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1

Cardiac glycosides from erysimum cheiranthoides.  

PubMed

Two new cardiac glycosides were isolated from the seeds of Erysimum cheiranthoides. Their structures were characterized as strophanthidin glycosides of 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-3-O-acetyl-beta-D-digitoxopyranosyl and 3-O-beta-D-glucpyranosyl-(1-->4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-3-O-acetyl-beta-D-digitoxopyranosyl. PMID:11711105

Lei, Zhen Huan; Jin, Zhe Xion; Ma, Ying Li; Tai, Bao Shan; Kong, Qi; Yahara, Shoji; Nohara, Toshihiro

1998-11-20

2

Cardiac glycosides from Erysimum cheiranthoides.  

PubMed

Two new cardiac glycosides called cheiranthosides VI (2) and VII (3) were isolated together with a known one, glucoerysimoside (1) from the seeds of Erysimum cheiranthoides. Based on spectroscopic data, the structures of 2 and 3 were characterized as periplogenin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->4)-beta-D-fucopyranoside and periplogenin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->4)-beta-D-antiaropyranoside, respectively. PMID:10705523

Lei, Z H; Yahara, S; Nohara, T; Tai, B S; Xiong, J Z; Ma, Y L

2000-02-01

3

Cardiac glycosides from Erysimum cheiranthoides.  

PubMed

Three new cardiac glycosides named cheiranthoside VIII (1), cheiranthoside IX (2) and cheiranthoside X (3) were isolated from the seeds of Erysimum cheiranthoides. Based on spectroscopic data, the structures of 1-3 were characterized as strophanthidin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-antiaropyranoside, cheiranthidin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-boiviopyranoside and cheiranthidin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-digitoxopyranoside, respectively. The aglycone moiety possessing a carboxyl group at C-10 of 2 and 3 was regarded to be determined for the first time. PMID:12045350

Lei, Zhen-Huan; Nakayama, Hitoshi; Kuniyasu, Akihiko; Tai, Bao-Shan; Nohara, Toshihiro

2002-06-01

4

Seasonal variation in the content of hydrolyzable tannins, flavonoid glycosides, and proanthocyanidins in oak leaves.  

PubMed

Oaks have been one of the classic model systems in elucidating the role of polyphenols in plant-herbivore interactions. This study provides a comprehensive description of seasonal variation in the phenolic content of the English oak (Quercus robur). Seven different trees were followed over the full course of the growing season, and their foliage repeatedly sampled for gallic acid, 9 individual hydrolyzable tannins, and 14 flavonoid glycosides, as well as for total phenolics, total proanthocyanidins, carbon, and nitrogen. A rare dimeric ellagitannin, cocciferin D2, was detected for the first time in leaves of Q. robur, and relationships between the chemical structures of individual tannins were used to propose a biosynthetic pathway for its formation. Overall, hydrolyzable tannins were the dominant phenolic group in leaves of all ages. Nevertheless, young oak leaves were much richer in hydrolyzable tannins and flavonoid glycosides than old leaves, whereas the opposite pattern was observed for proanthocyanidins. However, when quantified as individual compounds, hydrolyzable tannins and flavonoid glycosides showed highly variable seasonal patterns. This large variation in temporal trends among compounds, and a generally weak correlation between the concentration of any individual compound and the total concentration of phenolics, as quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteau method, leads us to caution against the uncritical use of summary quantifications of composite phenolic fractions in ecological studies. PMID:15586669

Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Roslin, Tomas; Karonen, Maarit; Sinkkonen, Jari; Pihlaja, Kalevi; Pulkkinen, Pertti

2004-09-01

5

Oleandrin: A cardiac glycosides with potent cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

Cardiac glycosides are used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and arrhythmia. Current trend shows use of some cardiac glycosides in the treatment of proliferative diseases, which includes cancer. Nerium oleander L. is an important Chinese folk medicine having well proven cardio protective and cytotoxic effect. Oleandrin (a toxic cardiac glycoside of N. oleander L.) inhibits the activity of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B chain (NF-?B) in various cultured cell lines (U937, CaOV3, human epithelial cells and T cells) as well as it induces programmed cell death in PC3 cell line culture. The mechanism of action includes improved cellular export of fibroblast growth factor-2, induction of apoptosis through Fas gene expression in tumor cells, formation of superoxide radicals that cause tumor cell injury through mitochondrial disruption, inhibition of interleukin-8 that mediates tumorigenesis and induction of tumor cell autophagy. The present review focuses the applicability of oleandrin in cancer treatment and concerned future perspective in the area. PMID:24347921

Kumar, Arvind; De, Tanmoy; Mishra, Amrita; Mishra, Arun K

2013-07-01

6

Oleandrin: A cardiac glycosides with potent cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Cardiac glycosides are used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and arrhythmia. Current trend shows use of some cardiac glycosides in the treatment of proliferative diseases, which includes cancer. Nerium oleander L. is an important Chinese folk medicine having well proven cardio protective and cytotoxic effect. Oleandrin (a toxic cardiac glycoside of N. oleander L.) inhibits the activity of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B chain (NF-?B) in various cultured cell lines (U937, CaOV3, human epithelial cells and T cells) as well as it induces programmed cell death in PC3 cell line culture. The mechanism of action includes improved cellular export of fibroblast growth factor-2, induction of apoptosis through Fas gene expression in tumor cells, formation of superoxide radicals that cause tumor cell injury through mitochondrial disruption, inhibition of interleukin-8 that mediates tumorigenesis and induction of tumor cell autophagy. The present review focuses the applicability of oleandrin in cancer treatment and concerned future perspective in the area. PMID:24347921

Kumar, Arvind; De, Tanmoy; Mishra, Amrita; Mishra, Arun K.

2013-01-01

7

Evaluating the Cancer Therapeutic Potential of Cardiac Glycosides  

PubMed Central

Cardiac glycosides, also known as cardiotonic steroids, are a group of natural products that share a steroid-like structure with an unsaturated lactone ring and the ability to induce cardiotonic effects mediated by a selective inhibition of the Na+/K+-ATPase. Cardiac glycosides have been used for many years in the treatment of cardiac congestion and some types of cardiac arrhythmias. Recent data suggest that cardiac glycosides may also be useful in the treatment of cancer. These compounds typically inhibit cancer cell proliferation at nanomolar concentrations, and recent high-throughput screenings of drug libraries have therefore identified cardiac glycosides as potent inhibitors of cancer cell growth. Cardiac glycosides can also block tumor growth in rodent models, which further supports the idea that they have potential for cancer therapy. Evidence also suggests, however, that cardiac glycosides may not inhibit cancer cell proliferation selectively and the potent inhibition of tumor growth induced by cardiac glycosides in mice xenografted with human cancer cells is probably an experimental artifact caused by their ability to selectively kill human cells versus rodent cells. This paper reviews such evidence and discusses experimental approaches that could be used to reveal the cancer therapeutic potential of cardiac glycosides in preclinical studies. PMID:24895612

Calderón-Montaño, José Manuel; Burgos-Morón, Estefanía; Orta, Manuel Luis; Maldonado-Navas, Dolores; García-Domínguez, Irene; López-Lázaro, Miguel

2014-01-01

8

Secondary chemistry of hybrid and parental willows: Phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins in Salix sericea, S. eriocephala , and their hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salix sericea andS. eriocephala differ markedly in secondary chemistry.S. sericea produces phenolic glycosides, salicortin and 2?-cinnamoylsalicortin, and low concentrations of condensed tannin. In contrast,S. eriocephala produces no phenolic glycosides, but high concentrations of condensed tannins. Hybrid chemistry is intermediate for both types of chemicals, suggesting predominantly additive inheritance of these two defensive chemical systems from the parental species. However, there

Colin M. Orians; Robert S. Fritz

1995-01-01

9

Cardiac glycosides of Cheiranthus allioni. XIII. Glucoerycordin  

Microsoft Academic Search

From plains erysimum (Cheiranthus allioni) Hort., (Erysimum asperum) a new cardiac glycoside has been isolated which has been called glucoerycordin. Its chemical structure has been established mainly by stepwise hydrolysis and the identification of the hydrolysis products. Glucoerycordin C41H64 O19, mp 131–135°C, [a]D20 -22.2 ± 3° (c 0.65; methanol) is 3ß-[O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-O-ß-D-glycopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-gulomethylopyranosyloxy]-14,19-dihydroxy-5ß, 14ß-card-20(22)-enolide.

I. F. Makarevich; A. I. Pavlii; S. I. Makarevich

1989-01-01

10

[Cardiac glycosides: From ancient history through Withering's foxglove to endogeneous cardiac glycosides].  

PubMed

For centuries, drugs that increase the power of contraction of the failing heart have been used for the treatment of congestive heart failure (dropsy). The cardiac effect is due to the content of cardiac glycosides. Squill or sea onion, Urginea (Scilla) maritima, a seashore plant, was known by the ancient Romans and Syrians and possibly also by the ancient Egyptians. Squills were used erratically, but some prescriptions indicate that they may have been used for the treatment of oedematous states. The toxic effect of strophanthus species was known from poisoned arrows used by the natives in Africa. Digitalis, derived form the foxglove plant, Digitalis purpurea, is mentioned in writings as early as 1250; a Welsh family, known as the Physicians of Myddvai, collected different herbs and digitalis was included in their prescriptions. However, the druge was used erratically until the 18th century, when William Withering, an English physician and botanist, published a monograph describing the clinical effects of an extract of the foxglove plant. Later, in 1785, the indication and the toxicity of digitalis were reported in his book, "An account of the Foxglove and some of its medical uses with practical remarks on dropsy, and other diseases". In Denmark, the leaves of Digitalis purpurea or Digitalis lanata were tested for cardiac glycoside activity. The standardized digitalis powder was used in tinctures, infusions, and tablets. The preparations were included in successive editions of the Danish pharmacopoeia, some of the tinctures already in 1828, i.e. before the standardization of the drug. Isolation of cardiac glycosides from digitalis, strophanthus and squill and determination of their chemical structures initiated biochemical and pharmacological studies. The scientific advances led to an understanding of cardiac muscle contractility and the Na,K pump as the cellular receptor for the inotropic action of digitalis. Examination of putative endogenous ligands to the receptor revealed some endogenous cardiac glycosides of similar or identical structures as those found in digitalis, strophanthus and squill. Increased concentrations of these glycosides are found in patients with heart failure. Further investigations are needed to determine whether the secretion of glycosides might be a physiologic response to a diminished cardiac output. PMID:15685783

Norn, Svend; Kruse, Poul R

2004-01-01

11

Trial watch: Cardiac glycosides and cancer therapy.  

PubMed

Cardiac glycosides (CGs) are natural compounds sharing the ability to operate as potent inhibitors of the plasma membrane Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, hence promoting-via an indirect mechanism-the intracellular accumulation of Ca(2+) ions. In cardiomyocytes, increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations exert prominent positive inotropic effects, that is, they increase myocardial contractility. Owing to this feature, two CGs, namely digoxin and digitoxin, have extensively been used in the past for the treatment of several cardiac conditions, including distinct types of arrhythmia as well as contractility disorders. Nowadays, digoxin is approved by the FDA and indicated for the treatment of congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter with rapid ventricular response, whereas the use of digitoxin has been discontinued in several Western countries. Recently, CGs have been suggested to exert potent antineoplastic effects, notably as they appear to increase the immunogenicity of dying cancer cells. In this Trial Watch, we summarize the mechanisms that underpin the unsuspected anticancer potential of CGs and discuss the progress of clinical studies that have evaluated/are evaluating the safety and efficacy of CGs for oncological indications. PMID:23525565

Menger, Laurie; Vacchelli, Erika; Kepp, Oliver; Eggermont, Alexander; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

2013-02-01

12

Quantitative HPLC analysis of cardiac glycosides in Digitalis purpurea leaves.  

PubMed

An analytical method for the determination of cardiac glycosides in Digitalis purpurea leaves by hplc was developed. Quantitation was carried out by the incorporation of lanatoside A as an internal standard. The present method is sufficiently precise and relatively simple. PMID:7673934

Ikeda, Y; Fujii, Y; Nakaya, I; Yamazaki, M

1995-06-01

13

[Qualitative and Quantitative HPLC-Analysis of Cardiac Glycosides].  

PubMed

An analytical pathway for identification of cardenolides from Adonis, Convallaria, Strophanthus and Lophopetalum extracts by HPLC is described. Structure-retention-relationships between cardiac glycosides and HPLC-separations of Strophanthus gratus, Strophanthus kombé and Adonis vernalis drugs are discussed. PMID:17396914

Tittel, G; Habermeier, H; Wagner, H

1982-08-01

14

Phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins in Salix sericea, S. eriocephala and their F1 hybrids: not all hybrids are created equal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of hybrids depends upon the inheritance and expression of resistance traits. Secondary chemicals are one such resistance trait. In this study, we measured the concentrations of phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins in parental and F1 hybrid willows to examine the sources of chemical variation among hybrids. S. sericea produces phenolic glycosides, salicortin and 2?-cinnamoylsalicortin, and low concentrations of

Colin M. Orians; Megan E Griffiths; Bernadette M. Roche; Robert S. Fritz

2000-01-01

15

Phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins in Salix sericea, S. eriocephala and their F1 hybrids: not all hybrids are created equal.  

PubMed

The performance of hybrids depends upon the inheritance and expression of resistance traits. Secondary chemicals are one such resistance trait. In this study, we measured the concentrations of phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins in parental and F1 hybrid willows to examine the sources of chemical variation among hybrids. S. sericea produces phenolic glycosides, salicortin and 2'-cinnamoylsalicortin, and low concentrations of condensed tannin in its leaves. In contrast, S. eriocephala produces no phenolic glycosides but high concentrations of condensed tannins in its leaves. These traits are inherited quantitatively in hybrids. On average, F1 hybrids are intermediate for condensed tannins, suggesting predominantly additive inheritance or balanced ambidirectional dominance of this defensive chemical from the parental species. In contrast, the concentration of phenolic glycosides is lower than the parental midpoint, indicating directional dominance. However, there is extensive variation among F1 hybrids. The concentration of tannin and phenolic glycosides in F1 hybrid families is either (1) lower than the midpoint, (2) higher than the midpoint, or (3) indistinguishable from the midpoint of the two parental taxa. It appears that the production of the phenolic glycosides, especially 2'-cinnamoylsalicortin, is controlled by one or more recessive alleles. We also observed a two-fold or greater difference in concentration between some hybrid families. We discuss how chemical variation may effect the relative susceptibility of hybrid willows to herbivores. PMID:10854738

Orians; Griffiths; Roche1b; Fritz

2000-08-01

16

Herbivore avoidance of digitalis extracts is not mediated by cardiac glycosides.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine whether avoidance of digitalis (Digitalis purpurea) by mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa) is induced by toxic cardiac glycosides. High-performance liquid chromatography and behavioral assays were used to relate animal responses with the presence of common cardiac glycosides in several digitalis extracts. Statistical analyses of multiple-choice tests showed no correlation between cardiac glycoside content and mountain beaver avoidance of apple cubes treated with digitalis extracts. Therefore, we concluded that known toxic cardiac glycosides were not responsible for chemosensory cues that inhibited intake of food treated with digitalis extracts. These results suggest that digitalis is a source of an effective nontoxic herbivore repellent. PMID:24233675

Nolte, D L; Kelly, K L; Kimball, B A; Johnston, J J

1995-10-01

17

Synthesis of cardiac glycoside analogs by catalyst-controlled, regioselective glycosylation of digitoxin.  

PubMed

The cardiac glycoside natural product digitoxin was selectively glycosylated at one of its five hydroxyl groups using a borinic acid derived catalyst. This method provided access to the glycosylation pattern characteristic of a subclass of natural products from Digitalis purpurea. Variation of the glycosyl donor was tolerated, enabling the synthesis of novel cardiac glycoside analogs from readily available materials. PMID:23465047

Beale, Thomas M; Taylor, Mark S

2013-03-15

18

Cytotoxic cardiac glycosides and coumarins from Antiaris toxicaria  

PubMed Central

Eight new cardiac glycosides/aglycones (antiaritoxiosides A–G, 1–7, and antiarotoxinin B, 8), two new coumarins (anticarins A–B, 41–42), and two new flavanones (antiarones L–K, 43–44) were isolated from trunk bark of Antiaris toxicaria together with 53 known compounds. The new structures were established by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data. Compound 1 (10-carboxy and 3?-hydroxy) and compounds 3–6 (10-hydroxy) contain unique substituents that are rarely found in cardiac glycosides. The cytotoxic effects of isolated compounds against ten human cancer cell lines, KB, KB-VIN, A549, MCF-7, U-87-MG, PC-3, 1A9, CAKI-1, HCT-9 and S-KMEL-2, were tested using the sulforhodamine B assay. Five compounds (12, 16, 20, 22, and 31) showed significant cytotoxicity against all ten cancer cell lines, with notable potency at the ng/mL level against some cell lines, which merits further development as clinical trial candidates. PMID:24582402

Shi, Li-Shian; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Sun, Han-Dong; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Wu, Tian-Shung

2015-01-01

19

Cardiac Glycosides from Antiaris toxicaria with Potent Cardiotonic Activity  

PubMed Central

An ethanolic extract of Antiaris toxicaria trunk bark showed potent in vitro cardiotonic effect on isolated guinea pig atria. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract led to identification of 9 new cardiac glycosides (1–9, named antiarosides A-I), antiarotoxinin A (10), and 18 known compounds. Their structures were established using MS and NMR spectroscopic studies, including homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation experiments. The ability of these cardiotonic compounds to produce positive inotropic action and their safety indexes were examined in comparison with those of ouabain, a classical inhibitor of Na+/K+-ATPase. Malayoside (23) was nearly equipotent and had a similar safety index to ouabain in guinea pig atria. However, the maximal positive inotropic effect and safety index of 23 in papillary muscle were better than those of ouabain. An electrophysiological recording showed that 23 inhibited sodium pump current in a concentration-dependent manner. PMID:20553004

Shi, Li-Shian; Liao, Yu-Ren; Su, Ming-Jai; Lee, An-Sheng; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Damu, Amooru G.; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Sun, Han-Dong; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Wu, Tian-Shung

2010-01-01

20

Na+,K(+)-ATPase inhibiting activity of cardiac glycosides from Erysimum cheiranthoides.  

PubMed

We previously reported the isolation of eleven new cardiac glycosides called cheiranthosides I-XI together with two known ones (olitoriside and erysimoside) from the seeds of Erysimum cheiranthoides L. The glycosides were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against Na+,K(+)-ATPase by comparing with typical cardiac glycosides. Two of them, cheiranthoside III and VIII, showed high inhibiting activity which was equivalent to that of digitoxin. Cheiranthoside XI containing a rhamnopyranosyl digitoxopyranosyl moiety and a carboxyl group showed the lowest activity which was similar to that of the inactive aglycone, strophanthidin. Some characteristics in the structure-activity relationship are also discussed. PMID:11458460

Lei, Z H; Kuniyasu, A; Tai, B S; Nakayama, H; Nohara, T

2001-06-01

21

Secondary chemistry of hybrid and parental willows: Phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins inSalix sericea, S. eriocephala, and their hybrids.  

PubMed

Salix sericea andS. eriocephala differ markedly in secondary chemistry.S. sericea produces phenolic glycosides, salicortin and 2'-cinnamoylsalicortin, and low concentrations of condensed tannin. In contrast,S. eriocephala produces no phenolic glycosides, but high concentrations of condensed tannins. Hybrid chemistry is intermediate for both types of chemicals, suggesting predominantly additive inheritance of these two defensive chemical systems from the parental species. However, there is extensive variation among hybrids. This variation may be due to genetic variation among parental genotypes, which genes were passed on, or to subsequent back-crossing. The differences in chemistry are likely to exert a strong effect on the relative susceptibility of hybrid and parental willows to herbivores. PMID:24234624

Orians, C M; Fritz, R S

1995-09-01

22

Cardiac Glycosides Induce Cell Death in Human Cells by Inhibiting General Protein Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiac glycosides are Na+/K+-pump inhibitors widely used to treat heart failure. They are also highly cytotoxic, and studies have suggested specific anti-tumor activity leading to current clinical trials in cancer patients. However, a definitive demonstration of this putative anti-cancer activity and the underlying molecular mechanism has remained elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an unbiased transcriptomics approach, we found that cardiac glycosides inhibit general protein synthesis. Protein synthesis inhibition and cytotoxicity were not specific for cancer cells as they were observed in both primary and cancer cell lines. These effects were dependent on the Na+/K+-pump as they were rescued by expression of a cardiac glycoside-resistant Na+/K+-pump. Unlike human cells, rodent cells are largely resistant to cardiac glycosides in vitro and mice were found to tolerate extremely high levels. Conclusions/Significance The physiological difference between human and mouse explains the previously observed sensitivity of human cancer cells in mouse xenograft experiments. Thus, published mouse xenograft models used to support anti-tumor activity for these drugs require reevaluation. Our finding that cardiac glycosides inhibit protein synthesis provides a mechanism for the cytotoxicity of CGs and raises concerns about ongoing clinical trials to test CGs as anti-cancer agents in humans. PMID:20016840

Steinrueck, Magdalena; Craig-Mueller, Nils; Mayerhofer, Julia; Schwarzinger, Ilse; Sloane, Mathew; Uras, Iris Z.; Hoermann, Gregor; Nijman, Sebastian M. B.; Mayerhofer, Matthias

2009-01-01

23

[Radionuclide study of the influence of beta-adrenoblockaders on the cardiotonic effect of cardiac glycosides].  

PubMed

Radiocardiography was used in 234 patients to explore the effect of corglycon, a glycoside drug obtained from Convallaria L., cardiac glycoside (CG) digoxin, beta-adrenoblockers (BAB) anapriline and trasicor, and combinations of CG and BAB on the minute and stroke volumes of the circulation and heart rate. It has been shown that administration of CG coupled with BAB increasing the tolerance to the cardiotoxic effect of CG does not entail a reduction of their beneficial inotropic action. PMID:6133778

Gendenshte?n, E I; Vladimirov, Iu P; Koledinov, V I; Za?tsev, V M

1983-01-01

24

Effect of bioactive compounds from Sainfoin ( Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) on the in vitro larval migration of Haemonchus contortus: role of tannins and flavonol glycosides.  

PubMed

Anthelmintic bioactivity against gastrointestinal nematodes has been associated with leguminous forages supporting the hypothesis of a role of condensed tannins. However, the possibility that other compounds might also been involved has received less consideration. Using bio-guided fractionation, the current study aimed at characterizing the biochemical nature of the active compounds present in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia ), previously identified as an anthelmintic leguminous forage. The effects of sainfoin extracts were evaluated on 3rd-stage larvae (L3) of Haemonchus contortus by using a larval migration inhibition (LMI) assay. Comparison of extracts obtained with several solvent systems showed that the bioactivity was associated with the 70ratio30 acetone/water extract. Further fractionation of the later allowed the separation of phenolic compounds. By use of a dialysis method, compounds were separated with a molecular weight cut-off of 2000 Da. The in vitro anthelmintic effect of the fraction with condensed tannins was confirmed. In the fraction containing molecules of MW <2000 Da, 3 flavonol glycosides were identified as rutin, nicotiflorin and narcissin. At 1200 mug/ml, each inhibited significantly the migration of larvae. Addition of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVPP) to both fractions before incubation restored larval migration. These results confirmed the role of both tannins and flavonol glycosides in the anthelmintic properties of sainfoin. PMID:16174418

Barrau, E; Fabre, N; Fouraste, I; Hoste, H

2005-10-01

25

High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of secondary cardiac glycosides in Digitalis purpurea leaves.  

PubMed

An analytical method for the determination of secondary cardiac glycosides in Digitalis purpurea leaves by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is described. The procedure consisted of extraction of dry leaf powder with ethanol-chloroform (2:1) and clean-up by Sep-Pak cartridges prior to HPLC analysis. HPLC was performed on an octylsilyl bonded silica column, using acetonitrile-methanol-water (4:4:5) for trisdigitoxosides and acetonitrile-methanol-water (8:30:43) for strospeside; the effluent was monitored by ultraviolet detection (at 220 nm). Quantitation of these cardiac glycosides was carried out by the internal standard method. The amounts of digitoxin, gitoxin, gitaloxin and strospeside per 100 mg of dry leaf powder were estimated to be 22.6, 14.0, 54.7 and 1.9 micrograms, respectively. The method is sufficiently sensitive and reproducible to assay secondary glycosides in Digitalis purpurea leaves. PMID:2808604

Fujii, Y; Ikeda, Y; Yamazaki, M

1989-10-01

26

Structural complexes in the squid giant axon membrane sensitive to ionic concentrations and cardiac glycosides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Giant nerve fibers of squid Sepioteuthis sepioidea were incubated for 10 min in artificial sea water (ASW) under control conditions, in the absence of various ions, and in the presence of cardiac glycosides. The nerve fibers were fixed in OsO, and embedded in Epon, and structural complexes along the axolemma were studied. These complexes consist of a portion of axolemma

GLORIA M. VILLEGAS; JORGE VILLEGAS

1976-01-01

27

On the sarcolemmal site of action of cardiac glycosides.  

PubMed

An electron microscopic study of the guinea pig myocardial cell was conducted. By the use of LaC13, two morphologically distinct tubular systems could be demonstrated. The larger one represents the transverse tubular system which originates from the plasma membrane and is continous with the extracellular space (ECS). In the heart muscle cell it forms a three-dimensional network and it closely apposed to the myofilaments at the level of the Z and I bands. A comparatively small and sparsely developed tubular system which is not accessible from the ECS represents the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). By means of sucrose-density centrifugation in a discontinuous gradient two main microsomal fractions were obtained (F1 and F3). The pre-existing structure of F1 could be identified as the transverse tubular system, whereas F3 originates from the SR. The morphological features (e. g., an enclosed basement membrane) and the fact that after perfusion of hearts with [3H] inulin and preparation of microsomes the ECS marker is almost completely retained in F1 indicate that upon fractionation and vesiculation inside-out vesicles are formed which trap the former extracellular fluid. Moreover, the former extracellular surface is hidden and no longer accessible for membrane-impermeable compounds. After perfusion of hearts with [3H] ouabain and fractionation and centrifugation the radioactive material was found to accumulate in F1, the kinetics being identical with that of binding to the intact tissue and with the time course of the inotropic action of ouabain. The inside-out vesicles derived from the plasma membrane are characterized by the presence of a (Na+-K+)-ATPase activity, an outward Ca pump, a high binding capacity for Ca, and a low Ca pereability. Since the (Na+-K+)-ATPase is known to react with cardiac glycosides (CG) at the outer cell surface it was not surprising to find a complete lack of inhibition of the enzyme by the membrane-impermeable CG ouabain if administered to the intact sarcolemmal microsome. After disruption of the microsomes, however, a considerable inhibition of the (Na+-K+)-ATPase became demonstrable. Similarly, the Ca permeability of the plasma membranes could only be enhanced by CG if interacting with the former outside. Although ouabain again failed to exert any action, the membrane permeable digoxin increased the Ca pereability of the intact vesicular membrane. The rate of Ca transport as an indicator of the Ca pump activity remained unaffected by CG provided from either side of the membrane. The passive Ca binding to the plasma membrane, which results in a concentration up to 5 mM in this structure, is thought to represent the Ca pool essential for excitation-contraction coupling. The CG are thought to alter the Ca binding in this pool, thus rendering depolarization more effective in releasing Ca++. PMID:130660

Lüllmann, H; Peters, T

1976-01-01

28

Cardiac glycoside-like structure and function of 5 beta,14 beta-pregnanes  

SciTech Connect

5 beta-Reduction and 14 beta-substitution convert the planar progesterone molecule to the cardiac glycoside configuration--A and D rings of the steroid moiety are bent toward the alpha-face relative to the B and C rings. Potency of the 5 beta,14 beta-derivative in a ({sup 3}H)ouabain binding assay or its ability to inhibit the sodium pump in red blood cells is enhanced by 3 beta-hydroxylation, 20 beta-hydroxylation, and 3 beta-glycosidation. Synthesis of 14,20 beta-dihydroxy-3 beta-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)- 5 beta,14 beta-pregnane from digitoxin is described. The glucoside is 1/20 as potent as ouabain and elicits prominent, sustained, positive inotropy in isolated cardiac muscle.

Templeton, J.F.; Kumar, V.P.; Bose, D.; LaBella, F.S.

1989-08-01

29

Zebrafish Chemical Screening Reveals the Impairment of Dopaminergic Neuronal Survival by Cardiac Glycosides  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the prominent degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons among other cell types. Here we report a first chemical screen of over 5,000 compounds in zebrafish, aimed at identifying small molecule modulators of DA neuron development or survival. We find that Neriifolin, a member of the cardiac glycoside family of compounds, impairs survival but not differentiation of both zebrafish and mammalian DA neurons. Cardiac glycosides are inhibitors of Na+/K+ ATPase activity and widely used for treating heart disorders. Our data suggest that Neriifolin impairs DA neuronal survival by targeting the neuronal enriched Na+/K+ ATPase ?3 subunit (ATP1A3). Modulation of ionic homeostasis, knockdown of p53, or treatment with antioxidants protects DA neurons from Neriifolin-induced death. These results reveal a previously unknown effect of cardiac glycosides on DA neuronal survival and suggest that it is mediated through ATP1A3 inhibition, oxidative stress, and p53. They also elucidate potential approaches for counteracting the neurotoxicity of this valuable class of medications. PMID:22563390

Sun, Yaping; Dong, Zhiqiang; Khodabakhsh, Hadie; Chatterjee, Sandip; Guo, Su

2012-01-01

30

Molluscicidal activity of cardiac glycosides from Nerium indicum against Pomacea canaliculata and its implications for the mechanisms of toxicity.  

PubMed

Cardiac glycosides from fresh leaves of Nerium indicum were evaluated for its molluscicidal activity against Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail: GAS) under laboratory conditions. The results showed that LC(50) value of cardiac glycosides against GAS was time dependent and the LC(50) value at 96 h was as low as 3.71 mg/L, which was comparable with that of metaldehyde at 72 h (3.88 mg/L). These results indicate that cardiac glycosides could be an effective molluscicide against GAS. The toxicological mechanism of cardiac glucosides on GAS was also evaluated through changes of selected biochemical parameters, including cholinesterase (ChE) and esterase (EST) activities, glycogen and protein contents in hepatopancreas tissues of GAS. Exposure to sublethal concentrations of cardiac glycosides, GAS showed lower activities of EST isozyme in the later stages of the exposure period as well as drastically decreased glycogen content, although total protein content was not affected at the end of 24 and 48 h followed by a significant depletion at the end of 72 and 96 h. The initial increase followed by a decline of ChE activity was also observed during the experiment. These results suggest that cardiac glycosides seriously impair normal physiological metabolism, resulting in fatal alterations in major biochemical constituents of hepatopancreas tissues of P. canaliculata. PMID:21843803

Dai, Lingpeng; Wang, Wanxian; Dong, Xinjiao; Hu, Renyong; Nan, Xuyang

2011-09-01

31

Cardiac glycoside receptors in clinical and experimental states of chronic renal failure.  

PubMed

To investigate the mechanisms leading to decreased cardiac glycoside sensitivity in uremia, digitalis receptors were characterized by [3H]-ouabain binding to mononuclear leucocytes of chronically hemodialyzed patients and to cerebral cortex membranes of partially nephrectomized rats. There were no statistically significant differences in receptor density and affinity between uremic patients and healthy control persons and between partially nephrectomized and sham operated rats. [3H]-Ouabain bound with high affinity to intact mononuclear leucocytes and to cerebral cortex membranes. However, the affinity to the cerebral cortex membrane preparation was markedly higher. PMID:3395168

Lübbecke, F; Hüting, J; Steudle, V; Kramer, W; Schütterle, G; Wizemann, V

1988-01-01

32

Metabolic fate of cardiac glycosides and flavonoids upon fermentation of aqueous sea squill (Drimia maritima L.) extracts.  

PubMed

Sea squill (Drimia maritima L.) extracts have been used for centuries for the medical treatment of heart diseases. A procedure for the preparation of Drimia extracts applied for such purposes comprising a fermentation step is described in the German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia (GHP). However, little is known about the secondary metabolite profile of such extracts and the fate of these components upon processing and storage. Thus, in the present study sea squill extracts were monitored during fermentation and storage by HPLC-DAD-MS(n) and GC-MS to characterise and quantitate individual cardiac glycosides and phenolic compounds. For this purpose, a previously established HPLC method for the separation and quantitation of pharmacologically relevant cardiac glycosides (bufadienolides) was validated. Within 12 months of storage, total bufadienolide contents decreased by about 50%, which was attributed to microbial and plant enzyme activities. The metabolisation and degradation rates of individual bufadienolide glycosides significantly differed, which was attributed to differing structures of the aglycones. Further degradation of bufadienolide aglycones was also observed. Besides reactions well known from human metabolism studies, dehydration of individual compounds was monitored. Quantitatively predominating flavonoids were also metabolised throughout the fermentation process. The present study provides valuable information about the profile and stability of individual cardiac glycosides and phenolic compounds in fermented Drimia extracts prepared for medical applications, and expands the knowledge of cardiac glycoside conversion upon microbial fermentation. PMID:25841205

Knittel, Diana N; Stintzing, Florian C; Kammerer, Dietmar R

2015-06-10

33

The Moraceae-based dart poisons of South America. Cardiac glycosides of Maquira and Naucleopsis species.  

PubMed

The use of cardenolide-containing Moraceae in the dart poisons of South America is reviewed. Those prepared by the Chocó Indians of western Colombia--called niaará or kieratchi--have probably been made from the latex of Naucleopsis amara and N. glabra. In Ecuador, the Colorado Indians used N. chiguila, while the Coaiquer Indians still derive a poison from the latex of N. naga and the Cayapá Indians occasionally make use of a blowgun poison, hambi, which probably also comes from a Naucleopsis species. The Kaborí (Rio Uneiuxi Makú) Indians of north-western Brazil may have utilized Maquira coriacea, but a more recent collection documents N. mello-barretoi latex as a source of their poison. The Tikuna Indians of western Brazil included leaves and bark of N. stipularis in one of their poisons. The principal cardiac glycosides present in Maquira species are strophanthidin-based and the main ones occurring in Naucleopsis species are antiarigenin- as well as strophanthidin-based. The structures of two new glycosides, isolated from dart-poison samples, have been established as strophanthidin beta-D-glucomethylosido-D-alloside and beta-D-digitoxosido-D-alloside. The former is a major component of pakurin, the crystalline glycoside mixture prepared by Santesson in 1928 from a Chocó Indian poison. PMID:1434687

Shrestha, T; Kopp, B; Bisset, N G

1992-09-01

34

BDNF mediates neuroprotection against oxygen-glucose deprivation by the cardiac glycoside oleandrin.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that the botanical drug candidate PBI-05204, a supercritical CO2 extract of Nerium oleander, provides neuroprotection in both in vitro and in vivo brain slice-based models for focal ischemia (Dunn et al., 2011). Intriguingly, plasma levels of the neurotrophin BDNF were increased in patients treated with PBI-05204 in a phase I clinical trial (Bidyasar et al., 2009). We thus tested the hypothesis that neuroprotection provided by PBI-05204 to rat brain slices damaged by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) is mediated by BDNF. We found, in fact, that exogenous BDNF protein itself is sufficient to protect brain slices against OGD, whereas downstream activation of TrkB receptors for BDNF is necessary for neuroprotection provided by PBI-05204, using three independent methods. Finally, we provide evidence that oleandrin, the principal cardiac glycoside component of PBI-05204, can quantitatively account for regulation of BDNF at both the protein and transcriptional levels. Together, these findings support further investigation of cardiac glycosides in providing neuroprotection in the context of ischemic stroke. PMID:24431454

Van Kanegan, Michael J; He, Dong Ning; Dunn, Denise E; Yang, Peiying; Newman, Robert A; West, Anne E; Lo, Donald C

2014-01-15

35

BDNF Mediates Neuroprotection against Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation by the Cardiac Glycoside Oleandrin  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown that the botanical drug candidate PBI-05204, a supercritical CO2 extract of Nerium oleander, provides neuroprotection in both in vitro and in vivo brain slice-based models for focal ischemia (Dunn et al., 2011). Intriguingly, plasma levels of the neurotrophin BDNF were increased in patients treated with PBI-05204 in a phase I clinical trial (Bidyasar et al., 2009). We thus tested the hypothesis that neuroprotection provided by PBI-05204 to rat brain slices damaged by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) is mediated by BDNF. We found, in fact, that exogenous BDNF protein itself is sufficient to protect brain slices against OGD, whereas downstream activation of TrkB receptors for BDNF is necessary for neuroprotection provided by PBI-05204, using three independent methods. Finally, we provide evidence that oleandrin, the principal cardiac glycoside component of PBI-05204, can quantitatively account for regulation of BDNF at both the protein and transcriptional levels. Together, these findings support further investigation of cardiac glycosides in providing neuroprotection in the context of ischemic stroke. PMID:24431454

Van Kanegan, Michael J.; He, Dong Ning; Dunn, Denise E.; Yang, Peiying; Newman, Robert A.; West, Anne E.

2014-01-01

36

Cardiac glycosides provide neuroprotection against ischemic stroke: Discovery by a brain slice-based compound screening platform  

PubMed Central

We report here the results of a chemical genetic screen using small molecules with known pharmacologies coupled with a cortical brain slice-based model for ischemic stroke. We identified a small-molecule compound not previously appreciated to have neuroprotective action in ischemic stroke, the cardiac glycoside neriifolin, and demonstrated that its properties in the brain slice assay included delayed therapeutic potential exceeding 6 h. Neriifolin is structurally related to the digitalis class of cardiac glycosides, and its putative target is the Na+/K+-ATPase. Other cardiac glycoside compounds tested also showed neuroprotective activity, although with lower apparent potencies. In subsequent whole-animal studies, we found that neriifolin provided significant neuroprotection in a neonatal model of hypoxia/ischemia and in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model of transient focal ischemia. The neuroprotective potential of Na+/K+-ATPase is of particular interest because of its known “druggability”; indeed, Food and Drug Administration-approved, small-molecule compounds such as digitoxin and digoxin have been in clinical usage for congestive heart failure and arrhythmias for several decades. Thus, an existing cardiac glycoside or closely related compound could provide an accelerated path toward clinical trial testing for ischemic stroke. Our findings underscore the important role that hypothesis-neutral, high-content, tissue-based screens can play in the identification of new candidate drugs and drug targets for the treatment of diseases for which validated therapeutic pathways are not currently available. PMID:16793926

Wang, James K. T.; Portbury, Stuart; Thomas, Mary Beth; Barney, Shawn; Ricca, Daniel J.; Morris, Dexter L.; Warner, David S.; Lo, Donald C.

2006-01-01

37

Acaricidal effects of cardiac glycosides, azadirachtin and neem oil against the camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

The cardiac glycoside, digitoxin, from Digitalis purpurea L (Scrophulariaceae), a cardiac glycosidal (cardenolide) extract from Calotropis procera (Ait) R Br (Asclepiadaceae), azadirachtin and neem oil from Azadirachta indica A Juss (Meliaceae) were tested for their effects against larvae and adult stages of the camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii Koch (Acari: Ixodidae). The contact LC50 values of the first three materials against adults were 4.08, 9.63 and >40.7 microg cm(-2), respectively, whereas the dipping LC50 values of the four materials were 409.9, 1096, >5000 and >5000 mg litre(-1), respectively. Contact and dipping LC50 values of the extract and azadirachtin against larvae were 6.16, >20.3 microg cm(-2) and 587.7 and >2500 mg litre(-1), respectively. Azadirachtin had no effects on egg production or feeding of adults up to 5000 mg litre(-1); however at 2500 mg litre(-1), it caused significant reduction in feeding activity of larve, prolonged the period for moulting to nymphal stage, and caused 60% reduction in moultability. Results of the two cardiac glycoside materials are comparable with those of several commercial acaricides. The risks and benefits associated with the use of cardiac glycosides are considered. PMID:14620053

Al-Rajhy, DiefAlla H; Alahmed, Azzam M; Hussein, Hamdy I; Kheir, Salah M

2003-11-01

38

Nerium oleander derived cardiac glycoside oleandrin is a novel inhibitor of HIV infectivity.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effectiveness of Anvirzel™, an aqueous extract of Nerium oleander on HIV infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Oleandrin, the principle cardiac glycoside (CG) in Anvirzel™ has been shown to exhibit anti-cancer properties but its efficacy against HIV is unknown. Treatment with Anvirzel™ significantly reduced the infectivity of virus produced from infected cells without any change in the total amount of virus produced. This is in contrast to treatment with AZT, a potent inhibitor of HIV replication that has been shown to significantly reduce virus production. Relative to untreated cultures, virus in cultures treated with oleandrin had significantly reduced expression of the envelope protein gp120, the sole determinant of virus infectivity, suggesting a novel mechanism underlying the impaired infectivity. These results support the potential utility of the Nerium oleander aqueous extract, containing the CG oleandrin as a novel candidate anti-HIV therapeutic. PMID:23127567

Singh, Shailbala; Shenoy, Sachin; Nehete, Pramod N; Yang, Peiying; Nehete, Bharti; Fontenot, Danielle; Yang, Guojun; Newman, Robert A; Sastry, K Jagannadha

2013-01-01

39

Inhibition of epidermal growth factor signaling by the cardiac glycoside ouabain in medulloblastoma  

PubMed Central

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling regulates cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. Upon receptor binding, EGF triggers cascades of downstream signaling, including the MAPK and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathways. Aberrant expression/activation of EGFR is found in multiple human cancers, including medulloblastoma, the most prevalent pediatric brain cancer, and often has been associated with metastasis, poor prognosis, and resistance to chemotherapy. Na,K-ATPase is an ion pump well known for its role in intracellular ion homeostasis. Recent studies showed that Na,K-ATPase also functions as a signaling platform and revealed a role in EGFR, MAPK, and PI3K signaling. While both EGFR and Na,K-ATPase seem to modulate similar signaling pathways, cardiac glycosides that are steroid-like inhibitors of Na,K-ATPase, exhibit antiproliferative and proapoptotic properties in cancer cells. Thus, we sought to better understand the relationship between EGF and cardiac glycoside signaling. Here, we show that in medulloblastoma cells, both EGF and ouabain activate Erk1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling. Nevertheless, in medulloblastoma cells ouabain did not transactivate EGFR as has been reported in various other cell lines. Indeed, ouabain inhibited EGF-induced Erk1/2 and Akt activation and, moreover, prevented EGF-induced formation of actin stress fibers and cell motility, probably by activating a stress signaling response. Na,K-ATPase has been proposed to act as a signaling scaffold and our studies suggest that in medulloblastoma cells Na,K-ATPase might act as a check point to integrate EGF-associated signaling pathways. Thus, Na,K-ATPase might serve as a valid target to develop novel therapeutic approaches in tumors with aberrant activation of the EGFR signaling cascades. PMID:25052069

Wolle, Daniel; Lee, Seung Joon; Li, Zhiqin; Litan, Alisa; Barwe, Sonali P; Langhans, Sigrid A

2014-01-01

40

Effects of cardiac glycosides on excitation-contraction coupling in frog skeletal muscle fibres.  

PubMed Central

1. The effects of digoxin and ouabain on the calcium release flux from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), isometric tension and intramembrane charge movement were studied in voltage clamped skeletal muscle fibres of the frog. 2. Both cardiac glycosides increased both calcium transients and simultaneously recorded tension at all membrane potentials, showing different effects on the peak and on the steady components of the calcium release flux. These effects were attained at an extracellular digoxin concentration of 5 nM and an estimated intracellular ouabain concentration of 1-2 nM. Digoxin and ouabain thus exerted their effects at the same concentration on calcium release in skeletal muscle as previously observed in isolated cardiac-type ryanodine receptor (RyR) calcium release channels. 3. The peak of SR calcium release increased at all voltages, with the largest potentiation at intermediate membrane potentials. This increase in calcium release flux was attained despite an unchanged SR calcium content. The attenuated release rate therefore reflected an increased number of open RyR channels rather than increased SR loading. 4. These effects could be attributed to an increase in calcium release activation and not a decrease in the rate of inactivation. Rather, the rate of inactivation was enhanced at all voltages as expected from the increased calcium concentration in the triadic junction. 5. In contrast, CMA (17 alpha-acetoxy-6-chloro-4, 6-pregnadiene-3,20-dione; 5 microM), a Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase inhibitor with no positive inotropic effects on the heart, neither influenced SR calcium release nor antagonized the effects of ouabain. 6. Both digoxin and ouabain preserved total intramembrane charge apart from a small negative shift in the mid-point voltage and increase in slope factor. 7. Both digoxin and ouabain induced calcium release from heavy SR vesicles at rates comparable to that induced by ryanodine or caffeine. 8. It is concluded that at least part of the inactivating component of SR calcium release involves distinct RyR calcium release channels that resemble the cardiac RyR isoform in its specific sensitivity to cardiac glycosides. PMID:8887770

Sárközi, S; Szentesi, P; Jona, I; Csernoch, L

1996-01-01

41

Mediation of cardiac glycoside insensitivity in the monarch butterfly ( Danaus plexippus ): Role of an amino acid substitution in the ouabain binding site of Na + ,K + ATPase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) sequesters cardiac glycosides (CG) for its chemical defense against predators. Larvae and adults of this butterfly are insensitive towards dietary cardiac glycosides, whereas other Lepidoptera are sensitive and intoxicated by ouabain. Ouabain inhibits Na+,K+-ATPase by binding to its ?-subunit. We have amplified and cloned the DNA-sequence encoding the respective ouabain binding site. Instead of the

F. Holzinger; M. Wink

1996-01-01

42

Transport and epithelial secretion of the cardiac glycoside, digoxin, by human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells.  

PubMed Central

1. Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells have been used to investigate the transepithelial permeation of the cardiac glycoside, digoxin. 2. Transepithelial basal to apical [3H]-digoxin flux exceeds apical to basal flux, a net secretion of [3H]-digoxin being observed. At 200 microM digoxin, net secretory flux (Jnet) was 10.8 +/- 0.6 nmol cm-2 h-1. Maximal secretory flux (Jmax) of vinblastine was 1.3 +/- 0.1 nmol cm-2 h-1. Cellular uptake of digoxin was different across apical and basal cell boundaries. It was greatest across the basal surface at 1 microM, whereas at 200 microM, apical uptake exceeded basal uptake. 3. Net secretion of [3H]-digoxin was subject to inhibition by digitoxin and bufalin but was not inhibited by ouabain, convallatoxin, and strophanthidin (all 100 microM). Inhibition was due to both a decrease in Jb-a and an increase in Ja-b. Uptake of [3H]-digoxin at the apical surface was increased by digitoxin and bufalin. All cardiac glycosides decreased [3H]-digoxin uptake at the basal cell surface (except for 100 microM digitoxin). 4. The competitive P-glycoprotein inhibitors, verapamil (100 microM), nifedipine (50 microM) and vinblastine (50 microM) all abolished net secretion of [3H]-digoxin due to both a decrease in Jb-a and an increase in Ja-b. Cellular accumulation of [3H]-digoxin was also increased across both the apical and basal cell surfaces. I-Chloro-2,4,-dinitrobenzene (10 microM), a substrate for glutathione-S-transferase and subsequent ATP-dependent glutathione-S-conjugate secretion, failed to inhibit net secretion of [3H]-digoxin. The increase in absorptive permeability Pa-b (= Ja-b/Ca) and cellular [3H]-digoxin uptake upon P-glycoprotein inhibition, showed that the intestinal epithelium was rendered effectively impermeable by ATP-dependent extrusion at the apical surface. 5. A model for [3H]-digoxin secretion by the intestinal epithelium is likely to involve both diffusional uptake and Na(+)-K+ pump-mediated endocytosis, followed by active extrusion at the apical membrane. PMID:8832062

Cavet, M. E.; West, M.; Simmons, N. L.

1996-01-01

43

Effect of cardiac glycosides from Nerium indicum on feeding rate, digestive enzymes activity and ultrastructural alterations of hepatopancreas in Pomacea canaliculata.  

PubMed

Cardiac glycosides from Nerium indicum showed potent molluscicide activity against Pomacea canaliculata (GAS), but the toxicological mechanism is still far less understood. Effects of sublethal treatments of cardiac glycosides on feeding rate, digestive enzymes and ultrastructural alterations of the hepatopancreas in GAS were evaluated in this study. Exposure of GAS to sublethal concentrations of cardiac glycosides resulted in a significant reduction of feeding rate of GAS. The amylase, cellulose and protease activity were increase significantly at the end of 24 h followed by significant inhibition after 48 h of exposure while lipase activity was not affected significantly at the end of 24 h followed by a significant inhibition after 48 h of exposure during experimental period. The main ultrastructural alterations of hepatopancreas observed in snails under cardiac glycosides treatment comprised disruption of nuclear membrane, increased vesiculation and dilatation of endoplasmic reticulum, and vacuolization and swelling of mitochondrial compared to the untreated GAS. These results, for the first time, provide systematic evidences showing that cardiac glycosides seriously impairs the hepatopancreas tissues of GAS, resulting in inhibition of digestive enzymes activity and feeding rate and cause GAS death in the end. PMID:24361644

Dai, Lingpeng; Qian, Xiaowei; Nan, Xuyang; Zhang, Yejian

2014-01-01

44

Ryanodine receptor phosphorylation by oxidized CaMKII contributes to the cardiotoxic effects of cardiac glycosides  

PubMed Central

Aims Recent studies suggest that proarrhythmic effects of cardiac glycosides (CGs) on cardiomyocyte Ca2+ handling involve generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the specific pathway(s) of ROS production and the subsequent downstream molecular events that mediate CG-dependent arrhythmogenesis remain to be defined. Methods and results We examined the effects of digitoxin (DGT) on Ca2+ handling and ROS production in cardiomyocytes using a combination of pharmacological approaches and genetic mouse models. Myocytes isolated from mice deficient in NADPH oxidase type 2 (NOX2KO) and mice transgenically overexpressing mitochondrial superoxide dismutase displayed markedly increased tolerance to the proarrhythmic action of DGT as manifested by the inhibition of DGT-dependent ROS and spontaneous Ca2+ waves (SCW). Additionally, DGT-induced mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization was abolished in NOX2KO cells. DGT-dependent ROS was suppressed by the inhibition of PI3K, PKC, and the mitochondrial KATP channel, suggesting roles for these proteins, respectively, in activation of NOX2 and in mitochondrial ROS generation. Western blot analysis revealed increased levels of oxidized CaMKII in WT but not in NOX2KO hearts treated with DGT. The DGT-induced increase in SCW frequency was abolished in myocytes isolated from mice in which the Ser 2814 CaMKII phosphorylation site on RyR2 is constitutively inactivated. Conclusion These results suggest that the arrhythmogenic adverse effects of CGs on Ca2+ handling involve PI3K- and PKC-mediated stimulation of NOX2 and subsequent NOX2-dependent ROS release from the mitochondria; mitochondria-derived ROS then activate CaMKII with consequent phosphorylation of RyR2 at Ser 2814. PMID:24104877

Ho, Hsiang-Ting; Liu, Bin; Snyder, Jedidiah S.; Lou, Qing; Brundage, Elizabeth A.; Velez-Cortes, Florencia; Wang, Honglan; Ziolo, Mark T.; Anderson, Mark E.; Sen, Chandan K.; Wehrens, Xander H.T.; Fedorov, Vadim V.; Biesiadecki, Brandon J.; Hund, Thomas J.; Györke, Sándor

2014-01-01

45

In vitro and in vivo neuroprotective activity of the cardiac glycoside oleandrin from Nerium oleander in brain slice-based stroke models.  

PubMed

The principal active constituent of the botanical drug candidate PBI-05204, a supercritical CO(2) extract of Nerium oleander, is the cardiac glycoside oleandrin. PBI-05204 shows potent anticancer activity and is currently in phase I clinical trial as a treatment for patients with solid tumors. We have previously shown that neriifolin, which is structurally related to oleandrin, provides robust neuroprotection in brain slice and whole animal models of ischemic injury. However, neriifolin itself is not a suitable drug development candidate and the FDA-approved cardiac glycoside digoxin does not cross the blood-brain barrier. We report here that both oleandrin as well as the full PBI-05204 extract can also provide significant neuroprotection to neural tissues damaged by oxygen and glucose deprivation as occurs in ischemic stroke. Critically, we show that the neuroprotective activity of PBI-05204 is maintained for several hours of delay of administration after oxygen and glucose deprivation treatment. We provide evidence that the neuroprotective activity of PBI-05204 is mediated through oleandrin and/or other cardiac glycoside constituents, but that additional, non-cardiac glycoside components of PBI-05204 may also contribute to the observed neuroprotective activity. Finally, we show directly that both oleandrin and the protective activity of PBI-05204 are blood brain barrier penetrant in a novel model for in vivo neuroprotection. Together, these findings suggest clinical potential for PBI-05204 in the treatment of ischemic stroke and prevention of associated neuronal death. PMID:21950737

Dunn, Denise E; He, Dong Ning; Yang, Peiying; Johansen, Mary; Newman, Robert A; Lo, Donald C

2011-11-01

46

Cardiac glycoside receptors in cultured heart cells--I. Characterization of one single class of high affinity receptors in heart muscle cells from chick embryos.  

PubMed

Binding of (3H)-ouabain and ouabain-induced inhibition of the sodium pump and of the (Na+ + K+)-ATPase have been characterized in cultured cardiac muscle and non muscle cells, as well as in cardiac cell membranes--all obtained from chick embryos. In both cell types, ouabain binds to a single type of binding sites in a temperature-dependent manner. The association rate but not the dissociation rate, is lowered by K+; specific binding is lost after heat-denaturation of the cells. Binding parameters (association and dissociation rate constants, activation energies for association and dissociation) are similar in muscle and non muscle cells. The dissociation constant of specific ouabain binding is 1.5 X 10(-7)M in cardiac muscle cells, and 1.9 X 10(-7)M in cardiac non muscle cells, the binding capacity being 2.6 and 2.1 pmoles/mg protein respectively. Specific binding of ouabain to the cells is coupled to inhibition of the sodium pump, as can be seen from ouabain-induced inhibition of active (86Rb+ + K+)-uptake, decrease in cellular K+, and increase in cellular Na+ (EC50 = 10(-7)-10(-6)M). The data obtained with cardiac cells are in good agreement with results found for ouabain binding (dissociation constant 4.3 X 10(-7)M) and (Na+ + K+)-ATPase inhibition (EC50 = 1.4 X 10(-6)M) in cardiac cell membranes prepared from the same tissue. Due to the experimental evidence it is concluded that the binding site for ouabain is identical with the cardiac glycoside receptor of these cells. In cardiac non muscle cells, binding of ouabain to its receptor is strictly coupled to inhibition of active K+-transport in a stoichiometric manner. In cardiac muscle cells, however, active K+-transport is inhibited by less than 10% when up to 40% of cardiac glycoside receptors have bound ouabain. It is assumed that this non-stoichiometric coupling of receptor occupancy and sodium pump inhibition in cardiac muscle cells may prevent substantial changes of Na+- and K+-contents in the heart in the presence of therapeutic levels of cardiac glycosides. PMID:6322794

Werdan, K; Wagenknecht, B; Zwissler, B; Brown, L; Krawietz, W; Erdmann, E

1984-01-01

47

Joun~al r~fChemical Ecology. Vol. 21. No. 9, 1995 PRESERVING LEAVES FOR TANNIN AND PHENOLIC  

E-print Network

). Salix sericea Marshall and Salix eriocephala Michx. produce different sec- ondary chemicals. S. sericea) and very low concen- trations of condensed tannins. S. eriocephala produces high concentrations. eriocephala hybrids produce both tannins and phenolic glycosides at intermediate concentrations (Orians

Orians, Colin

48

Cardiac glycoside overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Lapostolle F, Borron SW. Digitalis. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; ...

49

Comprehensive transcriptome analysis reveals novel genes involved in cardiac glycoside biosynthesis and mlncRNAs associated with secondary metabolism and stress response in Digitalis purpurea  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Digitalis purpurea is an important ornamental and medicinal plant. There is considerable interest in exploring its transcriptome. Results Through high-throughput 454 sequencing and subsequent assembly, we obtained 23532 genes, of which 15626 encode conserved proteins. We determined 140 unigenes to be candidates involved in cardiac glycoside biosynthesis. It could be grouped into 30 families, of which 29 were identified for the first time in D. purpurea. We identified 2660 mRNA-like npcRNA (mlncRNA) candidates, an emerging class of regulators, using a computational mlncRNA identification pipeline and 13 microRNA-producing unigenes based on sequence conservation and hairpin structure-forming capability. Twenty five protein-coding unigenes were predicted to be targets of these microRNAs. Among the mlncRNA candidates, only 320 could be grouped into 140 families with at least two members in a family. The majority of D. purpurea mlncRNAs were species-specific and many of them showed tissue-specific expression and responded to cold and dehydration stresses. We identified 417 protein-coding genes with regions significantly homologous or complementary to 375 mlncRNAs. It includes five genes involved in secondary metabolism. A positive correlation was found in gene expression between protein-coding genes and the homologous mlncRNAs in response to cold and dehydration stresses, while the correlation was negative when protein-coding genes and mlncRNAs were complementary to each other. Conclusions Through comprehensive transcriptome analysis, we not only identified 29 novel gene families potentially involved in the biosynthesis of cardiac glycosides but also characterized a large number of mlncRNAs. Our results suggest the importance of mlncRNAs in secondary metabolism and stress response in D. purpurea. PMID:22233149

2012-01-01

50

The carbohydrate moieties of the beta-subunit of Na+, K(+)-ATPase: their lateral motions and proximity to the cardiac glycoside site.  

PubMed Central

The beta-subunit associated with the catalytic (alpha) subunit of the mammalian Na+, K(+) -ATPase is a transmembrane glycoprotein with three extracellularly located N-glycosylation sites. Although beta appears to be essential for a functional enzyme, the role of beta and its sugars remains unknown. In these studies, steady-state and dynamic fluorescence measurements of the fluorophore lucifer yellow (LY) covalently linked to the carbohydrate chains of beta have demonstrated that the bound probes are highly solvent exposed but restricted in their diffusional motions. Furthermore, the probes' environments on beta were not altered by Na+ or K+ or ouabain-induced enzyme conformational changes, but both divalent cation and oligomycin addition evoked modest changes in LY fluorescence. Frequency domain measurements reflecting the Förster fluorescence energy transfer (FET) occurring between anthroylouabain (AO) bound to the cardiac glycoside receptor site on alpha and the carbohydrate-linked LY demonstrated their close proximity (18 A). Additional FET determinations made between LY as donor and erythrosin-5-isothiocyanate, covalently bound at the enzyme's putative ATP binding site domain, indicated that a distance of about 85 A separates these two regions and that this distance is reduced upon divalent cation binding and increased upon the Na+E1-->K+E2 conformational transition. These data suggest a model for the localization of the terminal moieties of the oligosaccharides that places them, on average, about 18 A from the AO binding site and this distance or less from the extracellular membrane surface. Images FIGURE 5 PMID:8770197

Amler, E; Abbott, A; Malak, H; Lakowicz, J; Ball, W J

1996-01-01

51

Human Breast Tumor Cells Are More Resistant to Cardiac Glycoside Toxicity Than Non-Tumorigenic Breast Cells  

PubMed Central

Cardiotonic steroids (CTS), specific inhibitors of Na,K-ATPase activity, have been widely used for treating cardiac insufficiency. Recent studies suggest that low levels of endogenous CTS do not inhibit Na,K-ATPase activity but play a role in regulating blood pressure, inducing cellular kinase activity, and promoting cell viability. Higher CTS concentrations inhibit Na,K-ATPase activity and can induce reactive oxygen species, growth arrest, and cell death. CTS are being considered as potential novel therapies in cancer treatment, as they have been shown to limit tumor cell growth. However, there is a lack of information on the relative toxicity of tumor cells and comparable non-tumor cells. We have investigated the effects of CTS compounds, ouabain, digitoxin, and bufalin, on cell growth and survival in cell lines exhibiting the full spectrum of non-cancerous to malignant phenotypes. We show that CTS inhibit membrane Na,K-ATPase activity equally well in all cell lines tested regardless of metastatic potential. In contrast, the cellular responses to the drugs are different in non-tumor and tumor cells. Ouabain causes greater inhibition of proliferation and more extensive apoptosis in non-tumor breast cells compared to malignant or oncogene-transfected cells. In tumor cells, the effects of ouabain are accompanied by activation of anti-apoptotic ERK1/2. However, ERK1/2 or Src inhibition does not sensitize tumor cells to CTS cytotoxicity, suggesting that other mechanisms provide protection to the tumor cells. Reduced CTS-sensitivity in breast tumor cells compared to non-tumor cells indicates that CTS are not good candidates as cancer therapies. PMID:24349570

Clifford, Rebecca J.; Kaplan, Jack H.

2013-01-01

52

Carob Tannins â€\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenol fractions were prepared from ripe and green carobs and fed to growing rats. The significant growth depression observed in rats fed green carobs and the ethyl acetate-soluble polyphenols is attributed primarily to a decrease in feed consumption. Ripe carobs did not affect growth significantly, but the tannins isolated from ripe and, to a lesser extent, green carobs were responsible

MUSHA TAMIR; ANDEUGENIA ALUMOT

53

Microbial degradation of tannins – A current perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannins are water-soluble polyphenolic compounds having wide prevalence in plants. Hydrolysable and condensed tannins are the two major classes of tannins. These compounds have a range of effects on various organisms – from toxic effects on animals to growth inhibition of microorganisms. Some microbes are, however, resistant to tannins, and have developed various mechanisms and pathways for tannin degradation in

Tej K. Bhat; Bhupinder Singh; Om P. Sharma

1998-01-01

54

Tannins Influence Soil Chemical Processes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tannins, plant secondary compounds, can affect soil and water quality by interacting with inorganic and organic compounds. However, the fate of tannins and their effect on soil metal cycling dynamics and soil chemical processes is poorly understood. We examined the effects of commercial available ...

55

Analysis of condensed tannins: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins, PAs) have both positive and negative effects on feed digestibility and animal performance, depending both on the quantity and biological activity of the tannins that are present. In this review, the chemistry and analysis of condensed tannins (PAs) are examined. Our first focus is on the complexity of the structures of condensed tannins and our second

P Schofield; D. M Mbugua; A. N Pell

2001-01-01

56

Iridoidal glycosides from Jasminum sambac  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides a known trimeric iridoidal glycoside, sambacoside A, five new oligomeric iridoidal glycosides, molihuasides A-E were isolated from the flowers of Jasminum sambac. Their structures were determined by spectral and chemical evidence. Among them, molihuasides A and C-E are new dimeric iridoidal glycosides and molihuaside B is a new trimeric iridoidal glycoside.

Ying-Jun Zhang; Yu-Qing Liu; Xiang-Yu Pu; Chong-Ren Yang

1995-01-01

57

Nutritional Toxicology of Tannins and Related Polyphenols in Forage Legumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proanthocyanidins (PA) (condensed tannins) and hydrolyzable tannins (HT) are the two major classes of tannins. Proanthocyanidins are flavo- noid polymers. Hydrolyzable tannins are polymers of gallic or ellagic acid esterified to a core molecule, commonly glucose or a polyphenol such as catechin. Proanthocyanidins are the most common type of tannin found in forage legumes. Problems in the analysis of tannins

Jess D. Reed

2010-01-01

58

Tannin (Polyphenol) Stability in Aqueous Solutions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding the chemical stability of tannins (polyphenolics) in soils is critical to understanding their biological activities and fate. We examined the stability of chemically defined tannins in aqueous solutions under conditions simulating natural and laboratory conditions. We evaluated tanni...

59

Implications of soluble tannin-protein complexes for tannin analysis and plant defense mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors which establish whether tannin and protein interact to form soluble complexes or precipitates were identified. The ratio of tannin to protein in the reaction mixture influenced solubility of the tannin-protein complexes. At protein-to-tannin ratios larger than the optimum ratio, or equivalence point, soluble tannin-protein complexes apparently formed instead of insoluble complexes. Several other factors influenced the amount of protein

Ann E. Hagerman; Charles T. Robbins

1987-01-01

60

Extraction and TLC Desitometric Determination of Triterpenoid Acids (Arjungenin, Arjunolic Acid) from Terminalia arjuna Stem Bark Without Interference of Tannins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stem bark of Terminalia arjuna Linn. (fam: Combretaceae), commonly known as Arjuna in Indian systems of medicine, is a reputed drug used for various cardiac\\u000a disorders. T. arjuna stem bark is reported to contain different groups of chemical constituents including phenolics, tannins, saponins and triterpenoid\\u000a acids. From our earlier experience with tannin containing herbal drugs, we are aware that

J. Kalola; M. Rajani

2006-01-01

61

Effect of tannins on galliform cecal partitioning.  

PubMed

Winter diets of ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) and other galliformes are high in tannins. We fed quebracho, a condensed tannin, to ruffed grouse and found no effect on dry matter intake or body mass at levels up to 6% of the diet. However, a high-fiber diet with 8% quebracho resulted in reduced dry matter intake and body mass loss. Grouse could not tolerate a diet with 8% tannic acid, a hydrolyzable tannin, which caused a large reduction in dry matter intake and body mass. Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and ruffed grouse responded to dietary quebracho tannin by increasing the proportion of digesta that was excreted from the ceca. In the northern bobwhite, 59%-76% of the tannin recovered from the feces was in cecal feces. There was no difference in average passage rates of liquid and fiber digesta, although variation was high in tannin-fed birds. The role of the ceca in handling tannin requires further investigation. PMID:9231390

Hewitt, D G; Lafon, N W; Kirkpatrick, R L

1997-01-01

62

Ecological implications of condensed tannin structure: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Condensed tannins were isolated from bitterbnish (Purshia tridentata) and blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima). Structural analyses showed that both tannins were procyanidins of similar polymer length. The overall stereochemistries at C-3 and C-4, however, differed between the two tannins. These changes in stereochemistry resulted in blackbrush tannins being less preferred than bitterbrush tannins when offered to snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). It is

T. P. Clausen; F. D. Provenza; E. A. Burritt; P. B. Reichardt; J. P. Bryant

1990-01-01

63

Choosing appropriate methods and standards for assaying tannin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannins are chemically diverse polyphenolics that have multiple biological activities. Attempts to establish the ecological significance of tannins have been hindered by the complexities of tannin analysis. A multitude of analytical procedures for tannins has been described, but it is difficult for the nonspecialist to select appropriate methods. We have classified the most common procedures for determining tannin as either

Ann E. Hagerman; Larry G. Butler

1989-01-01

64

Tannins, Peptic Ulcers and Related Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

This review of the current literature aims to study correlations between the chemical structure and gastric anti-ulcer activity of tannins. Tannins are used in medicine primarily because of their astringent properties. These properties are due to the fact that tannins react with the tissue proteins with which they come into contact. In gastric ulcers, this tannin-protein complex layer protects the stomach by promoting greater resistance to chemical and mechanical injury or irritation. Moreover, in several experimental models of gastric ulcer, tannins have been shown to present antioxidant activity, promote tissue repair, exhibit anti Helicobacter pylori effects, and they are involved in gastrointestinal tract anti-inflammatory processes. The presence of tannins explains the anti-ulcer effects of many natural products. PMID:22489149

de Jesus, Neyres Zinia Taveira; de Souza Falcão, Heloina; Gomes, Isis Fernandes; de Almeida Leite, Thiago Jose; de Morais Lima, Gedson Rodrigues; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria; Tavares, Josean Fechine; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; de Athayde-Filho, Petrônio Filgueiras; Batista, Leonia Maria

2012-01-01

65

Variants of glycoside hydrolases  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

Teter, Sarah; Ward, Connie; Cherry, Joel; Jones, Aubrey; Harris, Paul; Yi, Jung

2013-02-26

66

Variants of glycoside hydrolases  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

Teter, Sarah (Davis, CA); Ward, Connie (Hamilton, MT); Cherry, Joel (Davis, CA); Jones, Aubrey (Davis, CA); Harris, Paul (Carnation, WA); Yi, Jung (Sacramento, CA)

2011-04-26

67

Enzymatic synthesis using glycoside phosphorylases  

PubMed Central

Carbohydrate phosphorylases are readily accessible but under-explored catalysts for glycoside synthesis. Their use of accessible and relatively stable sugar phosphates as donor substrates underlies their potential. A wide range of these enzymes has been reported of late, displaying a range of preferences for sugar donors, acceptors and glycosidic linkages. This has allowed this class of enzymes to be used in the synthesis of diverse carbohydrate structures, including at the industrial scale. As more phosphorylase enzymes are discovered, access to further difficult to synthesise glycosides will be enabled. Herein we review reported phosphorylase enzymes and the glycoside products that they have been used to synthesise. PMID:25060838

O’Neill, Ellis C.; Field, Robert A.

2015-01-01

68

Phenylethanoid and lignan glycosides from Verbascum thapsus.  

PubMed

Verbascum thapsus afforded, in addition to three known phenylethanoid glycosides and four lignan ones, five new phenylethanoid glycosides and one new lignan glycoside. Structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and chemical evidence. PMID:1373629

Warashina, T; Miyase, T; Ueno, A

1992-03-01

69

The glycosides from Lomatogonium rotatum.  

PubMed

A new phenyl glycoside, 2-(3'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)benzoyloxygentisic acid (1), along with seven known glycosides 2-8 was isolated from Tibetan herbal medicine Lomatogonium rotatum. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR techniques and MS data. PMID:18266146

Li, Yu-Lin; Suo, You-Rui; Liao, Zhi-Xin; Ding, Li-Sheng

2008-02-15

70

The glycosides from Lomatogonium rotatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new phenyl glycoside, 2-(3?-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl)benzoyloxygentisic acid (1), along with seven known glycosides 2–8 was isolated from Tibetan herbal medicine Lomatogonium rotatum. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR techniques and MS data.

Yu-Lin Li; You-Rui Suo; Zhi-Xin Liao; Li-Sheng Ding

2008-01-01

71

Iridoid glycosides from Thunbergia grandiflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The novel iridoid glycosides, isounedoside and grandifloric acid, were isolated from Thunbergia grandiflora. Grandifloric acid contains C-10 as a carboxylic acid group, the presence of which was predicted by recent iridoid biosynthesis studies carried out within T. alata. Isounedoside contains a rare 6,7-epoxide functional group. A revision in some of the NMR spectral assignments for the known iridoid glycoside alatoside

Lotfy D. Ismail; Mohamed M. El-Azizi; Taha I. Khalifa; Frank R. Stermitz

1996-01-01

72

Sorption of polyphenolics (tannins) to natural soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The plant secondary metabolites known as tannins (polyphenolics) comprise up to 40% of the dry mass of plant tissue. Tannins have potent bioactivities ranging from protein precipitation to metal binding and radical quenching, and can affect nutrient metal availability, nitrogen availability, and so...

73

Tannins and Human Health: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannins (commonly referred to as tannic acid) are water-soluble polyphenols that are present in many plant foods. They have been reported to be responsible for decreases in feed intake, growth rate, feed efficiency, net metabolizable energy, and protein digestibility in experimental animals. Therefore, foods rich in tannins are considered to be of low nutritional value. However, recent findings indicate that

King-Thom Chung; Tit Yee Wong; Cheng-I Wei; Yao-Wen Huang; Yuan Lin

1998-01-01

74

Sorption of polyphenolics (tannins) to natural soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tannins enter soil systems via rainfall through the leaf canopy, leaf litter decomposition, and root exudation and decomposition. For tannins released into soils, the relative importance of sorption to soil; chemical reactions with soil minerals; and biological decomposition is unknown. Determinin...

75

Colloidal stability of tannins: astringency, wine tasting and beyond  

E-print Network

Tannin-tannin and tannin-protein interactions in water-ethanol solvent mixtures are studied in the context of red wine tasting. While tannin self-aggregation is relevant for visual aspect of wine tasting (limpidity and related colloidal phenomena), tannin affinities for salivary proline-rich proteins is fundamental for a wide spectrum of organoleptic properties related to astringency. Tannin-tannin interactions are analyzed in water-ethanol wine-like solvents and the precipitation map is constructed for a typical grape tannin. The interaction between tannins and human salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP) are investigated in the framework of the shell model for micellization, known for describing tannin-induced aggregation of beta-casein. Tannin-assisted micellization and compaction of proteins observed by SAXS are described quantitatively and discussed in the case of astringency.

Zanchi, D; Konarev, P; Tribet, C; Svergun, D I

2008-01-01

76

Colloidal stability of tannins: astringency, wine tasting and beyond  

E-print Network

Tannin-tannin and tannin-protein interactions in water-ethanol solvent mixtures are studied in the context of red wine tasting. While tannin self-aggregation is relevant for visual aspect of wine tasting (limpidity and related colloidal phenomena), tannin affinities for salivary proline-rich proteins is fundamental for a wide spectrum of organoleptic properties related to astringency. Tannin-tannin interactions are analyzed in water-ethanol wine-like solvents and the precipitation map is constructed for a typical grape tannin. The interaction between tannins and human salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP) are investigated in the framework of the shell model for micellization, known for describing tannin-induced aggregation of beta-casein. Tannin-assisted micellization and compaction of proteins observed by SAXS are described quantitatively and discussed in the case of astringency.

D. Zanchi; C. Poulain; P. Konarev; C. Tribet; D. I. Svergun

2008-10-07

77

Colloidal stability of tannins: astringency, wine tasting and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tannin-tannin and tannin-protein interactions in water-ethanol solvent mixtures are studied in the context of red wine tasting. While tannin self-aggregation is relevant for the visual aspect of wine tasting (limpidity and related colloidal phenomena), tannin affinities for salivary proline-rich proteins is fundamental for a wide spectrum of organoleptic properties related to astringency. Tannin-tannin interactions are analyzed in water-ethanol wine-like solvents and the precipitation map is constructed for a typical grape tannin. The interaction between tannins and human salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP) are investigated in the framework of the shell model for micellization, known for describing tannin-induced aggregation of ?-casein. Tannin-assisted micellization and compaction of proteins observed by SAXS are described quantitatively and discussed in the case of astringency.

Zanchi, D.; Poulain, C.; Konarev, P.; Tribet, C.; Svergun, D. I.

2008-12-01

78

Lead chelation to immobilised Symphytum officinale L. (comfrey) root tannins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reported correlations between tannin level and metal accumulation within plant tissues suggest that metal-chelating tannins may help plants to tolerate toxic levels of heavy metal contaminants. This paper supports such correlations using a new method that demonstrated the ability of plant tannins to chelate heavy metals, and showed that the relative levels of tannins in tissues were quantitatively related to

Lily Chin; David W. M. Leung; H. Harry Taylor

2009-01-01

79

Technical Notes Determination of Condensed Tannin Monomers in  

E-print Network

Technical Notes Determination of Condensed Tannin Monomers in Environmental Samples by Capillary-level quantification of condensed tannin is described that uses acid depolymerization and carbocation capture with detection limits down to 100 ng con- densed tannin. In addition to tannin, triterpenoids were also

Hernes, Peter J.

80

Radial diffusion method for determining tannin in plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannin in plant extracts can be determined by reacting the tannin with a protein and quantitating the precipitated complex. In the new assay described here, a tannin-containing solution is placed in a well in a protein-containing agar slab. As the tannin diffuses into the gel and complexes with protein, a visible ring of precipitation develops. The area of the ring

Ann E. Hagerman

1987-01-01

81

Trans-fused Iridoid GlycosidEs from Penstemon Mucronatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new trans-fused iridoid glycosides (5?H)-6?-8-epidihydrocornin and (5?H)-6?-8-hydroxy-8-epiloganin, were isolated from Penstemon mucronatus, along with cornin, penstemoside and three hastatosides. The trans-fused iridoids are only the second and third known among over 900 described cis-fused iridoid glycosides. Two pairs of iridoids, identical except for the stereochemistry at C-8, were found. Structures were determined by spectroscopic methods.

Robert E. Krull; Frank R. Stermitz

1998-01-01

82

Taraxastane glycosides from Eclipta alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the dried whole plants of Eclipta alba (Ecliptae Herba, Chinese name Mo Han Lian) purchased in China, four new taraxastane triterpene glycosides, named eclalbasaponins VII–X were isolated, along with eclalbasaponins I–VI. The structures of eclalbasaponins VII–X were characterized as 3?,20?,16?- and 3?,20?,28-trihydroxytaraxastane glycosides, and their sulphated saponins on the basis of spectral data.

Shoji Yahara; Ning Ding; Toshihiro Nohara; Kazuo Masuda; Hiroyuki Ageta

1997-01-01

83

Iridoid glycosides from Thunbergia grandiflora.  

PubMed

The novel iridoid glycosides, isounedoside and grandifloric acid, were isolated from Thunbergia grandiflora. Grandifloric acid contains C-10 as a carboxylic acid group, the presence of which was predicted by recent iridoid biosynthesis studies carried out within T. alata. Isounedoside contains a rare 6,7-epoxide functional group. A revision in some of the NMR spectral assignments for the known iridoid glycoside alatoside was also made. PMID:8688191

Ismail, L D; el-Azizi, M M; Khalifa, T I; Stermitz, F R

1996-07-01

84

Condensed tannins act against cattle nematodes.  

PubMed

The use of natural plant anthelmintics was suggested as a possible alternative control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in ruminants. Direct anthelmintic effects of tannin-containing plants have already been shown in sheep and goat GIN. These anthelmintic properties are mainly associated with condensed tannins. In the present study, we evaluated possible in vitro effects of three tannin-containing plants against bovine GIN. Effects of Onobrychis viciifolia, Lotus pedunculatus and Lotus corniculatus condensed tannin (CT) extracts on Cooperia oncophora and Ostertagia ostertagi were determined by a larval feeding inhibition assay (LFIA) and a larval exsheathment assay (LEA). In the LFIA, all three plant extracts significantly inhibited larval feeding behaviour of both C. oncophora and O. ostertagi first stage larvae in a dose-dependent manner. The L. pedunculatus extract, based on EC(50) (effective concentration for 50% inhibition), was the most effective against both nematodes, followed by O. viciifolia and L. corniculatus. The effect of CT extracts upon larval feeding behaviour correlates with CT content and procyanidin/prodelphidin ratio. Larval exsheathment of C. oncophora and O. ostertagi L3 larvae (third stage larvae) was also affected by CT extracts from all three plants. In both in vitro assays, extracts with added polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, an inhibitor of tannins, generated almost the same values as the negative control; this confirms the role of CT in the anthelmintic effect of these plant extracts. Our results, therefore, indicated that tannin-containing plants could act against cattle nematodes. PMID:21726942

Novobilský, Adam; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

2011-12-15

85

Anticancer and antioxidant tannins from Pimenta dioica leaves.  

PubMed

Two galloylglucosides, 6-hydroxy-eugenol 4-O-(6'-O-galloyl)-beta-D-4C1-glucopyranoside (4) and 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-propane-1,2-diol-2-O-(2',6'-di-O-galloyl)-beta-D -4C1-glucopyranoside (7), and two C-glycosidic tannins, vascalaginone (10) and grandininol (14), together with fourteen known metabolites, gallic acid (1), methyl gallate (2), nilocitin (3), 1-O-galloyl-4,6-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-(alpha/beta)-D-glucopyranose (5), 4,6-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-(alpha/beta)-D-glucopyranose (6), 3,4,6-valoneoyl-(alpha/beta)-D-glucopyranose (8), pedunculagin (9), casuariin (11), castalagin (12), vascalagin (13), casuarinin (15), grandinin (16), methyl-flavogallonate (17) and ellagic acid (18), were identified from the leaves of Pimenta dioica (Merr.) L. (Myrtaceae) on the basis of their chemical and physicochemical analysis (UV, HRESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). It was found that 9 is the most cytotoxic compound against solid tumour cancer cells, the most potent scavenger against the artificial radical DPPH and physiological radicals including ROO*, OH*, and O2-*, and strongly inhibited the NO generation and induced the proliferation of T-lymphocytes and macrophages. On the other hand, 3 was the strongest NO inhibitor and 16 the highest stimulator for the proliferation of T-lymphocytes, while 10 was the most active inducer of macrophage proliferation. PMID:17913067

Marzouk, Mohamed S A; Moharram, Fatma A; Mohamed, Mona A; Gamal-Eldeen, Amira M; Aboutabl, Elsayed A

2007-01-01

86

Interaction of gut microflora with tannins in feeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tannins (hydrolyzable and condensed) are water-soluble polyphenolic compounds that exert antinutritional effects on ruminants by forming complexes with dietary proteins. They limit nitrogen supply to animals, besides inhibiting the growth and activity of ruminal microflora. However, some gastrointestinal microbes are able to break tannin-protein complexes while preferentially degrading hydrolyzable tannins (HTs). Streptococcus gallolyticus, Lonepinella koalarum and Selenomonas ruminantium are the dominant bacterial species that have the ability to degrade HTs. These tanninolytic microorganisms possess tannin-degrading ability and have developed certain mechanisms to tolerate tannins in feeds. Hence, selection of efficient tanninolytic microbes and transinoculation among animals for long-term benefits become areas of intensive interest. Here, we review the effects of tannins on ruminants, the existence and significance of tannin-degrading microorganisms in diverse groups of animals and the mechanisms that tannin-degrading microorganisms have developed to counter the toxic effects of tannin.

Goel, Gunjan; Puniya, A. K.; Aguilar, C. N.; Singh, Kishan

2005-11-01

87

Defensive strategies in Geranium sylvaticum. Part 1: organ-specific distribution of water-soluble tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids.  

PubMed

A combination of high-resolution mass spectrometry and modern HPLC column technology, assisted by diode array detection, was used for accurate characterization of water-soluble polyphenolic compounds in the pistils, stamens, petals, sepals, stems, leaves, roots and seeds of Geranium sylvaticum. The organs contained a large variety of polyphenols, five types of tannins (ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, gallotannins, galloyl glucoses and galloyl quinic acids) as well as flavonoids and simple phenolic acids. In all, 59 compounds were identified. Geraniin and other ellagitannins dominated in all the green photosynthetic organs. The other organs seem to produce distinctive polyphenol groups: pistils accumulated gallotannins; petals acetylglucose derivatives of galloylglucoses; stamens kaempferol glycosides, and seeds and roots accumulated proanthocyanidins. The intra-plant distribution of the different polyphenol groups may reflect the different functions and importance of various types of tannins as the defensive chemicals against herbivory. PMID:23790750

Tuominen, Anu; Toivonen, Eija; Mutikainen, Pia; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

2013-11-01

88

Monoterpene glycosides, phenylpropanoids, and acacetin glycosides from Dracocephalum foetidum.  

PubMed

Chemical investigation of the acetone extract from the aerial parts of the Mongolian medicinal plant Dracocephalum foetidum resulted in the isolation of three limonene glycosides, a caffeic acid trimer, four rosmarinic acid glucosides, and five acacetin acyl glycosides, together with 13 known natural products. The chemical structures of all of the compounds were determined by spectroscopic analyses. Among these compounds three showed hyaluronidase inhibitory activity. In addition, one other compound showed stronger 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity than the positive control Trolox, whereas three other compounds demonstrated a similar activity to that of Trolox. PMID:24582463

Selenge, Erdenechimeg; Murata, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Shiho; Sasaki, Kenroh; Batkhuu, Javzan; Yoshizaki, Fumihiko

2014-05-01

89

Accumulation of uranium by immobilized persimmon tannin  

SciTech Connect

We have discovered that the extracted juice of unripe astringent persimmon fruit, designated as kakishibu or shibuol, has an extremely high affinity for uranium. To develop efficient adsorbents for uranium, we tried to immobilize kakishibu (persimmon tannin) with various aldehydes and mineral acids. Persimmon tannin immobilized with glutaraldehyde can accumulate 1.71 g (14 mEq U) of uranium per gram of the adsorbent. The uranium accumulating capacity of this adsorbent is several times greater than that of commercially available chelating resins (2-3 mEq/g). Immobilized persimmon tannin has the most favorable features for uranium recovery; high selective adsorption ability, rapid adsorption rate, and applicability in both column and batch systems. The uranium retained on immobilized persimmon tannin can be quantitatively and easily eluted with a very dilute acid, and the adsorbent can thus be easily recycled in the adsorption-desorption process. Immobilized persimmon tannin also has a high affinity for thorium. 23 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

Sakaguchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Akira (Miyazaki Medical College (Japan))

1994-01-01

90

Multifunctional porous solids derived from tannins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tannins are extremely valuable, non toxic, wood extractives combining reactivity towards aldehydes, low cost, natural origin and easy handling. When polymerized in the presence of suitable chemicals including blowing agent, ultra lightweight rigid tannin-based foams are obtained. If pyrolyzed under inert gas, reticulated carbon foams having the same pore structure and the same density are obtained. The most remarkable features of tannin-based foams are the following: mechanical resistance similar to, or higher than, that of commercial phenolic foams, tuneable pore size and permeability, infusibility, very low thermal conductivity, cheapness, ecological character, high resistance to flame and to chemicals. Carbon foams have even better properties and are also electrically conducting. Consequently, various applications are suggested for organic foams: cores of sandwich composite panels, sound and shock absorbers and thermal insulators, whereas carbon foams can be used as porous electrodes, filters for molten metals and corrosive chemicals, catalyst supports and adsorbents.

Celzard, Alain; Fierro, Vanessa; Pizzi, Antonio; Zhao, Weigang

2013-03-01

91

Dry bean tannins: A review of nutritional implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannins are one of several antinutritional factors present in dry beans and are located mainly in the seed coat or testa.\\u000a The tannin content of dry beans ranges from 0.0 to 2.0% depending on the bean species and color of the seed coat. Many high\\u000a tannin bean varieties are of lower nutritional quality than low tannin varieties of beans. Naturally

N. R. Reddy; M. D. Pierson; S. K. Sathe; D. K. Salunkhe

1985-01-01

92

Tannins in nutrient dynamics of forest ecosystems - a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannins make up a significant portion of forest carbon pools and foliage and bark may contain up to 40% tannin. Like many other plant secondary compounds, tannins were believed to function primarily as herbivore deterrents. However, recent evidence casts doubts on their universal effectiveness against herbivory. Alternatively, tannins may play an important role in plant–plant and plant–litter–soil interactions. The convergent

Tamara E. C. Kraus; Randy A. Dahlgren; Robert J. Zasoski

2003-01-01

93

Mimosa and chestnut tannin extracts reacted with hexamine in solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autocondensation reactions of mimosa and chestnut tannin extracts solutions have been analysed at several pH by differential\\u000a scanning calorimetry (DSC). Alkaline pH promotes autocondensation reaction of these tannins. Curing reactions between these\\u000a tannins and hexamine at acid and not strongly alkaline pH have been proved by DSC. Thermal analysis gives insights not only\\u000a on reactions between tannin and hexamine, but

C. Peña; K. de la Caba; A. Retegi; C. Ocando; J. Labidi; J. M. Echeverria; I. Mondragon

2009-01-01

94

Production of Tannin from the Bark of Eucalyptus camadulensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannin is a very versatile industrial material found in many parts of plants such as the bark of Eucalyptus camadulensis (EC). The bark of EC that normally peels off during the dry season has usually served as anxious substrate for pathogens. In the present experiment, tannin was leached from the bark of EC using water as solvent. Tannin produced varied

K. R. Onifade

95

Ethanol production performance of ozone treated tannin grain sorghum flour  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grain sorghum lines containing tannins have been reported to exhibit increased resistance to drought, birds, mold, preharvest germination, and higher grain yield than non-tannin grain sorghum lines, but tannins have been considered an adverse factor in the utilization of sorghum as a feedstock for b...

96

Extraction of tannin from fresh and preserved leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extractability of tannin from fresh, lyophilized, and dried leaves collected at various times in the growing season was determined using the radial diffusion assay for protein-precipitating phenolics. The amount of tannin extracted depended on the method of leaf preservation and on the maturity of the leaf. Early in the season, more tannin was extracted from lyophilized leaves than from

Ann E. Hagerman

1988-01-01

97

Iridoid glycosides of Cornus canadensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The iridoid glycosides scandoside, scandoside methyl ester, monotropein, and galioside were found in Cornus canadensis from several widely distributed collection sites. Cornin and hastatoside were isolated from C. nuttallii. No iridoids were found in C. stolonifera, that instead yielded cornoside and halleridone, also independent of collection location. The results were compared with previous studies and current phylogenetic work on the

Frank R Stermitz; Robert E Krull

1998-01-01

98

Flavonol Glycosides from Gaura Biennis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytochemical investigation of the native American plant Gaura biennis led to the isolation of three new flavonol glycosides (1-3), along with eight known ones. Their structures were established primarily by spectroscopic data as quercetin 3-O-(2"-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-6"-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-ß-D- gluco...

99

PREFERENTIAL BINDING OF SORGHUM TANNINS WITH GAMMA-KAFIRIN AND THE INFLUENCE OF TANNIN BINDING ON KAFIRIN DIGESTIBILITY AND BIODEGRADATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The binding of different kafirin species with sorghum condensed tannins was investigated. Analysis by chemical assay and by SDS-PAGE, RP-HPLC, and FZCE, showed that gamma-kafirin bound more condensed tannins than the other kafirin species. SDS-PAGE suggested that the '-kafirin bound tannins were i...

100

Science Study Aids 5: Tannin - Nature's Filter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is the fifth in a series of seven supplementary investigative materials for use in secondary science classes providing up-to-date research-related investigations. This unit is structured for grade levels 9 through 12. It is concerned with the removal of heavy divalent metals from water with the use of tannin-containing…

Boeschen, John; Randall, John M.

101

Tannin-assisted aggregation of natively unfolded proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tannin-protein interactions are essentially physical: hydrophobic and hydrogen-bond-mediated. We explored the tannin-assisted protein aggregation on the case of ?-casein, which is a natively unfolded protein known for its ability to form micellar aggregates. We used several tannins with specified length. Our SAXS results show that small tannins increase the number of proteins per micelle, but keeping their size constant. It leads to a tannin-assisted compactization of micelles. Larger tannins, with linear dimensions greater than the crown width of micelles, lead to the aggregation of micelles by a bridging effect. Experimental results can be understood within a model where tannins are treated as effective enhancers of hydrophobic attraction between specific sites in proteins.

Zanchi, D.; Narayanan, T.; Hagenmuller, D.; Baron, A.; Guyot, S.; Cabane, B.; Bouhallab, S.

2008-06-01

102

Diterpene glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana.  

PubMed

Three novel diterpene glycosides were isolated for the first time from the commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana, along with several known steviol glycosides, namely stevioside, rebaudiosides A-F, rubusoside and dulcoside A. The new compounds were identified as 13-[(2-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-15-en-19-oic acid, 13-[(2-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-16?-hydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid and 13-methyl-16-oxo-17-nor-ent-kauran-19-oic acid-?-D-glucopyranosyl ester on the basis of extensive 2D NMR and MS spectroscopic data as well as chemical studies. PMID:21527882

Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash; Upreti, Mani; Prakash, Indra

2011-01-01

103

Phenolic glycosides from Glycosmis pentaphylla.  

PubMed

Three new phenolic glycosides, named as glycopentosides A-C (1-3), along with nine known compounds were isolated from the n-BuOH extract of stems of Glycosmis pentaphylla. Their structures were determined by using spectroscopic and chemical methods. Bioassay showed that compound 10 (tachioside) could inhibit nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharides-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells with IC50 value of 12.14 ?M. PMID:25367455

Tian, Er-Li; Cui, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Mei, Zhi-Nan; Chen, Yu

2014-12-01

104

Flavonol glycosides from Dryas octopetala.  

PubMed

Six flavonol glycosides and ent-epicatechin were isolated from Dryas octopetala and their structures elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Two new flavonoids, 3-O-alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl-8-methoxyquercetin (2) and 3-O-beta-galactopyranosyl-8-methoxykaempferol (6), were identified along with 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosylquercetin (hyperin) (3), 3-O-alpha-L-arabinofuranosylquercetin (avicularin) (5), 3-O-beta-L-arabinopyranosylquercetin (4), and 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-8-methoxyquercetin (1). PMID:6512533

Servettaz, O; Colombo, M L; De Bernardi, M; Uberti, E; Vidari, G; Vita-Finzi, P

1984-01-01

105

Megastigmane glycosides from Salvia nemorosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the aerial parts of Salvia nemorosa, three new megastigmane glycosides, salvionosides A-C, were isolated, along with the known compounds, (6S,9R)- and (6S,9S)-roseosides, (6R,9R)- and (6R,9S)-3-oxo-?-ionol glucosides and blumeol C glucoside. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence.

Yoshio Takeda; Hongjie Zhang; Takashi Matsumoto; Hideaki Otsuka; Yasushi Oosio; Gisho Honda; Mamoru Tabata; Tetsuro Fujita; Handong Sun; Ekrem Sezik; Erdem Yesilada

1997-01-01

106

Megastigmane glycosides from Salvia nemorosa.  

PubMed

From the aerial parts of Salvia nemorosa, three new megastigmane glycosides, salvionosides A-C, were isolated, along with the known compounds, (6S,9R)- and (6S,9R)-roseosides, (6R,9R)- and (6R,9S)-3-oxo-alpha-ionol glucosides and blumeol C glucoside. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence. PMID:8983215

Takeda, Y; Zhang, H; Matsumoto, T; Otsuka, H; Oosio, Y; Honda, G; Tabata, M; Fujita, T; Sun, H; Sezik, E; Yesilada, E

1997-01-01

107

[The antifungal action of polygalacic acid glycosides].  

PubMed

Triterpenoid glycosides obtained from Solidago virgaurea L. and Bellis perennis L. (Asteraceae) inhibit the growth of human-pathogenic yeasts (Candida and Cryptococcus species). First results are given of the investigations on the mode of action and the relationships between structure and activity of these compounds. The intensity of growth inhibition is influenced particularly by the carbohydrate chains of the glycosides. Monodesmosidic as well as bisdesmosidic glycosides of polygalacic acid exert fungicidic effects. PMID:2080212

Bader, G; Kulhanek, Y; Ziegler-Böhme, H

1990-07-01

108

Effects and fate of tannins in ruminant animals, adaptation to tannins, and strategies to overcome detrimental effects of feeding tannin-rich feeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trees and shrub foliage and agro-industrial by-products are of importance in animal production because they do not compete with human food and can provide significant protein supplements, especially in the dry season. But, these feed resources are generally rich in antinutritional factors, particularly tannins. The amount of tannins that they contain vary widely and largely unpredictably, and their effects on

H. P. S. Makkar

2003-01-01

109

Grape seed and apple tannins: Emulsifying and antioxidant properties.  

PubMed

Tannins are natural antioxidants found in plant-based foods and beverages, whose amphiphilic nature could be useful to both stabilize emulsions and protect unsaturated lipids from oxidation. In this paper, the use of tannins as antioxidant emulsifiers was studied. The main parameters influencing the stability of emulsions (i.e. tannins structure and concentration, aqueous phase pH, and ionic strength) were identified and optimized. Oil in water emulsions stabilized with tannins were compared with those stabilized with two commercial emulsifying agents, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil. In optimized conditions, the condensed tannins allowed to obtain a stability equivalent to that of PVA. Tannins presented good antioxidant activity in oil in water emulsion, as measured by the conjugated autoxidizable triene (CAT) assay. PMID:25704681

Figueroa-Espinoza, Maria Cruz; Zafimahova, Andrea; Alvarado, Pedro G Maldonado; Dubreucq, Eric; Poncet-Legrand, Céline

2015-07-01

110

Recovery of uranium from seawater by immobilized tannin  

SciTech Connect

Tannin compounds having multiple adjacent hydroxy groups have an extremely high affinity for uranium. To prevent the leaching of tannins into water and to improve the adsorbing characteristics of these compounds, the authors tried to immobilize tannins. The immobilized tannin has the most favorable features for uranium recovery; high selective adsorption ability to uranium, rapid adsorption rate, and applicability in both column and batch systems. The immobilized tannin can recover uranium from natural seawater with high efficiency. About 2530 ..mu..g uranium is adsorbed per gram of this adsorbent within 22 h. Depending on the concentration in seawater, an enrichment of up to 766,000-fold within the adsorbent is possible. Almost all uranium adsorbed is easily desorbed with a very dilute acid. Thus, the immobilized tannin can be used repeatedly in the adsorption-desorption process.

Sakaguchi, T.; Nakajima, A.

1987-06-01

111

Tannin-binding salivary proteins in three captive rhinoceros species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannin-binding salivary proteins (TBSP) are considered to be counter-defences acquired in the course of evolution by animals whose natural forage contains such tannins. As tannins mostly occur in browse material but not in grasses, it is assumed that grazers do not have a need for TBSP. Whereas it has been shown in several non-ungulate species that TBSP can be induced

Marcus Clauss; Janin Gehrke; Jean-Michel Hatt; Ellen S. Dierenfeld; Edmund J. Flach; Robert Hermes; Johanna Castell; W. Juergen Streich; Joerns Fickel

2005-01-01

112

Two New Triterpene Glycosides from Centella asiatica  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Centella asiatica resulted in the isolation and characterization of one new ursane type triterpene glycoside; asiaticoside G along with nine known compounds, that were characterized as ursane type triterpenes and /or their glycoside; asiatic acid (2), mad...

113

40 CFR 721.10666 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, bis(fattyalkyl) dimethyl, salts with tannins (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...bis(fattyalkyl) dimethyl, salts with tannins (generic). 721.10666 Section...bis(fattyalkyl) dimethyl, salts with tannins (generic). (a) Chemical substance...bis(fattyalkyl) dimethyl, salts with tannins (PMN P-12-437) is subject to...

2013-07-01

114

40 CFR 721.10666 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, bis(fattyalkyl) dimethyl, salts with tannins (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...bis(fattyalkyl) dimethyl, salts with tannins (generic). 721.10666 Section...bis(fattyalkyl) dimethyl, salts with tannins (generic). (a) Chemical substance...bis(fattyalkyl) dimethyl, salts with tannins (PMN P-12-437) is subject to...

2014-07-01

115

Cardiac Rehabilitation  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation? Cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) is a medically supervised program ... be designed to meet your needs. The Cardiac Rehabilitation Team Cardiac rehab involves a long-term commitment ...

116

Steroidal glycosides with antiproliferative activities from Digitalis trojana.  

PubMed

The phytochemical investigation of Digitalis trojana led to the isolation of two cardiac glycosides (1, 2), one pregnane glycoside (3), three furostanol type saponins (4-6), along with three cleroindicins (7-9), four phenylethanoid glycosides (10-13), two flavonoids (14, 15) and two phenolic acid derivatives (16, 17). The structure elucidation of the isolates was carried out by NMR experiments as well as ESI-MS. The cytotoxic activity of compounds 1-13 against a small panel of cancer cell lines, namely MCF-7, T98G, HT-29, PC-3, A375 and SH-SY5Y, was investigated. Compounds 1-6 showed antiproliferative activity against human breast MCF-7 and colon HT-29 cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 8.3 to 50??M. In order to understand the mechanism involved in the cell death, the active compounds were tested as pro-apoptotic agents using propidium iodide staining by flow cytometry method. No significant increase was observed in the apoptosis of the MCF-7 and HT-29 cancer cells. Moreover, the effects of the active compounds on cell proliferation were assessed on the same cancer cell lines by cell cycle analysis of DNA content using flow cytometry. No significative changes were observed in the cell cycle of MCF-7, while significant changes in G2 /M cell cycle phase of HT-29 cells were observed after treatment with digitalin (1), cariensoside (3) and 22-O-methylparvispinoside B (6) at 10??M. PMID:23722601

Kirmizibekmez, Hasan; Masullo, Milena; Festa, Michela; Capasso, Anna; Piacente, Sonia

2014-04-01

117

[Effect of plant glycosides on resistance and capacitance vessels].  

PubMed

In the anaesthetized cat, SCOA ( Miroton ), a product which contains extracts from Scilla , Convallaria , Oleander and Adonis , displays not only its well-known positive inotropic effect but has also constrictor effects on veins when applied in intravenous doses of 21.5-100 GPU /kg ( GPU = guinea-pig units, i.e. cardiotoxic equivalents related to 1 g body weight of guinea-pigs). The latter effect differs in that it is somewhat more prolonged. With intraduodenal administration the doses required to achieve equal peak effects as with intravenous injection are about 4 times larger and this suggests a relatively good enteral availability in the cat. SCOA constricts not only veins but also arteries. However, this latter effect is comparatively small and occurs only after intraarterial infusion of high doses (9.1 and 91 GPU /min, respectively).--The cardiac glycosides contained in the drug product primarily account for its vasoactive qualities. The venous constrictor effect correlates with the guinea-pig units. In qualitative respects, the pure glycosides cymarin , convallatoxin , proscillaridin , and scillaren exert equal effects. There is, however, evidence that the correlation between the effect on veins and on the heart differs for the glycosides tested. Based on equal guinea-pig units, the adonis extract, for instance, acts on capacitance vessels about twice as much as scilla , oleander and convallaria extracts. Cymarin , too, has a stronger effect on veins than would be expected from its cardiotoxic effect. The action on arteries and veins are based on different mechanism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6540100

Lehmann, H D

1984-01-01

118

[Tannin content and inhibiting activity of elastase in Rosaceae].  

PubMed

From 42 Rosaceae species, only the Rosoideae species exhibit high tannin content and elastase inhibiting activity such as Filipendula ulmaria, Geum montanum, G. rivale, Alchemilla xanthochlora and Sanguisorba minor. Other studied species from Spiraeoideae, Maloideae and Prunoideae subfamilies are less rich in tannin and also less active. PMID:2131766

Lamaison, J L; Carnat, A; Petitjean-Freytet, C

1990-01-01

119

Intake of Water Containing Condensed Tannin by Cattle and Sheep  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Condensed tannins are found in many trees, shrubs and forbs, and are generally considered problematic phytochemicals for ruminants. However, ingestion of small amounts of condensed tannin by sheep and cattle has been shown to produce a number of valuable outcomes. The primary objectives of the tri...

120

Improved Characterization of Sorghum Tannins Using Size-Exclusion Chromatography  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tannins are large polyphenolic polymers consisting of flavan-3-ol subunits that are deposited in the pigmented testa layer of sorghum kernels. Tannins have been characterized in several different species of plants using a multitude of techniques. Most of the methods are very time and resource consum...

121

Wheat Forages Contain Variable Levels of Condensed Tannin Reactive Substances  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Even though winter wheat pasture in the southern Great Plains is considered excellent forage, devastating losses of stocker cattle can occur due to pasture bloat. Tannins are known to reduce the incidence and severity of bloat. We examined tannins in adapted wheat varieties that are commonly grazed ...

122

Microbial interactions with tannins: nutritional consequences for ruminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenolics are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and are often present in the diet of herbivores. The two major groups of plant polyphenolic compounds other than lignin are condensed and hydrolysable tannins. These compounds can have toxic and\\/or antinutritional effects on the animal. It is well established that tannins complex with dietary proteins can reduce nitrogen supply to the

C. S McSweeney; B Palmer; D. M McNeill; D. O Krause

2001-01-01

123

THE BIOCHEMISTRY OF TANNINS: ROLE IN RUMINANT NUTRITION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tannins are high molecular weight, water-soluble polyphenols that form reversible complexes with proteins through pH-dependent hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. Hydrolyzable tannins (HT) contain a carbohydrate core esterified with gallic or hexahydroxydiphenic acids. Binding of HT to ...

124

Vegetable oil thermosets reinforced by tannin-lipid formulations.  

PubMed

Totally bio-based thermosetting polymers which are comparable to synthetic polyester thermosets have been prepared from copolymerization of condensed tannin-fatty acid esters with vegetable oils. Oxidative copolymerization of tannin linoleate/acetate mixed esters with linseed oil and tung oil produced polymer films ranging from soft rubbers to rigid thermosets. Tannin incorporation into the formulations was essential for the final product to achieve necessary mechanical strength. Films had ambient modulus values between 0.12 and 1.6 GPa, with glass transition temperatures ranging from 32 to 72 °C and calculated crosslink densities of 1020-57,700 mol m?³. Film stiffness, T(g) and crosslink density increase with greater tannin linoeate/acetate content due mainly to this tannin component providing rigidity through polyphenolic aromatic rings and unsaturated chains as crosslinking sites. PMID:22975626

Luo, Chunhua; Grigsby, Warren J; Edmonds, Neil R; Al-Hakkak, Jafar

2013-02-01

125

Pregnane glycosides from Leptadenia pyrotechnica.  

PubMed

The whole plant of Leptadenia pyrotechnica afforded 18 new pregnane glycosides (1-18) with sarcostin, 11-hydroxysarcostin, and deacetylmetaplexigenin as the aglycon moieties and acetyl, benzoyl, cinnamoyl, p-coumaroyl, and nicotinoyl ester moieties linked at C-12 and/or C-20 of the aglycon and hexopyranose, 6-deoxy-3-O-methylhexopyranose, and 2,6-dideoxy-3-O-methylhexopyranose sugars linked at C-3 of their aglycon. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation and from chemical evidence. The antiproliferative activity of all compounds was evaluated using three continuous murine and human culture cell lines, J774.A1, HEK-293, and WEHI-164. Compounds having deacethylmetaplexigenin as aglycon and a cinnamoyl ester moiety linked at C-12 were the most active constituents. PMID:16643040

Cioffi, Giuseppina; Sanogo, Rokia; Vassallo, Antonio; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Autore, Giuseppina; Marzocco, Stefania; De Tommasi, Nunziatina

2006-04-01

126

Tannin-binding salivary proteins in three captive rhinoceros species.  

PubMed

Tannin-binding salivary proteins (TBSP) are considered to be counter-defences acquired in the course of evolution by animals whose natural forage contains such tannins. As tannins mostly occur in browse material but not in grasses, it is assumed that grazers do not have a need for TBSP. Whereas it has been shown in several non-ungulate species that TBSP can be induced by dietary tannins, their presence or absence in ungulates has, so far, been shown to be a species-specific characteristic independent of dietary manipulations. We investigated saliva from three rhinoceros species from zoological gardens fed comparable, conventional zoo diets. As expected, saliva from white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherum simum, grazer) had lower tannin-binding capacities than that from black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis, browser). Surprisingly, however, Indian rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis), commonly regarded as grazers as well, displayed the highest tannin-binding capacities of the three species investigated. It is speculated that this discrepancy might be a result of an evolutionarily recent switch to a grass-dominated diet in Indian rhinoceroses, and that the black rhinoceros, which is closer related to the white rhinoceros than the Indian species, has evolved an inducible mechanism of TBSP production. In separate trials during which the tannin content of the diets of black rhinoceroses was increased by the addition of either tannic acid or quebracho, the tannin-binding capacity of black rhinoceros saliva was increased to levels within the same range as that of Indian rhinoceroses on the conventional diets. While induction trials in white and Indian rhinoceroses remain to be performed for a full understanding of salivary anti-tannin defence in rhinoceroses, these results are the first report of an induced salivary response to increased dietary tannin levels in an ungulate species. PMID:15664314

Clauss, Marcus; Gehrke, Janin; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Dierenfeld, Ellen S; Flach, Edmund J; Hermes, Robert; Castell, Johanna; Streich, W Juergen; Fickel, Joerns

2005-01-01

127

Kaempferol glycosides and cardenolide glycosides, cytotoxic constituents from the seeds of Draba nemorosa (Brassicaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioassay-directed fractionation of a methanolic extract from the seeds of Draba nemorosa (Brassicaceae) led to isolation of a new flavonol glycoside, drabanemoroside (5, kaempferol 3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-L-arabinopyranose) along with four known flavonoid derivatives (1–4), four cardenolide glycosides (6–9). Kaempferol glycosides 2 and 5 showed strong cytotoxicity against human small lung cancer cell line A549 and melanoma SK-Mel-2 with an IC50 of 0.5

Surk-Sik Moon; Aziz Abdur Rahman; Maniruzzaman Manir; V. S. Jamal Ahamed

2010-01-01

128

[Flavonol glycosides of Sonchus arvensis L].  

PubMed

Two flavone glycoside compounds were isolated from Sonchus arvensis by means of chemical and spectroscopic analysis. They were identified as quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside and kaempferol-3, 7-alpha-L-dirhamnoside. PMID:9388936

Qu, G; Li, X; Liu, J

1996-05-01

129

A new diterpene glycoside from Stevia rebaudiana.  

PubMed

From the commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana, a new diterpene glycoside was isolated besides the known steviol glycosides including stevioside, rebaudiosides A-F, rubusoside and dulcoside A. The new compound was identified as 13-[(2-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid-(2-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl) ester (1) on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (NMR and MS) and chemical studies. PMID:21464800

Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash; Prakash, Indra

2011-01-01

130

Cycloartane triterpene glycosides from Astragalus trigonus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new cycloartane glycosides, trigonoside I, II and III, and the known astragalosides I and II were isolated from the roots of Astragalus trigonus. The structures of the new glycosides were totally elucidated by high field (600 MHz) NMR analyses as cycloastragenol-6-O-?-xylopyranoside, cycloastragenol-3-O-[?-l-arabinopyranosyl(1 ? 2)-?-d-xylopyranosyl]-6-O-?- d-xylopyranoside and cycloastragenol-3-O-[?-l-arabinopyranosyl(1 ? 2)-?-d-(3-O-acetyl)-xylopyranosyl]-6-O-?-d-xylopyranoside.

Pierluigi Gariboldi; Francesca Pelizzoni; Marco Tatò; Luisella Verotta; Nadia El-Sebakhy; Aya M. Asaad; Rokia M. Abdallah; Soad M. Toaima

1995-01-01

131

Comparison of tannin-binding proteins in saliva of Scandinavian and North American moose ( Alces alces)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in the ability of salivary proteins from Scandinavian and North American moose (Alces alces) to bind tannins from various preferred food plant sources were studied. Both Scandinavian and North American moose produce a salivary tannin-binding protein which binds only condensed tannins common in their diet. The tannins of winter-browsed stems of Pinus sylvestris and Salix pentandra were more effectively

Marja-Riitta Juntheikki

1996-01-01

132

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL ECOLOGY Effects of Paper Birch Condensed Tannin on Whitemarked Tussock  

E-print Network

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL ECOLOGY Effects of Paper Birch Condensed Tannin on Whitemarked Tussock Marshall, condensed tannin on larval performance of the whitemarked tussock moth, Orgyia leucostigma (J. E diets: control (no condensed tannin), moderate condensed tannin (8.8% dry mass), and high condensed

133

Costs and benefits of defense by tannins in a neotropical tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

The costs and benefits of defense by tannins were investigated for a neotropical tree, Cecropia peltata L. (Moraceae). Seedlings of equal age were grown under uniform conditions in a greenhouse for 18 months. Within a plant, leaf tannin concentrations measured in different years were highly correlated. Tannin concentrations differed substantially among individuals; plants with high tannin content had lower damage

Phyllis D. Coley

1986-01-01

134

Adsorption of tannin from aqueous solution by deacetylated konjac glucomannan.  

PubMed

Konjac glucomannan treated by alkali solution through deacetylated reaction was used as a new water insoluble adsorbent to remove tannin from aqueous solution. A comprehensive study on adsorption of tannin by deacetylated konjac glucomannan (DKGM) was conducted regarding the effects of initial pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, temperature and initial tannin concentration. The adsorption process was much dependent on the pH and temperature and was found to follow pseudo-second-order kinetics. The optimum pH value was at pH ranging from 2 to 6. The maximum removal efficiency of tannin from aqueous solution was 90%. Increasing the adsorption temperature would result in lower adsorption capacity, suggesting that adsorption of tannin onto DKGM was exothermic in nature. The adsorption isotherms were measured at various temperatures and correlated to Freundlich isotherms. Adsorption mechanism was confirmed that the interaction of DKGM and tannin was through hydrogen bonding. It was also observed that DKGM possesses excellent reusability for tannin removal. PMID:20193979

Liu, Feng; Luo, Xuegang; Lin, Xiaoyan

2010-06-15

135

Effects of different tannin-rich extracts and rapeseed tannin monomers on methane formation and microbial protein synthesis in vitro.  

PubMed

Tannins, polyphenolic compounds found in plants, are known to complex with proteins of feed and rumen bacteria. This group of substances has the potential to reduce methane production either with or without negative effects on digestibility and microbial yield. In the first step of this study, 10 tannin-rich extracts from chestnut, mimosa, myrabolan, quebracho, sumach, tara, valonea, oak, cocoa and grape seed, and four rapeseed tannin monomers (pelargonidin, catechin, cyanidin and sinapinic acid) were used in a series of in vitro trials using the Hohenheim gas test, with grass silage as substrate. The objective was to screen the potential of various tannin-rich extracts to reduce methane production without a significant effect on total gas production (GP). Supplementation with pelargonidin and cyanidin did not reduce methane production; however, catechin and sinapinic acid reduced methane production without altering GP. All tannin-rich extracts, except for tara extract, significantly reduced methane production by 8% to 28% without altering GP. On the basis of these results, five tannin-rich extracts were selected and further investigated in a second step using a Rusitec system. Each tannin-rich extract (1.5 g) was supplemented to grass silage (15 g). In this experiment, nutrient degradation, microbial protein synthesis and volatile fatty acid production were used as additional response criteria. Chestnut extract caused the greatest reduction in methane production followed by valonea, grape seed and sumach, whereas myrabolan extract did not reduce methane production. Whereas chestnut extract reduced acetate production by 19%, supplementation with grape seed or myrabolan extract increased acetate production. However, degradation of fibre fractions was reduced in all tannin treatments. Degradation of dry matter and organic matter was also reduced by tannin supplementation, and no differences were found between the tannin-rich extracts. CP degradation and ammonia-N accumulation in the Rusitec were reduced by tannin treatment. The amount and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis were not significantly affected by tannin supplementation. The results of this study indicated that some tannin-rich extracts are able to reduce methane production without altering microbial protein synthesis. We hypothesized that chestnut and valonea extract have the greatest potential to reduce methane production without negative side effects. PMID:23915496

Wischer, G; Boguhn, J; Steingaß, H; Schollenberger, M; Rodehutscord, M

2013-11-01

136

Increasing the oxidative stress response allows Escherichia coli to overcome inhibitory effects of condensed tannins.  

PubMed

Tannins are plant-derived polyphenols with antimicrobial effects. The mechanism of tannin toxicity towards Escherichia coli was determined by using an extract from Acacia mearnsii (Black wattle) as a source of condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins). E. coli growth was inhibited by tannins only when tannins were exposed to oxygen. Tannins auto-oxidize, and substantial hydrogen peroxide was generated when they were added to aerobic media. The addition of exogenous catalase permitted growth in tannin medium. E. coli mutants that lacked HPI, the major catalase, were especially sensitive to tannins, while oxyR mutants that constitutively overexpress antioxidant enzymes were resistant. A tannin-resistant mutant was isolated in which a promoter-region point mutation increased the level of HPI by 10-fold. Our results indicate that wattle condensed tannins are toxic to E. coli in aerobic medium primarily because they generate H(2)O(2). The oxidative stress response helps E. coli strains to overcome their inhibitory effect. PMID:12788743

Smith, Alexandra H; Imlay, James A; Mackie, Roderick I

2003-06-01

137

Tannin signatures of barks, needles, leaves, cones, and wood at the molecular level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed 117 tissues from 77 different plant species for molecular tannin. Tannin was measured in 89 tissues (as high as 10.5 wt.% total tannin), including procyanidin (PC) tannin in 88 tissues, prodelphinidin (PD) tannin in 50, and propelargonidin (PP) tannin in 24. In addition to tannin, several flavones, flavanones, and triterpenoids were measured, the latter which yielded as much as 4.5 wt.%. Compositions varied considerably between species, including several that yielded comparatively rare tannin or triterpenoids. Conifer needles were distinguished by high yields of PD tannin overall and relative to PC tannin. Dicotyledon leaves were characterized by the presence of flavones and triterpenoids. Barks were marked by flavanones and tetracosanoic acid. Based on these trends, relationships that could be useful as geochemical parameters were developed for distinguishing needles, leaves, and barks as possible components of litter, soil, or sedimentary mixtures.

Hernes, Peter J.; Hedges, John I.

2004-03-01

138

Extraction of condensed tannins from Mexican plant sources.  

PubMed

Contents of total polyphenols, condensed tannins and proanthocyanidins, and their stability to various pH values and temperatures were studied in Mexican blueberry, cuautecomate fruit, garambullo fruit, aubergine, coffee pulp and residues of black grapes. Several aqueous extracts, obtained through a one-pass-extraction process, were analyzed using liquid chromatography in order to quantify the condensed tannin (proanthocyanidin) content responsible for their antioxidant activity and colour. All tested samples included high proanthocyanidin contents demonstrating that these Mexican fruits and vegetables are good sources of natural antioxidants, and they all could be considered as excellent functional foods due to their bioactivity measured as the condensed tannin level. PMID:18386482

Garcíaa, Ramiro; Aguilera, Antonio; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C; Rodríguez, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

2008-01-01

139

Triterpenoid glycosides from Anagallis arvensis.  

PubMed

From the herb of Anagallis arvensis, we have isolated four novel oleanane glycosides, anagallosaponins VI-IX, and two artifact saponins, apoanagallosaponins III and IV, formed from anagallosaponins III and IV. The structures were elucidated by chemical and spectral methods, 2D NMR techniques being particularly helpful. The structures of anagallosaponins VI and VII were characterized as priverogenin B 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->4)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside and 3-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->4)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1-->2)]beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->4)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside), respectively. The structures of anagallosaponins VIII and IX were characterized as 23-hydroxypriverogenin B 22-acetate 3-O-(beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1-->2)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->4)[beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->2)]-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside), 3-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->4)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1-->2)]beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->4)[beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->2)]- alpha-L-arabinopyranoside), respectively. The structures of apoanagallosaponins III and IV were characterized as camelliagenin A 16-acetate 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->4)-alpha-L-arabnopyranoside, 3-O-(beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1-->2)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->4)[beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->2)]-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside), respectively. PMID:7765757

Shoji, N; Umeyama, A; Yoshikawa, K; Arihara, S

1994-11-01

140

Sealing and anti-corrosive action of tannin rust converters  

SciTech Connect

A possibility of the application of mercury porosimetry in the investigation on porosity in corrosion products of the carbon steel along with the degree of sealing by the use of tannin rust converters is presented. The effect of the atmospheric humidity on the rust conversion including the time of that conversion on the degree of rust sealing is discussed. The results of the corrosion investigation of carbon steel covered with a layer of the rust converted with tannin-containing agents are presented.

Gust, J.; Bobrowicz, J. (Building Research Inst., Warsaw (Poland))

1993-01-01

141

Diterpene glycosides from Stevia phlebophylla A. Gray.  

PubMed

The rare Mexican species Stevia phlebophylla A. Gray was long considered to be the only known Stevia species, beside the well-known S. rebaudiana, containing the highly sweet diterpenoid steviol glycosides. We report a re-evaluation of this claim after phytochemically screening leaves obtained from two herbarium specimens of S. phlebophylla for the presence of steviol glycosides. Despite extensive MS analyses, no steviol glycosides could be unambiguously verified. Instead, the main chromatographic peak eluting at retention times similar to those of steviol glycosides was identified as a new compound, namely 16?-hydroxy-17-acetoxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid-(6-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl) ester (1) on the basis of extensive NMR and MS data as well as the characterization of its acid hydrolysate. Seven more compounds were detected by ESIMS which are possibly structurally related to 1. It can therefore be concluded that S. phlebophylla is unlikely to contain significant amounts of steviol glycosides, if any. PMID:23831634

Ceunen, Stijn; Wim, De Borggraeve; Compernolle, Frans; Mai, Anh Hung; Geuns, Jan M C

2013-09-20

142

Steviol glycosides: chemical diversity, metabolism, and function.  

PubMed

Steviol glycosides are a group of highly sweet diterpene glycosides discovered in only a few plant species, most notably the Paraguayan shrub Stevia rebaudiana. During the past few decades, the nutritional and pharmacological benefits of these secondary metabolites have become increasingly apparent. While these properties are now widely recognized, many aspects related to their in vivo biochemistry and metabolism and their relationship to the overall plant physiology of S. rebaudiana are not yet understood. Furthermore, the large size of the steviol glycoside pool commonly found within S. rebaudiana leaves implies a significant metabolic investment and poses questions regarding the benefits S. rebaudiana might gain from their accumulation. The current review intends to thoroughly discuss the available knowledge on these issues. PMID:23713723

Ceunen, Stijn; Geuns, Jan M C

2013-06-28

143

Sesquiterpene lactone glycosides from Arnica longifolia.  

PubMed

Flowers of ARNICA LONGIFOLIA were investigated for the occurrence of sesquiterpene lactone glycosides. A mixture containing the two isomeric 11alpha,13-dihydro- and 11beta,13-dihydro-4 H-tomentosin glucosides, previously isolated from A. AMPLEXICAULIS and A. MOLLIS, together with the two isomeric 11alpha,13-dihydro- and 11beta,13-dihydro-4 H-carabrone glucosides were found in A. LONGIFOLIA. All carbon and proton shifts of the glycosides could be assigned by their 2D-COSY and 2D-HETCOR spectra and spectroscopy of their respective aglycones, obtained via enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:17260246

Passreiter, C M; De Carlo, M; Steigel, A

1999-03-01

144

Elemanolide sesquiterpenes and eudesmane sesquiterpene glycosides from Centaurea hierapolitana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two elemanolide sesquiterpenes and two eudesmane-type sesquiterpene glycosides named hierapolitanins A–D, were isolated, together with five known compounds, two flavones; hispidulin and jaceosidin, a flavon-C-glycoside, shaftoside, a flavonol glycoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and a neolignan, dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol from the aerial parts of Centaurea hierapolitana Boiss. (Asteraceae). Structure elucidations were based on spectroscopic evidence.

Canan Karamenderes; Erdal Bedir; Rahul Pawar; Sura Baykan; Ikhlas A. Khan

2007-01-01

145

Elemanolide sesquiterpenes and eudesmane sesquiterpene glycosides from Centaurea hierapolitana.  

PubMed

Two elemanolide sesquiterpenes and two eudesmane-type sesquiterpene glycosides named hierapolitanins A-D, were isolated, together with five known compounds, two flavones; hispidulin and jaceosidin, a flavon-C-glycoside, shaftoside, a flavonol glycoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and a neolignan, dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol from the aerial parts of Centaurea hierapolitana Boiss. (Asteraceae). Structure elucidations were based on spectroscopic evidence. PMID:17126864

Karamenderes, Canan; Bedir, Erdal; Pawar, Rahul; Baykan, Sura; Khan, Ikhlas A

2007-03-01

146

Kaempferol glycosides and cardenolide glycosides, cytotoxic constituents from the seeds of Draba nemorosa (Brassicaceae).  

PubMed

Bioassay-directed fractionation of a methanolic extract from the seeds of Draba nemorosa (Brassicaceae) led to isolation of a new flavonol glycoside, drabanemoroside (5, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranose) along with four known flavonoid derivatives (1-4), four cardenolide glycosides (6-9). Kaempferol glycosides 2 and 5 showed strong cytotoxicity against human small lung cancer cell line A549 and melanoma SK-Mel-2 with an IC(50) of 0.5 microg/mL and 1.9 microg/mL, respectively. Cardenolide glycosides 6-9 showed potent cytotoxicity (A549) in the range of 0.01-0.032 microg/mL. Their structures were characterized based on spectroscopic data (2D NMR, HRTOFMS, IR, and UV) and comparison of literature values. The carbohydrate units were also confirmed by comparing the hydrolysate of 5 with authentic monosaccharides. PMID:20803119

Moon, Surk-Sik; Rahman, Md Aziz Abdur; Manir, Md Maniruzzaman; Jamal Ahamed, V S

2010-08-01

147

Synthesis of cardenolide glycosides and putative biosynthetic precursors of cardenolide glycosides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and efficient procedure for glycosylation of steroids was established using a modified Koenigs–Knorr procedure. Peracetylated ?-glycosides were synthesized by reaction of cardenolides, various pregnanes and 23-nor-5,20(22)E-choldienic acid at room temperature with the peracetylated 1-bromo derivatives of d-glucose, d-galactose, d-fucose and cellobiose. Subsequent deprotection was performed by alkaline hydrolysis with sodium methoxide. Structures of the respective glycosides were established

Melitta Luta; Andreas Hensel; Wolfgang Kreis

1998-01-01

148

Enzymatic Processing of Bioactive Glycosides from Natural Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of biologically active natural products are glycosides. Often, the glycosidic residue is crucial for their activity. In other cases, glycosylation only improves their pharmacokinetic parameters. Enzymatic modification of these glycosides - both extension of the glycoside moiety and its selective trimming - is advantageous due to their selectivity and mildness of the reaction conditions in the presence of reactive and sensitive complex aglycones. Enzymatic reactions enable the resulting products to be used as "natural products", e.g., in nutraceuticals. This chapter concentrates on naturally occurring glycosides used in medicine but also in the food and flavor industry (e.g., sweeteners). Both "classical" and modern methods will be discussed.

Weignerová, Lenka; K?en, Vladimír

149

Jaspolyside, a secoiridoid glycoside from Jasminum polyanthum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new secoiridoid glucoside, jaspolyside was isolated from the leaves of Jasminum polyanthum along with nine known secoiridoid glycosides: oleoside dimethyl ester, 10-hydroxyoleoside dimethyl ester, oleoside 11-methyl ester, methyl-glucooleoside, 8-epi-kingiside, ligustroside, angustifolioside B, oleuropein, and oleoacetoside. The structure of the new compound has been established on the basis of spectral and chemical methods.

Ya-Ching Shen; Saho-Ling Lin; Chyh-Chung Chein

1996-01-01

150

Two new secoiridoid glycosides from Gentiana algida.  

PubMed

Two new acylated secoiridoid glycosides were isolated from the aqueous acetone extract of the whole herb of Gentiana algida. The structures of these new products were established by spectral and chemical methods as 6'-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)sweroside and 6'-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)swertiamarin, respectively. PMID:17252380

Tan, R X; Hu, J; Dong, L D; Wolfender, J L; Hostettmann, K

1997-12-01

151

Two new secoiridoid glycosides from Verbena officinalis.  

PubMed

Two new secoiridoid glycosides, verbenoside A (1) and verbenoside B (2), have been isolated from the ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Verbena officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidences, especially 1D, 2D NMR, and MS experiments. PMID:20706899

Xu, Wei; Xin, Fei; Sha, Yi; Fang, Jin; Li, Yu-Shan

2010-08-01

152

Twisting of glycosidic bonds by hydrolases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Patterns of scissile bond twisting have been found in crystal structures of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) that are complexed with substrates and inhibitors. To estimate the increased potential energy in the substrates that results from this twisting, we have plotted torsion angles for the scissile bond...

153

Cardiac Amyloidosis  

MedlinePLUS

... pdf/view ). Previous Section Next Section Sources of Funding Dr Quarta received funding from the “Istituto Nazionale per le Ricerche Cardiovascolari ( ... Women's Hospital Cardiac Amyloidosis Fund. Dr Falk received funding from the Brigham and Women's Hospital Cardiac Amyloidosis ...

154

Isolation and Characterization of Flavanone Glycoside 4I,5, 7-Trihydroxy Flavanone Rhamnoglucose from Garcinia kola Seed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola, Heckel (Guttiferae), which had previously been shown to have biological activity were studied. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plants showed the presence of flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannins and saponins. The ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola seeds resulted in the isolation and characterization of flavanone glycoside 4I, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavonone rhamnoglucose (that is naringin-7-rharmnoglucoseside) from its spectral data. IHNMR spin system analysis and acid hydrolysis were performed to characterize the higher order rhamnoglucosyl moiety comprising glucose and rhamnose linked to carbon 7 of the flavanone ring system of the isolate. It is concluded that 4I, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavanone rhamnoglucose may be a contributor to the antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-tumor and anti-hepatotoxic properties exhibited by Garcinia kola seed.

Okwu, D. E.; Morah, F. N. I.

155

A role for anthocyanin in determining wine tannin concentration in Shiraz.  

PubMed

Four wines were made to investigate the effect of different anthocyanin and tannin fruit concentrations on wine phenolics and colour. Wines that were made from fruit with high anthocyanin concentration had high tannin concentrations regardless of the concentration of tannin in fruit, while wines made from fruit with low anthocyanin also had low tannin concentration. It was found that fruit anthocyanin concentration correlated with wine tannin concentration, wine colour and polymeric pigment formation. Anthocyanin concentration might be a key component for increasing tannin solubility and extraction into wine and the formation of polymeric pigments. Industry implications include managing tannin and anthocyanin fruit concentration for targeting tannin extraction and polymeric pigment formation in wine. PMID:24444964

Kilmister, Rachel L; Mazza, Marica; Baker, Nardia K; Faulkner, Peta; Downey, Mark O

2014-01-01

156

linkage between a phenolic acid and the carbohydrate of hydrolysable tannins.  

E-print Network

linkage between a phenolic acid and the carbohydrate of hydrolysable tannins. TAH hastannins in the growth medium. We have established ba- sic will be sequenced and examined for regu- latory motifs that control tannin respon- siveness. In both cases

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

157

Tannin bark Melalauca cajuputi powell (gelam) as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tannin was extracted from gelam bark and used to produce corrosion inhibitor for mild steel. Tannin was extracted from gelam bark using 70% aqueous acetone for 6 hour. Tannin powder was characterization using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to analyse chemical component in tannin and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) for tannin physical structure. The tannin effect on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel has been investigated in 1Mol HCl solution for 6 hour followed ASTM. The weight loss method were applied to study the mild steel corrosion behavior in the present and absend of different concentration of tannin (250, 300, 350)ppm. Tannin act good inhibitor as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in acid medium. Surface morphology of carbon steel with and without inhibitor was investigated by scanning electron microscopy.

Talib, Nur Atiqah Abu; Zakaria, Sarani; Hua, Chia Chin; Othman, Norinsan Kamil

2014-09-01

158

Evaluation of tannins interactions in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) skins.  

PubMed

Tannins have a central role in grapevine berries both for their physiological and enological implications. In the skin tissue they can be in vacuolar solution, or associated to the cell walls through weak or strong physicochemical interactions. The present work aims to separate vacuolar, non-covalently and covalently bonded tannins fractions. A specific extraction procedure was developed. A first extraction in ethanol at low temperature allowed the quantification of vacuolar tannins. An urea treatment followed by an ethanol extraction at room temperature was able to separate non-covalently bonded compounds. Finally an acid catalysis was used to break down proanthocyanidin covalent bonds. The method was validated on ripe grape samples of three cultivars, on berries developed in two sun exposure conditions. The Ethephon treatment effect was also evaluated. Beside the method development, a preliminary evaluation of the cultivar, exposition and Ethephon treatment effects are discussed. PMID:24767062

Rustioni, Laura; Fiori, Simone; Failla, Osvaldo

2014-09-15

159

Combining ability for condensed tannin concentration among five cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genotypes  

E-print Network

og d' Soh h), d Pld 't (ddt ~~h urticae Koch. ). This study was conducted to determine combining ability for condensed tannins among five cotton genotypes and to determine the correlation of tannin concentration with Helio~ larval growth rates. A...) and flavanols (e. g. , tannins), have been studied extensively. Tannins are naturally-occurring polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights ranging from 500 to 3000, and have a large number of phenolic hydroxyl or other suitable groups which form cross...

Altamarino, Teresita Protacio

1989-01-01

160

Tannin diagenesis in mangrove leaves from a tropical estuary: a novel molecular approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular-level condensed tannin analyses were conducted on a series of mangrove ( Rhizophora mangle) leaves at various stages of decomposition in a tropical estuary. Total molecular tannin yields ranged from 0.5% ash-free dry weight (AFDW) in the most highly degraded black leaves (6-7 weeks in the water) up to >7% AFDW in fresh leaves (<1 week in the water). Total tannin exhibits an intermediate lability in these leaves relative to other measured biochemicals. Leaching is an important mechanism in tannin removal from leaves as indicated by the 30% loss of measurable tannin during a leaching experiment. Condensed tannin was >80% procyanidin (PC) with the remainder being prodelphinidin (PD). PD tannin, with its higher degree of hydroxylation, proved to be more labile than PC tannin. Average chain length of condensed tannin (degree of polymerization) exhibited an initial increase in response to leaching, but later decreased in the subsequent shift toward abiotic or microbially mediated chemical reactions. Several trends point toward a possible condensation reaction in which tannin plays a role in nitrogen immobilization. These include an apparent inverse correlation between molecular tannin and nitrogen, a positive correlation between molecular tannin and percent basic amino acids, 13C-NMR data indicating transformation of tannin as opposed to remineralization, and 13C-NMR data showing loss of condensed tannin B-ring phenolic carbons coupled with preservation of A-ring phenolic carbon. In addition to condensed tannin, the molecular method used also yielded several triterpenoids. Triterpenoids accounted for up to 3.5% AFDW of the leaf material and exhibited a threefold increase between yellow senescent leaves entering the estuary and black leaves. This trend is likely due to the weakening of protective cuticular membranes during leaf decomposition, which leads to increased yields in the acidic conditions used for tannin analyses.

Hernes, Peter J.; Benner, Ronald; Cowie, Gregory L.; Goñi, Miguel A.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Hedges, John I.

2001-09-01

161

Bactericidal effect of hydrolysable and condensed tannin extracts on Campylobacter jejuni in vitro.  

PubMed

Strategies are sought to reduce intestinal colonisation of food-producing animals by Campylobacter jejuni, a leading bacterial cause of human foodborne illness worldwide. Presently, we tested the antimicrobial activity of hydrolysable-rich blackberry, cranberry and chestnut tannin extracts and condensed tannin-rich mimosa, quebracho and sorghum tannins (each at 100 mg/mL) against C. jejuni via disc diffusion assay in the presence of supplemental casamino acids. We found that when compared to non-tannin-treated controls, all tested tannins inhibited the growth of C. jejuni and that inhibition by the condensed tannin-rich mimosa and quebracho extracts was mitigated in nutrient-limited medium supplemented with casamino acids. When tested in broth culture, both chestnut and mimosa extracts inhibited growth of C. jejuni and this inhibition was much greater in nutrient-limited than in full-strength medium. Consistent with observations from the disc diffusion assay, the inhibitory activity of the condensed tannin-rich mimosa extracts but not the hydrolysable tannin-rich chestnut extracts was mitigated by casamino acid supplementation to the nutrient-limited medium, likely because the added amino acids saturated the binding potential of the condensed tannins. These results demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of various hydrolysable and condensed tannin-rich extracts against C. jejuni and reveal that condensed tannins may be less efficient than hydrolysable tannins in controlling C. jejuni in gut environments containing high concentrations of amino acids and soluble proteins. PMID:22528299

Anderson, Robin C; Vodovnik, Maša; Min, Byeng R; Pinchak, William E; Krueger, Nathan A; Harvey, Roger B; Nisbet, David J

2012-07-01

162

Condensed tannins in Trifolium species and their significance for taxonomy and plant breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of 59 Trifolium taxa were screened for condensed tannin content using the vanillin-HC1 test. Eight species (T. arvense, T. aureum, T. badium, T. campestre, T. dubium, T. micranthum, T. patens and T. spadiceum) were shown to contain tannins. These species are all found in Section Chronosemium or Section Trifolium Subsection Arvensia of the genus, and thus presence of tannins

Michael F. Fay; Philip J. Dale

1993-01-01

163

Tannin impacts on microbial diversity and the functioning of alpine soils: a multidisciplinary approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In alpine ecosystems, tannin-rich-litter decomposi- tion occurs mainly under snow. With global change, variations in snowfall might affect soil temperature and microbial diversity with biogeochemical con- sequences on ecosystem processes. However, the relationships linking soil temperature and tannin degradation with soil microorganisms and nutrients fluxes remain poorly understood. Here, we combined biogeochemical and molecular profiling approaches to monitor tannin

F. Baptist; L. Zinger; J. C. Clement; C. Gallet; R. Guillemin; J. M. F. Martins; L. Sage; B. Shahnavaz; Ph. Choler; R. Geremia

2008-01-01

164

EFFECTS OF NITROGEN ON TANNIN CONCENTRATIONS IN OAKS AND ON PALATABILITY OF OAK FORESTS  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF NITROGEN ON TANNIN CONCENTRATIONS IN OAKS AND ON PALATABILITY OF OAK FORESTS Michael A vulgare. Tannins are secondary metabolites which defend plants from herbivory by protein precipitation. velutina responded to increased nitrogen loading by decreasing leaf tannin concentrations. When offered

Vallino, Joseph J.

165

Journal of ChemicalEcology, Vol. 17, No. 6, 1991 CONDENSED TANNINS, ATTINE ANTS, AND THE  

E-print Network

Journal of ChemicalEcology, Vol. 17, No. 6, 1991 CONDENSED TANNINS, ATTINE ANTS) Abstract--Field experiments indicate that the foliar concentration of con- densed tannin affects study an increase in tannin concentration was correlated with a decrease in the acceptability of leaves

Orians, Colin

166

Stimulatory effects of tannins and cholic acid on tryptic hydrolysis of proteins: Ecological implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biochemical basis for considering tannins as digestion inhibitors has been reexamined. Both stimulatory and inhibitory effects of tannins on tryptic hydrolysis are reported. We show how stimulation may result from tannin-induced structural changes in the substrate protein, effectively denaturing it. The surfactant and bile constituent cholic acid also produced similar stimulatory effects. These results have considerable implications for normal

Simon Mole; Peter G. Waterman

1985-01-01

167

Feeny revisited: condensed tannins as anti-herbivore defences in leaf-chewing herbivore communities of  

E-print Network

Feeny revisited: condensed tannins as anti-herbivore defences in leaf-chewing herbivore communities Sciences, George Washington University, Washington, U.S.A. Abstract. 1. Community level oak­tannin-chewing herbivores are negatively correlated with foliar condensed tannin concentrations and variation in condensed

Lill, John T.

168

Cyanogenic glycosides: a case study for evolution and application of cytochromes P450  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanogenic glycosides are ancient biomolecules found in more than 2,650 higher plant species as well as in a few arthropod species. Cyanogenic glycosides are amino acid-derived ?-glycosides of ?-hydroxynitriles. In analogy to cyanogenic plants, cyanogenic arthropods may use cyanogenic glycosides as defence compounds. Many of these arthropod species have been shown to de novo synthesize cyanogenic glycosides by biochemical pathways

Søren Bak; Susanne Michelle Paquette; Marc Morant; Anne Vinther Morant; Shigeki Saito; Nanna Bjarnholt; Mika Zagrobelny; Kirsten Jørgensen; Sarah Osmani; Henrik Toft Simonsen; Raquel Sanchez Pérez; Torbjørn Bordier van Heeswijck; Bodil Jørgensen; Birger Lindberg Møller

2006-01-01

169

Phenolic glycosides from berries of Pimenta dioica.  

PubMed

Four new phenolic glycosides, (2-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-allyl)phenyl beta- d-(6-O-E-sinapoyl)glucopyranoside (1), (1' R,5' R)-5-(5-carboxymethyl-2-oxocyclopentyl)-3 Z-pentenyl beta-D-(6-O-galloyl)glucopyranoside (2), (S)-alpha-terpinyl [alpha-L-(2-O-galloyl)arabinofuranosyl]-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), and (R)-alpha-terpinyl [alpha-L-(2-O-galloyl)arabinofuranosyl]-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), were isolated from the berries of Pimenta dioica together with eight known flavonoids. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated on the basis of MS and NMR data and enzymatic hydrolysis. All four glycosides showed radical-scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. PMID:18314960

Kikuzaki, Hiroe; Miyajima, Yoshiko; Nakatani, Nobuji

2008-05-01

170

Polyhydroxylated steroidal glycosides from Paris polyphylla.  

PubMed

Three new steroidal saponins, parisyunnanosides G-I (1-3), one new C(21) steroidal glycoside, parisyunnanoside J (4), and three known compounds, padelaoside B (5), pinnatasterone (6), and 20-hydroxyecdyson (7), were isolated from the rhizomes of Paris polyphylla Smith var. yunnanensis. Compounds 1 and 3 have unique trisdesmoside structures that include a C-21 ?-d-galactopyranose moiety. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against human CCRF leukemia cells. PMID:22663190

Kang, Li-Ping; Liu, Yi-Xun; Eichhorn, Tolga; Dapat, Else; Yu, He-shui; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Liu, Chao; Efferth, Thomas; Ma, Bai-Ping

2012-06-22

171

New Pregnane Glycosides from Gymnema sylvestre.  

PubMed

Four new pregnane glycosides 1-4 were isolated from the ethanol extract of the stem of Gymnema sylvestre and named gymsylvestrosides A-D. Hydrolysis of compound 1 under the catalysis of Aspergilus niger ?-glucosidase afforded compound 5 (gymsylvestroside E). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods such as HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR, as well as HMQC-TOCSY experiment. Compounds 1-4 were screened for Saccharomyces cerevisiae ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. PMID:25685911

Xu, Rui; Yang, Yu; Zhang, Yang; Ren, Fengxia; Xu, Jinlong; Yu, Nengjiang; Zhao, Yimin

2015-01-01

172

Three acylated flavone glycosides from sideritis syriaca  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the aerial parts of Sideritis syriaca a new flavone glycoside, 5,8,3?-trihydroxy-4?-methoxyflavone 7-(6?-O-acetylsophoroside) was identified together with apigenin 7-(6?-p-coumaroylglucoside) and apigenin 7-(4?-p-coumaroylglucoside) which are reported for the first time in the genus Sideritis. The compounds were characterized using 1HNMR, 13CNMR, MS and chemical methods.

Pietro Venturella; Aurora Bellino; Maria Luisa Marino

1995-01-01

173

Three acylated flavone glycosides from Sideritis syriaca.  

PubMed

From the aerial parts of Sideritis syriaca a new flavone glycoside, 5,8,3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone 7-(6"'-O-acetylsophoroside) was identified together with apigenin 7-(6"-p-coumaroylglucoside) and apigenin 7-(4"-p-coumaroylglucoside) which are reported for the first time in the genus Sideritis. The compounds were characterized using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS and chemical methods. PMID:7772308

Venturella, P; Bellino, A; Marino, M L

1995-01-01

174

A new monoterpene glycoside from Siparuna thecaphora.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of the extracts of the leaves of Siparuna thecaphora (Poepp. et Endl.) A. DC. (Siparunaceae) allowed the isolation of one monoterpene glycoside, named trans-thujane-1?,7-diol 1-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (1) along with rutin, quercetin 3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde. Their structural characterisation was obtained on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments and HR-ESI-MS. PMID:24087860

Vera Saltos, Mariela Beatriz; Naranjo Puente, Blanca Fabiola; Malafronte, Nicola; Braca, Alessandra

2014-01-01

175

CONDENSED TANNINS IN LEAVES OF WOODY PLANTS IN APPALACHIAN PASTURES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing interest in meat goat production in Appalachia underlies efforts to define pasture systems that will enable goats to achieve production goals. Woody plants contain condensed tannins (CT), which can improve nutrient utilization and aid in control of gastrointestinal parasites in goats. T...

176

Response of ?? T cells to plant-derived tannins  

PubMed Central

Many pharmaceutical drugs are isolated from plants used in traditional medicines. Through screening plant extracts, both traditional medicines and compound libraries, new pharmaceutical drugs continue to be identified. Currently, two plant-derived agonists for ?? T cells are described. These plant-derived agonists impart innate effector functions upon distinct ?? T cell subsets. Plant tannins represent one class of ?? T cell agonist and preferentially activate the mucosal population. Mucosal ?? T cells function to modulate tissue immune responses and induce epithelium repair. Select tannins, isolated from apple peel, rapidly induce immune gene transcription in ?? T cells, leading to cytokine production and increased responsiveness to secondary signals. Activity of these tannin preparations tracks to the procyanidin fraction, with the procyanidin trimer (C1) having the most robust activity defined to date. The response to the procyanidins is evolutionarily conserved in that responses are seen with human, bovine, and murine ?? T cells. Procyanidin-induced responses described in this review likely account for the expansion of mucosal ?? T cells seen in mice and rats fed soluble extracts of tannins. Procyanidins may represent a novel approach for treatment of tissue damage, chronic infection, and autoimmune therpies. PMID:19166386

Holderness, Jeff; Hedges, Jodi F.; Daughenbaugh, Katie; Kimmel, Emily; Graff, Jill; Freedman, Brett; Jutila, Mark A.

2008-01-01

177

[Triterpene glycosides and the structural-functional properties of membranes].  

PubMed

Triterpene glycosides have been found in many plant species and some marine animals. Many of these compounds are physiologically active and possess a broad range of medico-biological action. The physiological activity of triterpene glycosides is based on their ability to interact with the components of biological systems, primarily with sterols comprising the structure of biomembranes. The interaction of glycosides with sterols causes disturbance of selective permeability in plasmic membranes. Triterpene glycosides affect the liposome ionic permeability and flat bilayer lipid membranes. The rate of glycoside effect depends on quantitative and qualitative sterol level in the membrane. These compounds are used by organisms in the struggle for life and in maintaining the biological equilibrium in the antagonistic interactions of biological systems and ensure plant immunity against fungal diseases. Triterpene glycosides as substances of exogenous origin exhibit physiological activity towards warm-blooded animals. They affect the metabolism, the functional state of the organs and the organism as a whole. PMID:3322414

Anisimov, M M

1987-01-01

178

Tannin concentration enhances seed caching by scatter-hoarding rodents: An experiment using artificial ‘seeds’  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tannins are very common among plant seeds but their effects on the fate of seeds, for example, via mediation of the feeding preferences of scatter-hoarding rodents, are poorly understood. In this study, we created a series of artificial 'seeds' that only differed in tannin concentration and the type of tannin, and placed them in a pine forest in the Shangri-La Alpine Botanical Garden, Yunnan Province of China. Two rodent species ( Apodemus latronum and A. chevrieri) showed significant preferences for 'seeds' with different tannin concentrations. A significantly higher proportion of seeds with low tannin concentration were consumed in situ compared with seeds with a higher tannin concentration. Meanwhile, the tannin concentration was significantly positively correlated with the proportion of seeds cached. The different types of tannin (hydrolysable tannin vs condensed tannin) did not differ significantly in their effect on the proportion of seeds eaten in situ vs seeds cached. Tannin concentrations had no significant effect on the distance that cached seeds were carried, which suggests that rodents may respond to different seed traits in deciding whether or not to cache seeds and how far they will transport seeds.

Wang, Bo; Chen, Jin

2008-11-01

179

Facile access to new C-glycosides and C-glycoside scaffolds incorporating functionalised aromatic moieties.  

PubMed

The tandem ene/intramolecular Sakurai cyclisation (IMSC) reaction has been successfully applied to the synthesis of a range of C-glycosides, with key intermediates offering opportunities for functionalisation of the glycon moiety. To demonstrate the versatility of the approach to access the 2-deoxy-C-glycoside series, we synthesised diastereomerically pure C-glucoside and galactoside derivatives incorporating functionalised aromatic, heteroaromatic and bicyclic aromatic moieties, in addition to the C-homologue of (±)-?-2-deoxy-glucose 6-phosphate. PMID:25486220

Redpath, Philip; Ness, Kerry A; Rousseau, Joanne; Macdonald, Simon J F; Migaud, Marie E

2015-01-30

180

[Cardiac sarcoidosis].  

PubMed

Cardiac sarcoidosis induces heart failure death or sudden death in many cases and is thus often associated with a poor prognosis. In Japan 47-78% of sarcoidosis patients die of cardiac lesions. Early diagnosis is important in such cases, and a comprehensive judgment based on the endomyocardial biopsy, echocardiography and nuclear medicine examination findings should be made according to the 'Handbook of the Diagnosis of Cardiac Sarcoidosis'. Once a diagnosis is made the introduction of steroid therapy should be considered. Steroid administration should be conducted referring to the 'Guidelines to the Treatment of Cardiac Sarcoidosis'. PMID:12233077

Uemura, Akihisa; Morimoto, Shin-ichiro

2002-09-01

181

A tannin-blocking agent does not modify the preference of sheep towards tannin-containing plants.  

PubMed

Sheep have been suggested to use their senses to perceive plant properties and associate their intake with consequences after ingestion. However, sheep with browsing experience do not seem to select against tannin-rich browsing materials in cafeteria trials. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the chemical composition, selectivity index (SI), preference and intake rate (IR) of tannin-containing forage trees offered to sheep in cafeteria experiments. Four trees were selected for their condensed tannin content and their varying biological activities. Havardia albicans (high biological activity), Leucaena leucocephala (medium biological activity), Acacia gaumeri (low biological activity) and Brosimum alicastrum (very low biological activity) were used in this study. Ten hair sheep (23.7kg±1.43LW) with eight months of browsing experience in native vegetation were used in this study. Polyethylene glycol (PEG 3600MW) was administered to five sheep during all experiments. In experiment 1, fresh foliage from all trees was offered ad libitum for 4h. In experiment 2, B. alicastrum was withdrawn and the preference was determined again. The forage preference in experiment 1 was A. gaumeri (14.77gDM/kgLW)>B. alicastrum (11.77gDM/kgLW)>H. albicans (3.71gDM/kgLW)=L. leucocephala (1.87gDM/kgLW) (P<0.05). The preference in experiment 2 was A. gaumeri>H. albicans=L. leucocephala. PEG administration had no effect on the preference or IR. The intake rate seemed to have been affected by the plant density. Moreover, fiber compounds were found to be better predictors of DM intake than polyphenolic compounds at levels typically found in the evaluated forages. It was concluded that tannins and PEG did not modify the preferences of sheep in cafeteria trials. Thus, tannins are not involved in the preference regulation of animals with browsing experience. PMID:25843904

Hernández-Orduño, G; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Capetillo-Leal, C M; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Alonso-Díaz, M A

2015-06-01

182

Evidence for functional heterogeneity both between and within four sources of condensed tannin  

SciTech Connect

Condensed tannins are polymers of flavan-3-ols that are produced by many plants in a wide variety of tissues. The ability of these compounds to actively precipitate proteins has been linked to nutritional deficiencies in many animals. Four purified tannins (quebracho, wattle, pinto bean and sorghum) were compared to chemical assays and astringency towards (/sup 14/C)-BSA. Quebracho and wattle tannins were much less astringent and had longer chain lengths that sorghum or pinto bean tannins. Quebracho tannin had a very high affinity for salivary proline-rich glycoproteins (PRPs) and pinto bean tannin alone had a measurable affinity for soybean trypsin inhibitor. This suggests that tannin/protein interactions in vivo may be very specific. Protein bound carbohydrate enhanced the binding of PRPs to tanning and conferred specificity on the interactions. Carbohydrate also increases the solubility of protein/tanning complexes, which may aid the animal in eliminating the complexes. (/sup 125/I)-labeled condensed tannin was shown to retain the ability to discriminate between high and low affinity proteins. (/sup 125/I)-labeled phenols were isolated from livers and kidneys of rats fed (/sup 125/I)-labeled tannin. The techniques described in this thesis should be widely applicable to studying in vivo functions of condensed tannins.

Asquith, T.N.

1985-01-01

183

Additional minor diterpene glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana.  

PubMed

From the commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana, two additional new diterpenoid glycosides were isolated and their structures were characterized as 13-[(2-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1) and 13-[(2-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (2) on the basis of extensive spectral data (NMR and MS) and chemical studies. PMID:21922898

Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash; Prakash, Indra

2011-08-01

184

Glycosidic constituents from in vitro Anoectochilus formosanus.  

PubMed

The glycosidic constituents of whole plants of Anoectochilus formosanus propagated by tissue culture were investigated. A new compound, 2-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxymethyl)-5-hydroxymethylfuran, along with the known compounds, 3-(R)-3-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxybutanolide (kinsenoside), 3-(R)-3-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-4-hydroxybutanoic acid, 1-O-isopropyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, (R)-(+)-3,4-dihydroxy-butanoic acid y-lactone, 4-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)benzyl alcohol, (6R,9S)-9-hydroxy-megastigma-4,7-dien-3-one-9-O-beta-glucopy ranoside, and corchoionoside C were isolated. PMID:11086921

Du, X M; Sun, N Y; Irino, N; Shoyama, Y

2000-11-01

185

Phenolic glycosides of forage legume Onobrychis viciifolia.  

PubMed

A chemical examination of the extractives of the leaves of sainfoin was undertaken as part of a programme directed at understanding the factors which may contribute to its nutritive value as animal feed. Among the low molecular weight phenolic compounds characterized were seven cinnamic acid derivatives and nine flavonoid glycosides all of which were identified by NMR spectroscopy. Included among these compounds were two new natural hydroxycinnamic esters namely methyl 6-O-p-trans-coumaroyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside and methyl 6-O-p-cis-coumaroyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside and a novel flavonoid chrysoeriol-4'-O-(6''-O-acetyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside. PMID:11021646

Lu, Y; Sun, Y; Foo, L Y; McNabb, W C; Molan, A L

2000-09-01

186

Chromone glycosides and flavonoids from hypericum japonicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the aerial parts of Hypericum japonicum, two novel chromone glycosides, 5, 7-dihydroxy-2-(1-methylpropyl) chromone-8-?-d-glucoside and 5, 7-dihydroxy-2-isopropylchromone-8-?-d-glucoside, and two new flavonoids, 7, 8-(2?, 2?-dimethylpyrano)-5, 3?, 4?-trihydroxy-3-mehoxyflavone and (2R, 3R) dihydroquercetin-3, 7-O-?-l-dirhamnoside were isolated together with nine known flavonoids. Their structures were deduced from spectroscopic and chemical evidence. Some of the compounds were found to exert an interesting coagulant activity in

Qing-Li Wu; Sheng-Ping Wang; Li-Jun Du; Shu-Ming Zhang; Jun-Shan Yang; Pei-Gen Xiao

1998-01-01

187

Sesquiterpenoid Tropolone Glycosides from Liriosma ovata.  

PubMed

Two new sesquiterpenoid tropolone glycosides, liriosmasides A (1) and B (2), along with two known compounds, secoxyloganin and oplopanpheside C, were isolated from a methanol extract of the roots of Liriosma ovata. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR and by high-resolution mass spectrometry involving an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-orbital ion trap mass spectrometric (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap MS) method. Compound 1 showed weak inhibitory activity against HIV RNase H. PMID:25587934

Ma, Jun; Pawar, Rahul S; Grundel, Erich; Mazzola, Eugene P; Ridge, Clark D; Masaoka, Takashi; Le Grice, Stuart F J; Wilson, Jennifer; Beutler, John A; Krynitsky, Alexander J

2015-02-27

188

Protein binding of anthraquinone glycosides, with special reference to adriamycin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The binding of anthraquinone glycosides (adriamycin, adriamycinol, daunorubicin, daunorubicinol, and 4' epiadriamycin) to human serum albumin and human plasma has been studied by equilibrium dialysis. About 62% of adriamycin was bound to human serum albumin (45 g\\/l). Only minor variations in the degree of binding were observed between the anthraquinone glycosides.

Staffan Eksborg; Hans Ehrsson; Britta Ekqvist

1982-01-01

189

Fully acetylated carbamate and hypotensive thiocarbamate glycosides from Moringa oleifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six new and three synthetically known glycosides have been isolated from the leaves of Moringa oleifera, employing a bioassay-directed isolation method on the ethanolic extract. Most of these compounds, bearing thiocarbamate, carbamate or nitrile groups, are fully acetylated glycosides, which are very rare in nature. Elucidation of the structures was made using chemical and spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR techniques.

Shaheen Faizi; Bina Shaheen Siddiqui; Rubeena Saleem; Salimuzzaman Siddiqui; Khalid Aftab; Anwar-Ul-Hassan Gilani

1995-01-01

190

Phytosteryl glycosides reduce cholesterol absorption: mechanisms in mice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytosteryl glycosides occur in natural foods but little is known about their metabolism and bioactivity. Purified acylated steryl glycosides (ASG) were compared with phytosteryl esters (PSE) in mice. Animals on a phytosterol-free diet received ASG or PSE by gavage in purified soybean oil along with...

191

The insulin receptor glycosidic moiety : its characterization and role  

E-print Network

-linked type play a key role at both insulin receptor and post-receptor levels. Introduction. Over the past tenThe insulin receptor glycosidic moiety : its characterization and role Martine CARON, Gisèle exoglycosidases and/or lectins as specific glycosidic probes, we characterized the insulin receptor carbohydrate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

192

Differential effects of quercetin glycosides on GABAC receptor channel activity.  

PubMed

Quercetin, a representative flavonoid, is a compound of low molecular weight found in various colored plants and vegetables. Quercetin shows a wide range of neuropharmacological activities. In fact, quercetin naturally exists as monomer-(quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside) (Rham1), dimer-(Rutin), or trimer-glycosides [quercetin-3-(2(G)-rhamnosylrutinoside)] (Rham2) at carbon-3 in fruits and vegetables. The carbohydrate components are removed after ingestion into gastrointestinal systems. The role of the glycosides attached to quercetin in the regulation of ?-aminobutyric acid class C (GABAC) receptor channel activity has not been determined. In the present study, we examined the effects of quercetin glycosides on GABAC receptor channel activity by expressing human GABAC alone in Xenopus oocytes using a two-electrode voltage clamp technique and also compared the effects of quercetin glycosides with quercetin. We found that GABA-induced inward current (I GABA ) was inhibited by quercetin or quercetin glycosides. The inhibitory effects of quercetin and its glycosides on I GABA were concentration-dependent and reversible in the order of Rutin ? quercetin ? Rham 1 > Rham 2. The inhibitory effects of quercetin and its glycosides on I GABA were noncompetitive and membrane voltage-insensitive. These results indicate that quercetin and its glycosides regulate GABAC receptor channel activity through interaction with a different site from that of GABA, and that the number of carbohydrate attached to quercetin might play an important role in the regulation of GABAC receptor channel activity. PMID:24895146

Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Choi, Sun-Hye; Jung, Seok-Won; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Joon-Hee; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Pyo, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Nah, Seung-Yeol

2015-01-01

193

Leishmanicidal cycloartane-type triterpene glycosides from Astragalus oleifolius  

E-print Network

Leishmanicidal cycloartane-type triterpene glycosides from Astragalus oleifolius Meltem O¨ zipek a oleifoliosides A (1) and B (2) were isolated from the lower stem parts of Astragalus oleifo- lius rights reserved. Keywords: Astragalus oleifolius; Leguminosae; Cycloartane-type glycoside; Oleifoliosides

Rüedi, Peter

194

Verbascoside derivatives and iridoid glycosides from Penstemon crandallii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new phenylethanoid glycosides 2-O-acetyl-3?-O-methylverbascoside and 2,4?-di-O-acetyl-3?-O-methylverbascoside were isolated and identified from Penstemon crandallii. The major iridoid glycoside was plantarenaloside and no aucubin type iridoids were found. This contrasted with a previous analysis of P. teucrioides, from the same Penstemon subsection, which was dominated by aucubin derivatives.

Lotfy D. Ismail; Mohamed M. El-Azizi; Taha I. Khalifa; Frank R. Stermitz

1995-01-01

195

Enzymatic synthesis of epothilone A glycosides  

PubMed Central

Epothilones are extremely cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents with epoxide, thiazole, and ketone groups that share equipotent kinetic similarity with taxol. The in vitro glycosylation catalyzed by uridine diphosphate glucosyltransferase (YjiC) from Bacillus licheniformis generated six novel epothilone A glycoside analouges including epothilone A 7-O-?-D-glucoside, epothilone A 7-O-?-D-galactoside, epothilone A 3,7-O-?-D-digalactoside, epothilone A 7-O-?-D-2-deoxyglucoside, epothilone A 7-O-?-L-rhamnoside, and epothilone A 7-O-?-L-fucoside. Epothilone A 7-O-?-D-glucoside was structurally elucidated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array (UPLC-PDA) conjugated with high resolution quantitative time-of-flight-electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (HR-QTOF ESI-MS/MS) supported by one-and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance studies whereas other epothilone A glycosides were characterized by UPLC-PDA and HR-QTOF ESI-MS/MS analyses. The time dependent conversion study of epothilone A to epothilone A 7-O-?-D-glucoside found to be maximum (~26%) between 3 h to 5 h incubation. PMID:24949266

2014-01-01

196

Condensed tannins in the tissue culture of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.).  

PubMed

Two forage legumes, birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.), containing condensed tannins in their leaves and stems were used as source material to study condensed tannins in tissue culture. More protoplasts were isolated from mesophyll tissue of a low tannin-containing strain of birdsfoot trefoil than from a high tannin-containing strain, but more tannin-filled protoplasts were observed in the latter. Growth rates of leaf explant-derived callus tissue were greater for the high-tannin than for the low-tannin strain. In sainfoin, callus cultures from leaf explants produced numerous tannin-filled cells by 21 days. Explants from sainfoin cotyledons and roots, tissues which normally do not contain tannins, also formed callus with tannin-filled cells in 21 days but in almost every case, a cytokinin was required for tannin formation to occur. The occurrence of tannin-filled cells in callus from root and cotyledon explants was variable and genotype specific. These results show that endogenous tannins can affect protoplast isolation and possibly callus growth in birds-foot trefoil, and that the formation of condensed tannins in sainfoin callus culture can be influenced by a growth regulator. PMID:24248238

Lees, G L

1986-08-01

197

Impact of condensed tannin size as individual and mixed polymers on bovine serum albumin precipitation.  

PubMed

Condensed tannins composed of epicatechin from monomer to octamer were isolated from cacao (Theobroma cacao, L.) seeds and added to bovine serum albumin (BSA) individually and combined as mixtures. When added to excess BSA the amount of tannin precipitated increased with tannin size. The amount of tannin required to precipitate BSA varied among the polymers with the trimer requiring the most to precipitate BSA (1000 ?g) and octamer the least (50 ?g). The efficacy of condensed tannins for protein precipitation increased with increased degree of polymerisation (or size) from trimers to octamers (monomers and dimers did not precipitate BSA), while mixtures of two sizes primarily had an additive effect. This study demonstrates that astringent perception is likely to increase with increasing polymer size. Further research to expand our understanding of astringent perception and its correlation with protein precipitation would benefit from sensory analysis of condensed tannins across a range of polymer sizes. PMID:24799203

Harbertson, James F; Kilmister, Rachel L; Kelm, Mark A; Downey, Mark O

2014-10-01

198

Adsorption mechanism of hexavalent chromium by redox within condensed-tannin gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have proposed a new recovery system of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) that is of great toxicity utilizing condensed-tannin gels derived from a natural polymer with many polyhydroxyphenyl groups. The adsorption mechanism of Cr(VI) to the tannin molecules was clarified. The adsorption mechanism consists of four reaction steps; the esterification of chromate with tannin molecules, the reduction of Cr(VI) to trivalent

Yoshio Nakano; Kenji Takeshita; Toshiro Tsutsumi

2001-01-01

199

Application of Mössbauer spectroscopy to the study of tannins inhibition of iron and steel corrosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inhibitory effect of tannins was investigated using, among others, potentiodynamic polarizations and Mössbauer spectroscopy. These techniques confirmed that the nature, pH and concentration of tannic solution are of upmost importance in the inhibitory properties of the solutions. It is observed that at low tannin concentration or pH, both, hydrolizable and condensed tannins, effectively inhibit iron corrosion, due to the redox properties of tannins. At pH ? 0, Mössbauer spectra of the frozen aqueous solutions of iron(III) with the tannin solutions showed that iron is in the form of a monomeric species [Fe(H2O)6]3 + , without coordination with the functional hydroxyl groups of the tannins. The suspended material consisted of amorphous ferric oxide and oxyhydroxides, though with quebracho tannin partly resulted in complex formation and in an iron (II) species from a redox process. Other tannins, such as chestnut hydrolysable tannins, do not complex iron at this low pH. Tannins react at high concentrations or pH (3 and 5) to form insoluble blue-black amorphous complexes of mono-and bis-type tannate complexes, with a relative amount of the bis-ferric tannate generally increasing with pH. Some Fe2 + in the form of hydrated polymeric ferrous tannate could be obtained. At pH 7, a partially hydrolyzed ferric tannate complex was also formed. The latter two phases do not provide corrosion protection. Tannin solutions at natural pH react with electrodeposited iron films (approx. 6 ?m) to obtain products consisting only on the catecholate mono-complex of ferric tannate. Some aspects of the mechanism of tannins protection against corrosion are discussed.

Jaén, Juan A.; de Obaldía, J.; Rodríguez, M. V.

2011-11-01

200

Tannin diagenesis in mangrove leaves from a tropical estuary: A novel molecular approach  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Molecular-level condensed tannin analyses were conducted on a series of mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) leaves at various stages of decomposition in a tropical estuary. Total molecular tannin yields ranged from 0.5% ash-free dry weight (AFDW) in the most highly degraded black leaves (6-7 weeks in the water) up to >7% AFDW in fresh leaves (80% procyanidin (PC) with the remainder being prodelphinidin (PD). PD tannin, with its higher degree of hydroxylation, proved to be more labile than PC tannin. Average chain length of condensed tannin (degree of polymerization) exhibited an initial increase in response to leaching, but later decreased in the subsequent shift toward abiotic or microbially mediated chemical reactions. Several trends point toward a possible condensation reaction in which tannin plays a role in nitrogen immobilization. These include an apparent inverse correlation between molecular tannin and nitrogen, a positive correlation between molecular tannin and percent basic amino acids, 13C-NMR data indicating transformation of tannin as opposed to remineralization, and 13C-NMR data showing loss of condensed tannin B-ring phenolic carbons coupled with preservation of A-ring phenolic carbon. In addition to condensed tannin, the molecular method used also yielded several triterpenoids. Triterpenoids accounted for up to 3.5% AFDW of the leaf material and exhibited a threefold increase between yellow senescent leaves entering the estuary and black leaves. This trend is likely due to the weakening of protective cuticular membranes during leaf decomposition, which leads to increased yields in the acidic conditions used for tannin analyses. Copyright ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Hernes, P.J.; Benner, R.; Cowie, G.L.; Goi, M.A.; Bergamaschi, B.A.; Hedges, J.I.

2001-01-01

201

Pyrolysis-GC/MS of charred purified condensed tannin: towards identification of tannin-derived black carbon in environmental samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tannins account for a significant proportion of plant biomass and are therefore a possible source of Black C in the charred remains from wildfires. Nonetheless, in contrast with other major biocomponents such as lignin and cellulose, the thermal degradation of tannins has not been investigated in laboratory charring experiments. We used pyrolysis-GC/MS to investigate the effects of furnace charring (30 min at fixed temperatures up to 600 °C under limited oxygen supply) on the degradation of pure condensed tannin (CT) isolated from Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) needles. The experiments showed a rapid loss (at 300 °C and higher) of the pyrogallol moieties of the B-ring of prodelphinidin-type CT, due to dehydroxylation. The relative abundance of catechols (from procyanidin-type CT) decreased at 350 °C and higher temperatures. This led to the formation of phenols that were strongly enriched between 300 and 400 °C. At higher temperatures, further dehydroxylation caused a decline in contributions of phenols producing a series of monocyclic aromatics ((alkyl)benzenes) and condensation of aromatics produced polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), i.e. the typical pyrolysis fingerprint of strongly charred biomass. We conclude that (i) the thermal degradation of CT can be successfully monitored by pyrolysis-GC/MS, (ii) thermal degradation of CT is characterized by dehydroxylation of phenolic groups and condensation of aromatics that increase with temperature and (iii) CT-derived Black C may be recognized by catechol enrichments at low temperatures and possibly (relative) abundance of phenol and biphenyl at higher levels of thermal breakdown. Applying the same method to natural charcoal from gorse bushfires indicated that pyrolysis-GC/MS fingerprinting may allow for tannin identification in environmental Black C samples.

Kaal, Joeri; Nierop, Klaas G. J.; Kraal, Peter; Preston, Caroline M.

2010-05-01

202

Cardiac Catheterization  

MedlinePLUS

... done during a cardiac catheterization include: closing small holes inside the heart repairing leaky or narrow heart ... bandage. It's normal for the site to be black and blue, red, or slightly swollen for a ...

203

CARDIAC MUSCLE  

PubMed Central

Cardiac muscle fibers of the hummingbird and finch have no transverse tubules and are smaller in diameter than those of mammalian hearts. The fibers are connected by intercalated discs which are composed of desmosomes and f. adherentes; small nexuses are often interspersed. As in cardiac muscle of several other animals, the junctional SR of the couplings is highly structured in these two birds but, in addition, and after having lost sarcolemmal contact, the junctional SR continues beyond the coupling to extend deep into the interior of the cells and to form belts around the Z-I regions of the sarcomeres. This portion of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which we have named "extended junctional SR," and which is so prominent and invariant a feature of cardiac cells of hummingbirds and finches, has not been observed in chicken cardiac cells. The morphological differences between these species of birds may be related to respective differences in heart rates characteristic for these birds. PMID:5555579

Jewett, Paul H.; Sommer, J. R.; Johnson, E. A.

1971-01-01

204

Cardiac Aspergillosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cardiac aspergillosis has been increasingly recognized as a complication of immunocompromise in recent times. The use of progressively\\u000a more potent immunosuppressive agents and the longer survival times of transplant recipients is likely contributing to an increasing\\u000a prevalence of the disease. Although still uncommon, the disease has an extremely high mortality rate and management remains\\u000a difficult. Cardiac aspergillosis can present as

Philippe Lagacé-Wiens; Ethan Rubinstein

205

Nuclear cardiac  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between nuclear medicine and cardiology has continued to produce a surfeit of interesting, illuminating, and important reports involving the analysis of cardiac function, perfusion, and metabolism. To simplify the presentation, this review is broken down into three major subheadings: analysis of myocardial perfusion; imaging of the recent myocardial infarction; and the evaluation of myocardial function. There appears to be an increasingly important relationship between cardiology, particularly cardiac physiology, and nuclear imaging techniques. (KRM)

Slutsky, R.; Ashburn, W.L.

1982-01-01

206

Condensed tannins from acacia mangium bark: Characterization by spot tests and FTIR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the adaptation and evaluation of one chemical tests for tannins characterization in acacia mangium bark. Acid butanol test developed to identify respectively condensed tannins is described. The two traditional tests used for tannin characterization namely ferric test and vanillin test were also performed and their functional also discussed. Condensed tannins were extracted from acacia mangium bark using water medium in presence of three different concentration basic reagent of NaOH(5%,10% and 15%) and were characterized by FT-IR spectrometry.

Bharudin, Muhammad Azizi; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua

2013-11-01

207

Assessment of tannin variation in Tamarisk foliage across a latitudinal gradient  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Certain phenotypic traits of plants vary with latitude of origin. To understand if tannin concentration varies among populations of tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) according to a latitudinal gradient, an analytical method was adapted from an enological tannin assay. The tannin content (wet basis) of tamarisk foliage collected from 160 plants grown in a common garden ranged from 8.26 to 62.36 mg/g and was not correlated with the latitude of the original North American plant collection site. Tannins do not contribute to observed differences in herbivory observed among these tamarisk populations.

Hussey, A.M.; Kimball, B.A.; Friedman, J.M.

2011-01-01

208

Tannin impacts on microbial diversity and the functioning of alpine soils: a multidisciplinary approach.  

PubMed

In alpine ecosystems, tannin-rich-litter decomposition occurs mainly under snow. With global change, variations in snowfall might affect soil temperature and microbial diversity with biogeochemical consequences on ecosystem processes. However, the relationships linking soil temperature and tannin degradation with soil microorganisms and nutrients fluxes remain poorly understood. Here, we combined biogeochemical and molecular profiling approaches to monitor tannin degradation, nutrient cycling and microbial communities (Bacteria, Crenarcheotes, Fungi) in undisturbed winter time soil cores exposed to low temperature (0 degrees C/-6 degrees C), amended or not with tannins, extracted from Dryas octopetala. No toxic effect of tannins on microbial populations was found, indicating that they withstand phenolics from alpine vegetation litter. Additionally at -6 degrees C, higher carbon mineralization, higher protocatechuic acid concentration (intermediary metabolite of tannin catabolism), and changes in fungal phylogenetic composition showed that freezing temperatures may select fungi able to degrade D. octopetala's tannins. In contrast, negative net nitrogen mineralization rates were observed at -6 degrees C possibly due to a more efficient N immobilization by tannins than N production by microbial activities, and suggesting a decoupling between C and N mineralization. Our results confirmed tannins and soil temperatures as relevant controls of microbial catabolism which are crucial for alpine ecosystems functioning and carbon storage. PMID:18237312

Baptist, F; Zinger, L; Clement, J C; Gallet, C; Guillemin, R; Martins, J M F; Sage, L; Shahnavaz, B; Choler, Ph; Geremia, R

2008-03-01

209

Condensed Tannins from Ficus virens as Tyrosinase Inhibitors: Structure, Inhibitory Activity and Molecular Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Condensed tannins from Ficus virens leaves, fruit, and stem bark were isolated and their structures characterized by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The results showed that the leaves, fruit, and stem bark condensed tannins were complex mixtures of homo- and heteropolymers of B-type procyanidins and prodelphinidins with degrees of polymerization up to hexamer, dodecamer, and pentadecamer, respectively. Antityrosinase activities of the condensed tannins were studied. The results indicated that the condensed tannins were potent tyrosinase inhibitors. The concentrations for the leaves, fruit, and stem bark condensed tannins leading to 50% enzyme activity were determined to be 131.67, 99.89, and 106.22 ?g/ml on monophenolase activity, and 128.42, 43.07, and 74.27 ?g/ml on diphenolase activity. The inhibition mechanism, type, and constants of the condensed tannins on the diphenolase activity were further investigated. The results indicated that the condensed tannins were reversible and mixed type inhibitors. Fluorescence quenching, copper interacting, and molecular docking techniques were utilized to unravel the molecular mechanisms of the inhibition. The results showed that the hydroxyl group on the B ring of the condensed tannins could chelate the dicopper irons of the enzyme. Moreover, the condensed tannins could reduce the enzyme product o-quinones into colourless compounds. These results would contribute to the development and design of antityrosinase agents. PMID:24637701

Chai, Wei-Ming; Feng, Hui-Ling; Zhuang, Jiang-Xing; Chen, Qing-Xi

2014-01-01

210

Effects of tannins on digestion and detoxification activity in gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis).  

PubMed

Acorn tannins may affect food preferences and foraging strategies of squirrels through effects on acorn palatability and digestibility and squirrel physiology. Captive eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) were fed 100% red oak (Quercus rubra) or white oak (Quercus alba) acorn diets to determine effects on intake, digestion, and detoxification activity. Red oak acorns had higher phenol and tannin levels, which may explain the lower dry matter intakes and apparent protein digestibilities and the higher glucuronidation activities observed in squirrels. Although the white oak acorn diet had lower apparent protein digestibilities than the reference diet, it did not suppress dry matter intake for a prolonged period or stimulate glucuronidation. Negative physiological effects of a 100% red oak acorn diet suggest gray squirrels may require other foods to dilute tannin intake and provide additional nutrients. To distinguish the roles of different tannin types in the observed effects of acorn diets on squirrels, squirrels were fed rat chow containing no tannins, 4% or 8% tannic acid (hydrolyzable tannin), or 3% or 6% quebracho (condensed tannin). Apparent protein digestibilities were reduced by tannic acid and quebracho diets. Only the 8% tannic acid diet tended to increase glucuronidation. Specific effects of tannins may largely depend on tannin type, composition, and source and on other nutritional and physiological factors. PMID:9231400

Chung-MacCoubrey, A L; Hagerman, A E; Kirkpatrick, R L

1997-01-01

211

Condensed tannins from Ficus virens as tyrosinase inhibitors: structure, inhibitory activity and molecular mechanism.  

PubMed

Condensed tannins from Ficus virens leaves, fruit, and stem bark were isolated and their structures characterized by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The results showed that the leaves, fruit, and stem bark condensed tannins were complex mixtures of homo- and heteropolymers of B-type procyanidins and prodelphinidins with degrees of polymerization up to hexamer, dodecamer, and pentadecamer, respectively. Antityrosinase activities of the condensed tannins were studied. The results indicated that the condensed tannins were potent tyrosinase inhibitors. The concentrations for the leaves, fruit, and stem bark condensed tannins leading to 50% enzyme activity were determined to be 131.67, 99.89, and 106.22 ?g/ml on monophenolase activity, and 128.42, 43.07, and 74.27 ?g/ml on diphenolase activity. The inhibition mechanism, type, and constants of the condensed tannins on the diphenolase activity were further investigated. The results indicated that the condensed tannins were reversible and mixed type inhibitors. Fluorescence quenching, copper interacting, and molecular docking techniques were utilized to unravel the molecular mechanisms of the inhibition. The results showed that the hydroxyl group on the B ring of the condensed tannins could chelate the dicopper irons of the enzyme. Moreover, the condensed tannins could reduce the enzyme product o-quinones into colourless compounds. These results would contribute to the development and design of antityrosinase agents. PMID:24637701

Chen, Xiao-Xin; Shi, Yan; Chai, Wei-Ming; Feng, Hui-Ling; Zhuang, Jiang-Xing; Chen, Qing-Xi

2014-01-01

212

Formation of vacuolar tannin deposits in the chlorophyllous organs of Tracheophyta: from shuttles to accretions.  

PubMed

Most Tracheophyta synthesize-condensed tannins (also called proanthocyanidins), polymers of catechins, which appear in the vacuole as uniformly stained deposits-termed tannin accretions-lining the inner face of the tonoplast. A large body of evidence argues that tannins are formed in recently described thylakoid-derived organelles, the tannosomes, which are packed in membrane-bound shuttles (Brillouet et al. 2013); it has been suggested that shuttles agglomerate into tannin accretions. The aim of the study was to describe the ontogenesis of tannin accretions in members of the Tracheophyta. For this purpose, fresh specimens of young tissues from diverse Tracheophyta were cut, gently lacerated in paraformaldehyde, and examined using light, epifluorescence, confocal, and transmission electron microscopy. Fresh samples were also incubated with gelatin-Oregon Green, a fluorescent marker of condensed tannins. Our observations showed that vacuolar accretions (1???40 ?m), that constitute the typical form of tannin storage in tannin-producing Tracheophyta, are formed by agglomeration (not fusion) of shuttles containing various proportions of chlorophylls and tannins. PMID:24692039

Brillouet, Jean-Marc; Romieu, Charles; Lartaud, Marc; Jublanc, Elodie; Torregrosa, Laurent; Cazevieille, Chantal

2014-11-01

213

Effects of tannin source and concentration from tree leaves on two species of tadpoles.  

PubMed

Vegetation in and around freshwater ecosystems can affect aquatic organisms through the production of secondary compounds, which are retained in leaves after senescence and are biologically active. Tannins can be toxic to tadpoles, but the plant source of tannins and tannin concentration have been confounded in experimental designs in previous studies. To examine the effects of the concentration and source of tannins (tree species), we examined the effects of 4 factors on tadpole survival, growth, and development: tannin source (red oak [Quercus rubra], white oak [Quercus alba], or sugar maple [Acer saccharum]); tannin concentration (including a control); diet protein level; and tadpole species (American toad [Anaxyrus americanus] and spring peepers [Pseudacris crucifer]). Tannin source and concentration affected spring peeper survival, but American toads had uniformly high survival. Spring peepers had a lower survival rate in high tannin concentrations of oak leachate but a high survival rate in both concentrations of sugar maple leachate. These differences in survival did not correspond with changes in dissolved oxygen, and no effect of dietary protein level on tadpole performance was observed. The presence of plant leachate resulted in increased tadpole growth in both species, but the mechanism for this finding is unclear. The results of the present study show that tannin concentration and source are important factors for tadpole performance, adding further evidence that plant chemistry can affect aquatic organisms. PMID:25319714

Earl, Julia E; Semlitsch, Raymond D

2015-01-01

214

Cardiac cephalgia.  

PubMed

"Cardiac cephalgia" is a type of secondary headache disorder, usually initiated by exertion that is related to myocardial ischemia. Primary exertional headaches such as sex-, cough-, or exercise-induced headaches are typically benign. Cardiac cephalgia, on the other hand, can have life-threatening complications. Due to overlapping features and similarities in presentation, cardiac cephalgia can be misdiagnosed as a primary headache disorder such as migraine. However, the management of these conditions is unique, and treatment of cardiac cephalgia with vasoconstrictors intended for migraine can potentially worsen myocardial ischemia. Thus, it is important to make the correct diagnosis by evaluating cardiac function with an electrocardiogram and/or stress testing. In this review, we examine reported cases of cardiac cephalgia from the past 5 years to highlight the importance of this condition in the differential diagnosis of a headache in a patient with a history of cardiovascular risk factors, as well as to discuss the appropriate approach to diagnosis and the proposed pathogenic mechanisms of this condition. PMID:25819974

Torres-Yaghi, Yasar; Salerian, Justin; Dougherty, Carrie

2015-04-01

215

Synthesis of cardenolide glycosides and putative biosynthetic precursors of cardenolide glycosides.  

PubMed

A rapid and efficient procedure for glycosylation of steroids was established using a modified Koenigs-Knorr procedure. Peracetylated beta-glycosides were synthesized by reaction of cardenolides, various pregnanes and 23-nor-5,20(22)E-choldienic acid at room temperature with the peracetylated 1-bromo derivatives of D-glucose, D-galactose, D-fucose and cellobiose. Subsequent deprotection was performed by alkaline hydrolysis with sodium methoxide. Structures of the respective glycosides were established by NMR techniques. The complete protocol was shown to be non-destructive at all stages to the sugar moiety and the steroidal nucleus. The gamma-unsaturated lactone ring of the cardenolides was shown to remain intact and no formation of C-14 unsaturated compounds was observed. PMID:9437794

Luta, M; Hensel, A; Kreis, W

1998-01-01

216

Determination of bioactive nitrile glycoside(s) in drumstick ( Moringa oleifera) by reverse phase HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of novel bioactive nitrile glycosides niaziridin and niazirin in the leaves, pods and bark of Moringa oleifera is reported. Niaziridin is a bioenhancer for drugs and nutrients. The analytical conditions for reversed-phase HPLC with UV detection were as follows: column, Chromolith RP-18e, 4.6×100mm 0.5?m (Merck); column temperature, 25°C; mobile phase, a 20:80

Karuna Shanker; Madan M. Gupta; Santosh K. Srivastava; Dnyaneshwar U. Bawankule; Anirban Pal; Suman P. S. Khanuja

2007-01-01

217

Biosynthesis of daunorubicin glycosides: role of epsilon-rhodomycinone.  

PubMed Central

Daunorubicin (daunomycin; NSC 82151) is a fermentation-derived anthracycline antibiotic that is clinically useful in the treatment of human leukemias. Daunorubicin itself is found rarely in microbial fermentations, but is present normally in the form of glycoside derivatives that yield the free drug on simple acid hydrolysis. A major by-product of daunorubicin fermentations is usually the structurally related anthracyclinone epsilon-rhodomycinone. We have used mutants of a daunorubicin-producing Streptomyces species to study the biosynthetic relationship between epsilon-rhodomycinone and daunorubicin. We found that exogenously added epsilon-rhodomycinone can be converted to daunorubicin glycosides by a nonproducing mutant and by a mutant that produces daunorubicin glycosides but not epsilon-rhoeomycinone. Molar conversion efficiences were in the 15 to 30% range. The latter mutant was also shown to convert exogenous 14C-labeled epsilon-rhodomycinone to 14C-labeled daunorubicin glycosides, again at conversion efficiencies of about 25%. The same biotransformation was observed with daunorubicin production strain C5, which normally accumulates both epsilon-rhodomycinone and daunorubicin glycosides. A significant percentage (16 to 37%) of exogenously added epsilon-[14C]rhodomycinone was metabolized by strain C5, and 22 to 32% of the metabolized radioactivity could be recovered as daunorubicin glycosides. A mathematical model of epsilon-rhodomycinone metabolism was constructed based on plausible assumptions concerning the kinetics of epsilon-rhodomycinone accumulation and catabolsim. When analyzed according to this model, our data indicate that most (63 to 73%), but not all, of the daunorubicin glycosides accumulated in the experiments with production strain C5 derived from epsilon-rhodomycinone. A pathway network for the biosynthesis of daunorubicin glycosides is proposed that is in agreement with these data. In this proposed pathway network, epsilon-rhodomycinone is an intermediate in one of at least two pathways which yield daunorubicin glycosides. Images PMID:7425613

McGuire, J C; Thomas, M C; Stroshane, R M; Hamilton, B K; White, R J

1980-01-01

218

Steviol glycoside safety: are highly purified steviol glycoside sweeteners food allergens?  

PubMed

Steviol glycoside sweeteners are extracted from the plant Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), a member of the Asteraceae (Compositae) family. Many plants from this family can induce hypersensitivity reactions via multiple routes of exposure (e.g., ragweed, goldenrod, chrysanthemum, echinacea, chamomile, lettuce, sunflower and chicory). Based on this common taxonomy, some popular media reports and resources have issued food warnings alleging the potential for stevia allergy. To determine if such allergy warnings are warranted on stevia-based sweeteners, a comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify all available data related to allergic responses following the consumption of stevia extracts or highly purified steviol glycosides. Hypersensitivity reactions to stevia in any form are rare. The few cases documented in the peer-reviewed literature were reported prior to the introduction of high-purity products to the market in 2008 when many global regulatory authorities began to affirm the safety of steviol glycosides. Neither stevia manufacturers nor food allergy networks have reported significant numbers of any adverse events related to ingestion of stevia-based sweeteners, and there have been no reports of stevia-related allergy in the literature since 2008. Therefore, there is little substantiated scientific evidence to support warning statements to consumers about allergy to highly purified stevia extracts. PMID:25449199

Urban, Jonathan D; Carakostas, Michael C; Taylor, Steve L

2015-01-01

219

Determination of phenylethanoid glycosides and iridoid glycosides from therapeutically used Plantago species by CE-MEKC.  

PubMed

CE methods are valuable tools for medicinal plant quality management, screening, and analysis. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to optimize and validate a CE-MEKC method for simultaneous quantification of four chief bioactive metabolites from Plantago species. The two most important secondary metabolite groups were aimed to be separated. Different electrolyte and surfactant types were tested. Surfactant concentration, BGE pH, electrolyte concentration, and buffering capacity were optimized. The final BGE consisted of 15 mM sodium tetraborate, 20 mM TAPS, and 250 mM DOC at pH 8.50. Acceptable precision, good stability, and accuracy were achieved, with high resolution for phenylethanoid glycosides. Analytes were separated within 20 min. The method was shown to be suitable for the quantification of the iridoid glycosides aucubin and catalpol, and the phenylethanoid glycosides acteoside (verbascoside) and plantamajoside from water extracts of different samples. The method was shown to be applicable to leaf extracts of Plantago lanceolata, Plantago major, and Plantago asiatica, the main species with therapeutic applications, and a biotechnological product, plant tissue cultures (calli) of P. lanceolata. Baseline separation of the main constituents from minor peaks was achieved, regardless of the matrix type. PMID:23784714

Gonda, Sándor; Nguyen, Nhat Minh; Batta, Gyula; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Máthé, Csaba; Vasas, Gábor

2013-09-01

220

Synthesis and sensory evaluation of ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides.  

PubMed

Catalytic hydrogenation of the three ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides isolated from Stevia rebaudiana, namely rubusoside, stevioside, and rebaudioside-A has been carried out using Pd(OH)? and their corresponding dihydro derivatives have been isolated as the products. Synthesis of reduced steviol glycosides was performed using straightforward chemistry and their structures were characterized on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral data and chemical studies. Also, we report herewith the sensory evaluation of all the reduced compounds against their corresponding original steviol glycosides and sucrose for the sweetness property of these molecules. PMID:22836210

Prakash, Indra; Campbell, Mary; San Miguel, Rafael Ignacio; Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash

2012-01-01

221

Spectroscopic manifestation of stretching vibrations of glycosidic linkage in polysaccharides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manifestation of stretching vibrations of glycosidic linkage in the infrared spectra of polysaccharides (native, microcrystalline, mercerized celluloses, amylose, starches) has been studied using the regularized method of deconvolution. It has been shown that the glycosidic linkage formation in the polysaccharides is characterized by the appearance of new absorption bands in the 1175-1140 cm -1 range as compared to their corresponding monomers. In the 1000-920 cm -1 region differences between the infrared spectra of polysaccharides due to the changes in the glycosidic linkage configuration have been found.

Nikonenko, N. A.; Buslov, D. K.; Sushko, N. I.; Zhbankov, R. G.

2005-10-01

222

Spectrophotometric estimation of individual flavone glycosides in three Euphorbia species.  

PubMed

Two spectrophotometric methods (conventional and differential) are carried out for the estimation of flavone glycosides (hyperoside and/or kaempferol-3-beta-glucoside) in Euphorbia paralias L., and Euphorbia helioscopia L. The glycosides are extracted with methanol from the aerial parts of the different Euphorbia species, separated on silica gel chromatoplates, and eluted by refluxing with methanol (80%). The absorbance value (conventional method) and the delta absorbance value (differential method) of the prepared glycosidal solutions are measured. The results of both methods are of conveinent reproducibility. PMID:1161795

Abdel-Salam, N A; El-Sayed, M; Khafagy, S M

1975-06-01

223

Five new flavonoid glycosides from Nervilia fordii.  

PubMed

Five new flavonoid glycosides, namely nervilifordins F-J (1-5), were isolated from the 60% EtOH extract of the aerial parts of Nervilia fordii, along with three first isolated flavonoids (7, 8, and 13) and five known flavonoids (6, 9-12). The structures of new compounds were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR and MS studies. Their anti-inflammatory activities were tested by measuring their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW264.7 macrophages. Compounds 2 and 5 showed interesting inhibition effects with their EC50 values of 15.15 ?M and 14.80 ?M, respectively. PMID:23659497

Qiu, Li; Jiao, Yang; Xie, Ji-Zhao; Huang, Gui-Kun; Qiu, Shao-Ling; Miao, Jian-Hua; Yao, Xin-Sheng

2013-01-01

224

Anthelmintic effect of plant extracts containing condensed and hydrolyzable tannins on Caenorhabditis elegans and their antioxidant capacity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although tannin-rich forages are known to increase protein uptake and to reduce gastrointestinal nematode infections in grazing ruminants, most published research involves forages with condensed tannins (CT), while published literature lacks information on the anthelmintic capacity, nutritional bene...

225

Toxicity of the isolated tannin from Quercus havardi  

E-print Network

, lt is evil for them; especially for young lambs, which will kill them; and likewise of other cartel ". The next literature reference on oak leaf toxicity does not appear until Cornevin2 in 1893 treated the subject quite fully. He reported on a severe... in the alimentary canal, The workers concluded that it was doubtful whether the tannin in the oak was the fundamental cause of the trouble and that tannic acid could not be the cause of oak bush poisoning. 10 Steyn, in 1934, reviewed the literature on oak...

Pigeon, Robert F

1961-01-01

226

Cardiac conditions.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the US. The growth of the older population in coming decades will inevitably increase the incidence of age-related cardiac disease. Increasing evidence has shown the prevalence of co-morbid mental health conditions in CVD patients. Specifically, depression and anxiety have been linked with CVD mortality. Due to the risk of psychosocial conditions with cardiac patients, mental health practitioners in health and gerontology need to be well-informed about CVD-related mental health comorbidity and current research developments. Accordingly, this article provides a systematic review of the clinical evidence about the efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and any potential risk of psychosocial intervention with cardiac patients. PMID:18924386

Peck, Michel D; Ai, Amy L

2008-01-01

227

Flavone C-glycosides from Bryonia alba and B. dioica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lutonarin was isolated from Bryonia alba and B. dioica. Five further C-glycosides: vitexin, isovitexin, isoorientin, saponarin were isolated from B. dioica together with saponarin caffeic ester, a new natural product.

Miroslawa Krauze-Baranowska; Wojciech Cisowski

1995-01-01

228

3-hydroxycoumarin glycosides from Alyxia reinwardti var. Lucida.  

PubMed

Investigation of the inner bark of Alyxia reinwardti var. lucida led to the isolation of two new coumarin glycosides, 1 and 2, whose structures were determined by interpretation of their spectroscopic data, particularly NMR spectroscopy. PMID:7764154

Lin, L J; Lin, L Z; Ruangrungsi, N; Cordell, G A

1993-10-01

229

Flavonol glycosides from the flowers of Bellis perennis.  

PubMed

Three flavonol glycosides, isorhamnetin 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-beta-D-(6"-acetyl)-galactopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside were isolated from the flowers of Bellis perennis. PMID:11677029

Gudej, J; Nazaruk, J

2001-11-01

230

Flavonol glycosides from the flowers of Bellis perennis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three flavonol glycosides, isorhamnetin 3-O-?-d-galactopyranoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-?-d-(6?-acetyl)-galactopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-?-d-glucopyranoside were isolated from the flowers of Bellis perennis.

J Gudej; J Nazaruk

2001-01-01

231

A new aryl glycoside from Euphorbia helioscopia L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new aryl glycoside, 3?-O-galloyl-benzyl-O-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-d-glucopyranoside, was isolated from Euphorbia helioscopia L., and its structure was elucidated on the basis of various spectroscopic data analysis.

Wei Sheng Feng; Li Gao; Xiao Ke Zheng; Yan Zhi Wang

2009-01-01

232

A new lathyrane diterpene glycoside from Euphorbia helioscopia L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new lathyrane diterpene glycoside, named 3?, 7?, 15?-trihydroxy-14-oxolathyra-5E, 12E-dienyl-16-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, was isolated from Euphorbia helioscopia L. Its structure was established by spectroscopic techniques including 2D NMR.

Wei Sheng Feng; Li Gao; Xiao Ke Zheng; Yan Zhi Wang; Hui Chen

2010-01-01

233

Cattle and sheep develop preference for drinking water containing grape seed tannin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ingestion of small amounts of some types of condensed tannins by ruminant livestock can provide benefits to the animals, their producers and the environment. However, practical methods are needed to make these tannin more available to livestock. Results from previous trials with crude quebracho an...

234

Membrane lipids protected from oxidation by red wine tannins: a proton NMR study.  

PubMed

Dietary polyphenols widespread in vegetables and beverages like red wine and tea have been reported to possess antioxidant properties that could have positive effects on human health. In this study, we propose a new in situ and non-invasive method based on proton liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to determine the antioxidant efficiency of red wine tannins on a twice-unsaturated phospholipid, 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLiPC), embedded in a membrane model. Four tannins were studied: (+)-catechin (C), (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). The lipid degradation kinetics was determined by measuring the loss of the bis-allylic protons during oxidation induced by a radical initiator, 2,2'-Azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH). The antioxidant efficiency, i.e. the ability of tannins to slow down the lipid oxidation rate, was shown to be higher for galloylated tannins, ECG and EGCG. Furthermore, the mixture of four tannins was more efficient than the most effective tannin, EGCG, demonstrating a synergistic effect. To better understand the antioxidant action mechanism of polyphenols on lipid membranes, the tannin location was investigated by NMR and molecular dynamics. A correlation between antioxidant action of tannins and their location at the membrane interface (inserted at the glycerol backbone level) could thus be established. PMID:25063276

Furlan, Aurélien L; Jobin, Marie-Lise; Buchoux, Sébastien; Grélard, Axelle; Dufourc, Erick J; Géan, Julie

2014-12-01

235

Effect of tannins on nitrogen balance and microbial activity of rumen fluid in sheep and goats  

E-print Network

Effect of tannins on nitrogen balance and microbial activity of rumen fluid in sheep and goats H the grazing animal performances. This study was designed to investigate the effect of tannins on the nitrogen balance in sheep and goats and on potentially related parameters such as plasma urea nitrogen (PUN

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

236

Condensed tannins deter feeding by browsing ruminants in a South African savanna  

Microsoft Academic Search

The palatability of 14 species of woody plant was assessed for three species of browsing ruminant, namely kudus, impalas and goats. Results show that palatability was most clearly related to leaf contents of condensed tannins. The effect was a threshold one, with all plants containing more than 5% condensed tannins being rejected as food during the wet season period. In

S. M. Cooper; N. Owen-Smith

1985-01-01

237

Sorption of tannin-C by soils affects soil cation exchange capacity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Some tannins, produced by plants, are able to sorb to soil, and thus influence soil organic matter and nutrient cycling. However, studies are needed that compare sorption of tannins to other related phenolic compounds, evaluate their effects across a broad range of soils, and determine if sorption ...

238

Tannins — a dietary problem for hand-reared grey partridge Perdix perdix after release?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 4-week feeding trial on 22 grey partridges Perdix perdix was conducted in this study. Seven birds were fed commercial poultry food, seven natural food and eight commercial poultry food containing 6% of quebracho–tannin. Our results suggest that 6% dietary tannin, when added to a commercial food with high protein content, effects the grey partridge only slightly. No difference was

Tuija Liukkonen-Anttila; Airi Kentala; Raimo Hissa

2001-01-01

239

Polyflavonoid tannins — a main cause of soft-rot failure in CCA-treated timber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyflavonoid tannins are proven to be fast-reacting with CCA solutions and hence, to be strong competitors of the structural wood constituents for fixation of CCA preservatives. The consequence of this effect is that even relatively small amounts of tannin cause severe undertreatment of the structural wood constituents which in turn badly affects the long term durability of CCA treated timber.

A. Pizzi; A. Jansen

1986-01-01

240

Use of condensed tannin extract from quebracho trees to reduce methane emissions from cattle.  

PubMed

Our objective was to determine if condensed tannin extract from quebracho trees (Schinopsis quebracho-colorado; red quebracho) could be used to reduce enteric methane emissions from cattle. The experiment was designed as a repeated 3 x 3 Latin square (4 squares) with 3 treatments (0, 1, and 2% of dietary DM as quebracho tannin extract) and 3 28-d periods. Six spayed Angus heifers (238 +/- 13.3 kg of initial BW) and 6 Angus steers (207 +/- 8.2 kg of initial BW) were each assigned to 2 squares. The measured condensed tannin content of the extract was 91%, and the basal diet contained 70% forage (DM basis). Feeding quebracho tannin extract had no effect on BW, ADG, or nutrient intakes. Furthermore, it had no effect on DM, energy, or fiber (ADF and NDF) digestibility, but apparent digestibility of CP decreased linearly (P < 0.001) by 5 and 15% with 1 and 2% quebracho tannin extract, respectively. There were no effects of quebracho tannin extract on methane emissions (g/d, g/kg of DM, % of GE intake, or % of DE intake). Feeding up to 2% of the dietary DM as quebracho tannin extract failed to reduce enteric methane emissions from growing cattle, although the protein-binding effect of the quebracho tannin extract was evident. PMID:17468433

Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M; Martinez, T F; McAllister, T A

2007-08-01

241

Research observation: Hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in plants of the northwest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tannins are secondary metabolites that may influence feeding by mammals on plants. We analyzed hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in 30 plant species consumed by livestock and deer, as a preliminary attempt to study their possible implications on browsing and grazing in forest ecosystems. Heathers (Ericaceae) and plants of the Rose (Rosaceae) family had tannins, while forbs, grasses and shrubs other than the heathers did not show astringency properties. We found the highest tannin content of all the species in Rubus sp., with the highest value around 180 mg TAE/g dry weight in spring. Potentilla erecta, Alnus glutinosa and Quercus robur were next with 57 to 44 mg TAE/g dw. Total tannins in heathers ranged from 22 to 36 mg TAE/g dw. Levels of condensed tannins were higher than hydrolyzable for most of the species. Only Betula alba, Calluna vulgaris, Pteridium aquilinum and Vaccinium myrtillus had 100% hydrolyzable tannins. Tannin content of the species changed seasonally with highest values during the growing season, corresponding to late winter or early spring, depending on the species.

Gonzalez-Hernandez, M. P.; Karchesy, J.; Starkey, Edward E.

2003-01-01

242

Research observation: Hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in plants of northwest Spain forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tannins are secondary metabolites that may influence feeding by mammals on plants. We analyzed hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in 30 plant species consumed by livestock and deer, as a preliminary attempt to study their possible implications on browsing and grazing in forest ecosystems. Heathers (Ericaceae) and plants of the Rose (Rosaceae) family had tannins, while forbs, grasses and shrubs other than the heathers did not show astringency properties. We found the highest tannin content of all the species in Rubus sp., with the highest value around 180 mg TAE/g dry weight in spring. Potentilla erecta, Alnus glutinosa and Quercus robur were next with 57 to 44 mg TAE/g dw. Total tannins in heathers ranged from 22 to 36 mg TAE/g dw. Levels of condensed tannins were higher than hydrolyzable for most of the species. Only Betula alba, Calluna vulgaris, Pteridium aquilinum and Vaccinium myrtillus had 100% hydrolyzable tannins. Tannin content of the species changed seasonally with highest values during the growing season, corresponding to late winter or early spring, depending on the species.

Gonzalez-Hernandez, M. P.; Karchesy, J.; Starkey, E.E.

2003-01-01

243

SORPTION OF TANNIN AND RELATED PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AND EFFECTS ON SOLUBLE-N IN SOIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Some tannins, plant-derived polyphenolic compounds, can rapidly affix to soil and affect the solubility of labile soil-N but a more complete understanding of the nature and persistence of tannin-soil interactions is needed. Forest and pasture soils from two depths were treated for 1 h with cool (23...

244

CONDENSED TANNIN CONCENTRATION OF RHIZOMATOUS AND NON-RHIZOMATOUS BIRDSFOOT TREFOIL IN GRAZED MIXTURES AND MONOCULTURES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Condensed tannins in forage legumes can be beneficial or detrimental to ruminant livestock performance, depending on concentration. The objective of this research was to determine condensed tannin concentration in birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) without rhizomes (BFT) and with rhizomes (R...

245

Tannin content and rate of ruminal protein degradation of legume hays  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This work evaluated ruminal protein degradation rates of legume hays that varied in tannin content. Two cuttings of 5 varieties of birdsfoot trefoil, (Lotus corniculatus), selected for different tannin contents but similar NDF and CP contents, and Spredor 4 alfalfa (control) were conserved as hay. S...

246

A critical analysis of techniques for measuring tannins in ecological studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of seventeen plant extracts rich in phenolic materials, including condensed and hydrolysable tannins, have been subjected to a series of chemical analyses in an attempt to gather ecologically significant information about their structure. Procedures investigated were (i) the Folin-Denis and Hagerman and Butler methods for quantifying total phenolics, (ii) the vanillin and proanthocyanidin methods for quantifying condensed tannins,

S. Mole; P. G. Waterman

1987-01-01

247

VARIATION IN MAMMALIAN PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO A CONDENSED TANNIN AND ITS ECOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ansrnacr.-Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), domestic sheep (Oois aries), and American black bears (Ursus americanus) were fed quebracho (Schinopsis sp.) tannin to determine the contribution of salivary proteins to nitrogen- and fiber-digestive efficiencies and tannin metabolism. These values were compared to previously published values for laboratory rats (Ratfus rattus) and prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Mule deer, black bears, and laboratory rats

C. T. RossrNS; P. J. AusrrN; T. A. HeNr-rv

248

Determination of Chemical Composition of Carob ( Ceratonia siliqua): Protein, Fat, Carbohydrates, and Tannins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carob pod, germ, and seed were analyzed for moisture, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrates, and particularly for their tannin content. Recovery of tannins as affected by various solvent extraction systems was investigated. Carob pod meal contained high levels of carbohydrates (45%), appreciable amounts of protein (3%), and low levels of fat (0.6%). Germ and seed meal contained more fat and less

R. Avallone; M. Plessi; M. Baraldi; A. Monzani

1997-01-01

249

Influence of high tannin grain sorghum on gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous studies have demonstrated that condensed tannin-rich forages such as sericea lespedeza can control gastrointestinal nematode infection (GIN) in goats. The objective of three experiments (EXP) was to determine the influence of high tannin grain sorghum on GIN in goats. Naturally infected B...

250

Evaluation of methods for analysis of tannins and other polyphenolic compounds in Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench) grain  

E-print Network

, of 4-62 is reported ('") when this method is used on purified polyphenols (pyrogallol, pyrocatechol, gallic acid) of known concentration. Tannin percentage would be based upon the standard used, Tannin in Sor hum Grain Effect of tannins on sor hum...), Location and identification of sor hum tan~ins. Polyphenolic pigments, which are considered to be tannins, are found in all portions of the kernel (7). However, the predominant locations are the pericarp and testa (8, 44, 46, 47). These pigments migrate...

Maxson, Erwin Daniel

1971-01-01

251

Cardiac angiosarcoma.  

PubMed

Angiosarcoma is one of the most common cardiac tumors, but early detection of this tumor is often difficult, as exemplified by our patient, a 55-year-old woman whose cardiac tumor was first detected by echocardiography. Surgical removal of the tumor was impossible due to its extensive pericardial invasion. Pathological diagnosis was not complete before autopsy because of the wide occupied necrotized area of the tumor. There is no diagnostic imaging technique available to detect such a necrotized area. An imaging technique more powerful than echocardiography and able to diagnose angiosarcoma earlier is needed. PMID:8933189

Ohtahara, A; Hattori, K; Fukuki, M; Hirata, S; Ahmmed, G U; Kato, M; Fujimoto, Y; Shigemasa, C; Mashiba, H

1996-10-01

252

Two new triterpenoidal glycosides from Medicago polymorpha L.  

PubMed

Two new triterpenoid glycosides called medicago-saponins P1 (1) and P2 (2) were isolated together with five known glycosides from the aerial parts of Medicago polymorpha L. (Leguminosae). The structures of 1 and 2 were determined to be 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl caulophyllogenin 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside and the desglucoside of 1. PMID:8069980

Kinjo, J; Uemura, H; Nakamura, M; Nohara, T

1994-06-01

253

A new phenylpropanoid glycosides from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis.  

PubMed

A new phenylpropanoid glycosides, 2-feruloyl-O-alpha-D-glucopyranoyl-(1'-->2)-3,6-O-feruloyl-beta-D-fructofuranoside, was isolated from the root of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The structure of the new glycoside was elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Cytotoxicity test showed that it has cytotoxic effect in a dose-dependent manner against the mice lung adenocarcinoma cell line (LA795). PMID:18353566

Yan, Lulu; Gao, Wenyuan; Zhang, Yanjun; Wang, Yu

2008-06-01

254

Furostanol glycosides from the rhizomes of Helleborus orientalis.  

PubMed

Eight new furostanol glycosides (1-8), together with two known ones (9 and 10), have been isolated from a glycoside-enriched fraction prepared from the rhizomes of Helleborus orientalis (Ranunculaceae). The structures of 1-8 were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR, and the results of hydrolytic cleavage. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against HSC-2 cells. PMID:20563660

Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Matsuo, Yukiko; Watanabe, Kazuki; Sakagami, Hiroshi

2010-10-01

255

Characterization and Synergistic Interactions of Fibrobacter succinogenes Glycoside Hydrolases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to characterize Fibrobacter succinogenes glycoside hydrolases from different glycoside hydrolase families and to study their synergistic interactions. The gene encoding a major endoglu- canase (endoglucanase 1) of F. succinogenes S85 was identified as cel9B from the genome sequence by reference to internal amino acid sequences of the purified native enzyme. Cel9B and two other

Meng Qi; Hyun-Sik Jun; Cecil W. Forsberg

2007-01-01

256

Verbascoside derivatives and iridoid glycosides from Penstemon crandallii.  

PubMed

The new phenylethanoid glycosides 2-O-acetyl-3'''-O-methylverbascoside and 2,4"-di-O-acetyl-3'''-O-methylverbascoside were isolated and identified from Penstemon crandallii. The major iridoid glycoside was plantarenaloside and no aucubin type iridoids were found. This contrasted with a previous analysis of P. teucrioides, from the same Penstemon subsection, which was dominated by aucubin derivatives. PMID:7669280

Ismail, L D; el-Azizi, M M; Khalifa, T I; Stermitz, F R

1995-08-01

257

Trans-fused iridoid glycosides from Penstemon mucronatus.  

PubMed

Two new trans-fused iridoid glycosides (5 alpha H)-6 alpha-8-epidihydrocornin and (5 alpha H)-6 alpha-8-hydroxy-8-epiloganin, were isolated from Penstemon mucronatus, along with cornin, penstemoside and three hastatosides. The trans-fused iridoids are only the second and third known among over 900 described cis-fused iridoid glycosides. Two pairs of iridoids, identical except for the stereochemistry at C-8, were found. Structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. PMID:9887533

Krull, R E; Stermitz, F R

1998-12-01

258

Pre-fermentation addition of grape tannin increases the varietal thiols content in wine.  

PubMed

The recent finding that grape tannin may contain significant amount of S-glutathionylated (GSH-3MH) and S-cysteinylated (Cys-3MH) precursors of the varietal thiols 3-mercapto-1-hexanol and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate, characteristic of Sauvignon blanc wines, offers new opportunities for enhancing the tropical aroma in fermented beverages. In this study this new hypothesis was investigated: Müller Thurgau (17 samples) and Sauvignon blanc (15 samples) grapes were fermented with and without addition of a selected grape tannin. As expected, the tannin-added juices were higher in precursors, and they produced wines with increased free thiols. Preliminary informal sensory tests confirmed that in particular the Sauvignon wines produced with the tannin addition were often richer with increased "fruity/green" notes than the corresponding reference wines. This outcome confirms that grape tannin addition prior to fermentation can fortify the level of these compounds. PMID:25053028

Larcher, Roberto; Tonidandel, Loris; Román Villegas, Tomás; Nardin, Tiziana; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Nicolini, Giorgio

2015-01-01

259

Endothelial cell cytotoxicity of cotton bracts tannin and aqueous cotton bracts extract  

SciTech Connect

Using an in vitro cytotoxicity assay based on the release of /sup 51/Cr from cultured porcine thoracic aortic and pulmonary arterial endothelial cells, we have demonstrated that cotton bracts tannin is a potent endothelial cell cytotoxin. It produces dose-dependent lethal injury to both types of endothelial cells with the aortic cells, being somewhat more sensitive to tannin-mediated injury than the pulmonary arterial cells. Cytotoxic injury to the cells was biphasic. During the first 3 hr of exposure to tannin, no lethal injury was detected. However, during this period, profound changes in morphology were observed suggesting sublethal injury to the cells preceded the ultimate toxic damage. Comparison of the cytotoxicity dose curves for aqueous bracts extracts with those for tannin demonstrated that tannin was major cytotoxin present in bracts.

Johnson, C.M.; Hanson, M.N.; Rohrbach, M.S.

1986-04-01

260

Stability of steviol glycosides in several food matrices.  

PubMed

As steviol glycosides are now allowed as a food additive in the European market, it is important to assess the stability of these steviol glycosides after they have been added to different food matrices. We analyzed and tested the stability of steviol glycosides in semiskimmed milk, soy drink, fermented milk drink, ice cream, full-fat and skimmed set yogurt, dry biscuits, and jam. The fat was removed by centrifugation from the dairy and soy drink samples. Proteins were precipitated by the addition of acetonitrile and also removed by centrifugation. Samples of jam were extracted with water. Dry biscuits were extracted with ethanol. The resulting samples were concentrated with solid-phase extraction and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography on a C18 stationary phase and a gradient of acetonitrile/aqueous 25 mM phosphoric acid. The accuracy was checked using a standard addition on some samples. For assessing the stability of the steviol glycosides, samples were stored in conditions relevant to each food matrix and analyzed periodically. The results indicate that steviol glycosides can be analyzed with good precision and accuracy in these food categories. The recovery was between 96 and 103%. The method was also validated by standard addition, which showed excellent agreement with the external calibration curve. No sign of decomposition of steviol glycosides was found in any of the samples. PMID:23020306

Jooken, Etienne; Amery, Ruis; Struyf, Tom; Duquenne, Barbara; Geuns, Jan; Meesschaert, Boudewijn

2012-10-24

261

Isolation and Characterization of Proteolytic Ruminal Bacteria from Sheep and Goats Fed the Tannin-Containing Shrub Legume Calliandra calothyrsus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannins in forages complex with protein and reduce the availability of nitrogen to ruminants. Ruminal bacteria that ferment protein or peptides in the presence of tannins may benefit digestion of these diets. Bacteria from the rumina of sheep and goats fed Calliandra calothyrsus (3.6% N and 6% condensed tannin) were isolated on proteinaceous agar medium overlaid with either condensed (calliandra

CHRISTOPHER S. MCSWEENEY; BRIAN PALMER; ROWAN BUNCH; DENIS O. KRAUSE

1999-01-01

262

Tannin-binding proteins in saliva of deer and their absence in saliva of sheep and cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed for detecting tannin-binding proteins in the saliva of herbivores. The method is simple and requires only small quantities of crude saliva. The saliva of deer, a browsing ruminant, has been compared to that of domestic sheep and cow, which are grazing ruminants. The browser, which normally ingests dietary tannin, produces tannin-binding proteins, while the grazers

Paul J. Austin; Lisa A. Suchar; Charles T. Robbins; Ann E. Hagerman

1989-01-01

263

Chelation of Cu(II), Zn(II), and Fe(II) by Tannin Constituents of Selected Edible Nuts  

PubMed Central

The tannin fractions isolated from hazelnuts, walnuts and almonds were characterised by colorimetric assays and by an SE-HPLC technique. The complexation of Cu(II) and Zn(II) was determined by the reaction with tetramethylmurexide, whereas for Fe(II), ferrozine was employed. The walnut tannins exhibited a significantly weaker reaction with the vanillin/HCl reagent than hazelnut and almond tannins, but the protein precipitation capacity of the walnut fraction was high. The SE-HPLC chromatogram of the tannin fraction from hazelnuts revealed the presence of oligomers with higher molecular weights compared to that of almonds. Copper ions were most effectively chelated by the constituents of the tannin fractions of hazelnuts, walnuts and almonds. At a 0.2 mg/assay addition level, the walnut tannins complexed almost 100% Cu(II). The Fe(II) complexation capacities of the tannin fractions of walnuts and hazelnuts were weaker in comparison to that of the almond tannin fraction, which at a 2.5 mg/assay addition level, bound Fe(II) by ~90%. The capacity to chelate Zn(II) was quite varied for the different nut tannin fractions: almond tannins bound as much as 84% Zn(II), whereas the value for walnut tannins was only 8.7%; and for hazelnut tannins, no Zn(II) chelation took place at the levels tested. PMID:20054482

Karama?, Magdalena

2009-01-01

264

PII S0016-7037(01)00641-X Tannin diagenesis in mangrove leaves from a tropical estuary: A novel  

E-print Network

PII S0016-7037(01)00641-X Tannin diagenesis in mangrove leaves from a tropical estuary: A novel--Molecular-level condensed tannin analyses were conducted on a series of mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) leaves at various stages of decomposition in a tropical estuary. Total molecular tannin yields ranged from 0.5% ash

Hernes, Peter J.

265

Changes in the structural composition and reactivity of Acer rubrum leaf litter tannins exposed to warming and  

E-print Network

Changes in the structural composition and reactivity of Acer rubrum leaf litter tannins exposed to warming and altered precipitation: climatic stress-induced tannins are more reactive Nishanth Tharayil1 magnetic resonance (NMR), proanthocyanidin, secondary metabolite, tannins. Summary · Climate change could

Dukes, Jeffrey

266

Changes in the structural composition and reactivity of Acer rubrum leaf litter tannins exposed to warming and  

E-print Network

Changes in the structural composition and reactivity of Acer rubrum leaf litter tannins exposed to warming and altered precipitation: climatic stress-induced tannins are more reactive Nishanth Tharayil1 resonance (NMR), proanthocyanidin, secondary metabolite, tannins. Summary · Climate change could increase

Dukes, Jeffrey

267

Systematic studies of tannin-formaldehyde aerogels: preparation and properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gelation of tannin-formaldehyde (TF) solutions was systematically investigated by changing pH and concentration of TF resin in water. In this way we constructed the TF phase diagram, from which chemical hydrogels could be described, and also synthesized thermoreversible tannin-based hydrogels. Conditions of non-gelation were also determined. Hydrogels were dried in supercritical CO2, leading to a broad range of TF aerogels. The latter were investigated for volume shrinkage, total porosity, micro-, meso- and macropore volumes, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, microscopic texture, mechanical and thermal properties. All these properties are discussed in relation to each other, leading to an accurate and self-consistent description of these bioresource-based highly porous materials. The conditions for obtaining the highest BET surface area or mesopore volume were determined and explained in relation to the preparation conditions. The highest BET surface area, 880 m2 g-1, is remarkably high for organic aerogels derived from a natural resource.

Amaral-Labat, Gisele; Szczurek, Andrzej; Fierro, Vanessa; Pizzi, Antonio; Celzard, Alain

2013-02-01

268

Diterpene glycosides and polyketides from Xylotumulus gibbisporus.  

PubMed

Four new tetracyclic diterpene glycosides, namely, sordarins C-F (1-4), and three new ?-lactone polyketides, namely, xylogiblactones A-C (5-7), along with sordarin were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of the fermented broths of Xylotumulus gibbisporus YMJ863. The structures of 1-7 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses. The configurations of 1-4 were deduced by NOESY, molecular modeling, and comparison with the literature. The relative configurations of 5-7 were deduced by X-ray crystallographic analysis of 5. Compounds 1-5 and sordarin were evaluated in an antifungal assay using Candida albicans ATCC 18804, C. albicans ATCC MYA-2876, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 2345, and only sordarin exhibited significant antifungal activities against these fungal strains, with MIC values of 64.0, 32.0, and 32.0 ?g/mL, respectively. The effect of compounds 1-7 and sordarin on the inhibition of NO production in lipopolysaccharide-activated murine macrophages was also evaluated. Compounds 2 and sordarin inhibited NO production with IC50 values of 327.2±46.6 and 157.1±24.1 ?M, respectively. PMID:24597849

Chang, Ya-Chih; Lu, Chung-Kuang; Chiang, Yin-Ru; Wang, Guei-Jane; Ju, Yu-Ming; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Lee, Tzong-Huei

2014-04-25

269

Structures of some novel ?-glucosyl diterpene glycosides from the glycosylation of steviol glycosides.  

PubMed

Four new minor diterpene glycosides with a rare ?-glucosyl linkage were isolated from a cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase glucosylated stevia extract containing more than 98% steviol glycosides. The new compounds were identified as 13-[(2-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-(4-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid-[(4-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl) ester] (1), 13-[(2-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid-[(4-O-(4-O-(4-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl ester] (2), 13-[(2-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-(4-O-(4-O-(4-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid ?-D-glucopyranosyl ester (3), and 13-[(2-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-(4-O-(4-O-(4-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl- ?-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid-[(4-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl) ester] (4) on the basis of extensive NMR and mass spectral (MS) data as well as hydrolysis studies. PMID:25486243

Prakash, Indra; Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash

2014-01-01

270

Antioxidant status of faeces of captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in relation to dietary tannin supplementation.  

PubMed

In context with the frequent observations of excessive iron (Fe) storage in captive black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis), it has been suggested that both an excessive dietary Fe content and a lack of dietary Fe-chelating substances, such as tannins, is the underlying cause. Therefore, studies on the effects of tannin supplementation to captive diet are warranted. Six captive rhinoceroses were fed their normal zoo diet (N), and a similar diet supplemented with either tannic acid (T, hydrolysable tannin) or quebracho (Q, condensed tannins), and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured as mmol Trolox equivalents per kg fresh faeces. The TAC values on diets N (1.24 +/- 0.39 mmol/kg fresh faeces) and T (1.34 +/- 0.33 mmol/kg fresh faeces) were similar, but significantly higher on diet Q (2.32 +/- 0.61 mmol/kg fresh faeces). In contrast to expectations, faecal TAC increased with increasing faecal Fe, possibly as a result of the fact that the faecal Fe content was positively correlated to the proportion of concentrate feeds in the diet, which also contain antioxidants, such as vitamin E, in addition to Fe. Increased antioxidant status caused by the use of tannin substances could have a beneficial effect on animal health, but if tannins should be incorporated in designed diets, other tannin sources, such as grape pomace should be tested. PMID:16901277

Clauss, M; Pellegrini, N; Castell, J C; Kienzle, E; Dierenfeld, E S; Hummel, J; Flach, E J; Streich, W J; Hatt, J-M

2006-08-01

271

Interference of condensed tannin in lignin analyses of dry bean and forage crops.  

PubMed

Legumes with high concentrations of condensed tannin (pinto bean [Phaseolus vulgaris L.], sainfoin [Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.], and big trefoil [Lotus uliginosus Hoff.]), were compared to a selection of forages, with low or zero condensed tannin (smooth bromegrass [ Bromus inermis Leyss], Lotus japonicus [Regel] K. Larsen, and alfalfa [Medicago sativa L.]), using four methods to estimate fiber or lignin. Protocols were validated by using semipurified condensed tannin polymers in adulteration assays that tested low-lignin tissue with polyphenolic-enriched samples. The effect on lignin assay methods by condensed tannin concentration was interpreted using a multivariate analysis. There was an overestimation of fiber or lignin in the presence of condensed tannin in the acid detergent fiber (ADF) and Klason lignin (KL) assays compared to that in the thioglycolic acid (TGA) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) methods. Sulfite reagents (present in TGA lignin method) or sequential acidic digests at high temperatures (ADF followed by ADL) were required to eliminate condensed tannin. The ADF (alone) and KL protocols are not recommended to screen nonwoody plants, such as forages, where condensed tannin has accumulated in the tissue. PMID:18841900

Marles, M A Susan; Coulman, Bruce E; Bett, Kirstin E

2008-11-12

272

How to gain insight into the polydispersity of tannins: a combined MS and LC study.  

PubMed

In the context of the potential health benefits of food polyphenols, the bioavailability of tannins (i.e. proanthocyanidins) is a major issue, which is strongly influenced by the polydispersity and the degree of polymerisation of tannins. The average degree of polymerisation (DP) of tannins is usually determined using depolymerisation methods, which do not provide any information about their polymer distribution. Moreover, it is still a challenge to characterise tannin fractions of high polydispersity and/or containing polymers of high molecular weights, due to the limit of detection of direct mass spectrometry (MS) analysis methods. In the present work, the polydispersity of several tannin fractions is investigated by two complementary methods: a MALDI-MS method and a semi-preparative sub-fractionation. Using a combination of these methods we are able to gain insight into the DP distributions of the fractions consisting of tannins of medium and high DP. Moreover combining analyses can be useful to assess and compare the DP distributions of most tannin fractions. PMID:25038686

Mouls, Laetitia; Hugouvieux, Virginie; Mazauric, Jean-Paul; Sommerer, Nicolas; Mazerolles, Gérard; Fulcrand, Hélène

2014-12-15

273

The influence of dietary tannin supplementation on digestive performance in captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis).  

PubMed

Free-ranging browsers such as the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) consume a diet that contains tannins, whereas the diets offered to them in captivity consist mostly of items known to contain hardly any such secondary plant compounds. Tannins could have potentially beneficial effects, including the chelation of dietary iron (iron storage disease is a common problem in black rhinos). Here, we tested the acceptance, and the consequences on digestion variables, of a low-dose tannin supplementation in captive animals. Eight black rhinoceroses from three zoological institutions were used. Faecal output was quantified by total faecal collection. Diets fed were regular zoo diets supplemented with either tannic acid (T, hydrolysable tannin) or quebracho (Q, condensed tannins); overall tannin source intake increased at 5-15 g/kg dry matter (DM) in relation to regular zoo diets. Adaptation periods to the new diets were >2 months. Additional data were taken from one hitherto unpublished study. Data were compared to measurements in the same animals on their regular zoo diets. All animals accepted the new diets without hesitation. There was no influence of tannin supplementation on digestion coefficients of DM and its constituents, or faecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids or lactate. Water intake did not increase during tannin supplementation. Should the inclusion of dietary tannin sources be an objective in the development of diets for captive rhinoceroses, moderate doses such as used in this study are unlikely to cause relevant depressions of digestive efficiency and will not interfere with bacterial fermentation in a relevant way. PMID:17988348

Clauss, M; Castell, J C; Kienzle, E; Dierenfeld, E S; Flach, E J; Behlert, O; Ortmann, S; Streich, W J; Hummel, J; Hatt, J-M

2007-12-01

274

Cardiac optogenetics.  

PubMed

Optogenetics is an emerging technology for optical interrogation and control of biological function with high specificity and high spatiotemporal resolution. Mammalian cells and tissues can be sensitized to respond to light by a relatively simple and well-tolerated genetic modification using microbial opsins (light-gated ion channels and pumps). These can achieve fast and specific excitatory or inhibitory response, offering distinct advantages over traditional pharmacological or electrical means of perturbation. Since the first demonstrations of utility in mammalian cells (neurons) in 2005, optogenetics has spurred immense research activity and has inspired numerous applications for dissection of neural circuitry and understanding of brain function in health and disease, applications ranging from in vitro to work in behaving animals. Only recently (since 2010), the field has extended to cardiac applications with less than a dozen publications to date. In consideration of the early phase of work on cardiac optogenetics and the impact of the technique in understanding another excitable tissue, the brain, this review is largely a perspective of possibilities in the heart. It covers the basic principles of operation of light-sensitive ion channels and pumps, the available tools and ongoing efforts in optimizing them, overview of neuroscience use, as well as cardiac-specific questions of implementation and ideas for best use of this emerging technology in the heart. PMID:23457014

Entcheva, Emilia

2013-05-01

275

Cardiac optogenetics  

PubMed Central

Optogenetics is an emerging technology for optical interrogation and control of biological function with high specificity and high spatiotemporal resolution. Mammalian cells and tissues can be sensitized to respond to light by a relatively simple and well-tolerated genetic modification using microbial opsins (light-gated ion channels and pumps). These can achieve fast and specific excitatory or inhibitory response, offering distinct advantages over traditional pharmacological or electrical means of perturbation. Since the first demonstrations of utility in mammalian cells (neurons) in 2005, optogenetics has spurred immense research activity and has inspired numerous applications for dissection of neural circuitry and understanding of brain function in health and disease, applications ranging from in vitro to work in behaving animals. Only recently (since 2010), the field has extended to cardiac applications with less than a dozen publications to date. In consideration of the early phase of work on cardiac optogenetics and the impact of the technique in understanding another excitable tissue, the brain, this review is largely a perspective of possibilities in the heart. It covers the basic principles of operation of light-sensitive ion channels and pumps, the available tools and ongoing efforts in optimizing them, overview of neuroscience use, as well as cardiac-specific questions of implementation and ideas for best use of this emerging technology in the heart. PMID:23457014

2013-01-01

276

Cardiac Surgery  

PubMed Central

Well into the first decades of the 20th century, medical opinion held that any surgical attempts to treat heart disease were not only misguided, but unethical. Despite such reservations, innovative surgeons showed that heart wounds could be successfully repaired. Then, extracardiac procedures were performed to correct patent ductus arteriosus, coarctation of the aorta, and tetralogy of Fallot. Direct surgery on the heart was accomplished with closed commissurotomy for mitral stenosis. The introduction of the heart-lung machine and cardiopulmonary bypass enabled the surgical treatment of other congenital and acquired heart diseases. Advances in aortic surgery paralleled these successes. The development of coronary artery bypass grafting greatly aided the treatment of coronary heart disease. Cardiac transplantation, attempts to use the total artificial heart, and the application of ventricular assist devices have brought us to the present day. Although progress in the field of cardiovascular surgery appears to have slowed when compared with the halcyon times of the past, substantial challenges still face cardiac surgeons. It can only be hoped that sufficient resources and incentive can carry the triumphs of the 20th century into the 21st. This review covers past developments and future opportunities in cardiac surgery. PMID:22163121

Weisse, Allen B.

2011-01-01

277

Glycosidations of 2-deoxy glycosyl dithiophosphates using a tagged iodine(III)-promoter for simple purification.  

PubMed

The preparation of the 4-i-butylsulfonate derivative of the Zefirov reagent (5) and its use in a novel purification strategy for iodine(III)-promoted glycosidations of 2-deoxy diethyldithiophosphate glycosides is described. PMID:18292881

Kunst, Eike; Gallier, Florian; Dujardin, Gilles; Kirschning, Andreas

2008-03-01

278

Sudden Cardiac Arrest  

MedlinePLUS

... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Sudden Cardiac Arrest? Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is a condition in which the heart ... This Content: Next >> April 1, 2011 Sudden Cardiac Arrest Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...

279

Cardiac pacemakers: an update.  

PubMed

In this update of cardiac pacing we review the new revised ACC/AHA/NASPE Guidelines for implantation of cardiac pacemakers, including selection of pacing mode, possible new indications, and other more recent advances in cardiac pacing. PMID:15008358

Johnson, Charles D; Arzola-Castañer, Daniel

2003-01-01

280

Cardiac Syndrome X  

MedlinePLUS

... What causes cardiac syndrome X? There are many theories about what causes cardiac syndrome X. Some doctors ... disease. How is cardiac syndrome X treated? A number of medicines can help relieve the angina pain ...

281

Complexation of alkyl glycosides with ?-cyclodextrin can have drastically different effects on their conversion by glycoside hydrolases.  

PubMed

Substrates present in aggregated forms, such as micelles, are often poorly converted by enzymes. Alkyl glycosides constitute typical examples and the critical micelle concentration (CMC) decreases with increasing length of the alkyl group. In this study, possibilities to hydrolyse alkyl glycosides by glycoside hydrolases were explored, and ?-cyclodextrin was used as an agent to form inclusion complexes with the alkyl glycosides, thereby preventing micelle formation. The cyclodextrin complexes were accepted as substrates by the enzymes to variable extent. The ?-glucosidases originating from Thermotoga neapolitana (Tn Bgl3B) and from almond were not at all able to hydrolyse alkyl ?-glucosides in the presence of 100mM ?-cyclodextrin. However, Aspergillus niger amyloglucosidase readily accepted the complexes as substrates. In reactions involving decyl and dodecyl maltosides, the presence of 100mM ?-cyclodextrin caused an increase in reaction rate in most cases, especially at high substrate concentrations. Surprisingly, the amyloglucosidase-catalyzed hydrolysis of octyl-?-maltoside to glucose and ?-octylglucoside was faster in the presence of ?-cyclodextrin than without, even at substrate concentrations below CMC. A possible explanation of the observed rate enhancement is that binding sites on the carbohydrate binding domain of amyloglucosidase, known to bind cyclodextrins, help to guide the alkyl glycoside-cyclodextrin complex to the active site, and thereby promote its conversion. PMID:25711178

Rather, Mohd Younis; Nordberg Karlsson, Eva; Adlercreutz, Patrick

2015-04-20

282

Glycosides of polyenoic branched fatty acids from myxomycetes.  

PubMed

The determination of chemical structures of five novel compounds, i.e. one multibranched polyunsaturated fatty acid ((2E,4E,7S,8E,10E,12E,14S)-7,9,13,17-tetramethyl-7,14-dihydroxy-2,4,8,10,12,16-octadecahexaenoic acid) and its four glycosides from seven different myxomycetes is described. The absolute configuration of both hydroxyl groups was determined. The glycosides containing glucose, mannose and rhamnose. These compounds were identified by means of 1H and 13C NMR, MS, UV and IR spectra. Three of them were identified in Arcyria cinerea (Bull.) Pers., two in A. denudata (L.) Wetts., and A. nutans (Bull.) Grev., Fuligo septica (L.) Wigg., Lycogala epidendrum (L.) Fries, Physarum polycephalum Schwein., and Trichia varia Pers. contained one of the identified glycosides each. PMID:12126712

Rezanka, Tomás

2002-07-01

283

Synthesis and photosensitivity of isoxazolin-5-one glycosides.  

PubMed

A novel procedure for the synthesis of isoxazolin-5-one glycosides starting from unprotected carbohydrates is described. The substrate scope of the one-pot synthetic protocol was explored using d-configured glucose, xylose, maltose, fructose, ribose and 2-deoxyribose. Naturally occurring 2-(?-d-glucopyranosyl)-3-isoxazolin-5-one and four novel isoxazolin-5-one glycosides derived from xylose, maltose and fructose were synthesized and purified by flash chromatography. The compounds were characterized in terms of chemical structure, photophysical properties as well as pH stability. The photohydrolysis rates of the synthesized glycosides were compared with uridine as a standard to determine the quantum yields for the photoreactions in water. PMID:25723136

Becker, Tobias; Kartikeya, Prashant; Paetz, Christian; von Reuß, Stephan H; Boland, Wilhelm

2015-03-18

284

Iridoid glycoside biosynthesis in Penstemon secundiflorus. Another H-5, H-9 trans-iridoid glycoside.  

PubMed

Isolation and characterization of the new iridoid 10-hydroxy-(5 alpha H)-6-epidihydrocornin from Penstemon secundiflorus (Scrophulariaceae) is described. In biosynthetic experiments, deoxyloganic acid was incorporated into the trans-fused iridoid glycosides (5 alpha H)-6-epidihydrocornin and 10-hydroxy-(5 alpha H)-6-epidihydrocornin in P. secundiflorus. Formation of the trans-fused compounds is therefore a late event in the biosynthesis and does not occur during iridoid formation by cyclization of the open chain monoterpene precursor. In the same plant, 8-epideoxyloganic acid was not incorporated into the trans-iridoids. Deoxyloganic acid was also incorporated into 10-hydroxyhastatoside (which bears an 8 beta-methyl group), while 8-epideoxyloganic acid was incorporated into penstemoside (with an 8 alpha-methyl group). Thus, iridoid biosynthetic pathways leading from both deoxyloganic acid and 8-epideoxyloganic acid were found in the same plant. PMID:9862136

Krull, R E; Stermitz, F R; Franzyk, H; Jensen, S R

1998-11-01

285

Phenylethanoid and flavone glycosides from Ruellia tuberosa L.  

PubMed

A new phenylethanoid glycoside, isocassifolioside (8), and two new flavone glycosides, hispidulin 7-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1'? ? 2?)-O-?-D-glucuronopyranoside (11) and pectolinaringenin 7-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1'? ? 2?)-O-?-D-glucuronopyranoside (12) were isolated from the aerial portions of Ruellia tuberosa L., together with verbascoside (1), isoverbascoside (2), nuomioside (3), isonuomioside (4), forsythoside B (5), paucifloside (6), cassifolioside (7), hispidulin 7-O-?-D-glucuronopyranoside (9) and comanthoside B (10). The structure elucidations were based on analyses of chemical and spectroscopic data including 1D- and 2D-NMR. The isolated compounds 1-12 exhibited radical scavenging activity using ORAC assay. PMID:22447282

Phakeovilay, Chiobouaphong; Disadee, Wannaporn; Sahakitpichan, Poolsak; Sitthimonchai, Somkit; Kittakoop, Prasat; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kanchanapoom, Tripetch

2013-01-01

286

Bufadienolide and spirostanol glycosides from the rhizomes of helleborusorientalis.  

PubMed

The rhizomes of Helleborus orientalis have been analyzed for the bufadienolide glycoside and spirostanol saponin constituents, resulting in the isolation of a new bufadienolide rhamnoside (1), along with two known bufadienolide glycosides (2 and 3) and five new spirostanol saponins (4-8). The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR, and the results of hydrolytic cleavage. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against cultured tumor and normal cells. PMID:12608856

Watanabe, Kazuki; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Sashida, Yutaka

2003-02-01

287

Caucasicosides E-M, furostanol glycosides from Helleborus caucasicus.  

PubMed

Nine furostanol glycosides, namely caucasicosides E-M, were isolated from the MeOH extract of the leaves of Helleborus caucasicus, along with 11 known compounds including nine furostanol glycosides, a bufadienolide and an ecdysteroid. Their structures were established by the extensive use of 1D and 2D NMR experiments along with ESIMS(n) analyses. The steroidal composition of leaves of H. caucasicus shows as particular feature the occurrence of steroidal compounds belonging to the 5? series, unusual for Helleborus species, and in particular, caucasicosides F-H are based on a 5?-polyhydroxylated steroidal aglycon never reported before. PMID:21893324

Muzashvili, Tamar; Perrone, Angela; Napolitano, Assunta; Kemertelidze, Ether; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

2011-12-01

288

New anthraquinone glycosides from the roots of Morinda citrifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six new anthraquinone glycosides: digiferruginol-1-methylether-11-O-?-gentiobioside (1); digiferruginol-11-O-?-primeveroside (2); damnacanthol-11-O-?-primeveroside (3); 1-methoxy-2-primeverosyloxymethyl-anthraquinone-3-olate (4); 1-hydroxy-2-primeverosyloxymethyl-anthraquinone-3-olate (5); and 1-hydroxy-5,6-dimethoxy-2-methyl-7-primeverosyloxyanthraquinone (6) were isolated from Morinda citrifolia (Rubiaceae) roots together with four known anthraquinone glycosides. The structures of the new compounds were established using spectral methods. For five of the new compounds, the sugar is attached via the hydroxymethyl group of the anthraquinone C-2 carbon.

Kohei Kamiya; Wakako Hamabe; Shogo Tokuyama; Toshiko Satake

2009-01-01

289

New antifeedant triterpene glycosides from the Caribbean sponge Erylus formosus.  

PubMed

Two groups of antifeedant triterpene glycosides were identified from the Caribbean sponge Erylus formosus. The structure of formoside B, a novel N-acetyl amino derivative of the known penasterol tetrasaccharide formoside, was elucidated using NMR and mass spectral data. Four triterpene hexasaccharides and two triterpene trisaccharides, characterized by a 31-carbon aglycone, proved difficult to isolate and therefore only the structure of their aglycone was determined. Gas chromatographic analysis of derivatized saccharides from these mixtures established the carbohydrate content of these compounds. All of the triterpene glycosides isolated contributed to the chemical defenses of this sponge, although with differing activities. PMID:11833623

Kubanek, J; Fenical, W; Pawlik, J R

2001-01-01

290

New flavonol glycosides from the leaves of Caragana brachyantha.  

PubMed

Two new flavonol glycosides, brachysides C and D, together with three known flavonol glycosides, were isolated from the leaves of Caragana brachyantha. The structures of brachysides C and D were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis as quercetin 5-O-[?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 6)-?-d-glucopyranoside]-7-O-[?-l-rhamnopyranoside] and quercetin 5-O-[?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 6)-?-d-glucopyranoside]-7-O-[?-l-rhamnopyranoside]-4'-O-[?-l-rhamnopyranoside], respectively. The presence of flavonol tetra- and triglycosides bearing a sugar moiety at position 5 was the first report from this genus Caragana. PMID:25422102

Perveen, Shagufta; Al-Taweel, Areej Mohammad; Al-Musayeib, Nawal; Fawzy, Ghada Ahmed; Khan, Afsar; Mehmood, Rashad; Malik, Abdul

2015-04-01

291

Synthesis and photochromic properties of configurationally varied azobenzene glycosides.  

PubMed

Spatial orientation of carbohydrates is a meaningful parameter in carbohydrate recognition processes. To vary orientation of sugars with temporal and spatial resolution, photosensitive glycoconjugates with favorable photochromic properties appear to be opportune. Here, a series of azobenzene glycosides were synthesized, employing glycoside synthesis and Mills reaction, to allow "switching" of carbohydrate orientation by reversible E/Z isomerization of the azobenzene N=N double bond. Their photochromic properties were tested and effects of azobenzene substitution as well as the effect of anomeric configuration and the orientation of the sugars 2-hydroxy group were evaluated. PMID:25050228

Chandrasekaran, Vijayanand; Johannes, Eugen; Kobarg, Hauke; Sönnichsen, Frank D; Lindhorst, Thisbe K

2014-06-01

292

Synthesis and Photochromic Properties of Configurationally Varied Azobenzene Glycosides  

PubMed Central

Spatial orientation of carbohydrates is a meaningful parameter in carbohydrate recognition processes. To vary orientation of sugars with temporal and spatial resolution, photosensitive glycoconjugates with favorable photochromic properties appear to be opportune. Here, a series of azobenzene glycosides were synthesized, employing glycoside synthesis and Mills reaction, to allow “switching” of carbohydrate orientation by reversible E/Z isomerization of the azobenzene N=N double bond. Their photochromic properties were tested and effects of azobenzene substitution as well as the effect of anomeric configuration and the orientation of the sugars 2-hydroxy group were evaluated. PMID:25050228

Chandrasekaran, Vijayanand; Johannes, Eugen; Kobarg, Hauke; Sönnichsen, Frank D; Lindhorst, Thisbe K

2014-01-01

293

Purity assessment of condensed tannin fractions by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unambiguous investigation of condensed tannin (CT) structure-activity relationships in biological systems requires the use of highly enriched CT fractions of defined chemical purity. Purification of CTs from Sorghum bicolor, Trifolium repens, Theobroma cacao, Lespedeza cuneata, Lotus pedunculatus, a...

294

Sorghum tannins: Interaction with Starch and its Effects on in vitro Starch Digestibility  

E-print Network

compounds with starch molecules and their effect on in vitro starch digestibility. High tannin (predominant in large molecular weight PA, 80%), black (monomeric polyphenols) and white (low in polyphenols) sorghum phenolic extracts were cooked with starches...

Ribeiro de Barros, Frederico

2012-12-10

295

Polyphenols, condensed tannins, and other natural products in Onobrychis viciifolia (Sainfoin).  

PubMed

An acetone/water extract of the fodder legume Onobrychis viciifolia afforded arbutin, kaempferol, quercetin, rutin, afzelin, the branched quercetin-3-(2(G)-rhamnosylrutinoside), the amino acid L-tryptophan, the inositol (+)-pinitol, and relatively high concentrations of sucrose (ca. 35% of extractable material). Acid-catalyzed cleavage of the condensed tannins with phloroglucinol afforded catechin, epicatechin and gallocatechin as the terminal and extender units, but epigallocatechin was only present in extender units. The condensed tannins in O. viciifolia presumably consist of hetero- and homopolymers containing both procyanidin and prodelphinidin units. Comparison of data from the present study and the literature suggests that sainfoin tannins have a highly variable composition with cis:trans ratios ranging from 47:53 to 90:10 and delphinidin:cyanidin ratios from 36:64 to 93:7. The composition of terminal and extender units in sainfoin tannins seems to be cultivar specific. PMID:10956131

Marais, J P; Mueller-Harvey, I; Brandt, E V; Ferreira, D

2000-08-01

296

Application of Ultrasound and Ozone for the Removal of Aqueous Tannin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate the enhancement of combination of ultrasound process and ozonation for the removal of aqueous tannin, tannin concentration, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total organic carbon (TOC) were analyzed in ultrasound process, ozonation, and ultrasound/ozone process. Even though ultrasound process was not effective for the removal of aqueous in terms of tannin concentration, COD, and TOC, ultrasound process could enhance the removal efficiency significantly when it was combined with ozonation. It was also revealed that COD removal resulted in partly mineralization due to insufficient oxidation power, which was induced by ultrasound and ozone. However average oxidation state of all organics in the solution was increased cogently and as a result, biodegradability could be increased meaningfully. Therefore ultrasound/ozone process could be effective pre-treatment process to biological process for the removal of aqueous tannin.

Son, Younggyu; Lim, Junghyun; Cui, Mingcan; Lim, Myunghee; Kweon, Bo-Youn; Khim, Jeehyeong

2009-07-01

297

Annotation and comparative analysis of the glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium distachyon  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Glycoside hydrolases cleave the bond between a carbohydrate and another carbohydrate, a protein, lipid or other moiety. Genes encoding glycoside hydrolases are found in a wide range of organisms, from archea to animals, and are relatively abundant in plant genomes. In plants, these enzymes are involved in diverse processes, including starch metabolism, defense, and cell-wall remodeling. Glycoside hydrolase genes

Ludmila Tyler; Jennifer N Bragg; Jiajie Wu; Xiaohan Yang; Gerald A Tuskan; John P Vogel

2010-01-01

298

Effects of Fat and Protein Levels on Foraging Preferences of Tannin in Scatter-Hoarding Rodents  

PubMed Central

Both as consumers and dispersers of seeds, scatter-hoarding rodents often play an important role in the reproductive ecology of many plant species. However, the seeds of many plant species contain tannins, which are a diverse group of water-soluble phenolic compounds that have a high affinity for proteins. The amount of tannins in seeds is expected to affect rodent foraging preferences because of their major impact on rodent physiology and survival. However, variable results have been obtained in studies that evaluated the effects of tannin on rodent foraging behavior. Hence, in this study, we aimed to explain these inconsistent results and proposed that a combination of seed traits might be important in rodent foraging behavior, because it is difficult to distinguish between the effects of individual traits on rodent foraging behavior and the interactions among them. By using a novel artificial seed system, we manipulated seed tannin and fat/protein levels to examine directly the univariate effects of each component on the seed preferences of free-ranging forest rats (Apodemus latronum and Apodemus chevrieri) during the behavioral process of scatter hoarding. Our results showed that both tannin and fat/protein had significant effects on rodent foraging behavior. Although only a few interactive effects of tannin and fat/protein were recorded, higher concentrations of both fat and protein could attenuate the exclusion of seeds with higher tannin concentrations by rodents, thus influencing seed fate. Furthermore, aside from the concentrations of tannin, fat, and protein, numerous other traits of plant seeds may also influence rodent foraging behavior. We suggest that by clarifying rodent foraging preferences, a better understanding of the evolution of plant seed traits may be obtained because of their strong potential for selective pressure. PMID:22808217

Wang, Bo; Chen, Jin

2012-01-01

299

Metabolism of tannin-protein complex by facultatively anaerobic bacteria isolated from koala feces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolic pathways involved in degradation of tannin-protein complex (T-PC) were investigated in various facultatively anaerobic bacteria, with specific reference to fecal isolates from the koala including T-PC-degrading enterobacteria (T-PCDE),Streptococcus bovis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, andK. oxytoca. It was demonstrated that T-PCDE andS. bovis biotype I were capable of degrading protein complexed with gallotannin (a hydrolyzable tannin), but not that complexed with

Ro Osawa; Terry P. Walsh; Steven J. Cork

1993-01-01

300

Seed removal by scatter-hoarding rodents: The effects of tannin and nutrient concentration.  

PubMed

The mutualistic interaction between scatter-hoarding rodents and seed plants have a long co-evolutionary history. Plants are believed to have evolved traits that influence the foraging behavior of rodents, thus increasing the probability of seed removal and caching, which benefits the establishment of seedlings. Tannin and nutrient content in seeds are considered among the most essential factors in this plant-animal interaction. However, most previous studies used different species of plant seeds, rendering it difficult to tease apart the relative effect of each single nutrient on rodent foraging behavior due to confounding combinations of nutrient contents across seed species. Hence, to further explore how tannin and different nutritional traits of seed affect scatter-hoarding rodent foraging preferences, we manipulated tannin, fat, protein and starch content levels, and also seed size levels by using an artificial seed system. Our results showed that both tannin and various nutrients significantly affected rodent foraging preferences, but were also strongly affected by seed size. In general, rodents preferred to remove seeds with less tannin. Fat addition could counteract the negative effect of tannin on seed removal by rodents, while the effect of protein addition was weaker. Starch by itself had no effect, but it interacted with tannin in a complex way. Our findings shed light on the effects of tannin and nutrient content on seed removal by scatter-hoarding rodents. We therefore, believe that these and perhaps other seed traits should interactively influence this important plant-rodent interaction. However, how selection operates on seed traits to counterbalance these competing interests/factors merits further study. PMID:25625425

Wang, Bo; Yang, Xiaolan

2015-04-01

301

In vitro activity of sorghum non-tannin polyphenols against grain molding and weathering fungi  

E-print Network

Plant Phenolics and Disease Resistance . Location of Sorghum Polyphenols Extraction Methods Separation of Low Molecular Weight Phenols from Tannins Sorghum Molding and Weathering Fungi MATERIALS AND METHODS Sorghum Samples Grain Molding...IN VITRO ACTIVITY OF SORGHUM NON-TANNIN POLYPHENOLS AGAINST GRAIN MOLDING AND WEATHERING FUNGI A Thesis by PATCHARIN LEUNGCHAIKUL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement...

Leungchaikul, Patcharin

1982-01-01

302

Acceleration of the rate of ethanol fermentation by addition of nitrogen in high tannin grain sorghum  

SciTech Connect

In this communication, the authors show that accelerated rates of ethanol production, comparable to sorghum varieties containing low levels of tannins and to corn, can occur without the removal of the tannins. The basis of the inhibition appears to be a lack of sufficient nitrogen in the mash for protein synthesis required to support an accelerated fermentative metabolism in Saccharomyces. No inhibition of the enzymes used for starch hydrolysis was found.

Mullins, J.T.; NeSmith, C.C.

1987-01-01

303

Utilization of browse supplements with varying tannin levels by Ethiopian Menz sheep: 2. Nitrogen metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of different condensed tannins concentrations on protein metabolism from browse supplements was investigated in\\u000a a 90-day trial using sixty-six male Ethiopian Menz sheep. Teff straw (Eragrostis tef) was fed ad libitum (control diet), or\\u000a supplemented with 190 g dried leaves of six Sesbania sesban accessions with increasing levels of condensed tannin (S1, S2,\\u000a S3, S4, S5 and S6),

R. J. Kaitho; N. N. Umunna; I. V. Nsahlai; S. Tamminga; J. van Bruchem

1997-01-01

304

Role of tannin-binding salivary proteins and tannase-producing bacteria in the acclimation of the Japanese wood mouse to acorn tannins.  

PubMed

We studied the defense mechanisms against the negative effects of tannins in acorns by using the Japanese wood mouse (Apodemus speciosus) and acorns of a Japanese deciduous oak Quercus crispula, which contain 9.9% tannins on a dry weight basis. For the experiment, we allocated 26 wood mice into two groups: acclimated (N = 12) and nonacclimated (N = 14). Mice in the nonacclimated group were fed only acorns for 10 d after 4 wk of receiving a tannin-free diet. In contrast, mice in the acclimated group received ca. 3 g acorns daily in addition to the tannin-free diet for the first 4 wk, then they were fed only acorns for 10 d. Body weight, food intake, and digestibility were monitored. In addition, the amount of salivary proline-rich proteins (PRPs) and abundance of tannase-producing bacteria (TPB) in the feces of mice were measured. Of the 14 mice in the nonacclimated group, 8 died, whereas only 1 of the 12 in the acclimated group died. During the first 5 d of feeding acorns only, mice in the nonacclimated group lost, on average, 17.5% of their body mass, while those in the acclimated group lost only 2.5%. Food intake, dry matter digestibility, and nitrogen digestibility were higher in the acclimated group than in the nonacclimated group. The results indicate that wood mice can mitigate the negative effects of tannins by acclimation. Path analysis revealed that increased secretion of PRPs and abundance of Lactobacillus type of TPB might explain the acclimation to tannins. PMID:16770711

Shimada, Takuya; Saitoh, Takashi; Sasaki, Eiki; Nishitani, Yosuke; Osawa, Ro

2006-06-01

305

Cardiac Rehabilitation in Older Cardiac Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac rehabilitation services are comprehensive, long-term programs involving medical evaluation, prescribed exercise,\\u000a cardiac risk factor modification, education and counseling. These programs are designed to limit the physiologic and psychologic\\u000a effects of cardiac illness, reduce the risk for sudden death or reinfarction, control cardiac symptoms, stabilize or reverse\\u000a the atherosclerotic process, and enhance the psychosocial and vocational status of patients with

Philip A. Ades

306

Antitumor effect of agrimoniin, a tannin of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb., on transplantable rodent tumors.  

PubMed

The effect of agrimoniin, a tannin contained in Agrimonia pilosa LEDEB., on ascites type and solid type rodent tumors was investigated. When agrimoniin was intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered at dosages over 10 mg/kg before or after the MM2 cell i.p. inoculation, this tannin almost completely rejected the tumor growth in the mice. This tannin prolonged the life span of mice bearing MM2 or cured by the intravenous or per oral pre- or postmedication. Agrimoniin also inhibited the growth of MH134 and Meth-A solid type tumors. Agrimoniin showed strong cytotoxicity on MM2 cells in vitro, but the activity was diminished to about 4% of the initial activity by the addition of fetal calf serum to the culture. On the other hand, i.p. injection of agrimoniin increased the number of peripheral white blood cells and the ratio of monocytes. On the 4th day after the i.p. injection of the tannin, cytotoxic adherent peritoneal exudate cells were also increased. The spleen of the mice was enlarged, and the spleen cells possessed the capacity to take up 3H-thymidine. Agrimoniin showed weak direct migration activity against spleen cells from non-treated mice. These results indicate that agrimoniin is a potent antitumor tannin and suggest that the antitumor effect may be due to this tannin enhancing the immune response of the host animals through the actions on tumor cells and some immunocytes. PMID:3573425

Miyamoto, K; Kishi, N; Koshiura, R

1987-02-01

307

Effect of alkali treatment on physiological activity of cotton condensed tannin.  

PubMed Central

Cotton dusts contain condensed tannins and endotoxins, which are suspected of contributing to the development of acute and chronic biological responses in some cotton textile mill workers. Condensed tannin extracted from cotton dust was coated on to cellulose powder, and the tannin coated powder was treated with an alkali solvent system previously developed to reduce the endotoxin content and pulmonary toxicity of cotton dust. Physiological activities of the dusts and powders were compared by assaying the production of the arachidonic acid metabolites prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha), thromboxane A2 (TxA2) (the precursor to thromboxane B2 (TxB2], leukotriene C4 (LTC4), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by guinea pig pulmonary cells obtained by lung lavage. Cotton dust stimulated the pulmonary cells to produce a total of 29 pg metabolites per 10(6) cells. Production of metabolites by cells stimulated with tannin coated cellulose powder was reduced to 8.3 pg/10(6) cells. Alkali treatment of the tannin coated cellulose powder resulted in a further decrease in its ability to stimulate the cells, producing 3.5 pg metabolites per 10(6) cells. The ability of the dusts and powders to stimulate production of metabolites of arachidonic acid by pulmonary cells from guinea pigs was highly correlated with tannin content of the materials, but not with endotoxin content as measured by the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. PMID:2223662

Rousselle, M A; Elissalde, M H; Domelsmith, L N

1990-01-01

308

In vitro propagation and production of cardiotonic glycosides in shoot cultures of Digitalis purpurea L. by elicitation and precursor feeding.  

PubMed

Digitalis purpurea L. (Scrophulariaceae; Foxglove) is a source of cardiotonic glycosides such as digitoxin and digoxin which are commercially applied in the treatment to strengthen cardiac diffusion and to regulate heart rhythm. This investigation deals with in vitro propagation and elicited production of cardiotonic glycosides digitoxin and digoxin in shoot cultures of D. purpurea L. In vitro germinated seedlings were used as a primary source of explants. Multiple shoot formation was achieved for three explant types (nodal, internodal, and leaf) cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with several treatments of cytokinins (6-benzyladenine-BA; kinetin-Kin; and thidiazuron-TDZ) and auxins (indole-3-acetic acid-IAA; ?-naphthaleneacetic acid-NAA; and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid-2,4-D). Maximum multiple shoots (12.7?±?0.6) were produced from nodal explants on MS?+?7.5 ?M BA. Shoots were rooted in vitro on MS containing 15 ?M IAA. Rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized. To further maintain the multiple shoot induction, mother tissue was cut into four equal parts and repeatedly sub-cultured on fresh shoot induction liquid medium after each harvest. On adaptation of this strategy, an average of 18 shoots per explant could be produced. This strategy was applied for the production of biomass and glycosides digitoxin and digoxin in shoot cultures on MS medium supplemented with 7.5 ?M BA and several treatments with plant growth regulators, incubation period, abiotic (salicylic acid, mannitol, sorbitol, PEG-6000, NaCl, and KCl), biotic (Aspergillus niger, Helminthosporium sp., Alternaria sp., chitin, and yeast extract) elicitors, and precursors (progesterone, cholesterol, and squalene). The treatment of KCl, mycelial mass of Helminthosporium sp., and progesterone were highly effective for the production of cardenolides. In the presence of progesterone (200 to 300 mg/l), digitoxin and digoxin accumulation was enhanced by 9.1- and 11.9-folds respectively. PMID:23081776

Patil, Jitendra Gopichand; Ahire, Mahendra Laxman; Nitnaware, Kirti Manik; Panda, Sayantan; Bhatt, Vijay P; Kishor, Polavarapu B Kavi; Nikam, Tukaram Dayaram

2013-03-01

309

Phenolic Glycosides with antiproteasomal activity from Centaurea urvillei DC. subsp. urvillei  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new flavanone glycoside, naringenin-7-O-?-d-glucuronopyranoside, and a new flavonol glycoside, 6-hydroxykaempferol-7-O-?-d-glucuronopyranoside were isolated together with 12 known compounds, 5 flavone glycoside; hispidulin-7-O-?-d-glucuronopyranoside, apigenin-7-O-?-d-methylglucuronopyranoside, hispidulin-7-O-?-d-methylglucuronopyranoside, hispidulin-7-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, apigenin-7-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, a flavonol; kaempferol, two flavone; apigenin, and luteolin, a flavanone glycoside; eriodictyol-7-O-?-d-glucuronopyranoside, and three phenol glycoside; arbutin, salidroside, and 3,5-dihydroxyphenethyl alcohol-3-O-?-d-glucopyranoside from Centaurea urvillei subsp. urvillei. The structure elucidation of the new compounds was

Derya Gülcemal; Özgen Alanku?-Çal??kan; Canan Karaalp; Ahmet Uygar Örs; Petek Ballar; Erdal Bedir

2010-01-01

310

Curation of characterized glycoside hydrolases of Fungal origin  

PubMed Central

Fungi produce a wide range of extracellular enzymes to break down plant cell walls, which are composed mainly of cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose. Among them are the glycoside hydrolases (GH), the largest and most diverse family of enzymes active on these substrates. To facilitate research and development of enzymes for the conversion of cell-wall polysaccharides into fermentable sugars, we have manually curated a comprehensive set of characterized fungal glycoside hydrolases. Characterized glycoside hydrolases were retrieved from protein and enzyme databases, as well as literature repositories. A total of 453 characterized glycoside hydrolases have been cataloged. They come from 131 different fungal species, most of which belong to the phylum Ascomycota. These enzymes represent 46 different GH activities and cover 44 of the 115 CAZy GH families. In addition to enzyme source and enzyme family, available biochemical properties such as temperature and pH optima, specific activity, kinetic parameters and substrate specificities were recorded. To simplify comparative studies, enzyme and species abbreviations have been standardized, Gene Ontology terms assigned and reference to supporting evidence provided. The annotated genes have been organized in a searchable, online database called mycoCLAP (Characterized Lignocellulose-Active Proteins of fungal origin). It is anticipated that this manually curated collection of biochemically characterized fungal proteins will be used to enhance functional annotation of novel GH genes. Database URL: http://mycoCLAP.fungalgenomics.ca/ PMID:21622642

Murphy, Caitlin; Powlowski, Justin; Wu, Min; Butler, Greg; Tsang, Adrian

2011-01-01

311

A new phenylpropanoid glycoside from Jasminum subtriplinerve Blume.  

PubMed

From the ethyl acetate extract of the aerial parts of Jasminum subtriplinerve Blume (Oleaceae), 6'-O-menthiafoloylverbascoside (1), rutin (2), isoverbascoside (4), isooleoverbascoside (6), apiosylverbascoside (7), astragalin (9), isoquercitrin (10), and verbascoside (11) were isolated. Their structures were elucidated by extensive MS and NMR spectroscopy. Amongst 6'-O-menthiafoloylverbascoside (1) is a new phenylpropanoid glycoside. PMID:19031243

Huong, Nguyen Thi Hong; Cu, Nguyen Khac Quynh; Quy, Trinh Van; Zidorn, Christian; Ganzera, Markus; Stuppner, Hermann

2008-01-01

312

A new phenylpropanoid glycoside from Jasminum subtriplinerve Blume  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the ethyl acetate extract of the aerial parts of Jasminum subtriplinerve Blume (Oleaceae), 6?-O-menthiafoloylverbascoside (1), rutin (2), isoverbascoside (4), isooleoverbascoside (6), apiosylverbascoside (7), astragalin (9), isoquercitrin (10), and verbascoside (11) were isolated. Their structures were elucidated by extensive MS and NMR spectroscopy. Amongst 6?-O-menthiafoloylverbascoside (1) is a new phenylpropanoid glycoside.

Nguyen Thi Hong Huong; Nguyen Khac Quynh Cu; Trinh Van Quy; Christian Zidorn; Markus Ganzera; Hermann Stuppner

2008-01-01

313

Flavones and flavonol glycosides from Eupatorium cannabinum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 6-methoxyflavones hispidulin and eupafolin have been identified for the first time from the aerial parts ofEupatorium cannabinum L. The presence of the previously known flavonol glycosides astragalin, kaempferol-3-rutinoside, hyperoside, isoquercitrin and rutin could be confirmed. Hispidulin, eupafolin and rutin were screened for cytotoxicityin vitro.

E. T. Elema; J. Schripsema; T. M. Malingré

1989-01-01

314

New glycosides of acetophenone derivatives and phenylpropanoids from Juniperus occidentalis.  

PubMed

New glycosides of seven acetophenone derivatives (1-7) and two phenylpropanoids (8, 9), named juniperosides III-XI, have been isolated from the MeOH extract of the leaves and stems of Juniperus occidentalis Hook. (Cupressaceae), together with eleven other known compounds. The structures of these compounds have been successfully elucidated using a variety of spectroscopic techniques. PMID:22847379

Inatomi, Yuka; Murata, Hiroko; Inada, Akira; Nakanishi, Tsutomu; Lang, Frank A; Murata, Jin; Iinuma, Munekazu

2013-04-01

315

An arrhythmic-inducing glycoside from Albizzia julibrissin Durazz, IV.  

PubMed

Three pyridoxine derivatives have been isolated from the fresh stem bark of Albizzia julibrissin DURAZZ.. One of them, named julibrin II, was found to exhibit arrhythmic-inducing action. However, neither the others having the same aglycone nor some glycosides having the same sugar unit showed the action. PMID:1611699

Higuchi, H; Kinjo, J; Nohara, T

1992-03-01

316

Phenolic glycosides from the stem bark of Albizzia julibrissin.  

PubMed

From the stem bark of Albizzia julibrissin DURAZZ (Leguminosae), two new phenolic glycosides (albibrissinosides A and B) were isolated. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis. The albibrissinoside B was found to be a radical scavenger on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. PMID:15577257

Jung, Mee Jung; Kang, Sam Sik; Jung, Yu Jung; Choi, Jae Sue

2004-12-01

317

Glycosidation of Methanol with Ribose: An Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exercise provides students hands-on experience with the topics of glycosidation, hemiacetal and acetal formation, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ([superscript 1]H NMR) spectroscopy, and kinetic and thermodynamic product formation. In this laboratory experiment, the methyl acetal of ribose is synthesized, and the kinetic and thermodynamic…

Simon, Erin; Cook, Katie; Pritchard, Meredith R.; Stripe, Wayne; Bruch, Martha; Bendinskas, Kestutis

2010-01-01

318

Apigenin glycosides from the flowers of Bellis perennis L.  

PubMed

Two next apigenin glycosides, apigenin 7-O-beta-D-glucuronide [III], apigenin 7-O-beta-D-glucoside [IV] were isolated from the flowers of Bellis perennis L. Their structures were determined by means of chemical and spectroscopic methods. PMID:10934792

Nazaruk, J; Gudej, J

2000-01-01

319

Hydrolytical instability of hydroxyanthraquinone glycosides in pressurized liquid extraction.  

PubMed

Hydroxyanthraquinones represent a group of pharmacologically active compounds characteristic for plants of the Rumex and Rheum genera. These compounds in the human intestine act as laxative compounds. As they cause the greatest side effects and are often abused by the public, their accurate analysis in plants and plant-derived laxatives is much needed. To isolate compounds from plants, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) is frequently applied. The technique has been regarded, so far, as very effective, even in isolation of sensitive compounds for which exposure time in high temperature has a negative impact. This work demonstrates some interesting and surprising results accompanying PLE of hydroxyanthraquinones from the Rumex crispus L. root using methanol/water mixtures as extractant. The presented results demonstrate that glycoside forms of hydroxyanthraquinones (emodin-8-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, chrysophanol-8-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, and physcion-8-O-?-D-glucopyranoside) are hydrolytically unstable even in the short-lasting PLE. The increase of water concentration in the extractant leads to the increase of the transformation degree of the glycoside forms to the corresponding aglycones (emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion), increasing the concentration of the latter. The rise in the PLE temperature accelerates the hydrolytical degradation of the glycoside forms. The extension of the extraction time also intensifies this process. The presented results show that extraction of glycosides using extractants containing water can lead to false conclusions about the chemical composition of plants. PMID:24652155

Wianowska, Dorota

2014-05-01

320

Two new flavonol glycosides from Gymnema sylvestre and Euphorbia ebracteolata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new flavonol glycosides, namely kaempferol 3-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-d-galactopyranoside (1) and quercetin 3-O-6?-(3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl)-?-d-glucopyranoside (2), have been isolated from the aerial parts of Gymnema sylvestre and Euphorbia ebracteolata, respectively. Their structures were determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic methods.

Xin Liu; Wencai Ye; Biao Yu; Shouxun Zhao; Houming Wu; Chuntao Che

2004-01-01

321

Functional genomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana glycoside hydrolase family 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In plants, Glycoside Hydrolase (GH) Family 1 ß-glycosidases are believed to play important roles in many diverse processes including chemical defense against herbivory, lignification, hydrolysis of cell wall-derived oligosaccharides during germination, and control of active phytohormone levels. Completion of the Arabidopsis thalianagenome sequencing project has enabled us, for the first time, to determine the total number of Family 1 members

Zhiwei Xu; Luis Escamilla-Treviño; Lihui Zeng; Mallikarjun Lalgondar; David Bevan; Brenda Winkel; Ali Mohamed; Chi-Lien Cheng; Ming-Che Shih; Jonathan Poulton; Asim Esen

2004-01-01

322

Effects of Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) Condensed Tannins on Growth and Proteolysis by Four Strains of Ruminal Bacteria.  

PubMed

Sainfoin leaf condensed tannins inhibited growth and protease activity in Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens A38 and Streptococcus bovis 45S1 but had little effect on Prevotella ruminicola B(1)4 or Ruminobacter amylophilus WP225. Tannins bound to cell coat polymers in all strains. Morphological changes in B. fibrisolvens and S. bovis implicated the cell wall as a target of tannin toxicity. PMID:16349244

Jones, G A; McAllister, T A; Muir, A D; Cheng, K J

1994-04-01

323

Study on the Inhibitory Effect of Tannins and Flavonoids against the 1,1Diphenyl2-picrylhydrazyl Radical  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-one tannins and forty-one flavonoids isolated from Oriental medicinal herbs were evaluated for their antioxidant ability with a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-generating system. The results showed that tannins and certain flavonoids are potential free-radical scavengers, and that their activity against the DPPH radical is closely associated with their chemical structure. A comparison of the two classes of compounds showed that tannins

Takako Yokozawa; Cui Ping Chen; Erbo Dong; Takashi Tanaka; Gen-Ichiro Nonaka; Itsuo Nishioka

1998-01-01

324

Woodfordin C, a macro-ring hydrolyzable tannin dimer with antitumor activity, and accompanying dimers from Woodfordia fruticosa flowers.  

PubMed

Three new dimeric hydrolyzable tannins, woodfordins A, B and C, along with seven known hydrolyzable tannins, including oenothein B, a dimer exhibiting marked host-mediated antitumor activity, were isolated from an Indonesian crude drug, Sidowayah [dried flowers of Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz (Lythraceae)]. The structures of the new tannins were elucidated based on chemical and spectral evidence. Woodfordin C, having a macro-ring structure, was also found to exhibit a significant antitumor activity. PMID:2393947

Yoshida, T; Chou, T; Nitta, A; Miyamoto, K; Koshiura, R; Okuda, T

1990-05-01

325

Genetic modification of condensed tannin biosynthesis in Lotus corniculatus . 1. Heterologous antisense dihydroflavonol reductase down-regulates tannin accumulation in “hairy root” cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

An antisense dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR) gene-construct made using the cDNA for DFR from Antirrhinum majus was introduced into the genome of a series of clonal genotypes of Lotus corniculatus via Agrobacterium rhizogenes. After initial screening, 17 antisense and 11 control transformation events were analysed and tannin levels found to be reduced in antisense root cultures. The effect of this antisense

T. R. Carron; M. P. Robbins; P. Morris

1994-01-01

326

In situ analysis and structural elucidation of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) tannins for high-throughput germplasm screening.  

PubMed

A rapid thiolytic degradation and cleanup procedure was developed for analyzing tannins directly in chlorophyll-containing sainfoin ( Onobrychis viciifolia ) plants. The technique proved suitable for complex tannin mixtures containing catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin, and epigallocatechin flavan-3-ol units. The reaction time was standardized at 60 min to minimize the loss of structural information as a result of epimerization and degradation of terminal flavan-3-ol units. The results were evaluated by separate analysis of extractable and unextractable tannins, which accounted for 63.6-113.7% of the in situ plant tannins. It is of note that 70% aqueous acetone extracted tannins with a lower mean degree of polymerization (mDP) than was found for tannins analyzed in situ. Extractable tannins had between 4 and 29 lower mDP values. The method was validated by comparing results from individual and mixed sample sets. The tannin composition of different sainfoin accessions covered a range of mDP values from 16 to 83, procyanidin/prodelphinidin (PC/PD) ratios from 19.2/80.8 to 45.6/54.4, and cis/trans ratios from 74.1/25.9 to 88.0/12.0. This is the first high-throughput screening method that is suitable for analyzing condensed tannin contents and structural composition directly in green plant tissue. PMID:21175139

Gea, An; Stringano, Elisabetta; Brown, Ron H; Mueller-Harvey, Irene

2011-01-26

327

Botanical traceability of commercial tannins using the mineral profile and stable isotopes.  

PubMed

Commercial tannins are natural polyphenolic compounds extracted from different plant tissues such as gall, the wood of different species and fruit. In the food industry they are mainly used as flavourings and food ingredients, whereas in winemaking they are classified as clarification agents for wine protein stabilisation, although colour stabilisation, metal removal, unpleasant thiol removal and rheological correction are also well-known and desired effects. Due to their particular technical properties and very different costs, the possibility of correct identification of the real botanical origin of tannins can be considered a primary target in oenology research and in fulfilling the technical and economic requirements of the wine industry. For some categories of tannins encouraging results have already been achieved by considering sugar or polyphenolic composition. For the first time this work verifies the possibility of determining the botanical origin of tannins on the basis of the mineral element profile and analysis of the (13) C/(12) C isotopic ratio. One hundred two commercial tannins originating from 10 different botanical sources (grapes, oak, gall, chestnut, fruit trees, quebracho, tea, acacia, officinal plants and tara) were analysed to determine 57 elements and the (13) C/(12) C isotopic ratio, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry, respectively. Forward stepwise discriminant analysis provided good discrimination between the 8 most abundant groups, with 100% correct re-classification. The model was then validated five times on subsets of 10% of the overall samples, randomly extracted, achieving satisfactory results. With a similar approach it was also possible to distinguish toasted and untoasted oak tannins as well as tannins from grape skin and grape seeds. PMID:25230175

Bertoldi, Daniela; Santato, Alessandro; Paolini, Mauro; Barbero, Alice; Camin, Federica; Nicolini, Giorgio; Larcher, Roberto

2014-09-01

328

Antiproliferative activity, antioxidant capacity and tannin content in plants of semi-arid northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate antiproliferative activity, antioxidant capacity and tannin content in plants from semi-arid northeastern Brazil (Caatinga). For this study, we selected 14 species and we assayed the methanol extracts for antiproliferative activity against the HEp-2 (laryngeal cancer) and NCI-H292 (lung cancer) cell lines using the (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazole) (MTT) method. In addition, the antioxidant activity was evaluated with the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assay, and the tannin content was determined by the radial diffusion method. Plants with better antioxidant activity (expressed in a dose able to decrease the initial DPPH concentration by 50%, or IC50) and with higher levels of tannins were: Poincianella pyramidalis (42.95±1.77 µg/mL IC50 and 8.17±0.64 tannin content), Jatropha mollissima (54.09±4.36µg/mL IC50 and 2.35±0.08 tannin content) and Anadenanthera colubrina (73.24±1.47 µg/mL IC50 and 4.41±0.47 tannin content). Plants with enhanced antiproliferative activity (% living cells) were Annona muricata (24.94±0.74 in NCI-H292), Lantana camara (25.8±0.19 in NCI-H292), Handroanthus impetiginosus (41.8±0.47 in NCI-H292) and Mentzelia aspera (45.61±1.94 in HEp-2). For species with better antioxidant and antiproliferative activities, we suggest future in vitro and in vivo comparative studies with other pharmacological models, and to start a process of purification and identification of the possible molecule(s) responsible for the observed pharmacological activity. We believe that the flora of Brazilian semi-arid areas can be a valuable source of plants rich in tannins, cytotoxic compounds and antioxidant agents. PMID:21107308

Gomes de Melo, Joabe; de Sousa Araújo, Thiago Antônio; Thijan Nobre de Almeida e Castro, Valérium; Lyra de Vasconcelos Cabral, Daniela; do Desterro Rodrigues, Maria; Carneiro do Nascimento, Silene; Cavalcanti de Amorim, Elba Lúcia; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

2010-01-01

329

Rigidity, conformation, and solvation of native and oxidized tannin macromolecules in water-ethanol solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied by light scattering and small angle x-rays scattering (SAXS) conformations and solvation of plant tannins (oligomers and polymers) in mixed water-ethanol solutions. Their structures are not simple linear chains but contain about 6% of branching. Ab initio reconstruction reveals that monomers within a branch are closely bound pairwise. The chains are rather rigid, with the Kuhn length b =13±3 nm, corresponding to about 35 linearly bound monomers. Contribution of solvation layer to SAXS intensity varies in a nonmonotonic way with ethanol content ?A, which is an indication of amphipathic nature of tannin molecules. Best solvent composition ?AB is a decreasing function of polymerization degree N, in agreement with increasing water solubility of tannins with N. Polymers longer than b present a power-law behavior I ˜Q-d in the SAXS profile at high momentum transfer Q. The monotonic decrease in d with increasing ?A (from 2.4 in water to 1.9 in ethanol) points that the tannins are more compact in water than in ethanol, presumably due to attractive intramolecular interactions in water. Tannins were then oxidized in controlled conditions similar to real biological or food systems. Oxidation does not produce any intermolecular condensation, but generates additional intramolecular links. Some oxidation products are insoluble in water rich solvent. For that reason, we identify these species as a fraction of natural tannins called "T1" in the notation of Zanchi et al. [Langmuir 23, 9949 (2007)]. Within the fraction left soluble after oxidation, conformations of polymeric tannins, despite their higher rigidity, remain sensitive to solvent composition.

Zanchi, Dražen; Konarev, Petr V.; Tribet, Christophe; Baron, Alain; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Guyot, Sylvain

2009-06-01

330

Effect of chestnut tannin on fermentation quality, proteolysis, and protein rumen degradability of alfalfa silage.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted on alfalfa to investigate the effects of the addition of commercial chestnut hydrolyzable tannin at ensiling on 1) silage fermentation quality in lab-scale silos and protein degradation in the rumen, and 2) silage fermentation quality and proteolysis in bale silages. Wilted alfalfa was prepared with 4 tannin levels (0, 2, 4, and 6% on a dry matter (DM) basis; T0, T1, T2, T3, respectively) and ensiled in lab-scale silos. Silages (33% DM) were analyzed for fermentation quality, protein rumen degradability in situ, and organic matter digestibility in vitro through gas production after 120 d of conservation. Wilted alfalfa containing 0 and 4% tannin (T0 and T2) was harvested at 40% DM (wilting level I) and 53% DM (wilting level II) for bale (600 mm diameter) silage. Silages were analyzed for fermentation quality after 78 d of conservation. All the silages were well fermented with no butyric acid. Lab-scale silages showed reductions in ammonia, nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) and DM losses in T2 and T3 treatments, while the fermentation acid profiles were unaffected. In experiment 1, the untreated silage (T0) had the highest protein degradability after being incubated in the rumen. The addition of tannin reduced crude protein ruminal disappearance in a dose-dependent manner. However, the tannin reduced the organic matter digestibility by 5.1% for all of the tannin addition levels. The tannin positively affected the silage quality in the round bale silages, in particular reducing ammonia and NPN in the lowest wilting level. In both experiments, T2 treatment reduced proteolysis without any influence of DM on the binding reaction and reduced the NPN by 15% in comparison to the control. PMID:17106105

Tabacco, E; Borreani, G; Crovetto, G M; Galassi, G; Colombo, D; Cavallarin, L

2006-12-01

331

Inhibition of hydrogen sulfide, methane, and total gas production and sulfate-reducing bacteria in in vitro swine manure by tannins, with focus on condensed quebracho tannins.  

PubMed

Management practices from large-scale swine production facilities have resulted in the increased collection and storage of manure for off-season fertilization use. Odor and emissions produced during storage have increased the tension among rural neighbors and among urban and rural residents. Production of these compounds from stored manure is the result of microbial activity of the anaerobic bacteria populations during storage. In the current study, the inhibitory effects of condensed quebracho tannins on in vitro swine manure for reduction of microbial activity and reduced production of gaseous emissions, including the toxic odorant hydrogen sulfide produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), was examined. Swine manure was collected from a local swine facility, diluted in anaerobic buffer, and mixed with 1 %?w/v fresh feces. This slurry was combined with quebracho tannins, and total gas and hydrogen sulfide production was monitored over time. Aliquots were removed periodically for isolation of DNA to measure the SRB populations using quantitative PCR. Addition of tannins reduced overall gas, hydrogen sulfide, and methane production by greater than 90 % after 7 days of treatment and continued to at least 28 days. SRB population was also significantly decreased by tannin addition. qRT-PCR of 16S rDNA bacteria genes showed that the total bacterial population was also decreased in these incubations. These results indicate that the tannins elicited a collective effect on the bacterial population and also suggest a reduction in the population of methanogenic microorganisms as demonstrated by reduced methane production in these experiments. Such a generalized effect could be extrapolated to a reduction in other odor-associated emissions during manure storage. PMID:23149758

Whitehead, Terence R; Spence, Cheryl; Cotta, Michael A

2013-09-01

332

Cardiac pearls.  

PubMed

Most diagnoses of cardiovascular disease are made in the office or at the bedside. For example, in pulsus alternans of the radial pulse, observed when first greeting a patient, alteration of intensity of the second sound and systolic murmur and a ventricular (S3) gallop are clinical pearls--often subtle--that diagnose cardiac decompensation. A faint gallop, ventricular (S3) or atrial (S4), might be overlooked in a patient who has an emphysematous chest and an increase in anteroposterior diameter if one listens over the usual areas of the precordium. However, the gallop might be detected easily by listening over the xiphoid or epigastric area. How do you tell the difference between an S4, a split first sound, and an ejection sound? The S4 is eliminated with pressure on the stethoscope, but pressure does not eliminate the ejection sound or the splitting of S1. The atrial sound (S4) is most frequently found in patients who have coronary heart disease, and it is a constant finding in patients who have hypertension. It does not denote heart failure, as does the S3 (ventricular) gallop. In some patients, both atrial (S4) and ventricular (S3) diastolic gallops may be present. This occurrence is common in patients with cardiac decompensation associated with coronary heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, and dilated cardiomyopathy. When these diastolic filling sounds occur in close proximity, a short rumbling murmur may be heard, which causes confusion of this sound with that of a valvular or congenital lesion. When both sounds occur exactly simultaneously, a single sound results. Often, this sound is louder than either the first or second sound and can be misinterpreted as either a valvular or congenital lesion. This, however, is a summation gallop, which is rare. For the most accurate timing of heart sounds and murmurs, the simple technique called "inching" is the best. Keeping the second sound in mind as a reference, the physician moves (inches) the stethoscope from the aortic area to the apex. An extra sound may be noted to occur in systole before the second sound, thereby diagnosing a systolic click. If the sound occurs after the second sound, however, it is an S3 or ventricular diastolic gallop. If a murmur appears before S2, it is a systolic murmur; if it appears after S2, it is a diastolic murmur. When the Austin-Flint murmur is heard, significant aortic regurgitation exists.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8306847

Harvey, W P

1994-02-01

333

Inactivation of tannins in milled sorghum grain through steeping in dilute NaOH solution.  

PubMed

Steeping milled sorghum in up to 0.4% NaOH was investigated as a method of tannin inactivation. NaOH steeping substantially reduced assayable total phenols and tannins in both Type III and Type II sorghums and with Type III sorghum caused a 60-80% reduction in ?-amylase inhibition compared to a 20% reduction by water steeping. NaOH treatment also reduced starch liquefaction time and increased free amino nitrogen. Type II tannin sorghum did not inhibit ?-amylase and consequently the NaOH treatment had no effect. HPLC and LC-MS of the tannin extracts indicated a general trend of increasing proanthocyanidin/procyanidin size with increasing NaOH concentration and steeping time, coupled with a reduction in total area of peaks resolved. These show that the NaOH treatment forms highly polymerised tannin compounds, too large to assay and to interact with the ?-amylase. NaOH pre-treatment of Type III sorghums could enable their utilisation in bioethanol production. PMID:25577074

Adetunji, Adeoluwa I; Duodu, Kwaku G; Taylor, John R N

2015-05-15

334

Kinetics of the hydrothermal treatment of tannin for producing carbonaceous microspheres.  

PubMed

Aqueous solutions of condensed tannins were submitted to hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) in a stainless steel autoclave, and the kinetics of hydrothermal carbon formation was investigated by changing several parameters: amount of tannin (0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0 g in 16 mL of water), HTC temperature (130, 160, 180 and 200°C) and reaction times (from 1 to 720 h). The morphology and the structure of the tannin-based hydrothermal carbons were studied by TEM, krypton adsorption at -196°C and helium pycnometry. These materials presented agglomerated spherical particles, having surface areas ranging from 0.6 to 10.0 m(2) g(-1). The chemical composition of the hydrothermal carbons was found to be constant and independent of reaction time. HTC kinetics of tannin were determined and shown to correspond to first-order reaction. Temperature-dependent measurements led to an activation energy of 91 kJ mol(-1) for hydrothermal conversion of tannin into carbonaceous microspheres separable by centrifugation. PMID:24246483

Braghiroli, F L; Fierro, V; Izquierdo, M T; Parmentier, J; Pizzi, A; Celzard, A

2014-01-01

335

Novel Strategies for Upstream and Downstream Processing of Tannin Acyl Hydrolase  

PubMed Central

Tannin acyl hydrolase also referred as tannase is an enzyme with important applications in several science and technology fields. Due to its hydrolytic and synthetic properties, tannase could be used to reduce the negative effects of tannins in beverages, food, feed, and tannery effluents, for the production of gallic acid from tannin-rich materials, the elucidation of tannin structure, and the synthesis of gallic acid esters in nonaqueous media. However, industrial applications of tannase are still very limited due to its high production cost. Thus, there is a growing interest in the production, recovery, and purification of this enzyme. Recently, there have been published a number of papers on the improvement of upstream and downstream processing of the enzyme. These papers dealt with the search for new tannase producing microorganisms, the application of novel fermentation systems, optimization of culture conditions, the production of the enzyme by recombinant microorganism, and the design of efficient protocols for tannase recovery and purification. The present work reviews the state of the art of basic and biotechnological aspects of tannin acyl hydrolase, focusing on the recent advances in the upstream and downstream processing of the enzyme. PMID:21941633

Rodríguez-Durán, Luis V.; Valdivia-Urdiales, Blanca; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C.; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal N.

2011-01-01

336

Univariate and multivariate analysis of tannin-impregnated wood species using vibrational spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Vibrational spectroscopy is one of the most powerful tools in polymer science. Three main techniques--Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), FT-Raman spectroscopy, and FT near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy--can also be applied to wood science. Here, these three techniques were used to investigate the chemical modification occurring in wood after impregnation with tannin-hexamine preservatives. These spectroscopic techniques have the capacity to detect the externally added tannin. FT-IR has very strong sensitivity to the aromatic peak at around 1610 cm(-1) in the tannin-treated samples, whereas FT-Raman reflects the peak at around 1600 cm(-1) for the externally added tannin. This high efficacy in distinguishing chemical features was demonstrated in univariate analysis and confirmed via cluster analysis. Conversely, the results of the NIR measurements show noticeable sensitivity for small differences. For this technique, multivariate analysis is required and with this chemometric tool, it is also possible to predict the concentration of tannin on the surface. PMID:24694706

Schnabel, Thomas; Musso, Maurizio; Tondi, Gianluca

2014-01-01

337

Effect of plant sterols and tannins on Phytophthora ramorum growth and sporulation.  

PubMed

Elicitin-mediated acquisition of plant sterols is required for growth and sporulation of Phytophthora spp. This study examined the interactions between elicitins, sterols, and tannins. Ground leaf tissue, sterols, and tannin-enriched extracts were obtained from three different plant species (California bay laurel, California black oak, and Oregon white oak) in order to evaluate the effect of differing sterol/tannin contents on Phytophthora ramorum growth. For all three species, high levels of foliage inhibited P. ramorum growth and sporulation, with a steeper concentration dependence for the two oak samples. Phytophthora ramorum growth and sporulation were inhibited by either phytosterols or tannin-enriched extracts. High levels of sterols diminished elicitin gene expression in P. ramorum; whereas the tannin-enriched extract decreased the amount of 'functional' or ELISA-detectable elicitin, but not gene expression. Across all treatment combinations, P. ramorum growth and sporulation correlated strongly with the amount of ELISA-detectable elicitin (R (2)?= 0.791 and 0.961, respectively). PMID:23689874

Stong, Rachel A; Kolodny, Eli; Kelsey, Rick G; González-Hernández, M P; Vivanco, Jorge M; Manter, Daniel K

2013-06-01

338

Flocculation of Microcystis aeruginosa using modified larch tannin.  

PubMed

To flocculate the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa from water, larch tannin, a natural polymer, was modified by Mannich reaction to obtain a flocculant, named A-TN, which was then quaternized to yield another flocculant, named Q-TN. A-TN and Q-TN were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and zeta potential analysis. The effects of the flocculation parameters, e.g., dosage, pH, cell density, culture time, and extracellular organic materials, were studied. The results showed that Q-TN was effective under a wider range of pH values than A-TN and could work under a pH of 9.0, whereas A-TN could work only under a pH of 7.0. For algal samples with densities from 1 × 10(8) to 5 × 10(9) cells/L, the optimum dosages of Q-TN to achieve more than 90% removal efficiency ranged from 0.5 to 20 mg/L, and the optimum dosages had a good linear relationship with cell density. Furthermore, the required dosage of Q-TN clearly increased along with the algae culture time, most of which was consumed by the extracellular organic materials (EOM) excreted from the cells. The spectra of the three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix showed that 100% of simple aromatic proteins and 78.8% of protein-like substances in the EOM could be removed by Q-TN. However, Q-TN was less effective in humic/fulvic-like substance flocculation. Q-TN functioned to settle the algae cells and a large amount of their metabolites effectively. PMID:23647228

Wang, Li; Liang, Wenyan; Yu, Jian; Liang, Zhixia; Ruan, Lingling; Zhang, Yuanchun

2013-06-01

339

Five naphthalene glycosides from the roots of Rumex patientia.  

PubMed

Three novel and two known naphthalene glycosides were isolated from the roots of Rumex patientia L. (Polygonaceae). The structures of the new compounds were established, respectively as 2-acetyl-3-methyl-6-carboxy-1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 4,4"-binaphthalene-8,8"-O,O-di-beta-D-glucopyranoside and 2-acetyl-3-methyl-1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->3) beta-D-glucopyranoside on the basis of spectral analysis. The other napthalene glycosides were determined as nepodin-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and torachrysone-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside by comparison of their spectral data with those previously reported. PMID:11249109

Demirezer, O; Kuruüzüm, A; Bergere, I; Schiewe, H J; Zeeck, A

2001-02-01

340

Structures of the novel diterpene glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana.  

PubMed

From the commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana, two new diterpenoid glycosides were isolated besides the known steviol glycosides including stevioside, rebaudiosides A-F, rubusoside, and dulcoside A. The structures of the two new compounds were identified as 13-[(2-O-6-deoxy-?-d-glucopyranosyl-?-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid ?-d-glucopyranosyl ester (1), and 13-[(2-O-6-deoxy-?-d-glucopyranosyl-3-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-?-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid ?-d-glucopyranosyl ester (2), on the basis of extensive NMR and MS spectral data as well as chemical studies. PMID:21489412

Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash; Prakash, Indra

2011-06-01

341

Two minor diterpene glycosides from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana.  

PubMed

Two new new diterpene glycosides, 13-[(2-O-(6-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] kaur-16-en-18-oic acid beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1) and 13-[(2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-beta-D-fructofuranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] kaur-16-en-18-oic acid beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (2) were isolated from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana, along with the known steviol glycosides stevioside, rebaudiosides A-F and dulcoside A. The structures of the two new compounds were established on the basis of extensive 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC), MS and chemical studies. PMID:21425668

Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash; Rhea, Joshua; Milanowski, Dennis; Mocek, Ulla; Prakash, Indra

2011-02-01

342

Neolignans, lignans and glycoside from the fruits of Melia toosendan.  

PubMed

Four new neolignans, meliasendanins A-D (1-4), and a new glycoside, toosenoside A (5), together with ten known ones (6-15), were isolated from a n-BuOH partition of the fruits of Melia toosendan. Their structures were elucidated by analyses of extensive spectroscopic data and comparison of the NMR data with those reported previously. Meliasendanin A (1) was a rare neolignan containing isochroman moiety, and its absolute configuration was determined using a CD spectrum. Toosenoside A (5) was an unusual glycoside with a rare naturally occurring aglycone and its structure was confirmed by X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. The antioxidant activity of the isolated neolignans and lignans was evaluated by ABTS radical-scavenging assay. Compounds 1 and 13 exhibited strong antioxidant activity, with IC?? values of 62.8 and 45.1 ?M, respectively. PMID:25250895

Wang, Lun; Li, Fu; Yang, Chun-Yan; Khan, Ashfaq-Ahmad; Liu, Xin; Wang, Ming-Kui

2014-12-01

343

Chemical synthesis and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of rhododendrol glycosides.  

PubMed

The concise synthesis of rhododendrol glycosides 3-8, which are novel derivatives of (+)-epirhododendrin (1) and (-)-rhododendrin (2), has been achieved in six steps from benzaldehyde 9. The key reactions include aldol condensation and trichloroacetimidate glycosylation. From biological studies, it has been determined that synthetic derivatives of 1 and 2 possess potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Particularly, the inhibitory activity of cellobioside 8 (IC50=1.51?M) is six times higher than that of kojic acid. The R-epimers (4, 6, and 8) possessed more potent activity than the corresponding S-epimers (3, 5, and 7), indicating that tyrosinase inhibitory activity is significantly governed by stereochemistry of rhododendrol glycosides. PMID:24332496

Iwadate, Takehiro; Kashiwakura, Yutaka; Masuoka, Noriyoshi; Yamada, Yoichi; Nihei, Ken-Ichi

2014-01-01

344

Chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis of anthraquinone glycosides from madder roots.  

PubMed

For the production of a commercially useful dye extract from madder, the glycoside ruberythric acid has to be hydrolysed to the aglycone alizarin which is the main dye component. An intrinsic problem is the simultaneous hydrolysis of the glycoside lucidin primeveroside to the unwanted mutagenic aglycone lucidin. Madder root was treated with strong acid, strong base or enzymes to convert ruberythric acid into alizarin and the anthraquinone compositions of the suspensions were analysed by HPLC. A cheap and easy method to hydrolyse ruberythric acid in madder root to alizarin without the formation of lucidin turned out to be the stirring of dried madder roots in water at room temperature for 90 min: this gave a suspension containing pseudopurpurin, munjistin, alizarin and nordamnacanthal. Native enzymes are responsible for the hydrolysis, after which lucidin is converted to nordamnacanthal by an endogenous oxidase. PMID:12793459

Derksen, Goverdina C H; Naayer, Martijn; van Beek, Teris A; Capelle, Anthony; Haaksman, Ingrid K; van Doren, Henk A; de Groot, Aede

2003-01-01

345

Two new norbisabolane sesquiterpenoid glycosides from Glochidion coccineum.  

PubMed

Two new norbisabolane sesquiterpenoid glycosides, glochicoccinosides A (1) and B (2), together with two known compounds, have been isolated from the rhizomes of Glochidion coccineum. Their structures were elucidated by the combination of 1D NMR, 2D NMR, and MS spectral analysis, as well as chemical evidence. Cytotoxic activities and the antioxidant effect of these compounds were evaluated, but none of them showed activity. PMID:18058374

Xiao, Hai-Tao; He, Hong-Ping; Peng, Jiao; Wang, Yue-Hu; Yang, Xian-Wen; Hu, Xu-Jia; Hao, Xiao-Yan; Hao, Xiao-Jiang

2008-01-01

346

Two glycosides from the stem bark of Tetracentron sinense.  

PubMed

Two glycosides, tetracentronsides A and B, were isolated from the stem bark of Tetracentron sinense Oliv., along with ten known compounds, beta-sitosterol, lupeol, betulinic acid, oleanolic acid, vanillic aldehyde, vanillic acid, maslinic acid, huazhongilexin, daucosterol and catechin. On the basis of spectral and chemical evidence, tetracentronside A and B were identified as 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl-O-6'-O-vanilloyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside and (8R, 8'R) 9-beta-D-glucopyranosyl dihydrocubebin, respectively. PMID:10820820

Yi, J H; Zhang, G L; Li, B G; Chen, Y Z

2000-04-01

347

Two antigenotoxic chalcone glycosides from Mentha longifolia subsp. longifolia.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Mentha L. (Labiatae) species (mint) with their flavoring properties have been used in food industries for centuries. Besides they have a great importance in drug development and medicinal applications due to various bioactive compounds of several members of the genus. Objective: The aim of this study was to isolate bioactive compounds with antimutagenic potential by bio-guided fractionation and determine their structures by spectroscopic methods. Materials and methods: The structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was done based on spectroscopic methods, including MALDI-MS, UV, IR, and 2D NMR experiments, and the bio-guided fractionation process was done by using the Ames/Salmonella test system. Henceforth, solely genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of the new compounds were also confirmed up to 2?µM/plate by using the same test system. Results: Two new chalcone glycosides: (?R)-?,3,2',6'-tetrahydroxy-4-methoxy-4'-O-rutinosyldihydrochalcone and (?R)-?,4,2',6'-tetrahydroxy-4'-O-rutinosyldihydrochalcone, were isolated from Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson subsp. longifolia, together with known six flavonoid glycosides and one phenolic acid: apigenin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-rutinoside, luteolin-7-O-rutinoside, apigenin-7-O-glucuronide, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide, rosmarinic acid. According to the antimutagenicity results, both new test compounds significantly inhibited the mutagenic activity of 9-aminoacridine in a dose-dependent manner at the tested concentrations from 0.8 to 2?µM/plate. (?R)-?,4,2',6'-Tetrahydroxy-4'-O-rutinosyldihydrochalcone showed the maximum inhibition rate as 75.94% at 2?µM/plate concentration. Conclusions: This is the first report that two new chalcone glycosides were isolated from Mentha longifolia subsp. longifolia and their antimutagenic potentials by using mutant bacterial tester strains. In conclusion, the two new chalcone glycosides showed a significant antigenotoxic effect on 9-aminoacridine-induced mutagenesis at tested concentrations. PMID:25429992

Guvenalp, Zuhal; Ozbek, Hilal; Karadayi, Mehmet; Gulluce, Medine; Kuruuzum-Uz, Ayse; Salih, Bekir; Demirezer, Omur

2014-11-28

348

Steric control of N-acetylgalactosamine in glycosidic bond formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

N-Acetylgalactosamine, protected with a 4,6-cyclic acetal followed by selective acylation at 3-OH, provides an excellent donor for the synthesis of ?-glycosides, particularly the cancer associated antigens such as Tn, TF, Sialyl-Tn and Sialyl-TF. This fast and efficient synthesis is easily adaptable for commercial production of mucin type glycopeptides with O-linked carbohydrate structures which are currently being investigated as vaccines against

John E. Yule; Ting C. Wong; Sham S. Gandhi; Dongxu Qiu; Marc A. Riopel; R. Rao Koganty

1995-01-01

349

A Glycosidation Reaction Employing Montmorillonite K-10 as Catalyst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large number of biology majors and prehealth students enrolled in Organic Chemistry makes it desirable to have laboratories that involve biologically interesting molecules. Although many laboratory manuals contain sections on carbohydrate chemistry, the experiments are typically limited to esterification or hydrolysis reactions. A recent publication (Toshima, K.; Ishizuka, T.; Matsuo, G.; Nakata, M. Synlett. 1995, 306. ) on the glycosidation of glycals offered a different possibility.

Bedell, Brooke L.; Crouch, R. David; Holden, Michael S.; Martinson, Heidi E.

1996-11-01

350

Antioxidative iridoid glycosides and phenolic compounds from Veronica peregrina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight iridoid glycosides and four phenolic compounds were isolated from the EtOAc soluble fraction of Veronica peregrina MeOH extract as the radical scavengers for antioxidant activity. The compounds were identified as protocatechuic acid (1), luteolin (2), veronicoside (3), minecoside (4), specioside (5), amphicoside (6), catalposide (7), 6-O-cis-p-coumaroyl catalpol (8), p-hydroxy benzoic acid methyl ester (9), verproside (10), verminoside (11), and

Jong Hwan Kwak; Hyun Jung Kim; Kwang Ho Lee; Se Chan Kang; Ok Pyo Zee

2009-01-01

351

Iridoid glycoside sequestration by two aposematic Penstemon -feeding geometrid larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The iridoid glycoside catalpol was found to be sequestered by larvae ofMeris alticola feeding onPenstemon virgatus and by larvae ofNeoterpes graefiaria which utilizeP. barbatus. The strikingly similar larval patterns of these two ennomine geometrids were previously considered to be disruptive, but predator-based Mullerian mimicry is equally likely to be involved. The cryptic adult moths generally contain only small amounts of

Frank R. Stermitz; Dale R. Gardner; Noel McFarland

1988-01-01

352

Levels of Tannins and Flavonoids in Medicinal Plants: Evaluating Bioprospecting Strategies  

PubMed Central

There are several species of plants used by traditional communities in the Brazilian semiarid. An approach used in the search for natural substances that possess therapeutic value is ethnobotany or ethnopharmacology. Active substances that have phenolic groups in their structure have great pharmacological potential. To establish a quantitative relationship between the species popularly considered to be antimicrobial, antidiabetic, and antidiarrheal, the contents of tannins and flavonoids were determined. The plant selection was based on an ethnobotanical survey conducted in a community located in the municipality of Altinho, northeastern Brazil. For determination of tannin content was utilized the technique of radial diffusion, and for flavonoids, an assay based on the complexation of aluminum chloride. The group of plants with antimicrobial indications showed a higher content of tannins compared to the control groups. The results evidence suggests a possible relationship between these compounds and the observed activity. PMID:21969842

Siqueira, Clarissa Fernanda de Queiroz; Cabral, Daniela Lyra Vasconcelos; Peixoto Sobrinho, Tadeu José da Silva; de Amorim, Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti; de Melo, Joabe Gomes; Araújo, Thiago Antônio de Sousa; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

2012-01-01

353

Kinetics of non-catalyzed hydrolysis of tannin in high temperature liquid water*  

PubMed Central

High temperature liquid water (HTLW) has drawn increasing attention as an environmentally benign medium for organic chemical reactions, especially acid-/base-catalyzed reactions. Non-catalyzed hydrolyses of gallotannin and tara tannin in HTLW for the simultaneous preparation of gallic acid (GA) and pyrogallol (PY) are under investigation in our laboratory. In this study, the hydrolysis kinetics of gallotannin and tara tannin were determined. The reaction is indicated to be a typical consecutive first-order one in which GA has formed as a main intermediate and PY as the final product. Selective decomposition of tannin in HTLW was proved to be possible by adjusting reaction temperature and time. The present results provide an important basic data and reference for the green preparation of GA and PY. PMID:18500780

Lu, Li-li; Lu, Xiu-yang; Ma, Nan

2008-01-01

354

Tannin elimination and improvement of the digestibility of protein sorghum grains.  

PubMed

Three hybrids of sorghum grains [Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench] containing 3.8, 3.0 and 0.2% of tannins were treated. Abrasive dehulling and storage of moist grains were tested separately and in combination to reduce the tannin content and to improve the nutritional quality of grains. The moisture content of the grains was increased from 12 to 30% by humidifying them with water, acetic acid, sodium bicarbonate or sodium hypochlorite solutions. Abrasive dehulling of the grains to a yield between 75 and 80%, humidifying the grains with acetic acid (1% v/v) and storing them during 7 days at 20 degrees C proved to be the most effective procedure. In this way tannin can be totally reduced and the in vitro digestibility of protein can be increased to 87.5%. PMID:9659427

Agudelo, R A; Fliedel, G; Alarcón, O M

1997-06-01

355

Kinetics of non-catalyzed hydrolysis of tannin in high temperature liquid water.  

PubMed

High temperature liquid water (HTLW) has drawn increasing attention as an environmentally benign medium for organic chemical reactions, especially acid-/base-catalyzed reactions. Non-catalyzed hydrolyses of gallotannin and tara tannin in HTLW for the simultaneous preparation of gallic acid (GA) and pyrogallol (PY) are under investigation in our laboratory. In this study, the hydrolysis kinetics of gallotannin and tara tannin were determined. The reaction is indicated to be a typical consecutive first-order one in which GA has formed as a main intermediate and PY as the final product. Selective decomposition of tannin in HTLW was proved to be possible by adjusting reaction temperature and time. The present results provide an important basic data and reference for the green preparation of GA and PY. PMID:18500780

Lu, Li-li; Lu, Xiu-yang; Ma, Nan

2008-05-01

356

[Contents of tannins and oxalic acid in the selected forest fruits depending on the harvest site].  

PubMed

Contents of anti-nutritional components (tannins and oxalic acid) were determined in samples of forest fruits: blueberry, raspberry and wild strawberry harvested in Lublin region from areas considered as potentially not exposed to pollution (Skierbieszów Landscape Park) and potentially polluted areas (Cement Factory Rejowiec S.A.). Study revealed that blueberry and raspberry fruits collected on potentially polluted area were characterized by higher tannins contents than those harvested on potentially not polluted area. Oxalic acid level in studied material indicated its significantly higher concentration in wild strawberry fruits collected both from not exposed and polluted areas as compared to raspberry and blueberry. Tannins and oxalic acid contents in analyzed berries may be accepted as low and safe for human's health. PMID:18666621

Sembratowicz, Iwona; Ognik, Katarzyna; Rusinek, Elzbieta; Truchli?ski, Jerzy

2008-01-01

357

Toxicity of vegetable tannins on crustacea associated with alpine mosquito breeding sites.  

PubMed

The impact of tannins from the environmental vegetation naturally polluting Alpine mosquito breeding sites was experimentally investigated by studying the toxicity of tannic acid, a natural hydrolyzable tannin, on the nontarget crustacean fauna associated with culicine populations. Bioassays indicate that exposure to tannic acid at concentrations from 0.06 to 2.0 mM is more deleterious to Chydorus sphaericus, Diaptomus castor, and Eucypris fuscata, than to Daphnia pulex, Acanthocyclops robustus, and Eucypris virens. Histopathological investigations after treatment with tannic acid at concentrations from 0.125 to 0.500 mM reveal sequential degenerative patterns of the midgut epithelium depending on the taxon, duration of the treatment, and concentrations assayed. These differential toxic effects on Crustacea are compared with those previously observed in larval Diptera, in order to evaluate the plant tannins as potentially useful products in integrated mosquito management programs. PMID:11139187

Pautou, M P; Rey, D; David, J P; Meyran, J C

2000-11-01

358

Minor diterpene glycosides from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana.  

PubMed

Two new diterpene glycosides in addition to five known glycosides have been isolated from a commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. Compound 1 (rebaudioside KA) was shown to be 13-[(O-?-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid 2-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-?-d-glucopyranosyl ester and compound 2, 12-?-[(2-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-?-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid ?-d-glucopyranosyl ester. Five additional known compounds were identified, rebaudioside E, rebaudioside M, rebaudioside N, rebaudioside O, and stevioside, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis of stevioside afforded the known ent-kaurane aglycone 13-hydroxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (steviol) (3). The isolated metabolite 1 possesses the ent-kaurane aglycone steviol (3), while compound 2 represents the first example of the isomeric diterpene 12-?-hydroxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid existing as a glycoside in S. rebaudiana. The structures of the isolated metabolites 1 and 2 were determined based on comprehensive 1D- and 2D-NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) studies. A high-quality crystal of compound 3 has formed, which allowed the acquisition of X-ray diffraction data that confirmed its structure. The structural similarities between the new metabolites and the commercially available stevioside sweeteners suggest the newly isolated metabolites should be examined for their organoleptic properties. Accordingly rebaudiosides E, M, N, O, and KA have been isolated in greater than gram quantities. PMID:24758242

Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Rodenburg, Douglas L; Alves, Kamilla; Fronczek, Frank R; McChesney, James D; Wu, Chongming; Nettles, Brian J; Venkataraman, Sylesh K; Jaksch, Frank

2014-05-23

359

Acylated flavonol glycosides from the forage legume, Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin).  

PubMed

Ten acylated flavonol glycosides were isolated from aqueous acetone extracts of the aerial parts of the forage legume, Onobrychis viciifolia, and their structures determined using spectroscopic methods. Among these were eight previously unreported examples which comprised either feruloylated or sinapoylated derivatives of 3-O-di- and 3-O-triglycosides of kaempferol (3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone) or quercetin (3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone). The diglycosides were acylated at the primary Glc residue of O-?-Rhap(1?6)-?-Glcp (rutinose), whereas the triglycosides were acylated at the terminal Rha residues of the branched trisaccharides, O-?-Rhap(1?2)[?-Rhap(1?6)]-?-Galp or O-?-Rhap(1?2)[?-Rhap(1?6)]-?-Glcp. Identification of the primary 3-O-linked hexose residues as either Gal or Glc was carried out by negative ion electrospray and serial MS, and cryoprobe NMR spectroscopy. Analysis of UV and MS spectra of the acylated flavonol glycosides provided additional diagnostic features relevant to direct characterisation of these compounds in hyphenated analyses. Quantitative analysis of the acylated flavonol glycosides present in different aerial parts of sainfoin revealed that the highest concentrations were in mature leaflets. PMID:21292287

Veitch, Nigel C; Regos, Ionela; Kite, Geoffrey C; Treutter, Dieter

2011-04-01

360

Phytologia (April1, 2014) 96(2) 63 Comparison of leaf terpenoids and tannins in Juniperus monosperma from woodrat (Neotoma  

E-print Network

Phytologia (April1, 2014) 96(2) 63 Comparison of leaf terpenoids and tannins in Juniperus to specialize on Juniperus that is heavily defended by terpenes and tannins. A comparison between heavily, woodrat (Neotoma stephensi) browsed and non-browsed Juniperus monosperma trees revealed

Adams, Robert P.

361

Effect of variety and harvesting management on the concentration of tannins and alkaloids in tagasaste ( Chamaecytisus palmensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first part of this study evaluated contents of hydrolysable tannins (HT) and condensed tannins (CT) of 65 accessions of tagasaste. In the second part, the effects of harvesting stage and growing season on the contents of HT, CT and alkaloids in different plant parts of the widely grown tagasaste variety ‘MOA’ was studied in a randomized complete block design.

Getnet Assefa; K. Sonder; M. Winkc; C. Kijora; N. Steinmueller; K. J. Peters

2008-01-01

362

Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins towards different gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep: in vitro and in vivo studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to determine possible direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins towards different ovine gastrointestinal nematodes. A larval development\\/viability assay was used to investigate the effect of a condensed tannin extract (Quebracho) towards larvae of Haemonchuscontortus, Teladorsagiacircumcincta and Trichostrongylusvitrinus. The development to infective larvae and their viability was assessed in all three species and

S Athanasiadou; I Kyriazakis; F Jackson; R. L Coop

2001-01-01

363

Kinetics and binding capacity of six soils for structurally defined hydrolyzable and condensed tannins and related phenols  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We investigated tannin-soil interactions by assessing the kinetics of sorption and sorption capacities, and their relationship to the chemical properties of six polyphenolic compounds and the textures of six soils. We developed a new extraction procedure for recovering tannins from soil samples by ...

364

Condensed tannin concentration of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., as affected by planting date, population density, stage of growth and plant part sampled  

E-print Network

) suggested that condensed tannins act as a host plant resistance * h ' t* P'd* 't*, ~yt h t (Ho tl) Tannin Chemistry Tannins are considered to be the most important secondary plant compound involved in plant defense against insects and diseases (Swain... resistance mechanism is not fully understood, two characteristic properties are thought to contribute to the action of these polyphenolic compounds. Condensed tannins bind to various chemical groups in proteins, especially saliva and glycoproteins...

Lege, Ken Edward

1990-01-01

365

Direct Anthelmintic Effects of Condensed Tannins from Diverse Plant Sources against Ascaris suum  

PubMed Central

Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of ascariosis. PMID:24810761

Williams, Andrew R.; Fryganas, Christos; Ramsay, Aina; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M.

2014-01-01

366

Cardiac conduction system  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... cardiac muscle cells in the walls of the heart that send signals to the heart muscle causing it to contract. The main components ... the cardiac conduction system’s electrical activity in the heart.

367

Toxicity of tannins towards the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the brine shrimp Artemia salina.  

PubMed

Toxicities of gallo- and condensed tannins towards the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is dependent on the tannins' molecular sizes. In the present paper we investigate the toxicity of ellagitannins to C elegans and the toxicity of ellagi-, gallo-, and condensed tannins to the brine shrimpArtemia salina. Ellagitannins 1 and 2 were isolated from Euphorbia supina and identified as tellimagrandin I and rugosin A methyl ester, respectively. An ellagitannin preparation from Cornus officinalis was chromatographically fractionated into ellagitannins A through H, having different molecular weights and specific rotations. Three of the ten ellagitannins, 2, G, and H produced significant toxicity towards C. elegans, showing the presence of an activity-structure relationship, as opposed to the results from tests of gallo- and condensed tannins. Ellagi-, gallo-, and condensed tannins also produced toxicity in A. salina. PMID:12182536

Yamasaki, Toru; Sato, Masashi; Mori, Tomoaki; Mohamed, Ahmed S A; Fujii, Kyoko; Tsukioka, Junko

2002-08-01

368

Agrimoniin, an antitumor tannin of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb., induces interleukin-1.  

PubMed

The induction of interleukin-1 (IL-1) by agrimoniin, a tannin of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb., in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro and in mouse adherent peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) in vivo was studied. A significant amount of IL-1 beta in the culture supernatant of the human PBMC stimulated with agrimoniin was detected with an enzyme-linked immunoadherent assay. Agrimoniin induced IL-1 beta secretion dose- and time-dependently. The adherent PEC from mice intraperitoneally injected with agrimoniin (10 mg/kg) also secreted IL-1 4 days later. These results suggest that agrimoniin, a plant tannin, is a novel cytokine inducer. PMID:1444208

Murayama, T; Kishi, N; Koshiura, R; Takagi, K; Furukawa, T; Miyamoto, K

1992-01-01

369

Nano-porous solid-state photovoltaic cell sensitized with tannin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tannin and related polyphenolic substances strongly surface chelate with 0268-1242/13/1/021/img1 sensitizing nano-porous films of 0268-1242/13/1/021/img1 to the visible spectrum. The photovoltaic cell nano-porous n-0268-1242/13/1/021/img3-CuI generates highly stable photovoltages. The result is explained as the effectiveness of the 0268-1242/13/1/021/img4-tannin complex on the surface of 0268-1242/13/1/021/img1 in preventing short-circuiting across the 0268-1242/13/1/021/img1/CuI barrier.

Tennakone, K.; Kumara, G. R. R. A.; Wijayantha, K. G. U.; Kottegoda, I. R. M.; Perera, V. P. S.; Aponsu, G. M. L. P.

1998-01-01

370

New hydrolyzable tannins, shephagenins A and B, from Shepherdia argentea as HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Two new hydrolyzable tannins, shephagenins A and B, were isolated along with hippophaenin A and strictinin from the leaf extract of Shepherdia argentea, which showed a remarkable inhibitory activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 reverse transcriptase. Their structures, having a gluconic acid core, have been elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods. The inhibitory effect of the leaf extract on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase was found to be due to tannins, and their activities were stronger than that of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate as a positive control. PMID:8795264

Yoshida, T; Ito, H; Hatano, T; Kurata, M; Nakanishi, T; Inada, A; Murata, H; Inatomi, Y; Matsuura, N; Ono, K; Nakane, H; Noda, M; Lang, F A; Murata, J

1996-08-01

371

Cardiac sodium channelopathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac sodium channel are protein complexes that are expressed in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes to carry a large inward\\u000a depolarizing current (INa) during phase 0 of the cardiac action potential. The importance of INa for normal cardiac electrical activity is reflected by the high incidence of arrhythmias in cardiac sodium channelopathies,\\u000a i.e., arrhythmogenic diseases in patients with mutations in SCN5A,

Ahmad S. Amin; Alaleh Asghari-Roodsari; Hanno L. Tan

2010-01-01

372

Study on tannin–metal interaction in aqueous solution using spectrophotometric titration and micelle-mediated separation/atomic absorption spectrometry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tannins, including hydrolysable and condensed tannins, are important secondary metabolites of vascular plants and are a major plant-derived carbon source in the environment. Due to the many phenolic hydroxyl groups characteristic of tannins, these compounds have been long been thought to play signi...

373

Characterization of High-Tannin Fractions from Humus by Carbon-13 Cross-Polarization and Magic-Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance  

E-print Network

Characterization of High-Tannin Fractions from Humus by Carbon-13 Cross-Polarization and Magic in Newfoundland with a permanent con- version from forest to heathland (Titus et al., 1995).Condensed tannins can characterized tannin-rich fractions from humus collected in 1998 from et al., 1998). Incubation experiments

Hemminga, Marcus A.

374

Oecologia (Berlin) (1986) 70:238-241 Oecologia9 Springer-Verlag1986 Costs and benefits of defense by tannins in a neotropical tree  

E-print Network

by tannins in a neotropical tree Phyllis D. Coley Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA Summary. The costs and benefits of defense by tannins were investigated in a greenhouse for 18 months. Within a plant, leaf tannin concentrations measured in different years were highly

Coley, Phyllis

375

Amino acid profile of salivary proteins and plasmatic trace mineral response to dietary condensed tannins in free-ranging zebu cattle (Bos indicus) as a  

E-print Network

tannins in free-ranging zebu cattle (Bos indicus) as a marker of habitat degradation K. Yisehak a, , A in decreased availability of grasses and increased amounts of browse plants high in condensed tannins (CT, was higher in the tannin-rich region (Pb0.01). The ratio of proline to the sum of total amino acids was also

Rothman, Jessica M.

376

Annotation and comparative analysis of the glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium distachyon  

SciTech Connect

Background Glycoside hydrolases cleave the bond between a carbohydrate and another carbohydrate, a protein, lipid or other moiety. Genes encoding glycoside hydrolases are found in a wide range of organisms, from archea to animals, and are relatively abundant in plant genomes. In plants, these enzymes are involved in diverse processes, including starch metabolism, defense, and cell-wall remodeling. Glycoside hydrolase genes have been previously cataloged for Oryza sativa (rice), the model dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and the fast-growing tree Populus trichocarpa (poplar). To improve our understanding of glycoside hydrolases in plants generally and in grasses specifically, we annotated the glycoside hydrolase genes in the grasses Brachypodium distachyon (an emerging monocotyledonous model) and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum). We then compared the glycoside hydrolases across species, both at the whole-genome level and at the level of individual glycoside hydrolase families. Results We identified 356 glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium and 404 in sorghum. The corresponding proteins fell into the same 34 families that are represented in rice, Arabidopsis, and poplar, helping to define a glycoside hydrolase family profile which may be common to flowering plants. Examination of individual glycoside hydrolase familes (GH5, GH13, GH18, GH19, GH28, and GH51) revealed both similarities and distinctions between monocots and dicots, as well as between species. Shared evolutionary histories appear to be modified by lineage-specific expansions or deletions. Within families, the Brachypodium and sorghum proteins generally cluster with those from other monocots. Conclusions This work provides the foundation for further comparative and functional analyses of plant glycoside hydrolases. Defining the Brachypodium glycoside hydrolases sets the stage for Brachypodium to be a monocot model for investigations of these enzymes and their diverse roles in planta. Insights gained from Brachypodium will inform translational research studies, with applications for the improvement of cereal crops and bioenergy grasses.

Tyler, Ludmila [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Albany; Bragg, Jennifer [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Albany; Wu, Jiajie [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Albany; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Vogel, John [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Albany

2010-01-01

377

A comparison of flavonoid glycosides by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison is presented of product ion mass spectra of protonated and deprotonated molecules of kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, quercitin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercitrin), quercitin-3-O-galactoside (hyperoin), apigenin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, genistein-7-O-glucoside, naringenin-7-O-glucoside (prunin), luteolin-4'-O-glucoside, luteolin-6-C-glucoside (homoorientin, known also as isoorientin), apigenin-8-C-glucoside (vitexin), and luteolin-8-C-glucoside (orientin) together with the product ion mass spectrum of deprotonated kaempferol-7-O-glucoside. All isomeric ions were distinguishable on the basis of their product ion mass spectra. For protonated 3-O-, 7-O-, and 4'-O-glycosides at a collision energy of 46-47 eV, homolytic cleavage of the O-glycosidic bond yielded aglycon Y+ ions, whereas in deprotonated 3-O-, 7-O-, and 4'-O-glycosides, heterolytic and homolytic cleavage of the O-glycosidic bond yielded radical aglycon (Y-H)- and aglycon (Y-) ions. In each case, fragmentation of either the glycan or the aglycon or both was observed. For 6-C- and 8-C-glycosides at a collision energy of 46-47 eV, fragmentation was restricted almost exclusively to the glycan. For luteolin-6-C-glucoside, the integrity of the aglycon structure is preserved at the expense of the glycan for which some 30 fragmentations were observed. Breakdown curves were determined as a function of collision energy for protonated and deprotonated luteolin-6-C-glucoside. An attempt has been made to rationalize the product ion mass spectra derived from C-O- and C-C-luteolin glucosides in terms of computed structures that indicate significant intramolecular hydrogen bonding and rotation of the B-ring to form a coplanar luteolin structure. It is proposed that protonated and deprotonated luteolin-6-C-glucoside may afford examples of cooperative interactive bonding that plays a major role in directing fragmentation.

March, Raymond E.; Lewars, Errol G.; Stadey, Christopher J.; Miao, Xiu-Sheng; Zhao, Xiaoming; Metcalfe, Chris D.

2006-01-01

378

Echocardiography in cardiac amyloidosis.  

PubMed

Echocardiography is the most widely used noninvasive test in patients with heart failure or abnormal cardiac findings on examination. Patients with amyloidosis may have significant cardiac abnormalities, several of which are highly suggestive of the disease. This article reviews echocardiographic features found in cardiac amyloidosis. PMID:25597027

Falk, Rodney H; Quarta, C Cristina

2015-03-01

379

MATE2 Mediates Vacuolar Sequestration of Flavonoid Glycosides and Glycoside Malonates in Medicago truncatula[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

The majority of flavonoids, such as anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and isoflavones, are stored in the central vacuole, but the molecular basis of flavonoid transport is still poorly understood. Here, we report the functional characterization of a multidrug and toxin extrusion transporter (MATE2), from Medicago truncatula. MATE 2 is expressed primarily in leaves and flowers. Despite its high similarity to the epicatechin 3?-O-glucoside transporter MATE1, MATE2 cannot efficiently transport proanthocyanidin precursors. In contrast, MATE2 shows higher transport capacity for anthocyanins and lower efficiency for other flavonoid glycosides. Three malonyltransferases that are coexpressed with MATE2 were identified. The malonylated flavonoid glucosides generated by these malonyltransferases are more efficiently taken up into MATE2-containing membrane vesicles than are the parent glycosides. Malonylation increases both the affinity and transport efficiency of flavonoid glucosides for uptake by MATE2. Genetic loss of MATE2 function leads to the disappearance of leaf anthocyanin pigmentation and pale flower color as a result of drastic decreases in the levels of various flavonoids. However, some flavonoid glycoside malonates accumulate to higher levels in MATE2 knockouts than in wild-type controls. Deletion of MATE2 increases seed proanthocyanidin biosynthesis, presumably via redirection of metabolic flux from anthocyanin storage. PMID:21467581

Zhao, Jian; Huhman, David; Shadle, Gail; He, Xian-Zhi; Sumner, Lloyd W.; Tang, Yuhong; Dixon, Richard A.

2011-01-01

380

Tannins from Hamamelis virginiana Bark Extract: Characterization and Improvement of the Antiviral Efficacy against Influenza A Virus and Human Papillomavirus  

PubMed Central

Antiviral activity has been demonstrated for different tannin-rich plant extracts. Since tannins of different classes and molecular weights are often found together in plant extracts and may differ in their antiviral activity, we have compared the effect against influenza A virus (IAV) of Hamamelis virginiana L. bark extract, fractions enriched in tannins of different molecular weights and individual tannins of defined structures, including pseudotannins. We demonstrate antiviral activity of the bark extract against different IAV strains, including the recently emerged H7N9, and show for the first time that a tannin-rich extract inhibits human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 infection. As the best performing antiviral candidate, we identified a highly potent fraction against both IAV and HPV, enriched in high molecular weight condensed tannins by ultrafiltration, a simple, reproducible and easily upscalable method. This ultrafiltration concentrate and the bark extract inhibited early and, to a minor extent, later steps in the IAV life cycle and tannin-dependently inhibited HPV attachment. We observed interesting mechanistic differences between tannin structures: High molecular weight tannin containing extracts and tannic acid (1702 g/mol) inhibited both IAV receptor binding and neuraminidase activity. In contrast, low molecular weight compounds (<500 g/mol) such as gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate or hamamelitannin inhibited neuraminidase but not hemagglutination. Average molecular weight of the compounds seemed to positively correlate with receptor binding (but not neuraminidase) inhibition. In general, neuraminidase inhibition seemed to contribute little to the antiviral activity. Importantly, antiviral use of the ultrafiltration fraction enriched in high molecular weight condensed tannins and, to a lesser extent, the unfractionated bark extract was preferable over individual isolated compounds. These results are of interest for developing and improving plant-based antivirals. PMID:24498245

Theisen, Linda L.; Erdelmeier, Clemens A. J.; Spoden, Gilles A.; Boukhallouk, Fatima; Sausy, Aurélie; Florin, Luise; Muller, Claude P.

2014-01-01

381

Functional properties and in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial effectiveness of pigskin gelatin films incorporated with hydrolysable chestnut tannin.  

PubMed

The impact of the incorporation of 10%?w/w of hydrolyzable chestnut tannin into pigskin gelatin (G) films plasticized with glycerol (Gly) on the physicochemical properties as well as the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial effectiveness against food-borne pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Streptococcus aureus was investigated. A higher tendency to both redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) coloration characterized gelatin films incorporated with chestnut tannin. The reduced lightness (L) and transparency of gelatin-chestnut tannin films plasticized with 30%?w/w Gly might be associated with certain degree of phase separation which provoked the migration of the plasticizer to the film surface. The incorporation of chestnut tannin and glycerol affected the chemical structure of the resultant films due to the establishment of hydrogen interactions between components as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These interactions reduced gelatin crystallinity and seemed to be involved in the substantial decrease of the water uptake of films with tannin, irrespective of the glycerol level. Such interactions had minor effect on tensile properties being similar to those of the control films (without chestnut tannin) at the same glycerol level. Films modified with 10%?w/w chestnut tannin showed significant (P?tannin-free and chestnut tannin-containing gelatin films. The limited inhibitory activity of films incorporated with 10%?w/w chestnut tannin against the selected bacteria evidenced by disk diffusion method probably resulted from the interactions within the film restricting the diffusion of the active agent into the agar medium. The more modest protective effect observed against a Gram-positive bacterium (S. aureus) was also discussed. PMID:24831641

Peña-Rodriguez, Cristina; Martucci, Josefa F; Neira, Laura M; Arbelaiz, Aitor; Eceiza, Arantxa; Ruseckaite, Roxana A

2015-04-01

382

Immunomodulatory action of triterpene glycosides isolated from the sea cucumber Actinocucumis typica. Structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

Stimulation of lysosomal activity and ROS formation in mouse peritoneal macrophages by five triterpene glycosides, typicosides A1 (1), A2 (2), B1 (3), C1 (4) and C2 (5) has been studied and compared with their cytotoxic activities. Glycosides 1-3 possess moderate activities, but the most cytotoxic glycoside 5 is not active. Typicoside C1 (4), with low toxicity, was proved to be the most active concerning stimulation of ROS formation. This is the first example of a triterpene glycoside from sea cucumbers with low cytotoxicity, but which demonstrates a strong immunostimulatory effect on mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. PMID:25115075

Pislyagin, Evgeny A; Aminin, Dmitry L; Silchenko, Alexandra S; Avilov, Sergey A; Andryjashchenko, Pelageya V; Kalinin, Vladimir I; Padmakumar, Krishna

2014-06-01

383

Glycosides from Marine Sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): Structures, Taxonomical Distribution, Biological Activities and Biological Roles  

PubMed Central

Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed. PMID:23015769

Kalinin, Vladimir I.; Ivanchina, Natalia V.; Krasokhin, Vladimir B.; Makarieva, Tatyana N.; Stonik, Valentin A.

2012-01-01

384

Antioxidants in the midgut fluids of a tannin-tolerant and a tannin-sensitive caterpillar: effects of seasonal changes in tree leaves.  

PubMed

The seasonal decline in foliar nutritional quality in deciduous trees also effects the availability of essential micronutrients, such as ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol, to herbivorous insects. This study first examined whether there are consistent patterns of seasonal change in antioxidant concentrations in deciduous tree leaves. Alpha-tocopherol concentrations increased substantially through time in late summer in sugar maple (Acer saccharum), red oak (Quercus rubra), and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides). However, seasonal change in the concentrations of other antioxidants differed between each species: P. tremuloides had higher levels of ascorbate and glutathione in the spring, Q. rubra had higher levels of glutathione but lower levels of ascorbate in the spring, and A. saccharum had lower levels of both ascorbate and glutathione in the spring. To test the hypothesis that tannin-tolerant caterpillars maintain higher concentrations of antioxidants in their midgut fluids than do tannin-sensitive species, we measured antioxidants in Orgyia leucostigma (a spring- and summer-feeding, tannin-tolerant species) and Malacosoma disstria (a spring-feeding, tannin-sensitive species) that were fed tree leaves in the spring and summer. The midgut fluids of O. leucostigma larvae generally had higher concentrations of antioxidants in the summer than did those of M. disstria, and were significantly higher overall. The results of this study are consistent with the hypothesis that higher concentrations of antioxidants form an important component of the defenses of herbivores that feed on mature, phenol-rich tree leaves. Some limitations of the interpretation of total antioxidant capacity are also discussed. PMID:12857024

Barbehenn, Raymond V; Walker, Ann C; Uddin, Farhan

2003-05-01

385

Effects of purified persimmon tannin and tannic acid on survival and reproduction of bean bug, Riptortus clavatus.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effects of tannic acid and purified perrsimmon tannin on survival and reproduction of bean bugs, Riptortus clavatus.Feeding behavior of R. clavatus was also examined on sweet (cv. Fuyu) and astringent (cv. Chongdosi) persimmon fruits. Soluble tannin in sweet persimmon fruits decreased from 3% in early June to 0.5% in late September, but it increased from 2 to 8% during the same period in astringent persimmon fruits. More bugs visited sweet than astringent persimmon. Numbers of piercing/sucking spots were higher on sweet than on astringent persimmon. When fed 1 and 3% solutions of persimmon tannin, adult bugs ingested only 64.1 and 9.5% of the amount of water ingested by those offered the control (distilled water). Amounts of persimmon tannin ingested by the adult bugs were 6.5 and 2.8 times higher at 1 and 3% tannin solutions compared to a 0.1% solution. Persimmon tannin exerted negative effects on survival and reproduction of R. clavatus at higher concentrations (1 and 3% solutions). Feeding of R. clavatus adults decreased with increasing tannin concentrations. When results from both sexes were pooled, 50% mortality was achieved at 11 and 4 days after treatment with the 1 and 3% tannin solutions, respectively. Reproduction decreased with 1% tannin, and no eggs were produced with 3% tannin solution. Tannic acid was similar in its effects on R. clavatus. All nymphs died 14, 12, and 7 days after feeding on 0.1, 1, and 3% tannic acid, respectively. Adults were less sensitive than nymphs, and their survival was not affected by 0.1% tannic acid. However. 1 and 3% tannic acid solutions were fatal. Survivorship decreased to 50% at 11 and 6 days after supplying tannin solutions of 1 and 3% concentrations. Higher concentrations (1 and 3%) resulted in reduced reproduction, as was seen with persimmon tannin. Our data may explain why R. clavatus does not invade sweet persimmon orchards until late July, when concentrations of soluble tannin are low enough to allow them to feed. PMID:15672670

Park, Chung Gyoo; Lee, Kyu Chul; Lee, Dong Woon; Choo, Ho Yul; Albert, P J

2004-11-01

386

Cardiac gated ventilation  

SciTech Connect

There are several theoretic advantages to synchronizing positive pressure breaths with the cardiac cycle, including the potential for improving distribution of pulmonary and myocardial blood flow and enhancing cardiac output. The authors evaluated the effects of synchronizing respiration to the cardiac cycle using a programmable ventilator and electron beam CT (EBCT) scanning. The hearts of anesthetized dogs were imaged during cardiac gated respiration with a 50 msec scan aperture. Multi slice, short axis, dynamic image data sets spanning the apex to base of the left ventricle were evaluated to determine the volume of the left ventricular chamber at end-diastole and end-systole during apnea, systolic and diastolic cardiac gating. The authors observed an increase in cardiac output of up to 30% with inspiration gated to the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle in a non-failing model of the heart.

Hanson, C.W. III [Hospital of the Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. Anesthesia; Hoffman, E.A. [Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States). Div. of Physiologic Imaging

1995-12-31

387

Adsorptive recovery of Au3+ from aqueous solutions using bayberry tannin-immobilized mesoporous silica.  

PubMed

Tannin is well known to be an inexpensive and ubiquitous natural biomass, which has high chelating affinity towards many metal ions. In this study, bayberry tannin (BT) was immobilized on mesoporous silica matrix to prepare a novel adsorbent, which was subsequently used for the adsorptive recovery of Au(3+) from aqueous solutions. It was found that bayberry tannin-immobilized mesoporous silica (BT-SiO(2)) was able to effectively recover Au(3+) from acidic solutions (pH 2.0). The equilibrium adsorption capacity of Au(3+) on BT-SiO(2) was high up to 642.0 mg/g at 323 K. Due to its mesoporous structure, BT-SiO(2) exhibited an extremely fast adsorption rate to Au(3+) as compared with other tannin gel adsorbent. The presence of other coexisting metal ions, such as Pb(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+), did not decrease the adsorption capacity of Au(3+) on BT-SiO(2), and BT-SiO(2) had almost no adsorption capacity to these coexisting metal ions, which suggested the high adsorption selectivity of BT-SiO(2) to Au(3+). Additionally, about 73% of adsorbed Au(3+) can be desorbed using aqua regia, and the Au(3+) solution was concentrated about 18.0 times as compared with the original solution. Consequently, the outstanding characteristics of BT-SiO(2) provide the possibility of effective recovery and concentration of Au(3+) from diluted solutions. PMID:20728986

Huang, Xin; Wang, Yanpin; Liao, Xuepin; Shi, Bi

2010-11-15

388

Heating and reduction affect the reaction with tannins of wine protein fractions differing in hydrophobicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the storage, bottled white wines can manifest haziness due to the insolubilisation of the grape proteins that may ‘survive’ in the fermentation process. Although the exact mechanism of this occurrence is not fully understood, proteins and tannins are considered two of the key factors involved in wine hazing, since their aggregation leads to the formation of insoluble particles. To

Matteo Marangon; Simone Vincenzi; Marco Lucchetta; Andrea Curioni

2010-01-01

389

Inuence of balsam poplar tannin fractions on carbon and nitrogen dynamics in Alaskan taiga oodplain soils  

E-print Network

In¯uence of balsam poplar tannin fractions on carbon and nitrogen dynamics in Alaskan taiga. In the Alaskan taiga, changes in nutrient cycling caused by balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) secondary poplar; Taiga 1. Introduction Disturbance and succession dominate the landscape structure of the Alaskan

Fierer, Noah

390

Bactericidal effect of hydrolysable and condensed tannin extracts on Campylobacter jejuni in vitro  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Strategies are sought to reduce intestinal colonization of food-producing animals by Campylobacter jejuni, a leading bacterial cause of human foodborne illness worldwide. Presently, we tested the antimicrobial activity of hydrolysable-rich blackberry, cranberry, chestnut tannin extracts, and conden...

391

Impact by condensed tannins with different mean degrees of polymerization on protein precipitation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Condensed tannins (CTs) isolated from white clover (Trifolium repens) flowers and big trefoil (Lotus pedunculatus) leaves were evaluated in precipitation studies with bovine serum albumin (BSA), lysozyme (LYS), and alfalfa leaf protein (ALF). The CTs were of similar compositions, but differed in the...

392

Selective detection and recovery of gold at tannin-immobilized non-conducting electrode.  

PubMed

A tannin-immobilized glassy carbon electrode (TIGC) was prepared via electrochemical oxidation of the naturally occurring polyphenolic mimosa tannin, which generated a non-conducting polymeric film (NCPF) on the electrode surface. The fouling of the electrode surface by the electropolymerized film was evaluated by monitoring the electrode response of ferricyanide ions as a redox marker. The NCPF was permselective to HAuCl4, and the electrochemical reduction of HAuCl4 to metallic gold at the TIGC electrode was evaluated by recording the reduction current during cyclic voltammetry measurement. In the mixed electrolyte containing HAuCl4 along with FeCl3 and/or CuCl2, the NCPF remained selective toward the electrochemical reduction of HAuCl4 into the metallic state. The chemical reduction of HAuCl4 into metallic gold was also observed when the NCPF was inserted into an acidic gold solution overnight. The adsorption capacity of Au(III) on tannin-immobilized carbon fiber was 29±1.45 mg g(-1) at 60°C. In the presence of excess Cu(II) and Fe(III), tannin-immobilized NCPF proved to be an excellent candidate for the selective detection and recovery of gold through both electrochemical and chemical processes. PMID:25467460

Banu, Khaleda; Shimura, Takayoshi; Sadeghi, Saman

2015-01-01

393

Membrane treatment by nanofiltration of exhausted vegetable tannin liquors from the leather industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rational use of water in the leather industry is described by applying the criteria of “clean technologies” by means of membrane processes. A nanofiltration (NF) process was used for recovering tannins and water from exhausted baths and reusing them as tanning agents and washings. Results of experiments performed on laboratory and semi-industrial pilot scale plants, operating and fluid-dynamic conditions

A Cassano; J Adzet; R Molinari; M. G Buonomenna; J Roig; E Drioli

2003-01-01

394

Condensed tannin in drinking water reduces greenhouse gas precursor urea in sheep and cattle urine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ingestion of small amounts of naturally-occurring condensed tannin (CT) by ruminants can provide several benefits including potential reduction of ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions over the long-term by reducing their urine urea excretion. However, providing grazing ruminants with sufficient amou...

395

Growth of sheep fed tannin-rich Albizia gummifera with or without polyethylene glycol.  

PubMed

Twenty-four intact male Bonga lambs were studied in a 100-day experiment to evaluate the effect of feeding tannin rich leaves of Albizia gummifera (AG) on nutrient utilization, growth performance, and carcass composition. The dietary treatments consisted of hay alone (T1, control), AG at 30 % of control diet + T1 (T2), and T2 + polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) (T3, 40 mg PEG, 1 kg AG/head on a dry mass (DM) basis. The lambs were individually fed at 50 g DM/kg live weight. In the last 10 days of the experiment, all animals from each treatment were harnessed with feces collection bags. At the end of the experiment, lambs were slaughtered after overnight fasting for measurements of carcass characteristics. Crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and condensed tannin contents of AG were 300, 586, and 108 g/kg DM, respectively. Lambs fed AG with PEG had higher (P?tannins on livestock performance. Leaves of AG enhance digestibility and performance in tropical hay-fed sheep, and the addition of PEG further improves this effect, likely due to the binding of tannins. PMID:24832590

Yisehak, Kechero; Biruk, Kebede; Abegaze, Beyene; Janssens, Geert P J

2014-10-01

396

Effect of chestnut tannin on the fermentability of soyabean meal nitrogen in the rumen  

E-print Network

Effect of chestnut tannin on the fermentability of soyabean meal nitrogen in the rumen F Mathieu) was then atomized. Using an in vitro technique (Jouany and Thi- vend, 1986) the fermentability of soyabean meal (SM the fermentability of the nitrogen in the meal, but had no effect on microbial metabolites (table I). The dose at 5

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

397

Tannins and catechin gallate mediate the vasorelaxant effect of Arbutus unedo on the rat isolated aorta.  

PubMed

This study examined the vascular effect of Arbutus leaves (aqueous extract) and described the isolation of several fractions responsible for their vasorelaxant activity. The aqueous extract (AE) of leaves was tested on rat aortic rings precontracted with 0.1 microm noradrenaline. At 10(-2) g/L, AE produced an endothelium dependent relaxation of 66% +/- 5%, (n = 8). The leaves of Arbutus were then extracted successively with different solvents and the methanol extract was the most active. When tannins (primarily condensed tannins) were precipitated from the methanol extract, they showed a strong vasorelaxant activity (87% +/- 4%, n = 5), whereas the elimination of tannins in the methanol extract reduced significantly its vasorelaxant activity (42% +/- 8%, n = 8, p < 0.005). The methanol extract was further separated semi-preparatively by reversed-phase HPLC. Four fractions (Fr2, Fr3, Fr4 and Fr6) were the most active and produced 88% +/- 2% (n = 5), 75% +/- 6% (n = 5), 76% +/- 3% (n = 7) and 77% +/- 3% (n = 10) relaxation, respectively. These four fractions mainly correspond to polyphenol compounds. Analysis of Fr6 indicated that this fraction contained catechin gallate. In conclusion, the vasorelaxant activity of Arbutus is likely to be due to polyphenol compounds, primarily condensed tannins and catechin gallate. PMID:15597331

Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Mekh, Hassane; Bnouham, Mohamed; Herrenknecht, Christine; Roumy, Vincent; Fourneau, Christophe; Laurens, Alain; Hoerter, Jacqueline; Fischmeister, Rodolphe

2004-11-01

398

Methane Emission by Goats Consuming Condensed Tannin-containing Forage at Different Frequencies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twenty-four yearling Boer and Spanish wethers (33.5 ± 0.36 kg BW) were used in a 32-d experiment to assess effects of frequency of feeding condensed tannin (CT)-containing fresh sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) on ruminal methane (CH4) emission. Fresh SL (15.3% CT) was fed free-choice ever...

399

Comparative antimicrobial activity of tannin extracts from perennial plants on mastitis pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three strains of pathogenic bacteria were treated with condensed tannins (CT) purified from eight different woody plant species to investigate their inhibition effect on the growth of these bacteria in vitro. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus were tested against low...

400

Effect of high tannin grain sorghum on gastrointestinal parasite fecal egg counts in goats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of three experiments was to determine the influence of high condensed tannin (CT) grain sorghum on gastrointestinal parasite fecal egg counts (FEC) in goats. Sixteen naturally-infected Boer crossbred mixed sex goats were used at 124 plus minus 2.9 days of age in Experiment 1, 24 mixe...

401

Seasonal changes in tannin and nitrogen contents of Casuarina equisetifolia branchlets*  

PubMed Central

Seasonal dynamics of total phenolics (TP), extractable condensed tannins (ECT), protein-bound condensed tannins (PBCT), fiber-bound condensed tannins (FBCT), total condensed tannins (TCT), and protein precipitation capacity (PPC) in young, mature and senescent branchlets of Casuarina equisetifolia were studied at Chishan Forestry Center of Dongshan County, Fujian Province, China. In addition, nitrogen contents of branchlets at the different developmental stages were also determined. The contents of TP and ECT, and PPC in young branchlets were significantly higher than those in mature and senescent branchlets through the season. However, PBCT contents were significantly higher in senescent branchlets than those in young and mature branchlets; FBCT fluctuated with season. Young branchlets had the highest N content, which decreased during branch maturity and senescence. The highest contents of TP and the lowest contents of TCT and N in young and mature branchlets were observed in summer. There was a significant negative correlation between TP and N contents. In contrast, TCT contents were positively correlated to N contents. Nutrient resorption during senescence and high TCT:N ratios in senescent branchlets are the important nutrient conservation strategies for C. equisetifolia. PMID:19235268

Zhang, Li-hua; Ye, Gong-fu; Lin, Yi-ming; Zhou, Hai-chao; Zeng, Qi

2009-01-01

402

Determination of flavonoids, tannins and ellagic acid in leaves from Rubus L. species.  

PubMed

This paper describes the quantitative determination of flavonoids, tannins and ellagic acid in the leaves from wild and cultivated variations of Rubus L. species (Rosaceae): raspberry (2 wild and 13 cultivars) and blackberry (3 wild and 3 cultivars). The content of flavonoids was analyzed using spectrophotometric (the Christ-Mullers method) and HPLC analysis after acid hydrolysis. The content of tannins was determined by the weight method, with hide powder, described by German Pharmacopoeia 10 (DAB 10). Ellagic acid content was examined using the HPLC method after acid hydrolysis. Flavonoid content, determined using the Christ-Muller's method was higher for the blackberry leaves than for the raspberry leaves and varied between 0.46% and 1.05%. Quercetin and kaempferol were predominant in all samples analyzed using the HPLC method. The highest flavonoid content was found in the leaves of R. nessensis (1.06%); with results in all of the examined samples varying between 0.27% and 1.06%. The concentration of ellagic acid in all species was determined after acid hydrolysis and ranged from 2.06% to 6.89%. The leaves of raspberries are characterized by greater amounts of tannins (varying between 2.62% and 6.87%) than the leaves of other species. The results from this study indicate that the analyzed species are a rich source of flavonoids, ellagic acid and tannins, which may be used for the quality assessment of Rubus L. species leaves. PMID:15595412

Gudej, Jan; Tomczyk, Michal

2004-11-01

403

Bioactive amines in sorghum: method optimisation and influence of line, tannin and hydric stress.  

PubMed

The profile and levels of bioactive amines in different sorghum lines were reported for the first time. The amines were quantified by ion-pair HPLC, post-column derivatisation with o-phthalaldehyde and fluorimetric detection. The extraction procedure was optimised: 420 ?m particle size, extraction with 5% trichloroacetic acid and three extractions. The screening of 22 sorghum lines showed that four of the ten amines investigated were detected. Spermine and spermidine were the prevalent amines (100%), followed by putrescine (77%) and cadaverine (14%). Total amines ranged from 5.8 to 41.4 mg/100 g, and the polyamines represented 60-100% of the total. Sorghum without tannin had higher amines levels compared to sorghum with tannin and cadaverine was specific to samples without tannin. Hydric stress caused accumulation of spermidine in the grains and affected the levels of other amines at rates depending on the presence or not of tannin. Sorghum is a significant source of polyamines. PMID:25466016

Paiva, Caroline Liboreiro; Evangelista, Warlley Pinheiro; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Glória, Maria Beatriz Abreu

2015-04-15

404

[Factors which modify the nutritional state of iron: tannin content of herbal teas].  

PubMed

Tannins are natural compounds that abound in herbs, wood and fruits. Their numerous hydroxyl radicals confer them a strong avidity for metals such as Fe, Zn and Cu. This property makes them strong inhibitors for the gastrointestinal absorption of these metals. Our purpose was to determine the tannin content of herbal infusions commonly consumed in Chile and other Latino American countries. The determination was performed from dessicated herbs with the Folin-Denis technique. Yerba mate, tea and oregano had the highest tannin content (117, 100 and 84 mg of tannic acid/g dry herb respectively). An intermediate level (between 20 and 40 of tannic acid/g) was for coca, matico, boldo, palto, laurel, orange and binojo. The lowest level of tannin for paico, cedrón, apio and manzanilla (< 10 mg/g). We conclude that the consumption of herbal teas at or around meals may inhibit the absorption of metals such as Fe, Zn, or Cu by decreasing their bioavailability. PMID:8984970

Pizarro, F; Olivares, M; Hertrampf, E; Walter, T

1994-12-01

405

Tannins--a dietary problem for hand-reared grey partridge Perdix perdix after release?  

PubMed

A 4-week feeding trial on 22 grey partridges Perdix perdix was conducted in this study. Seven birds were fed commercial poultry food, seven natural food and eight commercial poultry food containing 6% of quebracho-tannin. Our results suggest that 6% dietary tannin, when added to a commercial food with high protein content, effects the grey partridge only slightly. No difference was seen in food consumption and body mass remained stable. However, birds fed tannin had longer small intestines, which most probably indicate gastrointestinal detoxication. They also excreted a high amount of tannin in their faeces. In addition, no between-group variation was seen in cytochrome P450 enzymes. Birds fed natural food had high concentration of nitrogen in intestinal excreta and high plasma alanine concentrations. They also suffered a rapid decrease in body mass after the change in diet and their body mass remained low. This may indicate increased protein excretion and/or catabolism of endogenous nutrient reserves. Potential short-term effects of the change in diet were seen in plasma. These findings coincide with the high mortality period of birds released into the wild. PMID:11574293

Liukkonen-Anttila, T; Kentala, A; Hissa, R

2001-10-01

406

Dietary CP and Tannin Extracts Impact Ammonia Emissions From Manure Deposited On Dairy Barn Floors  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The impact of dietary CP and Quebracho-Chestnut tannin extracts on dairy cow performance and N partitioning are reported elsewhere at this meeting. Mixtures of feces/urine from these studies were applied to lab-scale ventilated chambers to measure ammonia-N emissions (ANE) from simulated concrete ba...

407

Effect of tannins on nitrogen balance and microbial activity of rumen fluid in sheep and goats  

E-print Network

Effect of tannins on nitrogen balance and microbial activity of rumen fluid in sheep and goats H balance in sheep and goats and on potentially related parameters such as plasma urea nitrogen (PUN on the fermentation capacity of sheep and goat rumen fluid were also investigated. Results indicate that the infusion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

408

Use of dye-labeled protein as spectrophotometric assay for protein precipitants such as tannin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine serum albumin has been covalently labeled with Remazol brilliant blue R to provide a substrate for a convenient spectrophotometric assay for protein precipitants. The blue protein is especially useful for measuring protein precipitation by vegetable tannins because its absorption maximum is at a wavelength where plant pigments exhibit minimum absorption. Blue BSA has been used to determine, by competition

Thomas N. Asquith; Larry G. Butler

1985-01-01

409

Woodfordin D and oenothein A, trimeric hydrolyzable tannins of macro-ring structure with antitumor activity.  

PubMed

Two new antitumor trimeric hydrolyzable tannins, woodfordin D (5) and oenothein A (13), were isolated from the dried flowers of Woodfordia fruticosa, and their macrocyclic structures, which have a novel constituent unit (woodfordinoyl group) connecting the monomers, have been elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence. Oenothein A (13) was also isolated from the leaves of Oenothera biennis. PMID:1913994

Yoshida, T; Chou, T; Matsuda, M; Yasuhara, T; Yazaki, K; Hatano, T; Nitta, A; Okuda, T

1991-05-01

410

In vitro availability of iron and zinc in white and coloured ragi (Eleusine coracana): role of tannin and phytate.  

PubMed

White and brown ragi (Eleusine coracana) varieties were analysed for tannin, phytate phosphorus, total phosphorus, iron, ionisable iron, zinc and soluble zinc content. White ragi had no detectable tannin while in brown varieties it ranged from 351 to 2392 mg per 100 g. Germination brought about a progressive decrease in tannin and phytate phosphorus and an increase in ionisable iron and soluble zinc content of grain ragi. Both in raw and germinated grain, ionizable iron was significantly higher in white than in brown varieties. While ionisable iron was inversely correlated with the level of tannin and phytate phosphorus, soluble zinc was negatively correlated with phytate phosphorus. After extraction of tannin, ionisable iron of brown ragi rose by 85%. On the other hand, in white varieties, addition of tannin extracted from brown ragi, resulted in a 52-65% decrease in ionisable iron content. These studies indicated that poor iron availability in ragi as judged by its low ionisable iron content was due to the presence of tannin in the grain. PMID:3231591

Udayasekhara Rao, P; Deosthale, Y G

1988-01-01

411

Steroidal glycosides from the underground parts of Helleborus caucasicus.  

PubMed

Four polyhydroxylated and polyunsaturated furostanol glycosides (1-4), named caucasicosides A (1), B (2), C (3) and D (4), were isolated from the MeOH extract of the underground parts of Helleborus caucasicus, along with four spirostanol derivatives, a furostanol glycoside, a furospirostanol glycoside, 20-hydroxyecdysone and the bufadienolides hellebrigenin and deglucohellebrin. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated as furosta-5,20(22),25(27)-triene-1beta,3beta,11alpha,26-tetrol 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylfurosta-5,20(22),25(27)-triene-1beta,3beta,11alpha,26-tetrol 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), 26-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-22alpha-methoxyfurosta-5,25(27)-diene-1beta,3beta,11alpha,26-tetrol 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylfurosta-5,20(22),25(27)-triene-1beta,3beta,26-triol 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-4-O-sulfo-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (4). Structure elucidation was accomplished through the extensive use of 1D- and 2D NMR experiments including 1H-1H (COSY, 1D-TOCSY) and 1H-13C (HSQC, HMBC) spectroscopy along with ESI-MS and HR-ESI-MS. The aglycones of 1-4 have never been reported before. PMID:18226823

Bassarello, Carla; Muzashvili, Tamara; Skhirtladze, Alexandre; Kemertelidze, Ether; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

2008-03-01

412

A new flavonol glycoside from the Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.  

PubMed Central

Background: Abelmoschus esculentus L. belonging to the family Malvaceae is a kind of one year herbage plant, which is one of the most important vegetables widely grown in Nigeria for its tender fruits and young leaves. It's easy to be cultivated and grows well in both tropical and temperate zones, that is, it is widely planted from Africa to Asia, South European to America. A new flavonol glycoside characterized as 5,7,3?,4?-tetrahydroxy-4??-O-methyl flavonol -3-O-?-D- glucopyranoside (1) has been isolated from the fruit of A. esculentus together with one known compound 5,7,3?,4?-tetrahydroxy flavonol -3-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?6)]-?-D-glucopyranoside (2). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of its spectral data, including 2-D NMR and mass (MS) spectra. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated by 2 assays, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The present work deals with the isolation, identification and antioxidant activity of the two compounds. Materials and Methods: The compounds were isolated by Diaion HP-20, Sephedex LH-20 column chromatography methods, their structures were identified by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated by two assays, e.g., DPPH and FRAP. Results: Two flavonol glycosides have been isolated from the fruit of Abelmoschus esculentus L. for the first time, and the compound 1 was a new compound, the compound 2 was isolated from the plant for the first time. Conclusion: The results show that the two flavonol glycosides have strong ability for scavenging DPPH and FRAP free radical by the experiment of antioxidant activities, so A. esculentus may be a natural antioxidants resource. PMID:22438657

Liao, Haibing; Liu, Huixin; Yuan, Ke

2012-01-01

413

The gastroprotective effects of Eugenia dysenterica (Myrtaceae) leaf extract: the possible role of condensed tannins.  

PubMed

We applied a taxonomic approach to select the Eugenia dysenterica (Myrtaceae) leaf extract, known in Brazil as "cagaita," and evaluated its gastroprotective effect. The ability of the extract or carbenoxolone to protect the gastric mucosa from ethanol/HCl-induced lesions was evaluated in mice. The contributions of nitric oxide (NO), endogenous sulfhydryl (SH) groups and alterations in HCl production to the extract's gastroprotective effect were investigated. We also determined the antioxidant activity of the extract and the possible contribution of tannins to the cytoprotective effect. The extract and carbenoxolone protected the gastric mucosa from ethanol/HCl-induced ulcers, and the former also decreased HCl production. The blockage of SH groups but not the inhibition of NO synthesis abolished the gastroprotective action of the extract. Tannins are present in the extract, which was analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI); the tannins identified by fragmentation pattern (MS/MS) were condensed type-B, coupled up to eleven flavan-3-ol units and were predominantly procyanidin and prodelphinidin units. Partial removal of tannins from the extract abolished the cytoprotective actions of the extract. The extract exhibits free-radical-scavenging activity in vitro, and the extract/FeCl3 sequence stained gastric surface epithelial cells dark-gray. Therefore, E. dysenterica leaf extract has gastroprotective effects that appear to be linked to the inhibition of HCl production, the antioxidant activity and the endogenous SH-containing compounds. These pleiotropic actions appear to be dependent on the condensed tannins contained in the extract, which bind to mucins in the gastric mucosa forming a protective coating against damaging agents. Our study highlights the biopharmaceutical potential of E. dysenterica. PMID:24789995

Prado, Ligia Carolina da Silva; Silva, Denise Brentan; de Oliveira-Silva, Grasielle Lopes; Hiraki, Karen Renata Nakamura; Canabrava, Hudson Armando Nunes; Bispo-da-Silva, Luiz Borges

2014-01-01

414

The effects of high-tannin leaf litter from transgenic poplars on microbial communities in microcosm soils  

PubMed Central

The impacts of leaf litter from genetically modified hybrid poplar accumulating high levels of condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins) were examined in soil microcosms consisting of moss growing on sieved soil. Moss preferentially proliferated in microcosms with lower tannin content; DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) detected increased fungal diversity in microcosms with low-tannin litter. The proportion of cloned rDNA sequences from Actinobacteria decreased with litter addition while Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and ?-Proteobacteria significantly increased. ?-Proteobacteria were proportionally more numerous at high-tannin levels. Tannins had no significant impact on overall diversity of bacterial communities analyzed with various estimators. There was an increased proportion of N-fixing bacteria corresponding to the addition of litter with low-tannin levels. The addition of litter increased the proportion of Ascomycota/Basidiomycota. Dothideomycetes, Pucciniomycetes, and Tremellomycetes also increased and Agaricomycetes decreased. Agaricomycetes and Sordariomycetes were significantly more abundant in controls, whereas Pucciniomycetes increased in soil with litter from transformed trees (P = 0.051). Richness estimators and diversity indices revealed no significant difference in the composition of fungal communities; PCoA (principal coordinate analyses) partitioned the fungal communities into three groups: (i) those with higher amounts of added tannin from both transformed and untransformed treatments, (ii) those corresponding to soils without litter, and (iii) those corresponding to microcosms with litter added from trees transformed only with a ?-glucuronidase control vector. While the litter from transformed poplars had significant effects on soil microbe communities, the observed impacts reflected known impacts on soil processes associated with tannins, and were similar to changes that would be expected from natural variation in tannin levels. PMID:24133486

Winder, Richard S.; Lamarche, Josyanne; Constabel, C. Peter; Hamelin, Richard C.

2013-01-01

415

[New flavonoid-glycosides from Crataegus monogyna and Crataegus pentagyna].  

PubMed

From the leaves and flowers of Crataegus monogyna and C. Pentagyna six new flavonoid-C- and O-glycosides respectively have been isolated and identified as 2''-O-rhamnosyl-orientin, 2''-O-rhamnosyl-isoorientin, 2''-O-rhamnosyl-isovitexin, rutin, spiraeosid, 8-methoxy-kämpferol and 8-methoxy-kämpferol-3-O-glucoside. The structure of O-rhamnosyl-vitexin and O-acetyl-O-rhamnosyl-vitexin isolated previously, have been elucidated unambigiously mainly by NMR- and MS-spectroscopy. PMID:17402083

Nikolov, N; Seligmann, O; Wagner, H; Horowitz, R M; Gentili, B

1982-01-01

416

Secoiridoid glycosides and an antifungal anthranilate derivative from Gentiana tibetica.  

PubMed

Repetitive chromatography of the methanol extract of the roots of Gentiana tibetica afforded two new secoiridoid glycosides and a novel antifungal anthranilic acid derivative, together with beta-sitosterol, daucosterol, oleanolic acid, loganic acid, gentiopicroside, sweroside, 2'-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)sweroside, trifloroside, rindoside and macrophylloside A. The structures of the new products were determined mainly by spectroscopic methods as 8-hydroxy-10-hydrosweroside, isomacrophylloside and ethyl N-docosanoylanthranilate. Ethyl N-docosanoylanthranilate inhibited the growth of the human pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. The taxonomic significance of the constituent is discussed briefly. PMID:9611826

Tan, R X; Kong, L D; Wei, H X

1998-04-01

417

FLAVONOL GLYCOSIDES FROM THE NATIVE AMERICAN PLANT GAURA LONGIFLORA  

PubMed Central

Phytochemical investigation of the native American plant Gaura longiflora led to the isolation of three new and eight known flavonol glycosides. The structures of the new compounds were established primarily by spectroscopic data as quercetin 3-O-(2?-O-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-6?-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-?-D-glucopyranoside (1), kaempferol 3-O-(2?-O-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-6?-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-?-d-gluco-pyranoside (2) and quercetin 3-O-(2?-O-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-6?-O-Z-p-coumaroyl)-?-D-glucopyrano-side (3). PMID:24371369

Xu, Wen-Hui; Jacob, Melissa R.; Agarwal, Ameeta K.; Clark, Alice M.; Liang, Zong-Suo; Li, Xing-Cong

2013-01-01

418

[Iridoid glycosides from buds of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum].  

PubMed

The study on the buds of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum was carried out to look for anti-HBV constituents. The isolation and purification were performed by HPLC and chromatography on silica gel, polyamide and Sephadex LH-20 column. The structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Six iridoid glycosides were identified as jasgranoside B (1), 6-O-methy-catalpol (2), deacetyl asperulosidic acid (3), aucubin (4), 8-dehydroxy shanzhiside (5), and loganin (6). Jasgranoside B (1) is a new compound. Compounds 2-6 were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time. PMID:22242454

Zhao, Gui-qin; Yin, Zhi-feng; Liu, Yu-cui; Li, Hong-bo

2011-10-01

419

Additional new minor cucurbitane glycosides from Siraitia grosvenorii.  

PubMed

Continuous phytochemical studies of the crude extract of Luo Han Guo (Siraitia grosvenorii) furnished three additional new cucurbitane triterpene glycosides, namely 11-deoxymogroside V, 11-deoxyisomogroside V, and 11-deoxymogroside VI. The structures of all the isolated compounds were characterized on the basis of extensive NMR and mass spectral data as well as hydrolysis studies. The complete ¹H- and ¹³C-NMR spectral assignments of the three unknown compounds are reported for the first time based on COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, and HMBC spectroscopic data. PMID:24662081

Prakash, Indra; Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash

2014-01-01

420

Two new glycosides from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia L.  

PubMed

To study the chemical constituents of the fruits of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.), and find novel compounds, an n-butanol extract of the ethanol soluble fraction was subjected to repeated silica gel and ODS column chromatography and HPLC. Two new glycosides were isolated and their structures elucidated by NMR and HRFAB-MS spectrometry as (2E,4E,7Z)-deca-2,4,7-trienoate-2-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-?-D-glucopyranoside and amyl-1-O-?-D-apio-furanosyl-1,6-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, respectively. PMID:23103531

Hu, Ming-Xu; Zhang, Hong-Cai; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shu-Min; Liu, Li

2012-01-01

421

Acylated flavonol glycosides from the flower of Inula britannica.  

PubMed

Three new acylated flavonol glycosides, patuletin 7-O-(6' '-isobutyryl)glucoside (1), patuletin 7-O-[6' '-(2-methylbutyryl)]glucoside (2), and patuletin 7-O-(6' '-isovaleryl)glucoside (3), were isolated from the n-BuOH extract of Inula britannica flowers by bioassay-guided fractionation, together with other known flavonoids. The structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR, FABMS, and other spectral analyses. The eight flavonoids, including new compounds (1-3), patulitrin (7), nepitrin (8), axillarin (10), patuletin (11), and luteolin (12), showed profound antioxidant activity in DPPH assay and cytochrome-c reduction assay using HL-60 cell culture system. PMID:10650074

Park, E J; Kim, Y; Kim, J

2000-01-01

422

Synthesis and evaluation of bibenzyl glycosides as potent tyrosinase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Bibenzyl glycosides 1-6 were synthesized from 2,4-dihydoxybenzaldehyde and xylose, glucose, cellobiose or maltose. The key steps in the synthesis were the Wittig reaction and trichloroacetimidate glycosylation. Tests for tyrosinase inhibitory activity showed that all were significantly active, indicating that they are unique hydrophilic tyrosinase inhibitors. Bibenzyl xyloside 2 is a particularly potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 0.43 ?M, 17 times higher than that of kojic acid). These results suggest that the hydrophilic cavity of tyrosinase might accommodate the bulky carbohydrate on the bibenzyl scaffold. PMID:21334791

Tajima, Reiko; Oozeki, Hiromi; Muraoka, Seiichi; Tanaka, Saori; Motegi, Yukari; Nihei, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Yoichi; Masuoka, Noriyoshi; Nihei, Ken-ichi

2011-04-01

423

New Lignans and Iridoid Glycosides from Dipsacus asper Wall.  

PubMed

Six new compounds, including four new lignans, dipsalignan A (1), B-D (3-5), and two new bis-iridoid glycoside dimmers, dipsanosides M (7) and N (8), together with two known compounds (2) and (6), have been isolated from the roots of Dipsacus asper Wall. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data (MS, 1D, 2D NMR, and CD) and chemical methods. All the isolated compounds were tested against human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) integrase inhibition activities, and only compounds 1, 2, 7, and 8 displayed weak activities. PMID:25635380

Sun, Xinguang; Ma, Guoxu; Zhang, Dawei; Huang, Wenhua; Ding, Gang; Hu, Huagang; Tu, Guangzhong; Guo, Baolin

2015-01-01

424

Two new flavonoid glycosides from Artemisia frigida Willd  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of the n-BuOH-soluble fraction from the aerial parts of Artemisia frigida has led to the isolation of two new flavonoid glycosides, named friginoside A and friginoside B. Their structures were characterized as 5,7-dihydroxy-3?,4?,5?-trimethoxy flavone 7-O-?-d-glucuronide (1) and 5,7-dihydroxy-3?,4?,5?-trimethoxyflavone 7-O-?-d-glucuronyl-(1 ? 2)O-?-d-glucuronide (2) on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral analysis.

Qing-Hu Wang; Wu-Li-Ji Ao; Xiu-Lan Wang; Xiao-Hua Bao; Jin-Hui Wang

2010-01-01

425

Two new flavonoid glycosides from Artemisia frigida Willd.  

PubMed

An investigation of the n-BuOH-soluble fraction from the aerial parts of Artemisia frigida has led to the isolation of two new flavonoid glycosides, named friginoside A and friginoside B. Their structures were characterized as 5,7-dihydroxy-3',4',5'-trimethoxy flavone 7-O-?-d-glucuronide (1) and 5,7-dihydroxy-3',4',5'-trimethoxyflavone 7-O-?-d-glucuronyl-(1 ? 2)O-?-d-glucuronide (2) on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral analysis. PMID:21061216

Wang, Qing-Hu; Ao, Wu-Li-Ji; Wang, Xiu-Lan; Bao, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Jin-Hui

2010-11-01

426

Vanicosides C-F, new phenylpropanoid glycosides from Polygonum pensylvanicum.  

PubMed

The isolation of the protein kinase C inhibitors, vanicoside A (1) and vanicoside B (2), from Polygonum pensylvanicum prompted continued interest in the active principles of this plant. A new, more efficient isolation procedure has been developed to facilitate separation of homologues of vanicosides A and B from the complex extract. Several new phenylpropanoid glycosides have since been isolated. The structures of these principles were determined to be 2'-O-acetylhydropiperoside (4), 6'-O-p-coumarylhydropiperoside (5), 4'-O-acetylvanicoside A (6), and 3'-O-acetylvanicoside B (7) using negative ion FABMS, 1H NMR, and 2D NMR techniques. PMID:9644060

Brown, L L; Larson, S R; Sneden, A T

1998-06-26

427

A new steroidal glycoside from the seeds of Hyoscyamus niger.  

PubMed

A new steroidal glycoside hyoscyamoside G (1), together with two known analogues hyoscyamoside E (2) and hyoscyamoside F1 (3), was isolated from the seeds of Hyoscyamus niger. The structure of 1 was established as (22R,24Z)-1?,3?,7?,22,26-pentakishydroxylergost-22-O-?-d-gulcopyranosyl-5,24-diene-26-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, by means of chemical and spectroscopic methods including HRESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR. In vitro, compound 2 showed cytotoxicity against human lung cancer cell H460 with IC50 value of 66 ?g/mL. PMID:23745717

Zhang, Wenna; Zhang, Wei; Luo, Jianguang; Kong, Lingyi

2013-01-01

428

Carotenoid glycoside esters from the thermophilic bacterium meiothermusruber  

PubMed

The thermophilic bacterium Meiothermus ruber produces a series of carotenoid glycoside esters. The major carotenoid has been identified as 1'-beta-glucopyranosyl-3,4,3',4'-tetradehydro-1', 2'-dihydro-beta,psi-caroten-2-one (1). It is acylated at the 6' '-position of the glucose unit by a series of C10-C17 fatty acids. The structure of 1 was established by spectral means, including complete assignment of the 1H and 13C NMR resonances by inverse 2D NMR spectroscopy. These carotenoids are thought to play roles in stabilizing membranes of this thermophilic organism. PMID:10395503

Burgess; Barrow; Gao; Heard; Glenn

1999-06-01

429

Antiproliferative, Cytotoxic and Hemolytic Activities of a Triterpene Glycoside from Psolus patagonicus and Its Desulfated Analog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The major triterpene glycoside of the sea cucumber Psolus patagonicus and its desulfated analog were tested for their antiproliferative, cytotoxic and hemolytic activities, and their effect on NF-?B activation. Methods: The antiproliferative action of glycosides 1 and 2 were determined on 3 tumor cell lines. Their effect on the activation of NF-?B was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay staining

Valeria P. Careaga; Carlos Bueno; Claudia Muniain; Laura Alché; Marta S. Maier

2009-01-01

430

Fate of Host-Plant Iridoid Glycosides in Lepidopteran Larvae of Nymphalidae and Arcthdae  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the ability of larvae of six lepidopteran species to sequester iridoid glycosides. All larvae were fed on a common host plant, Plantago lanceolata, which contains two iridoid glycosides, aucubin and catalpol. Four species of arctiids were examined: Pyrrharctia isabella, Spilosoma congrua, Spilosoma latipennis, and Spilosoma virginica. For comparison, we also examined two nymphalid species, one of which, Junonia

M. Deane Bowers; Nancy E. Stamp

1997-01-01

431

Tyrosinase inhibition studies of cycloartane and cucurbitane glycosides and their structure–activity relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, tyrosinase inhibition studies and structure–activity relationship of eight cycloartane glycosides and one cucurbitane glycoside and its genin, which were isolated from Astragalus (Leguminoseae) and Bryonia (Cucurbitaceae) plants, have been discussed. The activities are compared with two reference tyrosinase inhibitors, kojic acid and l-mimosine. These studies and the SAR showed that the askendoside B which exhibited highly

Mahmud Tareq Hassan Khan; M. Iqbal Choudhary; Atta-ur-Rahman; Reyhan P. Mamedova; Manzura A. Agzamova; Mukhlis N. Sultankhodzhaev; Mahamed I. Isaev

2006-01-01

432

Environment and Genotype Affect Sweetpotato Storage Root Periderm Resin Glycoside Content  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Resin glycosides are complex compounds composed primarily of fatty acids and sugars that contribute to allelopathic potential and pest resistance in sweetpotato. Total periderm resin glycoside (PRG) contents of 10 sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) clones grown in three different field trials was det...

433

Two new nor-triterpene glycosides from peruvian "Uña de Gato" (Uncaria tomentosa).  

PubMed

Two new 27-nor-triterpene glycosides, tomentosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from Peruvian "Uña de Gato" (cat's claw, plant of origin: Uncaria tomentosa), a traditional herbal medicine in Peru. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis and chemical interconversions. This is the first report of naturally occurring pyroquinovic acid glycosides. PMID:12608878

Kitajima, Mariko; Hashimoto, Ken-Ichiro; Yokoya, Masashi; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Sandoval, Manuel; Aimi, Norio

2003-02-01

434

Annotation and comparative analysis of the glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium distachyon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Glycoside hydrolase genes have been previously cataloged for Oryza sativa (rice), the model dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and the fast-growing tree Populus trichocarpa (poplar). To improve our understanding of glycoside hydrolases in plants generally and in grasses specifically, we ann...

435

Glycosynthesis in a waterworld: new insight into the molecular basis of transglycosylation in retaining glycoside hydrolases.  

PubMed

Carbohydrates are ubiquitous in Nature and play vital roles in many biological systems. Therefore the synthesis of carbohydrate-based compounds is of considerable interest for both research and commercial purposes. However, carbohydrates are challenging, due to the large number of sugar subunits and the multiple ways in which these can be linked together. Therefore, to tackle the challenge of glycosynthesis, chemists are increasingly turning their attention towards enzymes, which are exquisitely adapted to the intricacy of these biomolecules. In Nature, glycosidic linkages are mainly synthesized by Leloir glycosyltransferases, but can result from the action of non-Leloir transglycosylases or phosphorylases. Advantageously for chemists, non-Leloir transglycosylases are glycoside hydrolases, enzymes that are readily available and exhibit a wide range of substrate specificities. Nevertheless, non-Leloir transglycosylases are unusual glycoside hydrolases in as much that they efficiently catalyse the formation of glycosidic bonds, whereas most glycoside hydrolases favour the mechanistically related hydrolysis reaction. Unfortunately, because non-Leloir transglycosylases are almost indistinguishable from their hydrolytic counterparts, it is unclear how these enzymes overcome the ubiquity of water, thus avoiding the hydrolytic reaction. Without this knowledge, it is impossible to rationally design non-Leloir transglycosylases using the vast diversity of glycoside hydrolases as protein templates. In this critical review, a careful analysis of literature data describing non-Leloir transglycosylases and their relationship to glycoside hydrolase counterparts is used to clarify the state of the art knowledge and to establish a new rational basis for the engineering of glycoside hydrolases. PMID:25793417

Bissaro, Bastien; Monsan, Pierre; Fauré, Régis; O'Donohue, Michael J

2015-04-01

436

Biochemical detoxication: mechanism of differential tiger swallowtail tolerance to phenolic glycosides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic glycosides, commonly occurring allelochemicals in the plant family Salicaceae, are differentially toxic to subspecies of the eastern tiger swallowtail and responsible for striking differences in the abilities of Papilio glaucus canadensis and P.g. glaucus to utilize the Salicaceae as food plants. This research was designed to test the hypothesis that particularly high esterase activity confers resistance to phenolic glycosides

R. L. Lindroth

1989-01-01

437

Philinopsides E and F, two new sulfated triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Pentacta quadrangularis.  

PubMed

Two new sulfated triterpene glycosides, philinopside E (1) and F (2), have been isolated from the sea cucumber Pentacta quadrangularis. Their structures have been established by extensive spectral analysis (NMR and MS) and chemical evidence. Glycoside 1 showed significant cytotoxicity (Ed(50) 0.75-3.50 microg mL(-1)) against ten tumor cell lines. PMID:16644536

Zhang, Shi-Long; Li, Ling; Yi, Yang-Hua; Sun, Peng

2006-04-01

438

Alkane1,2-diol-based glycosides and fatty glycosides and wax esters in Roseiflexus castenholzii and hot spring microbial mats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipid composition of Roseiflexus castenholzii, a thermophilic filamentous phototrophic bacterium related to uncultivated filamentous phototrophic bacteria that predominate in hot spring microbial mats, is reported. R. castenholzii lipid extracts were dominated by components characterized by alkane-1-ol-2-alkanoate moieties glycosidically bonded to a C6 sugar. Similar fatty glycosides, with an additional fatty acid esterified, were detected by HPLC-MS. R. castenholzii also

Stefan Schouten; Satoshi Hanada; Ellen C. Hopmans; Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté; David M. Ward

2002-01-01

439

Quantitation of sweet steviol glycosides by means of a HILIC-MS/MS-SIDA approach.  

PubMed

Meeting the rising consumer demand for natural food ingredients, steviol glycosides, the sweet principle of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Bertoni), have recently been approved as food additives in the European Union. As regulatory constraints require sensitive methods to analyze the sweet-tasting steviol glycosides in foods and beverages, a HILIC-MS/MS method was developed enabling the accurate and reliable quantitation of the major steviol glycosides stevioside, rebaudiosides A-F, steviolbioside, rubusoside, and dulcoside A by using the corresponding deuterated 16,17-dihydrosteviol glycosides as suitable internal standards. This quantitation not only enables the analysis of the individual steviol glycosides in foods and beverages but also can support the optimization of breeding and postharvest downstream processing of Stevia plants to produce preferentially sweet and least bitter tasting Stevia extracts. PMID:24206531

Well, Caroline; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas

2013-11-27

440

Host plant influences on iridoid glycoside sequestration of generalist and specialist caterpillars.  

PubMed

The effect of diet on sequestration of iridoid glycosides was examined in larvae of three lepidopteran species. Larvae were reared upon Plantago major, or P. lanceolata, or switched from one to the other in the penultimate instar. Junonia coenia is a specialist on iridoid glycoside-producing plants, whereas the arctiids, Spilosoma congrua and Estigmene acrea, are both polyphagous and eat iridoid-producing plants. All species sequestered iridoids. The specialist J. coenia sequestered from three to seven times the amounts sequestered by the two generalist species. Junonia coenia iridoid glycoside content depended on diet, and they sequestered from 5 to 15% dry weight iridoid glycosides. Estigmene acrea iridoid glycoside sequestration was relatively low, around 2% dry weight and did not vary with diet. Spilosoma congrua sequestration varied with diet and ranged from approximately 3 to 6% dry weight. PMID:20809144

Lampert, Evan C; Bowers, M Deane

2010-10-01

441

Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proven to be extremely versatile and useful for studying cardiac anatomy and function,\\u000a both for providing a deeper understanding of cardiac physiology and as a means to diagnose cardiac diseases. The capabilities\\u000a of MRI as a tomographic imaging modality to capture, with high spatial resolution, the anatomy of 3D structures was already\\u000a well appreciated before

Michael Jerosch-Herold; Ravi Teja Seethamraju; Carsten Rickers

442

Recovering glycoside hydrolase genes from active tundra cellulolytic bacteria.  

PubMed

Bacteria responsible for cellulose hydrolysis in situ are poorly understood, largely because of the relatively recent development of cultivation-independent methods for their detection and characterization. This study combined DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) and metagenomics for identifying active bacterial communities that assimilated carbon from glucose and cellulose in Arctic tundra microcosms. Following DNA-SIP, bacterial fingerprint analysis of gradient fractions confirmed isotopic enrichment. Sequenced fingerprint bands and clone library analysis of 16S rRNA genes identified active bacterial taxa associated with cellulose-associated labelled DNA, including Bacteroidetes (Sphingobacteriales), Betaproteobacteria (Burkholderiales), Alphaproteobacteria (Caulobacteraceae), and Chloroflexi (Anaerolineaceae). We also compared glycoside hydrolase metagenomic profiles from bulk soil and heavy DNA recovered from DNA-SIP incubations. Active populations consuming [(13)C]glucose and [(13)C]cellulose were distinct, based on ordinations of light and heavy DNA. Metagenomic analysis demonstrated a ?3-fold increase in the relative abundance of glycoside hydrolases in DNA-SIP libraries over bulk-soil libraries. The data also indicate that multiple displacement amplification introduced bias into the resulting metagenomic analysis. This research identified DNA-SIP incubation conditions for glucose and cellulose that were suitable for Arctic tundra soil and confirmed that DNA-SIP enrichment can increase target gene frequencies in metagenomic libraries. PMID:24983351

Pinnell, Lee J; Dunford, Eric; Ronan, Patrick; Hausner, Martina; Neufeld, Josh D

2014-07-01

443

Steviol Glycosides Modulate Glucose Transport in Different Cell Types  

PubMed Central

Extracts from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a plant native to Central and South America, have been used as a sweetener since ancient times. Currently, Stevia extracts are largely used as a noncaloric high-potency biosweetener alternative to sugar, due to the growing incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and metabolic disorders worldwide. Despite the large number of studies on Stevia and steviol glycosides in vivo, little is reported concerning the cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning the beneficial effects on human health. The effect of four commercial Stevia extracts on glucose transport activity was evaluated in HL-60 human leukaemia and in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. The extracts were able to enhance glucose uptake in both cellular lines, as efficiently as insulin. Our data suggest that steviol glycosides could act by modulating GLUT translocation through the PI3K/Akt pathway since treatments with both insulin and Stevia extracts increased the phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt. Furthermore, Stevia extracts were able to revert the effect of the reduction of glucose uptake caused by methylglyoxal, an inhibitor of the insulin receptor/PI3K/Akt pathway. These results corroborate the hypothesis that Stevia extracts could mimic insulin effects modulating PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:24327825

Rizzo, Benedetta; Zambonin, Laura; Leoncini, Emanuela; Vieceli Dalla Sega, Francesco; Prata, Cecilia; Fiorentini, Diana; Hrelia, Silvana

2013-01-01

444

Allosteric indicator displacement enzyme assay for a cyanogenic glycoside.  

PubMed

Indicator displacement assays (IDAs) represent an elegant approach in supramolecular analytical chemistry. Herein, we report a chemical biosensor for the selective detection of the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin in aqueous solution. The hybrid sensor consists of the enzyme ?-glucosidase and a boronic acid appended viologen together with a fluorescent reporter dye. ?-Glucosidase degrades the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin into hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde. Only the released cyanide binds at the allosteric site of the receptor (boronic acid) thereby inducing changes in the affinity of a formerly bound fluorescent indicator dye at the other side of the receptor. Thus, the sensing probe performs as allosteric indicator displacement assay (AIDA) for cyanide in water. Interference studies with inorganic anions and glucose revealed that cyanide is solely responsible for the change in the fluorescent signal. DFT calculations on a model compound revealed a 1:1 binding ratio of the boronic acid and cyanide ion. The fluorescent enzyme assay for ?-glucosidase uses amygdalin as natural substrate and allows measuring Michaelis-Menten kinetics in microtiter plates. The allosteric indicator displacement assay (AIDA) probe can also be used to detect cyanide traces in commercial amygdalin samples. PMID:24123550

Jose, D Amilan; Elstner, Martin; Schiller, Alexander

2013-10-18

445

Angling for Uniqueness in Enzymatic Preparation of Glycosides  

PubMed Central

In the early days of biocatalysis, limitations of an enzyme modeled the enzymatic applications; nowadays the enzyme can be engineered to be suitable for the process requirements. This is a general bird’s-eye view and as such cannot be specific for articulated situations found in different classes of enzymes or for selected enzymatic processes. As far as the enzymatic preparation of glycosides is concerned, recent scientific literature is awash with examples of uniqueness related to the features of the biocatalyst (yield, substrate specificity, regioselectivity, and resistance to a particular reaction condition). The invention of glycosynthases is just one of the aspects that has thrust forward the research in this field. Protein engineering, metagenomics and reaction engineering have led to the discovery of an expanding number of novel enzymes and to the setting up of new bio-based processes for the preparation of glycosides. In this review, new examples from the last decade are compiled with attention both to cases in which naturally present, as well as genetically inserted, characteristics of the catalysts make them attractive for biocatalysis. PMID:24970171

Trincone, Antonio

2013-01-01

446

Cardiac stem cell niches.  

PubMed

The critical role that stem cell niches have in cardiac homeostasis and myocardial repair following injury is the focus of this review. Cardiac niches represent specialized microdomains where the quiescent and activated state of resident stem cells is regulated. Alterations in niche function with aging and cardiac diseases result in abnormal sites of cardiomyogenesis and inadequate myocyte formation. The relevance of Notch1 signaling, gap-junction formation, HIF-1? and metabolic state in the regulation of stem cell growth and differentiation within the cardiac niches are discussed. PMID:25267073

Leri, Annarosa; Rota, Marcello; Hosoda, Toru; Goichberg, Polina; Anversa, Piero

2014-11-01

447

Determination of infochemicals and the phytochemical screening of the foliage and stem-bark of Senna siamea (lam.) in Yola, Adamawa State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaloids, anthraquinonnes, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phlobatannin, polyphenols, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids were ten groups of infochemicals studied in the foliage and stem-bark of Senna siamea (Lam.), a plantation species grown in Yola. The experimental design was the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. Results obtained from the experiments indicated that all the ten groups of infochemicals were

Ayuba Daniel Kwada; I. O. Tell

448

Phosphorus and Other Nutrient Disappearance from Plants Containing Condensed Tannins Using In Situ and Mobile Nylon Bag Techniques  

E-print Network

Plants containing condensed tannins (CT) represent an alternative feed resource for ruminants. However, limited information regarding nutrient disappearance from these plants is available. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate phosphorus (P...

Pagan Riestra, Suzika

2011-02-22

449

The effect of feed moisture and temperature on tannin content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extruded chestnuts.  

PubMed

This study focuses on the effect of extrusion processing on tannin reduction, phenolic content, flavonoid content, antioxidant and anitimicrobial activity. Extrusion temperature (120 and 140 °C) and feed moisture (25% and 28%) were used on the tannin content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Extrusion cooking reduced tannin content up to 78%, and improved antioxidant activity from 12.89% to 21.17% in a concentration dependant manner without affecting its antimicrobial activity that varied from 250 to 500 mg. The time-kill assay confirmed the ability of extruded chestnut to reduce Pseudomonas aeruginosa count below detectable limit that reduced the original inoculum by 3log10 CFU/mL. Overall, the results showed that extrusion cooking might serve as a tool for tannin reduction and could improve the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of chestnut, which might be helpful for chestnut related products in the food industry. PMID:23993601

Obiang-Obounou, Brice Wilfried; Ryu, Gi Hyung

2013-12-15

450

Evaluation of the content variation of anthraquinone glycosides in rhubarb by UPLC-PDA  

PubMed Central

Background Rhubarb is an important Chinese medicinal herb with a long history of over 2000 years and has been commonly used as a laxative. It is the radix and rhizome of Rheum officinale Baill., R. palmatum L. and R. tanguticum Maxim, all of which are mainly distributed in a broad region in the Tibetan plateau. Anthraquinone glycosides are a series of major active ingredients found in all three species. They are key intermediates in the anthraquinone secondary metabolism and the sennnoside biosynthesis. The variation of the anthraquinone glycoside content in rhubarb in response to specific factors remains an attractive topic. Results A simple and sensitive Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with Photo-Diode Array (UPLC-PDA) detector was developed for the simultaneous determination of six anthraquinone glycosides in rhubarb, i.e., aloeemodin-8-O-glucoside, rhein-8-O-glucoside, chrysophanol-1-O-glucoside, emodin-1-O-glucoside, chrysophanol-8-O-glucoside, emodin-8-O-glucoside. Twenty-seven batches from three species were submitted to the multi-component analysis. The results showed that the anthraquinone glycoside content varied significantly even within the same species. The results showed that the anthraquinone glycoside content varied significantly within the same species but not between different species. The PCA and content analysis results confirmed that the plant species has no obvious effect on the content variation. Neither was any significant correlation observed between the anthraquinone glycoside content and the geographic distribution of the rhubarb. Through correlational analysis, altitude was found to be the main factor that affects the anthraquinone glycoside content in rhubarb. Rhubarb grown at higher altitude has higher anthraquinone glycoside content. Conclusions This work provides a rapid, sensitive and accurate UPLC-PDA method for the simultaneous determination of six anthraquinone glycosides in rhubarb. The anthraquinone glycoside content varied significantly within the same species. The relationship of the anthraquinone glycoside content with plant species, geographic distribution and altitude were studied using correlational analysis, principal component analysis and spatial autocorrelation analysis through SPSS and ArcGIS. Plant species and geographic distribution were found not to affect the content of the six anthraquinone glycosides in rhubarb. The variations in the anthraquinone glycoside content were primarily due to the different altitude where the plant was grown. PMID:24160332

2013-01-01

451

Development of SCAR markers linked to zt-2 , one of the genes controlling absence of tannins in faba bean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faba beans (Vicia faba L.) have a great potential as a protein-rich fodder crop, but anti-nutritional factors such as condensed tannins reduce the biological value of their protein. Tannins can be removed from seeds by any of the two complementary genes, zt-1 and zt-2, which also determine white-flowered plants. The less common gene, zt-2, is also associated with increased protein

Natalia Gutierrez; C. M. Avila; M. T. Moreno; A. M. Torres

2008-01-01

452

Repeated applications of tannins and related phenolic compounds are retained by soil and affect cation exchange capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retention of tannins, produced by plants, could be important for managing soil organic matter and nutrient cycling. However, we know little about the comparative retention of different classes of tannins and related compounds or if soils have a maximum storage capacity for them. To address these questions, forest, and pasture loam soils, collected at 0–5 cm (surface) and 10–20 cm (subsurface), were

Jonathan J. Halvorson; Javier M. Gonzalez; Ann E. Hagerman

2011-01-01

453

Modulation of Proline-Rich Protein Biosynthesis in Rat Parotid Glands by Sorghums with High Tannin Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding of sorghum with a high level of tannin (high-tannin sorghum) to rats caused changes in gene expression in parotid glands similar to isoproterenol treatment. Within 3 days the parotid glands were enlarged about 3-fold and a series of proline-rich proteins were increased about 12-fold. Unlike isoproterenol treatment, no changes were observed in the submandibular glands, and a Mr 220,000

Haile Mehansho; Ann Hagerman; Scott Clements; Larry Butler; John Rogler; Don M. Carlson

1983-01-01

454

Utilization of browse supplements with varying tannin levels by Ethiopian Menz sheep: 1. Intake, digestibility and live weight changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of tannins in browse supplements on intake, digestibility and live weight changes was evaluated using sixty-six\\u000a male Ethiopian Menz sheep in a 90-day trial. Teff straw (Eragrostis tef) was fed ad libitum (control diet), or supplemented\\u000a with 190 g dried leaves of six Sesbania sesban accessions with increasing levels of condensed tannin (S1, S2, S3, S4, S5 and

R. J. Kaitho; N. N. Umunna; I. V. Nsahlai; S. Tamminga; J. van Bruchem

1997-01-01

455

Studies on Emblica officinalis Derived Tannins for Their Immunostimulatory and Protective Activities against Coccidiosis in Industrial Broiler Chickens  

PubMed Central

The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis. PMID:24578631

Kaleem, Qari Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Zafar, Muddassar; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir

2014-01-01

456

A comparison of sample preparation techniques for quantifying iridoid glycosides sequestered by lepidopteran larvae.  

PubMed

This study compared different methods of tissue preparation for extraction of iridoid glycosides sequestered by three species of lepidopteran larvae. Junonia coenia is a specialist on plant species that produce iridoid glycosides, while the arctiids Estigmene acrea and Spilosoma congrua are both polyphagous and will eat plants that produce iridoid glycosides. Larvae of all three species were reared on leaves of Plantago lanceolata, which produces two primary iridoid glycosides, aucubin and catalpol. Three methods of preparing the specimens before extraction in methanol were compared in all three species: 1) larvae were flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen, 2) larvae were macerated fresh in boiling methanol, or 3) larvae were macerated fresh in room temperature methanol. A set of J. coenia larvae was oven-dried before maceration as an additional treatment for this species only. Junonia coenia sequestered the most iridoid glycosides, while E. acrea sequestered the least, and S. congrua was intermediate. Estigmene acrea was poor at sequestering catalpol. Tissue preparation method only significantly influenced iridoid glycoside recovery from S. congrua, with maceration in room-temperature methanol being the most effective of the three methods. This study shows that treatment of insects prior to iridoid glycoside extraction can influence recovery of the compounds, and that the effects of treatment may vary among different species. PMID:21475987

Lampert, Evan C; Bowers, M Deane

2011-05-01

457

Postgraduate in Cardiac Electrophysiology  

E-print Network

and myocardial infarction), · Diseases affecting the mechanical function of the heart (heart failure), · Diseases by an acute obstruction of a coronary artery can cause acute heart failure and acute arrhythmias that may lead to cardiogenic shock or sudden cardiac death. Cardiac arrhythmias can also cause heart failure and heart failure

Einmahl, Uwe

458

What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation?  

MedlinePLUS

... if your doctor says you can. • Have your heart rate, blood pressure and EKG monitored. A cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) program takes place in a hospital or in the community. Cardiac rehab is for patients who are getting better after heart problems or surgery. One of the best things ...

459

Prospectively gated cardiac CT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future cardiac CT protocols will utilize large area detectors with whole heart scans performed within one heartbeat. For such scans, accurate prospective ECG gating is essential to capture the heart at the correct phase. This report addresses one of the main factors affecting the prospective gating accuracy: the ability to predict the cardiac phase from the ECG signal. Two different

Dominic Heuscher; S. Zabic

2007-01-01

460

Cardiac risk telemonitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization of advanced information, telecommunication and implant technology for cardiac risk stratification and management is one of the greatest challenges for modern health care provision. Sudden cardiac death is the major contributor to overall cardiovascular mortality with approximately 60% of all coronary heart disease fatalities occurring annually. Although some high-risk patient groups have been identified with reasonable sensitivity and specificity

H. Hutten; M. Hribernigg; G. Rauchegger

2001-01-01

461

Garfinkel Cardiac Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cardiac data on multiple variables for a selected population of 220 men and 338 women participating in a drug treatment study of dobutamine for heart attack prevention. Garfinkel, Alan, et. al. "Prognostic Value of Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography in Predicting Cardiac Events in Patients With Known or Suspected Coronary Artery Disease." Journal of the American College of Cardiology 33.3 (1999) 708-16.

Alan Garfinkel (University of California Los Angeles; Physiological Sci/Med-Cardio)

2009-01-10

462

Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Upregulates Cardiac Autonomic Control  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on sympathetic nervous function in heart failure (HF). Background: Neurohormonal dysregulation and cardiac autonomic dysfunction are associated with HF and contribute to HF progression and its poor prognosis. We hypothesized that mechanical resynchronization improves cardiac sympathetic function in HF. Methods: Sixteen consecutive patients receiving CRT for advanced cardiomyopathy and 10 controls were included in this prospective study. NYHA class, 6-minute walk distance, echocardiographic parameters, plasma norepinephrine (NE) were assessed at baseline, 3-month and 6-month follow-up. Cardiac sympathetic function was determined by 123iodine metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) scintigraphy and 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography. Results: Along with improvement in NYHA class (3.1 ± 0.3 to 2.1 ± 0.4, P < 0.001) and LVEF (23 ± 6% to 33 ± 12%, P < 0.001 delayed heart/mediastinum (H/M) 123 I-MIBG ratio increased significantly (1.8 ± 0.7 to 2.1 ± 0.6, P = 0.04) while the H/M 123I-MIBG washout rate decreased significantly (54 ± 25% to 34± 24%, P = 0.01) from baseline to 6-month follow-up. The heart rate variability (HRV) measured in SD of normal-to-normal intervals also increased significantly from baseline (82 ± 30 ms) to follow-up (111 ± 32 ms, P = 0.04). The improvement in NYHA after CRT was significantly associated with baseline 123I-MIBG H/M washout rate (r = 0.65, P = 0.03). The improvement in LVESV index was associated with baseline 123I-MIBG delayed H/M ratio (r = ?0.67, P = 0.02) and H/M washout rate (r = 0.65, P = 0.03). Conclusion: After CRT, improvements in cardiac symptoms and LV function were accompanied by rebalanced cardiac autonomic control as measured by 123I-MIBG and HRV. PMID:18479331

CHA, YONG-MEI; OH, JAE; MIYAZAKI, CHINAMI; HAYES, DAVID L.; REA, ROBERT F.; SHEN, WIN-KUANG; ASIRVATHAM, SAMUEL J.; KEMP, BRAD J.; HODGE, DAVID O.; CHEN, PENG-SHENG; CHAREONTHAITAWEE, PANITHAYA

2009-01-01

463

Cardiac Hegemony of Senescence  

PubMed Central

Cardiac senescence and age-related disease development have gained general attention and recognition in the past decades due to increased accessibility and quality of health care. The advancement in global civilization is complementary to concerns regarding population aging and development of chronic degenerative diseases. Cardiac degeneration has been rigorously studied. The molecular mechanisms of cardiac senescence are on multiple cellular levels and hold a multilayer complexity level, thereby hampering development of unambiguous treatment protocols. In particular, the synergistic exchange of the senescence phenotype through a senescence secretome between myocytes and stem cells appears complicated and is of great future therapeutic value. The current review article will highlight hallmarks of senescence, cardiac myocyte and stem cell senescence, and the mutual exchange of senescent secretome. Future cardiac cell therapy approaches require a comprehensive understanding of myocardial senescence to improve therapeutic efficiency as well as efficacy. PMID:24349878

Siddiqi, Sailay; Sussman, Mark A.

2013-01-01

464

Agrobacterium Mediated Transient Gene Silencing (AMTS) in Stevia rebaudiana: Insights into Steviol Glycoside Biosynthesis Pathway  

PubMed Central

Background Steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway has emerged as bifurcation from ent-kaurenoic acid, substrate of methyl erythritol phosphate pathway that also leads to gibberellin biosynthesis. However, the genetic regulation of steviol glycoside biosynthesis has not been studied. So, in present study RNA interference (RNAi) based Agrobacterium mediated transient gene silencing (AMTS) approach was followed. SrKA13H and three SrUGTs (SrUGT85C2, SrUGT74G1 and SrUGT76G1) genes encoding ent-kaurenoic acid-13 hydroxylase and three UDP glycosyltransferases of steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway were silenced in Stevia rebaudiana to understand its molecular mechanism and association with gibberellins. Methodology/Principal Findings RNAi mediated AMTS of SrKA13H and three SrUGTs has significantly reduced the expression of targeted endogenous genes as well as total steviol glycoside accumulation. While gibberellins (GA3) content was significantly enhanced on AMTS of SrUGT85C2 and SrKA13H. Silencing of SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 was found to block the metabolite flux of steviol glycoside pathway and shifted it towards GA3 biosynthesis. Further, molecular docking of three SrUGT proteins has documented highest affinity of SrUGT76G1 for the substrates of alternate pathways synthesizing steviol glycosides. This could be a plausible reason for maximum reduction in steviol glycoside content on silencing of SrUGT76G1 than other genes. Conclusions SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 were identified as regulatory genes influencing carbon flux between steviol glycoside and gibberellin biosynthesis. This study has also documented the existence of alternate steviol glycoside biosynthesis route. PMID:24023961

Guleria, Praveen; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

2013-01-01

465

Effect of tannin extract against Pseudomonas aeruginosa producing metallo beta-lactamase.  

PubMed

Carbapenems are the most potent beta-lactam agents with a broad-spectrum activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. They are stable in the presence of penicillinases and cephalosporinases. This study was focused on frequency of metallo beta- lactamase (MBL) among Pesudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated in patients with urinary tract infection, effect of tannin against PA positive strains which produced blaVIM or blaIMP and both of these genes (Species). Detection of MBL was performed by phonotypic and genotypic methods. Tannin extract was tested against P. aeruginosa producing MBL. During the study period, 240 P. aeruginosa isolates were identified. Among them 64 (26.6 percent) isolates were imipenem non-susceptible and confirmed by imipenem/EDTA. Our results revealed that the growth of blaVIM positive P. aeruginosa inhibited at 15 microg/ml concentration. The experiment repeated for blaIMP-positive P. aeruginosa and P. aeruginosa which harbored blaIMP and blaVIM, the results showed 35 microg/ml was the best concentration for inhibition of P. aeruginosa-positive blaIMP and also P. aeruginosa blaIMP and blaVIM. In conclusion, tannin was effective against P. aeruginosa producing blaVIM and blaIMP and both of them so it can be substituted with common antibiotics. The result showed significantly P. aeruginosa-harbored blaIMP was more responsible for imipenem resistance than P. aeruginosa-positive blaVIM. Interestingly, tannin was more effective against MBL-P. aeruginosa in comparison with current antibiotics. PMID:22824750

Ghafourian, S; Mohebi, R; Sekawi, Z; Raftari, M; Neela, V; Ghafourian, E; Aboualigalehdari, E; Rahbar, M; Sadeghifard, N

2012-01-01

466

Rigidity, conformation, and solvation of native and oxidized tannin macromolecules in water-ethanol solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied by light scattering and small angle x-rays scattering (SAXS) conformations and solvation of plant tannins (oligomers and polymers) in mixed water-ethanol solutions. Their structures are not simple linear chains but contain about 6% of branching. Ab initio reconstruction reveals that monomers within a branch are closely bound pairwise. The chains are rather rigid, with the Kuhn length b=13+\\/-3

Petr V. Konarev; Christophe Tribet; Alain Baron; Dmitri I. Svergun; Sylvain Guyot

2009-01-01

467

Effect of Cultivar, Steeping, and Malting on Tannin, Total Polyphenol, and Cyanide Content of Nigerian Sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 66(2):87-89 Tannin was estimated in the seeds of 15 Nigerian sorghum cultivars and polyphenol content also decreased by 22,68, and 19% for SRN484, KSV7, found to vary between 0.25% (catechin equivalent) for SSVl 1 and SSV12 and SSV3, respectively, after malting. Cyanide content of the grains varied and 2.92% for SRN484. Total polyphenol content ranged from 0.32% from

BOLANLE A. OSUNTOGUN; STEVE R. A. ADEWUSI; CHARLES C. NWASIKE

468

Plant regeneration from embryogenic callus initiated from immature inflorescences of several high-tannin sorghums  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure was established for the induction of regenerable calli from immature inflorescence segments of high-tannin cultivars of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). Murashige & Skoog's medium with several components altered was utilized for inducing, maintaining, and regenerating the cultures. Embryogenic calli formed at a frequency of 8–70% depending on the genotype. During a ten-month period, 3600 plants were regenerated

Tishu Cai; Larry Butler

1990-01-01

469

Feeding behavior of graminivorous grasshoppers in response to host-plant extracts, alkaloids, and tannins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary metabolites exhibit the potential to direct food selection by grass-feeding (graminivorous) grasshoppers. We examined the effects of plant extracts and representative secondary metabolites on the feeding behavior of two such grasshoppers,Ageneotettix deorum (Scudder) andPhoetaliotes nebrascensis (Scudder). Three alkaloids and two tannins were bioassayed for their activity as feeding deterrent allelochemicals, as were extracts from the foliage of the graminoids

Simon Mole; Anthony Joern

1994-01-01

470

Surfactants: their role in preventing the precipitation of proteins by tannins in insect guts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much more tannic acid or pin oak tannin is required to precipitate the abundant leaf protein, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase\\/oxygenase (RuBPC), from Manduca sexta gut fluid adjusted to pH 6.5 than is required to precipitate this protein from an aqueous buffer at the same pH. This finding demonstrates that some characteristic of M. sexta gut fluid, in addition to its basicity, counteracts

Michael M. Martin; Joan S. Martin

1984-01-01

471

Hepatitis C virus inhibitory hydrolysable tannins from the fruits of Terminalia chebula.  

PubMed

Two new hydrolysable tannins, chebumeinin A (1) and chebumeinin B (2), together with eight known related compounds (3-10), were isolated from the fruits of Terminalia chebula. The new compounds were structurally determined by analysis of their spectroscopic data and the known compounds characterized by comparing their spectroscopic data with literature values. All isolates were evaluated by an HCV protease inhibition assay, and some compounds were found to be potently active. PMID:25261266

Ajala, Olusegun S; Jukov, Azzaya; Ma, Chao-Mei

2014-12-01

472

Analysis of oak tannins by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Extractable tannins were analysed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry in two oak species, North American white oak (Quercus alba) and European red oak (Quercus robur). They mainly included various glucose gallic and ellagic acid esters. The structures were partially determined, and they included grandinin/roburin E, castalagin/vescalagin, gallic acid, valoneic acid bilactone, monogalloyl glucose, digalloyl glucose, trigalloyl glucose, ellagic acid rhamnose, quercitrin and ellagic acid. PMID:10999626

Mämmelä, P; Savolainen, H; Lindroos, L; Kangas, J; Vartiainen, T

2000-09-01

473

Tannin degradation by a novel tannase enzyme present in some Lactobacillus plantarum strains.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus plantarum is frequently isolated from the fermentation of plant material where tannins are abundant. L. plantarum strains possess tannase activity to degrade plant tannins. An L. plantarum tannase (TanBLp, formerly called TanLp1) was previously identified and biochemically characterized. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of a novel tannase (TanALp). While all 29 L. plantarum strains analyzed in the study possess the tanBLp gene, the gene tanALp was present in only four strains. Upon methyl gallate exposure, the expression of tanBLp was induced, whereas tanALp expression was not affected. TanALp showed only 27% sequence identity to TanBLp, but the residues involved in tannase activity are conserved. Optimum activity for TanALp was observed at 30°C and pH 6 in the presence of Ca(2+) ions. TanALp was able to hydrolyze gallate and protocatechuate esters with a short aliphatic alcohol substituent. Moreover, TanALp was able to fully hydrolyze complex gallotannins, such as tannic acid. The presence of the extracellular TanALp tannase in some L. plantarum strains provides them an advantage for the initial degradation of complex tannins present in plant environments. PMID:24610854

Jiménez, Natalia; Esteban-Torres, María; Mancheño, José Miguel; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario

2014-05-01

474

Feeding behavior of graminivorous grasshoppers in response to host-plant extracts, alkaloids, and tannins.  

PubMed

Secondary metabolites exhibit the potential to direct food selection by grass-feeding (graminivorous) grasshoppers. We examined the effects of plant extracts and representative secondary metabolites on the feeding behavior of two such grasshoppers,Ageneotettix deorum (Scudder) andPhoetaliotes nebrascensis (Scudder). Three alkaloids and two tannins were bioassayed for their activity as feeding deterrent allelochemicals, as were extracts from the foliage of the graminoids commonly eaten by these grasshoppers:Agropyron smithii Rydb.,Andropogon hallii Hack.,Andropogon scoparius Michx.,Bouteloua gracilis (H. B. K) Lag. ex Griffiths,Carex heliophila Mack. andStipa comata Trin. & Rupr. Alkaloids strongly deterred feeding but tannins only exhibited a weak effect, even when present at four times the concentration of total phenolics typical for these graminoids. Host-plant extracts also exhibited weak effects, such that we found no evidence for either strong deterrence or phagostimulation. Our results for alkaloids and host-plant extracts are consistent with the view that grass-feeding grasshoppers may be restricted to graminoids because of: (1) the presence of deterrents in nonhosts and (2) the absence of deterrents in hosts. However, our data for tannins show that these are unlikely to be effective barriers to herbivory by these grasshoppers. PMID:24241979

Mole, S; Joern, A

1994-12-01

475

Tannin Degradation by a Novel Tannase Enzyme Present in Some Lactobacillus plantarum Strains  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus plantarum is frequently isolated from the fermentation of plant material where tannins are abundant. L. plantarum strains possess tannase activity to degrade plant tannins. An L. plantarum tannase (TanBLp, formerly called TanLp1) was previously identified and biochemically characterized. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of a novel tannase (TanALp). While all 29 L. plantarum strains analyzed in the study possess the tanBLp gene, the gene tanALp was present in only four strains. Upon methyl gallate exposure, the expression of tanBLp was induced, whereas tanALp expression was not affected. TanALp showed only 27% sequence identity to TanBLp, but the residues involved in tannase activity are conserved. Optimum activity for TanALp was observed at 30°C and pH 6 in the presence of Ca2+ ions. TanALp was able to hydrolyze gallate and protocatechuate esters with a short aliphatic alcohol substituent. Moreover, TanALp was able to fully hydrolyze complex gallotannins, such as tannic acid. The presence of the extracellular TanALp tannase in some L. plantarum strains provides them an advantage for the initial degradation of complex tannins present in plant environments. PMID:24610854

Jiménez, Natalia; Esteban-Torres, María; Mancheño, José Miguel; de las Rivas, Blanca

2014-01-01

476

Towards high resolution ^1H NMR spectra of tannin colloidal aggregates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time dependent colloidal formation of tannins in hydro-alcoholic medium has been studied by 1H-NMR. Line broadening observed with time can be cancelled by making use of magic angle sample spinning (MASS) thus yielding sharp lines that allow structural studies. We used as an example catechin, a constitutive monomer of Bordeaux young red wine tannins. Chemical shift variations of polyphenol protons allow monitoring the time course of aggregation. La formation de tanins colloïdaux au cours du temps, en milieu hydroalcoolique, a été suivie par RMN-^1H. Un élargissement marqué des résonances est observé et peut être supprimé par la rotation de l'échantillon à l'angle magique ce qui ouvre tout un champ d'études structurales sur ces composés colloïdaux. L'exemple proposé est celui de la catéchine, monomère constitutif de tannins présents en grande quantité dans les vins rouges jeunes de Bordeaux. Des variations du déplacement chimique de certains protons polyphénoliques permettent de suivre l'évolution temporelle de l'agrégation.

Mirabel, M.; Glories, Y.; Pianet, I.; Dufourc, E. J.

1999-10-01

477

Iridoid and phenylpropanoid glycosides from Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. and their ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities.  

PubMed

A new phenylpropanoid glycoside, designated Scrophuside (1) and two new iridoid glycosides, respectively named Ningposide I (2) and Ningposide II (3), along with twelve known (4-15) iridoid and phenylpropanoid glycosides were obtained from the roots of Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. by various chromatographic techniques and their structures were established through chemical methods and spectroscopic analyses. Most of the obtained compounds have been screened for ?-Glucosidase inhibitory activity, in which compounds 4, 5, 7, 11, 12, 13, and 14 show significant activity. PMID:24321577

Hua, Jing; Qi, Jin; Yu, Bo-Yang

2014-03-01

478

Characterization of an anti-tuberculosis resin glycoside from the prairie medicinal plant Ipomoea leptophylla.  

PubMed

The organic soluble extract from the leaves of the native North American prairie plant Ipomoea leptophylla (big root morning glory) showed in vitro activity against M. tuberculosis. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract resulted in the identification of two new resin glycosides (6, 7). Base-catalyzed hydrolysis of these glycosides gave operculinic acid (1) as the glycosidic acid component as well as trans-cinnamic acid, propanoic acid, and lauric acid. The complete structure elucidation was accomplished through derivatization, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy (TOCSY, ROESY, HSQC, HMBC), and MS/MS experiments on 6 and 7 as well as the permethylated derivative 8. PMID:14640518

Barnes, Curtis C; Smalley, Mary K; Manfredi, Kirk P; Kindscher, Kelly; Loring, Hillary; Sheeley, Douglas M

2003-11-01

479

Steroidal glycosides from the underground parts of Yucca glauca and their cytotoxic activities.  

PubMed

Six steroidal glycosides and 14 known compounds were isolated from the underground parts of Yucca glauca (Agavaceae). Their structures were determined from extensive spectroscopic analysis, including analysis of two-dimensional NMR data, and from chemical transformations. The compounds were also evaluated for cytotoxic activities against HL-60 human leukemia cells and A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Four spirostanol glycosides and three furostanol glycosides exhibited cytotoxic activities against both HL-60 and A549 cells. Two of the compounds induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells. PMID:24612536

Yokosuka, Akihito; Suzuki, Tomoka; Tatsuno, Satoru; Mimaki, Yoshihiro

2014-05-01

480

[Glycosides from flowers of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum].  

PubMed

To study the chemical constituents of the flower of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum. The compounds were isolated and purified by re-crystallization and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column. Their structures were elucidated on the physicochemical pr