji Monde; Nobuaki Miura; Shin-Ichiro Nishimura

    2004-01-01

    Novel vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) studies in the CH region of a series of methyl glycosidic carbohydrates were examined. The specific CH stretching VCD band predicts absolute stereochemistries of their anomeric positions. The C-1 chiral information was extracted to the methoxy substituent as a probe. The concept of the vibrational chirality probe from a single chiral center in the presence

  8. Pharmacokinetics and Bioavailability of Quercetin Glycosides in Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva U. Graefe; Joerg Wittig; Silke Mueller; Anne-Kathrin Riethling; Bernhard Uehleke; Bernd Drewelow; Holger Pforte; Gisela Jacobasch; Hartmut Derendorf; Markus Veit

    2001-01-01

    Due to its potentially beneficial impact on human health, the polyphenol quercetin has come into the focus of medicinal interest. However, data on the bioavailability of quercetin after oral intake are scarce and contradictory. Previous investigations indicate that the disposition of quercetin may depend on the sugar moiety of the glycoside or the plant matrix. To determine the influence of

  9. The identification of flavonoids as glycosides in human plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Paganga; Catherine A Rice-Evans

    1997-01-01

    This study describes evidence for the absorption of flavonoids and their presence in human plasma in the glycosylated form by HPLC analysis with photodiode array detection. Rutin and other quercetin glycosides, phloridzin, as well as an anthocyanin are detected simultaneously. In addition, a compound eluting with the spectral properties of the aurone family is identified. The results reveal that phloretin

  10. Two new flavanone glycosides from Veratrum nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Liang; Tang, Jian; Liu, Run-Hui; Zhang, Chuan; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2009-01-01

    Two new flavanone glycosides have been isolated from the water soluble part of Veratrum nigrum L., belonging to the family Lilica. The structures of 3',4'-dimethoxyl-quercitrin and 4'-methoxyl-glucotricin have been established with the aid of extensive NMR spectroscopic studies. PMID:19173120

  11. Two new flavanone glycosides from Veratrum nigrum L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui-Liang Li; Jian Tang; Run-Hui Liu; Chuan Zhang; Wei-Dong Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Two new flavanone glycosides have been isolated from the water soluble part of Veratrum nigrum L., belonging to the family Lilica. The structures of 3?,4?-dimethoxyl-quercitrin and 4?-methoxyl-glucotricin have been established with the aid of extensive NMR spectroscopic studies.

  12. Glycosidases and glycosyl transferases in glycoside and oligosaccharide synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David HG Crout; Gabin Vic

    1998-01-01

    Remarkable advances in glycobiology in recent years have stimulated a resurgence of interest in carbohydrate chemistry. The challenge of producing the complex glycosides and oligosaccharides needed for research in glycobiology has led to the development of enzymatic methods that are now firmly established as part of the synthetic repertoire of the carbohydrate chemist.

  13. New flavone and isoflavone glycoside from Belamcanda chinensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Jin; Hai Sheng Chen; Zhao Bao Xiang; Shuang Liang; Yong Sheng Jin; Jian Guo Liu

    2007-01-01

    The new flavone, 5,4?-dihydroxy-6,7-methylenedioxy-3?-methoxyflavone, and one new isoflavone glycoside, 3?,5?-dimethoxy irisolone-4?-O-?-d-glucoside were isolated from the rhizomes of Belamcanda chinensis. Their structures were established based on the spectroscopic methods.

  14. Steroidal glycosides from the aerial part of Asclepias incarnata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsutomu Warashina; Tadataka Noro

    2000-01-01

    The aerial part of Asclepias incarnata afforded 34 pregnane glycosides. These were confirmed to have lineolon, isolineolon, ikemagenin, 12-O-nicotinoyllineolon, deacylmetaplexigenin, metaplexigenin, rostratamine, 12-O-acetyllineolon, 15?-hydroxylineolon and 15?-hydroxyisolineolon moieties as their aglycones, and 2,6-dideoxyhexopyranose, glucopyranose and allopyranose as the corresponding sugar constituents. Their structures were determined using both spectroscopic and chemical methods.

  15. Apigenin glycosides from the flowers of Bellis perennis L.

    PubMed

    Nazaruk, J; Gudej, J

    2000-01-01

    Two next apigenin glycosides, apigenin 7-O-beta-D-glucuronide [III], apigenin 7-O-beta-D-glucoside [IV] were isolated from the flowers of Bellis perennis L. Their structures were determined by means of chemical and spectroscopic methods. PMID:10934792

  16. Marruboside, a New Phenylethanoid Glycoside from Marrubium Vulgare L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sevser Sahpaz; Thierry Hennebelle; François Bailleul

    2002-01-01

    A new phenylethanoid glycoside, marruboside, has been isolated from the aerial parts of Marrubium vulgare L. Its structure was established as 3,4-dihydroxy- g -phenylethoxy- O- [ g - d -apiofuranosyl-(1 M 2)- f - l -rhamnopyranosyl-(1 M 3)]-[ g - d -apiofuranosyl-(1 M 6)]-4- O -caffeoyl- g - d -glucopyranoside, on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.

  17. Marruboside, a new phenylethanoid glycoside from Marrubium vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Sahpaz, Sevser; Hennebelle, Thierry; Bailleul, François

    2002-06-01

    A new phenylethanoid glycoside, marruboside, has been isolated from the aerial parts of Marrubium vulgare L. Its structure was established as 3,4-dihydroxy-beta-phenylethoxy-O-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)]-4-O-caffeoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. PMID:12049220

  18. Sorghum tannins: Interaction with Starch and its Effects on in vitro Starch Digestibility 

    E-print Network

    Ribeiro de Barros, Frederico

    2012-12-10

    phenolic extracts with pure amylose/amylopectin, extractable polymeric PA was in much lower concentration (62% less) in presence of amylose compared to amylopectin. This drop in concentration increased to 85% when purified tannin extract (90% polymeric PA...

  19. Human intestinal hydrolysis of phenol glycosides - a study with quercetin and p-nitrophenol glycosides using ileostomy fluid.

    PubMed

    Knaup, Bastian; Kahle, Kathrin; Erk, Thomas; Valotis, Anagnostis; Scheppach, Wolfgang; Schreier, Peter; Richling, Elke

    2007-11-01

    In order to study the influence of sugar moiety, aglycon structure and microflora concentration on the human ileal hydrolysis of phenol glycosides, various quercetin and p-nitrophenol glycosides were incubated under anaerobic conditions (37 degrees C for 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 24 h) with ileostomy fluids from three different donors. The glycosides, i.e. beta-D-glucopyranosides, beta-D-galactopyranosides, alpha-L-arabinofuranosides, beta-D-xylopyranosides and alpha-L-rhamnopyranosides as well as the liberated aglycones were identified by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Among the quercetin glycosides under study, the 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside showed with 0.22 micromol/h the highest hydrolysis rate, followed by the 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside, the 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside and the 3-O-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside (0.04 and each 0.03 micromol/h, respectively). Quercetin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside was found to be stable for the entire incubation period. Using quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside as a representative example, linear hydrolysis rate was observed from 75 to 2500 microL ileostomy fluid corresponding to its microflora content (log 0.68 up to 21.9 colony forming units). Studies performed in the presence of antibiotics did not reveal any hydrolysis. The p-nitrophenol glycosides were hydrolyzed faster than the corresponding quercetin glycosides. The hydrolysis rate decreased from the beta-D-glucopyranoside (0.41 micromol/h), to the beta-D-galactopyranoside (0.21 micromol/h), the beta-D-xylopyranoside (0.12 micromol/h), the alpha-L-arabinofuranoside (0.09 micromol/h) to the alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (0.06 micromol/h). These results demonstrate that the human ileal hydrolysis of phenol glycosides depends on the sugar and the aglycon structure as well as the microflora. PMID:17966139

  20. Litter dynamics of low and high tannin sericea lespedeza plants under field conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Kalburtji; J. A. Mosjidis; A. P. Mamolos

    1999-01-01

    Sericea lespedeza [Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours) G. Don.] is a perennial legume with high polyphenol (tannin) concentration.\\u000a The decomposition and nutrient release of sericea lespedeza residues with two tannin levels (high = 22% or low = 16%), which\\u000a were either placed on the soil surface or buried at a depth of 5 cm were studied. An experiment was carried out

  1. Inhibitory mechanism of mimosa tannin using molecular modeling and substitutional adsorption isotherms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Martinez

    2003-01-01

    A semiempirical approach involving quantum chemical calculations was used to rationalize the mimosa tannin inhibitory action. The molecular spatial structure, atomic charges, dipole moment, HOMO–LUMO energy gap and HOMO density of four types of flavanoid units that constitute mimosa tannin, have been theoretically investigated using HyperChem 5.11 computer package. Optimization of the molecular geometry yielded a non-planar structure with the

  2. Metabolism of tannin-protein complex by facultatively anaerobic bacteria isolated from koala feces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ro Osawa; Terry P. Walsh; Steven J. Cork

    1993-01-01

    The metabolic pathways involved in degradation of tannin-protein complex (T-PC) were investigated in various facultatively anaerobic bacteria, with specific reference to fecal isolates from the koala including T-PC-degrading enterobacteria (T-PCDE),Streptococcus bovis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, andK. oxytoca. It was demonstrated that T-PCDE andS. bovis biotype I were capable of degrading protein complexed with gallotannin (a hydrolyzable tannin), but not that complexed with

  3. Nutrient composition and in vitro ruminal fermentation of tropical legume mixtures with contrasting tannin contents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Stürm; T. T. Tiemann; C. E. Lascano; M. Kreuzer; H. D. Hess

    2007-01-01

    Various combinations of a low-tannin herbaceous legume (Vigna unguiculata) and foliage of tanniniferous shrub legumes (Calliandra calothyrsus, Flemingia macrophylla and Leucaena leucocephala) or a low-tannin shrub legume (Cratylia argentea), all mixed together with a low-quality tropical grass (Brachiaria humidicola), were tested in vitro for differences in the effects on ruminal fermentation. Two experiments with the gas transducer technique were carried

  4. Silver nanoparticles stabilized by tannin grafted collagen fiber: synthesis, characterization and antifungal activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li He; Hao Wu; Siying Gao; Xuepin Liao; Qiang He; Bi Shi

    A novel antifungal nano-silver agent (BT-CF-AgNPs) was synthesized by using bayberry tannin (BT) grafted collagen fiber (CF)\\u000a as support, and the antifungal behaviors of the nano-silver were investigated by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a typical fungus. Bayberry tannin (BT), a kind of natural polyphenol, was grafted onto the CF surface to improve the loading\\u000a capacity and control the size of

  5. The microscopic examination and chemical evaluation of different grain sorghum genotypes in reference to tannin content 

    E-print Network

    Blakely, Mary Elizabeth Glover

    1980-01-01

    problems with taste and actual digestion of the grain when consumed by humans and livestock. To examine the physical differences between brown and non-brown sorohum, kernels of each type were selected from several maturities and thin sectioned.... The condensed tannins are more complex and often are class1f1ed as either anthocyanogens or leucoanthocyanins. Condensed tannins are more res1stant to breakdown by both enzyme and acid (31, 35). The astringent taste associated with many foods is due...

  6. Seed removal by scatter-hoarding rodents: the effects of tannin and nutrient concentration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Yang, Xiaolan

    2015-04-01

    The mutualistic interaction between scatter-hoarding rodents and seed plants have a long co-evolutionary history. Plants are believed to have evolved traits that influence the foraging behavior of rodents, thus increasing the probability of seed removal and caching, which benefits the establishment of seedlings. Tannin and nutrient content in seeds are considered among the most essential factors in this plant-animal interaction. However, most previous studies used different species of plant seeds, rendering it difficult to tease apart the relative effect of each single nutrient on rodent foraging behavior due to confounding combinations of nutrient contents across seed species. Hence, to further explore how tannin and different nutritional traits of seed affect scatter-hoarding rodent foraging preferences, we manipulated tannin, fat, protein and starch content levels, and also seed size levels by using an artificial seed system. Our results showed that both tannin and various nutrients significantly affected rodent foraging preferences, but were also strongly affected by seed size. In general, rodents preferred to remove seeds with less tannin. Fat addition could counteract the negative effect of tannin on seed removal by rodents, while the effect of protein addition was weaker. Starch by itself had no effect, but it interacted with tannin in a complex way. Our findings shed light on the effects of tannin and nutrient content on seed removal by scatter-hoarding rodents. We therefore, believe that these and perhaps other seed traits should interactively influence this important plant-rodent interaction. However, how selection operates on seed traits to counterbalance these competing interests/factors merits further study. PMID:25625425

  7. Effect of condensed tannin ingestion in sheep and goat parotid saliva proteome.

    PubMed

    Lamy, E; da Costa, G; Santos, R; Capela e Silva, F; Potes, J; Pereira, A; Coelho, A V; Baptista, E Sales

    2011-06-01

    Saliva appears as a defence mechanism, against potential negative effects of tannins, in some species of animals which have to deal with these plant secondary metabolites in their regular diets. This study was carried out to investigate changes in parotid saliva protein profiles of sheep (Ovis aries) and goats (Capra hircus), induced by condensed tannin ingestion. Five Merino sheep and five Serpentina goats were maintained on a quebracho tannin enriched diet for 10 days. Saliva was collected through catheters inserted on parotid ducts and salivary proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Matrix-assisted Laser desorption ionization - time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were used to identify the proteins whose expression levels changed after tannin consumption. Although no new proteins appeared, quebracho tannin consumption increased saliva total protein concentration and produced changes in the proteome of both species. While some proteins were similarly altered in both species parotid salivary protein profile, sheep and goats also presented species-specific differences in response to tannin consumption. PMID:20880287

  8. Novel Soluble Dietary Fiber-Tannin Self-Assembled Film: A Promising Protein Protective Material.

    PubMed

    Song, Guo-Bin; Xu, Juan; Zheng, Hua; Feng, Ying; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Li, Kun; Ge, Shuang-Shuang; Li, Kai; Zhang, Hong

    2015-06-24

    In this experiment, a natural promising protein protective film was fabricated through soluble dietary fiber (SDF)-tannin nanocluster self-assembly. FT-IR, XRD, and DSC tests were employed to investigate the interaction between the SDF and tannins before and after cross-linking induced by calcium ion. On the other hand, referring to the SEM and TEM results, the self-assembly process of the protein protective film could be indicated as follows: first, calcium ion, with its cross-ability, served as the "nucleus"; SDF and tannins were combined to prepare the nanoscale SDF-tannin clusters; then, the clusters were homogeneously deposited on the surface of protein to form a protective film by self-assembling hydrogen bond between tannin component of clusters as "adhesive" and protein in aqueous solutions under very mild conditions. Film thickness could also be controlled by tannin of different concentrations ranging from 114 to 1384 ?m. Antibacterial test and in vitro cytotoxicity test proved that the film had a broad spectrum of antimicrobial properties and excellent cell biocompatibility, respectively, which might open up new applications in the food preservation and biomedical fields. PMID:26051153

  9. Extraction of Cs137 by alcohol-water solvents from plants containing cardiac glycosides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Dzyubak; Yu. I. Gubin; O. P. Dzyubak; P. V. Sorokin; V. F. Popov; A. A. Orlov; V. P. Krasnov

    2001-01-01

    As a result of nuclear power plant accidents, large areas receive radioactive inputs of Cs-137. This cesium accumulates in herbs growing in such territories. The problem is whether the herbs contaminated by radiocesium may be used as a raw material for medicine. The answer depends on the amount of Cs-137 transfered from the contaminated raw material to the medicine. We

  10. Woodfordin C, a macro-ring hydrolyzable tannin dimer with antitumor activity, and accompanying dimers from Woodfordia fruticosa flowers.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, T; Chou, T; Nitta, A; Miyamoto, K; Koshiura, R; Okuda, T

    1990-05-01

    Three new dimeric hydrolyzable tannins, woodfordins A, B and C, along with seven known hydrolyzable tannins, including oenothein B, a dimer exhibiting marked host-mediated antitumor activity, were isolated from an Indonesian crude drug, Sidowayah [dried flowers of Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz (Lythraceae)]. The structures of the new tannins were elucidated based on chemical and spectral evidence. Woodfordin C, having a macro-ring structure, was also found to exhibit a significant antitumor activity. PMID:2393947

  11. Cytotoxic triterpene glycosides from the roots of Sanguisorba officinalis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiang; Song, Yan; Li, Hui; Yang, Benshou; Mao, Xia; Zhao, Yongmao; Shi, Xiaodong

    2015-06-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the ethanol extract of the roots of Sanguisorba officinalis resulted in the isolation of three new triterpene glycosides, 3?-[(?-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-19?,23-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-[6-O-acetyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (1), 2?,3?,19?,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-[6-O-acetyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (2), and 3?-[(?-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-19?-hydroxyurs-12,20(30)-dien-28-oic acid 28-[6-O-acetyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (3). All the triterpene glycosides exhibited the significant cytotoxic potential with low IC50 values (IC50 < 5.0 ?M) against six tumor cell lines (MCF-7, HeLa, HepG2, SGC-7901, NCI-H460, and BGC-823). PMID:25193625

  12. Isoflavanones and their O-glycosides from Desmodium styracifolium.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Duan, Jin-Ao; Che, Chun-Tao

    2007-05-01

    Two isoflavanones (5,7-dihydroxy-2',3',4'-trimethoxy-isoflavanone and 5,7-dihydroxy-2'-methoxy-3',4'-methylenedioxy-isoflavanone), four isoflavanone O-glycosides (5,7-dihydroxy-2',3',4'-trimethoxy-isoflavanone 7-O-beta-glucopyranoside, 5,7-dihydroxy-2'-methoxy-3',4'-methylenedioxy-isoflavanone 7-O-beta-glucopyranoside, 5,7-dihydroxy-2',4'-dimethoxy-isoflavanone 7-O-beta-glucopyranoside, and 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-2',3'-dimethoxy-isoflavanone 7-O-beta-glucopyranoside), and a coumaronochromone (3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxy-coumaronochromone), along with 25 known compounds, were isolated from the aerial parts of Desmodium styracifolium. This is for the first time isoflavanone O-glycosides were isolated from a natural source. PMID:17434190

  13. Triterpene glycosides from sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus Selenka.

    PubMed

    Maltsev, I I; Stonik, V A; Kalinovsky, A I; Elyakov, G B

    1984-01-01

    Triterpenoidal oligoglycosides from the far eastern sea cucumber Stitchopus japonicus Selenka collected in the Posiet Bay, Japan Sea were investigated. The glycoside fraction was shown to consist of two main components, holotoxins A1 and B1 which have been isolated by chromatography on silica gel columns. The chemical structures of the holotoxins were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physiochemical evidence (for formula see text). The proposed structures were compared with close related but not identical structures of holotoxin A and B from other collection of the same holothurian. The probable reasons of the distinction were discussed. The previously-established difference in glycoside structures between Stichopus japonicus and other representatives of the family Stichopodidae was corroborated. PMID:6467906

  14. Five naphthalene glycosides from the roots of Rumex patientia.

    PubMed

    Demirezer, O; Kuruüzüm, A; Bergere, I; Schiewe, H J; Zeeck, A

    2001-02-01

    Three novel and two known naphthalene glycosides were isolated from the roots of Rumex patientia L. (Polygonaceae). The structures of the new compounds were established, respectively as 2-acetyl-3-methyl-6-carboxy-1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 4,4"-binaphthalene-8,8"-O,O-di-beta-D-glucopyranoside and 2-acetyl-3-methyl-1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->3) beta-D-glucopyranoside on the basis of spectral analysis. The other napthalene glycosides were determined as nepodin-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and torachrysone-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside by comparison of their spectral data with those previously reported. PMID:11249109

  15. Two new monoterpenoid glycosides from Mentha spicata L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Zheng; Li-Jun Wu; Lu Zheng; Bin Wu; Ai-Hua Song

    2003-01-01

    Two new monoterpenoid glycosides, spicatoside A and spicatoside B, were isolated from the whole herbs of Mentha spicata L. which have anti-inflammatory and hemostatic activities. Their structures have been determined on the basis of spectral and chemical analysis. They are (+)-5-[1-(g -D-glucopyranosyloxymethyl)ethenyl]-2-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one (1), and (m )-5-{[2-( g -D-glucopyranosyloxy)-1-hydroxy-1-methyl]ethyl}-2-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one (2).

  16. Cyanidin glycosides in flowers of genus Corydalis (Fumariaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fumi Tatsuzawa; Yuki Mikanagi; Norio Saito; Koichi Shinoda; Atsushi Shigihara; Toshio Honda

    2005-01-01

    Nine taxa of Corydalis were surveyed for their floral anthocyanins. Five cyanidin glycosides: cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-sambubioside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-(2G-xylosylrutinoside) and cyanidin 3-(2G-xylosylrutinoside)-7-glucoside were isolated from these taxa and identified by chemical and spectroscopic techniques. A novel anthocyanin was found in the flowers of Corydalis elata and Corydalis flexuosa cultivars, and identified to be cyanidin 3-(2G-xylosylrutinoside)-7-glucoside. Two anthocyanins, cyanidin

  17. Hydrolysis of black soybean isoflavone glycosides by Bacillus subtilis natto

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lun-Cheng Kuo; Wei-Yi Cheng; Ren-Yu Wu; Ching-Jang Huang; Kung-Ta Lee

    2006-01-01

    Hydrolysis of isoflavone glycosides by Bacillus subtilis natto NTU-18 in black soymilk is reported. At the concentration of 3–5% (w\\/v), black soymilk in flask cultures, the isoflavones, daidzin, and genistin were highly deglycosylated within 24 h. Deglycosylation of isoflavones was further carried out in a 7-l fermenter with 5% black soymilk. During the fermentation, viable cells increased from 103 to 109 CFU

  18. A novel cytotoxic flavonoid glycoside from Physalis angulata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Ismail; M Alam

    2001-01-01

    A new flavonol glycoside, myricetin 3-O-neohesperidoside (1) was isolated from a cytotoxic MeOH extract of the leaves of Physalis angulata. Compound 1 showed remarkable cytotoxicity in vitro against murine leukemia cell line P-388, epidermoid carcinoma of the nasopharynx KB-16 cells, and lung adenocarcinoma A-549 with ED50 values of 0.048, 0.50 and 0.55 ?g ml?1, respectively.

  19. A new acylated quercetin glycoside from Ranunculus lanuginosus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josè Maria Prieto; Alessandra Braca; Ivano Morelli; Alison Barker; Urs Schaffner

    2004-01-01

    A new acylated quercetin glycoside, quercetin 3-O-(2-t-p-coumaroyl)-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-d-glucopyranoside-7-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (1), together with the known 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)lactic acid (2) were isolated from Ranunculus lanuginosus leaves and identified on the basis of detailed spectral analysis, including 2D-NMR spectrometry and ESI-MS.

  20. Antioxidative iridoid glycosides and phenolic compounds from Veronica peregrina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong Hwan Kwak; Hyun Jung Kim; Kwang Ho Lee; Se Chan Kang; Ok Pyo Zee

    2009-01-01

    Eight iridoid glycosides and four phenolic compounds were isolated from the EtOAc soluble fraction of Veronica peregrina MeOH extract as the radical scavengers for antioxidant activity. The compounds were identified as protocatechuic acid (1), luteolin (2), veronicoside (3), minecoside (4), specioside (5), amphicoside (6), catalposide (7), 6-O-cis-p-coumaroyl catalpol (8), p-hydroxy benzoic acid methyl ester (9), verproside (10), verminoside (11), and

  1. A new acylated flavone glycoside from Colebrookea oppositifolia.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Ramireddy Venkata Narahari; Reddy, Bandi Anil Kumar; Gunasekar, Duvvuru

    2009-01-01

    A new acylated flavone glycoside, echioidinin 2'-O-beta-D-(2''-O-acetyl)glucopyranoside (1) along with the three known flavonoids, 5,6,7,8,5'-pentamethoxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavone (2), 5,2',6'-trihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone (3), and kaempferol 7,4'-dimethyl ether 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), were isolated from the roots of Colebrookea oppositifolia. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated by extensive spectral and chemical studies. PMID:19219733

  2. A new acylated flavone glycoside from Colebrookea oppositifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramireddy Venkata Narahari Reddy; Bandi Anil Kumar Reddy; Duvvuru Gunasekar

    2009-01-01

    A new acylated flavone glycoside, echioidinin 2?-O-?-d-(2?-O-acetyl)glucopyranoside (1) along with the three known flavonoids, 5,6,7,8,5?-pentamethoxy-3?,4?-methylenedioxyflavone (2), 5,2?,6?-trihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone (3), and kaempferol 7,4?-dimethyl ether 3-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (4), were isolated from the roots of Colebrookea oppositifolia. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated by extensive spectral and chemical studies.

  3. Flavone C-glycosides from flowers of Trollius ledebouri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-Hua Zou; Jun-Shan Yang; Yue-Sheng Dong; Liang Zhou; Geng Lin

    2005-01-01

    The ethanol extract of the flowers of Trollius ledebouri yielded four flavone C-glycosides, 2?-O-vanilloylvitexin, 2?-O-feruloylorientin, 2?-O-?-l-galactopyranosylvitexin, and 2?-O-?-l-galactopyranosylorientin, along with known compounds, 6?-O-acetylorientin, 2?-O-(4?-hydroxybenzoyl)vitexin, vitexin, and orientin. Their structures were elucidated by means of UV, IR, MS and NMR spectroscopic analyses.

  4. Phenylpropanoid glycosides from the leaves of Paulownia coreana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Kyu Kim; Chuan-Ling SI; Young-Soo Bae

    2008-01-01

    Study on the water soluble fraction from the leaves of Paulownia coreana led to the isolation of verbascoside (1), isoverbascoside (2), campneoside II (3), and a new phenylpropanoid glycoside, (R,S)-7-hydroxy-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethyl-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 ? 3)-?-d-(6-O-caffeoyl)-glucopyranoside (4). The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.

  5. New pregnane glycoside derivative from Caralluma retrospiciens (Ehrenb).

    PubMed

    Elsebai, Mahmoud Fahmi; Mohamed, Ietidal El-Tahir

    2015-08-01

    Retrospinoside (1) is a new polyoxy pregnane glycoside which was isolated and characterised from the aerial parts of Caralluma retrospiciens (Ehrenb.) N. E. Br., family Apocynaceae. The structure was established as 3-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-?-D-(3-O-methyl-6-desoxygalactopyranosy)]-14,15,20-trihydroxy-4?-pregnane. Its structural elucidation was performed through extensive spectroscopic measurements including 1D- and 2D-NMR, and HRMS, in addition to chemical methods. PMID:25613301

  6. Steroidal glycosides from the aerial part of Asclepias incarnata.

    PubMed

    Warashina, T; Noro, T

    2000-02-01

    The aerial part of Asclepias incarnata afforded 34 pregnane glycosides. These were confirmed to have lineolon, isolineolon, ikemagenin, 12-O-nicotinoyllineolon, deacylmetaplexigenin, metaplexigenin, rostratamine, 12-O-acetyllineolon, 15beta-hydroxylineolon and 15beta-hydroxyisolineolon moieties as their aglycones, and 2.6-dideoxyhexopyranose, glucopyranose and allopyranose as the corresponding sugar constituents. Their structures were determined using both spectroscopic and chemical methods. PMID:10731028

  7. Ionone glycosides from the roots of Rehmannia glutinosa.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Fei; Liang, Dong; Luo, Huan; Hao, Zhi-You; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Ni, Gang; Chen, Ruo-Yun; Yu, De-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Four new ionone and ionone glycosides (1-4), and a new monoterpene (5), together with 10 known analogues (6-15), were isolated from the air-dried roots of Rehmannia glutinosa. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. Furthermore, in in vitro assays, compound 3 (10 ?M) exhibited moderate hepatoprotective activities against d-galactosamine-induced HL-7702 cell damage. PMID:24417558

  8. Neoconvalloside — A cardenolide glycoside from plants of the genus Convallaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. F. Komissarenko; É. P. Stupakova

    1986-01-01

    In a study of the epigeal part and seeds ofConvallaria keiskei, C. majalis, andC. transcaucasica, in addition to lokundjoside, convalloside, convallotoxoloside, and neovallotoxoloside, we have isolated the previously unknown glycoside neoconvalloside, for which, on the basis of the physicochemical properties of the compound and of the products of its chemical transformations, the structure of strophanthidin 3-O-[O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-a-L-rhamnopyranoside has been

  9. Ent -kaurane diterpenoids and glycosides: Isolation, properties, and chemical transformations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Kataev; R. N. Khaybullin; R. R. Sharipova; I. Yu. Strobykina

    2011-01-01

    This review is devoted to ent-kaurane diterpenoids and related glycosides, which represent two naturally occurring groups of compounds with interesting\\u000a structures and properties. Much useful information about the biogenesis and biological activities of these compounds is presented;\\u000a however, the greatest part of the review covers various aspects of the chemical transformations of native ent-kaurane diterpenoids, namely, their reactions via COOH,

  10. A new glycoside from the leaves of Neoalsomitra integrifoliola

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Min Su; Jing Qu; You Cai Hu; Shi Shan Yu; Wen Zhao Tang; Yun Bao Liu; Shuang Gang Ma; De Quan Yu

    2008-01-01

    A new ionone glycoside (6R,9R)-blumenyl ?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-d-gluco-pyranoside (1), together with a new natural product 2-methoxyl-4-trans-propenyl-phenol ?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-d-glucopyranoside (2), was isolated from the leaves of Neoalsomitra integrifoliola. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectral analysis. Compound 1 showed weak anti-inflammatory and low-level antioxidant activities.

  11. Condensed tannins inhibit house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) development in livestock manure.

    PubMed

    Littlefield, Kimberly A; Muir, James P; Lambert, Barry D; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-12-01

    Reducing chemical use for suppressing internal and external parasites of livestock is essential for protecting environmental health. Although plant condensed tannins are known to suppress gastro-intestinal parasites in small ruminants, no research on the effects of tannins on external arthropod populations such as the house fly, Musca domestica L., have been conducted. We examined the impact of plant material containing condensed tannins on house fly development. Prairie acacia (Acacia angustissima (Mill.), Kuntze variety hirta (Nutt.) B.L. Rob.) herbage, panicled tick-clover (Desmodium paniculatum (L.) DC.) herbage, and quebracho (Shinopsis balansae Engl.) extracts were introduced at rates of 1, 3 or 5% condensed tannins/kg beef cattle, dairy cattle, and goat manure, respectively. In a second experiment, we also introduce purified catechin at 1 or 3% of dairy manure dry matter and measured its impact on house fly development. For the house flies used in these experiments, the following was recorded: percent fly emergence (PFE), average daily gain (ADG), and average fly weight (AFW). No effects (P>0.05) in house fly development were measured in the caprine manure. Prairie acacia (20.9% condensed tannins) had no effect on house flies developing in either bovine manures. Tick clover (4.9% condensed tannins) had a negative effect on all three quantifiable variables of house fly development in the bovine manures, whereas quebracho extract (64.0% condensed tannins) at the 3 and 5% rate reduced fly emergence in beef manure and average daily gain in dairy manure. The application of purified catechin at 3%, but not 1%, reduced fly PFE, ADG, and AFW. PMID:22217775

  12. Cardiac arrest management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard V. Aghababian; Gregory Mears; Joseph P. Ornato; Peter J. Kudenchuk

    2001-01-01

    Approximately 1,000 people in the United States suffer cardiac arrest each day, most often as a complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with accompanying ventricular fibrillation or unstable ventricular tachycardia. Increasing the number of patients who survive cardiac arrest and minimizing the clinical sequelae associated with cardiac arrest in those who do survive are the objectives of emergency medical personnel.

  13. Enzymatic Biosynthesis of Novel Resveratrol Glucoside and Glycoside Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Parajuli, Prakash; Shin, Ju Yong; Lee, Jisun; Lee, Seul; Hong, Young-Soo; Park, Yong Il; Kim, Joong Su

    2014-01-01

    A UDP glucosyltransferase from Bacillus licheniformis was overexpressed, purified, and incubated with nucleotide diphosphate (NDP) d- and l-sugars to produce glucose, galactose, 2-deoxyglucose, viosamine, rhamnose, and fucose sugar-conjugated resveratrol glycosides. Significantly higher (90%) bioconversion of resveratrol was achieved with ?-d-glucose as the sugar donor to produce four different glucosides of resveratrol: resveratrol 3-O-?-d-glucoside, resveratrol 4?-O-?-d-glucoside, resveratrol 3,5-O-?-d-diglucoside, and resveratrol 3,5,4?-O-?-d-triglucoside. The conversion rates and numbers of products formed were found to vary with the other NDP sugar donors. Resveratrol 3-O-?-d-2-deoxyglucoside and resveratrol 3,5-O-?-d-di-2-deoxyglucoside were found to be produced using TDP-2-deoxyglucose as a donor; however, the monoglycosides resveratrol 4?-O-?-d-galactoside, resveratrol 4?-O-?-d-viosaminoside, resveratrol 3-O-?-l-rhamnoside, and resveratrol 3-O-?-l-fucoside were produced from the respective sugar donors. Altogether, 10 diverse glycoside derivatives of the medically important resveratrol were generated, demonstrating the capacity of YjiC to produce structurally diverse resveratrol glycosides. PMID:25239890

  14. Enzymatic Biosynthesis of Novel Resveratrol Glucoside and Glycoside Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Parajuli, Prakash; Shin, Ju Yong; Lee, Jisun; Lee, Seul; Hong, Young-Soo; Park, Yong Il; Kim, Joong Su; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2014-09-19

    A uridine diphosphate glucosyltransferase from Bacillus licheniformis was overexpressed, purified and incubated with nucleotide diphosphate (NDP) d- and l-sugars to produce glucose, galactose, 2-deoxyglucose, viosamine, rhamnose, and fucose sugar-conjugated resveratrol glycosides. A significantly higher (90%) bioconversion of resveratrol was achieved with ?d-glucose as the sugar donor to produce four different glucosides of resveratrol, resveratrol 3-O-?-d-glucoside, resveratrol 4?-O-?-d-glucoside, resveratrol 3,5-O-?-d-diglucoside, and resveratrol 3,5,4?-O-?-d-triglucoside. The conversion rates and number of products formed were found to vary with the other NDP-sugar donors. Resveratrol 3-O-?-d-2-deoxyglucoside, resveratrol 3,5-O-?-d-di-2-deoxyglucoside were found to be produced while using TDP-2-deoxyglucose as donor, however, monoglycosides resveratrol 4?-O-?-d-galactoside, resveratrol 4?-O-?-d-viosaminoside, resveratrol 3-O-?-l-rhamnoside, resveratrol 3-O-?-l-fucoside were produced from respective sugar donors. Altogether ten diverse glycoside derivatives of medicinally important resveratrol were generated; demonstrating the capacity for YjiC to produce structurally diverse resveratrol glycosides. PMID:25239890

  15. Minor diterpene glycosides from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Rodenburg, Douglas L; Alves, Kamilla; Fronczek, Frank R; McChesney, James D; Wu, Chongming; Nettles, Brian J; Venkataraman, Sylesh K; Jaksch, Frank

    2014-05-23

    Two new diterpene glycosides in addition to five known glycosides have been isolated from a commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. Compound 1 (rebaudioside KA) was shown to be 13-[(O-?-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid 2-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-?-d-glucopyranosyl ester and compound 2, 12-?-[(2-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-?-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid ?-d-glucopyranosyl ester. Five additional known compounds were identified, rebaudioside E, rebaudioside M, rebaudioside N, rebaudioside O, and stevioside, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis of stevioside afforded the known ent-kaurane aglycone 13-hydroxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (steviol) (3). The isolated metabolite 1 possesses the ent-kaurane aglycone steviol (3), while compound 2 represents the first example of the isomeric diterpene 12-?-hydroxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid existing as a glycoside in S. rebaudiana. The structures of the isolated metabolites 1 and 2 were determined based on comprehensive 1D- and 2D-NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) studies. A high-quality crystal of compound 3 has formed, which allowed the acquisition of X-ray diffraction data that confirmed its structure. The structural similarities between the new metabolites and the commercially available stevioside sweeteners suggest the newly isolated metabolites should be examined for their organoleptic properties. Accordingly rebaudiosides E, M, N, O, and KA have been isolated in greater than gram quantities. PMID:24758242

  16. Sweet Poisons: Honeys Contaminated with Glycosides of the Neurotoxin Tutin.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Lesley; Joyce, Nigel I; Sansom, Catherine E; Cooney, Janine M; Jensen, Dwayne J; Perry, Nigel B

    2015-06-26

    Poisonings due to consumption of honeys containing plant toxins have been reported widely. One cause is the neurotoxin tutin, an oxygenated sesquiterpene picrotoxane, traced back to honeybees (Apis mellifera) collecting honeydew produced by passionvine hoppers (Scolypopa australis) feeding on sap of the poisonous shrub tutu (Coriaria spp.). However, a pharmacokinetic study suggested that unidentified conjugates of tutin were also present in such honeys. We now report the discovery, using ion trap LC-MS, of two tutin glycosides and their purification and structure determination as 2-(?-d-glucopyranosyl)tutin (4) and 2-[6'-(?-d-glucopyranosyl)-?-d-glucopyranosyl]tutin (5). These compounds were used to develop a quantitative triple quadrupole LC-MS method for honey analysis, which showed the presence of tutin (3.6 ± 0.1 ?g/g honey), hyenanchin (19.3 ± 0.5), tutin glycoside (4) (4.9 ± 0.4), and tutin diglycoside (5) (4.9 ± 0.1) in one toxic honey. The ratios of 4 and 5 to tutin varied widely in other tutin-containing honeys. The glycosidation of tutin may represent detoxification by one or both of the insects involved in the food chain from plant to honey. PMID:25993882

  17. Cardenolide and oxypregnane glycosides from the root of Asclepias incarnata L.

    PubMed

    Warashina, T; Noro, T

    2000-04-01

    Twenty-nine new oxypregnane glycosides were obtained along with two known cardenolides, frugoside and gofruside, and three known 12-O-acylated pregnane glycosides from the roots of Asclepias incarnata L. (Asclepiadaceae). By detailed studies of the 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra, the structures were determined to be tri- to penta glycosides of isolineolon, 12-O-acetyllineolon, ikemagenin, 12-O-benzoylisolineolon, and two new 12-O-acylated pregnanes. PMID:10783071

  18. Saracoside: a new lignan glycoside from Saraca indica, a potential inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase IB.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Tulika; Chowdhury, Sayan; Kumar, Ashish; Majumder, Hemanta K; Jaisankar, Parasuraman; Mukhopadhyay, Sibabrata

    2012-06-01

    Chemical investigation of the stem bark of Saraca indica has resulted in the isolation of a new lignan glycoside, saracoside, along with four known lignan glycosides lyoniside, icariside E3, (+)5'-methoxyisolarciresinol-9'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and nudiposide, and a phenolic glucopyranoside, 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, which has been isolated for the first time from this species. The isolated lignan glycosides exhibit potent DNA topoisomerase IB inhibitory activity. PMID:22816303

  19. A dimeric triterpenoid glycoside and flavonoid glycosides with free radical-scavenging activity isolated from Rubus rigidus var. camerunensis.

    PubMed

    Nguelefack, Télesphore Benoît; Mbakam, Félicité Hermine Kamga; Tapondjou, Léon Azéfack; Watcho, Pierre; Nguelefack-Mbuyo, Elvine Pami; Ponou, Beaudelaire Kemvoufo; Kamanyi, Albert; Park, Hee-Juhn

    2011-04-01

    The aerial part of Rubus rigidus var. camerunensis (Rosaceae) is used to treat respiratory and cardiovascular disorders in the Cameroonian traditional medicine. The ethanol extract exhibited more potent antioxidant activity (E(max)s of 119% and 229% activity on DPPH and ?-carotene test) than aqueous extract. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract based on free radical-scavenging assay (DPPH assay) afforded five flavonoid glycosides (four flavonol glycosides and an anthocyanin) and three glucosides of 19?-hydroxyursane-type triterpenoid (two monomeric and one dimeric triterpenoids). The flavonoids were identified as kaempferol 3-O-(2?-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-?-D-glucopyranoside (1), kaempferol-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (astragalin, 2), kaempferol-3-O-?-L-arabinofuranoside (juglanin, 3), quercetin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (isoquercitrin, 4), pelargonidin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (callistephin, 5). The three triterpenoids were 2?, 3?, 19?, 23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-ene-28-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl ester (nigaichigoside F(1), 6), 2?, 3?, 19?-trihydroxyurs-12-ene-23-carboxyl-28-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl ester (suavissimoside R(1), 7) as monomeric triterpenoids and coreanoside F(1) (8) as a dimeric triterpenoid. The flavonoids exhibited potent antioxidant activities (66 to 93.56% against DPPH radical) and they were also active on ?-carotene test. Coreanoside F(1) exhibited a 63% antioxidant activity, meanwhile the other two triterpenoids showed a weak activity. Three important facts on structure-activity relationship were observed: Compound 8, a dimeric triterpenoid glycoside, strongly enhanced antioxidant activity of its monomers, compound 3 with 3-O-?-L-arabinofuranyl has much more potent activity than compound 2 with 3-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl, and antocyanin (5) is more potent than its corresponding flavonol glycosides. PMID:21544719

  20. A comparison of flavonoid glycosides by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, Raymond E.; Lewars, Errol G.; Stadey, Christopher J.; Miao, Xiu-Sheng; Zhao, Xiaoming; Metcalfe, Chris D.

    2006-01-01

    A comparison is presented of product ion mass spectra of protonated and deprotonated molecules of kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, quercitin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercitrin), quercitin-3-O-galactoside (hyperoin), apigenin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, genistein-7-O-glucoside, naringenin-7-O-glucoside (prunin), luteolin-4'-O-glucoside, luteolin-6-C-glucoside (homoorientin, known also as isoorientin), apigenin-8-C-glucoside (vitexin), and luteolin-8-C-glucoside (orientin) together with the product ion mass spectrum of deprotonated kaempferol-7-O-glucoside. All isomeric ions were distinguishable on the basis of their product ion mass spectra. For protonated 3-O-, 7-O-, and 4'-O-glycosides at a collision energy of 46-47 eV, homolytic cleavage of the O-glycosidic bond yielded aglycon Y+ ions, whereas in deprotonated 3-O-, 7-O-, and 4'-O-glycosides, heterolytic and homolytic cleavage of the O-glycosidic bond yielded radical aglycon (Y-H)- and aglycon (Y-) ions. In each case, fragmentation of either the glycan or the aglycon or both was observed. For 6-C- and 8-C-glycosides at a collision energy of 46-47 eV, fragmentation was restricted almost exclusively to the glycan. For luteolin-6-C-glucoside, the integrity of the aglycon structure is preserved at the expense of the glycan for which some 30 fragmentations were observed. Breakdown curves were determined as a function of collision energy for protonated and deprotonated luteolin-6-C-glucoside. An attempt has been made to rationalize the product ion mass spectra derived from C-O- and C-C-luteolin glucosides in terms of computed structures that indicate significant intramolecular hydrogen bonding and rotation of the B-ring to form a coplanar luteolin structure. It is proposed that protonated and deprotonated luteolin-6-C-glucoside may afford examples of cooperative interactive bonding that plays a major role in directing fragmentation.

  1. Glycosides from Marine Sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): Structures, Taxonomical Distribution, Biological Activities and Biological Roles

    PubMed Central

    Kalinin, Vladimir I.; Ivanchina, Natalia V.; Krasokhin, Vladimir B.; Makarieva, Tatyana N.; Stonik, Valentin A.

    2012-01-01

    Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed. PMID:23015769

  2. In situ disappearance of individual proteins and nitrogen from legume forages containing varying amounts of tannins.

    PubMed

    Messman, M A; Weiss, W P; Albrecht, K A

    1996-08-01

    In situ degradability of N and proteins were studied in one cultivar of alfalfa and red clover and two cultivars each of birdsfoot trefoil and sericea lespedeza. Concentrations of tannic acid equivalents (percentage of DM) were 0.68 in one cultivar of birds-foot trefoil and 1.77 and 2.78 in the two cultivars of lespedeza. The other forages contained essentially no tannins. Forage samples were digested in situ for 0, 2, 4, 6, and 12 h. The amount of N remaining at 12 h was positively correlated with concentrations of tannin. About 38% of the N remained after 12 h in forages with no or low concentrations of tannins, and 86% remained in the two cultivars of lespedeza. Total electrophoretically identified proteins followed similar trends, but the percentage remaining was less than that for N. For all forages, bands were found at molecular masses of 15, 30, 45, 47, and 54 kDa. The percentage of 54-kDa protein that remained after 12 h was less than that for the other four proteins (23% vs. 37%). No interaction was found between forage cultivar and protein species. These results showed that tannins reduced ruminal degradation of proteins and that specific forage proteins degraded at different rates that were independent of tannin concentration. PMID:8880467

  3. Effects of tannins on fruit selection in three southern African frugivorous birds.

    PubMed

    Zungu, Manqoba M; Downs, Colleen T

    2015-02-01

    Tannins are common secondary compounds in plant material and are known for their ability to bind to protein which reduces nitrogen availability in the diet. In fruits, these compounds are responsible for their astringency which is thought to result in reduced food intake. In this study, the repellent effects of tannins were examined in three species of frugivorous birds: red-winged starlings Onychognathus morio, speckled mousebirds Colius striatus and Cape white-eyes Zosterops virens. Birds were fed artificial fruit diets containing varying levels of tannins in paired choice tests with the amount of food eaten by birds used to determine preference. Red-winged starlings were attracted to the control diet, indifferent to the medium tannin diet and deterred by the high tannin diet whereas speckled mousebirds and Cape white-eyes were not deterred at all concentrations. The discrepancy in the results was attributed to differences in taste sensitivity, tolerance levels and detoxification mechanisms of secondary compounds between species. Because fruit selection and ultimately fruit removal rates affect plant community composition, the disparity in the results suggests that frugivorous birds do not contribute equally to plant community dynamics. However, plant secondary compounds in fruits are diverse and their effects are similarly diverse and there is potential that different groups of secondary compounds generate disparate effects. Similar studies on other types of secondary compounds may thus contribute towards a broader understanding of the role of secondary compounds in mediating fruit-frugivore interactions. PMID:25522953

  4. Novel Strategies for Upstream and Downstream Processing of Tannin Acyl Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Durán, Luis V.; Valdivia-Urdiales, Blanca; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C.; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal N.

    2011-01-01

    Tannin acyl hydrolase also referred as tannase is an enzyme with important applications in several science and technology fields. Due to its hydrolytic and synthetic properties, tannase could be used to reduce the negative effects of tannins in beverages, food, feed, and tannery effluents, for the production of gallic acid from tannin-rich materials, the elucidation of tannin structure, and the synthesis of gallic acid esters in nonaqueous media. However, industrial applications of tannase are still very limited due to its high production cost. Thus, there is a growing interest in the production, recovery, and purification of this enzyme. Recently, there have been published a number of papers on the improvement of upstream and downstream processing of the enzyme. These papers dealt with the search for new tannase producing microorganisms, the application of novel fermentation systems, optimization of culture conditions, the production of the enzyme by recombinant microorganism, and the design of efficient protocols for tannase recovery and purification. The present work reviews the state of the art of basic and biotechnological aspects of tannin acyl hydrolase, focusing on the recent advances in the upstream and downstream processing of the enzyme. PMID:21941633

  5. Effect of plant sterols and tannins on Phytophthora ramorum growth and sporulation.

    PubMed

    Stong, Rachel A; Kolodny, Eli; Kelsey, Rick G; González-Hernández, M P; Vivanco, Jorge M; Manter, Daniel K

    2013-06-01

    Elicitin-mediated acquisition of plant sterols is required for growth and sporulation of Phytophthora spp. This study examined the interactions between elicitins, sterols, and tannins. Ground leaf tissue, sterols, and tannin-enriched extracts were obtained from three different plant species (California bay laurel, California black oak, and Oregon white oak) in order to evaluate the effect of differing sterol/tannin contents on Phytophthora ramorum growth. For all three species, high levels of foliage inhibited P. ramorum growth and sporulation, with a steeper concentration dependence for the two oak samples. Phytophthora ramorum growth and sporulation were inhibited by either phytosterols or tannin-enriched extracts. High levels of sterols diminished elicitin gene expression in P. ramorum; whereas the tannin-enriched extract decreased the amount of 'functional' or ELISA-detectable elicitin, but not gene expression. Across all treatment combinations, P. ramorum growth and sporulation correlated strongly with the amount of ELISA-detectable elicitin (R (2)?= 0.791 and 0.961, respectively). PMID:23689874

  6. Controlled Cardiac Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenglin; Liu, Ying; Wang, Ge

    2006-01-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) has been a hot topic for years because of the clinical importance of cardiac diseases and the rapid evolution of CT systems. In this paper, we propose a novel strategy for controlled cardiac CT that may effectively reduce image artifacts due to cardiac and respiratory motions. Our approach is radically different from existing ones and is based on controlling the X-ray source rotation velocity and powering status in reference to the cardiac motion. We theoretically show that by such a control-based intervention the data acquisition process can be optimized for cardiac CT in the cases of periodic and quasiperiodic cardiac motions. Specifically, we formulate the corresponding coordination/control schemes for either exact or approximate matches between the ideal and actual source positions, and report representative simulation results that support our analytic findings. PMID:23165017

  7. High-throughput micro-plate HCL-vanillin assay for screening tannin content in sorghum grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum contains tannin which is a phenolic compound that offers health promoting antioxidant capacity. The HCl-vanillin assay is a common and time consuming method for determining tannin content, but is not efficient for screening large sample sets as seen in association mapping panels or breeding ...

  8. Phytologia (April1, 2014) 96(2) 63 Comparison of leaf terpenoids and tannins in Juniperus monosperma from woodrat (Neotoma

    E-print Network

    Adams, Robert P.

    Phytologia (April1, 2014) 96(2) 63 Comparison of leaf terpenoids and tannins in Juniperus to specialize on Juniperus that is heavily defended by terpenes and tannins. A comparison between heavily, woodrat (Neotoma stephensi) browsed and non-browsed Juniperus monosperma trees revealed

  9. Effect of variety and harvesting management on the concentration of tannins and alkaloids in tagasaste ( Chamaecytisus palmensis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Getnet Assefa; K. Sonder; M. Winkc; C. Kijora; N. Steinmueller; K. J. Peters

    2008-01-01

    The first part of this study evaluated contents of hydrolysable tannins (HT) and condensed tannins (CT) of 65 accessions of tagasaste. In the second part, the effects of harvesting stage and growing season on the contents of HT, CT and alkaloids in different plant parts of the widely grown tagasaste variety ‘MOA’ was studied in a randomized complete block design.

  10. Interaction between a tannin-containing legume and endophyte-infected tall fescue seed on lambs’ feeding behavior and physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was hypothesized that a tannin-rich legume like sainfoin reduces the negative postingestive effects of ergot alkaloids in tall fescue. Thirty-two 3-month-old lambs were individually penned and randomly assigned to a 2X2 factorial experimental design with two legume species (1-sainfoin [SF; tannin...

  11. Effects of condensed tannins on hydrogen sulfide production and the sulfate-reducing bacterial population of swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Condensed tannins are natural plant compounds that have antibacterial properties and have been used in studies to reduce methane emissions and frothy bloat in cattle. The objective of this study was to test the effects of condensed tannins on swine manure to target bacterial groups responsible for ...

  12. Flavonol glycosides in the petal of Rosa species as chemotaxonomic markers.

    PubMed

    Sarangowa, Ochir; Kanazawa, Tsutomu; Nishizawa, Makoto; Myoda, Takao; Bai, Changxi; Yamagishi, Takashi

    2014-11-01

    Thirteen flavonol glycosides were isolated from the petals of Rosa species belonging to the section Gallicanae, and their structures were identified from their spectroscopic data. These flavonol glycosides, along with two flavonol glycosides isolated from Rosa rugosa, in the petals of 31 Rosa species belonging to sections Gallicanae, Cinnamomeae, Caninae, and Synstylae were quantitatively analyzed by UPLC. The results indicated that the species belonging to these sections could be classified into four types (Type A, B, C and D) based on the pattern of flavonol glycoside contents, whereas the R. rugosa flavonol glycosides were detected only in section Cinnamomeae. A principal components analysis (PCA) calculated from the 15 flavonol glycosides contained in these samples supported the presence of four types. The distribution of the species in Type D (a group of Cinnamomeae) was shown to reflect close interrelationships, but species in Type B (one group of Gallicanae) could be subdivided into two groups, one of which contained species in section Synstylae. Moreover, the flavonol glycosides were grouped by sugar moieties: a disaccharide composed of two hexoses (S1), a hexose (S2), including a hexose with galloyl group, a pentose (S3), and a disaccharide composed of a hexose and a pentose (S4). The ratios of the amounts of S1-S4 to total flavonol glycoside content indicated that differences among the four sections were more distinctive than the amounts of the 15 flavonol glycosides. The 31 samples were divided into Type B, composed of one type of Gallicanae and Synstylae, Type A+C, composed of another type of Gallicanae and Caninae, and Type D, composed of Cinnamomeae. The R. rugosa flavonol glycosides were shown to be important chemotaxonomic markers for the classification of species in Cinnamomeae, and this method of using flavonol glycosides as chemotaxonomic markers could be useful for the identification of Rosa species belonging to sections Gallicanae, Cinnamomeae, Caninae, and Synstylae. PMID:25220498

  13. Study on tannin–metal interaction in aqueous solution using spectrophotometric titration and micelle-mediated separation/atomic absorption spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tannins, including hydrolysable and condensed tannins, are important secondary metabolites of vascular plants and are a major plant-derived carbon source in the environment. Due to the many phenolic hydroxyl groups characteristic of tannins, these compounds have been long been thought to play signi...

  14. Toxicity of tannins towards the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the brine shrimp Artemia salina.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Toru; Sato, Masashi; Mori, Tomoaki; Mohamed, Ahmed S A; Fujii, Kyoko; Tsukioka, Junko

    2002-08-01

    Toxicities of gallo- and condensed tannins towards the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is dependent on the tannins' molecular sizes. In the present paper we investigate the toxicity of ellagitannins to C elegans and the toxicity of ellagi-, gallo-, and condensed tannins to the brine shrimpArtemia salina. Ellagitannins 1 and 2 were isolated from Euphorbia supina and identified as tellimagrandin I and rugosin A methyl ester, respectively. An ellagitannin preparation from Cornus officinalis was chromatographically fractionated into ellagitannins A through H, having different molecular weights and specific rotations. Three of the ten ellagitannins, 2, G, and H produced significant toxicity towards C. elegans, showing the presence of an activity-structure relationship, as opposed to the results from tests of gallo- and condensed tannins. Ellagi-, gallo-, and condensed tannins also produced toxicity in A. salina. PMID:12182536

  15. Cardiac innervation and sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Keiichi; Kanazawa, Hideaki; Aizawa, Yoshiyasu; Ardell, Jeffrey L; Shivkumar, Kalyanam

    2015-06-01

    Afferent and efferent cardiac neurotransmission via the cardiac nerves intricately modulates nearly all physiological functions of the heart (chronotropy, dromotropy, lusitropy, and inotropy). Afferent information from the heart is transmitted to higher levels of the nervous system for processing (intrinsic cardiac nervous system, extracardiac-intrathoracic ganglia, spinal cord, brain stem, and higher centers), which ultimately results in efferent cardiomotor neural impulses (via the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves). This system forms interacting feedback loops that provide physiological stability for maintaining normal rhythm and life-sustaining circulation. This system also ensures that there is fine-tuned regulation of sympathetic-parasympathetic balance in the heart under normal and stressed states in the short (beat to beat), intermediate (minutes to hours), and long term (days to years). This important neurovisceral/autonomic nervous system also plays a major role in the pathophysiology and progression of heart disease, including heart failure and arrhythmias leading to sudden cardiac death. Transdifferentiation of neurons in heart failure, functional denervation, cardiac and extracardiac neural remodeling has also been identified and characterized during the progression of disease. Recent advances in understanding the cellular and molecular processes governing innervation and the functional control of the myocardium in health and disease provide a rational mechanistic basis for the development of neuraxial therapies for preventing sudden cardiac death and other arrhythmias. Advances in cellular, molecular, and bioengineering realms have underscored the emergence of this area as an important avenue of scientific inquiry and therapeutic intervention. PMID:26044253

  16. New hydrolyzable tannins, shephagenins A and B, from Shepherdia argentea as HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, T; Ito, H; Hatano, T; Kurata, M; Nakanishi, T; Inada, A; Murata, H; Inatomi, Y; Matsuura, N; Ono, K; Nakane, H; Noda, M; Lang, F A; Murata, J

    1996-08-01

    Two new hydrolyzable tannins, shephagenins A and B, were isolated along with hippophaenin A and strictinin from the leaf extract of Shepherdia argentea, which showed a remarkable inhibitory activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 reverse transcriptase. Their structures, having a gluconic acid core, have been elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods. The inhibitory effect of the leaf extract on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase was found to be due to tannins, and their activities were stronger than that of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate as a positive control. PMID:8795264

  17. Active site and laminarin binding in glycoside hydrolase family 55.

    PubMed

    Bianchetti, Christopher M; Takasuka, Taichi E; Deutsch, Sam; Udell, Hannah S; Yik, Eric J; Bergeman, Lai F; Fox, Brian G

    2015-05-01

    The Carbohydrate Active Enzyme (CAZy) database indicates that glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) contains both endo- and exo-?-1,3-glucanases. The founding structure in the GH55 is PcLam55A from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Ishida, T., Fushinobu, S., Kawai, R., Kitaoka, M., Igarashi, K., and Samejima, M. (2009) Crystal structure of glycoside hydrolase family 55 ?-1,3-glucanase from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 10100-10109). Here, we present high resolution crystal structures of bacterial SacteLam55A from the highly cellulolytic Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E with bound substrates and product. These structures, along with mutagenesis and kinetic studies, implicate Glu-502 as the catalytic acid (as proposed earlier for Glu-663 in PcLam55A) and a proton relay network of four residues in activating water as the nucleophile. Further, a set of conserved aromatic residues that define the active site apparently enforce an exo-glucanase reactivity as demonstrated by exhaustive hydrolysis reactions with purified laminarioligosaccharides. Two additional aromatic residues that line the substrate-binding channel show substrate-dependent conformational flexibility that may promote processive reactivity of the bound oligosaccharide in the bacterial enzymes. Gene synthesis carried out on ?30% of the GH55 family gave 34 active enzymes (19% functional coverage of the nonredundant members of GH55). These active enzymes reacted with only laminarin from a panel of 10 different soluble and insoluble polysaccharides and displayed a broad range of specific activities and optima for pH and temperature. Application of this experimental method provides a new, systematic way to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic space for functional properties. PMID:25752603

  18. A new flavonol glycoside from the Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Haibing; Liu, Huixin; Yuan, Ke

    2012-01-01

    Background: Abelmoschus esculentus L. belonging to the family Malvaceae is a kind of one year herbage plant, which is one of the most important vegetables widely grown in Nigeria for its tender fruits and young leaves. It's easy to be cultivated and grows well in both tropical and temperate zones, that is, it is widely planted from Africa to Asia, South European to America. A new flavonol glycoside characterized as 5,7,3?,4?-tetrahydroxy-4??-O-methyl flavonol -3-O-?-D- glucopyranoside (1) has been isolated from the fruit of A. esculentus together with one known compound 5,7,3?,4?-tetrahydroxy flavonol -3-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?6)]-?-D-glucopyranoside (2). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of its spectral data, including 2-D NMR and mass (MS) spectra. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated by 2 assays, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The present work deals with the isolation, identification and antioxidant activity of the two compounds. Materials and Methods: The compounds were isolated by Diaion HP-20, Sephedex LH-20 column chromatography methods, their structures were identified by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated by two assays, e.g., DPPH and FRAP. Results: Two flavonol glycosides have been isolated from the fruit of Abelmoschus esculentus L. for the first time, and the compound 1 was a new compound, the compound 2 was isolated from the plant for the first time. Conclusion: The results show that the two flavonol glycosides have strong ability for scavenging DPPH and FRAP free radical by the experiment of antioxidant activities, so A. esculentus may be a natural antioxidants resource. PMID:22438657

  19. Steroidal glycosides from the underground parts of Helleborus caucasicus.

    PubMed

    Bassarello, Carla; Muzashvili, Tamara; Skhirtladze, Alexandre; Kemertelidze, Ether; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2008-03-01

    Four polyhydroxylated and polyunsaturated furostanol glycosides (1-4), named caucasicosides A (1), B (2), C (3) and D (4), were isolated from the MeOH extract of the underground parts of Helleborus caucasicus, along with four spirostanol derivatives, a furostanol glycoside, a furospirostanol glycoside, 20-hydroxyecdysone and the bufadienolides hellebrigenin and deglucohellebrin. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated as furosta-5,20(22),25(27)-triene-1beta,3beta,11alpha,26-tetrol 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylfurosta-5,20(22),25(27)-triene-1beta,3beta,11alpha,26-tetrol 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), 26-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-22alpha-methoxyfurosta-5,25(27)-diene-1beta,3beta,11alpha,26-tetrol 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylfurosta-5,20(22),25(27)-triene-1beta,3beta,26-triol 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-4-O-sulfo-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (4). Structure elucidation was accomplished through the extensive use of 1D- and 2D NMR experiments including 1H-1H (COSY, 1D-TOCSY) and 1H-13C (HSQC, HMBC) spectroscopy along with ESI-MS and HR-ESI-MS. The aglycones of 1-4 have never been reported before. PMID:18226823

  20. Three new phenolic glycosides from Curculigo orchioides G.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Ai-Xue; Shen, Yong; Jiang, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Zhou, Jun; Lü, Jun; Chen, Ji-Jun

    2010-10-01

    Three new phenolic glycosides, curculigosides F-H (1-3), were isolated from rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. Their structures were elucidated based on comprehensive spectroscopic analyses including IR, MS, 1D- and 2D NMR (HSQC, COSY, and HMBC). Curculigosides F-H (1-3) were evaluated for their anti-HBV activity in vitro using the HBV transfected Hep G2.2.15 cell line. Compound 1 exhibited weak activity with an IC(50) value of 2.08 mM on hepatitis B virus (HBV) e antigen (HBeAg) secretion of the HepG2.2.15 cell line. PMID:20550957

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of bibenzyl glycosides as potent tyrosinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Reiko; Oozeki, Hiromi; Muraoka, Seiichi; Tanaka, Saori; Motegi, Yukari; Nihei, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Yoichi; Masuoka, Noriyoshi; Nihei, Ken-ichi

    2011-04-01

    Bibenzyl glycosides 1-6 were synthesized from 2,4-dihydoxybenzaldehyde and xylose, glucose, cellobiose or maltose. The key steps in the synthesis were the Wittig reaction and trichloroacetimidate glycosylation. Tests for tyrosinase inhibitory activity showed that all were significantly active, indicating that they are unique hydrophilic tyrosinase inhibitors. Bibenzyl xyloside 2 is a particularly potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 0.43 ?M, 17 times higher than that of kojic acid). These results suggest that the hydrophilic cavity of tyrosinase might accommodate the bulky carbohydrate on the bibenzyl scaffold. PMID:21334791

  2. Two new glycosides from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia L.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ming-Xu; Zhang, Hong-Cai; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shu-Min; Liu, Li

    2012-01-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the fruits of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.), and find novel compounds, an n-butanol extract of the ethanol soluble fraction was subjected to repeated silica gel and ODS column chromatography and HPLC. Two new glycosides were isolated and their structures elucidated by NMR and HRFAB-MS spectrometry as (2E,4E,7Z)-deca-2,4,7-trienoate-2-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-?-D-glucopyranoside and amyl-1-O-?-D-apio-furanosyl-1,6-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, respectively. PMID:23103531

  3. Amyloglucosidase-catalyzed synthesis of eugenyl and curcuminyl glycosides.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Giriyapura R; Divakar, Soundar

    2007-04-01

    Glycosylation of the phenolic hydroxyl group of the phenyl propanoid systems, eugenol 1 and curcumin 2, using an amyloglucosidase from Rhizopus and a beta-glucosidase from sweet almonds together with carbohydrates (D-glucose 3, D-mannose 4, maltose 5, sucrose 6 and D-mannitol 7) in di-isopropyl ether produced glycosides at 7-52% yields in 72 h. Spectral studies indicated that the reaction occurred between the phenolic OH groups and C-1 and/or 6-O-groups of the carbohydrates with curcumin exhibiting bis glycosylation. PMID:17216300

  4. Flavonoid Glycosides from Arnica montana and Arnica chamissonis.

    PubMed

    Merfort, I; Wendisch, D

    1987-10-01

    Five flavonoid glycosides were identified from flowers of ARNICA MONTANA, four from A. CHAMISSONIS subsp. FOLIOSA var. INCANA. The structures were established on the basis of total acid hydrolysis and spectral data (UV, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, MS) as hispidulin 7- O-beta-glucoside, isorhamnetin 3- O-beta-glucoside, 3- O-beta- D-glucopyranosides of spinacetin, 6-methoxykaempferol and patuletin and querectin 3- O-(6''- O-acetyl)-beta- D-glucopyranoside. The latter compound can serve as distinctive marker between these two ARNICA species. The (1)H-NMR spectra in CD (3)OD are discussed. PMID:17269063

  5. A new steroidal glycoside from the seeds of Hyoscyamus niger.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenna; Zhang, Wei; Luo, Jianguang; Kong, Lingyi

    2013-01-01

    A new steroidal glycoside hyoscyamoside G (1), together with two known analogues hyoscyamoside E (2) and hyoscyamoside F1 (3), was isolated from the seeds of Hyoscyamus niger. The structure of 1 was established as (22R,24Z)-1?,3?,7?,22,26-pentakishydroxylergost-22-O-?-d-gulcopyranosyl-5,24-diene-26-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, by means of chemical and spectroscopic methods including HRESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR. In vitro, compound 2 showed cytotoxicity against human lung cancer cell H460 with IC50 value of 66 ?g/mL. PMID:23745717

  6. New megastigmane glycoside and alkaloids from Streptomyces sp. YIM 63342.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Qiong; Yang, Ya-Bin; Zhou, Hao; He, Guang-Wei; Zhao, Li-Xing; Xu, Li-Hua; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2013-01-01

    New sesquiterpene glycoside, cyclodipeptide and piperidine derivative were isolated from Streptomyces sp. YIM 63342. On the basis of spectral data, their structures were determined as 3R, 5R, 6S, 7E, 9R-megastigman-7-en-3,5,6,9-tetrol-9-O-?-D-apiofuranosyl-(1??2)-?-D-glucopyranoside (1), cyclo (L-Pro-L-OMet) (2) and (R)-(E, E)-2-(l,3-pentadienyl) piperidine (3), together with three known compounds as N-acetyltyramine (4), lycoperodine-1 (5), cyclo(L-Pro-L-Tyr)(6). PMID:22934740

  7. New unusual pregnane glycosides with antiproliferative activity from Solenostemma argel.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Alberto; Perrone, Angela; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Felice, Francesca; Balestrieri, Ciro; Hamed, Arafa I; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2005-08-01

    Seven new 15-keto pregnane glycosides, namely Stemmosides E--K, were isolated from Solenostemma argel. Stemmosides E--J are characterized by the occurrence of an uncommon 14 beta proton configuration while stemmosides E and F possess in addition a rare enolic function in C-16. On the other hand, stemmosides G-J display an unusual C-17 alpha side chain. Their structures were established by ESI-MS and NMR experiments. Moreover, the effect of these compounds on the VEGF-induced in Kaposi's sarcoma cell proliferation was tested. Results indicated that all the compounds reduced the cell proliferation in a dose dependent manner. PMID:15946718

  8. Megastigmane glycosides and an acylated triterpenoid from Eriobotrya japonica.

    PubMed

    Ito, H; Kobayashi, E; Li, S H; Hatano, T; Sugita, D; Kubo, N; Shimura, S; Itoh, Y; Yoshida, T

    2001-06-01

    Two new megastigmane glycosides, eriojaposides A (1) and B (2), and a new acylated triterpenoid (3) were isolated along with nine known compounds from a leaf extract of Eriobotrya japonica. The structures of 1--3 were characterized as (6R,9R)-3-oxo-alpha-ionyl-9-O-beta-xylopyranosyl-(1' '-->6')-beta-glucopyranoside, (6R,9R)-3-oxo-alpha-ionyl-9-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-(1' '-->6')-beta-glucopyranoside, and 3 alpha-trans-feruloyloxy-2 alpha-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, respectively, on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence. PMID:11421734

  9. Four new trace phenolic glycosides from Curculigo orchioides.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Ai-Xue; Shen, Yong; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Jiang, Zhi-Yong; Zhou, Jun; Lu, Jun; Chen, Ji-Jun

    2010-01-01

    Four new trace phenolic glycosides named orcinosides D (1), E (2), F (3), and G (4) were isolated from the rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. Based on comprehensive spectroscopic analyses including IR, FAB-MS, HR-ESI-MS, 1D- and 2D NMR (HSQC, HMBC), their structures were elucidated as orcinol-1-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside (1), orcinol-1-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), orcinol-3-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), and 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-4-ethoxyl-3-hydroxymethylphenol (4). PMID:20390742

  10. Triterpene glycosides from Curculigo orchioides and their cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Yokosuka, Akihito; Sato, Koji; Yamori, Takao; Mimaki, Yoshihiro

    2010-06-25

    Six new cycloartane glycosides (1-6) were isolated from the rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides. The structures of 1-6 were determined by spectroscopic analyses and the results of hydrolytic cleavage. Compounds 1-6, and their common aglycone (1a), were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against HL-60 human leukemia cells. Compounds 1 and 1a showed cytotoxic activity against HL-60 cells with IC(50) values of 9.0 and 1.8 microM, respectively. The cancer cell growth inhibition of 1a was also examined using a panel of 39 human cancer cell lines in the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research. PMID:20524638

  11. HPLC Analysis of the Flavonoid Glycosides from Betulae folium.

    PubMed

    Dallenbach-Tölke, K; Nyirediy, S; Meier, B; Sticher, O

    1987-04-01

    The main flavonoid glycosides from BETULAE folium are separated with a RP-HPLC method. The mobile phase for the separation of the seven most important compounds (rutin, hyperin, quercetin-3-arabinofuranoside, quercetin-3-arabinopyranoside, quercetin-3-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-glucuronide, and myricetin-3-galactoside) was optimized with the "PRISMA" model, which is a multisolvent optimization system. The isocratic separations were finished within 30 minutes and the peak purity was controlled with diode-array detection. The method can be applied for quantitative determination, as was demonstrated for different samples of B. PENDULA and B. PUBESCENS. PMID:17268992

  12. Environment and Genotype Affect Sweetpotato Storage Root Periderm Resin Glycoside Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resin glycosides are complex compounds composed primarily of fatty acids and sugars that contribute to allelopathic potential and pest resistance in sweetpotato. Total periderm resin glycoside (PRG) contents of 10 sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) clones grown in three different field trials was det...

  13. Inhibition of oxidation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and fish oil by quercetin glycosides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gwendolyn M. Huber; H. P. Vasantha Rupasinghe; Fereidoon Shahidi

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of naturally occurring flavonols, quercetin glycosides, were examined and compared with common food antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and ?-tocopherol. Antioxidants were incorporated into selected polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) or fish oil in aqueous emulsions and bulk oil systems. The effectiveness of quercetin was similar to or greater than quercetin glycosides in inhibiting lipid oxidation in the oil-in-water

  14. Biochemical ecology of the forest tent caterpillar: responses to dietary protein and phenolic glycosides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Lindroth; Mark S. Bloomer

    1991-01-01

    Interactions between quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) and the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) are likely to be influenced by leaf protein and phenolic glycoside levels, and insect detoxication activity. We investigated the direct and interactive effects of dietary protein and phenolic glycosides on larval performance and midgut enzyme activity of forest tent caterpillars. We conducted bioassays with six artificial diets,

  15. Enhanced Biotransformation Capacity of Rhodiola rosea Callus Cultures for Glycosid Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zsuzsanna György; Ari Tolonen; Peter Neubauer; Anja Hohtola

    2005-01-01

    Rhodiola rosea is a promising medicinal plant that produces various glycosides. Recently we developed a successful method for cultivating it in liquid cultures of compact callus aggregates. In a previous study we reported the successful production of the glycosides of R. rosea by biotransformation of cinnamyl alcohol and tyrosol. In the present study we investigated the possibility of further increasing

  16. Fate of Host-Plant Iridoid Glycosides in Lepidopteran Larvae of Nymphalidae and Arcthdae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Deane Bowers; Nancy E. Stamp

    1997-01-01

    We compared the ability of larvae of six lepidopteran species to sequester iridoid glycosides. All larvae were fed on a common host plant, Plantago lanceolata, which contains two iridoid glycosides, aucubin and catalpol. Four species of arctiids were examined: Pyrrharctia isabella, Spilosoma congrua, Spilosoma latipennis, and Spilosoma virginica. For comparison, we also examined two nymphalid species, one of which, Junonia

  17. Biochemical detoxication: mechanism of differential tiger swallowtail tolerance to phenolic glycosides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Lindroth

    1989-01-01

    Phenolic glycosides, commonly occurring allelochemicals in the plant family Salicaceae, are differentially toxic to subspecies of the eastern tiger swallowtail and responsible for striking differences in the abilities of Papilio glaucus canadensis and P.g. glaucus to utilize the Salicaceae as food plants. This research was designed to test the hypothesis that particularly high esterase activity confers resistance to phenolic glycosides

  18. A New Antibacterial Sesquiterpene Glycoside and Other Bioactive Compounds from Biebersteinia Heterostemon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Meng; H. Lu; H. Li; L. Yang; R. X. Tan

    1999-01-01

    In addition to the plant sterols ?-sitosterol and daucosterol, a new bisabolane-typed sesquiterpene glycoside and three bioactive compounds (artemetin, geniposide and 6?-hydroxygeniposide) were characterized from the whole plant of Biebersteinia heterostemon endemic to the Tibetan area. The structure determination of the novel glycoside and identification of the known phytochemicals were accomplished by a combination of modern spectroscopic methods. Tests of

  19. Hyperplastic cardiac sarcoma recurrence.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Masood A; Abreu, Juan A; Durrani, Farida; Daniele, Eddie; Bowman, Kimberly C; Sadel, Scott; Asgarian, Kourosh T; McGinn, Joseph T; Nabagiez, John P

    2015-01-01

    Primary cardiac sarcomas are rare tumors with a median survival of 6-12 months. Data suggest that an aggressive multidisciplinary approach may improve patient outcome. We present the case of a male who underwent resection of cardiac sarcoma three times from the age of 32 to 34. This report discusses the malignant nature of cardiac sarcoma and the importance of postoperative multidisciplinary care. PMID:25861508

  20. Host plant influences on iridoid glycoside sequestration of generalist and specialist caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Lampert, Evan C; Bowers, M Deane

    2010-10-01

    The effect of diet on sequestration of iridoid glycosides was examined in larvae of three lepidopteran species. Larvae were reared upon Plantago major, or P. lanceolata, or switched from one to the other in the penultimate instar. Junonia coenia is a specialist on iridoid glycoside-producing plants, whereas the arctiids, Spilosoma congrua and Estigmene acrea, are both polyphagous and eat iridoid-producing plants. All species sequestered iridoids. The specialist J. coenia sequestered from three to seven times the amounts sequestered by the two generalist species. Junonia coenia iridoid glycoside content depended on diet, and they sequestered from 5 to 15% dry weight iridoid glycosides. Estigmene acrea iridoid glycoside sequestration was relatively low, around 2% dry weight and did not vary with diet. Spilosoma congrua sequestration varied with diet and ranged from approximately 3 to 6% dry weight. PMID:20809144

  1. O-acylated flavonoid glycosides of the needles of Pinus sylvestris I. O-acetylated derivatives of flavonol glycosides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. Zapesochnaya; S. Z. Ivanova; S. A. Medvedeva; N. A. Tyukavkina

    1978-01-01

    Summary O-Acetylated flavonol glycosides have been isolated for the first time from the needles of the Scotch pine and the following structures have been established for them: 3,4'5,7-tetrahydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone 3-O-ß-D-(6?-O-acetylglucopyranoside), 3,4',5,7-tetrahydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone 3-O-ß-D-(6?-O-acetylgalactopyranoside), and 3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone 3-O-ß-D-(6?-O-acetylglucopyranoside). The first two compounds have not previously been described in the literature.

  2. Phenylvaleric acid and flavonoid glycosides from Polygonum salicifolium.

    PubMed

    Calis, I; Kuruüzüm, A; Demirezer, L O; Sticher, O; Ganci, W; Rüedi, P

    1999-08-01

    (3R)-O-beta-D-Glucopyranosyloxy-5-phenylvaleric acid (1), (3R)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-5-phenylvaleric acid n-butyl ester (2), and a new dihydrochalcone diglycoside 4'-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-glucopyranosyl]oxy-2'-hydroxy-3', 6'-dimethoxydihydrochalcone (3), together with six known flavonoid glycosides [kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (= astragalin) (4), kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (5), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (= isoquercitrin) (6), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (= hyperoside) (7), quercetin-3-O-(2''-O-galloyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8), and quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside (9)] were isolated from the aerial parts of Polygonum salicifolium. The structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was performed by spectroscopic (UV, IR, ESI-MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR), chemical (methylation, enzymatic hydrolysis, partial synthesis), and chromatographic methods (HPLC, Chiralcel OD). The flavonoid glycosides (4-9) demonstrated scavenging properties toward the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical in TLC autographic assays. PMID:10479312

  3. Identification of a novel flavonoid glycoside sulfotransferase in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Hashiguchi, Takuyu; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Shimohira, Takehiko; Kurogi, Katsuhisa; Yamasaki, Masao; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Akashi, Ryo; Liu, Ming-Cheh; Suiko, Masahito

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of sulfated flavonoids in plants suggests that sulfation may play a regulatory role in the physiological functions of flavonoids. Sulfation of flavonoids is mediated by cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs), which utilize 3?-phosphoadenosine 5?-phosphosulfate (PAPS) as the sulfate donor. A novel SULT from Arabidopsis thaliana, designated AtSULT202B7 (AGI code: At1g13420), was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Using various compounds as potential substrates, we demonstrated, for the first time, that AtSULT202B7 displayed sulfating activity specific for flavonoids. Intriguingly, the recombinant enzyme preferred flavonoid glycosides (e.g. kaempferol-3-glucoside and quercetin-3-glucoside) rather than their aglycone counterparts. Among a series of hydroxyflavones tested, AtSULT202B7 showed the enzymatic activity only for 7-hydroxyflavone. pH-dependency study showed that the optimum pH was relatively low (pH 5.5) compared with those (pH 6.0–8.5) previously reported for other isoforms. Based on the comparison of high performance (pressure) liquid chromatography (HPLC) retention times between sulfated kaempferol and the deglycosylated product of sulfated kaempferol-3-glucoside, the sulfation site in sulfated kaempferol-3-glucoside appeared to be the hydroxyl group of the flavonoid skeleton. In addition, by using direct infusion mass spectrometry, it was found that the sulfated product had one sulfonate group within the molecule. These results indicated that AtSULT202B7 functions as a flavonoid glycoside 7-sulfotransferase. PMID:24202284

  4. Potent antiviral flavone glycosides from Ficus benjamina leaves.

    PubMed

    Yarmolinsky, Ludmila; Huleihel, Mahmoud; Zaccai, Michele; Ben-Shabat, Shimon

    2012-03-01

    Crude ethanol extracts from Ficus benjamina leaves strongly inhibit Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1/2) as well as Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) cell infection in vitro. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract demonstrated that the most efficient inhibition of HSV-1 and HSV-2 was obtained with the flavonoid fraction. The present study was aimed to further isolate, purify and identify substances with potent antiviral activity from the flavonoid fraction of F. benjamina extracts. Flavonoids were collected from the leaf ethanol extracts through repeated purification procedure and HPLC analysis. The antiviral activity of each substance was then evaluated in cell culture. Three known flavone glycosides, (1) quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, (2) kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside and (3) kaempferol 3-O-robinobioside, showing highest antiviral efficiency were selected and their structure was determined by spectroscopic analyses including NMR and mass spectrometry (MS). These three flavones were highly effective against HSV-1 reaching a selectivity index (SI) of 266, 100 and 666 for compound 1, 2 and 3, respectively, while the SI of their aglycons, quercetin and kaempferol amounted only in 7.1 and 3.2, respectively. Kaempferol 3-O-robinobioside showed similar SI to that of acyclovir (ACV), the standard anti-HSV drug. Although highly effective against HSV-1 and HSV-2, these flavone glycosides did not show any significant activity against VZV. PMID:22155188

  5. Tissue factor inhibitory sesquiterpene glycoside from Eriobotrya japonica.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ming Hong; Son, Yeon Kyoung; Han, Yong Nam

    2004-06-01

    Tissue factor (TF, tissue thromboplastin) is a membrane bound glycoprotein, which accelerates the blood clotting, activating both the intrinsic and the extrinsic pathways to serve as a cofactor for activated factor VII (VIIa). The TF-factor VIIa complex (TF/VIIa) proteolytically activates factors IX and X, which leads to the generation of thrombin and fibrin clots. In order to isolate TF inhibitors, by means of a bioassay-directed chromatographic separation technique, from the leaves of Eriobotrya japonica Lindley (Rosaceae), a known sesquiterpene glycoside (2) and ferulic acid (3) were isolated as inhibitors that were evaluated using a single-clotting assay method for determining TF activity. Another sesquiterpene glycoside (1) was also isolated but was inactive in the assay system. Compound 3 was yielded by alkaline hydrolysis of compound 2. The structures of compounds 1, 2, and 3 were identified by means of spectral analysis as 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl nerolidol (1), 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[alpha-L-(4-trans-feruloyl)-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl nerolidol (2) and ferulic acid (3), respectively. Compounds 2 and 3 inhibited 50% of the TF activity at concentrations of 2 and 369 microM/TF units, respectively. PMID:15283463

  6. Steviol glycosides modulate glucose transport in different cell types.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Benedetta; Zambonin, Laura; Angeloni, Cristina; Leoncini, Emanuela; Dalla Sega, Francesco Vieceli; Prata, Cecilia; Fiorentini, Diana; Hrelia, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Extracts from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a plant native to Central and South America, have been used as a sweetener since ancient times. Currently, Stevia extracts are largely used as a noncaloric high-potency biosweetener alternative to sugar, due to the growing incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and metabolic disorders worldwide. Despite the large number of studies on Stevia and steviol glycosides in vivo, little is reported concerning the cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning the beneficial effects on human health. The effect of four commercial Stevia extracts on glucose transport activity was evaluated in HL-60 human leukaemia and in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. The extracts were able to enhance glucose uptake in both cellular lines, as efficiently as insulin. Our data suggest that steviol glycosides could act by modulating GLUT translocation through the PI3K/Akt pathway since treatments with both insulin and Stevia extracts increased the phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt. Furthermore, Stevia extracts were able to revert the effect of the reduction of glucose uptake caused by methylglyoxal, an inhibitor of the insulin receptor/PI3K/Akt pathway. These results corroborate the hypothesis that Stevia extracts could mimic insulin effects modulating PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:24327825

  7. Vitexin protects against cardiac hypertrophy via inhibiting calcineurin and CaMKII signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lu, Cui-cui; Xu, Ying-qi; Wu, Ji-chao; Hang, Peng-zhou; Wang, Yan; Wang, Chen; Wu, Jian-wei; Qi, Jian-cui; Zhang, Yong; Du, Zhi-min

    2013-08-01

    Vitexin is a flavone glycoside isolated from the leaf of Crataeguspinnatifida Bunge, the utility of which has been demonstrated in several cardiovascular diseases. However, its role in cardiac hypertrophy remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether vitexin prevents cardiac hypertrophy induced by isoproterenol (ISO) in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes in vitro and pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice in vivo. The results revealed that vitexin (10, 30, and 100 ?M) dose-dependently attenuated cardiac hypertrophy induced by ISO in vitro. Furthermore, vitexin (3, 10, and 30 mg kg(-1)) prevented cardiac hypertrophy induced by transverse aortic constriction as assessed by heart weight/body weight, left ventricular weight/body weight and lung weight/body weight ratios, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area, echocardiographic parameters, and gene expression of hypertrophic markers. Further investigation demonstrated that vitexin inhibited the increment of the resting intracellular free calcium induced by ISO. Vitexin also inhibited the expression of calcium downstream effectors calcineurin-NFATc3 and phosphorylated calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our results indicate that vitexin has the potential to protect against cardiac hypertrophy through Ca2+-mediated calcineurin-NFATc3 and CaMKII signaling pathways. PMID:23624753

  8. The effect of a condensed tannin-containing forage on methane emission by goats1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Puchala; B. R. Min; A. L. Goetsch; T. Sahlu

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to com- pare methane emission by goats consuming the con- densed tannin-containing forage sericea lespedeza (Les- pedeza cuneata) or a mixture of crabgrass (Digitaria ischaemum) and Kentucky 31 tall fescue (Festuca arun- dinacea). Two groups of 12 Angora does (initial average BW = 41.5 ± 2.7 kg) that previously grazed a pasture of sericea

  9. Methane Emission by Goats Consuming Condensed Tannin-containing Forage at Different Frequencies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-four yearling Boer and Spanish wethers (33.5 ± 0.36 kg BW) were used in a 32-d experiment to assess effects of frequency of feeding condensed tannin (CT)-containing fresh sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) on ruminal methane (CH4) emission. Fresh SL (15.3% CT) was fed free-choice ever...

  10. Seasonal changes in tannin and nitrogen contents of Casuarina equisetifolia branchlets*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-hua; Ye, Gong-fu; Lin, Yi-ming; Zhou, Hai-chao; Zeng, Qi

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal dynamics of total phenolics (TP), extractable condensed tannins (ECT), protein-bound condensed tannins (PBCT), fiber-bound condensed tannins (FBCT), total condensed tannins (TCT), and protein precipitation capacity (PPC) in young, mature and senescent branchlets of Casuarina equisetifolia were studied at Chishan Forestry Center of Dongshan County, Fujian Province, China. In addition, nitrogen contents of branchlets at the different developmental stages were also determined. The contents of TP and ECT, and PPC in young branchlets were significantly higher than those in mature and senescent branchlets through the season. However, PBCT contents were significantly higher in senescent branchlets than those in young and mature branchlets; FBCT fluctuated with season. Young branchlets had the highest N content, which decreased during branch maturity and senescence. The highest contents of TP and the lowest contents of TCT and N in young and mature branchlets were observed in summer. There was a significant negative correlation between TP and N contents. In contrast, TCT contents were positively correlated to N contents. Nutrient resorption during senescence and high TCT:N ratios in senescent branchlets are the important nutrient conservation strategies for C. equisetifolia. PMID:19235268

  11. Tannins--a dietary problem for hand-reared grey partridge Perdix perdix after release?

    PubMed

    Liukkonen-Anttila, T; Kentala, A; Hissa, R

    2001-10-01

    A 4-week feeding trial on 22 grey partridges Perdix perdix was conducted in this study. Seven birds were fed commercial poultry food, seven natural food and eight commercial poultry food containing 6% of quebracho-tannin. Our results suggest that 6% dietary tannin, when added to a commercial food with high protein content, effects the grey partridge only slightly. No difference was seen in food consumption and body mass remained stable. However, birds fed tannin had longer small intestines, which most probably indicate gastrointestinal detoxication. They also excreted a high amount of tannin in their faeces. In addition, no between-group variation was seen in cytochrome P450 enzymes. Birds fed natural food had high concentration of nitrogen in intestinal excreta and high plasma alanine concentrations. They also suffered a rapid decrease in body mass after the change in diet and their body mass remained low. This may indicate increased protein excretion and/or catabolism of endogenous nutrient reserves. Potential short-term effects of the change in diet were seen in plasma. These findings coincide with the high mortality period of birds released into the wild. PMID:11574293

  12. Differential Sensitivity to Vegetable Tannins in Planktonic Crustacea from Alpine Mosquito Breeding Sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Rey; J. P. David; A. Cuany; M. Amichot; J. C. Meyran

    2000-01-01

    The differential capability to detoxify dietary tannins from the leaf litter of the vegetation surrounding alpine mosquito communities was experimentally investigated in different strains of planktonic crustacean taxa (Daphnia pulex, Simocephalus vetulus, and Eucypris virens) associated with the culicine populations. Tannic acid, used as an experimental standard, had differential biocidal effects in strains associated with various surrounding vegetation with different

  13. 5?Reductase inhibitory tannin-related compounds isolated from Shorea laeviforia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshio Hirano; Ryuichiro Kondo; Kokki Sakai

    2003-01-01

    Five tannin-related compounds – gallic acid, flavogallonic acid dilactone, valoneic acid dilactone, gallagyldilactone, ellagic acid – were isolated from the heartwood of Shorea laeviforia, and the inhibitory activity of each against rat liver 5 ?-reductase was evaluated. Valoneic acid dilactone and gallagyldilactone exhibited positive inhibitory activity, but gallic acid and ellagic acid did not. Flavogallonic acid dilactone stimulated 5 ?-reductase

  14. Dietary crude protein and tannin impact dairy manure chemistry and ammonia emissions from soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excess crude protein (CP) in dairy cow diets is excreted mostly as urea nitrogen (N), which increases ammonia (NH3) emissions from dairy farms, and heightens human health and environmental concerns. Feeding less CP and more tannin to dairy cows may enhance feed N use and milk production, abate NH3 e...

  15. Removal of lignin and tannin colour from aqueous solution by adsorption onto activated charcoal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Venkata Mohan; J. Karthikeyan

    1997-01-01

    Sorptive uptake of lignin and tannin from an aqueous phase by activated charcoal was investigated in the laboratory. The sorption reaction was found to be of a first order. The influence on the rate of sorption of various factors, such as amount of sorbent and pH of the system, have been investigated. Sorption data fit well into the Langmuir adsorption

  16. Hydrolyzable tannins, the active constituents of three Greek Cytinus taxa against several tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Magiatis, P; Pratsinis, H; Kalpoutzakis, E; Konstantinidou, A; Davaris, P; Skaltsounis, A L

    2001-06-01

    Hydrolyzable tannins were found to be the active cytotoxic constituents of three Greek Cytinus taxa: Cytinus ruber, Cytinus hypocistis subsp. hypocistis and Cytinus hypocistis subsp. orientalis. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated against a broad spectrum of cancer cell lines. The structure of the active compounds was investigated with NMR and electrospray-MS/MS techniques. PMID:11411565

  17. Condensed Tannin Concentrations of Three Lotus Species Grown in Different Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hernán Acuña; Alex Concha; Marcos Figueroa

    2008-01-01

    A B S T R A C T Condensed tannins (CT) present in Lotus spp., depending on their concentration in the plant, can prevent bloating and improve protein absorption in ruminants. With the objective to know the variability of this characteristic, the CT concentration (% dry matter basis) was determined by the butanol-HCl procedure in 13 cultivars of Lotus corniculatus

  18. Dietary CP and Tannin Extracts Impact Ammonia Emissions From Manure Deposited On Dairy Barn Floors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of dietary CP and Quebracho-Chestnut tannin extracts on dairy cow performance and N partitioning are reported elsewhere at this meeting. Mixtures of feces/urine from these studies were applied to lab-scale ventilated chambers to measure ammonia-N emissions (ANE) from simulated concrete ba...

  19. Bactericidal effect of hydrolysable and condensed tannin extracts on Campylobacter jejuni in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strategies are sought to reduce intestinal colonization of food-producing animals by Campylobacter jejuni, a leading bacterial cause of human foodborne illness worldwide. Presently, we tested the antimicrobial activity of hydrolysable-rich blackberry, cranberry, chestnut tannin extracts, and conden...

  20. Influence of Myriophyllum spicatum Derived Tannins on Gut Microbiota of Its Herbivore Acentria ephemerella

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Walenciak; Walter Zwisler; Elisabeth M. Gross

    2002-01-01

    The submerged living larvae of Acentria ephemerella were fed in the laboratory with either M. spicatum or Potamogeton perfoliatus, two of their host plants. Larvae exhibited a reduced growth when fed M. spicatum, a freshwater angiosperm that contains high concentrations of tannins, secondary metabolites known for their herbivore-deterrent and antimicrobial properties. In this study, we investigated the influence of food-derived

  1. Mangrove tannins and their flavanoid monomers as alternative steel corrosion inhibitors in acidic medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Afidah A. Rahim; E. Rocca; J. Steinmetz; M. J. Kassim; R. Adnan; M. Sani Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    The inhibitive behaviour on steel of flavanoid monomers that constitute mangrove tannins namely catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin and epicatechingallate was investigated in an aerated HCl solution via electrochemical methods. The monomers were found to be mainly cathodic inhibitors and the inhibition efficiency was dependent on concentration. To explain the adsorptive behaviour of the molecules on the steel surface, a semiempirical approach

  2. Methane emission by goats consuming diets with different levels of condensed tannins from lespedeza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-four yearling Boer x Spanish wethers (7/8 Boer; initial body weight [BW] of 34.1 plus/minus 1.02 kg) were used to determine effects on methane emission of dietary levels of a condensed tannin (CT)-containing forage, Kobe lespedeza (Lespedeza striata; K), and a forage very low in CT, sorghum-s...

  3. Field studies of the relationship between herbivore damage and tannin concentration in bracken ( Pteridium aquilinum Kuhn)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alice S. Tempel

    1981-01-01

    The acceptance of secondary plant metabolites as herbivore deterrents rests primarily on their deleterious effects on herbivores. Efforts to demonstrate differential fitness in natural plant populations with varying concentrations of tannin have failed, since coevolved plant predators may physiologically or behaviorally circumvent the defense, which results in apparently equal amounts of damage to defended and undefended individuals. In this study,

  4. Acacia mearnsii de Wild Tannin-Based Flocculant in Surface Water Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Sánchez-Martín; M. González-Velasco; J. Beltrán-Heredia

    2009-01-01

    Drinking water and wastewater treatment usually requires a coagulation\\/flocculation stage. Some disadvantages are presented by usual agents, above all linked to environmental, economical, and health aspects. Effectiveness of a new wood-derived flocculant agent has been studied, it consists of Acacia mearnsii modified tannin extract. Results have been very satisfactory; low flocculant dosage (up to 10 mg· L) may remove almost

  5. Sorghum tannins: Interaction with Starch and its Effects on in vitro Starch Digestibility

    E-print Network

    Ribeiro de Barros, Frederico

    2012-12-10

    . In the other part of this project, polyphenols from black and tannin sorghum bran were extracted using an Accelerated Solvent Extractor (ASE) and eco-friendly solvents such as water, and mixtures ethanol/water. ASE at 120 and 150 degrees C using 50 and 70...

  6. Effects of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) tannins on ?-amylase activity and in vitro digestibility of starch in raw and processed flours.

    PubMed

    Mkandawire, Nyambe L; Kaufman, Rhett C; Bean, Scott R; Weller, Curtis L; Jackson, David S; Rose, Devin J

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tannins on starch digestion in tannin-containing sorghum extracts and wholegrain flours from 12 sorghum varieties. Extracts reduced amylase activity in a tannin concentration-dependent manner when the extract was mixed with the enzyme before substrate (amylopectin) addition, with higher molecular weight tannins showing greater reduction. Conversely, when the extract and substrate were combined before enzyme addition an enhancement in amylase activity was experienced. In uncooked, cooked, and cooked and stored wholegrain sorghum flours, rapidly digestible, slowly digestible, and resistant starches were not correlated with tannin content or molecular weight distribution. Resistant starch increased from 6.5% to 22-26% when tannins were added to starch up to 50% (starch weight). Tannin extracts both reduced and enhanced amylase activity depending on conditions, and, while these trends were clear in extracts, the effects on starch digestion in wholegrain flours was more complex. PMID:23581620

  7. Ethanol Concentration Influences the Mechanisms of Wine Tannin Interactions with Poly(l-proline) in Model Wine.

    PubMed

    McRae, Jacqui M; Ziora, Zyta M; Kassara, Stella; Cooper, Matthew A; Smith, Paul A

    2015-05-01

    Changes in ethanol concentration influence red wine astringency, and yet the effect of ethanol on wine tannin-salivary protein interactions is not well understood. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to measure the binding strength between the model salivary protein, poly(l-proline) (PLP) and a range of wine tannins (tannin fractions from a 3- and a 7-year old Cabernet Sauvignon wine) across different ethanol concentrations (5, 10, 15, and 40% v/v). Tannin-PLP interactions were stronger at 5% ethanol than at 40% ethanol. The mechanism of interaction changed for most tannin samples across the wine-like ethanol range (10-15%) from a combination of hydrophobic and hydrogen binding at 10% ethanol to only hydrogen binding at 15% ethanol. These results indicate that ethanol concentration can influence the mechanisms of wine tannin-protein interactions and that the previously reported decrease in wine astringency with increasing alcohol may, in part, relate to a decrease tannin-protein interaction strength. PMID:25877783

  8. Cardiac risk telemonitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Hutten; M. Hribernigg; G. Rauchegger

    2001-01-01

    Utilization of advanced information, telecommunication and implant technology for cardiac risk stratification and management is one of the greatest challenges for modern health care provision. Sudden cardiac death is the major contributor to overall cardiovascular mortality with approximately 60% of all coronary heart disease fatalities occurring annually. Although some high-risk patient groups have been identified with reasonable sensitivity and specificity

  9. Garfinkel Cardiac Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alan Garfinkel (University of California Los Angeles; Physiological Sci/Med-Cardio)

    2009-01-10

    Cardiac data on multiple variables for a selected population of 220 men and 338 women participating in a drug treatment study of dobutamine for heart attack prevention. Garfinkel, Alan, et. al. "Prognostic Value of Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography in Predicting Cardiac Events in Patients With Known or Suspected Coronary Artery Disease." Journal of the American College of Cardiology 33.3 (1999) 708-16.

  10. The effects of high-tannin leaf litter from transgenic poplars on microbial communities in microcosm soils.

    PubMed

    Winder, Richard S; Lamarche, Josyanne; Constabel, C Peter; Hamelin, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of leaf litter from genetically modified hybrid poplar accumulating high levels of condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins) were examined in soil microcosms consisting of moss growing on sieved soil. Moss preferentially proliferated in microcosms with lower tannin content; DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) detected increased fungal diversity in microcosms with low-tannin litter. The proportion of cloned rDNA sequences from Actinobacteria decreased with litter addition while Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and ?-Proteobacteria significantly increased. ?-Proteobacteria were proportionally more numerous at high-tannin levels. Tannins had no significant impact on overall diversity of bacterial communities analyzed with various estimators. There was an increased proportion of N-fixing bacteria corresponding to the addition of litter with low-tannin levels. The addition of litter increased the proportion of Ascomycota/Basidiomycota. Dothideomycetes, Pucciniomycetes, and Tremellomycetes also increased and Agaricomycetes decreased. Agaricomycetes and Sordariomycetes were significantly more abundant in controls, whereas Pucciniomycetes increased in soil with litter from transformed trees (P = 0.051). Richness estimators and diversity indices revealed no significant difference in the composition of fungal communities; PCoA (principal coordinate analyses) partitioned the fungal communities into three groups: (i) those with higher amounts of added tannin from both transformed and untransformed treatments, (ii) those corresponding to soils without litter, and (iii) those corresponding to microcosms with litter added from trees transformed only with a ?-glucuronidase control vector. While the litter from transformed poplars had significant effects on soil microbe communities, the observed impacts reflected known impacts on soil processes associated with tannins, and were similar to changes that would be expected from natural variation in tannin levels. PMID:24133486

  11. Microscopic evaluation and seasonal variations of anthraquinone glycosides of cultivated Cassia fistula Linn.

    PubMed

    Abo, K A; Adeyemi, A A; Sobowale, A O

    2001-01-01

    In this report, we present the results of the microscopy, seasonal variations and spectrophotometric estimation of hydroxy-anthraquinone glycosides of culitivated Cassia fistula Linn. The total glycoside contents ofthe morphological parts of this species at different stages of growth are also presented. The study shows that anthraquinone glycosides are concentrated in the leaves (1.75%) and flowers (1.58%) at peak flowering. Notable seasonal variations were observed in the cultivated species. Hydroxyanthraquinones reached peak levels druing the months of September (1.08%) and October (2.20%). There was a significant drop (P < 0.05) in glycoside content during most part of the rainy season. It has been established that anthraquinone glycosides, rather than the aglycones, are the active forms and hence an estimation of the total glycoside content of a sample is a reliable indication of biological activity. The advantages of using the natural anthraquinone laxative when the glycoside content is highest are discussed. The study has provided useful information on the best period for harvesting the morphological parts of C. fistula for drug development. PMID:14510141

  12. Agrobacterium Mediated Transient Gene Silencing (AMTS) in Stevia rebaudiana: Insights into Steviol Glycoside Biosynthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guleria, Praveen; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background Steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway has emerged as bifurcation from ent-kaurenoic acid, substrate of methyl erythritol phosphate pathway that also leads to gibberellin biosynthesis. However, the genetic regulation of steviol glycoside biosynthesis has not been studied. So, in present study RNA interference (RNAi) based Agrobacterium mediated transient gene silencing (AMTS) approach was followed. SrKA13H and three SrUGTs (SrUGT85C2, SrUGT74G1 and SrUGT76G1) genes encoding ent-kaurenoic acid-13 hydroxylase and three UDP glycosyltransferases of steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway were silenced in Stevia rebaudiana to understand its molecular mechanism and association with gibberellins. Methodology/Principal Findings RNAi mediated AMTS of SrKA13H and three SrUGTs has significantly reduced the expression of targeted endogenous genes as well as total steviol glycoside accumulation. While gibberellins (GA3) content was significantly enhanced on AMTS of SrUGT85C2 and SrKA13H. Silencing of SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 was found to block the metabolite flux of steviol glycoside pathway and shifted it towards GA3 biosynthesis. Further, molecular docking of three SrUGT proteins has documented highest affinity of SrUGT76G1 for the substrates of alternate pathways synthesizing steviol glycosides. This could be a plausible reason for maximum reduction in steviol glycoside content on silencing of SrUGT76G1 than other genes. Conclusions SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 were identified as regulatory genes influencing carbon flux between steviol glycoside and gibberellin biosynthesis. This study has also documented the existence of alternate steviol glycoside biosynthesis route. PMID:24023961

  13. Two new cytotoxic triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra.

    PubMed

    Han, Hua; Yi, Yanghua; Xu, Qiangzhi; La, Mingping; Zhang, Hongwei

    2009-12-01

    Two new triterpene glycosides, scabraside A (1) and B (2), and a structurally known compound (3), were isolated from the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra (Holothuriidae) collected from the South China Sea. Structure of these compounds was elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods. The glycosides 1 and 2 exhibit the same common structural features, i. e., the presence of 12- and 17-hydroxy groups in the holostane-type triterpene aglycone with a 9(11)-ene bond, but are different in the side chains of the triterpene aglycone. The glycosides 1 and 2 had significant in vitro cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines in comparison to 10-hydroxycamptothecin. PMID:19598081

  14. Steroidal glycosides from the underground parts of Yucca glauca and their cytotoxic activities.

    PubMed

    Yokosuka, Akihito; Suzuki, Tomoka; Tatsuno, Satoru; Mimaki, Yoshihiro

    2014-05-01

    Six steroidal glycosides and 14 known compounds were isolated from the underground parts of Yucca glauca (Agavaceae). Their structures were determined from extensive spectroscopic analysis, including analysis of two-dimensional NMR data, and from chemical transformations. The compounds were also evaluated for cytotoxic activities against HL-60 human leukemia cells and A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Four spirostanol glycosides and three furostanol glycosides exhibited cytotoxic activities against both HL-60 and A549 cells. Two of the compounds induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells. PMID:24612536

  15. Hypoglycemic effects of sesquiterpene glycosides and polyhydroxylated triterpenoids of Eriobotrya japonica.

    PubMed

    De Tommasi, N; De Simone, F; Cirino, G; Cicala, C; Pizza, C

    1991-10-01

    The effects of the constituent sesquiterpene glycosides 1-3 and polyhydroxylated triterpenoids 5-6 isolated by MeOH extraction of Eriobotrya japonica were studied in genetically diabetic mice (C57BL/KS-db/db/Ola) and normoglycemic rats. The sesquiterpene glycoside 3 and the polyhydroxylated triterpenoids 5 and 6 produced a marked inhibition of glycosuria. Furthermore, 5 and 6 were able to reduce blood glucose levels in normoglycemic rats. While there are already some data reported on hypoglycemic activity of polyhydroxylated triterpenoids, there are no previous data showing hypoglycemic activity of sesquiterpene glycosides. PMID:1798792

  16. Modeling inherited cardiac disorders.

    PubMed

    Sallam, Karim; Kodo, Kazuki; Wu, Joseph C

    2014-01-01

    Advances in the understanding and treatment of cardiac disorders have been thwarted by the inability to study beating human cardiac cells in vitro. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) bypass this hurdle by enabling the creation of patient-specific iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs). These cells provide a unique platform to study cardiac diseases in vitro, especially hereditary cardiac conditions. To date, iPSC-CMs have been used to successfully model arrhythmic disorders, showing excellent recapitulation of cardiac channel function and electrophysiologic features of long QT syndrome types 1, 2, 3, and 8, and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). Similarly, iPSC-CM models of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) have shown robust correlation of predicted morphologic, contractile, and electrical phenotypes. In addition, iPSC-CMs have shown some features of the respective phenotypes for arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C), LEOPARD syndrome, Pompe's disease, and Friedriech's ataxia. In this review, we examine the progress of utilizing iPSC-CMs as a model for cardiac conditions and analyze the potential for the platform in furthering the biology and treatment of cardiac disorders.?? PMID:24632794

  17. [Cardiac manifestations of mitochondrial diseases].

    PubMed

    Ritzenthaler, Thomas; Luis, David; Hullin, Thomas; Fayssoil, Abdallah

    2015-05-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are multi-system disorders in relation with mitochondrial DNA and/or nuclear DNA abnormalities. Clinical pictures are heterogeneous, involving endocrine, cardiac, neurologic or sensory systems. Cardiac involvements are morphological and electrical disturbances. Prognosis is worsened in case of cardiac impairment. Treatments are related to the type of cardiac dysfunction including medication or pacemaker implantation. PMID:25890847

  18. Synthetic phenylethanoid glycoside derivatives as potent neuroprotective agents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying-Guo; Li, Xiaxi; Xiong, De-Cai; Yu, Binhan; Pu, Xiaoping; Ye, Xin-Shan

    2015-05-01

    Several phenylethanoid glycoside derivatives were designed and synthesized. Most of the synthetic compounds showed significant neuroprotective effects, including antioxidative and anti-apoptotic properties. Specifically, target compounds displayed potent effects against various toxicities such as H2O2 and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in PC12 cells. Among the synthetic derivatives, three compounds (5, 6, 8) exhibited much superior activities to the marketed drug Edaravone. The compounds were able to prevent the 6-OHDA-induced damage in PC12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The anti-apoptotic effects could be observed via cell morphological changes. Moreover, the compounds significantly reduced the intracellular ROS increase resulting from 6-OHDA treatment. The preliminary structure-activity relationships were also explored. Compounds 5, 6, 8 may hold the potential as promising neuroprotective agents and new lead compounds for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases or cerebral ischemia. PMID:25827400

  19. Antioxidant phenolic glycoside and flavonoids from Pieris japonica.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Ping; Li, Yan-Hong; Zhong, Jin-Dong; Li, Rong-Tao

    2013-01-01

    A new phenolic glycoside, benzyl 2-hydroxy-4-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-benzoate (1), along with nine known flavonoids, epicatechin-(2 ? O ? 7,4 ? 8)-ent-epicatechin (2), bis-8,8'-catechinylmethane (3), quercetin (4), quercetin-3-O-?-L-arabinfuranoside (5), quercetin-3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (6), astilbin (7), engeletin (8), (2S,3R)-ent-catechin (9), and 2',4-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-6'-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl dihydrochalcone (10), was isolated from the flowers of Pieris japonica. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of MS, 1D NMR, and 2D NMR techniques. This paper describes the isolation, structural elucidation as well as in vitro antioxidant activity of these compounds. PMID:23796053

  20. Pregnane-type steroidal glycosides from Gymnema griffithii Craib.

    PubMed

    Srisurichan, Suphongphan; Puthong, Songchan; Pornpakakul, Surachai

    2014-10-01

    Eight pregnane-type steroidal glycosides substituted with ortho-acetate groups were isolated from the methanolic extract of the pericarp of Gymnema griffithii fruits, and named gymnemogriffithosides A-H. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis (one and two dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy), while the absolute structure of the steroidal skeleton of one of these was additionally determined using Mosher's method. All compounds were evaluated for their in vitro (i) cytotoxic effects against five human tumor cell lines (BT 474, Chago, Hep-G2, KATO-III and SW620) and (ii) ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. PMID:25053002

  1. Novel flavonoid glycosides from the bulbs of Urginea indica Kunth.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Nasim; Akter, Kaisarun; Nahar, Nilufar; Khan, M Shahinul Hoque; Mosihuzzaman, M; Sohrab, Md Hossain; Krohn, Karsten

    2010-07-01

    Three novel flavonoid glycosides, 5,6-dimethyoxy-3',4''-dioxymethylene-7-O-(6''-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl) flavanone (1), 5,4'-dihydroxy-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-6-C-glucopyranosyl-7-O-(6''-para-coumaroyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl) flavone (2) and 5,4'-dihydroxy-3-O-(2'''''-beta-glucopyranosyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-6-C-glucopyranosyl-7-O-(6''-para-coumaroyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl) flavone (3) were isolated from the 1-butanol soluble fraction of the bulbs of the plant Urginea indica (Indian squill). The structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis, including homo- and heteronuclear correlation NMR experiments (COSY, NOESY, HSQC and HMBC) and mass spectra. PMID:20552524

  2. New Flavonoid Glycosides from Arnicae Flos DAB 91.

    PubMed

    Merfort, I; Wendisch, D

    1992-08-01

    Five flavonoid glycosides were identified from flowers of Arnica montana, ten from A. CHAMISSONIS subsp. FOLIOSA var. INCANA. The structures were established on the basis of acid hydrolysis and spectral data (UV, NMR, MS) as the 7-beta-glucosides of pectolinarigenin, apigenin, and chrysoeriol; luteolin 3'- O-beta-glucoside; the 3-beta-glucuronides of kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and 6-methoxykaempferol; the 3,7-di-beta-glucosides of quercetin and patuletin; the 3-beta-glucosides of betuletol and quercetagetin 6,3',4'-trimethyl ether; and the 7-[6''- O-(2-methylbutyryl)]=glucosides of luteolin and eupafolin. The latter four are new natural compounds. Differences between these two ARNICA species are discussed. PMID:17226484

  3. Deoxycholate-Based Glycosides (DCGs) for Membrane Protein Stabilisation.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hyoung Eun; Gotfryd, Kamil; Thomas, Jennifer; Hussain, Hazrat; Ehsan, Muhammad; Go, Juyeon; Loland, Claus J; Byrne, Bernadette; Chae, Pil Seok

    2015-07-01

    Detergents are an absolute requirement for studying the structure of membrane proteins. However, many conventional detergents fail to stabilise denaturation-sensitive membrane proteins, such as eukaryotic proteins and membrane protein complexes. New amphipathic agents with enhanced efficacy in stabilising membrane proteins will be helpful in overcoming the barriers to studying membrane protein structures. We have prepared a number of deoxycholate-based amphiphiles with carbohydrate head groups, designated deoxycholate-based glycosides (DCGs). These DCGs are the hydrophilic variants of previously reported deoxycholate-based N-oxides (DCAOs). Membrane proteins in these agents, particularly the branched diglucoside-bearing amphiphiles DCG-1 and DCG-2, displayed favourable behaviour compared to previously reported parent compounds (DCAOs) and conventional detergents (LDAO and DDM). Given their excellent properties, these agents should have significant potential for membrane protein studies. PMID:25953685

  4. New pregnane glycosides from Brucea javanica and their antifeedant activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue-Yuan; Pan, Qiao-Dan; Li, Dian-Peng; Liu, Jin-Lei; Wen, Yong-Xin; Huang, Yong-Lin; Lu, Feng-Lai

    2011-03-01

    Three new pregnane glycosides, 3-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-L-arabinopyranosyl-(20R)-pregn-5-ene-3?,20-diol (1), 3-O-?-L-arabinopyranosyl-(20R)-pregn-5-ene-3?,20-diol-20-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (2), 3-O-?-L-arabinopyranosyl-(20R)-pregn-5-ene-3?,20-diol-20-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-D-glucopyranoside (3) were isolated along with four known compounds, 4-7, from the leaves and stems of Brucea javanica. Their structures were determined by detailed analyses of 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic data. All of the compounds isolated from Brucea javanica were tested for the antifeedant activities against the larva of Pieris rapae. Compounds 1, 3, and 5 showed significant antifeedant activities after 72 h incubation. PMID:21404429

  5. Additional minor diterpene glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Indra; Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Two additional novel minor diterpene glycosides were isolated from the commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. The structures of the new compounds were identified as 13-{?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 3)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-oxy} ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid {?-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 3)]-O-?-D-glucupyranosyl-ester} (1), and 13-{?-D-6-deoxy-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 3)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-oxy} ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid {?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 3)-?-D-gluco-pyranosyl-ester} (2), on the basis of extensive 1D (1H- and 13C-) 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC and HMBC) and MS spectroscopic data as well as chemical studies. PMID:24184820

  6. A new steroid glycoside and furochromones from Cyperus rotundus L.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Hanaa M; Mohamed, Mahmoud H; Farag, Salwa F; Mohamed, Gamal A; Proksch, Peter

    2007-04-01

    Further phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of Cyperus rotundus L. afforded a new steroid glycoside named sitosteryl (6'-hentriacontanoyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (4) in addition to three furochromones, khellin (2), visnagin (3) and ammiol (9). Furthermore, benzo-alpha-pyrone (coumarin) (1), salicylic acid (5), caffeic acid (6), protocatechuic acid (7), p-coumaric acid (8), tricin (10) and isorhamnetin (11) were isolated. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic methods. The isolated furochromones were tested for insect antifeedant activity against larvae Spodoptera littoralis when incorporated in artificial diet and offered to larvae in a chronic feeding bioassay. Also, visnagin, khellin and sitosteryl (6'-hentriacontanoyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside showed strong cytotoxic activity against L5178y mouse lymphoma cells and were also active in the brine shrimp lethality test. PMID:17479423

  7. Molecular Basis of Cardiac Myxomas

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Pooja; Luk, Adriana; Rao, Vivek; Butany, Jagdish

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac tumors are rare, and of these, primary cardiac tumors are even rarer. Metastatic cardiac tumors are about 100 times more common than the primary tumors. About 90% of primary cardiac tumors are benign, and of these the most common are cardiac myxomas. Approximately 12% of primary cardiac tumors are completely asymptomatic while others present with one or more signs and symptoms of the classical triad of hemodynamic changes due to intracardiac obstruction, embolism and nonspecific constitutional symptoms. Echocardiography is highly sensitive and specific in detecting cardiac tumors. Other helpful investigations are chest X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography scan. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for primary cardiac tumors and is usually associated with a good prognosis. This review article will focus on the general features of benign cardiac tumors with an emphasis on cardiac myxomas and their molecular basis. PMID:24447924

  8. The Swarming Motility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Is Blocked by Cranberry Proanthocyanidins and Other Tannin-Containing Materials?

    PubMed Central

    O'May, Che; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial motility plays a key role in the colonization of surfaces by bacteria and the subsequent formation of resistant communities of bacteria called biofilms. Derivatives of cranberry fruit, predominantly condensed tannins called proanthocyanidins (PACs) have been reported to interfere with bacterial adhesion, but the effects of PACs and other tannins on bacterial motilities remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated whether cranberry PAC (CPAC) and the hydrolyzable tannin in pomegranate (PG; punicalagin) affected the levels of motilities exhibited by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This bacterium utilizes flagellum-mediated swimming motility to approach a surface, attaches, and then further spreads via the surface-associated motilities designated swarming and twitching, mediated by multiple flagella and type IV pili, respectively. Under the conditions tested, both CPAC and PG completely blocked swarming motility but did not block swimming or twitching motilities. Other cranberry-containing materials and extracts of green tea (also rich in tannins) were also able to block or impair swarming motility. Moreover, swarming bacteria were repelled by filter paper discs impregnated with many tannin-containing materials. Growth experiments demonstrated that the majority of these compounds did not impair bacterial growth. When CPAC- or PG-containing medium was supplemented with surfactant (rhamnolipid), swarming motility was partially restored, suggesting that the effective tannins are in part acting by a rhamnolipid-related mechanism. Further support for this theory was provided by demonstrating that the agar surrounding tannin-induced nonswarming bacteria was considerably less hydrophilic than the agar area surrounding swarming bacteria. This is the first study to show that natural compounds containing tannins are able to block P. aeruginosa swarming motility and that swarming bacteria are repelled by such compounds. PMID:21378043

  9. Quaternary Amine Modified Persimmon Tannin Gel: An Efficient Adsorbent for the Recovery of Precious Metals from Hydrochloric Acid Media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manju Gurung; Birendra Babu Adhikari; Kanjana Khunathai; Hidetaka Kawakita; Keisuke Ohto; Hiroyuki Harada; Katsutoshi Inoue

    2011-01-01

    Persimmon tannin was chemically modified to prepare a quaternary amine type of adsorption gel, named as quaternary amine modified persimmon tannin (QAPT) gel. The QAPT gel has been used to investigate the adsorption behaviors for Au(III), Pd(II) and Pt(IV) from HCl media. It was found that the gel exhibited good selectivity towards precious metals over a wide concentration range of

  10. Amphipaniculosides A-D, triterpenoid glycosides, and amphipaniculoside E, an aliphatic alcohol glycoside from the leaves of Amphilophium paniculatum.

    PubMed

    Samy, Mamdouh Nabil; Khalil, Hany Ezzat; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Kamel, Mohamed Salah

    2015-07-01

    Four new triterpenoids; One oleanane-, one ursane- and two cycloartane-type triterpenoids, named amphipaniculosides A-D, in addition to one new aliphatic alcohol glycoside, named amphipaniculoside E, were isolated from the 1-BuOH fraction of the leaves of Amphilophium paniculatum (L.) Kunth., together with five known compounds, (+)-lyoniresinol 3?-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, (-)-lyoniresinol 3?-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, acteoside (verbascoside), isoacteoside (isoverbascoside), and luteolin 7-O-?-d-glucopyranoside. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR experiments ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT, COSY, ROESY, HSQC, HMBC) in combination with HR-ESI-MS and by comparisons of their physical and spectroscopic data with literature values. PMID:25804328

  11. Solubility Enhancement of Steviol Glycosides and Characterization of Their Inclusion Complexes with Gamma-Cyclodextrin

    PubMed Central

    Upreti, Mani; Strassburger, Ken; Chen, You L.; Wu, Shaoxiong; Prakash, Indra

    2011-01-01

    Steviol glycosidesrebaudioside (reb) A, C and D have low aqueous solubilities. To improve their aqueous solubilities, inclusion complex of steviol glycosides, reb A, C and D and gamma cyclodextrin were prepared by freeze drying method and further characterized by means of differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The effect of gamma cyclodextrin on chemical shifts of the steviol glycosides was also studied in proton NMR experiments as well as in solid state 13C CP/MAS NMR experiments. These results indicated that the steviol glycosides were clearly in inclusion complex formation with the gamma cyclodextrin which also results in solubility enhancement of these steviol glycosides. Phase solubility studies showed that amounts of soluble reb A, C and D increased with increasing amounts of gamma cyclodextrin indicating formation of 1:1 stoichiometric and higher order inclusion complexes. PMID:22174615

  12. An unusual novel anti-oxidant dibenzoyl glycoside from Salvinia natans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Narasimhulu; K. Ashalatha; P. Sri Laxmi; A. V. S. Sarma; B. Rama Rao; P. B. Kavi Kishor; G. L. David Krupadanam; A. Zehra Ali; Asok K. Tiwari; A. Panneer Selvam; Y. Venkateswarlu

    2010-01-01

    An unusual novel and significant anti-oxidant 1,2-dibenzoyl glycoside, natansnin (1), has been isolated from Salvinia natans. The structure of 1 was established by the study of NMR and CD spectral data.

  13. An unusual novel anti-oxidant dibenzoyl glycoside from Salvinia natans.

    PubMed

    Narasimhulu, M; Ashalatha, K; Laxmi, P Sri; Sarma, A V S; Rao, B Rama; Kishor, P B Kavi; Krupadanam, G L David; Ali, A Zehra; Tiwari, Asok K; Selvam, A Panneer; Venkateswarlu, Y

    2010-09-01

    An unusual novel and significant anti-oxidant 1,2-dibenzoyl glycoside, natansnin (1), has been isolated from Salvinia natans. The structure of 1 was established by the study of NMR and CD spectral data. PMID:19787545

  14. Ultra-sonication-assisted solvent extraction of quercetin glycosides from 'Idared' apple peels.

    PubMed

    Vasantha Rupasinghe, H P; Kathirvel, Priya; Huber, Gwendolyn M

    2011-01-01

    Quercetin and quercetin glycosides are physiologically active flavonol molecules that have been attributed numerous health benefits. Recovery of such molecules from plant matrices depends on a variety of factors including polarity of the extraction solvent. Among the solvents of a wide range of dielectric constants, methanol recovered the most quercetin and its glycosides from dehydrated 'Idared' apple peels. When ultra-sonication was employed to facilitate the extraction, exposure of 15 min of ultrasound wavelengths of dehydrated apple peel powder in 80% to 100% (v/v) methanol in 1:50 (w:v) solid to solvent ratio provided the optimum extraction conditions for quercetin and its glycosides. Acidification of extraction solvent with 0.1% (v/v) or higher concentrations of HCl led to hydrolysis of naturally occurring quercetin glycosides into the aglycone as an extraction artifact. PMID:22117169

  15. Cardiac muscle cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nathanael Reveal (None; )

    2007-07-02

    Cardiac muscles are found only in the heart. They work together to bring deoxygenated blood in and push oxygenated blood out into the body. Essentially, they keep your heart pumping and your body alive.

  16. What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... special help in making lifestyle changes. During your rehabilitation program you’ll… • Have a medical evaluation to ... rate, blood pressure and EKG monitored. A cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) program takes place in a hospital or ...

  17. Cardiac Rehabilitation After Acute Myocardial Infarction Resuscitated From Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul; Choi, Hee Eun; Kang, Seong Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the safety and effectiveness of cardiac rehabilitation on patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest due to acute myocardial infarction. Methods The study included 23 subjects, including 8 with history of cardiac arrest and 15 without history of cardiac arrest. Both groups underwent initial graded exercise test (GXT) and subsequent cardiac rehabilitation for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, both groups received follow-up GXT. Results Statistically significant (p<0.05) increase of VO2peak and maximal MVO2 but significant (p<0.05) decrease of submaximal MVO2 and resting heart rate were observed in both groups after 6 weeks of cardiac rehabilitation. An increasing trend of maximal heart rates was observed in both groups. However, the increase was not statistically significant (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant change of resting heart rate, maximal heart rate, maximal MVO2, or submaximal MVO2 in both groups after cardiac rehabilitation. Fatal cardiac complications, such as abnormal ECG, cardiac arrest, death or myocardial infarction, were not observed. All subjects finished the cardiac rehabilitation program. Conclusion Improvement was observed in the exercise capacity of patients after aerobic exercise throughout the cardiac rehabilitation program. Therefore, cardiac rehabilitation can be safely administered for high-risk patients with history of cardiac arrest. Similar improvement in exercise capacity can be expected in patients without cardiac arrest experience. PMID:25566479

  18. New holostan-type triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zenglei; Gong, Wei; Sun, Guoquan; Tang, Hua; Liu, Baoshu; Li, Ling; Yi, Yanghua; Zhang, Wen

    2012-11-01

    Two new holostan-type glycosides, holotoxin D1 (1) and 25,26-dihydroxy-holotoxin A1 (2), together with two known analogues, stichlorosides C1 (3) and bivittoside D (4), were isolated from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis. Glycosides 1 and 3 exhibited potent antifungal activity. PMID:23285801

  19. Analytical Procedures for Determination of Quercetin and its Glycosides in Plant Material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magdalena Biesaga; Krystyna Pyrzynska

    2009-01-01

    Quercetin and its glycosides are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and belong to the most abundant of the flavonoid molecules. Besides their important biological roles in plant pigmentation, these flavonols possess anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties, which are the consequence of their affinity for proteins and their anti-oxidant properties. The content of quercetin and its glycosides in different plants have

  20. Content of quercetin glycosides and fructooligosaccharides in onion stored in a cold room

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katarzyna Grzelak; Joanna Milala; Bogus?aw Król; Franciszek Adamicki; Ewa Bade?ek

    2009-01-01

    In the paper, the authors present the qualitative and quantitative composition of quercetin glycosides and fructooligosaccharides\\u000a (FOS) in onions commonly grown in Poland of the varieties: Napoleon, Sprinter and Grabowska from the 2006 and 2007 crops,\\u000a stored in a cold room under standard conditions from October until February. Quercetin glycosides and FOS have been determined\\u000a using the HPLC method. It

  1. Controlof PhenotypicExpressionof CulturedB16 MelanomaCells by Plant Glycosides1 OÃ\\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shizuo Odashima; Takahide Ohta; Hiroyuki Kohno; Takeshi Matsuda; Isao Kitagawa; Hiroko Abe; Shigeru Arichi

    The effects of two plant glycosides, ginsenosides Rh, and Rh2,on the growth and differentiation of mouse melanoma (B16) cells in culture were studied. These plant glycosides have a dammarane skeleton resembling a steroid skeleton as an agly- cone. Ginsenoside Rh2 inhibits the growth of B16 melanoma cells, causes morphological alterations, and stimulates melano- genesis at high cellular density. When ginsenoside

  2. Scutellarein 4?-methyl ether glycosides as taxonomic markers in Teucridium and Tripora (Lamiaceae, Ajugoideae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renée J Grayer; Nigel C Veitch; Geoffrey C Kite; Alan J Paton; Philip J Garnock-Jones

    2002-01-01

    The flavonoid profiles of two monotypic genera, Teucridium and Tripora, have been studied by analytical methods. These genera were formerly placed in the Verbenaceae, but are now classified in the Lamiaceae, subfamily Ajugoideae. The major flavonoids of both genera were identified as glycosides of scutellarein 4?-methyl ether (5,6,7-trihydroxy-4?methoxyflavone) and acacetin (5,7-dihydroxy-4?-methoxyflavone). The new flavone glycoside, scutellarein 4?-methyl ether 7-O-rutinoside, was

  3. Steroidal glycosides from the aerial part of Asclepias incarnata L. II.

    PubMed

    Warashina, T; Noro, T

    2000-01-01

    Thirty new steroidal glycosides were obtained from the aerial part of Asclepias incarnata L. (Asclepiadaceae). These glycosides were confirmed to have lineolon, isolineolon, 12-O-acetyllineolon, 12-O-(Z)-cinnamoyllineolon, metaplexigenin, 15 beta-hydroxylineolon, 15 beta-hydroxyisolineolon, 16 alpha-hydroxyisolineolon, 12-O-tigloyl-16 alpha-hydroxyisolineolon as the aglycone and 2,6-dideoxyhexopyranose as the sugar sequence by spectroscopic methods and chemical evidence. PMID:10705484

  4. Improved HPLC method for the evaluation of the major steviol glycosides in leaves of Stevia rebaudiana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ursula Woelwer-Rieck; Christa Lankes; Andreas Wawrzun; Matthias Wüst

    2010-01-01

    A simple reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of the major\\u000a steviol glycosides, the diterpene sweeteners derived from Stevia rebaudiana. The method is based on a water extraction step and a solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up. Different SPE cartridges and\\u000a two HPLC columns were tested in the separation of the main steviol glycosides stevioside and rebaudioside

  5. Spatial Organisation of Four Enzymes from Stevia rebaudiana that are Involved in Steviol Glycoside Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tania V. Humphrey; Alex S. Richman; Rima Menassa; Jim E. Brandle

    2006-01-01

    The sweet steviol glycosides found in the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bert. are derived from the diterpene steviol which is produced from a branch of the gibberellic acid (GA) biosynthetic pathway.\\u000a An understanding of the spatial organisation of the two pathways including subcellular compartmentation provides important\\u000a insight for the metabolic engineering of steviol glycosides as well as other secondary metabolites

  6. Peculiarities of diterpenoid steviol glycoside production in in vitro cultures of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolai Bondarev; Oxana Reshetnyak; Alexander Nosov

    2001-01-01

    The composition and content of steviol-glycosides (SGs)1So named diterpenoid glycoside, having steviol as an aglycone.1 in in vitro cultures of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) were investigated. A comparative analysis of production of these compounds in intact plants, in vitro plants, dedifferentiated callus and suspension cultures, morphogenic callus and in vitro regenerated shoots were conducted. Qualitative composition of the SGs in

  7. HPLC Separation of Flavonoids and Flavonoid Glycosides Using a Polystyrene\\/Divinylbenzene Column

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nirdosh K. Jagota; Steve F. Cheatham

    1992-01-01

    A polystyrene-divinylbenzene column was investigated for the separation of four different classes of flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides. These analytes were separated using either methanol-water or acetonitrile-water gradients. Acetonitrile-water gradients were judged to be superior for the overall separation of the four classes of flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides. Correlations between chemical structure, and retention and separability are discussed for the various

  8. Isolation, characterization, and surfactant properties of the major triterpenoid glycosides from unripe tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Takao; Vincken, Jean-Paul; de Waard, Pieter; Sanders, Mark; Takada, Norihisa; Gruppen, Harry

    2008-12-10

    Various triterpenoid glycosides were extracted from whole unripe tomato fruits ( Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Cedrico), using aqueous 70% (v/v) ethanol to study their surfactant properties. Cation-exchange chromatography using a Source 15S column and subsequent semipreparative HPLC using an XTerra RP18 were employed to purify individual triterpenoid glycosides from the extract. The structure of the purified compounds was established by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The furostanol glycoside tomatoside A (749 mg/kg of DW) and the glycoalkaloids alpha-tomatine (196 mg/kg of DW) and esculeoside A (427 mg/kg of DW) were the major triterpenoid glycosides present. Furthermore, minor amounts of a new dehydrofurostanol glycoside, dehydrotomatoside, were found. The critical micelle concentrations of the major triterpenoid glycosides, alpha-tomatine, tomatoside A, and esculeoside A, were determined as 0.099, 0.144, and 0.412 g/L, respectively. The results show that tomatoside A, and not the more well-known alpha-tomatine, is the predominant triterpenoidal surfactant in unripe tomato fruits. PMID:18998702

  9. Fecalase: a model for activation of dietary glycosides to mutagens by intestinal flora.

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, G; Gold, C; Ferro-Luzzi, A; Ames, B N

    1980-01-01

    Many substances in the plant kingdom and in man's diet occur as glycosides. Recent studies have indicated that many glycosides that are not mutagenic in tests such as the Salmonella test become mutagenic upon hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkages. The Salmonella test utilizes a liver homogenate to approximate mammalian metabolism but does not provide a source of the enzymes present in intestinal bacterial flora that hydrolyze the wide variety of glycosides present in nature. We describe a stable cell-free extract of human feces, fecalase, which is shown to contain various glycosidases that allow the in vitro activation of many natural glycosides to mutagens in the Salmonella/liver homogenate test. Many beverages, such as red wine (but apparently not white wine) and tea, contain glycosides of the mutagne quercetin. Red wine, red grape juice, and tea were mutagenic in the test when fecalase was added, and red wine contained considerable direct mutagenic activity in the absence of fecalase. The implications of quercetin mutagenicity and carcinogenicity are discussed. PMID:6933540

  10. Relationship between plant development, tannin concentration and insects associated with Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernanda Vieira da Costa; Frederico de Siqueira Neves; Jhonathan de Oliveira Silva; Marcílio Fagundes

    2011-01-01

    Plant development is the main factor that determines the insect-ontogeny interaction, since it leads to variations in resource\\u000a quality and availability. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that plant development and varying tannin concentration\\u000a leads to changes in species richness, abundance and composition of ants, free-feeding herbivores and galling insects associated\\u000a with Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae). The

  11. Activity of tannins from Stryphnodendron adstringens on Cryptococcus neoformans: effects on growth, capsule size and pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Kelly; Rozental, Sonia; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2009-01-01

    Background Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville, Leguminosae, also known in Brazil as barbatimão, is rich in tannins and many flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidins such as prodelphinidins and prorobinetinidins. Previous studies have demonstrated several pharmacological properties of tannins from barbatimão, including anti-candidal activity. Methods The antifungal activity of proanthocyanidin polymeric tannins from Stryphnodendron adstringens (subfraction F2.4) was evaluated against three strains of Cryptococcus neoformans with different capsule expressions, using the broth microdilution technique, light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The effect of subfraction F2.4 on C. neoformans and melanoma mammalian cells pigmentation was also evaluated. Results Although susceptibility assays revealed MIC values quite similar (between 2.5 and 5.0 ?g/ml), analyses of MFC values revealing that the acapsular mutant Cap 67 was more susceptible to be killed by the subfraction F2.4 (MFC = 20 ?g/ml) than the two tested capsular strains (T1-444 and ATCC 28957) (MFC > 160 ?g/ml). Optical and electron microscopy experiments revealed relevant alterations in cell shape and size in all strains treated with 1 and 2.5 ?g/ml of subfraction F2.4. Capsule size of the capsular strains decreased drastically after subfraction F2.4 treatment. In addition, ultrastructural alterations such as cell wall disruption, cytoplasm extraction, mitochondria swelling, increase in the number of cytoplasmic vacuoles and formation of membranous structures in the cytoplasm were also observed in treated yeasts. Incubation with subfraction F2.4 also decreased C. neoformans pigmentation, however, did not interfere in melanization of B16F10 mammalian cells. Conclusion Our data indicate that tannins extracted from S. adstringens interfered with growth, capsule size and pigmentation, all important virulence factors of C. neoformans, and may be considered as a putative candidate for the development of new antifungal agents. PMID:19891776

  12. Application of immobilized tannase from Aspergillus niger for the removal of tannin from myrobalan juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita Srivastava; Rita Kar

    2010-01-01

    Tannase produced optimally on an agroresidue by an Aspergillus niger isolate under submerged fermentation immobilized on sodium alginate beads with 93.6% efficiency was applied for tannin removal\\u000a from myrobalan\\/aonla (Phyllanthus emblica) juice. The pH and temperature optima of the immobilized enzyme were found to be 5.4 and 40°C while the corresponding values\\u000a of the soluble enzyme were 5.8 and 35°C.

  13. Analysis of guarana seeds II. Studies on the composition of the tannin fraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedhelm Marx

    1990-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Der Gehalt an Gesamtgerbstoffen, Proanthocyanidinen und Prototanninen im Samen von Guarana,Paullinia cupana var.sorbilis HKB (Sapindaceae), wurde untersucht. In lufttrockenen Samen wurde ein Gesamttanningehalt von 12,1% i. T. gefunden, die Proanthocyanidin-Bestimmung ergab einen Gehalt von 10,7%; mittels RP-HPLC-Analyse wurden 6,0% an (+)-Catechin und 3,8% (-)-Epicatechin gefunden. Hydrolysierbare Tannine waren nicht nachweisbar. Bei einer von zwei untersuchten gemahlenen Proben des brasilianischen

  14. Recent Development of Vegetal Tannins in Corrosion Protection of Iron and Steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Afidah A. Rahim; Jain Kassim

    2010-01-01

    Inhibitors are employed predominantly for corrosion control in closed systems, as a cost-efficiently alternative to the use of high corrosion-resistant materials. Due to the environmental requirements that are currently imposed on the development of cleaner inhibitors, vegetal tannins, a class of natural, non-toxic, biodegradable organic compounds that can be obtained at reduced cost has been proposed. This review relates recent

  15. Effect of Acacia molissima tannin extract on the control of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Minho; I. C. S. Bueno; H. Louvandini; F. Jackson; S. M. Gennari; A. L. Abdalla

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the anthelmintic effect of condensed tannin extracts (CTE) from Acacia molissima on lambs naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Twenty Santa Inês sheep were divided into four groups and allocated to four paddocks with five animals each in a 60-day trial. Two groups were drenched with CTE (1.6g\\/kg LW) for two consecutive days at the

  16. Protein precipitation by tannins in soil organic horizon and vegetation in relation to tree species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bartosz Adamczyk; Veikko Kitunen; Aino Smolander

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the concentration of tannins and their capacity to precipitate proteins in the dominant\\u000a species of ground vegetation (Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin., Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt., Vaccinium myrtillus (L.), and Vaccinium vitis-idaea (L.)) and in different layers of the soil organic horizon (litter layer—L, fermentation layer—F, humified layer—H) under\\u000a silver birch (Betula pendula

  17. Direct Cardiac Reprogramming: Advances in Cardiac Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Olivia; Qian, Li

    2015-01-01

    Heart disease is one of the lead causes of death worldwide. Many forms of heart disease, including myocardial infarction and pressure-loading cardiomyopathies, result in irreversible cardiomyocyte death. Activated fibroblasts respond to cardiac injury by forming scar tissue, but ultimately this response fails to restore cardiac function. Unfortunately, the human heart has little regenerative ability and long-term outcomes following acute coronary events often include chronic and end-stage heart failure. Building upon years of research aimed at restoring functional cardiomyocytes, recent advances have been made in the direct reprogramming of fibroblasts toward a cardiomyocyte cell fate both in vitro and in vivo. Several experiments show functional improvements in mouse models of myocardial infarction following in situ generation of cardiomyocyte-like cells from endogenous fibroblasts. Though many of these studies are in an early stage, this nascent technology holds promise for future applications in regenerative medicine. In this review, we discuss the history, progress, methods, challenges, and future directions of direct cardiac reprogramming.

  18. Application of immobilized tannase from Aspergillus niger for the removal of tannin from myrobalan juice.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anita; Kar, Rita

    2010-10-01

    Tannase produced optimally on an agroresidue by an Aspergillus niger isolate under submerged fermentation immobilized on sodium alginate beads with 93.6% efficiency was applied for tannin removal from myrobalan/aonla (Phyllanthus emblica) juice. The pH and temperature optima of the immobilized enzyme were found to be 5.4 and 40°C while the corresponding values of the soluble enzyme were 5.8 and 35°C. Maximum tannin removal of 73.6% was obtained at 40°C and 150 rpm in 180 min with 36.6 U/ml of immobilized enzyme while the same amount of the soluble enzyme removed 45.2% of tannin at 37°C and 150 rpm in the same time period. The immobilized beads could be used repeatedly till 7th cycle with 77% efficiency. When preserved at 6°C the beads retained 71.7% of enzyme activity after 60 days. Reduction in vitamin C content, which is responsible for antioxidant property of the fruit, was minimum at only 2% during the treatment. PMID:22815571

  19. Influence of Myriophyllum spicatum-derived tannins on gut microbiota of its herbivore Acentria ephemerella.

    PubMed

    Walenciak, Oliver; Zwisler, Walter; Gros, Elisabeth M

    2002-10-01

    The submerged living larvae of Acentria ephemerella were fed in the laboratory with either M. spicatum or Potamogeton perfoliatus, two of their host plants. Larvae exhibited a reduced growth when fed M. spicatum, a freshwater angiosperm that contains high concentrations of tannins, secondary metabolites known for their herbivore-deterrent and antimicrobial properties. In this study, we investigated the influence of food-derived tannins on gut microbiota. Bacterial densities in the guts did not differ between the food regimes, ranging from 2.8 to 13.3 x 10(6) cells per gut. Gut bacteria were characterized with cultivation techniques and subsequent identification of the strains by molecular methods. We isolated 17 bacterial strains belonging to all subdivisions, i.e., we identified alpha-, beta-, and gamma-proteobacteria, Cytophyaga/Flavobacteria (CF) and several Gram-positive bacteria. All except one Gram-positive strain were found in the guts of larvae fed with P. perfoliatus. Gram-positive bacteria and bacteria of the CF cluster were more sensitive to polyphenol-containing extracts of M. spicatum in an agar diffusion assay than strains of the alpha- or gamma-proteobacteria subdivision. Our results suggest an influence of food-derived tannins on gut microbiota in A. ephemerella. PMID:12474899

  20. Tannin Degradation by a Novel Tannase Enzyme Present in Some Lactobacillus plantarum Strains

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Natalia; Esteban-Torres, María; Mancheño, José Miguel; de las Rivas, Blanca

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is frequently isolated from the fermentation of plant material where tannins are abundant. L. plantarum strains possess tannase activity to degrade plant tannins. An L. plantarum tannase (TanBLp, formerly called TanLp1) was previously identified and biochemically characterized. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of a novel tannase (TanALp). While all 29 L. plantarum strains analyzed in the study possess the tanBLp gene, the gene tanALp was present in only four strains. Upon methyl gallate exposure, the expression of tanBLp was induced, whereas tanALp expression was not affected. TanALp showed only 27% sequence identity to TanBLp, but the residues involved in tannase activity are conserved. Optimum activity for TanALp was observed at 30°C and pH 6 in the presence of Ca2+ ions. TanALp was able to hydrolyze gallate and protocatechuate esters with a short aliphatic alcohol substituent. Moreover, TanALp was able to fully hydrolyze complex gallotannins, such as tannic acid. The presence of the extracellular TanALp tannase in some L. plantarum strains provides them an advantage for the initial degradation of complex tannins present in plant environments. PMID:24610854

  1. Inheritance of seed condensed tannins and their relationship with seed-coat color and pattern genes in common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gina Viviana Caldas; Matthew W. Blair

    2009-01-01

    Condensed tannins are major flavonoid end products that affect the nutritional quality of many legume seeds. They chelate\\u000a minerals and interact with proteins, thus reducing their bioavailability. Tannins also contribute to seed coat color and pigment\\u000a distribution or intensity. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between quantitative trait loci (QTL)\\u000a for seed tannin concentration in common

  2. Triterpene glycosides from the tubers of Anemone coronaria.

    PubMed

    Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Kazuki; Matsuo, Yukiko; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2009-07-01

    Six new triterpene glycosides (1-6), together with 11 known ones (7-17), have been isolated from a glycoside-enriched fraction prepared from the tubers of Anemone coronaria L. (Ranunculaceae). On the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR data, and the results of hydrolytic cleavage, the structures of 1-6 were determined to be 3beta-[(O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-2beta,23-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (1), 3beta-[(O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-23-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (2), 3beta-[(O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-23-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (3), 3beta-[(O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-2beta,23-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (4), 3beta-[(O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-2beta-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (5), and 3beta-[(O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-23-hydroxyolean-18-en-28-oic acid O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (6), respectively. Furthermore, the isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against HSC-2 cells. PMID:19571419

  3. CHARMM Additive All-Atom Force Field for Glycosidic Linkages between Hexopyranoses

    PubMed Central

    Guvench, Olgun; Hatcher, Elizabeth R.; Venable, Richard M.; Pastor, Richard W.; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2009-01-01

    We present an extension of the CHARMM hexopyranose monosaccharide additive all-atom force field to enable modeling of glycosidic-linked hexopyranose polysaccharides. The new force field parameters encompass 1?1, 1?2, 1?3, 1?4, and 1?6 hexopyranose glycosidic linkages, as well as O-methylation at the C1 anomeric carbon, and are developed to be consistent with the CHARMM all-atom biomolecular force fields for proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. The parameters are developed in a hierarchical fashion using model compounds containing the key atoms in the full carbohydrates, in particular O-methyl-tetrahydropyran and glycosidic-linked dimers consisting of two molecules of tetrahyropyran or one of tetrahydropyran and one of cyclohexane. Target data for parameter optimization include full two-dimensional energy surfaces defined by the ?/? glycosidic dihedral angles in the disaccharide analogs as determined by quantum mechanical MP2/cc-pVTZ single point energies on MP2/6-31G(d) optimized structures (MP2/cc-pVTZ//MP2/6-31G(d)). In order to achieve balanced, transferable dihedral parameters for the ?/? glycosidic dihedral angles, surfaces for all possible chiralities at the ring carbon atoms involved in the glycosidic linkages are considered, resulting in over 5000 MP2/cc-pVTZ//MP2/6-31G(d) conformational energies. Also included as target data are vibrational frequencies, pair interaction energies and distances with water molecules, and intramolecular geometries including distortion of the glycosidic valence angle as a function of the glycosidic dihedral angles. The model-compound optimized force field parameters are validated on full disaccharides through comparison of molecular dynamics results to available experimental data. Good agreement is achieved with experiment for a variety of properties including crystal cell parameters and intramolecular geometries, aqueous densities, and aqueous NMR coupling constants associated with the glycosidic linkage. The newly-developed parameters allow for the modeling of linear, branched, and cyclic hexopyranose glycosides both alone and in heterogenous systems including proteins, nucleic acids and/or lipids when combined with existing CHARMM biomolecular force fields. PMID:20161005

  4. [Obesity and cardiac failure].

    PubMed

    Galinier, M; Pathak, A; Roncalli, J; Massabuau, P

    2005-01-01

    Obesity alone is the cause of 11% of cases of cardiac failure in men and 14% of cases in women in the United States. The frequency of obesity continues to rise in our country, 41% of our compatriots being obese or overweight. It is expected that obesity will become an important cause of cardiac failure in the coming years. The Framingham study showed that, after correction for other risk factors, for every point increase in body mass index, the increase in risk of developing cardiac failure was 5% in men and 7% in women. There are three physiopathological mechanisms to explain the adverse effects of obesity on left ventricular function: an increase in ventricular preload secondary to increased plasma volume induced by the high fatty mass; an increase in left ventricular afterload due to the common association of hypertension generated by activation of the sympathetic nervous system by hyperinsulinism; and systolic and diastolic dysfunction due to changes in the myocardial genome and coronary artery disease induced by risk factors of atherosclerosis aggravated by obesity. The adipocyte also secretes a number of hormones which act directly or indirectly on the myocardium: angiotensin II, leptin, resistin, adrenomedulin, cytokines. These haemodynamic and hormonal changes profoundly modify the genetic expression of the myocardium in obesity, favourising hypertrophy of the myocyte and the development of interstitial fibrosis. Whether it be eccentric in the absence of hypertension or concentric when hypertension is associated with obesity, left ventricular hypertrophy, although normalising left ventricular wall stress, has adverse consequences causing abnormal relaxation and decreased left ventricular compliance. Therefore, in obese patients, two forms of cardiac failure may be observed. The more common is due to diastolic dysfunction, obesity being one of the principal causes of cardiac failure with preserved systolic function. Cardiac failure due to systolic dysfunction is less common and may be observed in cases with inappropriate left ventricular hypertrophy which does not normalise abnormal left ventricular wall stress leading to cardiomyopathy, and in cases with associated coronary artery disease. Whatever the underlying mechanism, the diagnosis of cardiac failure is made more difficult by obesity. From the prognostic point of view, in the global population of patients with cardiac failure, obesity improves survival because it counteracts the adverse effect of cachexia; however, obesity increases the risk of sudden death. In fact, obesity is associated with dynamic change in QT interval. In cases of cardiac failure secondary to obesity-related cardiomyopathy, loss of weight leads to an improved functional status and a reduction of left ventricular remodelling and an increase of the ejection fraction. PMID:15724418

  5. Quantification of Enterobacteriaceae in faeces of captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in relation to dietary tannin supplementation.

    PubMed

    Clauss, M; Wittenbrink, M M; Castell, J C; Kienzle, E; Dierenfeld, E S; Flach, E J; Macgregor, S K; Hoppe, T; Hummel, J; Streich, W J; Hatt, J-M

    2008-02-01

    Free-ranging browsing herbivores ingest a range of secondary plant compounds, such as tannins, with their natural diet. As many of these substances have been shown to have antibacterial properties, it could be speculated that a lack of such compounds in captive zoo diets could favour the growth of potentially pathogenic intestinal bacteria. The effect of a supplementation of a conventional diet (N, consisting mainly of grass hay and/or lucerne hay and pelleted compound feeds) fed to eight captive black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis) from three zoological institutions with either tannic acid (T), a source of hydrolysable tannins, or quebracho (Q), a source of condensed tannins, was investigated. The number of faecal colony forming units (CFU) of Enterobactericeae was determined by colony count of dilution series from fresh faeces applied to MacConkey agar plates. Tannins were added to the diets at approximately 5-15 g/kg dry matter, depending on the varying intake of roughage and compound feeds by the animals. There was no difference in the number of CFU between diets N (95.0 x 10(5) +/- 225.3 x 10(5)/g fresh faeces) and T (164.3 x 10(5) +/- 225.1 x 10(5)/g fresh faeces); in contrast, diet Q led to a significant reduction in CFU (4.3 x 10(5) +/- 6.5 x 10(5)/g fresh faeces) compared with the other diets. These findings suggest that condensed tannins could have the potential to reduce the number of potentially pathogenic intestinal bacteria, and that the deliberate inclusion of tannin sources in the diets of captive wild animals should be further investigated. The fact that tannic acid, shown to have antibacterial effects in various in vitro studies, did not have an effect in this study, emphasizes that the relevance of tannin supplementation for intestinal health must be verified in vivo. PMID:18184377

  6. Structure and cytotoxicity of steroidal glycosides from Allium schoenoprasum.

    PubMed

    Timité, Gaoussou; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2013-04-01

    A phytochemical analysis of the whole plant of Allium schoenoprasum, has led to the isolation of four spirostane-type glycosides (1-4), and four known steroidal saponins. Their structures were elucidated mainly by 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry as (20S,25S)-spirost-5-en-3?,12?,21-triol 3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-D-glucopyranoside (1), (20S,25S)-spirost-5-en-3?,11?,21-triol 3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-D-glucopyranoside (2), laxogenin 3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-[?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)]-?-D-glucopyranoside (3), and (25R)-5?-spirostan-3?,11?-diol 3-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?3)-[?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)]-?-D-galactopyranoside (4). Four of the isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxic activity against the HCT 116 and HT-29 human colon cancer cell lines. PMID:23357597

  7. Antioxidative iridoid glycosides and phenolic compounds from Veronica peregrina.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jong Hwan; Kim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Kwang Ho; Kang, Se Chan; Zee, Ok Pyo

    2009-02-01

    Eight iridoid glycosides and four phenolic compounds were isolated from the EtOAc soluble fraction of Veronica peregrina MeOH extract as the radical scavengers for antioxidant activity. The compounds were identified as protocatechuic acid (1), luteolin (2), veronicoside (3), minecoside (4), specioside (5), amphicoside (6), catalposide (7), 6-O-cis-p-coumaroyl catalpol (8), p-hydroxy benzoic acid methyl ester (9), verproside (10), verminoside (11), and chrysoeriol 7-glucuronide (12) by spectroscopic analysis. All compounds except for 1 and 2 were isolated for the first time from this plant. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the ORAC(Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) assay, which measures scavenging activity against peroxy radicals induced by 2,2'-azobis (2-methoxypropion-amidine) dihydrochloride, and the ORAC value is expressed as relative trolox equivalent. Compounds 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 12 exhibited potent antioxidant activity, and compounds 1, 11 had similar activity with trolox, whereas the other compounds showed weaker activity than trolox. PMID:19280150

  8. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic isopimarane diterpenoid glycosides from Microlepia pilosissima Ching.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiang; Song, Yan; Li, Hui; Mao, Xia; Zhao, YongMao; Shi, Xiaodong

    2015-03-01

    A phytochemical investigation of the EtOH extract of the dry fronds of Microlepia pilosissima Ching afforded four new isopimarane diterpene glycosides, 3?-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-7?-O-?-D-fucopyranosyl-ent-iospimara-8(14),15-diene (1), 3?-O-[2-O-acetyl-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl]-7?-O-?-D-fucopyranosyl-ent-iospimara-8(14),15-diene (2), 3?-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl]-7?-O-?-D-fucopyranosyl-ent-iospimara-8(14),15-diene (3) and 3?-O-[?-D-fucopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl]-7?-O-?-D-fucopyranosyl-ent-iospimara-8(14),15-diene (4) as well as their aglycone, 3?,7?-dihydroxy-ent-iospimara-8(14),15-diene (5). Their structures were characterized by spectroscopic methods, including 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR, and HR-ESI-MS. The isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro for antimicrobial properties against three pathogen fungi and two oral pathogens and cytotoxicities against eight tumor cell lines. As a result, compounds 1-4 appeared to be promising antimicrobial potential and possessed moderate cytotoxic activities against the tested tumor cell lines. PMID:25542683

  9. Extracellular Glycoside Hydrolase Activities in the Human Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Inui, Taichi; Walker, Lauren C; Dodds, Michael W J; Hanley, A Bryan

    2015-08-15

    Carbohydrate availability shifts when bacteria attach to a surface and form biofilm. When salivary planktonic bacteria form an oral biofilm, a variety of polysaccharides and glycoproteins are the primary carbon sources; however, simple sugar availabilities are limited due to low diffusion from saliva to biofilm. We hypothesized that bacterial glycoside hydrolase (GH) activities would be higher in a biofilm than in saliva in order to maintain metabolism in a low-sugar, high-glycoprotein environment. Salivary bacteria from 13 healthy individuals were used to grow in vitro biofilm using two separate media, one with sucrose and the other limiting carbon sources to a complex carbohydrate. All six GHs measured were higher in vitro when grown in the medium with complex carbohydrate as the sole carbon source. We then collected saliva and overnight dental plaque samples from the same individuals and measured ex vivo activities for the same six enzymes to determine how oral microbial utilization of glycoconjugates shifts between the planktonic phase in saliva and the biofilm phase in overnight dental plaque. Overall higher GH activities were observed in plaque samples, in agreement with in vitro observation. A similar pattern was observed in GH activity profiles between in vitro and ex vivo data. 16S rRNA gene analysis showed that plaque samples had a higher abundance of microorganisms with larger number of GH gene sequences. These results suggest differences in sugar catabolism between the oral bacteria located in the biofilm and those in saliva. PMID:26048943

  10. Flavonoid Glycosides of Polygonum capitatum Protect against Inflammation Associated with Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Mo, Fei; Luo, Zhaoxun; Huang, Jian; Sun, Chaoqin; Zhang, Ran

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities, and protective effects of extracts (flavonoid glycosides) of Polygonum capitatum were investigated to detect the evidence for the utilization of the herb in the clinical therapy of gastritis caused by H. pylori. A mouse gastritis model was established using H. pylori. According to treating methods, model mice were random assigned into a model group (MG group), a triple antibiotics group (TG group, clarithromycin, omeprazole and amoxicillin), low/middle/high concentrations of flavonoid glycosides groups (LF, MF and HF groups) and low/middle/high concentrations of flavonoid glycosides and amoxicillin groups (LFA, MFA and HFA groups). A group with pathogen-free mice was regarded as a control group (CG group). The eradicate rates of H. pylori were 100%, 93%, 89% in TG, MFA and HF groups. The serum levels of IFN-gamma and gastrin were higher in a MG group than those from all other groups (P < 0.05). The serum levels of IFN-gamma and gastrin were reduced significantly in LF, MF and HF groups (P < 0.05) while little changes were observed in LFA, MFA and HFA groups. In contrast, the serum levels of IL-4 were lower and higher in MG and CG groups compared with other groups (P<0.05). The serum levels of IL-4 were increased significantly in LF, MF and HF groups (P < 0.05) while little changes were found in LFA, MFA and HFA groups. According to pathological scores, flavonoid glycosides therapy showed better protection for gastric injuries than the combination of flavonoid glycoside and amoxicillin (P < 0.05). The results suggested that flavonoid glycoside has repairing functions for gastric injuries. The results suggest that the plant can treat gastritis and protect against gastric injuries. The flavonoid glycosides from Polygonum capitatum should be developed as a potential drug for the therapy of gastritis caused by H. pylori. PMID:25993258

  11. Drug Treatment of Cardiac Failure

    PubMed Central

    Achong, M. R.; Kumana, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    Treatment of cardiac failure should first be aimed at reversing or ameliorating the underlying pathological processes. This review highlights the common problems and pitfalls in the use of digoxin, diuretics and vasodilators in patients with cardiac failure. PMID:21289849

  12. Drug treatment of cardiac failure.

    PubMed

    Achong, M R; Kumana, C R

    1982-01-01

    Treatment of cardiac failure should first be aimed at reversing or ameliorating the underlying pathological processes. This review highlights the common problems and pitfalls in the use of digoxin, diuretics and vasodilators in patients with cardiac failure. PMID:21289849

  13. Sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Kuriachan, Vikas P; Sumner, Glen L; Mitchell, L Brent

    2015-04-01

    Sudden death accounts for 300,000-400,000 deaths annually in the United States. Most sudden deaths are cardiac, and most sudden cardiac deaths are related to arrhythmias secondary to structural heart disease or primary electrical abnormalities of the heart. The most common structural disease leading to sudden death is ischemic heart disease. Nonischemic cardiomyopathy and other structural abnormalities such as arrhythmogenic ventricular dysplasia and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may also be causative. Patients without structural disease have a primary electrical abnormality, such as long-QT syndrome or Brugada syndrome. Severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction is the main marker for sudden death in patients with ischemic or nonischemic cardiomyopathy. In other conditions, other markers for structural heart disease and electrical abnormalities need to be considered. It is seen that ?-blocker therapy is associated with a reduction in sudden cardiac death across a broad range of disorders. Nevertheless, the implantable cardioverter defibrillator remains the most effective treatment strategy in selected patients. PMID:25813838

  14. Primary cardiac tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, N A

    1980-01-01

    Cardiac tumors are a rare, but potentially curably form of heart disease. A high index of clinical suspicion is necessary for diagnosis as these tumors have protean manifestations that mimic a variety of other cardiac and noncardiac diseases. Presently, M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography are utilized as safe, reliable, and noninvasive imaging modalities. Seventy-five per cent of these tumors are benign, with myxoma accounting for 50% and rhabodomyoma comprising 20% of lesions. Various histologic types of sarcoma are the predominant malignant cardiac neoplasms. With strict attention to avoiding perioperative tumor embolization, surgical resection of these lesions can be accomplished with minimal morbidity and mortality. Sixteen consecutive primary tumors of the heart have been surgically treated at Duke University Medical Center since 1966 with no perioperative deaths and no late recurrences. Images Figs. 2A and B. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Figs. 5A and B Fig. 6. PMID:7362282

  15. Cardiac Bioelectricity and Arrhythmias

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Flavio Fenton (Cornell University; )

    2006-09-22

    Deep inside a human heart, its pacemaker sends out bursts of electrical signals that keep the heart pumping rhythmically, supplying life-giving oxygen to the body. When these electrical waves become disorganized, the heart starts beating irregularly or arrhythmically. Flavio Fenton and Elizabeth Cherry of Cornell University made this interactive program to provide education on arrhythmias. It presents detailed information on cardiac anatomy, normal cardiac electrophysiology, and different kinds of arrhythmias using a combination of words, pictures, and interactive, computer simulations and animations.

  16. Cardiac Response and Personality Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, Sidney J.; Feirstein, Alan

    1977-01-01

    This study examines the level and variability of cardiac response during complex problem-solving and interposed rest periods and their differing relationships to estimates of personality integration on the Rorschach. Findings suggest cardiac variability may be a more differentiated measure than level of cardiac response. (Author)

  17. Cardiac Xenotransplantation: Future and Limitations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyoshi Ogata; Jeffrey L. Platt

    2004-01-01

    Despite improvements in pharmacological therapies, the outlook for patients with severe cardiac disease remains poor. At present, only transplantation can ‘cure’ end-stage cardiac failure. However, fewer than 5% of those who need a cardiac transplant receive one in the United States each year. To address this problem, some propose using animals as a source of organs for transplantation, that is,

  18. Biophysical studies of interaction between hydrolysable tannins isolated from Oenothera gigas and Geranium sanguineum with human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Sekowski, Szymon; Ionov, Maksim; Kaszuba, Mateusz; Mavlyanov, Saidmukhtar; Bryszewska, Maria; Zamaraeva, Maria

    2014-11-01

    Tannins, secondary plant metabolites, possess diverse biological activities and can interact with biopolymers such as lipids or proteins. Interactions between tannins and proteins depend on the structures of both and can result in changes in protein structure and activity. Because human serum albumin is the most abundant protein in plasma and responsible for interactions with important biological compounds (e.g. bilirubin) and proper blood pressure, therefore, it is very important to investigate reactions between HSA and tannins. This paper describes the interaction between human serum albumin (HSA) and two tannins: bihexahydroxydiphenoyl-trigalloylglucose (BDTG) and 1-O-galloyl-4,6-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-?-d-glucose (OG?DG), isolated from Geranium sanguineum and Oenothera gigas leafs, respectively. Optical (spectrofluorimetric) and chiral optical (circular dichroism) methods were used in this study. Fluorescence analysis demonstrated that OG?DG quenched HSA fluorescence more strongly than BDTG. Both OG?DG and BDTG formed complexes with albumin and caused a red shift of the fluorescence spectra but did not significantly change the protein secondary structure. Our studies clearly demonstrate that the tested tannins interact very strongly with human serum albumin (quenching constant K=88,277.26±407.04 M(-1) and K=55,552.67±583.07 M(-1) respectively for OG?DG and BDTG) in a manner depending on their chemical structure. PMID:25456986

  19. Domestication and defence: Foliar tannins and C/N ratios in cassava and a close wild relative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondolot, Laurence; Marlas, Amandine; Barbeau, Damien; Gargadennec, Annick; Pujol, Benoît; McKey, Doyle

    2008-09-01

    Plant domestication is accompanied by shifts in resource allocation, as a result of farmer selection for genotypes that give high yields in agricultural habitats. Relaxed natural selection for chemical and physical defences in these habitats could facilitate resource allocation to yield. We compared the concentrations of tannins, and C/N ratios, which are often correlated with investment in cell-wall compounds, in leaves of landraces of domesticated cassava ( Manihot esculenta) and a close wild relative in French Guiana. Foliar concentrations of tannins were about 1.9 times higher in the wild relative than in domesticated cassava. Histochemical analyses showed that tannins were present in nearly all palisade and spongy parenchyma cells of the wild taxon, but in only some cells of these tissues in M. esculenta. C/N ratios were also 1.9 times higher in leaves of the wild relative than in those of domesticated cassava. Tannins accounted for only a small proportion of total carbon, and the higher C/N ratio in wild than in domesticated cassava may reflect higher investment in carbon-containing compounds additional to tannins, such as cell-wall compounds. The divergence in these traits between cassava and this close wild relative mirrors a broad pattern observed in wild plant species across habitats varying in resource availability. One explanation for our results is that domestication in cassava may have favoured a shift from a resource conservation strategy to a resource acquisition strategy.

  20. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A 133 (2002) 861875 1095-6433/02/$ -see front matter 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Lauren J.

    2002-01-01

    , digestibility, alkaloids, total phenolics, tannins, saponins, and cyanogenic glycosides. Both groups selected of cyanogenic glycosides, and the highest saponin levels were found in the young leaves of Albizia

  1. Phenolic Glycosides with antiproteasomal activity from Centaurea urvillei DC. subsp. urvillei.

    PubMed

    Gülcemal, Derya; Alanku?-Çal??kan, Ozgen; Karaalp, Canan; Ors, Ahmet Uygar; Ballar, Petek; Bedir, Erdal

    2010-11-22

    A new flavanone glycoside, naringenin-7-O-?-D-glucuronopyranoside, and a new flavonol glycoside, 6-hydroxykaempferol-7-O-?-D-glucuronopyranoside were isolated together with 12 known compounds, 5 flavone glycoside; hispidulin-7-O-?-D-glucuronopyranoside, apigenin-7-O-?-D-methylglucuronopyranoside, hispidulin-7-O-?-D-methylglucuronopyranoside, hispidulin-7-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, apigenin-7-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, a flavonol; kaempferol, two flavone; apigenin, and luteolin, a flavanone glycoside; eriodictyol-7-O-?-D-glucuronopyranoside, and three phenol glycoside; arbutin, salidroside, and 3,5-dihydroxyphenethyl alcohol-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside from Centaurea urvillei subsp. urvillei. The structure elucidation of the new compounds was achieved by a combination of one- ((1)H and (13)C) and two-dimensional NMR techniques (G-COSY, G-HMQC, and G-HMBC) and LC-ESI-MS. The isolated compounds were tested for their antiproteasomal activity. The results indicated that kaempferol, a well known and widely distributed flavonoid in the plant kingdom, was the most active antiproteasomal agent, followed by apigenin, eriodictyol-7-O-?-D-glucuronopyranoside, 3,5-dihydroxyphenethyl alcohol-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, and salidroside, respectively. PMID:20937505

  2. Factors influencing the variability of antioxidative phenolic glycosides in Salix species.

    PubMed

    Förster, Nadja; Ulrichs, Christian; Zander, Matthias; Kätzel, Ralf; Mewis, Inga

    2010-07-28

    Phenolic glycosides, especially the salicylates, are important secondary metabolites in the bark of willows (Salix spp.). Because of their anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and fever-reducing properties, they are of particular interest to society. Compared to the fabrication of synthetic salicylacetylic acid, the commercial production of willow bark extracts with adequate amounts of salicylate is very difficult due to several biological and technical reasons. Therefore, one of the objectives was to identify salicylate-rich clones from three species, Salix daphnoides , Salix purpurea , and Salix pentandra , with potentially high amounts of phenolic glycosides. Three hundred different Salix clones were collected, and the chemical profiles of their bark were analyzed by HPLC. Overall, S. daphnoides clones showed the highest phenolic glycoside contents, followed by S. purpurea and S. pentandra. Second, seasonal changes of secondary compounds in willow bark were analyzed to determine the optimal harvesting time. The phenolic glycoside levels decreased over the growing season, with highest contents detected during plant dormancy. The effects of different cultivation conditions were also examined, and none of these treatments were found to have a significant effect on the phenolic glycoside content in willow bark. Biomass accumulation in the clones with grass competition was significantly lower than in the other three treatments. PMID:20593762

  3. The cardiac muscle cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas J. Severs

    2000-01-01

    Summary The cardiac myocyte is the most physically energetic cell in the body, contracting constantly, without tiring, 3 billion times or more in an average human lifespan. By coordinating its beating activity with that of its 3 billion neighbours in the main pump of the human heart, over 7,000 litres of blood are pumped per day, without con- scious effort,

  4. Cardiac and Pulmonary Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George C. Velmahos; Muhammad U. Butt

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac and pulmonary injuries present major chal- lenges in diagnosis and treatment. Distinct differences between penetrating and blunt trauma of these or- gans exist. Outcomes for severe injuries are still grave. Organized trauma systems can provide optimal care by minimizing prehospital time, allowing easy access to imaging modalities, and offering state-of-the-art treatment strategies. A multidisciplinary approach, including surgeons, intensivists, and

  5. Cardiac Physiology of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    May, Linda

    2015-07-01

    Although the physiology of the heart and vascular system has not changed, there are many things we have learned and are still learning today. Research related to heart adaptations during pregnancy has been performed since the 1930s. Since the mid-1950s, researchers began to look at changes in the maternal cardiovascular system during exercise while pregnant. Research related to exercise during pregnancy and offspring heart development began and has continued since the 1970s. We will review the normal female cardiovascular system adaptations to pregnancy in general. Additionally, topics related to maternal cardiac adaptations to pregnancy during acute exercise, as well as the chronic conditioning response from exercise training will be explored. Since physical activity during pregnancy influences fetal development, the fetal cardiac development will be discussed in regards to acute and chronic maternal exercise. Similarly, the influence of various types of maternal exercise on acute and chronic fetal heart responses will be described. Briefly, the topics related to how and if there is maternal-fetal synchrony will be explained. Lastly, the developmental changes of the fetal cardiovascular system that persist after birth will be explored. Overall, the article will discuss maternal cardiac physiology related to changes with normal pregnancy, and exercise during pregnancy, as well as fetal cardiac physiology related to changes with normal development, and exercise during pregnancy as well as developmental changes in offspring after birth. © 2015 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 5:1325-1344, 2015. PMID:26140720

  6. Hepato-cardiac disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, Yasser Mahrous; Yehia, Reem

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mutual relationship between the liver and the heart is important for both hepatologists and cardiologists. Hepato-cardiac diseases can be classified into heart diseases affecting the liver, liver diseases affecting the heart, and conditions affecting the heart and the liver at the same time. Differential diagnoses of liver injury are extremely important in a cardiologist’s clinical practice calling for collaboration between cardiologists and hepatologists due to the many other diseases that can affect the liver and mimic haemodynamic injury. Acute and chronic heart failure may lead to acute ischemic hepatitis or chronic congestive hepatopathy. Treatment in these cases should be directed to the primary heart disease. In patients with advanced liver disease, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy may develop including hemodynamic changes, diastolic and systolic dysfunctions, reduced cardiac performance and electrophysiological abnormalities. Cardiac evaluation is important for patients with liver diseases especially before and after liver transplantation. Liver transplantation may lead to the improvement of all cardiac changes and the reversal of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. There are systemic diseases that may affect both the liver and the heart concomitantly including congenital, metabolic and inflammatory diseases as well as alcoholism. This review highlights these hepatocardiac diseases PMID:24653793

  7. Advanced Cardiac Life Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document contains materials for an advanced college course in cardiac life support developed for the State of Iowa. The course syllabus lists the course title, hours, number, description, prerequisites, learning activities, instructional units, required text, six references, evaluation criteria, course objectives by units, course…

  8. Bioprospecting metagenomics of decaying wood: mining for new glycoside hydrolases

    SciTech Connect

    Li L. L.; van der Lelie D.; Taghavi, S.; McCorkle, S. M.; Zhang, Y.-B.; Blewitt, M. G.; Brunecky, R.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Brumm, P.; Drinkwater, C.; Mead, D. A.; Tringe, S. G.

    2011-08-01

    To efficiently deconstruct recalcitrant plant biomass to fermentable sugars in industrial processes, biocatalysts of higher performance and lower cost are required. The genetic diversity found in the metagenomes of natural microbial biomass decay communities may harbor such enzymes. Our goal was to discover and characterize new glycoside hydrolases (GHases) from microbial biomass decay communities, especially those from unknown or never previously cultivated microorganisms. From the metagenome sequences of an anaerobic microbial community actively decaying poplar biomass, we identified approximately 4,000 GHase homologs. Based on homology to GHase families/activities of interest and the quality of the sequences, candidates were selected for full-length cloning and subsequent expression. As an alternative strategy, a metagenome expression library was constructed and screened for GHase activities. These combined efforts resulted in the cloning of four novel GHases that could be successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. Further characterization showed that two enzymes showed significant activity on p-nitrophenyl-{alpha}-L-arabinofuranoside, one enzyme had significant activity against p-nitrophenyl-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, and one enzyme showed significant activity against p-nitrophenyl-{beta}-D-xylopyranoside. Enzymes were also tested in the presence of ionic liquids. Metagenomics provides a good resource for mining novel biomass degrading enzymes and for screening of cellulolytic enzyme activities. The four GHases that were cloned may have potential application for deconstruction of biomass pretreated with ionic liquids, as they remain active in the presence of up to 20% ionic liquid (except for 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate). Alternatively, ionic liquids might be used to immobilize or stabilize these enzymes for minimal solvent processing of biomass.

  9. Characterization of Five ?-Glycoside Hydrolases from Cellulomonas fimi ATCC 484

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Cellulomonas fimi produces a large array of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Analysis of the collection of carbohydrate-active enzymes from the recent genome sequence of C. fimi ATCC 484 shows a large number of uncharacterized genes for glycoside hydrolase (GH) enzymes potentially involved in biomass utilization. To investigate the enzymatic activity of potential ?-glucosidases in C. fimi, genes encoding several GH3 enzymes and one GH1 enzyme were cloned and recombinant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli. Biochemical analysis of these proteins revealed that the enzymes exhibited different substrate specificities for para-nitrophenol-linked substrates (pNP), disaccharides, and oligosaccharides. Celf_2726 encoded a bifunctional enzyme with ?-d-xylopyranosidase and ?-l-arabinofuranosidase activities, based on pNP-linked substrates (CfXyl3A). Celf_0140 encoded a ?-d-glucosidase with activity on ?-1,3- and ?-1,6-linked glucosyl disaccharides as well as pNP-?-Glc (CfBgl3A). Celf_0468 encoded a ?-d-glucosidase with hydrolysis of pNP-?-Glc and hydrolysis/transglycosylation activities only on ?-1,6-linked glucosyl disaccharide (CfBgl3B). Celf_3372 encoded a GH3 family member with broad aryl-?-d-glycosidase substrate specificity. Celf_2783 encoded the GH1 family member (CfBgl1), which was found to hydrolyze pNP-?-Glc/Fuc/Gal, as well as cellotetraose and cellopentaose. CfBgl1 also had good activity on ?-1,2- and ?-1,3-linked disaccharides but had only very weak activity on ?-1,4/6-linked glucose. PMID:25225266

  10. Tannin-Metal Interactions in Soils: An Incubation-Extraction Approach in Hill-Land Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, J. M.; Halvorson, J. J.

    2007-12-01

    Tannins, plant polyphenols known to react with proteins, metals and soil organic matter, are commonly found in the vegetation growing in Appalachian hill-lands. Establishing silvopastoral grazing systems in these environments is a means for improving productivity however the fate of tannins in soils and, in particular, the effect on solubility/mobility of metals in soils is poorly understood. Soils from forest and pasture systems were sampled from two depths, treated with tannic acid or related phenolic compounds, and analyzed for metals in solution. The amount of Mn and Ca detected in solution varied among the different phenolic treatments, highest for gallic acid, and was also influenced by depth and land use. As expected, the Ca content in solution was correlated with the electrical conductivity (EC) and the Mn content was correlated with the redox potential in solution. Interestingly, the EC was also correlated with both Mn content and redox potential. The higher Ca content found in solution may result from the low pH of the phenolic compounds. The higher Mn in solution may result from the redox reaction of Mn (IV) oxides with the phenolic compounds, producing soluble Mn2+ and quinones. These quinones are very reactive compounds that can self-polymerize and/or copolymerize with other biomolecules, such as amino-containing compounds and carbohydrates, to form humic-like substances. Successful management of silvopastures, requires an understanding of factors that affect the quality and quantity of plant secondary compounds like tannins entering soil not only to increase forage productivity but also to enhance formation/stabilization of soil organic matter to increase nutrient cycling and reduce the toxicity risk of some metals such as Mn.

  11. Effects of feed-supplementation and hide-spray application of two sources of tannins on enteric and hide bacteria of feedlot cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative pre-harvest interventions have to be evaluated to prevent carcass contamination at the slaughter house. The objectives of this study were to examine the antimicrobial effects of hydrolysable tannin-rich chestnut and condensed tannin-rich mimosa extracts on bacterial indicators of foodbo...

  12. Effects of dietary tannin source on performance, feed efficiency, ruminal fermentation, and carcass and non-carcass traits in steers fed a high-grain diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tannins are polyphenolic secondary plant compounds that have been shown to affect microbial activity to impact fermentation, protein degradation, methane production, and potential to mitigate foodborne pathogens. This study was conducted to examine the effects of source of tannin (condensed, CT, vs....

  13. The Evaluation of High Tannin Cotton Lines and Their Use in Breeding for Resistance to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum, Pythium aphanidermatum and Rhizoctonia solani 

    E-print Network

    Kennett, Raymond

    2012-02-14

    and diallel analysis. The importance of tannin content in conferring resistance to X. axonopodis and R. solani was also measured. Four high tannin lines were found to be not different from Tamcot Sphinx in their resistance to Xam. Generation means analysis...

  14. Effect of Rhizobium inoculation, organic and chemical fertilizers on proximate composition, in vitro protein digestibility, tannin and sulphur content of faba beans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elsiddig A. E. Elsheikh; Abdulhafiz A. Elzidany

    1997-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of Rhizobium inoculation, sulphur, nitrogen and chicken manure on proximate analysis, in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) tannin and sulphur content of faba beans. The results showed that Rhizobium inoculation, sulphur, nitrogen and chicken manure treatments significantly (P ? 0.05) increased protein, IVPD and tannin content. Ash, moisture, fat and crude

  15. The effect of wattle tannin drench or an acacia meal supplement on faecal egg counts and total worm burdens of tropical sheep with an experimental nematode infection1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Max; A. E. Kimambo; A. A. Kassuku; L. A. Mtenga; P. J. Buttery

    Following on from our studies on the potential use of tannins to control intestinal parasites in small ruminants we recently conducted two further trials to investigate the effect of a wattle tannin oral drench (WT), or supplementation of the diet with acacia (AMS), on faecal egg counts (FEC) and worm burdens of growing tropical Black Head Persian (BHP) sheep with

  16. The Pathogenesis of Cardiac Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ping; Christia, Panagiota; Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac fibrosis is characterized by net accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in the cardiac interstitium and contributes to both systolic and diastolic dysfunction in many cardiac pathophysiologic conditions. This review manuscript discusses the cellular effectors and molecular pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis. Although activated myofibroblasts are the main effector cells in the fibrotic heart, monocytes/macrophages, lymphocytes, mast cells, vascular cells and cardiomyocytes may also contribute to the fibrotic response by secreting key fibrogenic mediators. Inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, reactive oxygen species, mast cell-derived proteases, endothelin-1, the renin/angiotensin/aldosterone system, matricellular proteins and growth factors (such as TGF-? and PDGF) are some of the best-studied mediators implicated in cardiac fibrosis. Both experimental and clinical evidence suggests that cardiac fibrotic alterations may be reversible. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for initiation, progression and resolution of cardiac fibrosis is crucial to design anti-fibrotic treatment strategies for patients with heart disease. PMID:23649149

  17. Genetics of sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Bezzina, Connie R; Lahrouchi, Najim; Priori, Silvia G

    2015-06-01

    Sudden cardiac death occurs in a broad spectrum of cardiac pathologies and is an important cause of mortality in the general population. Genetic studies conducted during the past 20 years have markedly illuminated the genetic basis of the inherited cardiac disorders associated with sudden cardiac death. Here, we review the genetic basis of sudden cardiac death with a focus on the current knowledge on the genetics of the primary electric disorders caused primarily by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, and the cardiomyopathies, which have been attributed to mutations in genes encoding a broader category of proteins, including those of the sarcomere, the cytoskeleton, and desmosomes. We discuss the challenges currently faced in unraveling genetic factors that predispose to sudden cardiac death in the setting of sequela of coronary artery disease and present the genome-wide association studies conducted in recent years on electrocardiographic parameters, highlighting their potential in uncovering new biological insights into cardiac electric function. PMID:26044248

  18. The effect of a condensed tannin-containing forage on methane emission by goats.

    PubMed

    Puchala, R; Min, B R; Goetsch, A L; Sahlu, T

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare methane emission by goats consuming the condensed tannin-containing forage sericea lespedeza (Les-pedeza cuneata) or a mixture of crabgrass (Digitaria ischaemum) and Kentucky 31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Two groups of 12 Angora does (initial average BW = 41.5 +/- 2.7 kg) that previously grazed a pasture of sericea lespedeza or crabgrass/tall fescue for approximately 4 mo were used. After 1 wk of adaptation to metabolism cages, gas exchange was measured for 24 h in an open-circuit respiration calorimetry system with four head boxes. Forage harvested daily from the previously grazed pastures was consumed ad libitum. Crude protein concentration was 10.3 and 13.0%, IVDMD was 64.5 and 75.3%, and the level of condensed tannins was 17.7 and 0.5% for sericea lespedeza and crabgrass/tall fescue, respectively. Dry matter intake (1.11 vs. 0.67 kg/d) and digestible DMI (estimated from IVDMD; 0.71 vs. 0.51 kg/d) were greater (P < 0.01) for sericea lespedeza than for crabgrass/tall fescue. Ruminal ammonia N (3.7 and 9.9 mg/dL; P < 0.001) and plasma urea-N concentrations (16.7 and 20.9 mg/dL; P = 0.07) were lower for sericea lespedeza than for crabgrass/tall fescue. Concentrations of individual and total VFA and the acetate-to-propionate ratio in ruminal fluid did not differ between treatments (P > 0.19). Despite higher DMI by goats fed sericea lespedeza, daily energy expenditure (409 vs. 431 kJ/kg BW(0.75)), heart rate (70 vs. 73 beats/min), and the ratio of energy expenditure to heart rate (5.82 vs. 5.94) did not differ between sericea lespedeza and crabgrass/tall fescue, respectively (P > 0.13). Methane emission expressed as both quantity per day or relative to DMI was lower (P <0.001) for sericea lespedeza than for crabgrass/tall fescue (7.4 vs. 10.6 g/d and 6.9 vs. 16.2 g/kg DMI). Substantial differences between the forages in condensed tannins concentration and methane emission by Angora goats suggest that condensed tannins decreased methane emission. PMID:15583058

  19. Formation of dendrite crystals in poly(ethylene oxide) interacting with bioresourceful tannin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Cheng Yen; E. M. Woo

    2009-01-01

    A dendritic morphology, induced by miscibility with strong intermolecular interaction between poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and\\u000a bioresourceful tannin [tannic acid (TA)]. Mechanism was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier-transform\\u000a infrared spectroscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, and polarized optical microscopy. The cell crystallography preference\\u000a in correlation to the intermolecular interaction in the dendrites in PEO\\/TA (70\\/30) blend was analyzed. Dendritic morphology\\u000a was

  20. Removal of metal ions by modified Pinus radiata bark and tannins from water solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graciela Palma; Juanita Freer; Jaime Baeza

    2003-01-01

    Pinus radiata bark and tannins, chemically modified with an acidified formaldehyde solution were used for removing metal ions from aqueous solutions and copper mine acidic residual waters. The adsorption ability to different metal ions [V(V), Re(VII), Mo(VI), Ge(IV), As(V), Cd(II), Hg(II), Al(III), Pb(II), Fe(II), Fe(III), Cu(II)] and the factors affecting their removal from solutions were investigated. Effect of pH on

  1. The flavonol glycosides in the fruit of Pyrus communis L. cultivar Bon Chrétien

    PubMed Central

    Nortjé, B. K.; Koeppen, B. H.

    1965-01-01

    1. Two new flavonol glycosides were isolated from the fruit of Pyrus communis L. cultivar Bon Chrétien. These were identified as isorhamnetin 3-rhamnogalactoside and a derivative of isorhamnetin 3-glucoside which was associated (possibly acylated) with an unknown aliphatic organic acid. 2. The melting point of isorhamnetin 3-glucoside isolated from Bon Chrétien pears is different from that of isorhamnetin 3-glucoside previously isolated from Argemone mexicana and Calendula officinalis. 3. Isorhamnetin 3-rhamnoglucoside was isolated from the fruit of Pyrus communis L. cultivar Bon Chrétien. This glycoside appears to be identical with narcissin, previously isolated from Narcissus tazetta and Lilium auratum. 4. Isoquercitrin, previously reported to be present in pear leaves, was isolated from the fruit of Bon Chrétien pears. 5. The isolated glycosides were present in the peels and flesh of the fruit, but were absent from the cores. PMID:16749105

  2. Glycosidic aroma precursors of Syrah and Chardonnay grapes after an oak extract application to the grapevines.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Gil, Ana M; Angenieux, Magaly; Pardo-García, Ana I; Alonso, Gonzalo L; Ojeda, Hernán; Rosario Salinas, M

    2013-06-01

    Syrah and Chardonnay grapevines were treated with an oak extract in order to determine the effect on glycosidic aroma precursors. Grapevines were treated at three different timings of the veraison (treatment 1, 2 and 3). Aglycons were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis, and these were identified and quantified by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results suggest that after the applications the majority of compounds from the oak extract were assimilated and stored as glycosidic forms in both cultivars. Also, other compounds not present in the extract were affected, with a different behaviour observed depending on the timing of application and the variety. In general, C6 compounds, alcohols, terpenes, phenols and C13-norisoprenoids in Syrah showed a decrease and in Chardonnay an increase. Thus, this study proved a change in the glycosidic aroma profile in grapes after the oak application, so these treated grapes could produce wines with different aromatic quality. PMID:23411201

  3. Two new quinochalcone C-glycosides from the florets of Carthamus tinctorius.

    PubMed

    Yue, Shijun; Tang, Yuping; Xu, Chengmei; Li, Shujiao; Zhu, Yue; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2014-01-01

    Two new quinochalcone C-glycosides, named hydroxysafflor yellow B (1) and hydroxysafflor yellow C (2), along with two known quinochalcone C-glycosides, safflomin C (3) and saffloquinoside C (4), and one known flavanone, (2R)-4',5-dihydroxyl-6, 7-di-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl flavanone (5), were isolated from the florets of Carthamus tinctorius. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic (UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR) analyses. In addition, these quinochalcone C-glycosides together with hydroxysafflor yellow A and anhydrosafflor yellow B were evaluated for their anti-oxidative effects against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in cultured H9c2 cells. Among them, compound 2 exhibited significant anti-oxidative effects. PMID:25247575

  4. Synthesis of phenylazonaphtol-?-D-O-glycosides, evaluation as substrates for beta-glycosidase activity and molecular studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Phenylazonaphtol-?-D-O-glycosides are alternative substrates for the detection of enzymatic activity of ?-glycosidases which are involved in various important processes. These azoic compounds are currently exploited as prodrugs for colonic disease due the presence of ?-glycosidase activity in the gut flora and therefore allowing the release of the drug at the specific site. Results Phenylazonaphtol-?-D-O-glucoside 3a and galactoside 3b were prepared via diazonium salt conditions under weak acidic conditions which do not compromise the O-glycosidic bond stability, by coupling reaction between 2-naphtol sodium salt with aminoglycosides 1a and 1b. The resulting phenylazonaphtol glycosides 2a and 2b were deprotected affording the phenylazonaphtol glycosides 3a and 3b in quantitative yield. The galactoside glycoside 3b was assayed as substrate for in vitro ?-galactosidase enzymatic activity showing strong absorbance after releasing of the azoic chromophore. Also, docking studies were performed to determine the best pose as well as the interactions between the ligand and the residues located at the active site. Conclusions The methodology developed for synthesizing the phenylazonaphtol glycosides described proved to be convenient for generating azoic functionalities in the presence of glycosidic bonds and the glycosides suitable as alternative substrates and potentially useful prodrugs in the treatment of colonic diseases. PMID:24995152

  5. The Genetic Basis for Variation in the Concentration of Phenolic Glycosides in Salix sericea: an Analysis of Heritability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    COLIN M. ORIANS; BERNADETTE M. ROCHEt; ROBERT S. FRlTZt

    1998-01-01

    Willows and many other members of the Salicaceae often produce phenolic glycosides, and the concentrations of these are known to vary among plants. We used progeny from a factorial half-sib quantitative genetics experiment with Salix sericea to determine whether the concentration of two phenolic glycosides, salicortin and 2'-cinnamoylsalicortin, show additive heritability. We found that the con- centration of salicortin was

  6. The genetic basis for variation in the concentration of phenolic glycosides in Salix sericea: an analysis of heritability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin M. Orians; Bernadette M. Roche; Robert S. Fritz

    1996-01-01

    Willows and many other members of the Salicaceae often produce phenolic glycosides, and the concentrations of these are known to vary among plants. We used progeny from a factorial half-sib quantitative genetics experiment with Salix sericea to determine whether the concentration of two phenolic glycosides, salicortin and 2?-cinnamoylsalicortin, show additive heritability. We found that the concentration of salicortin was much

  7. Flavonoid glycoside variations in the progeny of wild specimens of Centaurea montana and comments on the origin of their natural diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-François Gonnet

    1996-01-01

    From a series of wild accessions of Centaurea montana displaying markedly dissimilar flavonoid phenotypes (notably C-glycosides vs. O-glycosides) different experimental breeding operations were performed. Variation was observed in individual glycosidic profiles of progeny, the importance of which depended on the parental phenotypes and the genetic proximity of the partners employed (combinations of wild specimens, inbred, plants or backcrosses operations). Most

  8. 1,2-cis Alkyl glycosides: straightforward glycosylation from unprotected 1-thioglycosyl donors.

    PubMed

    Meng, Bo; Zhu, Zhenqian; Baker, David C

    2014-07-28

    A 1,2-cis-alkyl glycosidation protocol that makes use of unprotected phenyl 1-thioglycosyl donors is reported. Glycosylation of various functionalized alcohols was accomplished in moderate to high yield and selectivity to give the 1,2-cis-glycosides. In order to quickly develop optimum glycosylation conditions, an FIA (flow injection analysis)-ESI-TOF-MS method was developed that enabled rapid and quantitative evaluation of yield on small scale. This methodology, coupled with NMR spectroscopy, allowed for rapid evaluation of the overall reactions. PMID:24915049

  9. Oplopanphesides A-C, three new phenolic glycosides from the root barks of Oplopanax horridus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Qing-Wen; Meng, Lan-Zhen; Yuan, Chun-Su; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Li, Shao-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Three new phenolic glycosides, named oplopanphesides A-C (1-3), have been isolated from the root barks of Oplopanax horridus. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic analyses, including 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques. These phenolic glycosides possess a novel feature in their sugar moieties that a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl moiety was connected with C-6 of the ?-D-glucopyranosyl group. Those compounds showed no cytotoxic effects against human cancer cell lines (MDA-231 and MCF-7) by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. PMID:21532210

  10. Two new acylated flavanone glycosides from the leaves and branches of Phyllanthus emblica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Jun; Abe, Tomomi; Tanaka, Takashi; Yang, Chong-Ren; Kouno, Isao

    2002-06-01

    Two new acylated flavanone glycosides, (S)-eriodictyol 7-O-(6"-O-trans-p-coumaroyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and (S)-eriodictyol 7-O-(6"-O-galloyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2) were isolated from the leaves and branches of Phyllanthus emblica together with a new phenolic glycoside, 2-(2-methylbutyryl)phloroglucinol 1-O-(6"-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), as well as 22 known compounds. Their structures were determined by spectral and chemical methods. PMID:12045344

  11. Note: A new biologically active flavonol glycoside from Psoralea corylifolia (Linn.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Yadava; Vikash Verma

    2005-01-01

    A new biologically active flavonol glycoside (1) mp 264–265°C, C32H38O20, [M] 742 (EIMS) has been isolated from the methanol-soluble fraction of the defatted seeds of Psoralea corylifolia (Linn.). It was characterised as the new flavonol glycoside 3,5,3?,4?-tetrahydroxy-7-methoxyflavone-3?-O-?-l-xylopyranosyl(1?3)-O-?-l-arabinopyranosyl(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside by several colour reactions, spectral analysis and chemical degradations. Compound 1 showed anti-microbial activity against various bacteria and fungi.

  12. A new biologically active flavone glycoside from the seeds of Cassia fistula (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Yadava, R N; Verma, Vikash

    2003-03-01

    A new bioactive flavone glycoside 1 [mp 252-254 degrees C, C28H32O16, [M]+ 624 (EIMS)] was isolated from the acetone soluble fraction of the defatted seeds of Cassia fistula (Linn.). It was characterized as a new bioactive flavone glycoside 5,3',4'-tri-hydroxy-6-methoxy-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside by several colour reactions, spectral analysis and chemical degradations. Compound 1 showed anti-microbial activity. PMID:12608640

  13. Electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry of mixtures of triterpene glycosides with paracetamol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekar, A. V.; Vetrova, E. V.; Borisenko, N. I.; Yakovishin, L. A.; Grishkovets, V. I.

    2010-11-01

    Molecular complexation of paracetamol with hederagenin 3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-O-?-L-arabinopyranoside (?-hederin) and its 28-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 6)-O-?-Dglucopyranosyl ether (hederasaponin C) was investigated for the first time using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The glycosides form complexes with paracetamol in a 1:1 molar ratio. The hederasaponin C complex is more stable. The structures of the glycosides and paracetamol are concluded to have an impact on the complexation process.

  14. Structural insights into the binding of cardiac glycosides to the digitalis receptor revealed by solid-state NMR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Middleton; Saffron Rankin; Mikael Esmann; Anthony Watts

    2000-01-01

    Several biologically active derivatives of the cardiotonic steroid ouabain have been made containing NMR isotopes (13C, 2H, and 19F) in the rhamnose sugar and steroid moieties, and examined at the digitalis receptor site of renal Na+\\/K+-ATPase by a combination of solid-state NMR methods. Deuterium NMR spectra of 2H-labeled inhibitors revealed that the sugar group was only loosely associated with the

  15. Program Overview The Cardiac Sonography program prepares individuals to perform cardiac

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Mei-Fang

    and Physiology, Pathophysiology, Ultrasound Physics, Instrumentation and Applied Cardiac Sonography. ClinicalProgram Overview The Cardiac Sonography program prepares individuals to perform cardiac sonography hours. Program Description The Cardiac Sonography Program is located on the Scotch Plains campus

  16. Cardiac arrest in children

    PubMed Central

    Tress, Erika E; Kochanek, Patrick M; Saladino, Richard A; Manole, Mioara D

    2010-01-01

    Major advances in the field of pediatric cardiac arrest (CA) were made during the last decade, starting with the publication of pediatric Utstein guidelines, the 2005 recommendations by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, and culminating in multicenter collaborations. The epidemiology and pathophysiology of in-hospital and out-of-hospital CA are now well described. Four phases of CA are described and the term “post-cardiac arrest syndrome” has been proposed, along with treatment goals for each of its four phases: immediate post-arrest, early post-arrest, intermediate and recovery phase. Hypothermia is recommended to be considered as a therapy for post-CA syndrome in comatose patients after CA, and large multicenter prospective studies are underway. We reviewed landmark articles related to pediatric CA published during the last decade. We present the current knowledge of epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment of CA relevant to pre-hospital and acute care health practitioners. PMID:20930971

  17. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Joseph S.; Khatib, Sammy; Morin, Daniel P.

    2009-01-01

    Systolic heart failure is a major problem for Americans today, with 550,000 new cases diagnosed per year, and ultimately contributes to 287,000 deaths annually. While pharmacologic therapy has drastically improved outcomes in patients with systolic heart failure, hospitalizations from systolic heart failure continue to increase and remain a major cost burden. In response to this unmet need, recent years have seen dramatic improvements in device-based therapy targeting one cause of systolic dysfunction: dyssynchronous ventricular contraction. Cardiac resynchronization therapy aims to restore mechanical synchrony by electrically activating the heart in a synchronized manner. This review summarizes the rationale for cardiac resynchronization therapy, evidence for its use, current guidelines, and ongoing and future directions for research. PMID:21603451

  18. Cardiac muscle tissue engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Papadaki

    2003-01-01

    Cell-based therapy has emerged as a novel approach for replacing heart muscle, which is known not to regenerate after injury such as that caused by infarction or reconstructive surgery. Two types of cell-based therapies have been employed: injection of isolated cells or the implantation of in-vitro-grown cardiac muscle tissue equivalents In the first case, several cell types - including skeletal

  19. Cardiac Arrest in Pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison A. Rodriguez; Gary A. Dildy

    Cardiac arrest (CA) in pregnancy is an uncommon occurrence with an incidence of about 1 in every 30,000 deliveries (1). The causes are quite numerous, but the management is essentially the same with the exception of a few modifications regarding\\u000a the fetus. In this chapter, causes of maternal mortality are reviewed along with potential interventions to decrease its incidence.\\u000a A

  20. Delirium After Cardiac Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James L. Rudolph

    \\u000a Delirium is an acute change in cognitive functioning, characterized by inattention and associated with disorganized thinking\\u000a or altered level of consciousness, which preferentially affects the older patients (Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental\\u000a disorders, fourth edition, text revision. Washington: American Psychiatric Association; 2000). After cardiac surgery, the\\u000a incidence of delirium has been reported between 2 and 73%, depending on the

  1. Inflammation and Cardiac Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Hohensinner, P.J.; Niessner, A.; Huber, K.; Weyand, C.M.; Wojta, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review Inflammation is a key component in cardiovascular disease. Controlling inflammatory events and their subsequent processes hold the potential for novel therapeutic options. Cytokines are the propagators of inflammation. In this review we will discuss important cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-alpha, MCP-1, M-CSF and GDF-15 and their effect on cardiac outcome. Recent findings IL-6 is a useful biomarker in patients with coronary artery disease. Summary PMID:21378564

  2. Hypothermic Cardiac Arrest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel F. Danzl

    The contemporary allure of hypothermia is regularly sparked by the apparent “reanimations” of profoundly cold patients in\\u000a prolonged cardiac arrest (CA). Recently, a physician who was resuscitated from 13.7°C presented her own case report at an\\u000a international conference (1). There are also promising ongoing investigations of mild therapeutic hypothermia for traumatic intracranial hypertension\\u000a and stroke (2–4). Nevertheless, hypothermia remains more

  3. Cardiac regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Shinsuke; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2008-01-01

    Severe heart failure is associated with damage to the myocardium that is irreversible with current medical therapies. Recent experimental and clinical studies, however, have opened the possibility of solving many of the associated problems, making this an exciting and tangible goal. There are many potential cell sources for regenerative cardiac medicine, including bone marrow stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, skeletal myocytes, adult cardiac stem cells, and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Although ES cells are highly proliferative and suitable for mass production, they are not autologous, and an efficient protocol is yet to be established to ensure selective cardiomyocyte induction. Recent studies have successfully established inducible pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human fibroblasts by the gene transfer of 4 transcription factors that are strongly expressed in ES cells: Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc. iPS cells can differentiate into all 3 germ layer-derived cells and are syngeneic, indicating that they can become an ideal cell source for regenerative medicine. Despite these successes, the accumulating evidence from fields as diverse as developmental biology, stem cell biology and tissue engineering must be integrated to achieve the full potential of cardiac regenerative medicine. PMID:18772528

  4. Rapid screening and identification of new soluble tannin-salivary protein aggregates in saliva by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF and FIA-ESI-MS).

    PubMed

    Perez-Gregorio, M R; Mateus, N; de Freitas, V

    2014-07-22

    Astringency is mainly attributed to the interaction between tannins and salivary proteins. Proline-rich proteins, histatins, and statherins are supposed to be the most reactive salivary proteins. This study aims to contribute to the knowledge of the tannin-protein binding process in saliva. It was identified for the first time in several soluble tannin-human salivary protein aggregates. A rapid mass spectrometry analytical method (MALDI-TOF and FIA-ESI-MS) was developed to identify new soluble tannin-human salivary protein aggregates. Three different tannins--procyanidin B3 (B3), procyanidin B2 gallate (B2G), and pentagalloylglucoside (PGG)--were tested to elucidate the tannin selectivity toward histatins, proline-rich proteins, and statherins in human saliva. A greater number of aggregates with a higher molecular weight was found when PGG was tested while no difference in the number and molecular mass range was observed in B3 or B2G salivary protein aggregates. This study confirms for the first time the bilateral selectivity of tannins and protein to yield soluble tannin-human salivary protein complexes. The results confirm that B3 and B2G are more selective than PGG. Furthermore, the families of proteins involved in the majority of B3-salivary protein soluble aggregates were primarly histatins, followed by basic proline-rich proteins and statherins. When B2G was tested, basic proline-rich proteins were involved in a greater number of aggregates, followed by histatines and statherins. Basic proline-rich proteins were also the family of proteins that formed a greater number of PGG-salivary protein aggregates followed by statherins and histatins. Acidic proline-rich proteins and glucosilated proline-rich proteins formed fewer soluble aggregates regardless of the tannin tested. The aggregation process was also found to be influenced by tannin and protein polarity. Indeed, the protein/tannin ratio of soluble aggregates increased with the tannin polarity. On the other hand, the only amphiphilic salivary proteins studied (histatins) formed a greater number of aggregates with the least polar tannin tested (B3). PMID:24967849

  5. Sudden cardiac death and obesity.

    PubMed

    Plourde, Benoit; Sarrazin, Jean-François; Nault, Isabelle; Poirier, Paul

    2014-09-01

    For individuals and the society as a whole, the increased risk of sudden cardiac death in obese patients is becoming a major challenge, especially since obesity prevalence has been increasing steadily around the globe. Traditional risk factors and obesity often coexist. Hypertension, diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea and metabolic syndrome are well-known risk factors for CV disease and are often present in the obese patient. Although the bulk of evidence is circumstantial, sudden cardiac death and obesity share common traditional CV risk factors. Structural, functional and metabolic factors modulate and influence the risk of sudden cardiac death in the obese population. Other risk factors such as left ventricular hypertrophy, increased number of premature ventricular complexes, altered QT interval and reduced heart rate variability are all documented in both obese and sudden cardiac death populations. The present review focuses on out-of-hospital sudden cardiac death and potential mechanisms leading to sudden cardiac death in this population. PMID:25160995

  6. Cardiac sarcoidosis: a comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Sekhri, Vishal; Sanal, Shireen; DeLorenzo, Lawrence J.; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Maguire, George P.

    2011-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown etiology characterized by noncaseating granulomas in involved organs. Organs involved with sarcoidosis include lymph nodes, skin, lung, central nervous system, and eye. Only 40-50% of patients with cardiac sarcoidosis diagnosed at autopsy have the diagnosis made during their lifetime. Cardiac sarcoidosis can manifest itself as complete heart block, ventricular arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, pericardial effusion, pulmonary hypertension, and ventricular aneurysms. Diagnostic tests such as the electrocardiogram, two-dimensional echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography scan, radionuclide scan, and endomyocardial biopsy can be helpful in the early detection of cardiac sarcoidosis. Considering the increased risk of sudden death, cardiac sarcoidosis is an indication for early treatment with corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive agents. Other treatments include placement of a pacemaker or implantable defibrillator to prevent sudden death. In refractory cases, cardiac transplantation should be considered. PMID:22291785

  7. Cardiac Emergencies in Neurosurgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Petropolis, Andrea; Cappellani, Ronald B.

    2015-01-01

    Perioperative safety concerns are a major area of interest in recent years. Severe cardiac perturbation such as cardiac arrest is one of the most dreaded complications in the intraoperative period; however, little is known about the management of these events in the patients undergoing elective neurosurgery. This special group needs further attention, as it is often neither feasible nor appropriate to apply conventional advanced cardiac life support algorithms in patients undergoing neurosurgery. Factors such as neurosurgical procedure and positioning can also have a significant effect on the occurrence of cardiac arrest. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to describe the various causes and management of cardiac emergencies with special reference to cardiac arrest during elective neurosurgical procedures, including discussion of position-related factors and resuscitative considerations in these situations. This will help to formulate possible guidelines for management of such events. PMID:25692145

  8. Effects of tropical high tannin non legume and low tannin legume browse mixtures on fermentation parameters and methanogenesis using gas production technique.

    PubMed

    Seresinhe, T; Madushika, S A C; Seresinhe, Y; Lal, P K; Orskov, E R

    2012-10-01

    In vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the suitability of several mixtures of high tanniniferous non legumes with low tanniniferous legumes on in vitro gas production (IVGP), dry matter degradation, Ammonia-N, methane production and microbial population. Eight treatments were examined in a randomized complete block design using four non-legumes and two legumes (Carallia integerrima×Leucaena leucocephala (LL) (Trt 1), C. integerrima×Gliricidia sepium (GS) (Trt 2), Aporosa lindeliyana×LL (Trt 3), A. lindeliyana×GS (Trt 4), Ceiba perntandra×LL (Trt 5), C. perntandra×GS (Trt 6), Artocarpus heterophyllus×LL (Trt 7), A. heterophyllus×GS (Trt 8). The condensed tannin (CT) content of non legumes ranged from 6.2% (Carallia integerrima) to 4.9% (Ceiba perntandra) while the CT of legumes were 1.58% (Leucaena leucocephala) and 0.78% (Gliricidia sepium). Forage mixtures contained more than 14% of crude protein (CP) while the CT content ranged from 2.8% to 4.0% respectively. Differences (p<0.05) were observed in in vitro gas production (IGVP) within treatments over a 48 h period dominated by C. perntandra×G. sepium (Trt 6). The net gas production (p<0.05) was also high with Trt6 followed by A. heterophyllus×L. leucocephala (Trt 7) and A. heterophyllus×G. sepium (Trt 8). Highest (p>0.05) NH3-N (ml/200 mg DM) production was observed with the A. heterophyllus×G. sepium (Trt 8) mixture which may be attributed with it's highest CP content. The correlation between IVGP and CT was 0.675 while IVGP and CP was 0.610. In vitro dry matter degradation (IVDMD) was highest in Trt 8 as well. Methane production ranged from 2.57 to 4.79 (ml/200 mg DM) to be synonimous with IVGP. A higher bacteria population (p<0.05) was found in C. perntandra×G. sepium (Trt 6) followed by Artocarpus heterophyllus+G. sepium (Trt 8) and the same trend was observed with the protozoa population as well. The results show that supplementing high tannin non leguminous forages by incremental substitution of legume forage increased gas production parameters, NH3-N, IVDMD and microbial population in the fermentation liquid. Methane production was not significantly affected by the presence of CT or different levels of CP in forage mixtures. Among non legumes, Ceiba perntandra and Artocarpus heterophyllus performed better in mixture with L. leucocephala and G. sepium. PMID:25049496

  9. Violarvensin, a new flavone di-C-glycoside from Viola arvensis.

    PubMed

    Carnat, A P; Carnat, A; Fraisse, D; Lamaison, J L; Heitz, A; Wylde, R; Teulade, J C

    1998-02-01

    A new flavonoid di-C-glycoside, violarvensin (1), was isolated from the aerial parts of Viola arvensis, together with the known derivative violanthin (2). The structure of 1 was established as apigenin-6-C-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-8-C-beta-D-6-deoxygulopyrano side by spectral analysis. PMID:9548860

  10. Neoadenoloside A, a highly functionalized diterpene C-glycoside, from Isodon adenolomus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Wei-Guang; Li, Xiao-Nian; Du, Xue; Zhan, Rui; Zou, Juan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Hai-Bo; He, Fei; Pu, Jian-Xin; Sun, Han-Dong

    2012-08-11

    Neoadenoloside A (1), an unprecedented diterpene C-glycoside with a unique C(26) framework, along with lasiokaurin (3) were isolated from the leaves of Isodon adenolomus. The absolute configuration of 2, a derivative of 1, was determined by spectroscopic methods and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. PMID:22743545

  11. Characterization of two-step deglycosylation via oxidation by glycoside oxidoreductase and defining their subfamily.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Mi; Seo, Joo-Hyun; Baek, Kiheon; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report a two-step deglycosylation mediated by the oxidation of glycoside which is different from traditional glycoside hydrolase (GH) mechanism. Previously, we reported a novel flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent glycoside oxidoreductase (FAD-GO) having deglycosylation activity. Various features of the reaction of FAD-GO such as including mechanism and catalytic residue and substrate specificity were studied. In addition, classification of novel FAD-GO subfamily was attempted. Deglycosylation of glycoside was performed spontaneously via oxidation of 3-OH of glycone moiety by FAD-GO mediated oxidation reaction. His493 residue was identified as a catalytic residue for the oxidation step. Interestingly, this enzyme has broad glycone and aglycon specificities. For the classification of FAD-GO enzyme subfamily, putative FAD-GOs were screened based on the FAD-GO from Rhizobium sp. GIN611 (gi 365822256) using BLAST search. The homologs of R. sp. GIN611 included the putative FAD-GOs from Stenotrophomonas strains, Sphingobacterium strains, Agrobacterium tumefaciens str. C58, and etc. All the cloned FAD-GOs from the three strains catalyzed the deglycosylation via enzymatic oxidation. Based on their substrate specificities, deglycosylation and oxidation activities to various ginsenosides, the FAD-GO subfamily members can be utilized as novel biocatalysts for the production of various aglycones. PMID:26057169

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF FLAVONE AGLYCONES AND GLYCOSIDES IN SOYBEAN PODS BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-APCI-MS) was used to identify flavone aglycones and glycosides in soybean pods. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and MS3) and photodiode array detection were also utilized in flavone characterizat...

  13. Cloning, Expression and Characterization of a Glycoside Hydrolase Family 39 Xylosidase from Bacillus Halodurans C-125

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gene encoding a glycoside hydrolase family 39 xylosidase (BH1068) from the alkaliphile Bacillus halodurans strain C-125 was cloned with a C-terminal His-tag and the recombinant gene product termed XylBH1068 was expressed in E. coli. Of the artificial substrates tested, XylBH1068 hydrolyzed nitro...

  14. Degradation of cyanogenic glycosides by Lactobacillus plantarum strains from spontaneous cassava fermentation and other microorganisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vicki Lei; Wisdom Kofi Asa Amoa-Awua; Leon Brimer

    1999-01-01

    Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Candida tropicalis and Penicillium sclerotiorum were screened for 19 enzymatic activities using the commercial kit API zym (Bio Mérieux). This activity was compared to the ability of degrading the toxic cyanogenic glycosides amygdalin, linamarin, and linseed cyanogens (a mixture of linustatin and neolinustatin). Good correlation between the ?-glucosidase activity found in the API zym

  15. Highly active ß-xylosidases of glycoside hydrolase family 43 operating on natural and artificial substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hemicellulose xylan constitutes a major portion of plant biomass, a renewable feedstock available for conversion to biofuels and other bioproducts. ß-xylosidase operates in the deconstruction of the polysaccharide to fermentable sugars. Glycoside hydrolase family 43 has been identified as a so...

  16. Release of glycosidically bound flavour compounds of Chardonnay by Oenococcus oeni during malolactic fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadia D’Incecco; Eveline Bartowsky; Stella Kassara; Anna Lante; Paolo Spettoli; Paul Henschke

    2004-01-01

    Glycosidases, produced by Oenococcus oeni strain Lalvin EQ54 during malolactic fermentation (MLF) performed in a chemically defined wine (CDW) medium, contributed to the release of volatile aglycons from their glycosylated precursors, present in a Chardonnay wine glycosidic extract. The liberation of wine volatiles during MLF was limited by the low activity of these enzymes in this strain. Six different aglycons

  17. Anti-hepatitis B virus activities and absolute configurations of sesquiterpenoid glycosides from Phyllanthus emblica.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jun-Jiang; Wang, Ya-Feng; Zhang, Jing-Min; Yu, Shan; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Hong-Tao; Cheng, Rong-Rong; Yang, Chong-Ren; Xu, Min; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2014-11-21

    During the process exploring anti-viral compounds from Phyllanthus species, eight new highly oxygenated bisabolane sesquiterpenoid glycoside phyllaemblicins G1–G8 (1–8) were isolated from Phyllanthus emblica, along with three known compounds, phyllaemblicin F (9), phyllaemblic acid (10) and glochicoccin D (11). Phyllaemblicin G2 (2), bearing a tricyclo [3.1.1.1] oxygen bridge ring system, is an unusual sesquiterpenoid glycoside, while phyllaemblicins G6–G8 (6–8) are dimeric sesquiterpenoid glycosides with two norbisabolane units connecting through a disaccharide. All the structures were elucidated by the extensive analysis of HRMS and NMR data. The relative configuration of phyllaemblicin G2 was constructed based on heteronuclear coupling constants measurement, and the absolute configurations for all new compounds were established by calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) using time dependent density functional theory. The sesquiterpenoid glycoside dimers 6–9 displayed potential anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) activities, especially for the new compound 6 with IC50 of 8.53 ± 0.97 and 5.68 ± 1.75 ?M towards the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV excreted antigen (HBeAg) secretion, respectively. PMID:25268491

  18. A new 2'-oxygenated flavone glycoside from Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C. B. Rob.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun-Song; Huang, Rong; Lu, Hao; Li, Feng-Ya; Yang, Jing-Hua

    2010-01-01

    A new 2'-oxygenated flavone glycoside, named glutin, was isolated from Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C. B. Rob. along with four known compounds. The structure was identified as 2',5,7-trihydroxy-6-methoxyflavone 2'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. PMID:20208374

  19. The induction of intestinal neoplasms in rats with the glycoside cycasin and its aglycone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gert L. Laqueur

    1965-01-01

    Experiments are described dealing with the carcinogenic effects of (1) the crude cycad seed material, (2) the glycoside, cycasin, aß-D-glucosyloxyazoxymethane, isolated from the crude material, and (3) the first metabolic breakdown product of cycasin, the aglycone of cycasin or methylazoxymethanol, on the intestinal tract of rats. While the crude material and cycasin produced tumors exclusively located in the large intestine,

  20. Estrogenic activity of triterpene glycosides in yeast two-hybrid assay.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, S N; Kozhemyako, V B; Atopkina, L N; Silchenko, A S; Avilov, S A; Kalinin, V I; Rasskazov, V A; Aminin, D L

    2006-11-01

    Estrogenic potency of six triterpene glycosides, Holothurin A, Holotoxin A1, Frondoside A, Cucumarioside A2-2 and Cauloside C, that are natural products and semi-synthesized Ginsenoside-Rh2, were examined with yeast two-hybrid system, including expressed genes of human estrogen receptor, hERalpha, the co-activator TIF2 and lacZ as a reporter gene. Only Ginsenoside-Rh2 exhibited significant moderate estrogenic activity in the concentration range of 10(-7) to 10(-6)M. Its effect was approximately 30% of the activity of 17beta-estradiol applied at half-effective concentration. This indicates Ginsenosides-Rh2 is a weak phytoestrogen. The sea cucumber triterpene glycosides, Holothurin A, Holotoxin A1, Cucumarioside A2-2 and Frondoside A, and plant glycoside Cauloside C had no appreciable estrogenic activity. Data obtained by yeast two-hybrid assay reflect structure-activity relationship between tested compounds and 17beta-estradiol. Only Ginsenoside-Rh2 has some similarity in chemical structure with 17beta-estradiol that might explain affinity of this glycoside to the hERalpha receptor. PMID:16973351

  1. In vitro degradation of the flavonol quercetin and of quercetin glycosides in the porcine hindgut

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Cermak; Gerhard Breves; Matthias Lüpke; Siegfried Wolffram

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the microbial degradation of the plant flavonol quercetin and its naturally occurring glycosides isoquercitrin and rutin in the porcine hindgut. The experiments were carried out with the semicontinuous colon-simulation technique. The fluid and particle phase of pig hindgut contents from freshly slaughtered animals were used for the in vitro incubations. Following a five-day equilibration period, quercetin,

  2. EXTRACTION OF RHODIOLA ROSEA L. GLYCOSIDES BY REVERSED-PHASE CHROMATOGRAPHY. SALIDROZIDE COUNTER SYNTHESIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergey A. Patov; Iliya G. Zahozhy; Vasily V. Punegov; Alexander V. Kuchin; Michael I. Kodess

    Using low pressure column chromatography on sorbent Diasorb 130-?16?, the native glycosides from species Rhodiola rosea rhizomes (II, IV) have been isolated for the purpose of calibrating the analytical instrumentation. Their structure has been established by NMR spectrometry. A partial counter synthesis of salidroside (IV) has been carried out with Kennigs-Knorr method.

  3. Acylated 5,7,2',6'-oxygenated flavone glycosides from Andrographis alata.

    PubMed

    Das, Biswanath; Ramu, R; Rao, Yerra Koteswara; Reddy, M Ravinder; Harish, H; Reddy, V Saidi; Ramakrishna, K V S

    2006-05-01

    Five acylated 5,7,2',6'-oxygenated flavone glycosides along with the known 5,2',6'-trihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone-2'-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside have been isolated from the whole plant of Andrographis alata. The structures of the compounds were established from spectral (mainly 1D and 2D NMR) and chemical studies. PMID:16624351

  4. Acylated 5,7,2?,6?-oxygenated flavone glycosides from Andrographis alata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biswanath Das; R. Ramu; Yerra Koteswara Rao; M. Ravinder Reddy; H. Harish; V. Saidi Reddy; K. V. S. Ramakrishna

    2006-01-01

    Five acylated 5,7,2?,6?-oxygenated flavone glycosides along with the known 5,2?,6?-trihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone-2?-O-?-d-glucopyranoside have been isolated from the whole plant of Andrographis alata. The structures of the compounds were established from spectral (mainly 1D and 2D NMR) and chemical studies.

  5. Phenolic glycosides govern the food selection pattern of willow feeding leaf beetles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Tahvanainen; R. Julkunen-Tiitto; J. Kettunen

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between the food selection of four leaf beetle species (Phratora vitellinae, Plagiodera versicolora, Lochmaea capreae, Galerucella lineola) and the phenolic glycosides of willow (Salix spp.) leaves was tested in laboratory food choice experiments. Four willow species native to the study area (Eastern Finland) and four introduced, cultivated willows were tested.

  6. ?-Glucosidase inhibitory activities of phenylpropanoid glycosides, vanicoside A and B from Polygonum sachalinense rhizome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Kawai; H. Kumagai; H. Kurihara; K. Yamazaki; R. Sawano; N. Inoue

    2006-01-01

    The phenylpropanoid glycosides, vanicoside A and B, isolated from rhizomes of giant knotweed (Polygonum sachalinense) showed ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 59.8 and 48.3 ?g\\/ml (59.9 and 50.5 ?M), respectively. In contrast, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid, corresponding to phenylpropanoyl moieties of vanicosides, exhibited very little inhibition.

  7. Hydrolysis of terpenyl glycosides in grape juice and other fruit juices: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergi Maicas; José Juan Mateo

    2005-01-01

    The importance of monoterpenes on varietal flavour of must and other fruit juices has been reviewed. These compounds were mainly found linked to sugar moieties in grape juice and wines, showing no olfactory characteristics. In this way, analytical techniques developed to study these compounds, in both free or glycosidically forms, are discussed. Mechanisms to liberate terpenes were studied, making a

  8. [Development of Tripterygium glycosides nano-carries based on "nanoemulsion-gels" and its pharmacodynamics].

    PubMed

    Gu, Qing; You, Ben-Ming; Yang, Di-Shun; Pan, Yong-Hua; Shu, Wei; Liu, Ji-Yong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop the Tripterygium glycosides nanoemulsion gels and investigate its pharmacodynamics. Oleic acid was used as oil phase, polyoxyethylene castor oil as surfaetant, and 1,2-propanediol as cosurfactant to screen the formula of Tripterygium glycoside nanoemulsion using the pseudo-temary phase diagrams. Then the nanoemulsion gels was prepared. The ICR mouse ears were sensitazated by 7% DNCB, and then were excited by 0.3% DNCB to stimulate the model of mouse chronic dermatitis and eczema. The concentrations of IFN-?, IL-4 and IL-8 in mouse blood were determined by ELISA. The results showed that Tripterygium glycosides nanoemulsion gels could significantly inhibit the swelling of mouse ears(P < 0.01) and ameliorate the edama and erythema of model mouse ears skin. Also it could significantly decrease the expression of IFN-? and IL-4 in model mouse blood. Tripterygium glycosides nanoemulsion gels had a good therapeutic effect on mouse model of dermatitis and eczema. It was expected to provide a new and long-acting exterernal preparation for the treatment of dermatitis and eczema. PMID:25993791

  9. Initial Optimization of a New Series of ?-Secretase Modulators Derived from a Triterpene Glycoside

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of a new series of ?-secretase modulators is disclosed. Starting from a triterpene glycoside ?-secretase modulator that gave a very low brain-to-plasma ratio, initial SAR and optimization involved replacement of a pendant sugar with a series of morpholines. This modification led to two compounds with significantly improved central nervous system (CNS) exposure. PMID:24900406

  10. The flavonoid glycosides and procyanidin composition of Deglet Noor dates (Phoenix dactylifera).

    PubMed

    Hong, Yun Jeong; Tomas-Barberan, F A; Kader, Adel A; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2006-03-22

    The fruits of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) are consumed throughout the world and are an important part of the diet in the Middle East. Dates at the rutab and tamar maturity and ripening stages contain a wide array of phenolic antioxidants, but little is known about the composition of phenolic compounds in dates at the khalal stage of ripening. In the current study, the flavonoid glycoside and procyanidin compositions of dates of the cultivar Deglet Noor harvested at the khalal stage of maturity were characterized using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS). Procyanidin oligomers through decamers were identified in extracts of these dates. Higher molecular weight polymers, undecamers through heptadecamers, were also apparent from mass spectra. Thirteen flavonoid glycosides of luteolin, quercetin, and apigenin, 19 when considering isomeric forms, were also identified. Mass spectra indicate that both methylated and sulfated forms of luteolin and quercetin are present as mono-, di-, and triglycosylated conjugates whereas apigenin is present as only the diglycoside. LC-ESI/MS/MS spectra indicate that quercetin and luteolin formed primarily O-glycosidic linkages whereas apigenin is present as the C-glycoside. PMID:16536626

  11. Synthesis of the C-glycoside of ?-D-mannose-(1 ? 6)-d-myo-inositol†

    PubMed Central

    Hans, Sunej; Altiti, Ahmad; Mootoo, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The dimannosylatedinositol pseudotrisaccharide phospholipid of the lipoarabinomannan (LAM) component of the mycobacterial cell wall has attracted interest as a therapeutic target because of its uniqueness to mycobacteria, its assembly at an early stage in LAM biosynthesis and the immunological activity of oligosaccharides containing this subunit. Accordingly, analogues of this pseudotrisaccharide, ?-d-mannose-(1 ? 2)-?-d-mannose-(1 ? 6)-d-myo-inositol are of interest as mechanistic probes and drug leads. C-glycosides are of special interest because of their hydrolytic stability and conformational differences compared to O-glycosides. Herein, as a prelude to C-glycoside analogues of this pseudotrisaccharide, we describe the synthesis of the C-glycoside of ?-D-mannose-(1 ? 6)-d-myo-inositol. The synthetic strategy centers on the elaboration of a C1-linked glycal-inositol, the glycone segment of which is assembled via an oxocarbenium ion cyclization on a thioacetal-enol ether precursor that originates from “glycone” and “aglycone” components. PMID:24057020

  12. Steviol Glycosides from Stevia: Biosynthesis Pathway Review and their Application in Foods and Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sudesh Kumar Yadav; Praveen Guleria

    2012-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana, a perennial herb from the Asteraceae family, is known to the scientific world for its sweetness and steviol glycosides (SGs). SGs are the secondary metabolites responsible for the sweetness of Stevia. They are synthesized by SG biosynthesis pathway operating in the leaves. Most of the genes encoding the enzymes of this pathway have been cloned and characterized from

  13. Steviol Glycosides from Stevia: Biosynthesis Pathway Review and their Application in Foods and Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sudesh Yadav; Praveen Guleria

    2011-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana, a perennial herb from Asteraceae family, is known to the scientific world for its sweetness and steviol glycosides (SGs). SGs are the secondary metabolites responsible for the sweetness of Stevia. They are synthesized by SG biosynthesis pathway operating in the leaves. Most of genes encoding the enzymes of this pathway have been cloned and characterized from Stevia. Out

  14. Sudden cardiac death – Historical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Abhilash, S.P.; Namboodiri, Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is an unexpected death due to cardiac causes that occurs in a short time period (generally within 1 h of symptom onset) in a person with known or unknown cardiac disease. It is believed to be involved in nearly a quarter of human deaths, with ventricular fibrillation being the most common mechanism. It is estimated that more than 7 million lives per year are lost to SCD worldwide. Historical perspectives of SCD are analyzed with a brief description on how the developments in the management of sudden cardiac arrest evolved over time. PMID:24568828

  15. Cardiac risk stratification and protection.

    PubMed

    Halub, Meghan E; Sidwell, Richard A

    2015-04-01

    The goal of preoperative cardiac evaluation is to screen for undiagnosed cardiac disease or to find evidence of known conditions that are poorly controlled to allow management that reduces the risk of perioperative cardiac complications. A careful history and physical examination combined with the procedure-specific risk is the cornerstone of this assessment. This article reviews a brief history of prior cardiac risk stratification indexes, explores current practice guidelines by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association Task Force, reviews current methods for preoperative evaluation, discusses revascularization options, and evaluates perioperative medication recommendations. PMID:25814103

  16. Registry of Unexplained Cardiac Arrest

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-13

    Cardiac Arrest; Long QT Syndrome; Brugada Syndrome; Catecholaminergi Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia; Idiopathic VentricularFibrillation; Early Repolarization Syndrome; Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy

  17. Acetone enhances the direct analysis of total condensed tannins in plant tissues by the butanol-HCl-iron assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The butanol-HCl spectrophotometric assay is widely used to quantify extractable and insoluble forms of condensed tannin (CT, syn. proanthocyanidin) in foods, feeds, and foliage of herbaceous and woody plants. However, this method underestimates total CT content when applied directly to plant materia...

  18. The effect of condensed tannins on the nutrition and health of ruminants fed fresh temperate forages: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R Min; T. N Barry; G. T Attwood; W. C McNabb

    2003-01-01

    The effect of condensed tannins (CT) on the nutritive value of temperate forages and on the health of grazing ruminant animals is reviewed. The CT bind with proteins and other entities mainly by hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding in a pH-reversible manner, which is influenced by the structure and molecular weights of both the CT and the proteins. These reactions can

  19. Variation in condensed tannin concentration of a temperate grass ( Holcus lanatus ) in relation to season and reproductive development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Iason; J. Hodgson; T. N. Barry

    1995-01-01

    Holcus lanatus, a temperate grass, was found to contain low but measurable concentrations of condensed tannins (CT), according to the vanillin-HCl and the butanol-HCl methods. The variation in CT concentrations between different types of tissue including leaf age and reproductive versus nonreproductive tissue was examined. There was no evidence that floral tissue contained more CT than nonreproductive tissue. A sequential

  20. Hydrolysable tannin fed to entire male pigs affects intestinal production, tissue deposition and hepatic clearance of skatole.

    PubMed

    ?andek-Potokar, M; Škrlep, M; Batorek Luka?, N; Zamaratskaia, G; Prevolnik Povše, M; Velikonja Bolta, Š; Kubale, V; Bee, G

    2015-05-01

    The effect of adding hydrolysable tannins to the diet of fattening boars was studied. Performance, reproductive organ weights, salivary gland morphology, boar taint compounds and skatole metabolism were evaluated. At 123 days of age and 52?±?6?kg liveweight, 24 Landrace?×?Large White boars were assigned within a litter to four treatment groups: control (T0 fed mixture with 13.2 MJ/kg, 17.5% crude proteins) and three experimental diets for which the T0 diet was supplemented with 1%, 2% and 3% of hydrolysable tannin-rich extract (T1, T2 and T3, respectively). Pigs were kept individually with ad libitum access to feed and water and slaughtered at 193 days of age and 122?±?10?kg liveweight. Adding hydrolysable tannins to the diet had no negative effect on growth performance at 1% and 2%, whereas the 3% inclusion reduced feed intake and resulted in an adaptive response of the salivary glands (particularly parotid gland hypertrophy). Relative to T0, fat tissue skatole concentration was increased in the T1 group, but was similar in T2 and T3. Across treatments tissue skatole concentrations were proportional to the activity of hepatic CYP450. The results indicate the potential of tannin supplementation to reduce boar taint although further investigations are needed in order to establishing optimal dosage. PMID:25890671