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1

Cardiac glycosides in traditional Chinese medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The effect of cardiac glycosides containing medicinal herbs, e.g. Ting Li Zi (Descurainia sophia), against heart failure was detected by traditional Chinese doctors at the beginning of the first century, more than 16 centuries\\u000a before Withering’s discovery of digitalis to promote diuresis. We ran infer the diagnosis from the description of the symptom\\u000a complex, for which the herb as the

Lu Fu-hua

1987-01-01

2

Secondary chemistry of hybrid and parental willows: Phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins in Salix sericea, S. eriocephala , and their hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salix sericea andS. eriocephala differ markedly in secondary chemistry.S. sericea produces phenolic glycosides, salicortin and 2?-cinnamoylsalicortin, and low concentrations of condensed tannin. In contrast,S. eriocephala produces no phenolic glycosides, but high concentrations of condensed tannins. Hybrid chemistry is intermediate for both types of chemicals, suggesting predominantly additive inheritance of these two defensive chemical systems from the parental species. However, there

Colin M. Orians; Robert S. Fritz

1995-01-01

3

[Cardiac glycosides: From ancient history through Withering's foxglove to endogeneous cardiac glycosides].  

PubMed

For centuries, drugs that increase the power of contraction of the failing heart have been used for the treatment of congestive heart failure (dropsy). The cardiac effect is due to the content of cardiac glycosides. Squill or sea onion, Urginea (Scilla) maritima, a seashore plant, was known by the ancient Romans and Syrians and possibly also by the ancient Egyptians. Squills were used erratically, but some prescriptions indicate that they may have been used for the treatment of oedematous states. The toxic effect of strophanthus species was known from poisoned arrows used by the natives in Africa. Digitalis, derived form the foxglove plant, Digitalis purpurea, is mentioned in writings as early as 1250; a Welsh family, known as the Physicians of Myddvai, collected different herbs and digitalis was included in their prescriptions. However, the druge was used erratically until the 18th century, when William Withering, an English physician and botanist, published a monograph describing the clinical effects of an extract of the foxglove plant. Later, in 1785, the indication and the toxicity of digitalis were reported in his book, "An account of the Foxglove and some of its medical uses with practical remarks on dropsy, and other diseases". In Denmark, the leaves of Digitalis purpurea or Digitalis lanata were tested for cardiac glycoside activity. The standardized digitalis powder was used in tinctures, infusions, and tablets. The preparations were included in successive editions of the Danish pharmacopoeia, some of the tinctures already in 1828, i.e. before the standardization of the drug. Isolation of cardiac glycosides from digitalis, strophanthus and squill and determination of their chemical structures initiated biochemical and pharmacological studies. The scientific advances led to an understanding of cardiac muscle contractility and the Na,K pump as the cellular receptor for the inotropic action of digitalis. Examination of putative endogenous ligands to the receptor revealed some endogenous cardiac glycosides of similar or identical structures as those found in digitalis, strophanthus and squill. Increased concentrations of these glycosides are found in patients with heart failure. Further investigations are needed to determine whether the secretion of glycosides might be a physiologic response to a diminished cardiac output. PMID:15685783

Norn, Svend; Kruse, Poul R

2004-01-01

4

Trial watch: Cardiac glycosides and cancer therapy.  

PubMed

Cardiac glycosides (CGs) are natural compounds sharing the ability to operate as potent inhibitors of the plasma membrane Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, hence promoting-via an indirect mechanism-the intracellular accumulation of Ca(2+) ions. In cardiomyocytes, increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations exert prominent positive inotropic effects, that is, they increase myocardial contractility. Owing to this feature, two CGs, namely digoxin and digitoxin, have extensively been used in the past for the treatment of several cardiac conditions, including distinct types of arrhythmia as well as contractility disorders. Nowadays, digoxin is approved by the FDA and indicated for the treatment of congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter with rapid ventricular response, whereas the use of digitoxin has been discontinued in several Western countries. Recently, CGs have been suggested to exert potent antineoplastic effects, notably as they appear to increase the immunogenicity of dying cancer cells. In this Trial Watch, we summarize the mechanisms that underpin the unsuspected anticancer potential of CGs and discuss the progress of clinical studies that have evaluated/are evaluating the safety and efficacy of CGs for oncological indications. PMID:23525565

Menger, Laurie; Vacchelli, Erika; Kepp, Oliver; Eggermont, Alexander; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

2013-02-01

5

Quantitative HPLC analysis of cardiac glycosides in Digitalis purpurea leaves.  

PubMed

An analytical method for the determination of cardiac glycosides in Digitalis purpurea leaves by hplc was developed. Quantitation was carried out by the incorporation of lanatoside A as an internal standard. The present method is sufficiently precise and relatively simple. PMID:7673934

Ikeda, Y; Fujii, Y; Nakaya, I; Yamazaki, M

1995-06-01

6

Method validation of a survey of thevetia cardiac glycosides in serum samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive and specific liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI+-MS\\/MS) procedure was developed and validated for the identification and quantification of thevetin B and further cardiac glycosides in human serum. The seeds of Yellow Oleander (Thevetia peruviana) contain cardiac glycosides that can cause serious intoxication. A mixture of six thevetia glycosides was extracted from these seeds and characterized. Thevetin B,

Sarah Kohls; Barbara Scholz-Böttcher; Jürgen Rullkötter; Jörg Teske

7

Herbivore avoidance of digitalis extracts is not mediated by cardiac glycosides.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine whether avoidance of digitalis (Digitalis purpurea) by mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa) is induced by toxic cardiac glycosides. High-performance liquid chromatography and behavioral assays were used to relate animal responses with the presence of common cardiac glycosides in several digitalis extracts. Statistical analyses of multiple-choice tests showed no correlation between cardiac glycoside content and mountain beaver avoidance of apple cubes treated with digitalis extracts. Therefore, we concluded that known toxic cardiac glycosides were not responsible for chemosensory cues that inhibited intake of food treated with digitalis extracts. These results suggest that digitalis is a source of an effective nontoxic herbivore repellent. PMID:24233675

Nolte, D L; Kelly, K L; Kimball, B A; Johnston, J J

1995-10-01

8

Synthesis of cardiac glycoside analogs by catalyst-controlled, regioselective glycosylation of digitoxin.  

PubMed

The cardiac glycoside natural product digitoxin was selectively glycosylated at one of its five hydroxyl groups using a borinic acid derived catalyst. This method provided access to the glycosylation pattern characteristic of a subclass of natural products from Digitalis purpurea. Variation of the glycosyl donor was tolerated, enabling the synthesis of novel cardiac glycoside analogs from readily available materials. PMID:23465047

Beale, Thomas M; Taylor, Mark S

2013-03-15

9

Functional genomics analysis of foliar condensed tannin and phenolic glycoside regulation in natural cottonwood hybrids.  

PubMed

Regulation of leaf condensed tannins (CT) and salicylate-derived phenolic glycosides (PG) in fast- and slow-growing cottonwood backcrosses was analyzed by metabolic profiling and cDNA microarray hybridization. Seven hybrid lines of Populus fremontii L. and P. angustifolia James exhibiting growth/CT-PG phenotypes ranging from fast/low (Lines 18 and 1979) to slow/high (Lines 1012 and RL2) and intermediate (Lines NUL, 3200 and RM5) were investigated. Methanol-extractable leaf metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the results evaluated by principal component analysis. The hybrid lines formed separate clusters based on their primary metabolite profiles, with cluster arrangement also reflecting differences in CT-PG phenotype. Nitrogen (N) supply was manipulated to alter CT-PG partitioning and to obtain molecular insights into how primary metabolism interfaces with CT-PG accumulation. Three backcross lines (RM5, 1012, 18) exhibiting differential CT-PG responses to a 10-day hydroponic N-deprivation treatment were chosen for metabolite and gene expression analyses. The fast- growing Line 18 showed a minimal CT-PG response to N deprivation, and a reduction in photosynthetic gene expression. Line 1012 exhibited a strong phenylpropanoid response to N deprivation, including a doubling in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene expression, and a shift from CT accumulation in the absence of stress toward PG accumulation under N-deprivation conditions. Amino acid concentrations were depressed in Lines 18 and 1012, as was expression of nitrate-sensitive genes coding for transketolase (TK), and malate dehydrogenase (MDH). Genes associated with protein synthesis and fate were down-regulated in Line 1012 but not in Line 18. Line RM5 exhibited a comparatively large increase in CT in response to N deprivation, but did not sustain decreases in amino acid concentrations, or changes in PAL, TK or MDH gene expression. Molecular characterization of the variable CT-PG responses shows promise for the identification and future testing of candidate genes for CT-PG trait selection or manipulation. PMID:16137933

Harding, Scott A; Jiang, Hongying; Jeong, Mijeong Lee; Casado, Fanny L; Lin, Han-Wei; Tsai, Chung-Jui

2005-12-01

10

High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of secondary cardiac glycosides in Digitalis purpurea leaves.  

PubMed

An analytical method for the determination of secondary cardiac glycosides in Digitalis purpurea leaves by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is described. The procedure consisted of extraction of dry leaf powder with ethanol-chloroform (2:1) and clean-up by Sep-Pak cartridges prior to HPLC analysis. HPLC was performed on an octylsilyl bonded silica column, using acetonitrile-methanol-water (4:4:5) for trisdigitoxosides and acetonitrile-methanol-water (8:30:43) for strospeside; the effluent was monitored by ultraviolet detection (at 220 nm). Quantitation of these cardiac glycosides was carried out by the internal standard method. The amounts of digitoxin, gitoxin, gitaloxin and strospeside per 100 mg of dry leaf powder were estimated to be 22.6, 14.0, 54.7 and 1.9 micrograms, respectively. The method is sufficiently sensitive and reproducible to assay secondary glycosides in Digitalis purpurea leaves. PMID:2808604

Fujii, Y; Ikeda, Y; Yamazaki, M

1989-10-01

11

Cardiac glycosides as novel inhibitors of human ether-a-go-go-related gene channel trafficking.  

PubMed

Direct block of the cardiac potassium channel human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) by a large, structurally diverse group of therapeutic compounds causes drug-induced QT prolongation and torsades de pointes arrhythmias. In addition, several therapeutic compounds have been identified more recently that prolong the QT interval by inhibition of hERG trafficking to the cell surface. We used a surface expression assay to identify novel compounds that interfere with hERG trafficking and found that cardiac glycosides are potent inhibitors of hERG expression at the cell surface. Further investigation of digitoxin, ouabain, and digoxin revealed that all three cardiac glycosides reduced expression of the fully glycosylated cell surface form of hERG on Western blots, indicating that channel exit from the endoplasmic reticulum is blocked. Likewise, hERG currents were reduced with nanomolar affinity on long-term exposure. hERG trafficking inhibition was initiated by cardiac glycosides through direct block of Na(+)/K(+) pumps and not via off-target interactions with hERG or another closely associated protein in its processing or export pathway. In isolated guinea pig myocytes, long-term exposure to 30 nM of the clinically used drugs digoxin or digitoxin reduced hERG/rapidly activating delayed rectifier K(+) current (I(Kr)) currents by approximately 50%, whereas three other cardiac membrane currents--inward rectifier current, slowly activating delayed rectifier K(+) current, and calcium current--were not affected. Importantly, 100 nM digitoxin prolonged action potential duration on long-term exposure consistent with a reduction in hERG/I(Kr) channel number. Thus, cardiac glycosides are able to delay cardiac repolarization at nanomolar concentrations via hERG trafficking inhibition, and this may contribute to the complex electrocardiographic changes seen with compounds such as digitoxin. PMID:17095614

Wang, Lu; Wible, Barbara A; Wan, Xiaoping; Ficker, Eckhard

2007-02-01

12

Synthesis and evaluation of cardiac glycoside mimics as potential anticancer drugs.  

PubMed

The cardiac glycoside digitoxin, consisting of a steroid core linked to a labile trisaccharide, has been used for centuries for the treatment of congestive heart failure. The well known pharmacological effect is a result of the ability of cardiac glycosides to inhibit the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase. Within recent years cardiac glycosides have furthermore been suggested to possess valuable anticancer activity. To mimic the labile trisaccharide of digitoxin with a stabile carbohydrate surrogate, we have used sulfur linked ethylene glycol moieties of varying length (mono-, di-, tri- or tetra-ethylene glycol), and furthermore used these linkers as handles for the synthesis of bivalent steroids. The prepared compounds were evaluated for their potencies to inhibit the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and for their cytotoxic effect on cancerous MCF-7 cells. A clear trend is observed in both inhibition and cytotoxic effect, where the bioactivity decreases as the size increases. The most potent Na(+), K(+)-ATPase inhibitors are the compounds with the shortest ethylene glycol chain (K(app) 0.48 ?M) and thiodigitoxigenin (K(app) 0.42 ?M), which both are comparable with digitoxigenin (K(app) 0.52 ?M). For the cancer cell viability assay the shortest mimics were found to have highest efficacy, with the best ligand having a monoethylene glycol unit (IC(50) 0.24 ?M), which was slightly better than digitoxigenin (IC(50) 0.64 ?M), while none of the novel cardiac glycoside mimics display an in vitro effect as high as digitoxin (IC(50) 0.02 ?M). PMID:21421322

Jensen, Marie; Schmidt, Steffen; Fedosova, Natalya U; Mollenhauer, Jan; Jensen, Henrik H

2011-04-01

13

Binding of the cardiac glycoside ouabain to intact cells  

PubMed Central

1. Measurements were made of the binding of [3H]ouabain to a variety of cell types. 2. Two components of binding could usually be distinguished: a component that saturated at low glycoside concentrations and a component that increased up to the highest ouabain concentrations examined. 3. Detailed studies with HeLa cells and kidney slices from guinea-pigs showed that the saturable component is probably associated with inhibition of the Na pump. The main evidence for this is (a) at low concentrations of ouabain there is a close correspondence between the concentration of ouabain giving half-maximum binding and the concentration giving half-maximum inhibition of the Na pump; (b) at low glycoside concentrations, binding precedes inhibition of the Na pump; (c) the rate of binding is very sensitive to external K ions, being highest in the absence of K; (d) binding is reversible and the release of ouabain is associated with reactivation of the Na pump, (e) binding is reduced in the absence of Na ions and in the presence of metabolic inhibitors; (f) binding has a Q10 of about 4; and (g) in the presence of Na and ATP, lysed HeLa cells bind a similar amount of ouabain and the binding is sensitive to K ions. 4. The linear component of binding does not seem to involve the Na pump and it may reflect uptake of ouabain into the cell interior. It has a Q10 of 2·5 and is unaffected by K concentrations which have a large effect on the saturable component. 5. Bound ouabain could be removed from HeLa cells by low pH, trichloroacetic acid, urea, high temperatures and 100% ethanol. These agents did not distinguish between the two components of binding. 6. Criteria are developed for estimating the number of Na pumping sites in cells and the data for ouabain-binding to a number of cells is compared with the activity of the (Na + K)-activated ATPase in the same tissues. Although the number of pumping sites varies from less than 1/?2 to 1500/?2 of membrane, the turnover at these sites seems to be fairly constant between 3,500 and 15,000 min-1 at 35° C. PMID:4262774

Baker, P. F.; Willis, J. S.

1972-01-01

14

The uptake of cardiac glycosides by intestinal smooth muscle of the guinea-pig in relation to digitalis receptors  

PubMed Central

1. The accumulation and release of 3H-digitoxin, 3H-digoxin and 3H-ouabain by isolated guinea-pig intestinal smooth muscle has been studied and compared with a pharmacological action due to inhibition of the sodium pump. 2. The uptake of labelled cardiac glycosides can be described by means of an exponential function. The t of uptake was similar for the three compounds and did not depend on the concentration. 3. Analysis of the curve relating the uptake of cardiac glycosides at equilibrium to the bath concentration enabled a non-saturable and a saturable binding site to be distinguished. 4. In contrast to the uptake observations, the onset of the pharmacological effect was dependent on the concentration, and furthermore the t½ for this effect was shorter. 5. The release of cardiac glycosides proceeded more slowly than the uptake. 6. The uptake of a labelled glycoside was reduced in the presence of another glycoside. The amount of displaceable glycoside was nearly equivalent to the capacity of the saturable binding site. 7. The significance of these results is discussed. PMID:5417857

Godfraind, T.; Lesne, M.

1970-01-01

15

Release of adenine nucleotide metabolites by toxic concentrations of cardiac glycosides.  

PubMed

In isolated perfused guinea-pig hearts the effect of toxic concentrations of cardiac glycosides on the release of the adenine nucleotide metabolites adenosine, inosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid was investigated. Digoxin concentrations of 0.03-1 mumol.l-1 produced moderate to severe tachyarrhythmias. Large amounts of metabolites were released by concentrations of 0.1 mumol.l-1, and higher. Occurrence of glycoside-induced ventricular fibrillation was associated with a particularly high release. Metabolite release was also obtained when fibrillation was elicited electrically in normal control hearts, or in hearts receiving simultaneously a marginally toxic digoxin concentration (0.03 mumol.l-1). Digoxin-induced tachyarrhythmias and metabolite release were almost completely prevented by a high potassium concentration in the coronary perfusion fluid (8.1 mmol.l-1). The antiarrhythmic effect was also obtained with lidocaine (60 mumol.l-1), but the release was only partially antagonized. Similar results concerning arrhythmias and metabolite release as with digoxin were obtained with ouabain. The findings suggest that the decrease in myocardial ATP observed in glycoside-intoxicated heart preparations is partly due to the loss of nucleotide precursor substances. Moreover, it appears likely that liberated adenosine in the interstitium of severely intoxicated heart preparations reaches pharmacologically effective concentrations. PMID:7826306

Bernauer, W

1994-01-01

16

The duration of action of some cardiac glycosides and aglycones in the guinea-pig.  

PubMed

A method is described for determining the duration of action of cardiac glycosides and aglycones in the guinea-pig. It is based on their property of potentiating the cardiac response to adenosine. The method is particularly suitable for those drugs with a short duration of action, whereas previous methods are more suitable for those drugs with longer durations of action. The duration of action of one-fifth of the lethal dose has been found for: digoxigenin, lanatoside C, ouabain, digitoxigenin-3-one, digitoxin, 3-acetyldigitoxigenin, digoxin, digitoxigenin, lanatoside A; these drugs are arranged in order of increasing duration of action. The possible relationship between the elimination of these drugs and their duration of action can provide an estimate of their rates of elimination. PMID:13662569

RAND, M; STAFFORD, A

1959-06-01

17

The duration of action of some cardiac glycosides and aglycones in the guinea-pig  

PubMed Central

A method is described for determining the duration of action of cardiac glycosides and aglycones in the guinea-pig. It is based on their property of potentiating the cardiac response to adenosine. The method is particularly suitable for those drugs with a short duration of action, whereas previous methods are more suitable for those drugs with longer durations of action. The duration of action of one-fifth of the lethal dose has been found for: digoxigenin, lanatoside C, ouabain, digitoxigenin-3-one, digitoxin, 3-acetyldigitoxigenin, digoxin, digitoxigenin, lanatoside A; these drugs are arranged in order of increasing duration of action. The possible relationship between the elimination of these drugs and their duration of action can provide an estimate of their rates of elimination. PMID:13662569

Rand, M.; Stafford, Anne

1959-01-01

18

Cytotoxicity of digitoxin and related cardiac glycosides in human tumor cells.  

PubMed

The saponin digitonin, the aglycone digitoxigenin and five cardiac glycosides were evaluated for cytotoxicity using primary cultures of tumor cells from patients and a human cell line panel (representing different cytotoxic drug-resistance patterns). Of these seven compounds, proscillaridin A was the most potent (IC(50): 6.4--76 nM), followed by digitoxin, and then ouabain, digoxin, lanatoside C, digitoxigenin and digitonin. Correlation analysis of the log IC(50) values for the cell lines in the panel showed that compound cytotoxicity was only slightly influenced by resistance mechanisms that involved P-glycoprotein, topoisomerase II, multidrug resistance-associated protein and glutathione-mediated drug resistance. Digitoxin and digoxin expressed selective toxicity against solid tumor cells from patients, while proscillaridin A expressed no selective toxicity against either solid or hematological tumor cells. The results revealed marked differences in cytotoxicity between the cardiac glycosides, both in potency and selectivity, and modes of action for cytotoxicity that differ from that of commonly used anticancer drugs. PMID:11395576

Johansson, S; Lindholm, P; Gullbo, J; Larsson, R; Bohlin, L; Claeson, P

2001-06-01

19

Acaricidal effects of cardiac glycosides, azadirachtin and neem oil against the camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

The cardiac glycoside, digitoxin, from Digitalis purpurea L (Scrophulariaceae), a cardiac glycosidal (cardenolide) extract from Calotropis procera (Ait) R Br (Asclepiadaceae), azadirachtin and neem oil from Azadirachta indica A Juss (Meliaceae) were tested for their effects against larvae and adult stages of the camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii Koch (Acari: Ixodidae). The contact LC50 values of the first three materials against adults were 4.08, 9.63 and >40.7 microg cm(-2), respectively, whereas the dipping LC50 values of the four materials were 409.9, 1096, >5000 and >5000 mg litre(-1), respectively. Contact and dipping LC50 values of the extract and azadirachtin against larvae were 6.16, >20.3 microg cm(-2) and 587.7 and >2500 mg litre(-1), respectively. Azadirachtin had no effects on egg production or feeding of adults up to 5000 mg litre(-1); however at 2500 mg litre(-1), it caused significant reduction in feeding activity of larve, prolonged the period for moulting to nymphal stage, and caused 60% reduction in moultability. Results of the two cardiac glycoside materials are comparable with those of several commercial acaricides. The risks and benefits associated with the use of cardiac glycosides are considered. PMID:14620053

Al-Rajhy, DiefAlla H; Alahmed, Azzam M; Hussein, Hamdy I; Kheir, Salah M

2003-11-01

20

Inhibition of epidermal growth factor signaling by the cardiac glycoside ouabain in medulloblastoma  

PubMed Central

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling regulates cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. Upon receptor binding, EGF triggers cascades of downstream signaling, including the MAPK and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathways. Aberrant expression/activation of EGFR is found in multiple human cancers, including medulloblastoma, the most prevalent pediatric brain cancer, and often has been associated with metastasis, poor prognosis, and resistance to chemotherapy. Na,K-ATPase is an ion pump well known for its role in intracellular ion homeostasis. Recent studies showed that Na,K-ATPase also functions as a signaling platform and revealed a role in EGFR, MAPK, and PI3K signaling. While both EGFR and Na,K-ATPase seem to modulate similar signaling pathways, cardiac glycosides that are steroid-like inhibitors of Na,K-ATPase, exhibit antiproliferative and proapoptotic properties in cancer cells. Thus, we sought to better understand the relationship between EGF and cardiac glycoside signaling. Here, we show that in medulloblastoma cells, both EGF and ouabain activate Erk1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling. Nevertheless, in medulloblastoma cells ouabain did not transactivate EGFR as has been reported in various other cell lines. Indeed, ouabain inhibited EGF-induced Erk1/2 and Akt activation and, moreover, prevented EGF-induced formation of actin stress fibers and cell motility, probably by activating a stress signaling response. Na,K-ATPase has been proposed to act as a signaling scaffold and our studies suggest that in medulloblastoma cells Na,K-ATPase might act as a check point to integrate EGF-associated signaling pathways. Thus, Na,K-ATPase might serve as a valid target to develop novel therapeutic approaches in tumors with aberrant activation of the EGFR signaling cascades. PMID:25052069

Wolle, Daniel; Lee, Seung Joon; Li, Zhiqin; Litan, Alisa; Barwe, Sonali P; Langhans, Sigrid A

2014-01-01

21

Neovascularization of Ischemic Myocardium by Newly Isolated Tannins Prevents Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis and Improves Cardiac Function  

PubMed Central

During remodeling progress post myocardial infarction, the contribution of neoangiogenesis to the infarct-bed capillary is insufficient to support the greater demands of the hypertrophied but viable myocardium resulting in further ischemic injury to the viable cardiomyocytes at risk. Here we reported the bio-assay-guided identification and isolation of angiogenic tannins (angio-T) from Geum japonicum that induced rapid revascularization of infarcted myocardium and promoted survival potential of the viable cardiomyocytes at risk after myocardial infarction. Our results demonstrated that angio-T displayed potent dual effects on up-regulating expression of angiogenic factors, which would contribute to the early revascularization and protection of the cardiomyocytes against further ischemic injury, and inducing antiapoptotic protein expression, which inhibited apoptotic death of cardiomyocytes in the infarcted hearts and limited infarct size. Echocardiographic studies demonstrated that angio-T-induced therapeutic effects on acute infarcted myocardium were accompanied by significant functional improvement by 2 days after infarction. This improvement was sustained for 14 days. These therapeutic properties of angio-T to induce early reconstitution of a blood supply network, prevent apoptotic death of cardiomyocytes at risk, and improve heart function post infarction appear entirely novel and may provide a new dimension for therapeutic angiogenesis medicine for the treatment of ischemic heart diseases. PMID:17380192

Gu, Xuemei; Cheng, Lei; Chueng, Winghong L; Yao, Xinsheng; Liu, Hongwei; Qi, Guoqing; Li, Ming

2006-01-01

22

The rate of uptake of cardiac glycosides into human cultured cells and the effects of chloroquine on it.  

PubMed

HeLa cells grown on Petri dishes were either pulse labelled with various cardiac glycosides or grown in low concentrations of them for up to 2 days; either in the presence of chloroquine or not. The cells were then homogenised and the cell free homogenate layered on a continuous sucrose gradient; and the glycoside content and that of various markers measured. In another series of experiments HeLa cells were grown on plastic beads under the above conditions and then the content of glycosides and of some marker enzymes measured. The rate of internalisation of ouabain, digoxin and digitoxin from the plasma membrane preparation produced by the bead method is at 9% hr-1, similar to the rate of loss of digoxin and digitoxin from whole cells but much faster than that of ouabain. In the sucrose gradient experiments it was found that [3H]ouabain, digoxin and digitoxin all initially co-distribute with the plasma membrane marker, 5'-nucleotidase, and then leave this fraction of the homogenate at a fast rate when kept at 37 degrees, to co-distribute with the lysosomal marker, beta-hexosaminidase. At 2 degrees the ouabain remains co-distributed with the plasma membrane marker. The rate of transfer is estimated to be some 90% hr-1, much faster than previously thought. Chloroquine causes an increased retention of digoxin and digitoxin in the lysosomal fraction of the homogenate. These results are best explained by supposing that the sodium pump-glycoside complex rapidly enters a region of the peripheral cytoplasm, and that this region then controls the subsequent exit of digoxin and digitoxin from the cell. The main barrier for ouabain occurs at a stage later than this. The consequences of this model on other aspects of pump activity is discussed. PMID:2945566

Algharably, N; Owler, D; Lamb, J F

1986-10-15

23

Sugar moiety of cardiac glycosides is essential for the inhibitory action on the palytoxin-induced K+ release from red blood cells.  

PubMed

Palytoxin (PTX), a highly toxic and sugar-containing substance isolated from Palythoa tuberculosa, caused K+ release from rabbit red blood cells. Cardiac glycosides, such as ouabain, convallatoxin, cymarin, digoxin and digitoxin, inhibited the PTX-induced K+ release. Their corresponding aglycones did not inhibit the K+ release, but antagonized the inhibitory effect of the glycosides. All these cardiotonic steroids equally inhibited the activity of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase prepared from hog cerebral cortex. These results suggest that the sugar moiety of the cardiac glycosides is important for the inhibitory effect on the K+ release induced by PTX and that the inhibition is not related to their inhibitory potency on the (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activity. PMID:6146536

Ozaki, H; Nagase, H; Urakawa, N

1984-07-23

24

[Influence of high intravenous doses of D-penicillamine on toxic actions of cardiac glycosides in the guinea pig. Short communication (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Intravenous infusions of arrhythmogenic and lethal doses of ouabain and digoxin in anesthetized guinea pigs were not influenced by pretreatment with 1 g/kg D-penicillamine. The respective doses of proscillaridin and digitoxin, however, were significantly decreased by D-penicillamine. As could be demonstrated with proscillaridin this effect of D-penicillamine was dose-dependent between 0.25 and 1.0 g/kg. Obviously the strong plasma-protein binding of D-penicillamine leads to a displacement from binding sites of such cardiac glycosides which are also strongly bound to plasma proteins and thus reduces toxic doses of cardiac glycosides. Because of the extremely different doses of D-penicillamine in the animal experiments compared to those used therapeutically in man the present findings are irrelevant for clinical practice. PMID:580003

Neugebauer, G

1977-01-01

25

Glycoside vs. Aglycon: The Role of Glycosidic Residue in Biological Activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of biologically active compounds are glycosides. Sometimes the glycosidic residue is crucial for their activity, in other cases glycosylation only improves pharmacokinetic parameters. Recent developments in molecular glycobiology brought better understanding of aglycon vs. glycoside activities, and made possible the development of new, more active or more effective glycodrugs based on these findings - a very illustrative recent example is vancomycin. The new enzymatic methodology "glycorandomization" enabled preparation of glycoside libraries and opened up paths to the preparation of optimized or entirely novel glycoside antibiotics. This chapter deals with an array of glycosidic compounds currently used in medicine but also covers the biological activity of some glycosidic metabolites of known drugs. The chapter discusses glycosides of vitamins, polyphenolic glycosides (flavonoids), alkaloid glycosides, glycosides of antibiotics, glycopeptides, cardiac glycosides, steroid and terpenoid glycosides etc. The physiological role of the glycosyl moiety and structure-activity relations (SAR) in the glycosidic moiety (-ies) are also discussed.

K?en, Vladimír

26

Uptake and sequestration of ouabain and other cardiac glycosides inDanaus plexippus (Lepidoptera: Danaidae): Evidence for a carrier-mediated process.  

PubMed

Larvae ofDanaus plexippus feed almost exclusively on milkweed species of the genusAsclepias, whose characteristic secondary metabolites are cardiac glycosides (CGs). Aposematic last-instar larvae were fed with ouabain and other cardiac glycosides of differing polarities. Time course experiments show that ouabain is sequestered in the integument within 48 hr after feeding, whereas midgut tissue and hemolymph function as transient CG storage compartments. About 63% of ouabain was transferred from larvae to the butterflies, whereas 37% of ouabain was lost with larval and pupal exuviae and with the meconium. The main sites of storage in imagines are wings and integument. If mixtures of CGs are fed toD. plexippus larvae, differential sequestration can be observed: The polar ouabain contributes 58.8% of total CGs, followed by digitoxin (19.6%), oleandrin (10.6%), digoxin (4.9%), digoxigenin (4.6%) and proscillaridin A (1.5%). Thus, uptake and sequestration must be selective processes. Uptake of [(3)H]ouabain in vitro by isolated larval midguts was time-, pH-, and temperature-dependent and displayed an activation energy of 49 kJ/mol. Furthermore, the in vitro uptake of ouabain was inhibited (probably competitively) by the structurally similar convallatoxin. These data provide first evidence that ouabain uptake does not proceed by simple diffusion but with the aid of a carrier mechanism, which would explain the differential cardenolide uptake observed in living larvae. PMID:24234250

Frick, C; Wink, M

1995-05-01

27

Cardiac glycoside overdose  

MedlinePLUS

... be vague, particularly in the elderly. Eyes, ears, nose, and throat: Blurred vision Halos around objects (yellow, green, white) * Skin: Allergic reaction (See also: Stevens-Johnson syndrome ) Hives Rash Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea Loss of appetite* Nausea ...

28

Comprehensive transcriptome analysis reveals novel genes involved in cardiac glycoside biosynthesis and mlncRNAs associated with secondary metabolism and stress response in Digitalis purpurea  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Digitalis purpurea is an important ornamental and medicinal plant. There is considerable interest in exploring its transcriptome. Results Through high-throughput 454 sequencing and subsequent assembly, we obtained 23532 genes, of which 15626 encode conserved proteins. We determined 140 unigenes to be candidates involved in cardiac glycoside biosynthesis. It could be grouped into 30 families, of which 29 were identified for the first time in D. purpurea. We identified 2660 mRNA-like npcRNA (mlncRNA) candidates, an emerging class of regulators, using a computational mlncRNA identification pipeline and 13 microRNA-producing unigenes based on sequence conservation and hairpin structure-forming capability. Twenty five protein-coding unigenes were predicted to be targets of these microRNAs. Among the mlncRNA candidates, only 320 could be grouped into 140 families with at least two members in a family. The majority of D. purpurea mlncRNAs were species-specific and many of them showed tissue-specific expression and responded to cold and dehydration stresses. We identified 417 protein-coding genes with regions significantly homologous or complementary to 375 mlncRNAs. It includes five genes involved in secondary metabolism. A positive correlation was found in gene expression between protein-coding genes and the homologous mlncRNAs in response to cold and dehydration stresses, while the correlation was negative when protein-coding genes and mlncRNAs were complementary to each other. Conclusions Through comprehensive transcriptome analysis, we not only identified 29 novel gene families potentially involved in the biosynthesis of cardiac glycosides but also characterized a large number of mlncRNAs. Our results suggest the importance of mlncRNAs in secondary metabolism and stress response in D. purpurea. PMID:22233149

2012-01-01

29

Potassium changes the relationship between receptor occupancy and the inotropic effect of cardiac glycosides in guinea-pig myocardium.  

PubMed Central

K+ (2.4-15.6 mmol l-1) antagonized the positive inotropic effect of dihydro-ouabain. The concentration-effect curves became steeper with the shift to higher concentrations of the glycoside. At 1.2 mmol l-1 Ca2+, an increase in K+ from 2.4 to 12 mmol l-1 required tenfold higher concentrations of dihydro-ouabain to produce equal inotropic effects. This factor was reduced to four at 3.2 mmol l-1 Ca2+. The same change in K+ concentration, at 1.2 mmol l-1 Ca2+, diminished the inotropic effect of ouabain on rested-state contractions by a factor of six. The positive inotropic effect of Ca2+ was also antagonized by K+ (1.2-12 mmol l-1). Reduction of Na+ from 140 to 70 mmol l-1 abolished the antagonistic action of K+ (1.2-8.0 mmol l-1). Moreover the inotropic effect of Ca2+ was enhanced. Reduction of Na+, from 140 to 70 mmol l-1, antagonized the positive inotropic effect of dihydro-ouabain more at low (2.4 mmol l-1) than at high (8.0 mmol l-1) K+. Accordingly, the extent of the dihydro-ouabain-K+ antagonism was reduced. When the K+ concentration was increased from 2.4 to 12 mmol l-1, [3H]-ouabain binding was reduced by a factor of three. This is less than the reduction in the inotropic effectiveness of ouabain or dihydro-ouabain. Reduction of stimulation frequency from 1 to 0.1215 Hz did not significantly alter the antagonistic effect of K+. Diminution of Vmax of the action potential was observed only at K+ concentrations greater than 5.9 mmol l-1, whereas the resting membrane potential was continuously depolarized over the entire range of K+ concentrations. The results support the view that the reduction in receptor affinity cannot be the sole cause of the antagonism between the glycoside and K+. Impairment of passive Na+ influx during diastole, due to the K+-dependent depolarization of the resting membrane potential, contributed to about one half of the glycoside-K+ antagonism. PMID:4041678

Bachmaier, A.; Ebner, F.; Reiter, M.

1985-01-01

30

Cardiotonic action of two tannins  

PubMed Central

A tannin isolated from Paullinia pinnata Linn., and tannic acid, have cardiotonic actions on the isolated perfused frog heart. Paullinia tannin is more firmly “fixed” than tannic acid. Tannin solutions contain peroxide, but the cardiotonic action is not dependent on this, since drugs believed to prevent peroxide formation, and sodium pyruvate which destroys peroxides, do not prevent the cardiotonic action. Maximal stimulation by tannin greatly reduces subsequent stimulation by ouabain. If calcium is omitted from the Ringer solution tannins cannot stimulate the heart. In this respect they differ from ouabain. However, the ouabain stimulation can be prevented by prior perfusion with tannin. It is suggested that the antagonism between tannin and ouabain is due to the former preventing ouabain from reaching its receptor sites, and that tannin stimulation is dependent on the formation of a calcium-tannin complex at the heart surface. In the isolated perfused mammalian heart preparation tannins increase diastolic tonus and coronary flow. PMID:13873207

Broadbent, J. L.

1962-01-01

31

Carob Tannins â€\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenol fractions were prepared from ripe and green carobs and fed to growing rats. The significant growth depression observed in rats fed green carobs and the ethyl acetate-soluble polyphenols is attributed primarily to a decrease in feed consumption. Ripe carobs did not affect growth significantly, but the tannins isolated from ripe and, to a lesser extent, green carobs were responsible

MUSHA TAMIR; ANDEUGENIA ALUMOT

32

The origins of tannins and flavonoids in black-wattle barks and heartwoods, and their associated `non-tannin' components  

PubMed Central

1. The distributions of flavonoid, carbohydrate, amino acid and imino acid components in the leaves, twig bark, stem bark, root bark and heartwoods of the black-wattle tree were compared by paper chromatography after their isolation from specific portions of the tree. 2. Wattle leaves contain mainly myricitrin, (+)-gallocatechin, an unknown myricetin glycoside and leuco-delphinidin tannins, together with smaller amounts of (+)-catechin, quercitrin and other flavonol glycosides. These are prominent in the twig bark, but decline progressively with age in the stem bark and are absent from root bark. 3. The non-phenolic components of the mature stem bark were shown to be (+)-pinitol, sucrose, glucose, fructose, l(?)-pipecolic acid, trans-4-hydroxy-l(?)-pipecolic acid, ?-alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, l(?)-proline, serine, a `steroid' alcohol and a long-chain ?-diketone. 4. Wattle bark and heartwood `tannins' consist of the analogues of closely related prototypes with common origins in the vascular tissues of the bark. Leaf `tannins' are superimposed on the bark components mainly during the initial stages of bark growth. 5. Origins of the pipecolic acids and the transformations of carbohydrates in the sap- and heart-woods are discussed. PMID:5881667

Saayman, H. M.; Roux, D. G.

1965-01-01

33

Microbial degradation of tannins – A current perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannins are water-soluble polyphenolic compounds having wide prevalence in plants. Hydrolysable and condensed tannins are the two major classes of tannins. These compounds have a range of effects on various organisms – from toxic effects on animals to growth inhibition of microorganisms. Some microbes are, however, resistant to tannins, and have developed various mechanisms and pathways for tannin degradation in

Tej K. Bhat; Bhupinder Singh; Om P. Sharma

1998-01-01

34

Tannins in plant–herbivore interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannins are the most abundant secondary metabolites made by plants, commonly ranging from 5% to 10% dry weight of tree leaves. Tannins can defend leaves against insect herbivores by deterrence and\\/or toxicity. Contrary to early theories, tannins have no effect on protein digestion in insect herbivores. By contrast, in vertebrate herbivores tannins can decrease protein digestion. Tannins are especially prone

Raymond V. Barbehenn; C. Peter Constabel

2011-01-01

35

Determination of the cardiac glycosides digoxin and digitoxin by liquid chromatography combined with isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (LC-IDMS)--a candidate reference measurement procedure.  

PubMed

This article describes a method of high analytical sensitivity, reproducibility and trueness for the determination of digoxin and digitoxin in serum or plasma at therapeutic levels using a combination of high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) and caesium-adduct formation. A method for threefold deuterium substitution in the glycosides was developed, which could be performed within 24 hours without distillation giving yields > 98% of the theoretical value. Extraction from a serum or plasma matrix was performed using a liquid-phase extraction with ammonium acetate buffer/tertiary butylmethyl ether/ethyl acetate at pH 9.5. The HPLC-separation used a 10 x 2 mm LiChrospher RP-18 5 microm guard column in combination with a 125 x 2 mm main column of the same material and a gradient containing methanol, caesium ions and formic acid. Quantification of digoxin and digitoxin was made with IDMS using deuterated internal standards and the system run in single ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The methods had a lower limit of determination of 0.25 microg/l for digoxin and digitoxin, a trueness between 97.5 and 104% for digoxin and between 98 and 101% for digitoxin, respectively and had a coefficient of variation of less than 3% in the therapeutic range for both glycosides. Maximally 1 ml serum or plasma was needed for the procedure. The method is used to set target values for materials used in external quality assessment surveys (EQAS) run by INSTAND as part of a national EQAS-programme.) PMID:12908733

Kaiser, Patricia; Kramer, Udo; Meissner, Dieane; Kress, Michael; Wood, William Graham; Reinauer, Hans

2003-01-01

36

Tannins Influence Soil Chemical Processes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tannins, plant secondary compounds, can affect soil and water quality by interacting with inorganic and organic compounds. However, the fate of tannins and their effect on soil metal cycling dynamics and soil chemical processes is poorly understood. We examined the effects of commercial available ...

37

Analysis of condensed tannins: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins, PAs) have both positive and negative effects on feed digestibility and animal performance, depending both on the quantity and biological activity of the tannins that are present. In this review, the chemistry and analysis of condensed tannins (PAs) are examined. Our first focus is on the complexity of the structures of condensed tannins and our second

P Schofield; D. M Mbugua; A. N Pell

2001-01-01

38

Modification of the positive inotropic effects of catecholamines, cardiac glycosides and Ca2+ by the orally active male contraceptive, gossypol, in isolated guinea-pig heart.  

PubMed

Gossypol is an orally active male contraceptive with cardio-depressant side effects. To understand the mechanism of its cardiac actions, the interaction of gossypol with positive inotropic drugs was examined in isolated atrial muscle preparations obtained from guinea-pig heart. Gossypol delayed the onset of arrhythmias caused by digoxin. In the presence of gossypol, the positive inotropic effect of isoproterenol declined rapidly, and the effect of isoproterenol to increase tissue cyclic AMP concentrations was smaller. Pretreatment of atrial muscle with the combination of gossypol and isoproterenol markedly reduced effects of isoproterenol on developed tension and cyclic AMP concentrations when these effects were tested after the washout of the first dose of isoproterenol. These effects, however, were not specific to isoproterenol. The gossypol-isoproterenol pretreatment reduced the positive inotropic effect of ouabain or extracellular Ca2+. These results indicate that gossypol has pharmacodynamic interactions with several positive inotropic agents that are known to enhance developed tension by increasing intracellular Ca2+ transients. PMID:2557505

Ye, Y X; Akera, T; Ng, Y C

1989-01-01

39

Cytotoxic cardenolide glycosides from the seeds of Antiaris toxicaria.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract from the seeds of Antiaris toxicaria led to the isolation of three new cardiac glycosides named toxicarioside J, toxicarioside K, and toxicarioside L, together with a known glucostrophalloside. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including HRESIMS, UV, IR, and 1D, 2D NMR techniques. The cytotoxic activities of these cardiac glycosides against human gastric (SGC-7901) and human hepatoma (SMMC-7721) cell lines were evaluated, and all of them exhibited significant cytotoxicity. PMID:21509716

Dong, Wen-Hua; Mei, Wen-Li; Zhao, You-Xing; Zeng, Yan-Bo; Zuo, Wen-Jian; Wang, Hui; Li, Xiao-Na; Dai, Hao-Fu

2011-10-01

40

Nutritional Toxicology of Tannins and Related Polyphenols in Forage Legumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proanthocyanidins (PA) (condensed tannins) and hydrolyzable tannins (HT) are the two major classes of tannins. Proanthocyanidins are flavo- noid polymers. Hydrolyzable tannins are polymers of gallic or ellagic acid esterified to a core molecule, commonly glucose or a polyphenol such as catechin. Proanthocyanidins are the most common type of tannin found in forage legumes. Problems in the analysis of tannins

Jess D. Reed

2010-01-01

41

Implications of soluble tannin-protein complexes for tannin analysis and plant defense mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors which establish whether tannin and protein interact to form soluble complexes or precipitates were identified. The ratio of tannin to protein in the reaction mixture influenced solubility of the tannin-protein complexes. At protein-to-tannin ratios larger than the optimum ratio, or equivalence point, soluble tannin-protein complexes apparently formed instead of insoluble complexes. Several other factors influenced the amount of protein

Ann E. Hagerman; Charles T. Robbins

1987-01-01

42

Ecological implications of condensed tannin structure: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Condensed tannins were isolated from bitterbnish (Purshia tridentata) and blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima). Structural analyses showed that both tannins were procyanidins of similar polymer length. The overall stereochemistries at C-3 and C-4, however, differed between the two tannins. These changes in stereochemistry resulted in blackbrush tannins being less preferred than bitterbrush tannins when offered to snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). It is

T. P. Clausen; F. D. Provenza; E. A. Burritt; P. B. Reichardt; J. P. Bryant

1990-01-01

43

Choosing appropriate methods and standards for assaying tannin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannins are chemically diverse polyphenolics that have multiple biological activities. Attempts to establish the ecological significance of tannins have been hindered by the complexities of tannin analysis. A multitude of analytical procedures for tannins has been described, but it is difficult for the nonspecialist to select appropriate methods. We have classified the most common procedures for determining tannin as either

Ann E. Hagerman; Larry G. Butler

1989-01-01

44

Tannins, Peptic Ulcers and Related Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

This review of the current literature aims to study correlations between the chemical structure and gastric anti-ulcer activity of tannins. Tannins are used in medicine primarily because of their astringent properties. These properties are due to the fact that tannins react with the tissue proteins with which they come into contact. In gastric ulcers, this tannin-protein complex layer protects the stomach by promoting greater resistance to chemical and mechanical injury or irritation. Moreover, in several experimental models of gastric ulcer, tannins have been shown to present antioxidant activity, promote tissue repair, exhibit anti Helicobacter pylori effects, and they are involved in gastrointestinal tract anti-inflammatory processes. The presence of tannins explains the anti-ulcer effects of many natural products. PMID:22489149

de Jesus, Neyres Zinia Taveira; de Souza Falcão, Heloina; Gomes, Isis Fernandes; de Almeida Leite, Thiago Jose; de Morais Lima, Gedson Rodrigues; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria; Tavares, Josean Fechine; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; de Athayde-Filho, Petrônio Filgueiras; Batista, Leonia Maria

2012-01-01

45

Variability in tannin content, chemistry and activity in a diverse group of tannin containing sorghum cultivars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tannins are large polyphenolic polymers and are known to bind proteins, limiting their digestibility. Tannins are also known for having excellent antioxidant potential. To examine the precise impact of tannin content and composition on the biological activities (protein binding, protein digestibil...

46

Variants of glycoside hydrolases  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

Teter, Sarah (Davis, CA); Ward, Connie (Hamilton, MT); Cherry, Joel (Davis, CA); Jones, Aubrey (Davis, CA); Harris, Paul (Carnation, WA); Yi, Jung (Sacramento, CA)

2011-04-26

47

Variants of glycoside hydrolases  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

Teter, Sarah; Ward, Connie; Cherry, Joel; Jones, Aubrey; Harris, Paul; Yi, Jung

2013-02-26

48

Quinoid glycosides from Forsythia suspensa.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation on Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl afforded 10 compounds, including quinoid glycosides, lignan glycosides, phenylethanoid glycoside and allylbenzene glycoside together with 13 known ones. Their structures were established based on extensive spectroscopic data analyses, including IR, UV, HRESIMS, 1D NMR and 2D NMR. Absolute configurations were determined by ECD calculation method and chemical degradation. In addition, all compounds were evaluated for their antiviral activity against influenza A (H1N1) virus and several were further evaluated against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in vitro. Among them, two previously known compounds showed significant activities against RSV with EC50 values of 3.43 and 6.72 ?M. PMID:24833035

Li, Chang; Dai, Yi; Zhang, Shu-Xiang; Duan, Ying-Hui; Liu, Ming-Li; Chen, Liu-Yuan; Yao, Xin-Sheng

2014-08-01

49

Termite resistance and wood-penetrability of chemically modified tannin and tannin-copper complexes as wood preservatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the ability of chemically modified tannin and tannin-copper complexes to penetrate wood and the ability of the\\u000a treated wood to resist termites. Only the tannin-treated wood retained the agents after treatment. Wood with untreated mimosa\\u000a tannin (MT) retained the least amount, followed by wood with resorcinolated tannin (RMT) and that with catecholated tannin\\u000a (CMT). When RMT or CMT

Haruhiko Yamaguchi; Kyoko Yoshino; Akiko Kido

2002-01-01

50

Tannins and Human Health: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannins (commonly referred to as tannic acid) are water-soluble polyphenols that are present in many plant foods. They have been reported to be responsible for decreases in feed intake, growth rate, feed efficiency, net metabolizable energy, and protein digestibility in experimental animals. Therefore, foods rich in tannins are considered to be of low nutritional value. However, recent findings indicate that

King-Thom Chung; Tit Yee Wong; Cheng-I Wei; Yao-Wen Huang; Yuan Lin

1998-01-01

51

Oligomeric hydrolysable tannins from Tibouchina multiflora.  

PubMed

Two hydrolysable tannins, nobotanin O and nobotanin P, were isolated from the leaf extract of Tibouchina multiflora (Melastomataceae) and their dimeric and tetrameric structures elucidated on the basis of spectral data and chemical correlations with nobotanin B and K, respectively. Thirteen known hydrolysable tannins including nobotanins A, B, C and J, which are oligomers characteristic of the Melastomataceae, were also isolated. PMID:10647222

Yoshida, T; Amakura, Y; Yokura, N; Ito, H; Isaza, J H; Ramirez, S; Pelaez, D P; Renner, S S

1999-12-01

52

Sorption of polyphenolics (tannins) to natural soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tannins enter soil systems via rainfall through the leaf canopy, leaf litter decomposition, and root exudation and decomposition. For tannins released into soils, the relative importance of sorption to soil; chemical reactions with soil minerals; and biological decomposition is unknown. Determinin...

53

Sorption of polyphenolics (tannins) to natural soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The plant secondary metabolites known as tannins (polyphenolics) comprise up to 40% of the dry mass of plant tissue. Tannins have potent bioactivities ranging from protein precipitation to metal binding and radical quenching, and can affect nutrient metal availability, nitrogen availability, and so...

54

Colloidal stability of tannins: astringency, wine tasting and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tannin-tannin and tannin-protein interactions in water-ethanol solvent mixtures are studied in the context of red wine tasting. While tannin self-aggregation is relevant for the visual aspect of wine tasting (limpidity and related colloidal phenomena), tannin affinities for salivary proline-rich proteins is fundamental for a wide spectrum of organoleptic properties related to astringency. Tannin-tannin interactions are analyzed in water-ethanol wine-like solvents and the precipitation map is constructed for a typical grape tannin. The interaction between tannins and human salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP) are investigated in the framework of the shell model for micellization, known for describing tannin-induced aggregation of ?-casein. Tannin-assisted micellization and compaction of proteins observed by SAXS are described quantitatively and discussed in the case of astringency.

Zanchi, D.; Poulain, C.; Konarev, P.; Tribet, C.; Svergun, D. I.

2008-12-01

55

Colloidal stability of tannins: astringency, wine tasting and beyond  

E-print Network

Tannin-tannin and tannin-protein interactions in water-ethanol solvent mixtures are studied in the context of red wine tasting. While tannin self-aggregation is relevant for visual aspect of wine tasting (limpidity and related colloidal phenomena), tannin affinities for salivary proline-rich proteins is fundamental for a wide spectrum of organoleptic properties related to astringency. Tannin-tannin interactions are analyzed in water-ethanol wine-like solvents and the precipitation map is constructed for a typical grape tannin. The interaction between tannins and human salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP) are investigated in the framework of the shell model for micellization, known for describing tannin-induced aggregation of beta-casein. Tannin-assisted micellization and compaction of proteins observed by SAXS are described quantitatively and discussed in the case of astringency.

Zanchi, D; Konarev, P; Tribet, C; Svergun, D I

2008-01-01

56

Colloidal stability of tannins: astringency, wine tasting and beyond  

E-print Network

Tannin-tannin and tannin-protein interactions in water-ethanol solvent mixtures are studied in the context of red wine tasting. While tannin self-aggregation is relevant for visual aspect of wine tasting (limpidity and related colloidal phenomena), tannin affinities for salivary proline-rich proteins is fundamental for a wide spectrum of organoleptic properties related to astringency. Tannin-tannin interactions are analyzed in water-ethanol wine-like solvents and the precipitation map is constructed for a typical grape tannin. The interaction between tannins and human salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP) are investigated in the framework of the shell model for micellization, known for describing tannin-induced aggregation of beta-casein. Tannin-assisted micellization and compaction of proteins observed by SAXS are described quantitatively and discussed in the case of astringency.

D. Zanchi; C. Poulain; P. Konarev; C. Tribet; D. I. Svergun

2008-10-07

57

Glycosyl fluorides in glycosidations.  

PubMed

This short review deals with the recent progress in chemical O-glycosidation and C-glycosylation methods using glycosyl fluorides as glycosyl donors. Pyranosyl and furanosyl fluorides were effectively activated by fluorophilic reagents such as SnCl2-AgClO4, SnCl2-TrClO4, SnCl2-AgOTf, TMSOTf, SiF4, BF3 x Et2O, TiF4, SnF4, Cp2MCl2-AgClO4 (M = Zr or Hf), Cp2ZrCl2-AgBF4, Cp2HfCl2-AgOTf, Bu2Sn(ClO4)2, Me2GaCl, Tf2O, LiClO4, Yb(OTf)3, La(ClO4)3 x nH2O, La(ClO4)3 x nH2O-Sn(OTf)2, Yb-Amberlyst 15, SO4/ZrO2, Nafion-H, montmorillonite K-10, and TrB(C6F5)4 to react with alcohols to give the corresponding O-glycosides in high yields. Furthermore, several types of C-glycosyl compounds, such as aryl, allyl and alkyl C-glycosyl derivatives, were also obtained by the glycosylation using glycosyl fluorides and the corresponding nucleophile with or without a Lewis acid. PMID:10968674

Toshima, K

2000-07-10

58

Radial diffusion method for determining tannin in plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannin in plant extracts can be determined by reacting the tannin with a protein and quantitating the precipitated complex. In the new assay described here, a tannin-containing solution is placed in a well in a protein-containing agar slab. As the tannin diffuses into the gel and complexes with protein, a visible ring of precipitation develops. The area of the ring

Ann E. Hagerman

1987-01-01

59

Technical Notes Determination of Condensed Tannin Monomers in  

E-print Network

Technical Notes Determination of Condensed Tannin Monomers in Environmental Samples by Capillary-level quantification of condensed tannin is described that uses acid depolymerization and carbocation capture with detection limits down to 100 ng con- densed tannin. In addition to tannin, triterpenoids were also

Hernes, Peter J.

60

Lead chelation to immobilised Symphytum officinale L. (comfrey) root tannins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reported correlations between tannin level and metal accumulation within plant tissues suggest that metal-chelating tannins may help plants to tolerate toxic levels of heavy metal contaminants. This paper supports such correlations using a new method that demonstrated the ability of plant tannins to chelate heavy metals, and showed that the relative levels of tannins in tissues were quantitatively related to

Lily Chin; David W. M. Leung; H. Harry Taylor

2009-01-01

61

Transgenic upregulation of the condensed tannin pathway in poplar leads to a dramatic shift in leaf palatability for two tree-feeding Lepidoptera.  

PubMed

Transgenic hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x tremuloides) overexpressing the MYB134 tannin regulatory gene show dramatically enhanced condensed tannin (proanthocyanidin) levels, as well as shifts in other phenolic metabolites. A series of insect bioassays with forest tent caterpillars (Malacosoma disstria) and gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillars was carried out to determine how this metabolic shift affects food preference and performance of generalist tree-feeding lepidopterans. Both species showed a distinct preference for the high-tannin MYB134 overexpressor plants, and L. dispar performance was enhanced relative to controls. L. dispar reached greater pupal weight and showed reduced time to pupation when reared on the MYB134 overexpressing poplar. These results were unexpected since enhanced condensed tannin levels were predicted to act as feeding deterrents. However, the data may be explained by the observed decrease in the salicinoids (phenolic glycosides) salicortin and tremulacin that accompanied the upregulation of the condensed tannins in the transgenics. We conclude that for these two lepidopteran species, condensed tannin levels are unlikely to be a major determinant of caterpillar food preference or performance. However, our experiments show that overexpression of a single regulatory gene in transgenic aspen can have a significant impact on herbivorous insects. PMID:24496605

Boeckler, G Andreas; Towns, Megan; Unsicker, Sybille B; Mellway, Robin D; Yip, Lynn; Hilke, Ines; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Constabel, C Peter

2014-02-01

62

Antioxidant activity of crude tannins of canola and rapeseed hulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activity of crude tannins of canola and rapeseed hulls was evaluated by ?-carotene-linoleate, ?,?-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl\\u000a (DPPH) radical, and reducing power assays. Crude tannins were extracted from three samples of Cyclone canola (high-tannin)\\u000a hulls and Kolner, Ligaret, and Leo Polish rapeseed (low-tannin) hulls with 70% (vol\\/vol) acetone. The total phenolic content\\u000a in crude tannin extracts ranged between 128 and 296

R. Amarowicz; M. Naczk; F. Shahidi

2000-01-01

63

Mechanisms of tannin resistance and detoxification in the rumen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannins are naturally occurring protein-binding polyphenols that occur in many forage plants and which reduce nutritive value through inhibitory effects on ruminal and intestinal functions. Some animals have adapted to tannins through the synthesis of tannin-binding salivary proteins, the presence of tannin-resistant or tannin-degrading ruminal\\/intestinal microorganisms, or other potential adaptations in the lower intestinal tract. Streptococcus caprinus\\/gallolyticus is found ubiquitously

J. D. Brooker; L. O'Donovan; I. Skene; G. Sellick

64

Tannin rich peanut skins lack anthelmintic properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) resistance to synthetic anthelmintics in small ruminants has led to the evaluation of feed sources containing naturally occurring bioactive secondary metabolites that lessen parasite activity. Plants rich in condensed tannins (CT) can have beneficial anthelmintic pro...

65

Intoxication of Sheep with Quebracho Tannin Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was carried out to study the toxicity of quebracho tannin extract (containing 760 g of condensed tannins [CTs] per kg), with the aim of validating its use as a feed additive for improving the digestive utilization of protein-rich feeds. Four groups (Q0, Q1, Q2 and Q3) of four sheep were dosed intra-ruminally once daily, for up to 21

G. Hervás; V. Pérez; F. J. Giráldez; A. R. Mantecón; M. M. Almar; P. Frutos

2003-01-01

66

Interaction of gut microflora with tannins in feeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tannins (hydrolyzable and condensed) are water-soluble polyphenolic compounds that exert antinutritional effects on ruminants by forming complexes with dietary proteins. They limit nitrogen supply to animals, besides inhibiting the growth and activity of ruminal microflora. However, some gastrointestinal microbes are able to break tannin-protein complexes while preferentially degrading hydrolyzable tannins (HTs). Streptococcus gallolyticus, Lonepinella koalarum and Selenomonas ruminantium are the dominant bacterial species that have the ability to degrade HTs. These tanninolytic microorganisms possess tannin-degrading ability and have developed certain mechanisms to tolerate tannins in feeds. Hence, selection of efficient tanninolytic microbes and transinoculation among animals for long-term benefits become areas of intensive interest. Here, we review the effects of tannins on ruminants, the existence and significance of tannin-degrading microorganisms in diverse groups of animals and the mechanisms that tannin-degrading microorganisms have developed to counter the toxic effects of tannin.

Goel, Gunjan; Puniya, A. K.; Aguilar, C. N.; Singh, Kishan

2005-11-01

67

Chestnut bark tannin assays and growth of chestnut blight fungus on extracted tannin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannins extracted from the green bark of each of two Chinese, Japanese, and American chestnut trees were assayed in a protein-binding test. Four levels of tannins were added to a buffered, minimal growth medium, and a standard, virulent strain of the chestnut blight fungus was grown. There were only slight differences in protein binding between the extracts from different species.

Sandra L. Anagnostakis

1992-01-01

68

A new glycosidic flavonoid from Jwarhar mahakashay (antipyretic) Ayurvedic preparation  

PubMed Central

The aqueous extract of Jwarhar mahakashay Ayurvedic preparation (from the roots of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br., Rubia cordifolia L., Cissampelos pareira L.; fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz., Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Terminalia bellirica Roxb., Vitis vinifera L., Grewia asiatica L., Salvadora persica L. and granules of Saccharum officinarum L.) has been used as a traditional antipyretic. Experimental studies confirmed its antipyretic–analgesic effect with very low ulcerogenicity and toxicity. Flavonoids, glycosides and tannins were later found to be present in the extract. Detailed chemical investigations were undertaken after hydrolysis of extract using spectroscopic and chromatography methods to determine its active chemical constituent. UV-Visible spectroscopy showed absorbance maxima at 220 and 276 nm, while fourier transform infra-red investigations indicated an end carboxylic O–H structure at 2940 cm?1 suggesting the presence of glycoside-linked flavonoids. Thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography also confirmed the possibility of at least one major and two minor compounds in this abstract. Detailed examination using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of the principal component as 2-(1-oxopropyl)-benzoic acid, which is quite similar to the active compound found in the standard drug Aspirin (2-acetyl-oxybenzoic acid). PMID:20814525

Gupta, Mradu; Shaw, B. P.; Mukherjee, A.

2010-01-01

69

Defensive strategies in Geranium sylvaticum. Part 1: organ-specific distribution of water-soluble tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids.  

PubMed

A combination of high-resolution mass spectrometry and modern HPLC column technology, assisted by diode array detection, was used for accurate characterization of water-soluble polyphenolic compounds in the pistils, stamens, petals, sepals, stems, leaves, roots and seeds of Geranium sylvaticum. The organs contained a large variety of polyphenols, five types of tannins (ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, gallotannins, galloyl glucoses and galloyl quinic acids) as well as flavonoids and simple phenolic acids. In all, 59 compounds were identified. Geraniin and other ellagitannins dominated in all the green photosynthetic organs. The other organs seem to produce distinctive polyphenol groups: pistils accumulated gallotannins; petals acetylglucose derivatives of galloylglucoses; stamens kaempferol glycosides, and seeds and roots accumulated proanthocyanidins. The intra-plant distribution of the different polyphenol groups may reflect the different functions and importance of various types of tannins as the defensive chemicals against herbivory. PMID:23790750

Tuominen, Anu; Toivonen, Eija; Mutikainen, Pia; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

2013-11-01

70

Propargyl glycosides as stable glycosyl donors: anomeric activation and glycoside syntheses.  

PubMed

The advantages of stable glycosyl donors for saccharide coupling are many, and we describe herein the utility of propargyl glycosides for anomeric activation and glycoside synthesis exploiting the alkynophilicity of AuCl3. Various aglycones were reacted with propargyl glycosides, resulting in the formation of an alpha,beta-mixture of glycosides and disaccharides in good yields. PMID:16866502

Hotha, Srinivas; Kashyap, Sudhir

2006-08-01

71

Multifunctional porous solids derived from tannins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tannins are extremely valuable, non toxic, wood extractives combining reactivity towards aldehydes, low cost, natural origin and easy handling. When polymerized in the presence of suitable chemicals including blowing agent, ultra lightweight rigid tannin-based foams are obtained. If pyrolyzed under inert gas, reticulated carbon foams having the same pore structure and the same density are obtained. The most remarkable features of tannin-based foams are the following: mechanical resistance similar to, or higher than, that of commercial phenolic foams, tuneable pore size and permeability, infusibility, very low thermal conductivity, cheapness, ecological character, high resistance to flame and to chemicals. Carbon foams have even better properties and are also electrically conducting. Consequently, various applications are suggested for organic foams: cores of sandwich composite panels, sound and shock absorbers and thermal insulators, whereas carbon foams can be used as porous electrodes, filters for molten metals and corrosive chemicals, catalyst supports and adsorbents.

Celzard, Alain; Fierro, Vanessa; Pizzi, Antonio; Zhao, Weigang

2013-03-01

72

Ecological implications of condensed tannin structure: A case study.  

PubMed

Condensed tannins were isolated from bitterbnish (Purshia tridentata) and blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima). Structural analyses showed that both tannins were procyanidins of similar polymer length. The overall stereochemistries at C-3 and C-4, however, differed between the two tannins. These changes in stereochemistry resulted in blackbrush tannins being less preferred than bitterbrush tannins when offered to snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). It is unlikely that differences in protein-precipitating abilities are the cause for the preference of the bitterbrush over the blackbrush tannins. Instead, we hypothesize that condensed tannins may be depolymerized and absorbed following ingestion. Differences in tannin structure can lead to different depolymerized products and rates of depolymerization, both of which may affect herbivore preferences. PMID:24264205

Clausen, T P; Provenza, F D; Burritt, E A; Reichardt, P B; Bryant, J P

1990-08-01

73

Iridoid and phenolic glycosides from Wulfenia carinthiaca.  

PubMed

Two new phenylpropanoid glycosides (2'-O-acetylplantamajoside and 2'-O, 6"-O-diacetylplantamajoside), a new iridoid glycoside (10-O-(cinnamoyl)-6'-O-(desacetylalpinosidyl)-catalpol), the two known iridoid glycosides globularin and isoscrophularioside, and the known phenylpropanoid glycoside platamajoside were isolated from the methanolic extract of the underground parts of Wulfenia carinthiaca. Structure elucidations were based on high-resolution mass spectrometry and extensive 1-D and 2-D NMR spectroscopy. PMID:12562078

Arnold, Ulrike W; Zidorn, Christian; Ellmerer, Ernst P; Stuppner, Hermann

2002-01-01

74

Tannins in nutrient dynamics of forest ecosystems - a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannins make up a significant portion of forest carbon pools and foliage and bark may contain up to 40% tannin. Like many other plant secondary compounds, tannins were believed to function primarily as herbivore deterrents. However, recent evidence casts doubts on their universal effectiveness against herbivory. Alternatively, tannins may play an important role in plant–plant and plant–litter–soil interactions. The convergent

Tamara E. C. Kraus; Randy A. Dahlgren; Robert J. Zasoski

2003-01-01

75

Dry bean tannins: A review of nutritional implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannins are one of several antinutritional factors present in dry beans and are located mainly in the seed coat or testa.\\u000a The tannin content of dry beans ranges from 0.0 to 2.0% depending on the bean species and color of the seed coat. Many high\\u000a tannin bean varieties are of lower nutritional quality than low tannin varieties of beans. Naturally

N. R. Reddy; M. D. Pierson; S. K. Sathe; D. K. Salunkhe

1985-01-01

76

Powdered hide model for vegetable tanning II. hydrolyzable tannin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable tannages employ both condensed and hydrolyzable tannins. As part of our exploration of tanning mechanisms, we reported last year on interactions of the condensed tannin, quebracho, with powdered hide. In this study, the interactions of chestnut extract, a hydrolyzable tannin, with powdere...

77

Extraction of tannin from fresh and preserved leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extractability of tannin from fresh, lyophilized, and dried leaves collected at various times in the growing season was determined using the radial diffusion assay for protein-precipitating phenolics. The amount of tannin extracted depended on the method of leaf preservation and on the maturity of the leaf. Early in the season, more tannin was extracted from lyophilized leaves than from

Ann E. Hagerman

1988-01-01

78

Tannin inhibition of protein kinase C in airway epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannin, a polydisperse polyphenol extracted from cotton bracts (CBE), has been implicated in the pathogenesis of byssinosis, a lung disease of mill workers. CBE tannin inhibits chloride secretion in airway epithelial cells by means of an unknown mechanism(s). Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) in airway cells increases chloride secretion. The effect of tannin on

M. M. Cloutier; L. Guernsey

1995-01-01

79

Interaction of gut microflora with tannins in feeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannins (hydrolyzable and condensed) are water-soluble polyphenolic compounds that exert antinutritional effects on ruminants by forming complexes with dietary proteins. They limit nitrogen supply to animals, besides inhibiting the growth and activity of ruminal microflora. However, some gastrointestinal microbes are able to break tannin–protein complexes while preferentially degrading hydrolyzable tannins (HTs). Streptococcus gallolyticus, Lonepinella koalarum and Selenomonas ruminantium are the

Gunjan Goel; A. K. Puniya; C. N. Aguilar; Kishan Singh

2005-01-01

80

Interaction of gut microflora with tannins in feeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannins (hydrolyzable and condensed) are water-soluble polyphenolic compounds that exert antinutritional effects on ruminants by forming complexes with dietary proteins. They limit nitrogen supply to animals, besides inhibiting the growth and activity of ruminal microflora. However, some gastrointestinal microbes are able to break tannin-protein complexes while preferentially degrading hydrolyzable tannins (HTs). Streptococcus gallolyticus, Lonepinella koalarum and Selenomonas ruminantium are the

Gunjan Goel; A. K. Puniya; C. N. Aguilar; Kishan Singh

2005-01-01

81

PREFERENTIAL BINDING OF SORGHUM TANNINS WITH GAMMA-KAFIRIN AND THE INFLUENCE OF TANNIN BINDING ON KAFIRIN DIGESTIBILITY AND BIODEGRADATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The binding of different kafirin species with sorghum condensed tannins was investigated. Analysis by chemical assay and by SDS-PAGE, RP-HPLC, and FZCE, showed that gamma-kafirin bound more condensed tannins than the other kafirin species. SDS-PAGE suggested that the '-kafirin bound tannins were i...

82

Science Study Aids 5: Tannin - Nature's Filter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is the fifth in a series of seven supplementary investigative materials for use in secondary science classes providing up-to-date research-related investigations. This unit is structured for grade levels 9 through 12. It is concerned with the removal of heavy divalent metals from water with the use of tannin-containing…

Boeschen, John; Randall, John M.

83

Lead chelation to immobilised Symphytum officinale L. (comfrey) root tannins.  

PubMed

Reported correlations between tannin level and metal accumulation within plant tissues suggest that metal-chelating tannins may help plants to tolerate toxic levels of heavy metal contaminants. This paper supports such correlations using a new method that demonstrated the ability of plant tannins to chelate heavy metals, and showed that the relative levels of tannins in tissues were quantitatively related to lead chelation in vitro. Using this in vitro metal chelation method, we showed that immobilised tannins prepared from lateral roots of Symphytum officinale L., that contained high tannin levels, chelated 3.5 times more lead than those from main roots with lower tannin levels. This trend was confirmed using increasing concentrations of tannins from a single root type, and using purified tannins (tannic acid) from Chinese gallnuts. This study presents a new, simple, and reliable method that demonstrates direct lead-tannin chelation. In relation to phytoremediation, it also suggests that plant roots with more 'built-in' tannins may advantageously accumulate more lead. PMID:19477483

Chin, Lily; Leung, David W M; Harry Taylor, H

2009-07-01

84

Tannin-assisted aggregation of natively unfolded proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tannin-protein interactions are essentially physical: hydrophobic and hydrogen-bond-mediated. We explored the tannin-assisted protein aggregation on the case of ?-casein, which is a natively unfolded protein known for its ability to form micellar aggregates. We used several tannins with specified length. Our SAXS results show that small tannins increase the number of proteins per micelle, but keeping their size constant. It leads to a tannin-assisted compactization of micelles. Larger tannins, with linear dimensions greater than the crown width of micelles, lead to the aggregation of micelles by a bridging effect. Experimental results can be understood within a model where tannins are treated as effective enhancers of hydrophobic attraction between specific sites in proteins.

Zanchi, D.; Narayanan, T.; Hagenmuller, D.; Baron, A.; Guyot, S.; Cabane, B.; Bouhallab, S.

2008-06-01

85

Glycosides of Patrinia sibirica . I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  Three glycosides, named sibirosides A, B, and C, have been detected in the roots ofPatrinia sibirica (L.) Juss. All three are derivatives of hederagenin. Sibirosides A and C were isolated in the pure state and the complete\\u000a structure of the former was established. It was shown that sibiroside C is a hexaoside of hederagenin, with carbohydrate chains\\u000a consisting of two

V. G. Bukharov; V. V. Karlin

1970-01-01

86

Megastigmane glycosides from Salvia nemorosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the aerial parts of Salvia nemorosa, three new megastigmane glycosides, salvionosides A-C, were isolated, along with the known compounds, (6S,9R)- and (6S,9S)-roseosides, (6R,9R)- and (6R,9S)-3-oxo-?-ionol glucosides and blumeol C glucoside. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence.

Yoshio Takeda; Hongjie Zhang; Takashi Matsumoto; Hideaki Otsuka; Yasushi Oosio; Gisho Honda; Mamoru Tabata; Tetsuro Fujita; Handong Sun; Ekrem Sezik; Erdem Yesilada

1997-01-01

87

Megastigmane glycosides from Salvia nemorosa.  

PubMed

From the aerial parts of Salvia nemorosa, three new megastigmane glycosides, salvionosides A-C, were isolated, along with the known compounds, (6S,9R)- and (6S,9R)-roseosides, (6R,9R)- and (6R,9S)-3-oxo-alpha-ionol glucosides and blumeol C glucoside. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence. PMID:8983215

Takeda, Y; Zhang, H; Matsumoto, T; Otsuka, H; Oosio, Y; Honda, G; Tabata, M; Fujita, T; Sun, H; Sezik, E; Yesilada, E

1997-01-01

88

Steroidal glycosides from Ruscus ponticus.  

PubMed

A comparative metabolite profiling of the underground parts and leaves of Ruscus ponticus was obtained by an HPLC-ESIMS(n) method, based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray positive ionization multistage ion trap mass spectrometry. The careful study of HPLC-ESIMS(n) fragmentation pattern of each chromatographic peak, in particular the identification of diagnostic product ions, allowed us to get a rapid screening of saponins belonging to different classes, such as dehydrated/or not furostanol, spirostanol and pregnane glycosides, and to promptly highlight similarities and differences between the two plant parts. This approach, followed by isolation and structure elucidation by 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, led to the identification of eleven saponins from the underground parts, of which two dehydrated furostanol glycosides and one new vespertilin derivative, and nine saponins from R. ponticus leaves, never reported previously. The achieved results highlighted a clean prevalence of furostanol glycoside derivatives in R. ponticus leaves rather in the underground parts of the plant, which showed a wider structure variety. In particular, the occurrence of dehydrated furostanol derivatives, for the first time isolated from a Ruscus species, is an unusual finding which makes unique the saponins profile of R. ponticus. PMID:21354581

Napolitano, Assunta; Muzashvili, Tamar; Perrone, Angela; Pizza, Cosimo; Kemertelidze, Ether; Piacente, Sonia

2011-05-01

89

Effects and fate of tannins in ruminant animals, adaptation to tannins, and strategies to overcome detrimental effects of feeding tannin-rich feeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trees and shrub foliage and agro-industrial by-products are of importance in animal production because they do not compete with human food and can provide significant protein supplements, especially in the dry season. But, these feed resources are generally rich in antinutritional factors, particularly tannins. The amount of tannins that they contain vary widely and largely unpredictably, and their effects on

H. P. S. Makkar

2003-01-01

90

Recovery of uranium from seawater by immobilized tannin  

SciTech Connect

Tannin compounds having multiple adjacent hydroxy groups have an extremely high affinity for uranium. To prevent the leaching of tannins into water and to improve the adsorbing characteristics of these compounds, the authors tried to immobilize tannins. The immobilized tannin has the most favorable features for uranium recovery; high selective adsorption ability to uranium, rapid adsorption rate, and applicability in both column and batch systems. The immobilized tannin can recover uranium from natural seawater with high efficiency. About 2530 ..mu..g uranium is adsorbed per gram of this adsorbent within 22 h. Depending on the concentration in seawater, an enrichment of up to 766,000-fold within the adsorbent is possible. Almost all uranium adsorbed is easily desorbed with a very dilute acid. Thus, the immobilized tannin can be used repeatedly in the adsorption-desorption process.

Sakaguchi, T.; Nakajima, A.

1987-06-01

91

Effect of foliage-tannins on feeding activity in goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY -The concept that tannins in foilage reduce the voluntary intake of foilage by goats by evoking negative postingestive responses was examined. Meals and breaks between meals of goats fed high-tannin foilage were cyclic; the first meal within each cycle was the longest. Once-daily supplementation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a molecular weight of 4000, a tannin-binding agent, increased the

N. Silanikove; N. Gilboa; A. Perevolotsky; Z. Nitsan

92

Sorghum tannin and non-tannin phenols: Absorption and toxicity in chicks and rats, and their chemical characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption and distribution of sorghum tannin and non-tannin phenols were evaluated by orally administering to chicks $\\\\sp{14}$C-labeled phenolic fractions extracted and purified from radiolabeled sorghum seeds. Evaluation of the plasma and various tissues from the chicks after 8 hours of receiving the radiolabeled fractions led to the conclusion that no radiolabeled tannin was absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract of

Lilian Mary Jimenez-Ramsey

1993-01-01

93

40 CFR 721.10666 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, bis(fattyalkyl) dimethyl, salts with tannins (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...bis(fattyalkyl) dimethyl, salts with tannins (generic). 721.10666 Section...bis(fattyalkyl) dimethyl, salts with tannins (generic). (a) Chemical substance...bis(fattyalkyl) dimethyl, salts with tannins (PMN P-12-437) is subject to...

2013-07-01

94

40 CFR 721.10666 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, bis(fattyalkyl) dimethyl, salts with tannins (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...bis(fattyalkyl) dimethyl, salts with tannins (generic). 721.10666 Section...bis(fattyalkyl) dimethyl, salts with tannins (generic). (a) Chemical substance...bis(fattyalkyl) dimethyl, salts with tannins (PMN P-12-437) is subject to...

2014-07-01

95

Increasing the Oxidative Stress Response Allows Escherichia coli To Overcome Inhibitory Effects of Condensed Tannins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 29 July 2002\\/Accepted 25 February 2003 Tannins are plant-derived polyphenols with antimicrobial effects. The mechanism of tannin toxicity towards Escherichia coli was determined by using an extract from Acacia mearnsii (Black wattle) as a source of condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins). E. coli growth was inhibited by tannins only when tannins were exposed to oxygen. Tannins auto-oxidize, and substantial hydrogen peroxide

Alexandra H. Smith; James A. Imlay; Roderick I. Mackie

2003-01-01

96

HPLC retention thermodynamics of grape and wine tannins.  

PubMed

The effect of grape and wine tannin structure on retention thermodynamics under reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography conditions on a polystyrene divinylbenzene column was investigated. On the basis of retention response to temperature, an alternative retention factor was developed to approximate the combined temperature response of the complex, unresolvable tannin mixture. This alternative retention factor was based upon relative tannin peak areas separated by an abrupt change in solvent gradient. Using this alternative retention factor, retention thermodynamics were calculated. Van't Hoff relationships of the natural log of the alternative retention factor against temperature followed Kirchoff's relationship. An inverse quadratic equation was fit to the data, and from this the thermodynamic parameters for tannin retention were calculated. All tannin fractions exhibited exothermic, spontaneous interaction, with enthalpy-entropy compensation observed. Normalizing for tannin size, distinct tannin compositional effects on thermodynamic parameters were observed. The results of this study indicate that HPLC can be valuable for measuring the thermodynamics of tannin interaction with a hydrophobic surface and provides a potentially valuable alternative to calorimetry. Furthermore, the information gathered may provide insight into understanding red wine astringency quality. PMID:23565723

Barak, Jennifer A; Kennedy, James A

2013-05-01

97

THE BIOCHEMISTRY OF TANNINS: ROLE IN RUMINANT NUTRITION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tannins are high molecular weight, water-soluble polyphenols that form reversible complexes with proteins through pH-dependent hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. Hydrolyzable tannins (HT) contain a carbohydrate core esterified with gallic or hexahydroxydiphenic acids. Binding of HT to ...

98

Microbial interactions with tannins: nutritional consequences for ruminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenolics are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and are often present in the diet of herbivores. The two major groups of plant polyphenolic compounds other than lignin are condensed and hydrolysable tannins. These compounds can have toxic and\\/or antinutritional effects on the animal. It is well established that tannins complex with dietary proteins can reduce nitrogen supply to the

C. S McSweeney; B Palmer; D. M McNeill; D. O Krause

2001-01-01

99

Lignin and tannin toxicity to Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bohlin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignin and tannin are widespread natural compounds traditionally used in tannery industries. Their presence is commonly detected in textile wastewater showing potential toxicity effects within various endpoints onto sea water organisms that generally represent the ultimate target of discharged effluents. Most data are available only as nominal concentrations or percentage volume of wastewater having an unknown lignin and tannin content.

Giovanni Libralato; Francesco Avezzù; Annamaria Volpi Ghirardini

2011-01-01

100

Anaerobic treatment of natural tannin extracts in UASB reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannin extracts are substances commonly used in leather production processes. Since most of the steps of tannery manufacturing processes are carried out in aqueous environments, the presence of these compounds in the wastewaters is important. The aim of this work is to study the feasibility of the anaerobic degradation of three natural tannin extracts in three Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket

J. López-Fiuza; F. Omil; R. Méndez

101

Effects of tannins on Chinese hamster cell line B14  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannins, naturally occurring plant phenols, have been recognized as antioxidants, but toxic effects have also been observed. In the current investigation, the interaction of this type of compounds with Chinese hamster cells (cell line B14) has been examined. This study reports on the results of experiments in which B14 cells were exposed to tannins: tannic, ellagic and gallic acids in

Magdalena Labieniec; Teresa Gabryelak

2003-01-01

102

Tannin extracts abate ammonia emissions from simulated dairy barn floors.  

PubMed

Feeding more tannin and less crude protein (CP) to dairy cows may have synergistic impacts on reducing NH emissions from dairy barns. Three trials using lab-scale ventilated chambers with concrete floors were conducted to determine the impacts on NH emission of tannin and CP feeding, tannin feeding on urease activity in feces, and tannin application directly to the barn floor. For Trial 1, mixtures of feces and urine from lactating Holstein dairy cows () fed four levels (g kg) of dietary tannin extract [a mixture from red quebracho () and chestnut () trees]: 0 tannin (0T), 4.5 (low tannin [LT]), 9.0 (medium tannin [MT]), and 18.0 (high tannin [HT]); each fed at two levels (g kg) of dietary CP: 155 low CP (LCP) and 168 high CP (HCP) were applied to chambers. For Trial 2, urea solution was added to feces obtained from cows fed 0T, MT, and HT at HCP. For Trial 3, tannin amounts equivalent to those fed at 0T, MT, and HT were applied directly to feces-urine mixtures from 0T-HCP. For all trials, NH emissions were measured 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after treatment application. For Trial 1, reductions in NH emission due to tannin feeding were greatest when fed at LCP: The LCP-LT and LCP-HT treatments emitted 30.6% less NH than LCP-0T, and the HCP-LT and HCP-HT treatments emitted 16.3% less NH than HCP-0T. For Trial 2, feeding tannin decreased urease activity in feces, resulting in an 11.5% reduction in cumulative NH loss. For Trial 3, the application of tannin directly to simulated barn floors also apparently decreased urease activity, resulting in an average reduction in cumulative NH emissions of 19.0%. Larger-scale trails are required to ascertain the effectiveness of tannin extracts in abating NH loss from dairy barn floors. PMID:21546676

Powell, J M; Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A

2011-01-01

103

Vegetable oil thermosets reinforced by tannin-lipid formulations.  

PubMed

Totally bio-based thermosetting polymers which are comparable to synthetic polyester thermosets have been prepared from copolymerization of condensed tannin-fatty acid esters with vegetable oils. Oxidative copolymerization of tannin linoleate/acetate mixed esters with linseed oil and tung oil produced polymer films ranging from soft rubbers to rigid thermosets. Tannin incorporation into the formulations was essential for the final product to achieve necessary mechanical strength. Films had ambient modulus values between 0.12 and 1.6 GPa, with glass transition temperatures ranging from 32 to 72 °C and calculated crosslink densities of 1020-57,700 mol m?³. Film stiffness, T(g) and crosslink density increase with greater tannin linoeate/acetate content due mainly to this tannin component providing rigidity through polyphenolic aromatic rings and unsaturated chains as crosslinking sites. PMID:22975626

Luo, Chunhua; Grigsby, Warren J; Edmonds, Neil R; Al-Hakkak, Jafar

2013-02-01

104

Flavanone glycosides from Miconia trailii.  

PubMed

Assay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract of the twigs and leaves of Miconia trailii yielded two new flavanone glycosides, matteucinol 7-O-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl(1-->6)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (miconioside A, 1) and farrerol 7-O-beta-d-apiofuranosyl(1-->6)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (miconioside B, 2), along with the known compounds matteucinol 7-O-beta-d-apiofuranosyl(1-->6)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (3), matteucinol (4), 2alpha,3beta,19alpha-trihydroxyolean-12-ene-24,28-dioic acid (bartogenic acid, 5), 2alpha,3beta,23-trihydroxyolean-12-ene-28-oic acid (arjunolic acid, 6), 2alpha,3alpha,19alpha, 23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid (myrianthic acid, 7), and stigmast-4-ene-3,6-dione (8). The structures of 1-8 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR. PMID:12542342

Zhang, Zhizhen; ElSohly, Hala N; Li, Xing-Cong; Khan, Shabana I; Broedel, Sheldon E; Raulli, Robert E; Cihlar, Ronald L; Walker, Larry A

2003-01-01

105

New kaurene diterpenoid glycosides from fenugreek seeds.  

PubMed

Two new kaurene diterpenoid glycosides, named Graecumoside A (1) and B (2), were isolated from fenugreek seeds, along with three known flavonoid-C-glycosides, isoorientin (3), isovitexin (4) and vitexin (5). By combined analyses of 1D- and 2D-NMR, and MS spectroscopy, the structures of two new compounds were elucidated as 3-O-?- D-glucopyranosyl kaur-5, 16-dien-3?, 6, 13?-trihydroxy-7-oxo-18-oic acid methyl ester and 3-O-?-neohesperidosyl kaur-5, 16-dien-3?, 6, 13?-trihydroxy-7-oxo-18-oic acid methyl ester, respectively. The kaurene diterpenoid glycosides were first isolated and identified from fenugreek seeds. PMID:22950814

Pang, Xu; Kang, Li-Ping; Yu, He-Shui; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Zhang, Jie; Ma, Bai-Ping

2013-01-01

106

A chlorinated monoterpene ketone, acylated ?-sitosterol glycosides and a flavanone glycoside from Mentha longifolia (Lamiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mentha longifolia (Lamiaceae), an aromatic herb yielded a new halogenated chloro-derivative of menthone (longifone), two new derivatives of ?-sitosterol glycoside (longiside-A and -B) and a new flavanone-glycoside (longitin). The ?-sitosterol and flavanone glycosides were purified as their acetate derivatives. Structures of all the isolated constituents were elucidated with the aid of HMBC techniques. However, the structure of longifone was also

Muhammad Shaiq Ali; Muhammad Saleem; Waqar Ahmad; Masood Parvez; Raghav Yamdagni

2002-01-01

107

Effects of different tannin-rich extracts and rapeseed tannin monomers on methane formation and microbial protein synthesis in vitro.  

PubMed

Tannins, polyphenolic compounds found in plants, are known to complex with proteins of feed and rumen bacteria. This group of substances has the potential to reduce methane production either with or without negative effects on digestibility and microbial yield. In the first step of this study, 10 tannin-rich extracts from chestnut, mimosa, myrabolan, quebracho, sumach, tara, valonea, oak, cocoa and grape seed, and four rapeseed tannin monomers (pelargonidin, catechin, cyanidin and sinapinic acid) were used in a series of in vitro trials using the Hohenheim gas test, with grass silage as substrate. The objective was to screen the potential of various tannin-rich extracts to reduce methane production without a significant effect on total gas production (GP). Supplementation with pelargonidin and cyanidin did not reduce methane production; however, catechin and sinapinic acid reduced methane production without altering GP. All tannin-rich extracts, except for tara extract, significantly reduced methane production by 8% to 28% without altering GP. On the basis of these results, five tannin-rich extracts were selected and further investigated in a second step using a Rusitec system. Each tannin-rich extract (1.5 g) was supplemented to grass silage (15 g). In this experiment, nutrient degradation, microbial protein synthesis and volatile fatty acid production were used as additional response criteria. Chestnut extract caused the greatest reduction in methane production followed by valonea, grape seed and sumach, whereas myrabolan extract did not reduce methane production. Whereas chestnut extract reduced acetate production by 19%, supplementation with grape seed or myrabolan extract increased acetate production. However, degradation of fibre fractions was reduced in all tannin treatments. Degradation of dry matter and organic matter was also reduced by tannin supplementation, and no differences were found between the tannin-rich extracts. CP degradation and ammonia-N accumulation in the Rusitec were reduced by tannin treatment. The amount and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis were not significantly affected by tannin supplementation. The results of this study indicated that some tannin-rich extracts are able to reduce methane production without altering microbial protein synthesis. We hypothesized that chestnut and valonea extract have the greatest potential to reduce methane production without negative side effects. PMID:23915496

Wischer, G; Boguhn, J; Steingaß, H; Schollenberger, M; Rodehutscord, M

2013-11-01

108

A new phenolic glycoside from prunella vulgaris.  

PubMed

A new phenolic glycoside was isolated from the spikes of Prunella vulgaris. Its structure was elucidated as gentisic acid 5-O-beta-D-(6'-salicylyl)-glucopyranoside by spectroscopic evidence and chemical analysis. PMID:21800544

Gu, Xiao-jie; Li, You-bin; Mu, Jun; Zhang, Yi

2011-05-01

109

Stereoselective Synthesis of ?-manno-Glycosides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the various types of O-glycosides with biological relevance, the ?-glycoside of D-mannose (?-manno-glycoside) has been considered as one of the most challenging targets from a synthetic point of view. The majority of synthetic approaches to ?-manno-glycoside can be put into two categories (the direct glycosylation and the glycosylation-inversion approaches). Additionally, a variety of intriguing approaches have been investigated with substantial success (alkylative glycosylation of 1,2-stannylene acetal, reductive manipulation of orthoester, intramolecular aglycon delivery, and enzymatic glycosylation). In this chapter, progress in the conceptually demanding ?-mannosylation technology will be discussed, including current state of the art, with particular focus upon applications related to the synthesis of glycoprotein-related oligosaccharides.

Ishiwata, Akihiro; Ito, Yukishige

110

The Influence of Condensed Tannin Structure on Rate of Microbial Mineralization and Reactivity to Chemical Assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined how tannin structure influences reactivity in tannin assays and carbon and nitrogen mineralization. Condensed\\u000a tannins from the foliage of ten tree and shrub species and from pecan shells (Carya illinoensis) had different proportions of: (a) epicatechin (cis) and catechin (trans) isomers, (b) procyanidin (PC) and prodelphinidin (PD) monomers, and (c) different chain lengths. The response of each tannin

Charlotte E. Norris; Caroline M. Preston; Karen E. Hogg; Brian D. Titus

2011-01-01

111

Are tannins a double-edged sword in biology and health?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable tannins are water-soluble polyphenols that are present in many plant foods. They can be divided into hydrolysable and condensed tannins. Tannins are considered nutritionally undesirable because they precipitate proteins, inhibit digestive enzymes and affect the utilization of vitamins and minerals. Tannin components have also been implicated in the high levels of cheek and oesophageal cancers in certain regions of

King-Thom Chung; Cheng-I Wei; Michael G Johnson

1998-01-01

112

Costs and benefits of defense by tannins in a neotropical tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

The costs and benefits of defense by tannins were investigated for a neotropical tree, Cecropia peltata L. (Moraceae). Seedlings of equal age were grown under uniform conditions in a greenhouse for 18 months. Within a plant, leaf tannin concentrations measured in different years were highly correlated. Tannin concentrations differed substantially among individuals; plants with high tannin content had lower damage

Phyllis D. Coley

1986-01-01

113

Hormetic Versus Toxic Effects of Vegetable Tannin in a Multitest Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannin from mimosa trees (Acacia sp.) utilized in traditional leather tanning was tested for toxicity in sea urchin (Sphaerechinus granularis and Paracentrotus lividus) embryos and sperm, marine, and freshwater algae (Selenastrum capricornutum and Dunaliella tertiolecta), and Daphnia magna. Based on a two-step tanning procedure used in traditional tanneries, two mimosa tannin preparations, i.e., fresh tannin (FT) and used tannin (UT),

E. De Nicola; M. Gallo; M. Iaccarino; S. Meric; R. Oral; T. Russo; T. Sorrentino; O. Tünay; E. Vuttariello; M. Warnau; G. Pagano

2004-01-01

114

Electrochemical removal of tannins from aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect

The application of electrochemical methods to remove tannins from wastewater was investigated. Gallotannic acid was used as the reference substance. Electrochemical experiments were performed using platinum electrodes. Macroscale potentiostatic or galvanostatic electrolyses were carried out with sodium sulfate or sodium chloride as supporting electrolytes, to analyze direct and indirect oxidation processes. Operating variables such as pH and chloride concentration were considered to determine their influence on the efficiency and energy consumption of the process. The simulation of a pilot plant was carried out with a mathematical model, the parameters of which were determined by fitting of experimental profiles. The results of a preliminary investigation on the oxidation-coagulation process using sacrificial electrodes are also reported.

Buso, A.; Balbo, L.; Giomo, M.; Farnia, G.; Sandona, G.

2000-02-01

115

Cycloartane triterpene glycosides from Astragalus trigonus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new cycloartane glycosides, trigonoside I, II and III, and the known astragalosides I and II were isolated from the roots of Astragalus trigonus. The structures of the new glycosides were totally elucidated by high field (600 MHz) NMR analyses as cycloastragenol-6-O-?-xylopyranoside, cycloastragenol-3-O-[?-l-arabinopyranosyl(1 ? 2)-?-d-xylopyranosyl]-6-O-?- d-xylopyranoside and cycloastragenol-3-O-[?-l-arabinopyranosyl(1 ? 2)-?-d-(3-O-acetyl)-xylopyranosyl]-6-O-?-d-xylopyranoside.

Pierluigi Gariboldi; Francesca Pelizzoni; Marco Tatò; Luisella Verotta; Nadia El-Sebakhy; Aya M. Asaad; Rokia M. Abdallah; Soad M. Toaima

1995-01-01

116

Tannin signatures of barks, needles, leaves, cones, and wood at the molecular level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed 117 tissues from 77 different plant species for molecular tannin. Tannin was measured in 89 tissues (as high as 10.5 wt.% total tannin), including procyanidin (PC) tannin in 88 tissues, prodelphinidin (PD) tannin in 50, and propelargonidin (PP) tannin in 24. In addition to tannin, several flavones, flavanones, and triterpenoids were measured, the latter which yielded as much as 4.5 wt.%. Compositions varied considerably between species, including several that yielded comparatively rare tannin or triterpenoids. Conifer needles were distinguished by high yields of PD tannin overall and relative to PC tannin. Dicotyledon leaves were characterized by the presence of flavones and triterpenoids. Barks were marked by flavanones and tetracosanoic acid. Based on these trends, relationships that could be useful as geochemical parameters were developed for distinguishing needles, leaves, and barks as possible components of litter, soil, or sedimentary mixtures.

Hernes, Peter J.; Hedges, John I.

2004-03-01

117

Tannins from Canarium album with potent antioxidant activity*  

PubMed Central

The contents of total phenolics and extractable condensed tannins in the leaves, twigs and stem bark of Canarium album were determined. The structural heterogeneity of condensed tannins from stem bark was characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. The results show the predominance of signals representative of procyanidins and prodelphinidins. In addition, epicatechin and epigallocatechin polymers with galloylated procyanidin or prodelphinidin were also observed. The tannins were screened for their potential antioxidant activities using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) model systems. Tannins extracted from leaves, twigs and stem bark all showed a very good DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power. PMID:18500781

Zhang, Liang-liang; Lin, Yi-ming

2008-01-01

118

Cycloartane glycosides from Sutherlandia frutescens.  

PubMed

Four new cycloartane glycosides, sutherlandiosides A-D (1-4), were isolated from the South African folk medicine Sutherlandia frutescens and their structures established by spectroscopic methods and X-ray crystallography as 1 S,3 R,24S,25-tetrahydroxy-7S,10S-epoxy-9,10- seco-9,19-cyclolanost-9(11)-ene 25-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), 3R,7S,24S,25-tetrahydroxycycloartan-1-one 25-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), 3R,24S,25-trihydroxycycloartane-1,11-dione 25-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), and 7S,24S,25-trihydroxycycloart-2-en-1-one 25-O-beta-D-glucoyranoside (4). Compound 1 represents the first secocycloartane skeleton possessing a 7,10-oxygen bridge. Compounds 2- 4 are also the first examples of naturally occurring cycloartanes with a C-1 ketone functionality. Biosynthetic considerations and chemical evidence suggest that the presence of the C-1 ketone in 2 may facilitate the ring opening of the strained cyclopropane system. PMID:18808182

Fu, Xiang; Li, Xing-Cong; Smillie, Troy J; Carvalho, Paulo; Mabusela, Wilfred; Syce, James; Johnson, Quinton; Folk, William; Avery, Mitchell A; Khan, Ikhlas A

2008-10-01

119

Cycloartane Glycosides from Sutherlandia frutescens  

PubMed Central

Four new cycloartane glycosides, sutherlandiosides A–D (1–4), were isolated from the South African folk medicine Sutherlandia frutescens and their structures established by spectroscopic methods and X-ray crystallography as 1S,3R,24S,25-tetrahydroxy-7S,10S-epoxy-9,10-seco-9,19-cyclolanost-9(11)-ene 25-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (1), 3R,7S,24S,25-tetrahydroxycycloartan-1-one 25-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (2), 3R,24S,25-trihydroxycycloartane-1,11-dione 25-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (3), and 7S,24S,25-trihydroxycycloart-2-en-1-one 25-O-?-d-glucoyranoside (4). Compound 1 represents the first secocycloartane skeleton possessing a 7,10-oxygen bridge. Compounds 2–4 are also the first examples of naturally occurring cycloartanes with a C-1 ketone functionality. Biosynthetic considerations and chemical evidence suggest that the presence of the C-1 ketone in 2 may facilitate the ring opening of the strained cyclopropane system. PMID:18808182

Fu, Xiang; Li, Xing-Cong; Smillie, Troy J.; Carvalho, Paulo; Mabusela, Wilfred; Syce, James; Johnson, Quinton; Folk, William; Avery, Mitchell A.; Khan, Ikhlas A.

2012-01-01

120

Separation of titanium and uranium from other elements by tannin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titanium and uranium have been precipitated by tannin in the presence of various other ions, e.g., Fe3+, Al3+, Cr3+, Th4+, Zr4+, Bi3+, Pb2+, (VO)2+ and rare earths, which are kept in solution by EDTA. The precipitation was carried out by raising the pH of the acidic solution containing EDTA and tannin by dilute ammonium hydroxide or hexamine. The pH of

J. Das; S. Banerjee

1961-01-01

121

Rapid screening of tannase producing microbes by using natural tannin  

PubMed Central

Use of natural tannin in the screening of tannase producing microbes is really promising. The present work describes about the possibility and integrity of the newly formulated method over the previously reported methods. Tannin isolated from Terminalia belerica Roxb. (Bahera) was used to differentiate between tanninolytic and nontanninolytic microbes. The method is simple, sensitive and superior for the rapid screening and isolation of tannase-producing microbes. PMID:24031931

Jana, Arijit; Maity, Chiranjit; Halder, Suman Kumar; Pati, Bikas Ranjan; Mondal, Keshab Chandra; Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar Das

2012-01-01

122

Tree resistance to Lymantria dispar caterpillars: importance and limitations of foliar tannin composition.  

PubMed

The ability of foliar tannins to increase plant resistance to herbivores is potentially determined by the composition of the tannins; hydrolyzable tannins are much more active as prooxidants in the guts of caterpillars than are condensed tannins. By manipulating the tannin compositions of two contrasting tree species, this work examined: (1) whether increased levels of hydrolyzable tannins increase the resistance of red oak (Quercus rubra L.), a tree with low resistance that produces mainly condensed tannins, and (2) whether increased levels of condensed tannins decrease the resistance of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), a tree with relatively high resistance that produces high levels of hydrolyzable tannins. As expected, when Lymantria dispar L. caterpillars ingested oak leaves coated with hydrolyzable tannins, levels of hydrolyzable tannin oxidation increased in their midgut contents. However, increased tannin oxidation had no significant impact on oxidative stress in the surrounding midgut tissues. Although growth efficiencies were decreased by hydrolyzable tannins, growth rates remained unchanged, suggesting that additional hydrolyzable tannins are not sufficient to increase the resistance of oak. In larvae on condensed tannin-coated maple, no antioxidant effects were observed in the midgut, and levels of tannin oxidation remained high. Consequently, neither oxidative stress in midgut tissues nor larval performance were significantly affected by high levels of condensed tannins. Post hoc comparisons of physiological mechanisms related to tree resistance revealed that maple produced not only higher levels of oxidative stress in the midgut lumen and midgut tissues of L. dispar, but also decreased protein utilization efficiency compared with oak. Our results suggest that high levels of hydrolyzable tannins are important for producing oxidative stress, but increased tree resistance to caterpillars may require additional factors, such as those that produce nutritional stress. PMID:19148684

Barbehenn, Raymond V; Jaros, Adam; Lee, Grace; Mozola, Cara; Weir, Quentin; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

2009-04-01

123

Phenylethanoid and iridoid glycosides from Veronica persica.  

PubMed

A new phenylethanoid glycoside, persicoside (1) and three known phenylethanoid glycosides, acteoside (2), isoacteoside (3) and lavandulifolioside (4) were isolated from the aerial parts of Veronica persica. On the basis of spectral analyses, the structure of the new compound was elucidated to be 3,4-dihydroxy-beta-phenylethoxy-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-4-O-caffeoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside. Persicoside (1) and acteoside (2) exhibited radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Beside phenylethanoid glycosides, a hexitol, dulcitol (5) and seven known iridoid glucosides, aucubin (6), veronicoside (7), amphicoside (8), 6-O-veratroyl-catalpol (9), catalposide (10), verproside (11) and verminoside (12) were isolated. PMID:12045353

Harput, U Sebnem; Saracoglu, Iclal; Inoue, Makoto; Ogihara, Yukio

2002-06-01

124

Bioactive phenylpropanoid glycosides from Tabebuia avellanedae.  

PubMed

Three novel phenylpropanoid glycosides 2, 5, 6 were isolated from water extract of Tabebuia avellanedae, together with three known phenylpropanoid glycosides 1, 3, 4. All compounds were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods and, for known compounds, by comparison with published data. All isolated compounds showed strong antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay, and compound 5 give the highest antioxidant activity among all compounds, with an IC?? of 0.12 µM. All compounds exhibited moderate inhibitory effect on cytochrome CYP3A4 enzyme. PMID:23797703

Suo, Maorong; Ohta, Tomihisa; Takano, Fumihide; Jin, Shouwen

2013-01-01

125

Sesquiterpene lactone glycosides from Arnica longifolia.  

PubMed

Flowers of ARNICA LONGIFOLIA were investigated for the occurrence of sesquiterpene lactone glycosides. A mixture containing the two isomeric 11alpha,13-dihydro- and 11beta,13-dihydro-4 H-tomentosin glucosides, previously isolated from A. AMPLEXICAULIS and A. MOLLIS, together with the two isomeric 11alpha,13-dihydro- and 11beta,13-dihydro-4 H-carabrone glucosides were found in A. LONGIFOLIA. All carbon and proton shifts of the glycosides could be assigned by their 2D-COSY and 2D-HETCOR spectra and spectroscopy of their respective aglycones, obtained via enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:17260246

Passreiter, C M; De Carlo, M; Steigel, A

1999-03-01

126

New minor glycoside components from saffron.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of the stigmas of Crocus sativus resulted in the isolation of eight glycosides (1-8) including a new safranal glycoside (2) and a new carotenoid pigment (6). The structures of the new compounds were identified as (4R)-4-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-enecarbaldehyde 4-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl(1 ? 3)-?-D-glucopyranoside] (2) and trans-crocetin-1-al 1-O-?-gentiobiosyl ester (6) on the basis of extensive chemical and spectroscopic evidence. PMID:23179314

Tung, Nguyen Huu; Shoyama, Yukihiro

2013-07-01

127

Steroidal alkaloid glycosides from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).  

PubMed

Three new steroidal alkaloid glycosides, lycoperosides F-H (1-3), were isolated from tomato fruits (Lycopersicon sculentum) along with lycoperosides A-D, esculeoside A, and rutin. The structures of these glycosides were characterized as the 3-O-beta-lycotetraosides of 23(R)-23-acetoxy-27-hydroxy-27-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyltomatidine (1), (23S,24R)-23-acetoxy-24-O-beta-d-glucopyranosylsoladulcidine-24-ol (2), and 22-isopimpifolidine (3), by means of their spectroscopic data. Also obtained was the new natural product lycoperodine-1 (4). PMID:15043444

Yahara, Shoji; Uda, Noriko; Yoshio, Eri; Yae, Emiko

2004-03-01

128

Elemanolide sesquiterpenes and eudesmane sesquiterpene glycosides from Centaurea hierapolitana.  

PubMed

Two elemanolide sesquiterpenes and two eudesmane-type sesquiterpene glycosides named hierapolitanins A-D, were isolated, together with five known compounds, two flavones; hispidulin and jaceosidin, a flavon-C-glycoside, shaftoside, a flavonol glycoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and a neolignan, dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol from the aerial parts of Centaurea hierapolitana Boiss. (Asteraceae). Structure elucidations were based on spectroscopic evidence. PMID:17126864

Karamenderes, Canan; Bedir, Erdal; Pawar, Rahul; Baykan, Sura; Khan, Ikhlas A

2007-03-01

129

Enzymatic Processing of Bioactive Glycosides from Natural Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of biologically active natural products are glycosides. Often, the glycosidic residue is crucial for their activity. In other cases, glycosylation only improves their pharmacokinetic parameters. Enzymatic modification of these glycosides - both extension of the glycoside moiety and its selective trimming - is advantageous due to their selectivity and mildness of the reaction conditions in the presence of reactive and sensitive complex aglycones. Enzymatic reactions enable the resulting products to be used as "natural products", e.g., in nutraceuticals. This chapter concentrates on naturally occurring glycosides used in medicine but also in the food and flavor industry (e.g., sweeteners). Both "classical" and modern methods will be discussed.

Weignerová, Lenka; K?en, Vladimír

130

Twisting of glycosidic bonds by hydrolases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Patterns of scissile bond twisting have been found in crystal structures of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) that are complexed with substrates and inhibitors. To estimate the increased potential energy in the substrates that results from this twisting, we have plotted torsion angles for the scissile bond...

131

A new sterol glycoside from Securidaca inappendiculata.  

PubMed

From the roots of Securidaca inappendiculata, one new sterol glycoside securisteroside (1) has been isolated, along with two known sterols, spinasterol (2) and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-spinasterol (3). The new sterol was characterized by chemical and spectrometric methods, including EIMS, FABMS and one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments. PMID:16087640

Zhang, Li-Jie; Yang, Xue-Dong; Xu, Li-Zhen; Zou, Zhong-Mei; Yang, Shi-Lin

2005-08-01

132

New xanthone glycosides from Securidaca inappendiculata.  

PubMed

Three new xanthone glycosides, securixanside A (1), securixanside B (2), and securixanside C (3) were isolated from the stems of Securidaca inappendiculata. These compounds were characterized by spectrometric and chemical methods, including FABMS and one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments. PMID:12067160

Yang, Xue-Dong; An, Ning; Xu, Li-Zhen; Yang, Shi-Lin

2002-06-01

133

Two new secoiridoid glycosides from Gentiana algida.  

PubMed

Two new acylated secoiridoid glycosides were isolated from the aqueous acetone extract of the whole herb of Gentiana algida. The structures of these new products were established by spectral and chemical methods as 6'-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)sweroside and 6'-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)swertiamarin, respectively. PMID:17252380

Tan, R X; Hu, J; Dong, L D; Wolfender, J L; Hostettmann, K

1997-12-01

134

Steroidal glycosides from tubers of Ophiopogon japonicus.  

PubMed

A new steroidal saponin, named ophiopogonin E (1), has been isolated from the tubers of Ophiopogon japonicus, along with five known steroidal saponins (2-6). The structure of the new steroidal glycoside was characterized by spectroscopic analysis and acid-catalyzed hydrolysis as pennogenin 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1 --> 4)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1). PMID:16931432

Cheng, Z-H; Wu, T; Yu, B-Y

2006-09-01

135

ALTERNANSUCRASE ACCEPTOR REACTIONS WITH METHYL GLYCOSIDES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alternansucrase (EC 2.4.1.140) is a D-glucansucrase that synthesizes an alternating alpha-(1-3), (1-6)-linked D-glucan from sucrose. It also synthesizes oligosaccharides via D-glucopyranosyl transfer to various acceptor sugars. We have studied the acceptor products arising from methyl glycosides a...

136

Journal of ChemicalEcology, Vol. 17, No. 6, 1991 CONDENSED TANNINS, ATTINE ANTS, AND THE  

E-print Network

, such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), that are capable of inactivating tannins. The activity of these PPOs may explain-herbivore interactions, host selection, condensed tannins, fungal performance, polyphenol oxidase. 2Present address

Orians, Colin

137

Tannin bark Melalauca cajuputi powell (gelam) as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tannin was extracted from gelam bark and used to produce corrosion inhibitor for mild steel. Tannin was extracted from gelam bark using 70% aqueous acetone for 6 hour. Tannin powder was characterization using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to analyse chemical component in tannin and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) for tannin physical structure. The tannin effect on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel has been investigated in 1Mol HCl solution for 6 hour followed ASTM. The weight loss method were applied to study the mild steel corrosion behavior in the present and absend of different concentration of tannin (250, 300, 350)ppm. Tannin act good inhibitor as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in acid medium. Surface morphology of carbon steel with and without inhibitor was investigated by scanning electron microscopy.

Talib, Nur Atiqah Abu; Zakaria, Sarani; Hua, Chia Chin; Othman, Norinsan Kamil

2014-09-01

138

linkage between a phenolic acid and the carbohydrate of hydrolysable tannins.  

E-print Network

linkage between a phenolic acid and the carbohydrate of hydrolysable tannins. TAH hastannins in the growth medium. We have established ba- sic will be sequenced and examined for regu- latory motifs that control tannin respon- siveness. In both cases

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

139

Effect of Condensed Tannins on Bacterial Diversity and Metabolic Activity in the Rat Gastrointestinal Tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of dietary condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins) on rat fecal bacterial populations was ascer- tained in order to determine whether the proportion on tannin-resistant bacteria increased and if there was a change in the predominant bacterial populations. After 3 weeks of tannin diets the proportion of tannin- resistant bacteria increased significantly (P < 0.05) from 0.3% 5.5% to 25.3% 8.3%

Alexandra H. Smith; Roderick I. Mackie

2004-01-01

140

Tannin diagenesis in mangrove leaves from a tropical estuary: a novel molecular approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular-level condensed tannin analyses were conducted on a series of mangrove ( Rhizophora mangle) leaves at various stages of decomposition in a tropical estuary. Total molecular tannin yields ranged from 0.5% ash-free dry weight (AFDW) in the most highly degraded black leaves (6-7 weeks in the water) up to >7% AFDW in fresh leaves (<1 week in the water). Total tannin exhibits an intermediate lability in these leaves relative to other measured biochemicals. Leaching is an important mechanism in tannin removal from leaves as indicated by the 30% loss of measurable tannin during a leaching experiment. Condensed tannin was >80% procyanidin (PC) with the remainder being prodelphinidin (PD). PD tannin, with its higher degree of hydroxylation, proved to be more labile than PC tannin. Average chain length of condensed tannin (degree of polymerization) exhibited an initial increase in response to leaching, but later decreased in the subsequent shift toward abiotic or microbially mediated chemical reactions. Several trends point toward a possible condensation reaction in which tannin plays a role in nitrogen immobilization. These include an apparent inverse correlation between molecular tannin and nitrogen, a positive correlation between molecular tannin and percent basic amino acids, 13C-NMR data indicating transformation of tannin as opposed to remineralization, and 13C-NMR data showing loss of condensed tannin B-ring phenolic carbons coupled with preservation of A-ring phenolic carbon. In addition to condensed tannin, the molecular method used also yielded several triterpenoids. Triterpenoids accounted for up to 3.5% AFDW of the leaf material and exhibited a threefold increase between yellow senescent leaves entering the estuary and black leaves. This trend is likely due to the weakening of protective cuticular membranes during leaf decomposition, which leads to increased yields in the acidic conditions used for tannin analyses.

Hernes, Peter J.; Benner, Ronald; Cowie, Gregory L.; Goñi, Miguel A.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Hedges, John I.

2001-09-01

141

Effects of Acomastylis rossii tannins on a mammalian herbivore, the North American pika, Ochotona princeps  

Microsoft Academic Search

I investigated the effects of tannin consumption, using plant tannins naturally occurring in the diet, on a herbivorous mammal,\\u000a the North American pika, Ochotona princeps. The objectives were to determine if a high-tannin diet influenced protein and dry matter apparent digestibility, fiber digestibility\\u000a and production of detoxification by-products. Additionally, I examined the possibility that pikas produce salivary tannin-binding\\u000a proteins, a

M. D. Dearing

1996-01-01

142

Tannins in faba beans (Vicia Faba L.)- antinutritional properties in monogastric animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Condensed tannins are found in coloured-flowering varieties of faba beans ( Vicia<\\/u>faba<\\/u> L.). They are considered as antinutritional factors for nonruminant species. High-tannin hulls of faba beans and isolated tannins were shown to induce a rapid hypertrophy of the parotid glands in rats and increase the secretion of salivary proline-rich proteins with a high affinity for tannins. In this way

A. J. M. Jansman

1993-01-01

143

A novel method to evaluate the relative tannin-binding capacities of salivary proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many herbivore species have a diet containing high proportions of polyphenolics, principally lignins and tannins; the latter reduce the conversion of ingested nutrients into biomass and exert systemic toxicity at high levels of intake. It has been proposed that tannin-binding proteins in the saliva might be responsible for minimizing these tannin-related effects by forming soluble protein–tannin complexes. We have developed

J Fickel; Ch Pitra; B. A Joest; R. R Hofmann

1999-01-01

144

Isolation and Characterization of Flavanone Glycoside 4I,5, 7-Trihydroxy Flavanone Rhamnoglucose from Garcinia kola Seed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola, Heckel (Guttiferae), which had previously been shown to have biological activity were studied. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plants showed the presence of flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannins and saponins. The ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola seeds resulted in the isolation and characterization of flavanone glycoside 4I, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavonone rhamnoglucose (that is naringin-7-rharmnoglucoseside) from its spectral data. IHNMR spin system analysis and acid hydrolysis were performed to characterize the higher order rhamnoglucosyl moiety comprising glucose and rhamnose linked to carbon 7 of the flavanone ring system of the isolate. It is concluded that 4I, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavanone rhamnoglucose may be a contributor to the antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-tumor and anti-hepatotoxic properties exhibited by Garcinia kola seed.

Okwu, D. E.; Morah, F. N. I.

145

Condensed tannins in Trifolium species and their significance for taxonomy and plant breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of 59 Trifolium taxa were screened for condensed tannin content using the vanillin-HC1 test. Eight species (T. arvense, T. aureum, T. badium, T. campestre, T. dubium, T. micranthum, T. patens and T. spadiceum) were shown to contain tannins. These species are all found in Section Chronosemium or Section Trifolium Subsection Arvensia of the genus, and thus presence of tannins

Michael F. Fay; Philip J. Dale

1993-01-01

146

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL ECOLOGY Effects of Paper Birch Condensed Tannin on Whitemarked Tussock  

E-print Network

. 31(1): 10Ð14 (2002) ABSTRACT This research tested the effects of paper birch, Betula papyrifera leucostigma, Betula papyrifera, whitemarked tussock moth, condensed tannin, paper birch CONDENSED TANNINS. Smith), to evaluate the effects of paper birch, Betula papyrifera Marshall, condensed tannin on in- sect

147

TANNINS IN BACCHARIS DRACUNCULIFOLIA (ASTERACEAE): EFFECTS OF SEASONALITY, WATER AVAILABILITY AND PLANT SEX  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannins in Baccharjs dracunculifolja (Asteraceae): effects of seasonality, water availability and plant sex). Several ecological. genetic, and environmental factors are known to influence tannin concentration in plant tissues. In this study, the effects of seasonality, water availability. and sex of the plant on tannin concentration in the dioecious shrub Baccharjs dracunculifolja were assessed. Tbe effects of water availability on plant

Mário M. Espírito-Santo; G. Wilson Femandes; Luciana R. Allainl; Ticiana R. F. Reif

1999-01-01

148

Hydrolyzable tannins as “quantitative defenses”: Limited impact against Lymantria dispar caterpillars on hybrid poplar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high levels of tannins in many tree leaves are believed to cause decreased insect performance, but few controlled studies have been done. This study tested the hypothesis that higher foliar tannin levels produce higher concentrations of semiquinone radicals (from tannin oxidation) in caterpillar midguts, and that elevated levels of radicals are associated with increased oxidative stress in midgut tissues

Raymond V. Barbehenn; Adam Jaros; Grace Lee; Cara Mozola; Quentin Weir; Juha-Pekka Salminen

2009-01-01

149

Effect of chestnut tannin on the fermentability of soyabean meal nitrogen in the rumen  

E-print Network

Effect of chestnut tannin on the fermentability of soyabean meal nitrogen in the rumen F Mathieu microbienne, centre de Clermont-Theix, 63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France Natural tannins combine et al, 1970). In the present study, we used tannins extracted from chestnut wood shavings which were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

150

COMPARISON OF TANNINS FROM SORGHUM: DIFFERENCES IN CHEMISTRY, BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY AND NUTRITIONAL FACTORS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tannins are large polyphenolic polymers consisting of flavan-3-ol subunits that are deposited in the pigmented testa layer of sorghum kernels. Tannins are known to bind proteins, limiting their digestibility, as well as having excellent antioxidant potential. Studies were done on seven tannin culti...

151

Stimulatory effects of tannins and cholic acid on tryptic hydrolysis of proteins: Ecological implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biochemical basis for considering tannins as digestion inhibitors has been reexamined. Both stimulatory and inhibitory effects of tannins on tryptic hydrolysis are reported. We show how stimulation may result from tannin-induced structural changes in the substrate protein, effectively denaturing it. The surfactant and bile constituent cholic acid also produced similar stimulatory effects. These results have considerable implications for normal

Simon Mole; Peter G. Waterman

1985-01-01

152

Feeny revisited: condensed tannins as anti-herbivore defences in leaf-chewing herbivore communities of  

E-print Network

Feeny revisited: condensed tannins as anti-herbivore defences in leaf-chewing herbivore communities Sciences, George Washington University, Washington, U.S.A. Abstract. 1. Community level oak­tannin-chewing herbivores are negatively correlated with foliar condensed tannin concentrations and variation in condensed

Lill, John T.

153

Tannin impacts on microbial diversity and the functioning of alpine soils: a multidisciplinary approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In alpine ecosystems, tannin-rich-litter decomposi- tion occurs mainly under snow. With global change, variations in snowfall might affect soil temperature and microbial diversity with biogeochemical con- sequences on ecosystem processes. However, the relationships linking soil temperature and tannin degradation with soil microorganisms and nutrients fluxes remain poorly understood. Here, we combined biogeochemical and molecular profiling approaches to monitor tannin

F. Baptist; L. Zinger; J. C. Clement; C. Gallet; R. Guillemin; J. M. F. Martins; L. Sage; B. Shahnavaz; Ph. Choler; R. Geremia

2008-01-01

154

Effect of alkali treatment on physiological activity of cotton condensed tannin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton dusts contain condensed tannins and endotoxins, which are suspected of contributing to the development of acute and chronic biological responses in some cotton textile mill workers. Condensed tannin extracted from cotton dust was coated on to cellulose powder, and the tannin coated powder was treated with an alkali solvent system previously developed to reduce the endotoxin content and pulmonary

M A Rousselle; M H Elissalde; L N Domelsmith

1990-01-01

155

Effect of tannins on growth performance and intestinal ecosystem in weaned piglets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannins are natural polyphenolic compounds that can reduce digestibility of dietary protein but also display antibacterial effects. The present study investigated, in vitro and in vivo, the effect of different levels of tannins (using a chestnut wood extract containing 75% tannins) on growth performance, intestinal microbiota and wall morphology in piglets. During a 24 h in vitro caecal fermentation, the utilisation

Giacomo Biagi; Irene Cipollini; Brigitte R. Paulicks; Franz X. Roth

2010-01-01

156

Do high-tannin leaves require more roots?  

PubMed

The well-known deceleration of nitrogen (N) cycling in the soil resulting from addition of large amounts of foliar condensed tannins may require increased fine-root growth in order to meet plant demands for N. We examined correlations between fine-root production, plant genetics, and leaf secondary compounds in Populus angustifolia, P. fremontii, and their hybrids. We measured fine-root (<2 mm) production and leaf chemistry along an experimental genetic gradient where leaf litter tannin concentrations are genetically based and exert strong control on net N mineralization in the soil. Fine-root production was highly correlated with leaf tannins and individual tree genetic composition based upon genetic marker estimates, suggesting potential genetic control of compensatory root growth in response to accumulation of foliar secondary compounds in soils. We suggest, based on previous studies in our system and the current study, that genes for tannin production could link foliar chemistry and root growth, which may provide a powerful setting for external feedbacks between above- and belowground processes. PMID:16804703

Fischer, D G; Hart, S C; Rehill, B J; Lindroth, R L; Keim, P; Whitham, T G

2006-10-01

157

Response of ?? T cells to plant-derived tannins  

PubMed Central

Many pharmaceutical drugs are isolated from plants used in traditional medicines. Through screening plant extracts, both traditional medicines and compound libraries, new pharmaceutical drugs continue to be identified. Currently, two plant-derived agonists for ?? T cells are described. These plant-derived agonists impart innate effector functions upon distinct ?? T cell subsets. Plant tannins represent one class of ?? T cell agonist and preferentially activate the mucosal population. Mucosal ?? T cells function to modulate tissue immune responses and induce epithelium repair. Select tannins, isolated from apple peel, rapidly induce immune gene transcription in ?? T cells, leading to cytokine production and increased responsiveness to secondary signals. Activity of these tannin preparations tracks to the procyanidin fraction, with the procyanidin trimer (C1) having the most robust activity defined to date. The response to the procyanidins is evolutionarily conserved in that responses are seen with human, bovine, and murine ?? T cells. Procyanidin-induced responses described in this review likely account for the expansion of mucosal ?? T cells seen in mice and rats fed soluble extracts of tannins. Procyanidins may represent a novel approach for treatment of tissue damage, chronic infection, and autoimmune therpies. PMID:19166386

Holderness, Jeff; Hedges, Jodi F.; Daughenbaugh, Katie; Kimmel, Emily; Graff, Jill; Freedman, Brett; Jutila, Mark A.

2008-01-01

158

?-Glucosidase inhibitory hydrolyzable tannins from Eugenia jambolana seeds.  

PubMed

Three new hydrolyzable tannins including two gallotannins, jamutannins A (1) and B (2), and an ellagitannin, iso-oenothein C (3), along with eight known phenolic compounds were isolated from the seeds of Eugenia jambolana fruit. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. All compounds isolated were evaluated for ?-glucosidase inhibitory effects compared to the clinical drug acarbose. PMID:22867049

Omar, Raed; Li, Liya; Yuan, Tao; Seeram, Navindra P

2012-08-24

159

New acylated flavone glycoside from Gnaphalium uliginosum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new acylated flavone glycoside has been isolated for the first time from the herb marsh cudweed, and for it the structure of 6?-caffeyl-7-ß-D-glucopyranosyloxy-4',5-dihydroxy-3',6'dimethoxyflavone has been established. In addition, the aglycone, identified as 4',5,7-trihydroxy-3',6-dimethoxyflavone has been isolated. The identifications were made on the basis of UV, IR, PMR, and mass spectra, the products of alkaline and acid hydrolyses, and the

M. M. Konopleva; L. P. Smirnova; V. T. Glyzin; V. L. Shelyuto

1979-01-01

160

?-cyclodextrin assistant flavonoid glycosides enzymatic hydrolysis  

PubMed Central

Background: The content of icaritin and genistein in herba is very low, preparation with relatively large quantities is an important issue for extensive pharmacological studies. Objective: This study focuses on preparing and enzymic hydrolysis of flavonoid glycosides /?-cyclodextrin inclusion complex to increase the hydrolysis rate. Materials and Methods: The physical property of newly prepared inclusion complex was tested by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis were optimized for the bioconversion of flavonoid glycosides /?-cyclodextrin inclusion complex by mono-factor experimental design. The experiments are using the icariin and genistein as the model drugs. Results: The solubility of icariin and genistein were increased almost 17 times from 29.2 ?g/ml to 513.5 ?g/ml at 60°C and 28 times from 7.78 ?g/ml to 221.46 ?g/ml at 50°C, respectively, demonstrating that the inclusion complex could significantly increase the solubility of flavonoid glycosides. Under the optimal conditions, the reaction time of icariin and genistin decreased by 68% and 145%, when compared with that without ?-CD inclusion. By using this enzymatic condition, 473 mg icaritin (with the purity of 99.34%) and 567 mg genistein(with the purity of 99.46%), which was finally determined by melt point, ESI-MS, UV, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR, was obtained eventually by transforming the inclusion complex(contains 1.0 g substrates). Conclusion: This study can clearly indicate a new attempt to improve the speed of enzyme-hydrolysis of poorly water-soluble flavonoid glycosides and find a more superior condition which is used to prepare icaritin and genistein. PMID:24143039

Jin, Xin; Zhang, Zhen-hai; Sun, E.; Jia, Xiao-Bin

2013-01-01

161

Phenotypic and Phylogenetic Characterization of Ruminal Tannin-Tolerant Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The 16S rRNA sequences and selected phenotypic characteristics were determined for six recently isolated bacteria that can tolerate high levels of hydrolyzable and condensed tannins. Bacteria were isolated from the ruminal contents of animals in different geographic locations, including Sardinian sheep (Ovis aries), Honduran and Colombian goats (Capra hircus), white-tail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from upstate New York, and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) from Oregon. Nearly complete sequences of the small-subunit rRNA genes, which were obtained by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing, were used for phylogenetic characterization. Comparisons of the 16S rRNA of the six isolates showed that four of the isolates were members of the genus Streptococcus and were most closely related to ruminal strains of Streptococcus bovis and the recently described organism Streptococcus gallolyticus. One of the other isolates, a gram-positive rod, clustered with the clostridia in the low-G+C-content group of gram-positive bacteria. The sixth isolate, a gram-negative rod, was a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae in the gamma subdivision of the class Proteobacteria. None of the 16S rRNA sequences of the tannin-tolerant bacteria examined was identical to the sequence of any previously described microorganism or to the sequence of any of the other organisms examined in this study. Three phylogenetically distinct groups of ruminal bacteria were isolated from four species of ruminants in Europe, North America, and South America. The presence of tannin-tolerant bacteria is not restricted by climate, geography, or host animal, although attempts to isolate tannin-tolerant bacteria from cows on low-tannin diets failed. PMID:9758806

Nelson, Karen E.; Thonney, Michael L.; Woolston, Tina K.; Zinder, Stephen H.; Pell, Alice N.

1998-01-01

162

The influence of condensed tannin structure on rate of microbial mineralization and reactivity to chemical assays.  

PubMed

We examined how tannin structure influences reactivity in tannin assays and carbon and nitrogen mineralization. Condensed tannins from the foliage of ten tree and shrub species and from pecan shells (Carya illinoensis) had different proportions of: (a) epicatechin (cis) and catechin (trans) isomers, (b) procyanidin (PC) and prodelphinidin (PD) monomers, and (c) different chain lengths. The response of each tannin to several widely used tannin assays was determined. Although there was some variation in response to proanthocyanidin (butanol/HCl) and Folin Ciocalteu assays, we did not deduce any predictable relationship between tannin structure and response to either assay. There was little variation in protein precipitation among the different tannins. To assess biological activity, six of the tannins were incubated with forest humus for 22 days. We determined that, while PC-based tannins remained at least partly extractable for the duration of the incubation, tannins with a high proportion of PD subunits rapidly became unextractable from soil. There was a positive correlation between net nitrogen mineralization and cis chemical structure. Carbon mineralization was enhanced initially by the addition of tannins to humus, but after 22 days, a negative correlation between the proportion of cis subunits and respiration was determined. Overall, we were not able to demonstrate consistent effects of structure on either microbial mineralization or reactivity to chemical assays; such relationships remain elusive. PMID:21340461

Norris, Charlotte E; Preston, Caroline M; Hogg, Karen E; Titus, Brian D

2011-03-01

163

Tannin concentration enhances seed caching by scatter-hoarding rodents: An experiment using artificial ‘seeds’  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tannins are very common among plant seeds but their effects on the fate of seeds, for example, via mediation of the feeding preferences of scatter-hoarding rodents, are poorly understood. In this study, we created a series of artificial 'seeds' that only differed in tannin concentration and the type of tannin, and placed them in a pine forest in the Shangri-La Alpine Botanical Garden, Yunnan Province of China. Two rodent species ( Apodemus latronum and A. chevrieri) showed significant preferences for 'seeds' with different tannin concentrations. A significantly higher proportion of seeds with low tannin concentration were consumed in situ compared with seeds with a higher tannin concentration. Meanwhile, the tannin concentration was significantly positively correlated with the proportion of seeds cached. The different types of tannin (hydrolysable tannin vs condensed tannin) did not differ significantly in their effect on the proportion of seeds eaten in situ vs seeds cached. Tannin concentrations had no significant effect on the distance that cached seeds were carried, which suggests that rodents may respond to different seed traits in deciding whether or not to cache seeds and how far they will transport seeds.

Wang, Bo; Chen, Jin

2008-11-01

164

Effects of dietary tannic acid and quebracho tannin on growth performance and metabolic rates of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of tannic acid (a hydrolysable tannin) and quebracho tannin (a condensed tannin) on common carp at a level of 2% in a soybean and fish meal-based diet containing about 40% crude protein have been studied. Quebracho tannin did not affect feed intake, body weight gain, average metabolic growth rate and oxygen consumption during the experimental period (84 days).

Klaus Becker; H. P. S Makkar

1999-01-01

165

Condensed tannin biosynthesis and polymerization synergistically condition carbon use, defense, sink strength and growth in Populus.  

PubMed

The partitioning of carbon for growth, storage and constitutive chemical defenses is widely framed in terms of a hypothetical sink-source differential that varies with nutrient supply. According to this framework, phenolics accrual is passive and occurs in source leaves when normal sink growth is not sustainable due to a nutrient limitation. In assessing this framework, we present gene and metabolite evidence that condensed tannin (CT) accrual is strongest in sink leaves and sequesters carbon in a way that impinges upon foliar sink strength and upon phenolic glycoside (PG) accrual in Populus. The work was based on two Populus fremontii?×?angustifolia backcross lines with contrasting rates of CT accrual and growth, and equally large foliar PG reserves. However, foliar PG accrual was developmentally delayed in the high-CT, slow-growth line (SG), and nitrogen-limitation led to increased foliar PG accrual only in the low-CT, fast-growth line (FG). Metabolite profiling of developing leaves indicated comparatively carbon-limited amino acid metabolism, depletion of several Krebs cycle intermediates and reduced organ sink strength in SG. Gene profiling indicated that CT synthesis decreased as leaves expanded and PGs increased. A most striking finding was that the nitrogenous monoamine phenylethylamine accumulated only in leaves of SG plants. The potential negative impact of CT hyper-accumulation on foliar sink strength, as well as a mechanism for phenylethylamine involvement in CT polymerization in Populus are discussed. Starch accrual in source leaves and CT accrual in sink leaves of SG may both contribute to the maintenance of a slow-growth phenotype suited to survival in nutrient-poor habitats. PMID:24336515

Harding, Scott A; Xue, Liang-Jiao; Du, Lei; Nyamdari, Batbayar; Lindroth, Richard L; Sykes, Robert; Davis, Mark F; Tsai, Chung-Jui

2014-11-01

166

Tannins and related polyphenols of melastomataceous plants. VIII. Nobotanins L, M and N, trimeric hydrolyzable tannins from Tibouchina semidecandra.  

PubMed

Three hydrolyzable tannins, nobotannins L, M and N, were isolated from the water-soluble portion of the leaf extract of Tibouchina semidecandra, and their trimeric structures were elucidated from spectral and chemical evidence. Nobotanins L and N exist as equilibrium mixtures of four anomers due to the presence of two unacylated anomeric centers. PMID:10507887

Yoshida, T; Nakata, F; Okuda, T

1999-06-01

167

Vasorelaxant activity of 7-?-O-glycosides biosynthesized from flavonoids.  

PubMed

In this work we report the vasorelaxant activity of 7-?-O-glycosides obtained with biosynthesis of naringenin-7-?-O-glycoside (3) and quercetin-7-?-O-glycoside (4). These compounds were obtained from naringenin (1) and quercetin (2) glycosylation catalyzed by Beauveria bassiana ATCC 7159. Screening of the best strain as a catalyst for glycosylation was carried out and the reaction conditions established. Cultures were grown in PDSM medium for 7 days at 27 °C. After purification by reverse-phase preparative HPLC, naringenin-7-?-O-glycoside (3) and quercetin-7-?-O-glycoside (4) were identified by (1)H and (13)C NMR. The right position and ?-configuration of the glucose was determined through HSQC and HMBC experiments. The vasorelaxation potential of naringenin, quercetin and its glycosylated derivatives was evaluated using isolated aorta in vitro models. Interestingly, results suggest that vasorelaxation properties of naringenin, rutin and its glycosides are due to different pathways. PMID:24704375

Penso, Juliana; Cordeiro, Kelly C F A; da Cunha, Carla R M; da Silva Castro, Patricia F; Martins, Daniella R; Lião, Luciano M; Rocha, Matheus L; de Oliveira, Valéria

2014-06-15

168

Flavonol glycoside production in callus cultures of Epimedium diphyllum.  

PubMed

Callus cultures of Epimedium diphyllum produced a large amount of epimedoside A in addition to a small amount of diphylloside B, ikarisoside C, epimedoside E, diglycosides of des-O-methylanhydroicaritin (8-gamma, gamma-dimethylallylkaempfero). Icariin, epimedins A-C, which are glycosides of anhydroicaritin, were also produced in the callus cultures. Contents of the flavonol glycosides in callus tissue were higher than those of mother plants, but the composition of each flavonol glycoside mixture in the callus cultures was different from that of the original plants. The time-course experiments showed that an inverse relationship existed between cell growth and flavonol glycoside production. Effects of hormonal factors on cell growth and flavonol glycoside production indicated that 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was needed for the production of flavonol glycosides. PMID:1368039

Yamamoto, H; Ieda, K; Tsuchiya, S; Yan, K; Tanaka, T; Iinuma, M; Mizuno, M

1992-03-01

169

Facile access to new C-glycosides and C-glycoside scaffolds incorporating functionalised aromatic moieties.  

PubMed

The tandem ene/intramolecular Sakurai cyclisation (IMSC) reaction has been successfully applied to the synthesis of a range of C-glycosides, with key intermediates offering opportunities for functionalisation of the glycon moiety. To demonstrate the versatility of the approach to access the 2-deoxy-C-glycoside series, we synthesised diastereomerically pure C-glucoside and galactoside derivatives incorporating functionalised aromatic, heteroaromatic and bicyclic aromatic moieties, in addition to the C-homologue of (±)-?-2-deoxy-glucose 6-phosphate. PMID:25486220

Redpath, Philip; Ness, Kerry A; Rousseau, Joanne; Macdonald, Simon J F; Migaud, Marie E

2015-01-30

170

Glycosides from the aerial parts of Patrinia villosa.  

PubMed

An investigation of the Korean medicinal plant Patrinia villosa (THUNB.) JUSS. (Valerianaceae) led to the isolation of two new flavonoid glycosides, patrivilosides 1 (1) and 2 (2), a new iridoid glycoside, patrinovalerosidate (3), and two new saponins, patrinovilosides A (4) and B (5), along with six known compounds including three flavonoid glycosides and three iridoid glycosides. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated based on analysis of their one dimensional (1D)- and 2D-NMR spectra along with their mass spectrometric data and the results of acid hydrolysis. PMID:23800854

Lee, Joo Young; Kim, Ju Sun; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kang, Sam Sik

2013-01-01

171

A chlorinated monoterpene ketone, acylated beta-sitosterol glycosides and a flavanone glycoside from Mentha longifolia (Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

Mentha longifolia (Lamiaceae), an aromatic herb yielded a new halogenated chloro-derivative of menthone (longifone), two new derivatives of beta-sitosterol glycoside (longiside-A and -B) and a new flavanone-glycoside (longitin). The beta-sitosterol and flavanone glycosides were purified as their acetate derivatives. Structures of all the isolated constituents were elucidated with the aid of HMBC techniques. However, the structure of longifone was also determined through X-ray crystallography. PMID:11937172

Shaiq Ali, Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Ahmad, Waqar; Parvez, Masood; Yamdagni, Raghav

2002-04-01

172

Evidence for functional heterogeneity both between and within four sources of condensed tannin  

SciTech Connect

Condensed tannins are polymers of flavan-3-ols that are produced by many plants in a wide variety of tissues. The ability of these compounds to actively precipitate proteins has been linked to nutritional deficiencies in many animals. Four purified tannins (quebracho, wattle, pinto bean and sorghum) were compared to chemical assays and astringency towards (/sup 14/C)-BSA. Quebracho and wattle tannins were much less astringent and had longer chain lengths that sorghum or pinto bean tannins. Quebracho tannin had a very high affinity for salivary proline-rich glycoproteins (PRPs) and pinto bean tannin alone had a measurable affinity for soybean trypsin inhibitor. This suggests that tannin/protein interactions in vivo may be very specific. Protein bound carbohydrate enhanced the binding of PRPs to tanning and conferred specificity on the interactions. Carbohydrate also increases the solubility of protein/tanning complexes, which may aid the animal in eliminating the complexes. (/sup 125/I)-labeled condensed tannin was shown to retain the ability to discriminate between high and low affinity proteins. (/sup 125/I)-labeled phenols were isolated from livers and kidneys of rats fed (/sup 125/I)-labeled tannin. The techniques described in this thesis should be widely applicable to studying in vivo functions of condensed tannins.

Asquith, T.N.

1985-01-01

173

Exploitation of dietary tannins to improve rumen metabolism and ruminant nutrition.  

PubMed

Tannins (hydrolysable and condensed tannin) are polyphenolic polymers of relatively high molecular weight with the capacity to form complexes mainly with proteins due to the presence of a large number of phenolic hydroxyl groups. They are widely distributed in nutritionally important forage trees, shrubs and legumes, cereals and grains, which are considered as anti-nutritional compounds due to their adverse effects on intake and animal performance. However, tannins have been recognised to modulate rumen fermentation favourably such as reducing protein degradation in the rumen, prevention of bloat, inhibition of methanogenesis and increasing conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in ruminant-derived foods. The inclusion of tannins in diets has been shown to improve body weight and wool growth, milk yields and reproductive performance. However, the beneficial effects on rumen modulation and animal performance have not been consistently observed. This review discusses the effects of tannins on nitrogen metabolism in the rumen and intestine, and microbial populations (bacteria, protozoa, fungi and archaea), metabolism of tannins, microbial tolerance mechanisms to tannins, inhibition of methanogenesis, ruminal biohydrogenation processes and performance of animals. The discrepancies of responses of tannins among different studies are attributed to the different chemical structures (degree of polymerisation, procyanidins to propdelphinidins, stereochemistry and C-C bonding) and concentrations of tannins, and type of diets. An establishment of structure-activity relationship would be required to explain differences among studies and obtain consistent beneficial tannin effects. PMID:20815041

Patra, Amlan K; Saxena, Jyotisna

2011-01-15

174

Performance and characterization of a new tannin-based coagulant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diethanolamine and formaldehyde were employed to cationize tannins from black wattle. This novel coagulant called CDF was functionally characterized in removing sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (anionic surfactant) and Palatine Fast Black WAN (azoic dye). Refined tannin-derived commercial coagulants exhibited similar efficiency, while CDF presented higher coagulant ability than alum, a usual coagulant agent. Low doses of CDF (ca. 100 mg L-1) were able to remove more than 70 % of surfactant and more than 85 % of dye (initial pollutant concentration of ca. 100 mg L-1) and it presented no temperature affection and worked at a relatively wide pH range. Surfactant and dye removal responded to the classical coagulant-and-adsorption models, such as Frumkin-Fowler-Guggenheim or Gu and Zhu in the case of surfactant, and Langmuir and Freundlich in the case of dye.

Beltrán-Heredia, J.; Sánchez-Martín, J.; Gómez-Muñoz, C.

2012-09-01

175

Do high-tannin leaves require more roots?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The well-known deceleration of nitrogen (N) cycling in the soil resulting from addition of large amounts of foliar condensed\\u000a tannins may require increased fine-root growth in order to meet plant demands for N. We examined correlations between fine-root\\u000a production, plant genetics, and leaf secondary compounds in Populus angustifolia, P. fremontii, and their hybrids. We measured fine-root (<2mm) production and leaf

D. G. Fischer; S. C. Hart; B. J. Rehill; R. L. Lindroth; P. Keim; T. G. Whitham

2006-01-01

176

Differential Sensitivity of Mosquito Taxa to Vegetable Tannins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of larval Culicidae to vegetable tannins was investigated in different taxa representative of the fauna from alpine hydrosystems (Aedes rusticus, Culex pipiens) and foreign noxious fauna (Aedes aegypti, A. albopictus). Bioassays reveal that tannic acid at concentrations of 0.1–6 mM is significantly more toxic for C. pipiens than for Aedes taxa, and A. aegypti is more sensitive than

Delphine Rey; Andre Cuany; Marie-Paule Pautou; Jean-Claude Meyran

1999-01-01

177

Triterpene glycosides of Patrinia scabiosofolia . I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  From the fraction of the feebly polar saponins ofPatrinia scabiosofolia Fisch. et Link oleanolic acid, hederagenin, ?-sitosterol, ?-D-glucopyranoside, and hederagenin 3-?-L-arabopyranoside have\\u000a been isolated.\\u000a \\u000a The polar fraction has yielded two triterpene glycosides. It has been established that one of them is oleanolic acid 3-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1\\u000a ? 4)-?-L-arabinopyranoside, and the other is hederagenin 3-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-?-L-arabopyranoside.

V. G. Bukharov; V. V. Karlin; T. N. Sidorovich

1970-01-01

178

Triterpene glycosides of Patrinia scabiosofolia ; II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The triterpene glycosides scabiosides D, E, F, and G have been isolated from the roots ofPatrinia scabiosofolia Fisch. et Link. It has been established that scabioside D is O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-O-a-L-arabopyranosyl-(1 ? 3)-O-oleanoloyl-(28 ? 1)-ß-D-xylopyranose, and scabioside E is O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-O-a-L-arabopyranosyl-(1 ? 3)-O-oleanoloyl-(28 ? 1)-O-ß-D-xylopyranosyl-(4 ? 1)-a-L-rhamnopyranose.

V. G. Bukharov; V. V. Karlin

1970-01-01

179

Additional minor diterpene glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana.  

PubMed

From the commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana, two additional new diterpenoid glycosides were isolated and their structures were characterized as 13-[(2-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1) and 13-[(2-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (2) on the basis of extensive spectral data (NMR and MS) and chemical studies. PMID:21922898

Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash; Prakash, Indra

2011-08-01

180

Acylated flavonol glycosides from Eugenia jambolana leaves.  

PubMed

Two acylated flavonol glycosides and 15 known polyphenols have been isolated and identified from the leaves of Eugenca jambolana Lam. The structures of the new compounds were identified as 3-O-(4"-O-acetyl)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside of mearnsetin (myricetin 4'-methyl ether) and myricetin 3-O-(4"-O-acetyl-2"-O-galloyl)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside. The complete structure elucidation of all isolated metabolites based on chemical and spectroscopic methods of analysis (UV, 1D and 2D NMR) as well as negative ESI-MS with and without CID in-source fragmentation. PMID:11738415

Mahmoud, I I; Marzouk, M S; Moharram, F A; El-Gindi, M R; Hassan, A M

2001-12-01

181

Leishmanicidal cycloartane-type triterpene glycosides from Astragalus oleifolius  

E-print Network

Leishmanicidal cycloartane-type triterpene glycosides from Astragalus oleifolius Meltem O¨ zipek a oleifoliosides A (1) and B (2) were isolated from the lower stem parts of Astragalus oleifo- lius rights reserved. Keywords: Astragalus oleifolius; Leguminosae; Cycloartane-type glycoside; Oleifoliosides

Rüedi, Peter

182

Fully acetylated carbamate and hypotensive thiocarbamate glycosides from Moringa oleifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six new and three synthetically known glycosides have been isolated from the leaves of Moringa oleifera, employing a bioassay-directed isolation method on the ethanolic extract. Most of these compounds, bearing thiocarbamate, carbamate or nitrile groups, are fully acetylated glycosides, which are very rare in nature. Elucidation of the structures was made using chemical and spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR techniques.

Shaheen Faizi; Bina Shaheen Siddiqui; Rubeena Saleem; Salimuzzaman Siddiqui; Khalid Aftab; Anwar-Ul-Hassan Gilani

1995-01-01

183

Multiple defensive roles for triterpene glycosides from two Caribbean sponges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite their high nutritional value and a lack of physical defenses, most marine sponges appear to be minimally affected by predators, competitors, and fouling organisms, possibly due to sponge chemical defenses. In the last 15 years, several triterpene glycosides have been isolated from sponges, but their ecological or physiological roles are largely unknown. We tested triterpene glycosides from Erylus formosus

Julia Kubanek; Kristen E. Whalen; Sebastian Engel; Sarah R. Kelly; Timothy P. Henkel; William Fenical; Joseph R. Pawlik

2002-01-01

184

Original article Effect of anaerobic fungi on glycoside hydrolase  

E-print Network

Original article Effect of anaerobic fungi on glycoside hydrolase and polysaccharide depolymerase; the cellulolytic bacteria and fungi established popula- tions in the 4 lambs that were similar to those observed in conventional animals. The presence of fungi led to an increase in the activity of most of the glycoside

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

185

Differential effects of quercetin glycosides on GABAC receptor channel activity.  

PubMed

Quercetin, a representative flavonoid, is a compound of low molecular weight found in various colored plants and vegetables. Quercetin shows a wide range of neuropharmacological activities. In fact, quercetin naturally exists as monomer-(quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside) (Rham1), dimer-(Rutin), or trimer-glycosides [quercetin-3-(2(G)-rhamnosylrutinoside)] (Rham2) at carbon-3 in fruits and vegetables. The carbohydrate components are removed after ingestion into gastrointestinal systems. The role of the glycosides attached to quercetin in the regulation of ?-aminobutyric acid class C (GABAC) receptor channel activity has not been determined. In the present study, we examined the effects of quercetin glycosides on GABAC receptor channel activity by expressing human GABAC alone in Xenopus oocytes using a two-electrode voltage clamp technique and also compared the effects of quercetin glycosides with quercetin. We found that GABA-induced inward current (I GABA ) was inhibited by quercetin or quercetin glycosides. The inhibitory effects of quercetin and its glycosides on I GABA were concentration-dependent and reversible in the order of Rutin ? quercetin ? Rham 1 > Rham 2. The inhibitory effects of quercetin and its glycosides on I GABA were noncompetitive and membrane voltage-insensitive. These results indicate that quercetin and its glycosides regulate GABAC receptor channel activity through interaction with a different site from that of GABA, and that the number of carbohydrate attached to quercetin might play an important role in the regulation of GABAC receptor channel activity. PMID:24895146

Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Choi, Sun-Hye; Jung, Seok-Won; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Joon-Hee; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Pyo, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Nah, Seung-Yeol

2015-01-01

186

Cardiac Arrest  

MedlinePLUS

... or it can stop beating. Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) occurs when the heart develops an arrhythmia that ... is blocked. There are many possible causes of SCA. They include coronary heart disease, physical stress, and ...

187

Cardiac Paragangliomas.  

PubMed

Cardiac paraganglioma is a rare entity. We review the clinical data from 158 patients reported in 132 isolated papers, and discuss clinical presentations, imaging findings, pathology, location, therapy, and outcomes. PMID:25331372

Wang, Ji-Gang; Han, Jing; Jiang, Tao; Li, Yu-Jun

2014-10-20

188

Cardiac Catheterization  

MedlinePLUS

... done during a cardiac catheterization include: closing small holes inside the heart repairing leaky or narrow heart ... bandage. It's normal for the site to be black and blue, red, or slightly swollen for a ...

189

Pyrolysis-GC/MS of charred purified condensed tannin: towards identification of tannin-derived black carbon in environmental samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tannins account for a significant proportion of plant biomass and are therefore a possible source of Black C in the charred remains from wildfires. Nonetheless, in contrast with other major biocomponents such as lignin and cellulose, the thermal degradation of tannins has not been investigated in laboratory charring experiments. We used pyrolysis-GC/MS to investigate the effects of furnace charring (30 min at fixed temperatures up to 600 °C under limited oxygen supply) on the degradation of pure condensed tannin (CT) isolated from Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) needles. The experiments showed a rapid loss (at 300 °C and higher) of the pyrogallol moieties of the B-ring of prodelphinidin-type CT, due to dehydroxylation. The relative abundance of catechols (from procyanidin-type CT) decreased at 350 °C and higher temperatures. This led to the formation of phenols that were strongly enriched between 300 and 400 °C. At higher temperatures, further dehydroxylation caused a decline in contributions of phenols producing a series of monocyclic aromatics ((alkyl)benzenes) and condensation of aromatics produced polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), i.e. the typical pyrolysis fingerprint of strongly charred biomass. We conclude that (i) the thermal degradation of CT can be successfully monitored by pyrolysis-GC/MS, (ii) thermal degradation of CT is characterized by dehydroxylation of phenolic groups and condensation of aromatics that increase with temperature and (iii) CT-derived Black C may be recognized by catechol enrichments at low temperatures and possibly (relative) abundance of phenol and biphenyl at higher levels of thermal breakdown. Applying the same method to natural charcoal from gorse bushfires indicated that pyrolysis-GC/MS fingerprinting may allow for tannin identification in environmental Black C samples.

Kaal, Joeri; Nierop, Klaas G. J.; Kraal, Peter; Preston, Caroline M.

2010-05-01

190

Tannin diagenesis in mangrove leaves from a tropical estuary: A novel molecular approach  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Molecular-level condensed tannin analyses were conducted on a series of mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) leaves at various stages of decomposition in a tropical estuary. Total molecular tannin yields ranged from 0.5% ash-free dry weight (AFDW) in the most highly degraded black leaves (6-7 weeks in the water) up to >7% AFDW in fresh leaves (80% procyanidin (PC) with the remainder being prodelphinidin (PD). PD tannin, with its higher degree of hydroxylation, proved to be more labile than PC tannin. Average chain length of condensed tannin (degree of polymerization) exhibited an initial increase in response to leaching, but later decreased in the subsequent shift toward abiotic or microbially mediated chemical reactions. Several trends point toward a possible condensation reaction in which tannin plays a role in nitrogen immobilization. These include an apparent inverse correlation between molecular tannin and nitrogen, a positive correlation between molecular tannin and percent basic amino acids, 13C-NMR data indicating transformation of tannin as opposed to remineralization, and 13C-NMR data showing loss of condensed tannin B-ring phenolic carbons coupled with preservation of A-ring phenolic carbon. In addition to condensed tannin, the molecular method used also yielded several triterpenoids. Triterpenoids accounted for up to 3.5% AFDW of the leaf material and exhibited a threefold increase between yellow senescent leaves entering the estuary and black leaves. This trend is likely due to the weakening of protective cuticular membranes during leaf decomposition, which leads to increased yields in the acidic conditions used for tannin analyses. Copyright ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Hernes, P.J.; Benner, R.; Cowie, G.L.; Goi, M.A.; Bergamaschi, B.A.; Hedges, J.I.

2001-01-01

191

Application of Mössbauer spectroscopy to the study of tannins inhibition of iron and steel corrosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inhibitory effect of tannins was investigated using, among others, potentiodynamic polarizations and Mössbauer spectroscopy. These techniques confirmed that the nature, pH and concentration of tannic solution are of upmost importance in the inhibitory properties of the solutions. It is observed that at low tannin concentration or pH, both, hydrolizable and condensed tannins, effectively inhibit iron corrosion, due to the redox properties of tannins. At pH ? 0, Mössbauer spectra of the frozen aqueous solutions of iron(III) with the tannin solutions showed that iron is in the form of a monomeric species [Fe(H2O)6]3 + , without coordination with the functional hydroxyl groups of the tannins. The suspended material consisted of amorphous ferric oxide and oxyhydroxides, though with quebracho tannin partly resulted in complex formation and in an iron (II) species from a redox process. Other tannins, such as chestnut hydrolysable tannins, do not complex iron at this low pH. Tannins react at high concentrations or pH (3 and 5) to form insoluble blue-black amorphous complexes of mono-and bis-type tannate complexes, with a relative amount of the bis-ferric tannate generally increasing with pH. Some Fe2 + in the form of hydrated polymeric ferrous tannate could be obtained. At pH 7, a partially hydrolyzed ferric tannate complex was also formed. The latter two phases do not provide corrosion protection. Tannin solutions at natural pH react with electrodeposited iron films (approx. 6 ?m) to obtain products consisting only on the catecholate mono-complex of ferric tannate. Some aspects of the mechanism of tannins protection against corrosion are discussed.

Jaén, Juan A.; de Obaldía, J.; Rodríguez, M. V.

2011-11-01

192

In vivo effects of dietary sorghum tannins on rabbit digestive enzymes and mineral absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study demonstrates the extent of the in vivo inhibitory action of two levels of dietary sorghum tannins on rabbit digestive enzymes as well as mineral absorption. Addition of low-tannin (1.4% catechin equivalent) sorghum grains to the animals diet did not significantly change growth rate, food consumption, or feed conversion ratio. However, addition of high-tannin (3.5% catechin equivalent) sorghum grains

Mohamed Al-Mamary; Al-Habori Molham; Al-Aghbari Abdulwali; Abdulkarim Al-Obeidi

2001-01-01

193

Effect of different doses of quebracho tannins extract on rumen fermentation in ewes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen Merino ewes, fitted with ruminal cannulae, were divided into four groups of four, with the aim of studying effects of different doses of quebracho tannins on rumen fermentation in sheep. Zero (control, Q0), 0.5 (Q1), 1.5 (Q2) and 3.0g (Q3) of quebracho tannins extract (containing 76% condensed tannins (CTs)) per kg LW per day (equivalent to 0, 28, 83

Gonzalo Hervás; Pilar Frutos; F Javier Giráldez; Ángel R Mantecón; Mar??a C Álvarez Del Pino

2003-01-01

194

Adsorption mechanism of hexavalent chromium by redox within condensed-tannin gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have proposed a new recovery system of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) that is of great toxicity utilizing condensed-tannin gels derived from a natural polymer with many polyhydroxyphenyl groups. The adsorption mechanism of Cr(VI) to the tannin molecules was clarified. The adsorption mechanism consists of four reaction steps; the esterification of chromate with tannin molecules, the reduction of Cr(VI) to trivalent

Yoshio Nakano; Kenji Takeshita; Toshiro Tsutsumi

2001-01-01

195

Effect of tannins on growth performance and intestinal ecosystem in weaned piglets.  

PubMed

Tannins are natural polyphenolic compounds that can reduce digestibility of dietary protein but also display antibacterial effects. The present study investigated, in vitro and in vivo, the effect of different levels of tannins (using a chestnut wood extract containing 75% tannins) on growth performance, intestinal microbiota and wall morphology in piglets. During a 24 h in vitro caecal fermentation, the utilisation of tannins at 0.75, 1.5, 3, and 6 g/l significantly reduced total gas production and concentrations of ammonia and volatile fatty acids and increased viable counts of enterococci and coliforms. When fed to piglets at 1.13, 2.25, and 4.5 g/kg, tannins significantly improved feed efficiency and reduced caecal concentrations of ammonia, iso-butyric, and iso-valeric acid. Viable counts of lactobacilli tended to be increased by tannins in the jejunum, while bacterial caecal counts were not affected. Depth of ileal crypts tended to decrease in piglets fed tannins at 2.25 and 4.5 g/kg. The present study showed that feeding weaned piglets with a tannin-rich wood extract can result in improved feed efficiency and reduction of intestinal bacterial proteolytic reactions. The growth-enhancing effect that tannins had on enterococci and coliforms under in vitro conditions deserves further investigation. PMID:20481351

Biagia, Giacomo; Cipollini, Irene; Paulicks, Brigitte R; Roth, Franz X

2010-04-01

196

Assessment of tannin variation in Tamarisk foliage across a latitudinal gradient  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Certain phenotypic traits of plants vary with latitude of origin. To understand if tannin concentration varies among populations of tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) according to a latitudinal gradient, an analytical method was adapted from an enological tannin assay. The tannin content (wet basis) of tamarisk foliage collected from 160 plants grown in a common garden ranged from 8.26 to 62.36 mg/g and was not correlated with the latitude of the original North American plant collection site. Tannins do not contribute to observed differences in herbivory observed among these tamarisk populations.

Hussey, A.M.; Kimball, B.A.; Friedman, J.M.

2011-01-01

197

Effects of tannin source and concentration from tree leaves on two species of tadpoles.  

PubMed

Vegetation in and around freshwater ecosystems can affect aquatic organisms through the production of secondary compounds, which are retained in leaves after senescence and are biologically active. Tannins can be toxic to tadpoles, but the plant source of tannins and tannin concentration have been confounded in experimental designs in previous studies. To examine the effects of the concentration and source of tannins (tree species), we examined the effects of 4 factors on tadpole survival, growth, and development: tannin source (red oak [Quercus rubra], white oak [Quercus alba], or sugar maple [Acer saccharum]); tannin concentration (including a control); diet protein level; and tadpole species (American toad [Anaxyrus americanus] and spring peepers [Pseudacris crucifer]). Tannin source and concentration affected spring peeper survival, but American toads had uniformly high survival. Spring peepers had a lower survival rate in high tannin concentrations of oak leachate but a high survival rate in both concentrations of sugar maple leachate. These differences in survival did not correspond with changes in dissolved oxygen, and no effect of dietary protein level on tadpole performance was observed. The presence of plant leachate resulted in increased tadpole growth in both species, but the mechanism for this finding is unclear. The results of the present study show that tannin concentration and source are important factors for tadpole performance, adding further evidence that plant chemistry can affect aquatic organisms. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:120-126. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25319714

Earl, Julia E; Semlitsch, Raymond D

2015-01-01

198

Formation of vacuolar tannin deposits in the chlorophyllous organs of Tracheophyta: from shuttles to accretions.  

PubMed

Most Tracheophyta synthesize-condensed tannins (also called proanthocyanidins), polymers of catechins, which appear in the vacuole as uniformly stained deposits-termed tannin accretions-lining the inner face of the tonoplast. A large body of evidence argues that tannins are formed in recently described thylakoid-derived organelles, the tannosomes, which are packed in membrane-bound shuttles (Brillouet et al. 2013); it has been suggested that shuttles agglomerate into tannin accretions. The aim of the study was to describe the ontogenesis of tannin accretions in members of the Tracheophyta. For this purpose, fresh specimens of young tissues from diverse Tracheophyta were cut, gently lacerated in paraformaldehyde, and examined using light, epifluorescence, confocal, and transmission electron microscopy. Fresh samples were also incubated with gelatin-Oregon Green, a fluorescent marker of condensed tannins. Our observations showed that vacuolar accretions (1???40 ?m), that constitute the typical form of tannin storage in tannin-producing Tracheophyta, are formed by agglomeration (not fusion) of shuttles containing various proportions of chlorophylls and tannins. PMID:24692039

Brillouet, Jean-Marc; Romieu, Charles; Lartaud, Marc; Jublanc, Elodie; Torregrosa, Laurent; Cazevieille, Chantal

2014-11-01

199

Condensed tannins from acacia mangium bark: Characterization by spot tests and FTIR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the adaptation and evaluation of one chemical tests for tannins characterization in acacia mangium bark. Acid butanol test developed to identify respectively condensed tannins is described. The two traditional tests used for tannin characterization namely ferric test and vanillin test were also performed and their functional also discussed. Condensed tannins were extracted from acacia mangium bark using water medium in presence of three different concentration basic reagent of NaOH(5%,10% and 15%) and were characterized by FT-IR spectrometry.

Bharudin, Muhammad Azizi; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua

2013-11-01

200

Tannin impacts on microbial diversity and the functioning of alpine soils: a multidisciplinary approach.  

PubMed

In alpine ecosystems, tannin-rich-litter decomposition occurs mainly under snow. With global change, variations in snowfall might affect soil temperature and microbial diversity with biogeochemical consequences on ecosystem processes. However, the relationships linking soil temperature and tannin degradation with soil microorganisms and nutrients fluxes remain poorly understood. Here, we combined biogeochemical and molecular profiling approaches to monitor tannin degradation, nutrient cycling and microbial communities (Bacteria, Crenarcheotes, Fungi) in undisturbed winter time soil cores exposed to low temperature (0 degrees C/-6 degrees C), amended or not with tannins, extracted from Dryas octopetala. No toxic effect of tannins on microbial populations was found, indicating that they withstand phenolics from alpine vegetation litter. Additionally at -6 degrees C, higher carbon mineralization, higher protocatechuic acid concentration (intermediary metabolite of tannin catabolism), and changes in fungal phylogenetic composition showed that freezing temperatures may select fungi able to degrade D. octopetala's tannins. In contrast, negative net nitrogen mineralization rates were observed at -6 degrees C possibly due to a more efficient N immobilization by tannins than N production by microbial activities, and suggesting a decoupling between C and N mineralization. Our results confirmed tannins and soil temperatures as relevant controls of microbial catabolism which are crucial for alpine ecosystems functioning and carbon storage. PMID:18237312

Baptist, F; Zinger, L; Clement, J C; Gallet, C; Guillemin, R; Martins, J M F; Sage, L; Shahnavaz, B; Choler, Ph; Geremia, R

2008-03-01

201

Condensed Tannins from Ficus virens as Tyrosinase Inhibitors: Structure, Inhibitory Activity and Molecular Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Condensed tannins from Ficus virens leaves, fruit, and stem bark were isolated and their structures characterized by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The results showed that the leaves, fruit, and stem bark condensed tannins were complex mixtures of homo- and heteropolymers of B-type procyanidins and prodelphinidins with degrees of polymerization up to hexamer, dodecamer, and pentadecamer, respectively. Antityrosinase activities of the condensed tannins were studied. The results indicated that the condensed tannins were potent tyrosinase inhibitors. The concentrations for the leaves, fruit, and stem bark condensed tannins leading to 50% enzyme activity were determined to be 131.67, 99.89, and 106.22 ?g/ml on monophenolase activity, and 128.42, 43.07, and 74.27 ?g/ml on diphenolase activity. The inhibition mechanism, type, and constants of the condensed tannins on the diphenolase activity were further investigated. The results indicated that the condensed tannins were reversible and mixed type inhibitors. Fluorescence quenching, copper interacting, and molecular docking techniques were utilized to unravel the molecular mechanisms of the inhibition. The results showed that the hydroxyl group on the B ring of the condensed tannins could chelate the dicopper irons of the enzyme. Moreover, the condensed tannins could reduce the enzyme product o-quinones into colourless compounds. These results would contribute to the development and design of antityrosinase agents. PMID:24637701

Chai, Wei-Ming; Feng, Hui-Ling; Zhuang, Jiang-Xing; Chen, Qing-Xi

2014-01-01

202

Effects of tannins on digestion and detoxification activity in gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis).  

PubMed

Acorn tannins may affect food preferences and foraging strategies of squirrels through effects on acorn palatability and digestibility and squirrel physiology. Captive eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) were fed 100% red oak (Quercus rubra) or white oak (Quercus alba) acorn diets to determine effects on intake, digestion, and detoxification activity. Red oak acorns had higher phenol and tannin levels, which may explain the lower dry matter intakes and apparent protein digestibilities and the higher glucuronidation activities observed in squirrels. Although the white oak acorn diet had lower apparent protein digestibilities than the reference diet, it did not suppress dry matter intake for a prolonged period or stimulate glucuronidation. Negative physiological effects of a 100% red oak acorn diet suggest gray squirrels may require other foods to dilute tannin intake and provide additional nutrients. To distinguish the roles of different tannin types in the observed effects of acorn diets on squirrels, squirrels were fed rat chow containing no tannins, 4% or 8% tannic acid (hydrolyzable tannin), or 3% or 6% quebracho (condensed tannin). Apparent protein digestibilities were reduced by tannic acid and quebracho diets. Only the 8% tannic acid diet tended to increase glucuronidation. Specific effects of tannins may largely depend on tannin type, composition, and source and on other nutritional and physiological factors. PMID:9231400

Chung-MacCoubrey, A L; Hagerman, A E; Kirkpatrick, R L

1997-01-01

203

UPLC-ESI-MS study of the oxidation markers released from tannin depolymerization: toward a better characterization of the tannin evolution over food and beverage processing.  

PubMed

Condensed tannins take an important part in the sensory quality of food and beverage. Sensory analyses are usually carried out with various tannin fractions isolated from food or beverage, and their interpretation are limited by the lack of knowledge in the fine and accurate molecular composition of the tannin fractions. Besides, the studies of the chemical reactivity conducted in model solutions with 'simple' flavanols allow a better understanding of their evolution pathways, but they cannot take into account their reactivity as polymers, specifically regarding oxidation. In particular, competition between intramolecular and intermolecular reactions may strongly impact on the tannin structures (size, branching and conformation) and consequently on their properties. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry electrospray ionization mass spectrometer analytical method was thus developed in order to identify oxidized tannins generated by autoxidation. Given the difficulties to separate and detect tannins with high DP, samples were depolymerized by chemical depolymerization prior to analysis. Since the linkages created by oxidation are not cleavable in the usual depolymerization conditions (contrarily to the original interflavanic linkages), specific oxidation residues are released from tannins structures after their autoxidation. Oxidation markers of both intermolecular and intramolecular mechanisms have been identified; these are mainly dimers and trimers, more or less oxidized, and some contain additional hydroxyl groups. Furthermore, the nature of the subunits (extension vs terminal) making up these dimers and trimers was clearly established. PMID:23147821

Mouls, Laetitia; Fulcrand, Hélène

2012-11-01

204

Determination of bioactive nitrile glycoside(s) in drumstick ( Moringa oleifera) by reverse phase HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of novel bioactive nitrile glycosides niaziridin and niazirin in the leaves, pods and bark of Moringa oleifera is reported. Niaziridin is a bioenhancer for drugs and nutrients. The analytical conditions for reversed-phase HPLC with UV detection were as follows: column, Chromolith RP-18e, 4.6×100mm 0.5?m (Merck); column temperature, 25°C; mobile phase, a 20:80

Karuna Shanker; Madan M. Gupta; Santosh K. Srivastava; Dnyaneshwar U. Bawankule; Anirban Pal; Suman P. S. Khanuja

2007-01-01

205

Neuroprotective polyhydroxypregnane glycosides from Cynanchum otophyllum.  

PubMed

Five new polyhydroxypregnane glycosides, namely cynanotosides A-E (1-5), together with two known analogues, deacetylmetaplexigenin (6) and cynotophylloside H (7), were isolated from the roots of Cynanchum otophyllum. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods and acid hydrolysis. The neuroprotective effects of compounds 1-7 against glutamate-, hydrogen peroxide-, and homocysteic acid (HCA)-induced cell death were tested by MTT assay in a hippocampal neuronal cell line HT22. Compounds 1, 2, and 7 exhibited protective activity against HCA-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner ranging from 1 to 30?M, which may explain the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) use of this plant for the treatment of epilepsy. PMID:23831785

Zhao, Zhi-Min; Sun, Zhang-Hua; Chen, Mei-Hui; Liao, Qiong; Tan, Ming; Zhang, Xin-Wen; Zhu, Han-Dong; Pi, Rong-Biao; Yin, Sheng

2013-10-01

206

Synthesis and sensory evaluation of ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides.  

PubMed

Catalytic hydrogenation of the three ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides isolated from Stevia rebaudiana, namely rubusoside, stevioside, and rebaudioside-A has been carried out using Pd(OH)? and their corresponding dihydro derivatives have been isolated as the products. Synthesis of reduced steviol glycosides was performed using straightforward chemistry and their structures were characterized on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral data and chemical studies. Also, we report herewith the sensory evaluation of all the reduced compounds against their corresponding original steviol glycosides and sucrose for the sweetness property of these molecules. PMID:22836210

Prakash, Indra; Campbell, Mary; San Miguel, Rafael Ignacio; Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash

2012-01-01

207

Spectrophotometric estimation of individual flavone glycosides in three Euphorbia species.  

PubMed

Two spectrophotometric methods (conventional and differential) are carried out for the estimation of flavone glycosides (hyperoside and/or kaempferol-3-beta-glucoside) in Euphorbia paralias L., and Euphorbia helioscopia L. The glycosides are extracted with methanol from the aerial parts of the different Euphorbia species, separated on silica gel chromatoplates, and eluted by refluxing with methanol (80%). The absorbance value (conventional method) and the delta absorbance value (differential method) of the prepared glycosidal solutions are measured. The results of both methods are of conveinent reproducibility. PMID:1161795

Abdel-Salam, N A; El-Sayed, M; Khafagy, S M

1975-06-01

208

Cytotoxic triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Pseudocolochirus violaceus.  

PubMed

A new triterpene glycoside (1) along with the known intercedenside B (2) was isolated from the sea cucumber Pseudocolochirus violaceus. Glycoside 1 was elucidated as 3-O-{6-O-sodiumsulfate-3-O-methyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->4)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1-->2)]-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl-(1-->2)-4-O-sodiumsulfate-beta-D-xylopyranosyl}-16beta-acetoxy-holosta-7, 24-diene-3beta-ol on the basis of extensive spectral studies and chemical evidence. Both the glycosides exhibited significant cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines MKN-45 and HCT-116. PMID:17493770

Zhang, Shu-Yu; Tang, Hai-Feng; Yi, Yang-Hua

2007-06-01

209

Cytotoxic triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Pseudocolochirus violaceus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new triterpene glycoside (1) along with the known intercedenside B (2) was isolated from the sea cucumber Pseudocolochirus violaceus. Glycoside 1 was elucidated as 3-O-{6-O-sodiumsulfate-3-O-methyl-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?3)-?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?4)-[?-d-xylopyranosyl(1?2)]-?-d-quinovopyranosyl-(1?2)-4-O-sodiumsulfate-?-d-xylopyranosyl}-16?-acetoxy-holosta-7, 24-diene-3?-ol on the basis of extensive spectral studies and chemical evidence. Both the glycosides exhibited significant cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines MKN-45 and HCT-116.

Shu-Yu Zhang; Hai-Feng Tang; Yang-Hua Yi

2007-01-01

210

EFFECTS OF TANNINS ON SOIL CARBON, CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY, AND METAL SOLUBILITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tannins sorb to soil, affect the solubility of soil nitrogen, and soil chemical processes that may be important for the formation of soil organic matter and nutrient cycling. However, studies are needed, comparing different classes of tannins and related compounds, to determine if soils have a maxi...

211

Characterization of tannin-metal complexes by UV-visible spectrophotometry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tannins enter soils by plant decay and rain throughfall, but little is known of their effects on soils. Tannins may influence bioavailability and toxicity of metals by forming complexes and by mediating redox reactions. We evaluated the affinity and stoichiometry of Al(III) for a gallotannin, pent...

212

Changes in mouse whole saliva soluble proteome induced by tannin-enriched diet  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies suggested that dietary tannin ingestion may induce changes in mouse salivary proteins in addition to the primarily studied proline-rich proteins (PRPs). The aim of the present study was to determine the protein expression changes induced by condensed tannin intake on the fraction of mouse whole salivary proteins that are unable to form insoluble tannin-protein complexes. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein separation was used, followed by protein identification by mass spectrometry. Results Fifty-seven protein spots were excised from control group gels, and 21 different proteins were identified. With tannin consumption, the expression levels of one ?-amylase isoform and one unidentified protein increased, whereas acidic mammalian chitinase and Muc10 decreased. Additionally, two basic spots that stained pink with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 were newly observed, suggesting that some induced PRPs may remain uncomplexed or form soluble complexes with tannins. Conclusion This proteomic analysis provides evidence that other salivary proteins, in addition to tannin-precipitating proteins, are affected by tannin ingestion. Changes in the expression levels of the acidic mammalian chitinase precursor and in one of the 14 salivary ?-amylase isoforms underscores the need to further investigate their role in tannin ingestion. PMID:21159160

2010-01-01

213

Membrane lipids protected from oxidation by red wine tannins: a proton NMR study.  

PubMed

Dietary polyphenols widespread in vegetables and beverages like red wine and tea have been reported to possess antioxidant properties that could have positive effects on human health. In this study, we propose a new in situ and non-invasive method based on proton liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to determine the antioxidant efficiency of red wine tannins on a twice-unsaturated phospholipid, 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLiPC), embedded in a membrane model. Four tannins were studied: (+)-catechin (C), (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). The lipid degradation kinetics was determined by measuring the loss of the bis-allylic protons during oxidation induced by a radical initiator, 2,2'-Azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH). The antioxidant efficiency, i.e. the ability of tannins to slow down the lipid oxidation rate, was shown to be higher for galloylated tannins, ECG and EGCG. Furthermore, the mixture of four tannins was more efficient than the most effective tannin, EGCG, demonstrating a synergistic effect. To better understand the antioxidant action mechanism of polyphenols on lipid membranes, the tannin location was investigated by NMR and molecular dynamics. A correlation between antioxidant action of tannins and their location at the membrane interface (inserted at the glycerol backbone level) could thus be established. PMID:25063276

Furlan, Aurélien L; Jobin, Marie-Lise; Buchoux, Sébastien; Grélard, Axelle; Dufourc, Erick J; Géan, Julie

2014-12-01

214

TANNIN-CONTAINING ALFALFA: A WAY TO IMPROVE NITROGEN-USE AND PROFITABILITY OF DAIRY FARMS?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Binding of condensed tannins to protein can prevent excessive proteolysis in forages during ensiling, ruminal digestion, and decay of residues in soil. Plant breeding and biotechnology efforts are underway in the U.S. and abroad to develop alfalfa and other forages with adequate levels of tannin for...

215

High-throughput micro plate vanillin assay for determination of tannin in sorghum grain  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sorghum tannins are phenolic compounds that offer health promoting antioxidant properties. The conventional HCl-vanillin assay for determining tannin content is a time-consuming method for screening large sample sets as seen in association mapping panels or breeder nursery samples. The objective of ...

216

Research observation: Hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in plants of the northwest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tannins are secondary metabolites that may influence feeding by mammals on plants. We analyzed hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in 30 plant species consumed by livestock and deer, as a preliminary attempt to study their possible implications on browsing and grazing in forest ecosystems. Heathers (Ericaceae) and plants of the Rose (Rosaceae) family had tannins, while forbs, grasses and shrubs other than the heathers did not show astringency properties. We found the highest tannin content of all the species in Rubus sp., with the highest value around 180 mg TAE/g dry weight in spring. Potentilla erecta, Alnus glutinosa and Quercus robur were next with 57 to 44 mg TAE/g dw. Total tannins in heathers ranged from 22 to 36 mg TAE/g dw. Levels of condensed tannins were higher than hydrolyzable for most of the species. Only Betula alba, Calluna vulgaris, Pteridium aquilinum and Vaccinium myrtillus had 100% hydrolyzable tannins. Tannin content of the species changed seasonally with highest values during the growing season, corresponding to late winter or early spring, depending on the species.

Gonzalez-Hernandez, M. P.; Karchesy, J.; Starkey, Edward E.

2003-01-01

217

Research observation: Hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in plants of northwest Spain forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tannins are secondary metabolites that may influence feeding by mammals on plants. We analyzed hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in 30 plant species consumed by livestock and deer, as a preliminary attempt to study their possible implications on browsing and grazing in forest ecosystems. Heathers (Ericaceae) and plants of the Rose (Rosaceae) family had tannins, while forbs, grasses and shrubs other than the heathers did not show astringency properties. We found the highest tannin content of all the species in Rubus sp., with the highest value around 180 mg TAE/g dry weight in spring. Potentilla erecta, Alnus glutinosa and Quercus robur were next with 57 to 44 mg TAE/g dw. Total tannins in heathers ranged from 22 to 36 mg TAE/g dw. Levels of condensed tannins were higher than hydrolyzable for most of the species. Only Betula alba, Calluna vulgaris, Pteridium aquilinum and Vaccinium myrtillus had 100% hydrolyzable tannins. Tannin content of the species changed seasonally with highest values during the growing season, corresponding to late winter or early spring, depending on the species.

Gonzalez-Hernandez, M. P.; Karchesy, J.; Starkey, E.E.

2003-01-01

218

Combining ability for condensed tannin concentration among five cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genotypes  

E-print Network

og d' Soh h), d Pld 't (ddt ~~h urticae Koch. ). This study was conducted to determine combining ability for condensed tannins among five cotton genotypes and to determine the correlation of tannin concentration with Helio~ larval growth rates. A...

Altamarino, Teresita Protacio

1989-01-01

219

Condensed tannins deter feeding by browsing ruminants in a South African savanna  

Microsoft Academic Search

The palatability of 14 species of woody plant was assessed for three species of browsing ruminant, namely kudus, impalas and goats. Results show that palatability was most clearly related to leaf contents of condensed tannins. The effect was a threshold one, with all plants containing more than 5% condensed tannins being rejected as food during the wet season period. In

S. M. Cooper; N. Owen-Smith

1985-01-01

220

Sorghum tannins: Interaction with Starch and its Effects on in vitro Starch Digestibility  

E-print Network

acids ................................................................................ 10 Sorghum anthocyanins and other flavonoids ................................................ 11 Sorghum tannins... antioxidant activity. Sorghum has many polyphenols including phenolic acids and flavonoids such as anthocyanins and tannins. Many health benefits of consuming sorghum polyphenols such as slow digestibility, reduction in cardiovascular disease, antioxidant...

Ribeiro de Barros, Frederico

2012-12-10

221

NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY AND PERFORMANCE OF PIGS FED SORGHUMS VARYING IN TANNIN CONCENTRATION 1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Four sorghums, ranging widely in tannin content, and yellow corn were evaluated in two 5 x 5 Latin square digestion trials and a growth trial. All grains were grown in the same field under similar conditions. The sor- gums and their tannin contents (milligrams of catechin\\/100 mg of dry matter, as de- termined by a modified vanillin-HCl method) were:

B. W. Cousins; T. D. Tanksley; D. A. Knabe; Teresa Zebrowska

222

Determination of Chemical Composition of Carob ( Ceratonia siliqua): Protein, Fat, Carbohydrates, and Tannins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carob pod, germ, and seed were analyzed for moisture, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrates, and particularly for their tannin content. Recovery of tannins as affected by various solvent extraction systems was investigated. Carob pod meal contained high levels of carbohydrates (45%), appreciable amounts of protein (3%), and low levels of fat (0.6%). Germ and seed meal contained more fat and less

R. Avallone; M. Plessi; M. Baraldi; A. Monzani

1997-01-01

223

EFFECTS OF NITROGEN ON TANNIN CONCENTRATIONS IN OAKS AND ON PALATABILITY OF OAK FORESTS  

E-print Network

. vulgare preferred to consume low tannin, low acidity foodstuffs, like those produced by fertilized plants vulgare. Tannins are secondary metabolites which defend plants from herbivory by protein precipitation and increased acidity. In a nitrogen fertilization experiment at Falmouth, MA Wastewater Treatment Facility, Q

Vallino, Joseph J.

224

A critical analysis of techniques for measuring tannins in ecological studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of seventeen plant extracts rich in phenolic materials, including condensed and hydrolysable tannins, have been subjected to a series of chemical analyses in an attempt to gather ecologically significant information about their structure. Procedures investigated were (i) the Folin-Denis and Hagerman and Butler methods for quantifying total phenolics, (ii) the vanillin and proanthocyanidin methods for quantifying condensed tannins,

S. Mole; P. G. Waterman

1987-01-01

225

Cattle and sheep develop preference for drinking water containing grape seed tannin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ingestion of small amounts of some types of condensed tannins by ruminant livestock can provide benefits to the animals, their producers and the environment. However, practical methods are needed to make these tannin more available to livestock. Results from previous trials with crude quebracho an...

226

VARIATION IN MAMMALIAN PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO A CONDENSED TANNIN AND ITS ECOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ansrnacr.-Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), domestic sheep (Oois aries), and American black bears (Ursus americanus) were fed quebracho (Schinopsis sp.) tannin to determine the contribution of salivary proteins to nitrogen- and fiber-digestive efficiencies and tannin metabolism. These values were compared to previously published values for laboratory rats (Ratfus rattus) and prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Mule deer, black bears, and laboratory rats

C. T. RossrNS; P. J. AusrrN; T. A. HeNr-rv

227

Sorption of tannin-C by soils affects soil cation exchange capacity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Some tannins, produced by plants, are able to sorb to soil, and thus influence soil organic matter and nutrient cycling. However, studies are needed that compare sorption of tannins to other related phenolic compounds, evaluate their effects across a broad range of soils, and determine if sorption ...

228

Insect grazing on Eucalyptus in response to variation in leaf tannins and nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many species of Eucalyptus, one of the dominant genera in Australian forests and woodlands, contain high levels of tannins and other phenols and are also heavily damaged by grazing insects. These phenols do not appear to affect insect attack because a wide range of concentrations of condensed tannins and other phenols in leaves of 13 Eucalyptus sp. influenced neither feeding

Laurel R. Fox; B. J. Macauley

1977-01-01

229

Tannin and tannate from the quebracho tree: an eco-friendly alternative for controlling marine biofouling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current antifouling coatings are based on toxic compounds that can be harmful to the natural environment. A promising alternative to these compounds is the use of natural products that are non-toxic, but have antifouling properties. Tannins are natural, water-soluble, complex polyphenolic substances, which precipitate proteins and have anticorrosive and antimicrobial properties. In this study, the effect of quebracho tannin as

Miriam Pérez; Mónica García; Guillermo Blustein; Mirta Stupak

2007-01-01

230

Effect of chloride and condensable tannin in anaerobic degradation of tannery wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic effect due to chloride and condensable tannin on anaerobic digestion of vegetable tanning wastewater was investigated at different hydraulic retention times viz 24, 48 and 60 hr respectively. The toxicity to anaerobic contact filter was observed at a chloride concentration of 4500 mg\\/l and tannin concentration of 790 mg\\/l respectively under synergistic condition. In the case of constant influent

K. Vijayaraghavan; T. K. Ramanujam

1999-01-01

231

Interactive effects of condensed tannin and cellulose additions on soil respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant polyphenolics are receiving increased attention for their influences on belowground processes. Tannins are of particular interest because of their predominance in natural systems, their wide variation in both quality and quantity, and their protein-binding abilities. Current theory holds that simple phenolics increase microbial activity by acting as car- bon substrates, while larger tannins decrease microbial activity by binding with

Michael D. Madritch; Lisa M. Jordan; Richard L. Lindroth

2007-01-01

232

Role of vegetable tannins in habitat selection among mosquito communities from the Alpine hydrosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of vegetable tannins in habitat selection among mosquito communities in Alpine hydrosystems was investigated through ecotoxicological comparison of 19 arthropod species characteristic of 12 breeding sites known for their abiotic environmental factors and their different riparian vegetation. The toxicity of tannins was experimentally compared among species representative of both the dipteran fauna and the crustacean fauna associated with

Delphine Rey; Jean-Philippe David; Daniel Martins; Marie-Paule Pautou; Andrée Long; Gérard Marigo; Jean-Claude Meyran

2000-01-01

233

Tannins in mangrove tree roots and their role in the root environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove trees grow under reductive and sometimes acidic conditions, both of which are injurious to the root growth. In this report, the role of tannins in mangrove tree roots was studied in order to alleviate their detrimental effect on the soil environment.The mangrove tree roots contain a large amount of tannins and it combines with ferric ion in the soil

Makoto Kimura; Hidenori Wada

1989-01-01

234

In vivo studies on evaluation of potential toxicity of unspent tannins using albino rats ( Rattus norvegicus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study emphasizes the effect of unspent tannins on liver, kidney and heart of albino rats. Oral administration of unspent tannins at three different concentrations was made for a period of seven days. Carbon tetrachloride served as positive control. Tissues were removed carefully followed by sacrifice and were subjected to sectioning and H&E staining. Histopathological examination of the sections

Munuswamy Sudha; A. Gnanamani; G. Deepa; E. Madhavacharyulu; K. Deivanai; S. Sadulla

2008-01-01

235

Pre-fermentation addition of grape tannin increases the varietal thiols content in wine.  

PubMed

The recent finding that grape tannin may contain significant amount of S-glutathionylated (GSH-3MH) and S-cysteinylated (Cys-3MH) precursors of the varietal thiols 3-mercapto-1-hexanol and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate, characteristic of Sauvignon blanc wines, offers new opportunities for enhancing the tropical aroma in fermented beverages. In this study this new hypothesis was investigated: Müller Thurgau (17 samples) and Sauvignon blanc (15 samples) grapes were fermented with and without addition of a selected grape tannin. As expected, the tannin-added juices were higher in precursors, and they produced wines with increased free thiols. Preliminary informal sensory tests confirmed that in particular the Sauvignon wines produced with the tannin addition were often richer with increased "fruity/green" notes than the corresponding reference wines. This outcome confirms that grape tannin addition prior to fermentation can fortify the level of these compounds. PMID:25053028

Larcher, Roberto; Tonidandel, Loris; Román Villegas, Tomás; Nardin, Tiziana; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Nicolini, Giorgio

2015-01-01

236

New benzophenone and quercetin galloyl glycosides from Psidium guajava L.  

PubMed

New benzophenone and flavonol galloyl glycosides were isolated from an 80% MeOH extract of Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) together with five known quercetin glycosides. The structures of the novel glycosides were elucidated to be 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzophenone 4-O-(6''-O-galloyl)-beta-D: -glucopyranoside (1, guavinoside A), 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3,5-dimethylbenzophenone 4-O-(6''-O-galloyl)-beta-D: -glucopyranoside (2, guavinoside B), and quercetin 3-O-(5''-O-galloyl)-alpha-L: -arabinofuranoside (3, guavinoside C) by NMR, MS, UV, and IR spectroscopies. Isolated phenolic glycosides showed significant inhibitory activities against histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells, and nitric oxide production from a murine macrophage-like cell line, RAW 264.7. PMID:20354804

Matsuzaki, Keiichi; Ishii, Rie; Kobiyama, Kaori; Kitanaka, Susumu

2010-07-01

237

Iridal glycosides from Iris spuria (Zeal), cultivated in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several iridal and isoiridal glycosides (e.g. 6a) were isolated from Iris spuria (Zeal), cultivated in Egypt. The structures of the compounds were elcucidated by NMR and mass spectroscopy, sugar analysis and ozonolysis.

Franz-Josef Marner; Abdel Nasser Badawi Singab; Mohamed Mohamed Al-Azizi; Nasr Ahmed El-Emary; Mathias Schäfer

2002-01-01

238

A new lathyrane diterpene glycoside from Euphorbia helioscopia L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new lathyrane diterpene glycoside, named 3?, 7?, 15?-trihydroxy-14-oxolathyra-5E, 12E-dienyl-16-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, was isolated from Euphorbia helioscopia L. Its structure was established by spectroscopic techniques including 2D NMR.

Wei Sheng Feng; Li Gao; Xiao Ke Zheng; Yan Zhi Wang; Hui Chen

2010-01-01

239

A new aryl glycoside from Euphorbia helioscopia L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new aryl glycoside, 3?-O-galloyl-benzyl-O-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-d-glucopyranoside, was isolated from Euphorbia helioscopia L., and its structure was elucidated on the basis of various spectroscopic data analysis.

Wei Sheng Feng; Li Gao; Xiao Ke Zheng; Yan Zhi Wang

2009-01-01

240

Changes in the structural composition and reactivity of Acer rubrum leaf litter tannins exposed to warming and  

E-print Network

Changes in the structural composition and reactivity of Acer rubrum leaf litter tannins exposed to warming and altered precipitation: climatic stress-induced tannins are more reactive Nishanth Tharayil1 resonance (NMR), proanthocyanidin, secondary metabolite, tannins. Summary · Climate change could increase

Dukes, Jeffrey

241

Phytologia (April1, 2014) 96(2) 63 Comparison of leaf terpenoids and tannins in Juniperus monosperma from woodrat (Neotoma  

E-print Network

Phytologia (April1, 2014) 96(2) 63 Comparison of leaf terpenoids and tannins in Juniperus to specialize on Juniperus that is heavily defended by terpenes and tannins. A comparison between heavily-cymene, was significantly different between browsed and non-browsed trees. Condensed tannins did not differ significantly

Adams, Robert P.

242

Changes in the structural composition and reactivity of Acer rubrum leaf litter tannins exposed to warming and  

E-print Network

Changes in the structural composition and reactivity of Acer rubrum leaf litter tannins exposed to warming and altered precipitation: climatic stress-induced tannins are more reactive Nishanth Tharayil1 magnetic resonance (NMR), proanthocyanidin, secondary metabolite, tannins. Summary · Climate change could

Dukes, Jeffrey

243

Tannin-binding proteins in saliva of deer and their absence in saliva of sheep and cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed for detecting tannin-binding proteins in the saliva of herbivores. The method is simple and requires only small quantities of crude saliva. The saliva of deer, a browsing ruminant, has been compared to that of domestic sheep and cow, which are grazing ruminants. The browser, which normally ingests dietary tannin, produces tannin-binding proteins, while the grazers

Paul J. Austin; Lisa A. Suchar; Charles T. Robbins; Ann E. Hagerman

1989-01-01

244

Isolation and characterization of tannin-degrading bacteria from faecal samples of some wild ruminants in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize bacteria capable of hydrolysing tannins from the faeces of Ethiopian ruminants adapted to feed on tannin-rich leaves. Faecal samples were collected from dikdik (Madoqua guentheri), camel (Camelus dromedaries), Grant's gazelle (Gazella granti), zebra (Equus quagga) and hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus). Mixed cultures of the samples were screened for their tannin-hydrolysing capacities

Eden Ephraim; Agnes Odenyo; Mogessie Ashenafi

2005-01-01

245

Two new triterpenoidal glycosides from Medicago polymorpha L.  

PubMed

Two new triterpenoid glycosides called medicago-saponins P1 (1) and P2 (2) were isolated together with five known glycosides from the aerial parts of Medicago polymorpha L. (Leguminosae). The structures of 1 and 2 were determined to be 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl caulophyllogenin 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside and the desglucoside of 1. PMID:8069980

Kinjo, J; Uemura, H; Nakamura, M; Nohara, T

1994-06-01

246

Fully acetylated carbamate and hypotensive thiocarbamate glycosides from Moringa oleifera.  

PubMed

Six new and three synthetically known glycosides have been isolated from the leaves of Moringa oleifera, employing a bioassay-directed isolation method on the ethanolic extract. Most of these compounds, bearing thiocarbamate, carbamate or nitrile groups, are fully acetylated glycosides, which are very rare in nature. Elucidation of the structures was made using chemical and spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR techniques. Thiocarbamates showed hypotensive activity. PMID:7766390

Faizi, S; Siddiqui, B S; Saleem, R; Siddiqui, S; Aftab, K; Gilani, A H

1995-03-01

247

Phenylethanoid glycosides from the roots of Phlomis umbrosa.  

PubMed

The phytochemical study of the roots of Phlomis umbrosa Turcz. afforded three new phenylethanoid glycosides, 3'''-acetyl-O-betonyoside D (1), 2''', 3'''-di-acetyl-O- betonyoside D (2), and 3''', 4'''-di-acetyl-O-betonyoside D (3), along with five known phenylethanoid glycosides. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. The antitumor activity of the isolated compounds was investigated. PMID:19177241

Liu, Pu; Deng, Rui-Xue; Duan, Hong-Quan; Yin, Wei-Ping; Zhao, Tian-Zeng

2009-01-01

248

Indole Alkaloid Glycosides from the Aerial Parts of Strobilanthes cusia.  

PubMed

Three indole alkaloid glycosides, strobilanthosides A-C (1-3), two known indole alkaloid glucosides (4 and 5), and five phenylethanoid glycosides (8-10) were isolated from the aerial parts of Strobilanthes cusia. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectrometric analysis, and the absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were established by ECD spectrocsopy. N'-?-d-Glucopyranosylindirubin (5) showed weak antibacterial activity (MIC 62.5-125 ?M) against Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:25427242

Gu, Wei; Zhang, Yu; Hao, Xiao-Jiang; Yang, Fu-Mei; Sun, Qian-Yun; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Wang, Yue-Hu; Long, Chun-Lin

2014-12-26

249

Saliva of the graminivorous Theropithecus gelada lacks proline-rich proteins and tannin-binding capacity.  

PubMed

Gelada baboons are the sole survivors of the genus Theropithecus and the only known graminivorous primates. They developed special adaptations to their diet such as high-crowned teeth for processing hard and abrasive feed. The fine-tuning of salivary protein composition might be another key mechanism that is used by species for adapting to the environment and competing with rivals for exploiting new ecological niches. In order to test whether gelada (graminivorous) and hamadryas baboons (omnivorous) differ in their salivary protein composition, we compared whole saliva samples of captive Theropithecus gelada and Papio hamadryas using gel electrophoresis and tannin-binding assay. We hypothesized that the amount of proline-rich salivary proteins with tannin-binding capacity is higher in baboons consuming a feed with high dicot/monocot rations. Dicots produce tannins as a chemical defense system, discouraging animals from eating them. In contrast to dicots, monocots do not synthesize tannins. The presence of tannin-binding proteins in saliva should effectively inactivate the dicot tannin-based defense mechanism and increase the dietary breadth and/or the capability to switch between monocots and dicot leaves. The lack of such tannin-binding proteins in saliva would indicate a narrow dietary spectrum more restricted to monocots. We found T. gelada to completely lack proline-rich proteins (PRPs) and tannin-binding capacity similar to a great variety of other grazing mammals. In contrast, P. hamadryas does possess PRPs with tannin-binding activity. The findings support a growing body of evidence suggesting a high-level specialization of T. gelada to grass diets. However, it remains unclear, whether loss of salivary tannin-binding capacity drove the gelada into its narrow feeding niche, or whether this loss is the result of a long process of increased specialization. Thus, from an ecological point of view, T. gelada appears to be more vulnerable to environmental changes than other baboon species owing to its narrow dietary traits. PMID:19431194

Mau, Marcus; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Johann, Achim; Sliwa, Alexander; Kaiser, Thomas M

2009-08-01

250

Stability of steviol glycosides in several food matrices.  

PubMed

As steviol glycosides are now allowed as a food additive in the European market, it is important to assess the stability of these steviol glycosides after they have been added to different food matrices. We analyzed and tested the stability of steviol glycosides in semiskimmed milk, soy drink, fermented milk drink, ice cream, full-fat and skimmed set yogurt, dry biscuits, and jam. The fat was removed by centrifugation from the dairy and soy drink samples. Proteins were precipitated by the addition of acetonitrile and also removed by centrifugation. Samples of jam were extracted with water. Dry biscuits were extracted with ethanol. The resulting samples were concentrated with solid-phase extraction and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography on a C18 stationary phase and a gradient of acetonitrile/aqueous 25 mM phosphoric acid. The accuracy was checked using a standard addition on some samples. For assessing the stability of the steviol glycosides, samples were stored in conditions relevant to each food matrix and analyzed periodically. The results indicate that steviol glycosides can be analyzed with good precision and accuracy in these food categories. The recovery was between 96 and 103%. The method was also validated by standard addition, which showed excellent agreement with the external calibration curve. No sign of decomposition of steviol glycosides was found in any of the samples. PMID:23020306

Jooken, Etienne; Amery, Ruis; Struyf, Tom; Duquenne, Barbara; Geuns, Jan; Meesschaert, Boudewijn

2012-10-24

251

Structure and absolute configuration of clerodane diterpene glycosides and a rearranged cadinane sesquiterpene glycoside from the stems of Tinospora sinensis.  

PubMed

Three new clerodane diterpene glycosides, tinosposinensides A-C ( 1- 3), and a new rearranged cadinane sesquiterpene glycoside, tinosinenside ( 4), were isolated from the stems of Tinospora sinensis. The structure including the relative configuration was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration was determined by application of the modified Mosher's method and chemical transformation. The inhibitory activities of the isolated compounds against alpha-glucosidase are also described. PMID:18020421

Li, Wei; Wei, Kun; Fu, Hongwei; Koike, Kazuo

2007-12-01

252

Cardiac sarcoidosis.  

PubMed

The prognosis of sarcoidosis often considered as "benign" is significantly changed in the presence of a cardiac localization. An in-depth interview, a clinical examination together with ECG are often for most of sarcoidosis. Certain conditions (severe multisystemic sarcoidosis, rares localizations in particular neurological, renal, gastric) lead to necessary investigations: Holter ECG, echocardiography, thallium scintigraphy with dipyridamole test, PET scanner and MRI in order to identify infraclinical presentations. Diagnosis relies on guidelines of Japansese criteria, but can benefit from MRI and PET scanner even though their place is not yet clearly defined in clinical pratice. Diagnosing cardiac sarcoidosis means deciding an immunosuppressive treatment. It is highly important to gather all criteria to validate a consistent diagnosis or at least a high probability. In order to best adapt therapy, a coordinated patient care involving the cardiologist and the sarcoidosis specialist is necessary. PMID:22608949

Chapelon-Abric, Catherine

2012-06-01

253

Resin Glycosides from the Morning Glory Family  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resin glycosides are part of a very extensive family of secondary metabolites known as glycolipids or lipo-oligosaccharides and are constituents of complex resins (glycoresins) (1) unique to the morning glory family, Convolvulaceae (2). These active principles are responsible for the drastic purgative action of all the important Convolvulaceous species used in traditional medicine throughout the world since ancient times. Several commercial purgative crude drugs can be prepared from the roots of different species of Mexican morning glories. Their incorporation as therapeutic agents in Europe is an outstanding example of the assimilation of botanical drugs from the Americas as substitutes for traditional Old World remedies (3). Even though phytochemical investigations on the constituents of these drugs were initiated during the second half of the nineteenth century, the structure of their active ingredients still remains poorly known for some examples of these purgative roots. During the last two decades, the higher resolution capabilities of modern analytical isolation techniques used in conjunction with powerful spectroscopic methods have facilitated the elucidation of the active principles of these relevant herbal products.

Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Rosas-Ramírez, Daniel; Castañeda-Gómez, Jhon

254

Cyanogenic glycosides: synthesis, physiology, and phenotypic plasticity.  

PubMed

Cyanogenic glycosides (CNglcs) are bioactive plant products derived from amino acids. Structurally, these specialized plant compounds are characterized as ?-hydroxynitriles (cyanohydrins) that are stabilized by glucosylation. In recent years, improved tools within analytical chemistry have greatly increased the number of known CNglcs by enabling the discovery of less abundant CNglcs formed by additional hydroxylation, glycosylation, and acylation reactions. Cyanogenesis--the release of toxic hydrogen cyanide from endogenous CNglcs--is an effective defense against generalist herbivores but less effective against fungal pathogens. In the course of evolution, CNglcs have acquired additional roles to improve plant plasticity, i.e., establishment, robustness, and viability in response to environmental challenges. CNglc concentration is usually higher in young plants, when nitrogen is in ready supply, or when growth is constrained by nonoptimal growth conditions. Efforts are under way to engineer CNglcs into some crops as a pest control measure, whereas in other crops efforts are directed toward their removal to improve food safety. Given that many food crops are cyanogenic, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms regulating cyanogenesis so that the impact of future environmental challenges can be anticipated. PMID:24579992

Gleadow, Roslyn M; Møller, Birger Lindberg

2014-01-01

255

Cardiac optogenetics  

PubMed Central

Optogenetics is an emerging technology for optical interrogation and control of biological function with high specificity and high spatiotemporal resolution. Mammalian cells and tissues can be sensitized to respond to light by a relatively simple and well-tolerated genetic modification using microbial opsins (light-gated ion channels and pumps). These can achieve fast and specific excitatory or inhibitory response, offering distinct advantages over traditional pharmacological or electrical means of perturbation. Since the first demonstrations of utility in mammalian cells (neurons) in 2005, optogenetics has spurred immense research activity and has inspired numerous applications for dissection of neural circuitry and understanding of brain function in health and disease, applications ranging from in vitro to work in behaving animals. Only recently (since 2010), the field has extended to cardiac applications with less than a dozen publications to date. In consideration of the early phase of work on cardiac optogenetics and the impact of the technique in understanding another excitable tissue, the brain, this review is largely a perspective of possibilities in the heart. It covers the basic principles of operation of light-sensitive ion channels and pumps, the available tools and ongoing efforts in optimizing them, overview of neuroscience use, as well as cardiac-specific questions of implementation and ideas for best use of this emerging technology in the heart. PMID:23457014

2013-01-01

256

How to gain insight into the polydispersity of tannins: a combined MS and LC study.  

PubMed

In the context of the potential health benefits of food polyphenols, the bioavailability of tannins (i.e. proanthocyanidins) is a major issue, which is strongly influenced by the polydispersity and the degree of polymerisation of tannins. The average degree of polymerisation (DP) of tannins is usually determined using depolymerisation methods, which do not provide any information about their polymer distribution. Moreover, it is still a challenge to characterise tannin fractions of high polydispersity and/or containing polymers of high molecular weights, due to the limit of detection of direct mass spectrometry (MS) analysis methods. In the present work, the polydispersity of several tannin fractions is investigated by two complementary methods: a MALDI-MS method and a semi-preparative sub-fractionation. Using a combination of these methods we are able to gain insight into the DP distributions of the fractions consisting of tannins of medium and high DP. Moreover combining analyses can be useful to assess and compare the DP distributions of most tannin fractions. PMID:25038686

Mouls, Laetitia; Hugouvieux, Virginie; Mazauric, Jean-Paul; Sommerer, Nicolas; Mazerolles, Gérard; Fulcrand, Hélène

2014-12-15

257

Glycosidic inhibitors of melanogenesis from leaves of Passiflora edulis.  

PubMed

A new flavonoid glycoside, chrysin 6-C-?-rutinoside (chrysin ?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?6)-C-?-glucopyranoside; 2), and two new triterpene glycosides, (31R)-31-O-methylpassiflorine (7) and (31S)-31-O-methylpassiflorine (8), along with 14 known glycosides, including three flavonoid glycosides, 1, 3, and 4, six triterpene glycosides, 5, 6, and 9-12, three cyano glycosides, 13-15, and two other glycosides, 16 and 17, were isolated from a MeOH extract of the leaves of Passiflora edulis (passion flower; Passifloraceae). The structures of new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. Upon evaluation of compounds 1-17 against the melanogenesis in the B16 melanoma cells induced with ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH), three compounds, isoorientin (1), 2, and (6S,9R)-roseoside (17), exhibited inhibitory effects with 37.3-47.2% reduction of melanin content with no, or almost no, toxicity to the cells (90.8-100.2% cell viability) at 100??M. Western blot analysis showed that compound 2 reduced the protein levels of MITF, TRP-1, and tyrosinase, in a concentration-dependent manner while exerted almost no influence on the level of TRP-2, suggesting that this compound inhibits melanogenesis on the ?-MSH-stimulated B16 melanoma cells by, at least in part, inhibiting the expression of MITF, followed by decreasing the expression of TRP-1 and tyrosinase. In addition, compounds 1-17 were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against the Epstein?Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells. PMID:24130028

Zhang, Jie; Koike, Ryosuke; Yamamoto, Ayako; Ukiya, Motohiko; Fukatsu, Makoto; Banno, Norihiro; Miura, Motofumi; Motohashi, Shigeyasu; Tokuda, Harukuni; Akihisa, Toshihiro

2013-10-01

258

Structures of Some Novel ?-Glucosyl Diterpene Glycosides from the Glycosylation of Steviol Glycosides.  

PubMed

Four new minor diterpene glycosides with a rare ?-glucosyl linkage were isolated from a cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase glucosylated stevia extract containing more than 98% steviol glycosides. The new compounds were identified as 13-[(2-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-(4-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid-[(4-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl) ester] (1), 13-[(2-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid-[(4-O-(4-O-(4-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl ester] (2), 13-[(2-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-(4-O-(4-O-(4-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid ?-D-glucopyranosyl ester (3), and 13-[(2-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-(4-O-(4-O-(4-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl- ?-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid-[(4-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl) ester] (4) on the basis of extensive NMR and mass spectral (MS) data as well as hydrolysis studies. PMID:25486243

Prakash, Indra; Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash

2014-01-01

259

Five years patenting time frame concerning enzymatic preparation of glycosides.  

PubMed

Carbohydrates are important molecules in various technological fields. The regio- and stereoselective synthesis of oligosaccharides for food and pharmaceutical molecular design and the selective glycosylation of peptides, proteins and drugs, as well as the selective hydrolysis of natural abundant saccharidic materials affording low molecular weight high value- added products, can be all considered significant aspects. Advance in the chemical synthesis of glycosidic bond represents one of the most successful topic in organic synthetic chemistry in the last half century for the intrinsic difficulties chemists have to face dealing with carbohydrates: yields and selectivity. Biocatalytic strategies selected for high-yield and stereospecific construction of glycosidic bonds are based principally on the action of two classes of enzymes, namely glycoside hydrolases (endo- and exo-glycosidases) and glycosyltransferases although only enzymes of the second class are devoted to synthetic action in nature. Reviewing patents on the preparation of glycosides is hard to manage, here a five years time frame for this review is set, considering it a suitable compromise in terms of amount of innovation and numbers of patents to analyze. Interest of researchers for the natural sources of biocatalysts, with particular emphasis on modified enzymes and lists of the most innovative patents in cosmetic, fine chemicals and food fields will be commented. Biomolecular asset of selected patents related to glycosides will be expressly considered. Large number of enzymes will be required in future in order to realize more sustainable new enzymatic processes to answer human needs. PMID:20201801

Trincone, Antonio

2010-01-01

260

ISOFLAVONE CONJUGATES AND MINOR GLYCOSIDES EXTRACTED FROM PEANUT HEARTS USING HPLC-MS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High performance liquid chromatography and electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI) was used to characterize isoflavone glycosidic conjugates and minor glycosides extracted from peanut meal. The selected extraction method combined the removal of isoflavones and their conjugates with an alcoholic solvent...

261

Application of Ultrasound and Ozone for the Removal of Aqueous Tannin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate the enhancement of combination of ultrasound process and ozonation for the removal of aqueous tannin, tannin concentration, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total organic carbon (TOC) were analyzed in ultrasound process, ozonation, and ultrasound/ozone process. Even though ultrasound process was not effective for the removal of aqueous in terms of tannin concentration, COD, and TOC, ultrasound process could enhance the removal efficiency significantly when it was combined with ozonation. It was also revealed that COD removal resulted in partly mineralization due to insufficient oxidation power, which was induced by ultrasound and ozone. However average oxidation state of all organics in the solution was increased cogently and as a result, biodegradability could be increased meaningfully. Therefore ultrasound/ozone process could be effective pre-treatment process to biological process for the removal of aqueous tannin.

Son, Younggyu; Lim, Junghyun; Cui, Mingcan; Lim, Myunghee; Kweon, Bo-Youn; Khim, Jeehyeong

2009-07-01

262

Purity assessment of condensed tannin fractions by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unambiguous investigation of condensed tannin (CT) structure-activity relationships in biological systems requires the use of highly enriched CT fractions of defined chemical purity. Purification of CTs from Sorghum bicolor, Trifolium repens, Theobroma cacao, Lespedeza cuneata, Lotus pedunculatus, a...

263

Two new flavonol glycosides from Dimocarpus longan leaves.  

PubMed

From the extracts of Dimocarpus longan Lour leaves, 2 unusual flavonol glycosides, quercetin 3-O-(3?-O-2?-methyl-2?-hydroxylethyl)-?-D-xyloside (1) and quercetin 3-O-(3?-O-2?-methyl-2?-hydroxylethyl)-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (2), as well as 10 known compounds including 2 flavonol glycosides, afzelin (3) and kaempferol-3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (4), 2 flavans, (-)-epicatechin (5) and proanthocyanidin A-2 (6), 3 triterpenoids, friedelin (7), epifriedelanol (8) and ?-amyrin (9), a peptide, N-benzoylphenylalanyl-N-benzoylphenylalaninate (10), and 2 sterols, ?-sitosterol (11) and daucosterol (12) were isolated and identified by using combination of mass spectrometry and various 1D and 2D NMR techniques. This is the first report of flavonoid glycosides possessing a 2-methyl-2-hydroxylethoxyl group in sugar moiety from D. longan. PMID:25325562

Xue, Yongmei; Wang, Wenjing; Liu, Yujiao; Zhan, Rui; Chen, Yegao

2015-01-01

264

Anticancer diarylheptanoid glycosides from the inner bark of Betula papyrifera.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigations of the MeOH extract of Betula papyrifera inner bark led to the isolation of ten phenolic compounds of the following types: diarylheptanoid glycosides (1-4), a diarylheptanoid (5), a lignan (6), flavonoids (7-8) and chavicol glycosides (9-10). Among them, the diarylheptanoid glycoside, (S)-1,7-bis-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-heptan-3-one-5-O-alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, papyriferoside A (1), was isolated and its structure was determined on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, HPLC-MS, as well as high resolution mass spectroscopic data. Platyphylloside (4) exerted the strongest cytotoxic activity of all isolated compounds with IC(50) values ranging from 10.3 to 13.8 microM. PMID:17599372

Mshvildadze, Vakhtang; Legault, Jean; Lavoie, Serge; Gauthier, Charles; Pichette, André

2007-10-01

265

Selective hydrolysis of flavonoid glycosides by Curvularia lunata.  

PubMed

Twelve flavonoid glycosides were involved in the biotransformation of the glycosyl moieties by Curvularia lunata 3.4381, and the products were analyzed by UPLC/PDA-Q-TOF-MS(E). Curvularia lunata displayed hydrolyzing activities on the terminal Rha or Glc units of some flavonoid glycosides. Terminal Rha with a 1 ? 2 linkage of isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidoside and typhaneoside could be hydrolyzed by Curvularia lunata, but terminal Rha with a 1 ? 6 linkage of rutin, typhaneoside, and quercetin-3-O-apiosyl-(1 ? 2)-[rhamnosyl-(1 ? 6)]-glucoside could not be hydrolyzed. Curvularia lunata could also hydrolyze the Glc of icariin, floramanoside B, and naringin. This is the first report of the hydrolysis of glycosyl units of flavonoid glycosides by Curvularia lunata. A new way to convert naringin to naringenin was found in this research. PMID:24345511

Liu, Jing-Yuan; Yu, He-Shui; Feng, Bing; Kang, Li-Ping; Pang, Xu; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Zhao, Yang; Li, Chun-Mei; Zhang, Yi; Ma, Bai-Ping

2013-11-01

266

Cytotoxic sulfated triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Pseudocolochirus violaceus.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the active BuOH extract of the sea cucumber Pseudocolochirus violaceus resulted in the isolation of three new sulfated triterpene glycosides, i.e., violaceusides I, II, and III (1-3, resp.), as active compounds causing morphological abnormality of Pyricularia oryzae mycelia. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 2D-NMR and MS experiments, as well as chemical evidence. Compounds 1-3 exhibit the same structural features, i.e., the presence of a 16-oxo group in the holostane-type triterpene aglycone with the C(7)=C(8) bond, but differ in the side chains and the tetrasaccharide moieties. Compound 1 possesses one sulfate group, while 2 and 3 are disulfated glycosides. All the glycosides showed significant in vitro cytotoxicities against human gastric cancer MKN-45 and human colon cancer HCT-116 cells. PMID:17193313

Zhang, Shu-Yu; Yi, Yang-Hua; Tang, Hai-Feng

2006-07-01

267

Ecdysteroid glycosides: identification, chromatographic properties, and biological significance.  

PubMed

Ecdysteroid glycosides are found in both animals and plants. The chromatographic behavior of these molecules is characteristic, as they appear much more polar than their corresponding free aglycones when analyzed by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), whereas the presence of glycosidic moieties has a very limited (if any) impact on polarity when using reversed-phase HPLC. Biological activity is greatly reduced because the presence of this bulky substituent probably impairs the interaction with ecdysteroid receptor(s). 2-Deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone 22-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, which has been isolated from the dried aerial parts of Silene nutans (Caryophyllaceae), is used as a model compound to describe the rationale of ecdysteroid glycoside purification and identification. PMID:15842754

Maria, Annick; Girault, Jean-Pierre; Saatov, Ziyadilla; Harmatha, Juraj; Dinan, Laurence; Lafont, René

2005-03-01

268

Chemical and biological properties of quinochalcone C-glycosides from the florets of Carthamus tinctorius.  

PubMed

Quinochalcone C-glycosides are regarded as characteristic components that have only been isolated from the florets of Carthamus tinctorius. Recently, quinochalcone C-glycosides were found to have multiple pharmacological activities, which has attracted the attention of many researchers to explore these compounds. This review aims to summarize quinochalcone C-glycosides' physicochemical properties, chromatographic behavior, spectroscopic characteristics, as well as their biological activities, which will be helpful for further study and development of quinochalcone C-glycosides. PMID:24335575

Yue, Shijun; Tang, Yuping; Li, Shujiao; Duan, Jin-Ao

2013-01-01

269

Acceleration of the rate of ethanol fermentation by addition of nitrogen in high tannin grain sorghum  

SciTech Connect

In this communication, the authors show that accelerated rates of ethanol production, comparable to sorghum varieties containing low levels of tannins and to corn, can occur without the removal of the tannins. The basis of the inhibition appears to be a lack of sufficient nitrogen in the mash for protein synthesis required to support an accelerated fermentative metabolism in Saccharomyces. No inhibition of the enzymes used for starch hydrolysis was found.

Mullins, J.T.; NeSmith, C.C.

1987-01-01

270

Toxicity of Vegetable Tannins on Crustacea Associated with Alpine Mosquito Breeding Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of tannins from the environmental vegetation naturally polluting Alpine mosquito breeding sites was experimentally investigated by studying the toxicity of tannic acid, a natural hydrolyzable tannin, on the nontarget crustacean fauna associated with culicine populations. Bioassays indicate that exposure to tannic acid at concentrations from 0.06 to 2.0 mM is more deleterious to Chydorus sphaericus, Diaptomus castor, and

M.-P. Pautou; D. Rey; J. P. David; J.-C. Meyran

2000-01-01

271

Goats fed tannin-containing leaves do not exhibit toxic syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blood metabolic profile was examined in 2–3 year old non-lactating and non-pregnant Mamber goats consuming Quercus calliprinos (oak), Pistacia lentiscus (pistacia) and Ceratonia siliqua (carob) leaves to determine whether intake of tannin-rich fodder induces subclinical systemic toxicity. Total phenolic and condensed tannin content ranked in the order pistacia > oak > carob. Goats did not exhibit toxic effects following

N. Silanikove; N. Gilboa; A. Perevolotsky; Z. Nitsan

1996-01-01

272

Endothelial cell cytotoxicity of cotton bracts tannin and aqueous cotton bracts extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an in vitro cytotoxicity assay based on the release of ⁵¹Cr from cultured porcine thoracic aortic and pulmonary arterial endothelial cells, we have demonstrated that cotton bracts tannin is a potent endothelial cell cytotoxin. It produces dose-dependent lethal injury to both types of endothelial cells with the aortic cells, being somewhat more sensitive to tannin-mediated injury than the pulmonary

C. M. Johnson; M. N. Hanson; M. S. Rohrbach

1986-01-01

273

Effect of chestnut tannins on the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Among the natural products extracted from plants, tannins have been reported to possess antihelmintic properties especially\\u000a for gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants. Also, they are toxic to a wide range of fungi, bacteria and yeasts. Therefore,\\u000a an in vitro and a glasshouse pot experiments were undertaken to evaluate the effect of chestnut tannins on the control of the root-knot\\u000a nematode Meloidogyne

L. Maistrello; G. Vaccari; N. Sasanelli

2010-01-01

274

Hg(II) removal from aqueous solution by bayberry tannin-immobilized collagen fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel adsorbent was prepared by immobilizing barberry tannin (BT) onto collagen fiber, which was found effective to remove Hg(II) from aqueous solution. The bayberry tannin-immobilized collagen fiber (BTICF) shows high adsorption capacity to Hg(II) in a wide pH range of 4.0–9.0, and a maximum adsorption capacity (198.49mg\\/g) was reached at pH 7.0 and 303K when the initial concentration of

Xin Huang; Xuepin Liao; Bi Shi

2009-01-01

275

Non-toxic, zero emission tannin-glyoxal adhesives for wood panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study different tannin-glyoxal glue mixes for particleboard were studied.\\u000a \\u000a Gel times at 100 °C of 45% water solutions of commercial pine tannin extract (Pinus radiata ex Diteco Ltda, Chile) with respectively\\u000a 8% paraformaldehyde and 9% glyoxal were done at different pHs. Duplicate one layer laboratory particleboards were prepared\\u000a by adding 12% total resin solids of adhesives composed of commercial

Aldo Ballerini; A. Despres; Antonio Pizzi

2005-01-01

276

Phenylethanoid and flavone glycosides from Ruellia tuberosa L.  

PubMed

A new phenylethanoid glycoside, isocassifolioside (8), and two new flavone glycosides, hispidulin 7-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1'? ? 2?)-O-?-D-glucuronopyranoside (11) and pectolinaringenin 7-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1'? ? 2?)-O-?-D-glucuronopyranoside (12) were isolated from the aerial portions of Ruellia tuberosa L., together with verbascoside (1), isoverbascoside (2), nuomioside (3), isonuomioside (4), forsythoside B (5), paucifloside (6), cassifolioside (7), hispidulin 7-O-?-D-glucuronopyranoside (9) and comanthoside B (10). The structure elucidations were based on analyses of chemical and spectroscopic data including 1D- and 2D-NMR. The isolated compounds 1-12 exhibited radical scavenging activity using ORAC assay. PMID:22447282

Phakeovilay, Chiobouaphong; Disadee, Wannaporn; Sahakitpichan, Poolsak; Sitthimonchai, Somkit; Kittakoop, Prasat; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kanchanapoom, Tripetch

2013-01-01

277

New anthraquinone glycosides from the roots of Morinda citrifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six new anthraquinone glycosides: digiferruginol-1-methylether-11-O-?-gentiobioside (1); digiferruginol-11-O-?-primeveroside (2); damnacanthol-11-O-?-primeveroside (3); 1-methoxy-2-primeverosyloxymethyl-anthraquinone-3-olate (4); 1-hydroxy-2-primeverosyloxymethyl-anthraquinone-3-olate (5); and 1-hydroxy-5,6-dimethoxy-2-methyl-7-primeverosyloxyanthraquinone (6) were isolated from Morinda citrifolia (Rubiaceae) roots together with four known anthraquinone glycosides. The structures of the new compounds were established using spectral methods. For five of the new compounds, the sugar is attached via the hydroxymethyl group of the anthraquinone C-2 carbon.

Kohei Kamiya; Wakako Hamabe; Shogo Tokuyama; Toshiko Satake

2009-01-01

278

Synthesis and photochromic properties of configurationally varied azobenzene glycosides.  

PubMed

Spatial orientation of carbohydrates is a meaningful parameter in carbohydrate recognition processes. To vary orientation of sugars with temporal and spatial resolution, photosensitive glycoconjugates with favorable photochromic properties appear to be opportune. Here, a series of azobenzene glycosides were synthesized, employing glycoside synthesis and Mills reaction, to allow "switching" of carbohydrate orientation by reversible E/Z isomerization of the azobenzene N=N double bond. Their photochromic properties were tested and effects of azobenzene substitution as well as the effect of anomeric configuration and the orientation of the sugars 2-hydroxy group were evaluated. PMID:25050228

Chandrasekaran, Vijayanand; Johannes, Eugen; Kobarg, Hauke; Sönnichsen, Frank D; Lindhorst, Thisbe K

2014-06-01

279

Effect of alkali treatment on physiological activity of cotton condensed tannin.  

PubMed Central

Cotton dusts contain condensed tannins and endotoxins, which are suspected of contributing to the development of acute and chronic biological responses in some cotton textile mill workers. Condensed tannin extracted from cotton dust was coated on to cellulose powder, and the tannin coated powder was treated with an alkali solvent system previously developed to reduce the endotoxin content and pulmonary toxicity of cotton dust. Physiological activities of the dusts and powders were compared by assaying the production of the arachidonic acid metabolites prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha), thromboxane A2 (TxA2) (the precursor to thromboxane B2 (TxB2], leukotriene C4 (LTC4), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by guinea pig pulmonary cells obtained by lung lavage. Cotton dust stimulated the pulmonary cells to produce a total of 29 pg metabolites per 10(6) cells. Production of metabolites by cells stimulated with tannin coated cellulose powder was reduced to 8.3 pg/10(6) cells. Alkali treatment of the tannin coated cellulose powder resulted in a further decrease in its ability to stimulate the cells, producing 3.5 pg metabolites per 10(6) cells. The ability of the dusts and powders to stimulate production of metabolites of arachidonic acid by pulmonary cells from guinea pigs was highly correlated with tannin content of the materials, but not with endotoxin content as measured by the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. PMID:2223662

Rousselle, M A; Elissalde, M H; Domelsmith, L N

1990-01-01

280

Antitumor effect of agrimoniin, a tannin of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb., on transplantable rodent tumors.  

PubMed

The effect of agrimoniin, a tannin contained in Agrimonia pilosa LEDEB., on ascites type and solid type rodent tumors was investigated. When agrimoniin was intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered at dosages over 10 mg/kg before or after the MM2 cell i.p. inoculation, this tannin almost completely rejected the tumor growth in the mice. This tannin prolonged the life span of mice bearing MM2 or cured by the intravenous or per oral pre- or postmedication. Agrimoniin also inhibited the growth of MH134 and Meth-A solid type tumors. Agrimoniin showed strong cytotoxicity on MM2 cells in vitro, but the activity was diminished to about 4% of the initial activity by the addition of fetal calf serum to the culture. On the other hand, i.p. injection of agrimoniin increased the number of peripheral white blood cells and the ratio of monocytes. On the 4th day after the i.p. injection of the tannin, cytotoxic adherent peritoneal exudate cells were also increased. The spleen of the mice was enlarged, and the spleen cells possessed the capacity to take up 3H-thymidine. Agrimoniin showed weak direct migration activity against spleen cells from non-treated mice. These results indicate that agrimoniin is a potent antitumor tannin and suggest that the antitumor effect may be due to this tannin enhancing the immune response of the host animals through the actions on tumor cells and some immunocytes. PMID:3573425

Miyamoto, K; Kishi, N; Koshiura, R

1987-02-01

281

Annotation and comparative analysis of the glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium distachyon  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Glycoside hydrolases cleave the bond between a carbohydrate and another carbohydrate, a protein, lipid or other moiety. Genes encoding glycoside hydrolases are found in a wide range of organisms, from archea to animals, and are relatively abundant in plant genomes. In plants, these enzymes are involved in diverse processes, including starch metabolism, defense, and cell-wall remodeling. Glycoside hydrolase genes

Ludmila Tyler; Jennifer N Bragg; Jiajie Wu; Xiaohan Yang; Gerald A Tuskan; John P Vogel

2010-01-01

282

Bioactive saponins and glycosides. XXVII. Structures of new cucurbitane-type triterpene glycosides and antiallergic constituents from Citrullus colocynthis.  

PubMed

The methanolic extract from the fruit of Citrullus colocynthis showed an inhibitory effect on ear passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reactions as a type I allergic model in mice. From the methanolic extract, two new cucurbitane-type triterpene glycosides, colocynthosides A and B, were isolated together with 17 known constituents. The structures of colocynthosides A and B were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. In addition, the principal cucurbitane-type triterpene glycoside, cucurbitacin E 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and its aglycon, cucurbitacin E, exhibited the antiallergic activity at a dose of 100 and 1.25 mg/kg, p.o., respectively. PMID:17329885

Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Morikawa, Toshio; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Nakamura, Akihiko; Matsuhira, Koudai; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi

2007-03-01

283

Glycosides of marine invertebrates. XV. A new triterpene glycoside — Holothurin A 1 — From Caribbean holothurians of the family Holothuriidae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A glycoside, holothurin A1 has been isolated from the polar glyosidic fractions of the holothuriansH. floridana andH. grisea. The complete structure of the glycoside has been established; it is: 3?-[0-(3-0-methyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-(1 ? 3)-0-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1\\u000a ? 4)-0-?-D-quinovopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-(4-sulfato-?-D-xylopyranosyl)oxy]holosta-9(11)-ene-12?,17?,22?-triol. Details of the IR\\u000a and1H and13C NMR spectra of the compounds obtained are given.

G. K. Oleinikova; T. A. Kuznetsova; N. S. Ivanova; A. I. Kalinovskii; N. V. Rovnykh; G. B. Elyakov

1982-01-01

284

In vitro propagation and production of cardiotonic glycosides in shoot cultures of Digitalis purpurea L. by elicitation and precursor feeding.  

PubMed

Digitalis purpurea L. (Scrophulariaceae; Foxglove) is a source of cardiotonic glycosides such as digitoxin and digoxin which are commercially applied in the treatment to strengthen cardiac diffusion and to regulate heart rhythm. This investigation deals with in vitro propagation and elicited production of cardiotonic glycosides digitoxin and digoxin in shoot cultures of D. purpurea L. In vitro germinated seedlings were used as a primary source of explants. Multiple shoot formation was achieved for three explant types (nodal, internodal, and leaf) cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with several treatments of cytokinins (6-benzyladenine-BA; kinetin-Kin; and thidiazuron-TDZ) and auxins (indole-3-acetic acid-IAA; ?-naphthaleneacetic acid-NAA; and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid-2,4-D). Maximum multiple shoots (12.7?±?0.6) were produced from nodal explants on MS?+?7.5 ?M BA. Shoots were rooted in vitro on MS containing 15 ?M IAA. Rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized. To further maintain the multiple shoot induction, mother tissue was cut into four equal parts and repeatedly sub-cultured on fresh shoot induction liquid medium after each harvest. On adaptation of this strategy, an average of 18 shoots per explant could be produced. This strategy was applied for the production of biomass and glycosides digitoxin and digoxin in shoot cultures on MS medium supplemented with 7.5 ?M BA and several treatments with plant growth regulators, incubation period, abiotic (salicylic acid, mannitol, sorbitol, PEG-6000, NaCl, and KCl), biotic (Aspergillus niger, Helminthosporium sp., Alternaria sp., chitin, and yeast extract) elicitors, and precursors (progesterone, cholesterol, and squalene). The treatment of KCl, mycelial mass of Helminthosporium sp., and progesterone were highly effective for the production of cardenolides. In the presence of progesterone (200 to 300 mg/l), digitoxin and digoxin accumulation was enhanced by 9.1- and 11.9-folds respectively. PMID:23081776

Patil, Jitendra Gopichand; Ahire, Mahendra Laxman; Nitnaware, Kirti Manik; Panda, Sayantan; Bhatt, Vijay P; Kishor, Polavarapu B Kavi; Nikam, Tukaram Dayaram

2013-03-01

285

A new dinorclerone diterpenoid glycoside from Tinospora sinensis.  

PubMed

A new dinorclerone diterpenoid glycoside, named 1-deacetyltinosposide A (1), was isolated from the stem of Tinospora sinensis together with 10 known compounds. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic techniques (MS, IR, 1D and 2D NMR experiments). PMID:20013467

Dong, Lang-Ping; Chen, Chang-Xiang; Ni, Wei; Xie, Bai-Bo; Li, Jun-Zhu; Liu, Hai-Yang

2010-01-01

286

Steroidal glycosides from the aerial part of Asclepias incarnata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerial part of Asclepias incarnata afforded 34 pregnane glycosides. These were confirmed to have lineolon, isolineolon, ikemagenin, 12-O-nicotinoyllineolon, deacylmetaplexigenin, metaplexigenin, rostratamine, 12-O-acetyllineolon, 15?-hydroxylineolon and 15?-hydroxyisolineolon moieties as their aglycones, and 2,6-dideoxyhexopyranose, glucopyranose and allopyranose as the corresponding sugar constituents. Their structures were determined using both spectroscopic and chemical methods.

Tsutomu Warashina; Tadataka Noro

2000-01-01

287

Glycosidation of Methanol with Ribose: An Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exercise provides students hands-on experience with the topics of glycosidation, hemiacetal and acetal formation, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ([superscript 1]H NMR) spectroscopy, and kinetic and thermodynamic product formation. In this laboratory experiment, the methyl acetal of ribose is synthesized, and the kinetic and thermodynamic…

Simon, Erin; Cook, Katie; Pritchard, Meredith R.; Stripe, Wayne; Bruch, Martha; Bendinskas, Kestutis

2010-01-01

288

Hydrolytical instability of hydroxyanthraquinone glycosides in pressurized liquid extraction.  

PubMed

Hydroxyanthraquinones represent a group of pharmacologically active compounds characteristic for plants of the Rumex and Rheum genera. These compounds in the human intestine act as laxative compounds. As they cause the greatest side effects and are often abused by the public, their accurate analysis in plants and plant-derived laxatives is much needed. To isolate compounds from plants, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) is frequently applied. The technique has been regarded, so far, as very effective, even in isolation of sensitive compounds for which exposure time in high temperature has a negative impact. This work demonstrates some interesting and surprising results accompanying PLE of hydroxyanthraquinones from the Rumex crispus L. root using methanol/water mixtures as extractant. The presented results demonstrate that glycoside forms of hydroxyanthraquinones (emodin-8-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, chrysophanol-8-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, and physcion-8-O-?-D-glucopyranoside) are hydrolytically unstable even in the short-lasting PLE. The increase of water concentration in the extractant leads to the increase of the transformation degree of the glycoside forms to the corresponding aglycones (emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion), increasing the concentration of the latter. The rise in the PLE temperature accelerates the hydrolytical degradation of the glycoside forms. The extension of the extraction time also intensifies this process. The presented results show that extraction of glycosides using extractants containing water can lead to false conclusions about the chemical composition of plants. PMID:24652155

Wianowska, Dorota

2014-05-01

289

A biflavonoid glycoside from Lomatogonium carinthiacum (Wulf) Reichb.  

PubMed

A biflavonoid glycoside with a new carbon skeleton, named carinoside A, was isolated from the n-BuOH crude extract of the whole plant of Lomatogonium carinthiacum (Wulf) Reichb. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by using spectroscopic methods, including UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS and extensive 1D and 2D NMR techniques. PMID:25260189

Wang, Qinghu; Han, Narenchaoketu; Wu, Xiaolan; Tai, Wenquan; Dai, Nayintai; Wu, Rongjun; Wu, Jiesi; Bao, Bagenna

2015-01-01

290

Curation of characterized glycoside hydrolases of Fungal origin  

PubMed Central

Fungi produce a wide range of extracellular enzymes to break down plant cell walls, which are composed mainly of cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose. Among them are the glycoside hydrolases (GH), the largest and most diverse family of enzymes active on these substrates. To facilitate research and development of enzymes for the conversion of cell-wall polysaccharides into fermentable sugars, we have manually curated a comprehensive set of characterized fungal glycoside hydrolases. Characterized glycoside hydrolases were retrieved from protein and enzyme databases, as well as literature repositories. A total of 453 characterized glycoside hydrolases have been cataloged. They come from 131 different fungal species, most of which belong to the phylum Ascomycota. These enzymes represent 46 different GH activities and cover 44 of the 115 CAZy GH families. In addition to enzyme source and enzyme family, available biochemical properties such as temperature and pH optima, specific activity, kinetic parameters and substrate specificities were recorded. To simplify comparative studies, enzyme and species abbreviations have been standardized, Gene Ontology terms assigned and reference to supporting evidence provided. The annotated genes have been organized in a searchable, online database called mycoCLAP (Characterized Lignocellulose-Active Proteins of fungal origin). It is anticipated that this manually curated collection of biochemically characterized fungal proteins will be used to enhance functional annotation of novel GH genes. Database URL: http://mycoCLAP.fungalgenomics.ca/ PMID:21622642

Murphy, Caitlin; Powlowski, Justin; Wu, Min; Butler, Greg; Tsang, Adrian

2011-01-01

291

Computational analysis of the phylogeny and thermodynamics of glycoside hydrolases  

Microsoft Academic Search

My research has focused on using computation by means of phylogenetic analysis and molecular mechanics docking studies to further extend knowledge of glycoside hydrolases (GHs). Phylogenetic analysis was used to crystallize the fundamental differences between specific types of cellulases in GH family 6 (GH6). Cellulase enzymes were then examined for functional divergence in order to determine the cause of substrate

John Blakely Mertz

2008-01-01

292

A New Flavanonol Glycoside from Adansonia digitata Roots.  

PubMed

A new flavanonol glycoside isolated from the roots of Adansonia digitata has been characterised as 3,7-dihydroxy flavan-4-one-5-O-beta- D-galactopyranosyl (1 --> 4)-beta- D-glucopyranoside on the basis of degradation, spectral and chemical studies. PMID:17340272

Chauhan, J S; Kumar, S; Chaturvedi, R

1984-02-01

293

A new tomato pregnane glycoside from the overripe fruits.  

PubMed

A new pregnane glycoside has been isolated from the overripe fruits of Cherry tomato (Mini tomato), Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme (DUNAL) ALEF. The structure was determined to be 3-O-beta-lycotetraosyl 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha-pregn-16-en-20-one on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. The seasonal variation of the tomato saponin is discussed. PMID:15863937

Fujiwara, Yukio; Yoshizaki, Miho; Matsushita, Sayaka; Yahara, Shoji; Yae, Emiko; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Ono, Masateru; Nohara, Toshihiro

2005-05-01

294

Two new dammarane-type glycosides from Phlomis umbrosa.  

PubMed

Two new dammarane-type glycosides, phlomisumbroside A (1) and phlomisumbroside B (2), together with 15 known compounds (3-17) were isolated from the leaves of Phlomis umbrosa Turcz. Their structures were established by the spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR techniques. PMID:23972014

Ding, Ming-Ming; Yan, Fu-Lin; Tan, Jing; Bai, Yi-Xiao; Wang, Xiang; Yang, Yan-Xia

2014-01-01

295

Flavones and flavonol glycosides from Eupatorium cannabinum L.  

PubMed

The 6-methoxyflavones hispidulin and eupafolin have been identified for the first time from the aerial parts of Eupatorium cannabinum L. The presence of the previously known flavonol glycosides astragalin, kaempferol-3-rutinoside, hyperoside, isoquercitrin and rutin could be confirmed. Hispidulin, eupafolin and rutin were screened for cytotoxicity in vitro. PMID:2594467

Elema, E T; Schripsema, J; Malingré, T M

1989-10-20

296

Study on the Inhibitory Effect of Tannins and Flavonoids against the 1,1Diphenyl2-picrylhydrazyl Radical  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-one tannins and forty-one flavonoids isolated from Oriental medicinal herbs were evaluated for their antioxidant ability with a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-generating system. The results showed that tannins and certain flavonoids are potential free-radical scavengers, and that their activity against the DPPH radical is closely associated with their chemical structure. A comparison of the two classes of compounds showed that tannins

Takako Yokozawa; Cui Ping Chen; Erbo Dong; Takashi Tanaka; Gen-Ichiro Nonaka; Itsuo Nishioka

1998-01-01

297

Vegetable and synthetic tannins induce hormesis\\/toxicity in sea urchin early development and in algal growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mimosa tannin and phenol-based synthetic tannin (syntan) were tested for toxicity to sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus and Sphaerechinus granularis) early development and to marine algal growth (Dunaliella tertiolecta). Sea urchin embryogenesis was affected by vegetable tannin and syntan water extracts (VTWE and STWE) at levels ?1mg\\/L. Developmental defects were significantly decreased at VTWE and STWE levels of 0.1 and 0.3mg\\/L

Elena De Nicola; Süreyya Meriç; Marialuisa Gallo; Mario Iaccarino; Claudio Della Rocca; Giusy Lofrano; Teresa Russo; Giovanni Pagano

2007-01-01

298

Rigidity, conformation, and solvation of native and oxidized tannin macromolecules in water-ethanol solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied by light scattering and small angle x-rays scattering (SAXS) conformations and solvation of plant tannins (oligomers and polymers) in mixed water-ethanol solutions. Their structures are not simple linear chains but contain about 6% of branching. Ab initio reconstruction reveals that monomers within a branch are closely bound pairwise. The chains are rather rigid, with the Kuhn length b =13±3 nm, corresponding to about 35 linearly bound monomers. Contribution of solvation layer to SAXS intensity varies in a nonmonotonic way with ethanol content ?A, which is an indication of amphipathic nature of tannin molecules. Best solvent composition ?AB is a decreasing function of polymerization degree N, in agreement with increasing water solubility of tannins with N. Polymers longer than b present a power-law behavior I ˜Q-d in the SAXS profile at high momentum transfer Q. The monotonic decrease in d with increasing ?A (from 2.4 in water to 1.9 in ethanol) points that the tannins are more compact in water than in ethanol, presumably due to attractive intramolecular interactions in water. Tannins were then oxidized in controlled conditions similar to real biological or food systems. Oxidation does not produce any intermolecular condensation, but generates additional intramolecular links. Some oxidation products are insoluble in water rich solvent. For that reason, we identify these species as a fraction of natural tannins called "T1" in the notation of Zanchi et al. [Langmuir 23, 9949 (2007)]. Within the fraction left soluble after oxidation, conformations of polymeric tannins, despite their higher rigidity, remain sensitive to solvent composition.

Zanchi, Dražen; Konarev, Petr V.; Tribet, Christophe; Baron, Alain; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Guyot, Sylvain

2009-06-01

299

Botanical traceability of commercial tannins using the mineral profile and stable isotopes.  

PubMed

Commercial tannins are natural polyphenolic compounds extracted from different plant tissues such as gall, the wood of different species and fruit. In the food industry they are mainly used as flavourings and food ingredients, whereas in winemaking they are classified as clarification agents for wine protein stabilisation, although colour stabilisation, metal removal, unpleasant thiol removal and rheological correction are also well-known and desired effects. Due to their particular technical properties and very different costs, the possibility of correct identification of the real botanical origin of tannins can be considered a primary target in oenology research and in fulfilling the technical and economic requirements of the wine industry. For some categories of tannins encouraging results have already been achieved by considering sugar or polyphenolic composition. For the first time this work verifies the possibility of determining the botanical origin of tannins on the basis of the mineral element profile and analysis of the (13) C/(12) C isotopic ratio. One hundred two commercial tannins originating from 10 different botanical sources (grapes, oak, gall, chestnut, fruit trees, quebracho, tea, acacia, officinal plants and tara) were analysed to determine 57 elements and the (13) C/(12) C isotopic ratio, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry, respectively. Forward stepwise discriminant analysis provided good discrimination between the 8 most abundant groups, with 100% correct re-classification. The model was then validated five times on subsets of 10% of the overall samples, randomly extracted, achieving satisfactory results. With a similar approach it was also possible to distinguish toasted and untoasted oak tannins as well as tannins from grape skin and grape seeds. PMID:25230175

Bertoldi, Daniela; Santato, Alessandro; Paolini, Mauro; Barbero, Alice; Camin, Federica; Nicolini, Giorgio; Larcher, Roberto

2014-09-01

300

Dietary crude protein and tannin impact dairy manure chemistry and ammonia emissions from incubated soils.  

PubMed

Excess crude protein (CP) in dairy cow diets is excreted mostly as urea nitrogen (N), which increases ammonia (NH) emissions from dairy farms and heightens human health and environmental concerns. Feeding less CP and more tannin to dairy cows may enhance feed N use and milk production, abate NH emissions, and conserve the fertilizer N value of manure. Lab-scale ventilated chambers were used to evaluate the impacts of CP and tannin feeding on slurry chemistry, NH emissions, and soil inorganic N levels after slurry application to a sandy loam soil and a silt loam soil. Slurry from lactating Holstein dairy cows (Bos taurus) fed two levels of dietary CP (low CP [LCP], 155 g kg; high CP [HCP], 168 g kg) each fed at four levels of dietary tannin extract, a mixture from red quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii) and chestnut (Castanea sativa) trees (0 tannin [0T]; low tannin [LT], 4.5 g kg; medium tannin [MT], 9.0 g kg; and high tannin [HT], 18.0 g kg) were applied to soil-containing lab-scale chambers, and NH emissions were measured 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after slurry application. Emissions from the HCP slurry were 1.53 to 2.57 times greater ( < 0.05) than from the LCP slurry. At trial's end (48 h), concentrations of inorganic N in soils were greater ( < 0.05) in HCP slurry-amended soils than in LCP slurry-amended soils. Emissions from HT slurry were 28 to 49% lower ( < 0.05) than emissions from 0T slurry, yet these differences did not affect soil inorganic N levels. Emissions from the sandy loam soil were 1.07 to 1.15 times greater ( < 0.05) than from silt loam soil, a result that decreased soil inorganic N in the sandy loam compared with the silt loam soil. Larger-scale and longer-term field trails are needed to ascertain the effectiveness of feeding tannin extracts to dairy cows in abating NH loss from land-applied slurry and the impact of tannin-containing slurry on soil N cycles. PMID:22031559

Powell, J M; Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A

2011-01-01

301

Inactivation of tannins in milled sorghum grain through steeping in dilute NaOH solution.  

PubMed

Steeping milled sorghum in up to 0.4% NaOH was investigated as a method of tannin inactivation. NaOH steeping substantially reduced assayable total phenols and tannins in both Type III and Type II sorghums and with Type III sorghum caused a 60-80% reduction in ?-amylase inhibition compared to a 20% reduction by water steeping. NaOH treatment also reduced starch liquefaction time and increased free amino nitrogen. Type II tannin sorghum did not inhibit ?-amylase and consequently the NaOH treatment had no effect. HPLC and LC-MS of the tannin extracts indicated a general trend of increasing proanthocyanidin/procyanidin size with increasing NaOH concentration and steeping time, coupled with a reduction in total area of peaks resolved. These show that the NaOH treatment forms highly polymerised tannin compounds, too large to assay and to interact with the ?-amylase. NaOH pre-treatment of Type III sorghums could enable their utilisation in bioethanol production. PMID:25577074

Adetunji, Adeoluwa I; Duodu, Kwaku G; Taylor, John R N

2015-05-15

302

Effects of tannins on fruit selection in three southern African frugivorous birds.  

PubMed

Tannins are common secondary compounds in plant material and are known for their ability to bind to protein which reduces nitrogen availability in the diet. In fruits, these compounds are responsible for their astringency which is thought to result in reduced food intake. In this study, the repellent effects of tannins were examined in three species of frugivorous birds: red-winged starlings Onychognathus morio, speckled mousebirds Colius striatus and Cape white-eyes Zosterops virens. Birds were fed artificial fruit diets containing varying levels of tannins in paired choice tests with the amount of food eaten by birds used to determine preference. Red-winged starlings were attracted to the control diet, indifferent to the medium tannin diet and deterred by the high tannin diet whereas speckled mousebirds and Cape white-eyes were not deterred at all concentrations. The discrepancy in the results was attributed to differences in taste sensitivity, tolerance levels and detoxification mechanisms of secondary compounds between species. Because fruit selection and ultimately fruit removal rates affect plant community composition, the disparity in the results suggests that frugivorous birds do not contribute equally to plant community dynamics. However, plant secondary compounds in fruits are diverse and their effects are similarly diverse and there is potential that different groups of secondary compounds generate disparate effects. Similar studies on other types of secondary compounds may thus contribute towards a broader understanding of the role of secondary compounds in mediating fruit-frugivore interactions. PMID:25522953

Zungu, Manqoba M; Downs, Colleen T

2015-02-01

303

Univariate and multivariate analysis of tannin-impregnated wood species using vibrational spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Vibrational spectroscopy is one of the most powerful tools in polymer science. Three main techniques--Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), FT-Raman spectroscopy, and FT near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy--can also be applied to wood science. Here, these three techniques were used to investigate the chemical modification occurring in wood after impregnation with tannin-hexamine preservatives. These spectroscopic techniques have the capacity to detect the externally added tannin. FT-IR has very strong sensitivity to the aromatic peak at around 1610 cm(-1) in the tannin-treated samples, whereas FT-Raman reflects the peak at around 1600 cm(-1) for the externally added tannin. This high efficacy in distinguishing chemical features was demonstrated in univariate analysis and confirmed via cluster analysis. Conversely, the results of the NIR measurements show noticeable sensitivity for small differences. For this technique, multivariate analysis is required and with this chemometric tool, it is also possible to predict the concentration of tannin on the surface. PMID:24694706

Schnabel, Thomas; Musso, Maurizio; Tondi, Gianluca

2014-01-01

304

Immunocytochemical studies on the origin and deposition sites of hydrolyzable tannins.  

PubMed

Two specific antibodies, directed toward hydrolyzable tannins, i.e. polygalloylated or oxidized derivatives of 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloylglucose, and toward an acyltransferase from oak leaves that catalyzes the biosynthesis of this principal precursor, were used in immunocytochemical studies to determine the intracellular sites of origin and deposition of these polyphenolic plant constituents. Immunostaining of semi-thin sections from leaves and roots of young pedunculate oak (Quercus robur, syn. Quercus pedunculata) plants with marker enzymes and immunogold labeling of ultra-thin sections revealed immunoreactive sites for both enzyme and hydrolyzable tannins in chloroplasts, cell walls and intercellular spaces. The latter non-cytoplasmic (apoplast) compartments displayed characteristic aggregations of these two epitopes, thus indicating an intimate association of the biocatalyst and its products. Identical distribution patterns for hydrolyzable tannins were observed in leaves of Rhus typhina (sumac) and Tellima grandiflora (fringe cups) which, however, displayed no affinity toward the galloyltransferase antibody that had been raised against enzyme from oak. Controls with spinach leaves, known to be devoid of tannins, were inactive in all cases. The conclusion that, besides chloroplasts, cell walls and intercellular space serve as sites for the biosynthesis and deposition of hydrolyzable tannins was confirmed by analyzing extracts from these non-cytoplasmic compartments. PMID:11297796

Grundhöfer, P; Gross, G G.

2001-04-01

305

Novel Strategies for Upstream and Downstream Processing of Tannin Acyl Hydrolase  

PubMed Central

Tannin acyl hydrolase also referred as tannase is an enzyme with important applications in several science and technology fields. Due to its hydrolytic and synthetic properties, tannase could be used to reduce the negative effects of tannins in beverages, food, feed, and tannery effluents, for the production of gallic acid from tannin-rich materials, the elucidation of tannin structure, and the synthesis of gallic acid esters in nonaqueous media. However, industrial applications of tannase are still very limited due to its high production cost. Thus, there is a growing interest in the production, recovery, and purification of this enzyme. Recently, there have been published a number of papers on the improvement of upstream and downstream processing of the enzyme. These papers dealt with the search for new tannase producing microorganisms, the application of novel fermentation systems, optimization of culture conditions, the production of the enzyme by recombinant microorganism, and the design of efficient protocols for tannase recovery and purification. The present work reviews the state of the art of basic and biotechnological aspects of tannin acyl hydrolase, focusing on the recent advances in the upstream and downstream processing of the enzyme. PMID:21941633

Rodríguez-Durán, Luis V.; Valdivia-Urdiales, Blanca; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C.; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal N.

2011-01-01

306

Toxicity of vegetable tannins on crustacea associated with alpine mosquito breeding sites.  

PubMed

The impact of tannins from the environmental vegetation naturally polluting Alpine mosquito breeding sites was experimentally investigated by studying the toxicity of tannic acid, a natural hydrolyzable tannin, on the nontarget crustacean fauna associated with culicine populations. Bioassays indicate that exposure to tannic acid at concentrations from 0.06 to 2.0 mM is more deleterious to Chydorus sphaericus, Diaptomus castor, and Eucypris fuscata, than to Daphnia pulex, Acanthocyclops robustus, and Eucypris virens. Histopathological investigations after treatment with tannic acid at concentrations from 0.125 to 0.500 mM reveal sequential degenerative patterns of the midgut epithelium depending on the taxon, duration of the treatment, and concentrations assayed. These differential toxic effects on Crustacea are compared with those previously observed in larval Diptera, in order to evaluate the plant tannins as potentially useful products in integrated mosquito management programs. PMID:11139187

Pautou, M P; Rey, D; David, J P; Meyran, J C

2000-11-01

307

Levels of Tannins and Flavonoids in Medicinal Plants: Evaluating Bioprospecting Strategies  

PubMed Central

There are several species of plants used by traditional communities in the Brazilian semiarid. An approach used in the search for natural substances that possess therapeutic value is ethnobotany or ethnopharmacology. Active substances that have phenolic groups in their structure have great pharmacological potential. To establish a quantitative relationship between the species popularly considered to be antimicrobial, antidiabetic, and antidiarrheal, the contents of tannins and flavonoids were determined. The plant selection was based on an ethnobotanical survey conducted in a community located in the municipality of Altinho, northeastern Brazil. For determination of tannin content was utilized the technique of radial diffusion, and for flavonoids, an assay based on the complexation of aluminum chloride. The group of plants with antimicrobial indications showed a higher content of tannins compared to the control groups. The results evidence suggests a possible relationship between these compounds and the observed activity. PMID:21969842

Siqueira, Clarissa Fernanda de Queiroz; Cabral, Daniela Lyra Vasconcelos; Peixoto Sobrinho, Tadeu José da Silva; de Amorim, Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti; de Melo, Joabe Gomes; Araújo, Thiago Antônio de Sousa; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

2012-01-01

308

Study on extraction process of tannins from Semen Cuscutae and their anti-papilloma activity.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper was to study the extraction methods of tannin constituents from Semen Cuscutae and their anti-papilloma effects. Single factor test and orthogonal design methods were used to determine the optimal extraction method; the mouse skin papilloma model induced by DMBA/croton oil was established, which was a classic two-stage carcinogenesis model being used to observe and evaluate the anti-carcinogenic effects of tannins extracted from Semen Cuscutae in different stages. The optimal extraction method of Semen Cuscutae was a 20-fold volume of solvent, a temperature of 50 °C, three times of extraction, with 20 min each, skin papilloma experiment revealed that the number of bearing tumors gradually reduced, and the inhibition rate gradually increased with the increase of dose, in the high-dose group, its inhibition rate reached 70.2%. Tannin extract from Semen Cuscutae has an obvious inhibitory effect on skin papilloma development. PMID:24146476

Wang, Jiangning; Li, Xiaorong; Gao, Lei

2013-01-01

309

Direct Anthelmintic Effects of Condensed Tannins from Diverse Plant Sources against Ascaris suum  

PubMed Central

Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of ascariosis. PMID:24810761

Williams, Andrew R.; Fryganas, Christos; Ramsay, Aina; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M.

2014-01-01

310

High-throughput micro-plate HCL-vanillin assay for screening tannin content in sorghum grain  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sorghum contains tannin which is a phenolic compound that offers health promoting antioxidant capacity. The HCl-vanillin assay is a common and time consuming method for determining tannin content, but is not efficient for screening large sample sets as seen in association mapping panels or breeding ...

311

PII S0016-7037(01)00641-X Tannin diagenesis in mangrove leaves from a tropical estuary: A novel  

E-print Network

-free dry weight (AFDW) in the most highly degraded black leaves (6­7 weeks in the water) up to 7% AFDWPII S0016-7037(01)00641-X Tannin diagenesis in mangrove leaves from a tropical estuary: A novel--Molecular-level condensed tannin analyses were conducted on a series of mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) leaves at various

Hernes, Peter J.

312

Effects of condensed tannins on hydrogen sulfide production and the sulfate-reducing bacterial population of swine manure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Condensed tannins are natural plant compounds that have antibacterial properties and have been used in studies to reduce methane emissions and frothy bloat in cattle. The objective of this study was to test the effects of condensed tannins on swine manure to target bacterial groups responsible for ...

313

Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins towards different gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep: in vitro and in vivo studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to determine possible direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins towards different ovine gastrointestinal nematodes. A larval development\\/viability assay was used to investigate the effect of a condensed tannin extract (Quebracho) towards larvae of Haemonchuscontortus, Teladorsagiacircumcincta and Trichostrongylusvitrinus. The development to infective larvae and their viability was assessed in all three species and

S Athanasiadou; I Kyriazakis; F Jackson; R. L Coop

2001-01-01

314

Response of soil C and N transformations to tannin fractions originating from Scots pine and Norway spruce needles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannins are polyphenolic compounds that may influence litter decomposition, humus formation, nutrient (especially N) cycling and ultimately, plant nutrition and growth. The aim of this study was to determine the response of C and N transformations in soil to tannins of different molecular weight from Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles, tannic acid

Sanna Kanerva; Veikko Kitunen; Oili Kiikkilä; Jyrki Loponen; Aino Smolander

2006-01-01

315

Antiviral phenylpropanoid glycosides from the medicinal plant Markhamia lutea.  

PubMed

Three new phenylpropanoid glycosides, named luteoside A (3), luteoside B (4), and luteoside C (5), were isolated together with the known compounds verbascoside (1) and isoverbascoside (2) from the roots of the medicinal plant Markhamia lutea. The structures of the new compounds were determined to be 1-O-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl beta-D-apiofuranosyl(1-->2)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->3)-4-O- caffeo yl-6-acetyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside, 1-O-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl beta-d-apiofuranosyl(1-->2)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->3)-6-O- caffeo yl-beta-d-glucopyranoside, and 1-O-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl beta-D-apiofuranosyl(1-->2)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->3)-6-O- ferulo yl-beta-d-glucopyranoside, respectively, on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic data. All five phenylpropanoid glycosides exhibited potent in vitro activity against respiratory syncytial virus. PMID:9599250

Kernan, M R; Amarquaye, A; Chen, J L; Chan, J; Sesin, D F; Parkinson, N; Ye, Z; Barrett, M; Bales, C; Stoddart, C A; Sloan, B; Blanc, P; Limbach, C; Mrisho, S; Rozhon, E J

1998-05-01

316

A glycoside of Nicotina tabacum affects mouse dopaminergic behavior.  

PubMed

Climbing in the forced swimming test is considered a dopaminergic-specific behavior. A substance of Nicotina tabacum affecting dopamine neuronal activity was investigated using the mouse behavioral system. The substance was found to be a glycoside with the peripheral sugar chain structures Fuc alpha 1-2Gal, Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc and GalNAc alpha 1-3GalNAc and with basic polymannoses. The glycoside dose-dependently increased behavior via D2 neuronal activity, but not D1 activity. This suggests that smoking can affect human brain function not only via the nicotinic cholinergic neuron, but also via the D2 neuron. PMID:12690705

Masuda, Y; Ohnuma, S; Kawagoe, M; Sugiyama, T

2003-01-01

317

A new antioxidant flavone glycoside from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi.  

PubMed

A new flavone glycoside, wogonin 7-O-?-D-ethylglucuronide (1), together with a new natural flavone glycoside baicalein 7-O-?-D-ethylglucuronide (2) and four known analogues, wogonoside (3), wogonin (4), oroxylin A 7-O-?-D-methylglucuronide (5) and oroxylin A (6), was isolated from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. The structure elucidation of the new compound was primarily based on HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR analyses. Compounds 1 and 3 inhibited FeSO4-Cys-induced liver homogenate lipid peroxidation with IC50 at 18.2 ?M and 24.9 ?M, respectively, and exhibited strong cytoprotective effects against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in human umbilical vein endothelial cells at low concentrations of 10.0 ?M and 3.0 ?M. PMID:24995563

Wang, Meng-Hua; Li, Lin-Zhen; Sun, Jian-Bo; Wu, Fei-Hua; Liang, Jing-Yu

2014-01-01

318

Cytotoxic triterpene glycosides from the roots of Sanguisorba officinalis.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of the ethanol extract of the roots of Sanguisorba officinalis resulted in the isolation of three new triterpene glycosides, 3?-[(?-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-19?,23-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-[6-O-acetyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (1), 2?,3?,19?,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-[6-O-acetyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (2), and 3?-[(?-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-19?-hydroxyurs-12,20(30)-dien-28-oic acid 28-[6-O-acetyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (3). All the triterpene glycosides exhibited the significant cytotoxic potential with low IC50 values (IC50 < 5.0 ?M) against six tumor cell lines (MCF-7, HeLa, HepG2, SGC-7901, NCI-H460, and BGC-823). PMID:25193625

Hu, Jiang; Song, Yan; Li, Hui; Yang, Benshou; Mao, Xia; Zhao, Yongmao; Shi, Xiaodong

2014-09-01

319

New antimicrobial pregnane glycosides from the stem of Ecdysanthera rosea.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation on the stem of Ecdysanthera rosea led to the isolation of eight new C-21 pregnane glycoside ecdysosides A-H (1-8), together with one known pregnane glycoside ecdysantheroside A (9). Their structures were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic data (MS, IR, 1D and 2D NMR) analysis, as well as comparison with the reported literature data. Antimicrobial activities of all the compounds were evaluated against bacteria and yeasts. Compounds 1, 9, 3 and 5 exhibited moderate antibacterial activities against respective Enterococcus faecalis and Providensia smartii, with MIC value of 12.5 ?g/mL. Compound 8 showed significant anti-yeast activity against Cryptococcus neoformans with MIC value of 12.5 ?g/mL. PMID:25454459

Song, Chang-Wei; Lunga, Paul-Keilah; Qin, Xu-Jie; Cheng, Gui-Guang; Gu, Jian-Long; Liu, Ya-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Dong

2014-12-01

320

New terpenoid glycosides obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis L. aerial parts.  

PubMed

Five new terpenoid glycosides, named as officinoterpenosides A1 (1), A2 (2), B (3), C (4), and D (5), together with 11 known ones, (1S,4S,5S)-5-exo-hydrocamphor 5-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (6), isorosmanol (7), rosmanol (8), 7-methoxyrosmanol (9), epirosmanol (10), ursolic acid (11), micromeric acid (12), oleanolic acid (13), niga-ichigoside F1 (14), glucosyl tormentate (15), and asteryunnanoside B (16), were obtained from the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, HRESI-TOF-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). Among the new ones, 1 and 2, 3 and 4 are diterpenoid and triterpenoid glycosides, respectively; and 5 is a normonoterpenoid. For the known ones, 6 was isolated from the Rosmarinus genus first, and 15, 16 were obtained from this species for the first time. PMID:25200369

Zhang, Yi; Adelakun, Tiwalade Adegoke; Qu, Lu; Li, Xiaoxia; Li, Jian; Han, Lifeng; Wang, Tao

2014-12-01

321

Enzymatic glycosidations in dry media on mineral supports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparation of 4-hydroxybutyl-?-D-glucoside was achieved by reversed hydrolysis from glucose using almond-?-glucosidase impregnated on mineral supports, while 4-hydroxybutyl-?-D-glucoside was obtained from glucose or by one-pot starch hydrolysis followed by glucosidation catalysed by ?-amylase (amyloglucosidase) from Rhizopus mold on celites. The influence of the support nature and of water activity were investigated in order to shift the equilibrium towards glycosidation.

Mirjana Gelo-Pujic; Eryka Guibé-Jampel; André Loupy

1997-01-01

322

The triterpene glycosides of patrinia intermedia roem et schult  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  1. It has been found that the trisaccharide residues attached to the carboxyl of the aglycone in patrinosides C and D have\\u000a identical structures and configurations, the middle monosaccharide being glucofuranose.\\u000a \\u000a 2. The complete structures of patrinosides C and D have been established and the configurations of their glycosidic centers\\u000a have been determined.

V. G. Bukharov; V. V. Karlin; V. A. Talan

1969-01-01

323

Steroidal glycosides from the aerial part of Asclepias incarnata.  

PubMed

The aerial part of Asclepias incarnata afforded 34 pregnane glycosides. These were confirmed to have lineolon, isolineolon, ikemagenin, 12-O-nicotinoyllineolon, deacylmetaplexigenin, metaplexigenin, rostratamine, 12-O-acetyllineolon, 15beta-hydroxylineolon and 15beta-hydroxyisolineolon moieties as their aglycones, and 2.6-dideoxyhexopyranose, glucopyranose and allopyranose as the corresponding sugar constituents. Their structures were determined using both spectroscopic and chemical methods. PMID:10731028

Warashina, T; Noro, T

2000-02-01

324

Two New Phloroglucinol Glycosides from Lysidice rhodostega Hance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new phloroglucinol glycosides, lysidiciside A (1) and lysidiciside B (2), were isolated from the roots of Lysidice rhodostega Hance. Their structures were determined as 1-((3-methylbutyryl)phloroglucinol)-? -D- glucopyranoside (1), 1- ((3-methylbutyryl)phloro- glucinol)-? -D-glucopyranosyl-5-O-? -D-glucopyranoside (2) on the basis of chemical and spectral analysis . Lysidice rhodostega Hance is widely distributed in Guangxi, Guangdong, Yunnan and Guizhou province of China. It

Song GAO; Shi Shan YU; De Quan YU

325

Phenylpropanoid glycosides from the leaves of Paulownia coreana.  

PubMed

Study on the water soluble fraction from the leaves of Paulownia coreana led to the isolation of verbascoside (1), isoverbascoside (2), campneoside II (3), and a new phenylpropanoid glycoside, (R,S)-7-hydroxy-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethyl-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 --> 3)-beta-d-(6-O-caffeoyl)-glucopyranoside (4). The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. PMID:18266154

Kim, Jin-Kyu; Si, Chuan-Ling; Bae, Young-Soo

2008-02-15

326

Two antigenotoxic chalcone glycosides from Mentha longifolia subsp. longifolia.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Mentha L. (Labiatae) species (mint) with their flavoring properties have been used in food industries for centuries. Besides they have a great importance in drug development and medicinal applications due to various bioactive compounds of several members of the genus. Objective: The aim of this study was to isolate bioactive compounds with antimutagenic potential by bio-guided fractionation and determine their structures by spectroscopic methods. Materials and methods: The structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was done based on spectroscopic methods, including MALDI-MS, UV, IR, and 2D NMR experiments, and the bio-guided fractionation process was done by using the Ames/Salmonella test system. Henceforth, solely genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of the new compounds were also confirmed up to 2?µM/plate by using the same test system. Results: Two new chalcone glycosides: (?R)-?,3,2',6'-tetrahydroxy-4-methoxy-4'-O-rutinosyldihydrochalcone and (?R)-?,4,2',6'-tetrahydroxy-4'-O-rutinosyldihydrochalcone, were isolated from Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson subsp. longifolia, together with known six flavonoid glycosides and one phenolic acid: apigenin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-rutinoside, luteolin-7-O-rutinoside, apigenin-7-O-glucuronide, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide, rosmarinic acid. According to the antimutagenicity results, both new test compounds significantly inhibited the mutagenic activity of 9-aminoacridine in a dose-dependent manner at the tested concentrations from 0.8 to 2?µM/plate. (?R)-?,4,2',6'-Tetrahydroxy-4'-O-rutinosyldihydrochalcone showed the maximum inhibition rate as 75.94% at 2?µM/plate concentration. Conclusions: This is the first report that two new chalcone glycosides were isolated from Mentha longifolia subsp. longifolia and their antimutagenic potentials by using mutant bacterial tester strains. In conclusion, the two new chalcone glycosides showed a significant antigenotoxic effect on 9-aminoacridine-induced mutagenesis at tested concentrations. PMID:25429992

Guvenalp, Zuhal; Ozbek, Hilal; Karadayi, Mehmet; Gulluce, Medine; Kuruuzum-Uz, Ayse; Salih, Bekir; Demirezer, Omur

2014-11-28

327

Two new monoterpenoid glycosides from Mentha spicata L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new monoterpenoid glycosides, spicatoside A and spicatoside B, were isolated from the whole herbs of Mentha spicata L. which have anti-inflammatory and hemostatic activities. Their structures have been determined on the basis of spectral and chemical analysis. They are (+)-5-[1-(g -D-glucopyranosyloxymethyl)ethenyl]-2-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one (1), and (m )-5-{[2-( g -D-glucopyranosyloxy)-1-hydroxy-1-methyl]ethyl}-2-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one (2).

Jian Zheng; Li-Jun Wu; Lu Zheng; Bin Wu; Ai-Hua Song

2003-01-01

328

Inhibitory effects of Thai plants ?-glycosides on Trichomonas vaginalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichomoniasis is now an important health problem in developing countries. Although metronidazole has so far been widely used\\u000a to treat this disease, the prevalence of metronidazole-resistant protozoa and unpleasant adverse effects have been found.\\u000a In this study, natural products purified from Thai plants were, therefore, investigated for their effectiveness against Trichomonas vaginalis. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for all ?-glycosides against

Dumrongkiet Arthan; Somphong Sithiprom; Kanthinich Thima; Chutima Limmatvatirat; Porntip Chavalitshewinkoon-Petmitr; Jisnuson Svasti

2008-01-01

329

Antiinflammatory activity of naturally occurring flavone and flavonol glycosides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous report demonstrated that certain flavonoid aglycones such as apigenin (flavone), quercetin, morin (flavonols),\\u000a and biochanin A (isoflavone) showedin vivo antiinflammatory activityvia topical and oral routes of administration. As a continual study, the various flavonoid glycosides have been evaluated in\\u000a mouse ear edema assay using archidonic acid or crotonoil as a inflammagen. Flavonoids were orally administered (2 mg\\/mouse)\\u000a and

Song Jin Lee; Kun Ho Son; Hyeun Wook Chang; Jae Chul Do; Keun Young Jung; Sam Sik Kang; Hyun Pyo Kim

1993-01-01

330

Iridal glycosides from Iris spuria (Zeal), cultivated in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractionation of a methanol extract obtained from rhizomes of I. spuria (Zeal) resulted in the isolation of seven iridalglycosides 5a,b, 6a-c, 7, 8. The structures of the aglycons and the position of the glycosidic bonds were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. The nature of the sugar moieties was determined as glucose from capillary GC and GC\\/MS analyses after hydrolysis of the

Franz-Josef Marnera; Abdel Nasser Badawi Singab; Mohamed Mohamed Al-Azizi; Nasr Ahmed El-Emary; Mathias Schafer

331

Toxicological evaluation of the isoflavone puerarin and its glycosides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Puerarin, an isoflavone derived from kudzu roots, has strong biological activities. However, its bioavailability in vivo is\\u000a often limited by its insolubility. A novel transglycosylase increases the solubility of puerarin >100-fold, by converting\\u000a it to puerarin glycosides. Since over-consumption of an isoflavone might have toxic effects, therefore, we investigated the\\u000a potential antimutagenic activity, bone marrow micronucleus test, and a 28-day

Hyuk Jin Chung; Mi Ja Chung; Soung-Jin Houng; Jungae Jeun; Dong-Keon Kweon; Chung Hyo Choi; Jong-Tae Park; Kwan-Hwa Park; Sung-Joon Lee

2009-01-01

332

Ent -kaurane diterpenoids and glycosides: Isolation, properties, and chemical transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is devoted to ent-kaurane diterpenoids and related glycosides, which represent two naturally occurring groups of compounds with interesting\\u000a structures and properties. Much useful information about the biogenesis and biological activities of these compounds is presented;\\u000a however, the greatest part of the review covers various aspects of the chemical transformations of native ent-kaurane diterpenoids, namely, their reactions via COOH,

E. Kataev; R. N. Khaybullin; R. R. Sharipova; I. Yu. Strobykina

2011-01-01

333

Agrimoniin, an antitumor tannin of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb., induces interleukin-1.  

PubMed

The induction of interleukin-1 (IL-1) by agrimoniin, a tannin of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb., in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro and in mouse adherent peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) in vivo was studied. A significant amount of IL-1 beta in the culture supernatant of the human PBMC stimulated with agrimoniin was detected with an enzyme-linked immunoadherent assay. Agrimoniin induced IL-1 beta secretion dose- and time-dependently. The adherent PEC from mice intraperitoneally injected with agrimoniin (10 mg/kg) also secreted IL-1 4 days later. These results suggest that agrimoniin, a plant tannin, is a novel cytokine inducer. PMID:1444208

Murayama, T; Kishi, N; Koshiura, R; Takagi, K; Furukawa, T; Miyamoto, K

1992-01-01

334

Nano-porous solid-state photovoltaic cell sensitized with tannin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tannin and related polyphenolic substances strongly surface chelate with 0268-1242/13/1/021/img1 sensitizing nano-porous films of 0268-1242/13/1/021/img1 to the visible spectrum. The photovoltaic cell nano-porous n-0268-1242/13/1/021/img3-CuI generates highly stable photovoltages. The result is explained as the effectiveness of the 0268-1242/13/1/021/img4-tannin complex on the surface of 0268-1242/13/1/021/img1 in preventing short-circuiting across the 0268-1242/13/1/021/img1/CuI barrier.

Tennakone, K.; Kumara, G. R. R. A.; Wijayantha, K. G. U.; Kottegoda, I. R. M.; Perera, V. P. S.; Aponsu, G. M. L. P.

1998-01-01

335

Modulation of proline-rich protein biosynthesis in rat parotid glands by sorghums with high tannin levels.  

PubMed Central

Feeding of sorghum with a high level of tannin (high-tannin sorghum) to rats caused changes in gene expression in parotid glands similar to isoproterenol treatment. Within 3 days the parotid glands were enlarged about 3-fold and a series of proline-rich proteins were increased about 12-fold. Unlike isoproterenol treatment, no changes were observed in the submandibular glands, and a Mr 220,000 glycoprotein in parotid glands was not induced. Amino acid analyses, electrophoretic patterns, and cell-free translations of mRNAs all confirmed that the proline-rich proteins induced by feeding high-tannin sorghum were identical to those induced by isoproterenol treatment. Binding curves for proline-rich proteins to tannins showed affinities 10-fold greater than bovine serum albumin and tannins. Images PMID:6575388

Mehansho, H; Hagerman, A; Clements, S; Butler, L; Rogler, J; Carlson, D M

1983-01-01

336

Enzymatic Biosynthesis of Novel Resveratrol Glucoside and Glycoside Derivatives.  

PubMed

A uridine diphosphate glucosyltransferase from Bacillus licheniformis was overexpressed, purified and incubated with nucleotide diphosphate (NDP) d- and l-sugars to produce glucose, galactose, 2-deoxyglucose, viosamine, rhamnose, and fucose sugar-conjugated resveratrol glycosides. A significantly higher (90%) bioconversion of resveratrol was achieved with ?d-glucose as the sugar donor to produce four different glucosides of resveratrol, resveratrol 3-O-?-d-glucoside, resveratrol 4?-O-?-d-glucoside, resveratrol 3,5-O-?-d-diglucoside, and resveratrol 3,5,4?-O-?-d-triglucoside. The conversion rates and number of products formed were found to vary with the other NDP-sugar donors. Resveratrol 3-O-?-d-2-deoxyglucoside, resveratrol 3,5-O-?-d-di-2-deoxyglucoside were found to be produced while using TDP-2-deoxyglucose as donor, however, monoglycosides resveratrol 4?-O-?-d-galactoside, resveratrol 4?-O-?-d-viosaminoside, resveratrol 3-O-?-l-rhamnoside, resveratrol 3-O-?-l-fucoside were produced from respective sugar donors. Altogether ten diverse glycoside derivatives of medicinally important resveratrol were generated; demonstrating the capacity for YjiC to produce structurally diverse resveratrol glycosides. PMID:25239890

Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Parajuli, Prakash; Shin, Ju Yong; Lee, Jisun; Lee, Seul; Hong, Young-Soo; Park, Yong Il; Kim, Joong Su; Sohng, Jae Kyung

2014-09-19

337

Development and application of a screening assay for glycoside phosphorylases.  

PubMed

Glycoside phosphorylases (GPs) are interesting enzymes for the glycosylation of chemical molecules. They require only a glycosyl phosphate as sugar donor and an acceptor molecule with a free hydroxyl group. Their narrow substrate specificity, however, limits the application of GPs for general glycoside synthesis. Although an enzyme's substrate specificity can be altered and broadened by protein engineering and directed evolution, this requires a suitable screening assay. Such a screening assay has not yet been described for GPs. Here we report a screening procedure for GPs based on the measurement of released inorganic phosphate in the direction of glycoside synthesis. It appeared necessary to inhibit endogenous phosphatase activity in crude Escherichia coli cell extracts with molybdate, and inorganic phosphate was measured with a modified phosphomolybdate method. The screening system is general and can be used to screen GP enzyme libraries for novel donor and acceptor specificities. It was successfully applied to screen a residue E649 saturation mutagenesis library of Cellulomonas uda cellobiose phosphorylase (CP) for novel acceptor specificity. An E649C enzyme variant was found with novel acceptor specificity toward alkyl beta-glucosides and phenyl beta-glucoside. This is the first report of a CP enzyme variant with modified acceptor specificity. PMID:20188057

De Groeve, M R M; Tran, G H; Van Hoorebeke, A; Stout, J; Desmet, T; Savvides, S N; Soetaert, W

2010-06-01

338

Study on tannin–metal interaction in aqueous solution using spectrophotometric titration and micelle-mediated separation/atomic absorption spectrometry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tannins, including hydrolysable and condensed tannins, are important secondary metabolites of vascular plants and are a major plant-derived carbon source in the environment. Due to the many phenolic hydroxyl groups characteristic of tannins, these compounds have been long been thought to play signi...

339

Characterization of High-Tannin Fractions from Humus by Carbon-13 Cross-Polarization and Magic-Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance  

E-print Network

Characterization of High-Tannin Fractions from Humus by Carbon-13 Cross-Polarization and Magic in Newfoundland with a permanent con- version from forest to heathland (Titus et al., 1995).Condensed tannins can characterized tannin-rich fractions from humus collected in 1998 from et al., 1998). Incubation experiments

Hemminga, Marcus A.

340

Tannins from Hamamelis virginiana Bark Extract: Characterization and Improvement of the Antiviral Efficacy against Influenza A Virus and Human Papillomavirus  

PubMed Central

Antiviral activity has been demonstrated for different tannin-rich plant extracts. Since tannins of different classes and molecular weights are often found together in plant extracts and may differ in their antiviral activity, we have compared the effect against influenza A virus (IAV) of Hamamelis virginiana L. bark extract, fractions enriched in tannins of different molecular weights and individual tannins of defined structures, including pseudotannins. We demonstrate antiviral activity of the bark extract against different IAV strains, including the recently emerged H7N9, and show for the first time that a tannin-rich extract inhibits human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 infection. As the best performing antiviral candidate, we identified a highly potent fraction against both IAV and HPV, enriched in high molecular weight condensed tannins by ultrafiltration, a simple, reproducible and easily upscalable method. This ultrafiltration concentrate and the bark extract inhibited early and, to a minor extent, later steps in the IAV life cycle and tannin-dependently inhibited HPV attachment. We observed interesting mechanistic differences between tannin structures: High molecular weight tannin containing extracts and tannic acid (1702 g/mol) inhibited both IAV receptor binding and neuraminidase activity. In contrast, low molecular weight compounds (<500 g/mol) such as gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate or hamamelitannin inhibited neuraminidase but not hemagglutination. Average molecular weight of the compounds seemed to positively correlate with receptor binding (but not neuraminidase) inhibition. In general, neuraminidase inhibition seemed to contribute little to the antiviral activity. Importantly, antiviral use of the ultrafiltration fraction enriched in high molecular weight condensed tannins and, to a lesser extent, the unfractionated bark extract was preferable over individual isolated compounds. These results are of interest for developing and improving plant-based antivirals. PMID:24498245

Theisen, Linda L.; Erdelmeier, Clemens A. J.; Spoden, Gilles A.; Boukhallouk, Fatima; Sausy, Aurélie; Florin, Luise; Muller, Claude P.

2014-01-01

341

Annotation and comparative analysis of the glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium distachyon  

SciTech Connect

Background Glycoside hydrolases cleave the bond between a carbohydrate and another carbohydrate, a protein, lipid or other moiety. Genes encoding glycoside hydrolases are found in a wide range of organisms, from archea to animals, and are relatively abundant in plant genomes. In plants, these enzymes are involved in diverse processes, including starch metabolism, defense, and cell-wall remodeling. Glycoside hydrolase genes have been previously cataloged for Oryza sativa (rice), the model dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and the fast-growing tree Populus trichocarpa (poplar). To improve our understanding of glycoside hydrolases in plants generally and in grasses specifically, we annotated the glycoside hydrolase genes in the grasses Brachypodium distachyon (an emerging monocotyledonous model) and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum). We then compared the glycoside hydrolases across species, both at the whole-genome level and at the level of individual glycoside hydrolase families. Results We identified 356 glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium and 404 in sorghum. The corresponding proteins fell into the same 34 families that are represented in rice, Arabidopsis, and poplar, helping to define a glycoside hydrolase family profile which may be common to flowering plants. Examination of individual glycoside hydrolase familes (GH5, GH13, GH18, GH19, GH28, and GH51) revealed both similarities and distinctions between monocots and dicots, as well as between species. Shared evolutionary histories appear to be modified by lineage-specific expansions or deletions. Within families, the Brachypodium and sorghum proteins generally cluster with those from other monocots. Conclusions This work provides the foundation for further comparative and functional analyses of plant glycoside hydrolases. Defining the Brachypodium glycoside hydrolases sets the stage for Brachypodium to be a monocot model for investigations of these enzymes and their diverse roles in planta. Insights gained from Brachypodium will inform translational research studies, with applications for the improvement of cereal crops and bioenergy grasses.

Tyler, Ludmila [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Albany; Bragg, Jennifer [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Albany; Wu, Jiajie [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Albany; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Vogel, John [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Albany

2010-01-01

342

Cardenolide and oxypregnane glycosides from the root of Asclepias incarnata L.  

PubMed

Twenty-nine new oxypregnane glycosides were obtained along with two known cardenolides, frugoside and gofruside, and three known 12-O-acylated pregnane glycosides from the roots of Asclepias incarnata L. (Asclepiadaceae). By detailed studies of the 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra, the structures were determined to be tri- to penta glycosides of isolineolon, 12-O-acetyllineolon, ikemagenin, 12-O-benzoylisolineolon, and two new 12-O-acylated pregnanes. PMID:10783071

Warashina, T; Noro, T

2000-04-01

343

Multidrug resistance-reversal effects of resin glycosides from Dichondra repens.  

PubMed

Investigation of hydrophobic extract of Dichondra repens (Convolvulaceae) led to the isolation of three new resin glycosides dichondrins A-C (1-3), and three known resin glycosides cus-1, cus-2, and cuse 3. All the isolated resin glycosides with an acyclic core were evaluated for their multidrug resistance reversal activities, and the combined use of these compounds at a concentration of 25?M increased the cytotoxicity of vincristine by 1.03-1.78-fold. PMID:25597010

Song, Wei-Bin; Wang, Wen-Qiong; Zhang, Shu-Wei; Xuan, Li-Jiang

2015-02-15

344

Effects of the isoflavone puerarin and its glycosides on melanogenesis in B16 melanocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of puerarin (8-C-glucosyl-7,4?-dihydroxy isoflavone), an isoflavone found in Kudzu roots (Pueraria lobata), and its glycosides (enzymatically synthesised, water-soluble derivatives of puerarin) on melanogenesis in vitro. Puerarin\\u000a and its glycosides reduced mushroom tyrosinase activity by 88 and 67% at 4.8 mM, respectively, in a concentration-dependent\\u000a manner. The puerarin glycosides were less effective than puerarin at the same concentration

Young-Mi Choi; Hee-jin Jun; Kevin Dawson; Raymond L. Rodriguez; Mi Ran Roh; Jungae Jun; Chung-Hyo Choi; Jae-Hoon Shim; ChoongHwan Lee; Sang Jun Lee; Kwan-Hwa Park; Sung-Joon Lee

2010-01-01

345

A comparison of flavonoid glycosides by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison is presented of product ion mass spectra of protonated and deprotonated molecules of kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, quercitin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercitrin), quercitin-3-O-galactoside (hyperoin), apigenin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, genistein-7-O-glucoside, naringenin-7-O-glucoside (prunin), luteolin-4'-O-glucoside, luteolin-6-C-glucoside (homoorientin, known also as isoorientin), apigenin-8-C-glucoside (vitexin), and luteolin-8-C-glucoside (orientin) together with the product ion mass spectrum of deprotonated kaempferol-7-O-glucoside. All isomeric ions were distinguishable on the basis of their product ion mass spectra. For protonated 3-O-, 7-O-, and 4'-O-glycosides at a collision energy of 46-47 eV, homolytic cleavage of the O-glycosidic bond yielded aglycon Y+ ions, whereas in deprotonated 3-O-, 7-O-, and 4'-O-glycosides, heterolytic and homolytic cleavage of the O-glycosidic bond yielded radical aglycon (Y-H)- and aglycon (Y-) ions. In each case, fragmentation of either the glycan or the aglycon or both was observed. For 6-C- and 8-C-glycosides at a collision energy of 46-47 eV, fragmentation was restricted almost exclusively to the glycan. For luteolin-6-C-glucoside, the integrity of the aglycon structure is preserved at the expense of the glycan for which some 30 fragmentations were observed. Breakdown curves were determined as a function of collision energy for protonated and deprotonated luteolin-6-C-glucoside. An attempt has been made to rationalize the product ion mass spectra derived from C-O- and C-C-luteolin glucosides in terms of computed structures that indicate significant intramolecular hydrogen bonding and rotation of the B-ring to form a coplanar luteolin structure. It is proposed that protonated and deprotonated luteolin-6-C-glucoside may afford examples of cooperative interactive bonding that plays a major role in directing fragmentation.

March, Raymond E.; Lewars, Errol G.; Stadey, Christopher J.; Miao, Xiu-Sheng; Zhao, Xiaoming; Metcalfe, Chris D.

2006-01-01

346

MATE2 Mediates Vacuolar Sequestration of Flavonoid Glycosides and Glycoside Malonates in Medicago truncatula[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

The majority of flavonoids, such as anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and isoflavones, are stored in the central vacuole, but the molecular basis of flavonoid transport is still poorly understood. Here, we report the functional characterization of a multidrug and toxin extrusion transporter (MATE2), from Medicago truncatula. MATE 2 is expressed primarily in leaves and flowers. Despite its high similarity to the epicatechin 3?-O-glucoside transporter MATE1, MATE2 cannot efficiently transport proanthocyanidin precursors. In contrast, MATE2 shows higher transport capacity for anthocyanins and lower efficiency for other flavonoid glycosides. Three malonyltransferases that are coexpressed with MATE2 were identified. The malonylated flavonoid glucosides generated by these malonyltransferases are more efficiently taken up into MATE2-containing membrane vesicles than are the parent glycosides. Malonylation increases both the affinity and transport efficiency of flavonoid glucosides for uptake by MATE2. Genetic loss of MATE2 function leads to the disappearance of leaf anthocyanin pigmentation and pale flower color as a result of drastic decreases in the levels of various flavonoids. However, some flavonoid glycoside malonates accumulate to higher levels in MATE2 knockouts than in wild-type controls. Deletion of MATE2 increases seed proanthocyanidin biosynthesis, presumably via redirection of metabolic flux from anthocyanin storage. PMID:21467581

Zhao, Jian; Huhman, David; Shadle, Gail; He, Xian-Zhi; Sumner, Lloyd W.; Tang, Yuhong; Dixon, Richard A.

2011-01-01

347

Cardiac gated ventilation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several theoretic advantages to synchronizing positive pressure breaths with the cardiac cycle, including the potential for improving distribution of pulmonary and myocardial blood flow and enhancing cardiac output. We evaluated the effects of synchronizing respiration to the cardiac cycle using a programmable ventilator and electron beam CT (EBCT) scanning. The hearts of anesthetized dogs were imaged during cardiac gated respiration with a 50msec scan aperture. Multislice, short axis, dynamic image data sets spanning the apex to base of the left ventricle were evaluated to determine the volume of the left ventricular chamber at end-diastole and end-systole during apnea, systolic and diastolic cardiac gating. We observed an increase in cardiac output of up to 30% with inspiration gated to the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle in a nonfailing model of the heart.

Hanson, C. William, III; Hoffman, Eric A.

1995-05-01

348

Cardiac gated ventilation  

SciTech Connect

There are several theoretic advantages to synchronizing positive pressure breaths with the cardiac cycle, including the potential for improving distribution of pulmonary and myocardial blood flow and enhancing cardiac output. The authors evaluated the effects of synchronizing respiration to the cardiac cycle using a programmable ventilator and electron beam CT (EBCT) scanning. The hearts of anesthetized dogs were imaged during cardiac gated respiration with a 50 msec scan aperture. Multi slice, short axis, dynamic image data sets spanning the apex to base of the left ventricle were evaluated to determine the volume of the left ventricular chamber at end-diastole and end-systole during apnea, systolic and diastolic cardiac gating. The authors observed an increase in cardiac output of up to 30% with inspiration gated to the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle in a non-failing model of the heart.

Hanson, C.W. III [Hospital of the Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. Anesthesia; Hoffman, E.A. [Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States). Div. of Physiologic Imaging

1995-12-31

349

Glycosides from Marine Sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): Structures, Taxonomical Distribution, Biological Activities and Biological Roles  

PubMed Central

Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed. PMID:23015769

Kalinin, Vladimir I.; Ivanchina, Natalia V.; Krasokhin, Vladimir B.; Makarieva, Tatyana N.; Stonik, Valentin A.

2012-01-01

350

Immunomodulatory action of triterpene glycosides isolated from the sea cucumber Actinocucumis typica. Structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

Stimulation of lysosomal activity and ROS formation in mouse peritoneal macrophages by five triterpene glycosides, typicosides A1 (1), A2 (2), B1 (3), C1 (4) and C2 (5) has been studied and compared with their cytotoxic activities. Glycosides 1-3 possess moderate activities, but the most cytotoxic glycoside 5 is not active. Typicoside C1 (4), with low toxicity, was proved to be the most active concerning stimulation of ROS formation. This is the first example of a triterpene glycoside from sea cucumbers with low cytotoxicity, but which demonstrates a strong immunostimulatory effect on mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. PMID:25115075

Pislyagin, Evgeny A; Aminin, Dmitry L; Silchenko, Alexandra S; Avilov, Sergey A; Andryjashchenko, Pelageya V; Kalinin, Vladimir I; Padmakumar, Krishna

2014-06-01

351

Glycosides from marine sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): structures, taxonomical distribution, biological activities and biological roles.  

PubMed

Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed. PMID:23015769

Kalinin, Vladimir I; Ivanchina, Natalia V; Krasokhin, Vladimir B; Makarieva, Tatyana N; Stonik, Valentin A

2012-08-01

352

Bioactive amines in sorghum: Method optimisation and influence of line, tannin and hydric stress.  

PubMed

The profile and levels of bioactive amines in different sorghum lines were reported for the first time. The amines were quantified by ion-pair HPLC, post-column derivatisation with o-phthalaldehyde and fluorimetric detection. The extraction procedure was optimised: 420?m particle size, extraction with 5% trichloroacetic acid and three extractions. The screening of 22 sorghum lines showed that four of the ten amines investigated were detected. Spermine and spermidine were the prevalent amines (100%), followed by putrescine (77%) and cadaverine (14%). Total amines ranged from 5.8 to 41.4mg/100g, and the polyamines represented 60-100% of the total. Sorghum without tannin had higher amines levels compared to sorghum with tannin and cadaverine was specific to samples without tannin. Hydric stress caused accumulation of spermidine in the grains and affected the levels of other amines at rates depending on the presence or not of tannin. Sorghum is a significant source of polyamines. PMID:25466016

Paiva, Caroline Liboreiro; Evangelista, Warlley Pinheiro; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Glória, Maria Beatriz Abreu

2015-04-15

353

Methane emission by goats consuming diets with different levels of condensed tannins from lespedeza  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twenty-four yearling Boer x Spanish wethers (7/8 Boer; initial body weight [BW] of 34.1 plus/minus 1.02 kg) were used to determine effects on methane emission of dietary levels of a condensed tannin (CT)-containing forage, Kobe lespedeza (Lespedeza striata; K), and a forage very low in CT, sorghum-s...

354

Molecular diversity in phenolic and polyphenolic precursors of tannin-inspired nanocoatings.  

PubMed

The strong interfacial properties of selected plant polyphenols were recently exploited in forming functionally versatile nanocoatings via dip-coating. Here, we screened a library of ~20 natural and synthetic phenols and polyphenols, identifying eight catechol-, gallol- and resorcinol-rich precursors capable of forming coatings. Several newly identified compounds expand the molecular diversity of tannin-inspired coatings. PMID:24871486

Barrett, Devin G; Sileika, Tadas S; Messersmith, Phillip B

2014-07-14

355

Effect of tannins on nitrogen balance and microbial activity of rumen fluid in sheep and goats  

E-print Network

Effect of tannins on nitrogen balance and microbial activity of rumen fluid in sheep and goats H balance in sheep and goats and on potentially related parameters such as plasma urea nitrogen (PUN on the fermentation capacity of sheep and goat rumen fluid were also investigated. Results indicate that the infusion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

356

In vitro quality assessment of two tropical shrub legumes in relation to their extractable tannins contents.  

PubMed

The in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of the two leguminous tree fodders Gliricidia sepium and Calliandra calothyrsus which differ in their tannin content was examined by the rumen simulation technique. Extractable condensed tannin (CT) concentrations ranged from 0.57% in G. sepium to 5.05% in C. calothyrsus using the butanol-HCl extraction. On the basis of their respective CT contents, G. sepium was classified as containing traces of CT, whereas C. calothyrsus had medium amounts of CT. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was added at different concentrations (0, 1.5, 5 and 10 g/100 g plant material substrate) to assess the effect of tannins on IVDMD. The IVDMD was higher for G. sepium (range: 60-65%) than for C. calothyrsus (39.5-53.5%). In vitro gas production and IVDMD increased with increased PEG concentrations especially for C. calothyrsus. A non-significant response to increasing PEG concentrations for IVDMD of G. sepium confirms PEG binding with the tannins. On the basis of these results, it is assumed that G. sepium has a higher nutritive value than C. calothyrsus. Good relationship between PEG binding and the improvement of IVDMD confirms the usefulness of this technique for improving the nutritive value of tanniniferous tropical browses. PMID:14511135

Seresinhe, T; Iben, C

2003-04-01

357

Persimmon fruit tannin-rich fiber reduces cholesterol levels in humans.  

PubMed

Bile acid-binding agents are known to lower blood cholesterol levels and have been clinically used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. We previously showed that tannin-rich fiber from young persimmon (Diospyros kaki) fruits had bile acid-binding properties. In this study, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effects of tannin-rich fiber in humans. The subjects (n = 40, plasma total cholesterol levels 180-259 mg/dl) were divided into 3 groups and ingested cookie bars containing 0 g (placebo group, n = 14), 3 g (low-dose group, n = 13), or 5 g (high-dose group, n = 13) of tannin-rich fiber 3 times daily before meals for 12 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol levels decreased significantly in the low-dose (12 weeks, p < 0.005) and high-dose (6 weeks, p < 0.05; 12 weeks, p < 0.001) groups. In addition, plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased significantly in the high-dose group (6 weeks, p < 0.05; 12 weeks, p < 0.001). These improvements were not accompanied by changes in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or plasma triglyceride levels. Our findings indicate that tannin-rich fiber from young persimmon fruits is a useful food material for treating hypercholesterolemia. PMID:23171573

Gato, Nobuki; Kadowaki, Akio; Hashimoto, Natsumi; Yokoyama, Shin-ichiro; Matsumoto, Kenji

2013-01-01

358

Condensed tannin in drinking water reduces greenhouse gas precursor urea in sheep and cattle urine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ingestion of small amounts of naturally-occurring condensed tannin (CT) by ruminants can provide several benefits including potential reduction of ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions over the long-term by reducing their urine urea excretion. However, providing grazing ruminants with sufficient amou...

359

Impact by condensed tannins with different mean degrees of polymerization on protein precipitation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Condensed tannins (CTs) isolated from white clover (Trifolium repens) flowers and big trefoil (Lotus pedunculatus) leaves were evaluated in precipitation studies with bovine serum albumin (BSA), lysozyme (LYS), and alfalfa leaf protein (ALF). The CTs were of similar compositions, but differed in the...

360

Dietary CP and Tannin Extracts Impact Ammonia Emissions From Manure Deposited On Dairy Barn Floors  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The impact of dietary CP and Quebracho-Chestnut tannin extracts on dairy cow performance and N partitioning are reported elsewhere at this meeting. Mixtures of feces/urine from these studies were applied to lab-scale ventilated chambers to measure ammonia-N emissions (ANE) from simulated concrete ba...

361

Bactericidal effect of hydrolysable and condensed tannin extracts on Campylobacter jejuni in vitro  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Strategies are sought to reduce intestinal colonization of food-producing animals by Campylobacter jejuni, a leading bacterial cause of human foodborne illness worldwide. Presently, we tested the antimicrobial activity of hydrolysable-rich blackberry, cranberry, chestnut tannin extracts, and conden...

362

Use of Tannin Anticorrosive Reaction Primer to Improve Traditional Coating Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different anticorrosive schemes applied over plain or previously shot-blasted surfaces of AISI 1010 (UNS G10100) steel plates were compared. Plates were painted with alkydic, vinylic, and epoxy anticorrosive schemes over metal treated previously with pine tannin reaction primer and over its own schemes without previous primer treatment. Anticorrosive tests were conducted in a salt fog chamber according to ASTM B

G. Matamala; G. Droguett; W. Smeltzer

1994-01-01

363

Impacts of flavanoid monomers and simple hydrolyzable tannins on ammonia emissions from dairy manure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Inhibition of ammonia production in manure provides for a healthier environment for dairy farmers working in confined quarters. The resulting conservation of urea provides for an enhanced nitrogen concentration, and thus, fertilizing capacity, of the manure. The use of a mixture of tannins from queb...

364

Use of dye-labeled protein as spectrophotometric assay for protein precipitants such as tannin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine serum albumin has been covalently labeled with Remazol brilliant blue R to provide a substrate for a convenient spectrophotometric assay for protein precipitants. The blue protein is especially useful for measuring protein precipitation by vegetable tannins because its absorption maximum is at a wavelength where plant pigments exhibit minimum absorption. Blue BSA has been used to determine, by competition

Thomas N. Asquith; Larry G. Butler

1985-01-01

365

Comparative antimicrobial activity of tannin extracts from perennial plants on mastitis pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three strains of pathogenic bacteria were treated with condensed tannins (CT) purified from eight different woody plant species to investigate their inhibition effect on the growth of these bacteria in vitro. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus were tested against low...

366

The fate of condensed tannins during litter consumption by soil animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Condensed tannins (CT) can strongly affect litter decomposition, but their fate during the decomposition process, in particular as influenced by detritivore consumption, is not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that litter CT are reduced by the gut passage of two functionally distinct detritivores of Mediterranean forests, the millipede Glomeris marginata, and the land snail Pomatias elegans, as a fixed

Mathieu Coulis; Stephan Hättenschwiler; Sylvie Rapior; Sylvain Coq

2009-01-01

367

Tannins Alter Soil Organic Matter Extraction, Solubility of Metals, and Root Physiology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tannins are common plant-derived polyphenolic compounds that precipitate proteins and react with other biomolecules but knowledge of their effects on soil organic matter, the solubility of metals, and root physiology is incomplete. Soil from forest and pasture systems was treated with tannic acid (...

368

The effects of high-tannin leaf litter from transgenic poplars on microbial communities in microcosm soils.  

PubMed

The impacts of leaf litter from genetically modified hybrid poplar accumulating high levels of condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins) were examined in soil microcosms consisting of moss growing on sieved soil. Moss preferentially proliferated in microcosms with lower tannin content; DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) detected increased fungal diversity in microcosms with low-tannin litter. The proportion of cloned rDNA sequences from Actinobacteria decreased with litter addition while Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and ?-Proteobacteria significantly increased. ?-Proteobacteria were proportionally more numerous at high-tannin levels. Tannins had no significant impact on overall diversity of bacterial communities analyzed with various estimators. There was an increased proportion of N-fixing bacteria corresponding to the addition of litter with low-tannin levels. The addition of litter increased the proportion of Ascomycota/Basidiomycota. Dothideomycetes, Pucciniomycetes, and Tremellomycetes also increased and Agaricomycetes decreased. Agaricomycetes and Sordariomycetes were significantly more abundant in controls, whereas Pucciniomycetes increased in soil with litter from transformed trees (P = 0.051). Richness estimators and diversity indices revealed no significant difference in the composition of fungal communities; PCoA (principal coordinate analyses) partitioned the fungal communities into three groups: (i) those with higher amounts of added tannin from both transformed and untransformed treatments, (ii) those corresponding to soils without litter, and (iii) those corresponding to microcosms with litter added from trees transformed only with a ?-glucuronidase control vector. While the litter from transformed poplars had significant effects on soil microbe communities, the observed impacts reflected known impacts on soil processes associated with tannins, and were similar to changes that would be expected from natural variation in tannin levels. PMID:24133486

Winder, Richard S; Lamarche, Josyanne; Constabel, C Peter; Hamelin, Richard C

2013-01-01

369

Bacterial and Protozoal Communities and Fatty Acid Profile in the Rumen of Sheep Fed a Diet Containing Added Tannins ?  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the effects of tannins on ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) due to shifts in the ruminal microbial environment in sheep. Thirteen lambs (45 days of age) were assigned to two dietary treatments: seven lambs were fed a barley-based concentrate (control group) while the other six lambs received the same concentrate with supplemental quebracho tannins (9.57% of dry matter). At 122 days of age, the lambs were slaughtered, and the ruminal contents were subjected to fatty acid analysis and sampled to quantify populations of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, which converts C18:2 c9-c12 (linoleic acid [LA]) to C18:2 c9-t11 (rumenic acid [RA]) and then RA to C18:1 t11 (vaccenic acid [VA]); we also sampled for Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus, which converts VA to C18:0 (stearic acid [SA]). Tannins increased (P < 0.005) VA in the rumen compared to the tannin-free diet. The concentration of SA was not affected by tannins. The SA/VA ratio was lower (P < 0.005) for the tannin-fed lambs than for the controls, suggesting that the last step of the BH process was inhibited by tannins. The B. proteoclasticus population was lower (?30.6%; P < 0.1), and B. fibrisolvens and protozoan populations were higher (+107% and +56.1%, respectively; P < 0.05) in the rumen of lambs fed the tannin-supplemented diet than in controls. These results suggest that quebracho tannins altered BH by changing ruminal microbial populations. PMID:20173064

Vasta, Valentina; Yáñez-Ruiz, David R.; Mele, Marcello; Serra, Andrea; Luciano, Giuseppe; Lanza, Massimiliano; Biondi, Luisa; Priolo, Alessandro

2010-01-01

370

Bacterial and protozoal communities and fatty acid profile in the rumen of sheep fed a diet containing added tannins.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effects of tannins on ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) due to shifts in the ruminal microbial environment in sheep. Thirteen lambs (45 days of age) were assigned to two dietary treatments: seven lambs were fed a barley-based concentrate (control group) while the other six lambs received the same concentrate with supplemental quebracho tannins (9.57% of dry matter). At 122 days of age, the lambs were slaughtered, and the ruminal contents were subjected to fatty acid analysis and sampled to quantify populations of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, which converts C(18:2) c9-c12 (linoleic acid [LA]) to C(18:2) c9-t11 (rumenic acid [RA]) and then RA to C(18:1) t11 (vaccenic acid [VA]); we also sampled for Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus, which converts VA to C(18:0) (stearic acid [SA]). Tannins increased (P < 0.005) VA in the rumen compared to the tannin-free diet. The concentration of SA was not affected by tannins. The SA/VA ratio was lower (P < 0.005) for the tannin-fed lambs than for the controls, suggesting that the last step of the BH process was inhibited by tannins. The B. proteoclasticus population was lower (-30.6%; P < 0.1), and B. fibrisolvens and protozoan populations were higher (+107% and +56.1%, respectively; P < 0.05) in the rumen of lambs fed the tannin-supplemented diet than in controls. These results suggest that quebracho tannins altered BH by changing ruminal microbial populations. PMID:20173064

Vasta, Valentina; Yáñez-Ruiz, David R; Mele, Marcello; Serra, Andrea; Luciano, Giuseppe; Lanza, Massimiliano; Biondi, Luisa; Priolo, Alessandro

2010-04-01

371

Toxicity and Biodegradability Behavior of Xenobiotic Chemicals Before and After Ozonation: A Case Study with Commercial Textile Tannins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozonation of a natural tannin (NT; CODo?=?1195 mg\\/L; TOCo?=?342 mg\\/L; BOD5,o?=?86 mg\\/L) and a synthetic tannin ST; CODo?=?465 mg\\/L; TOCo?=?55 mg\\/L; BOD5,o?=?6 mg\\/L) being frequently applied in the polyamide dyeing process was investigated. Synthetic wastewater samples containing these tannins individually were prepared and subjected to ozonation at varying ozone doses (625– 1250 mgO3\\/L wastewater), at pH?=?3.5 (the application pH of

Idil Arslan-Alaton; Sebnem Aynur-Koyunluoglu

2007-01-01

372

Metabolic fate of fatty acids involved in ruminal biohydrogenation in sheep fed concentrate or herbage with or without tannins.  

PubMed

A 2 x 2 factorial experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of herbage or concentrate feeding and dietary tannin supplementation on fatty acid metabolism and composition in sheep ruminal fluid, plasma, and intramuscular fat. Twenty-eight male lambs were divided into 2 equal groups at 45 d of age and kept in individual pens. One group was given exclusively fresh herbage (vetch), and the other group was fed a concentrate-based diet. Within each treatment, one-half of the lambs received supplementation of quebracho powder, providing 4.0% of dietary DM as tannins. Before slaughter, blood samples were collected. The animals were slaughtered at 105 d of age, and ruminal contents and LM were collected. Blood plasma, ruminal fluid, and LM fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Tannin supplementation reduced (P < 0.05) the concentration of stearic acid (-49%) and increased the concentration of vaccenic acid (+97%) in ruminal fluid from concentrate-fed lambs. Within concentrate- and herbage-based diets, tannin supplementation reduced the accumulation of SFA in blood (P < 0.05) compared with lambs fed the tannin-free diets. When tannins were included in the concentrate, the LM contained 2-fold greater concentrations of rumenic acid compared with the LM of the lambs fed the tannin-free concentrate (0.96 vs. 0.46% of total extracted fatty acids, respectively; P < 0.05). The concentration of PUFA was greater (P < 0.05) and SFA (P < 0.01) less in the LM from lambs fed the tannin-containing diets as compared with the animals receiving the tannin-free diets. These results confirm, in vivo, that tannins reduce ruminal biohydrogenation, as previously reported in vitro. This implies that tannin supplementation could be a useful strategy to increase the rumenic acid and PUFA content and to reduce the SFA in ruminant meats. However, the correct dietary concentration of tannins should be carefully chosen to avoid negative effects on DMI and animal performance. PMID:19395521

Vasta, V; Mele, M; Serra, A; Scerra, M; Luciano, G; Lanza, M; Priolo, A

2009-08-01

373

Two new flavonoid glycosides from the halophyte Limonium franchetii.  

PubMed

Two new flavonoid glycosides, named quercetin-3-O-(2?-O-tigloyl)-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (1) and quercetin-3-O-(3?-O-tigloyl)-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (2), together with 10 known flavonoids (3-12), were isolated from the whole plant of the halophyte Limonium franchetii. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis including 2D NMR and HR-EI-MS. In addition, primary bioassays showed that compound 1 had moderate cytotoxic activity against rat C6 glioma cell lines. PMID:24597719

Kong, Na-Na; Fang, Sheng-Tao; Wang, Jian-Hua; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Xia, Chuan-Hai

2014-01-01

374

Melitidin: a flavanone glycoside from Citrus grandis 'Tomentosa'.  

PubMed

Citrus grandis 'Tomentosa' is a traditional Chinese medicine, used as an antitussive. In this research, melitidin, a flavanone glycoside, was isolated from this species for the first time by using chromatographic methods. The structure was confirmed through comprehensive analyses of its ultraviolet, infrared, 1H and 13C NMR, HMBC and HMQC spectroscopic and high-resolution mass spectrometric data. Meliditin showed a good antitussive effect on cough induced by citric acid in Guinea pig, suggesting that it was a contributor to the antitussive effect of C. grandis 'Tomentosa'. PMID:23738451

Zou, Wei; Wang, Yonggang; Liu, Haibin; Luo, Yulong; Chen, Si; Su, Weiwei

2013-04-01

375

A first new antimalarial pregnane glycoside from Gongronema napalense  

PubMed Central

As a part of the UIC-based ICBG project in Laos, plants were collected based on ethnomedical interviews and evaluated for antimalarial activity. A CHCl3 extract from the vine of Gongronema napalense (Wall.) Decne. (Asclepiadaceae) showed promising anti-malarial activity while exhibiting low levels of cytotoxicity and was thus followed up with further fractionation and biological evaluation. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of a new steroidal glycoside, gongroneside A, which showed antimalarial activity in vitro with an IC50 value of 1.60 and 1.39 ?M against the Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2 clones, respectively. PMID:23653676

Libman, Amey; Zhang, Hongjie; Ma, Cuiying; Southavong, Bounhong; Sydara, Kongmany; Bouamanivong, Somsanith; Tan, Ghee T.; Fong, Harry H. S.; Soejarto, D. Doel

2010-01-01

376

[New flavonoid-glycosides from Crataegus monogyna and Crataegus pentagyna].  

PubMed

From the leaves and flowers of Crataegus monogyna and C. Pentagyna six new flavonoid-C- and O-glycosides respectively have been isolated and identified as 2''-O-rhamnosyl-orientin, 2''-O-rhamnosyl-isoorientin, 2''-O-rhamnosyl-isovitexin, rutin, spiraeosid, 8-methoxy-kämpferol and 8-methoxy-kämpferol-3-O-glucoside. The structure of O-rhamnosyl-vitexin and O-acetyl-O-rhamnosyl-vitexin isolated previously, have been elucidated unambigiously mainly by NMR- and MS-spectroscopy. PMID:17402083

Nikolov, N; Seligmann, O; Wagner, H; Horowitz, R M; Gentili, B

1982-01-01

377

Additional new minor cucurbitane glycosides from Siraitia grosvenorii.  

PubMed

Continuous phytochemical studies of the crude extract of Luo Han Guo (Siraitia grosvenorii) furnished three additional new cucurbitane triterpene glycosides, namely 11-deoxymogroside V, 11-deoxyisomogroside V, and 11-deoxymogroside VI. The structures of all the isolated compounds were characterized on the basis of extensive NMR and mass spectral data as well as hydrolysis studies. The complete ¹H- and ¹³C-NMR spectral assignments of the three unknown compounds are reported for the first time based on COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, and HMBC spectroscopic data. PMID:24662081

Prakash, Indra; Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash

2014-01-01

378

A new phenanthrene glycoside and other constituents from Dioscorea opposita.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of the rhizome of Dioscorea opposita has led to the isolation of a new phenanthrene glycoside, 3,4,6-trihydroxyphenanthrene-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), and five known compounds, soyacerebroside I (2), adenosine (3), beta-sitosterol (4), palmitic acid (5) and palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (6). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods, including 1D- and 2D-NMR. Compounds 1-6 exhibited no antifungal activity against the human pathogenic yeasts Candida albicans, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis. PMID:15467243

Sautour, Marc; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Wagner, Hildebert; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

2004-10-01

379

Two new glycosides from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia L.  

PubMed

To study the chemical constituents of the fruits of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.), and find novel compounds, an n-butanol extract of the ethanol soluble fraction was subjected to repeated silica gel and ODS column chromatography and HPLC. Two new glycosides were isolated and their structures elucidated by NMR and HRFAB-MS spectrometry as (2E,4E,7Z)-deca-2,4,7-trienoate-2-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-?-D-glucopyranoside and amyl-1-O-?-D-apio-furanosyl-1,6-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, respectively. PMID:23103531

Hu, Ming-Xu; Zhang, Hong-Cai; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shu-Min; Liu, Li

2012-01-01

380

Triterpenoids and a triterpene glycoside from Schefflera bodinieri leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two novel triterpenoids and a triterpene glycoside have been isolated from the leaves of Schefflera bodinieri. They are 3-oxo-20-demethylisoaleuritolic-14(15)-ene-28,29-dioic acid, 28-O-[?-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1?4)-O-?- d-glucopyranosyl(1?6)-]-O-?-d-glucopyranoside of 3-oxo-20-demethylisoaleuritic-14(15)-ene-28,29-dioic acid and 3?-hydroxyl-20-demethylisoaleuritolic-14(15)-ene-28,30-dioic acid. The known compounds, d-sorbitol, stigmasterol-3-O-?-d-glucose and two trisaccharides, were also isolated from the leaves. The structures were established on the basis of chemical and spectral evidence.

Min Zhu; J. David Phillipson; Pam M. Greengrass; Norman G. Bowery

1996-01-01

381

Flavonoid Glycosides from Arnica montana and Arnica chamissonis.  

PubMed

Five flavonoid glycosides were identified from flowers of ARNICA MONTANA, four from A. CHAMISSONIS subsp. FOLIOSA var. INCANA. The structures were established on the basis of total acid hydrolysis and spectral data (UV, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, MS) as hispidulin 7- O-beta-glucoside, isorhamnetin 3- O-beta-glucoside, 3- O-beta- D-glucopyranosides of spinacetin, 6-methoxykaempferol and patuletin and querectin 3- O-(6''- O-acetyl)-beta- D-glucopyranoside. The latter compound can serve as distinctive marker between these two ARNICA species. The (1)H-NMR spectra in CD (3)OD are discussed. PMID:17269063

Merfort, I; Wendisch, D

1987-10-01

382

Two new flavonoid glycosides from Artemisia frigida Willd  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of the n-BuOH-soluble fraction from the aerial parts of Artemisia frigida has led to the isolation of two new flavonoid glycosides, named friginoside A and friginoside B. Their structures were characterized as 5,7-dihydroxy-3?,4?,5?-trimethoxy flavone 7-O-?-d-glucuronide (1) and 5,7-dihydroxy-3?,4?,5?-trimethoxyflavone 7-O-?-d-glucuronyl-(1 ? 2)O-?-d-glucuronide (2) on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral analysis.

Qing-Hu Wang; Wu-Li-Ji Ao; Xiu-Lan Wang; Xiao-Hua Bao; Jin-Hui Wang

2010-01-01

383

Two new flavonoid glycosides from Artemisia frigida Willd.  

PubMed

An investigation of the n-BuOH-soluble fraction from the aerial parts of Artemisia frigida has led to the isolation of two new flavonoid glycosides, named friginoside A and friginoside B. Their structures were characterized as 5,7-dihydroxy-3',4',5'-trimethoxy flavone 7-O-?-d-glucuronide (1) and 5,7-dihydroxy-3',4',5'-trimethoxyflavone 7-O-?-d-glucuronyl-(1 ? 2)O-?-d-glucuronide (2) on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral analysis. PMID:21061216

Wang, Qing-Hu; Ao, Wu-Li-Ji; Wang, Xiu-Lan; Bao, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Jin-Hui

2010-11-01

384

Two new nor-triterpene glycosides from peruvian "Uña de Gato" (Uncaria tomentosa).  

PubMed

Two new 27-nor-triterpene glycosides, tomentosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from Peruvian "Uña de Gato" (cat's claw, plant of origin: Uncaria tomentosa), a traditional herbal medicine in Peru. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis and chemical interconversions. This is the first report of naturally occurring pyroquinovic acid glycosides. PMID:12608878

Kitajima, Mariko; Hashimoto, Ken-Ichiro; Yokoya, Masashi; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Sandoval, Manuel; Aimi, Norio

2003-02-01

385

Probing Electrostatic Interactions along the Reaction Pathway of a Glycoside Hydrolase: Histidine Characterization by NMR Spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Probing Electrostatic Interactions along the Reaction Pathway of a Glycoside Hydrolase: Histidine in this model glycoside hydrolase. Dissecting the complex network of electrostatic interac- tions within for directly interrogating the electrostatic interactions within a protein involves the measurement of the site

McIntosh, Lawrence P.

386

Antiproliferative, Cytotoxic and Hemolytic Activities of a Triterpene Glycoside from Psolus patagonicus and Its Desulfated Analog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The major triterpene glycoside of the sea cucumber Psolus patagonicus and its desulfated analog were tested for their antiproliferative, cytotoxic and hemolytic activities, and their effect on NF-?B activation. Methods: The antiproliferative action of glycosides 1 and 2 were determined on 3 tumor cell lines. Their effect on the activation of NF-?B was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay staining

Valeria P. Careaga; Carlos Bueno; Claudia Muniain; Laura Alché; Marta S. Maier

2009-01-01

387

Philinopsides E and F, two new sulfated triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Pentacta quadrangularis.  

PubMed

Two new sulfated triterpene glycosides, philinopside E (1) and F (2), have been isolated from the sea cucumber Pentacta quadrangularis. Their structures have been established by extensive spectral analysis (NMR and MS) and chemical evidence. Glycoside 1 showed significant cytotoxicity (Ed(50) 0.75-3.50 microg mL(-1)) against ten tumor cell lines. PMID:16644536

Zhang, Shi-Long; Li, Ling; Yi, Yang-Hua; Sun, Peng

2006-04-01

388

A new flavonol glycoside from the aerial part of Rudbeckia laciniata.  

PubMed

The phytochemical investigation of Rudbeckia laciniata L. obtained a new flavonol glycoside (1), together with four flavonol glycosides (2-5) and eight quinic acid derivatives (6-13). The structure was elucidation by means of spectroscopic methods and chemical evidence. The isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines in vitro using the sulforhodamine B bioassay. PMID:24062080

Lee, Seung Young; Shin, Young June; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Kang Ro

2014-07-01

389

Preference for tannin-containing supplements by sheep consuming endophyte-infected tall fescue hay.  

PubMed

Tannins may bind to alkaloids in endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue and attenuate fescue toxicosis. To test this hypothesis, thirty-two 4-mo-old lambs were randomly assigned to 4 treatments (8 lambs/treatment) in a 2 by 2 factorial design that included a basal diet of tall fescue hay [E+ or endophyte-free (E-)] supplemented with (TS) or without (CS) bioactive Quebracho tannins. The concentration of ergovaline in E+ fed in 2 successive phases was 65 ± 21 µg/kg (Phase 1) and 128 ± 4 µg/kg (Phase 2). After exposure to hays and supplements, all lambs were offered choices between TS and CS and between E+ and E- hays. During Phase 1, lambs offered E+ consumed more hay than lambs offered E- (P = 0.03). Lambs on E+/TS displayed the greatest intake of hay and the least intake of TS (P < 0.05). During Phase 2, when the concentration of ergovaline increased, lambs offered E+ consumed less hay than lambs fed E- (P < 0.0001). Lambs on E+/CS consumed less hay than lambs on E-/CS (P = 0.02), but hay intake by lambs on E-/TS and E+/TS did not differ (P = 0.96). Lambs preferred CS to TS during preference tests (P < 0.0001) and lambs on E+/TS ingested the least amounts of supplement TS and the greatest amounts of supplement CS (P = 0.001). Lambs offered E+ displayed greater body temperatures than lambs offered E- in both phases (P < 0.05). When offered a choice among the 3 hays, lambs previously exposed to E+ preferred E+ (low content of ergovaline) > E- > E+ (greater content of ergovaline; P < 0.001). Thus, decreased concentrations of ergovaline increased rectal temperatures, and affected intake of and preference for tannins and fescue hay. Quebracho tannins did not attenuate the effects of E+ on body temperature and feed intake. Ingestion of E+ reduced intake of quebracho tannins, suggesting that alkaloids in E+ antagonized ingestion of condensed tannins. PMID:23658337

Bernard, M; Maughan, B; Villalba, J J

2013-07-01

390

Separation of phenylpropanoid glycosides from a Chinese herb by HSCCC.  

PubMed

An effective high-speed counter-current chromatography method was established for the preparative isolation and purification of two phenylpropanoid glycosides from the Tibetan medicinal plant Pedicularis longiflora Rudolph. var. tubiformis (Klotz). Tsoong. With a two-phase solvent system composed of chloroform-n-butanol-methanol-water (4:3:4:5, v/v), 40 mg of an extract of Pedicularis longiflora Rudolph. var. tubiformis (Klotz). Tsoong was separated to yield 20 mg of verbascoside and 18 mg of isoacteoside, with purity values of 97 and 98%, respectively. The chemical structures of these two components were identified by proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance. In addition, the antioxidant activity of the two phenylpropanoid glycosides was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-high-performance liquid chromatography, and the results showed that the two components exhibited strong antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity, with IC50 values of 15.6 and 18.9 µg/mL, respectively. PMID:23680899

Chen, Chen; Zhao, Xiao-Hui; Yue, Hui-Lan; Li, Yu-Lin; Chen, Tao

2014-01-01

391

Acylated-oxypregnane glycosides from the roots of Araujia sericifera.  

PubMed

Twenty-three new acylated-oxypregnane glycosides were obtained from the roots of Araujia sericifera. (Asclepiadaceae). These glycosides were confirmed to be tetraglycosides possessing twelve known compounds, 12-O-benzoyllineolon, 12-O-benzoyldeacylmetaplexigenin, ikemagenin, kidjolanin, cynanchogenin, caudatin, rostratamine, penupogenin, 12-O-benzoylisolineolon, 12-O-tigloyldecylmetaplexigenin (incisagenin), 12-O-benzoyl-20-O-acetylsarcostin, 20-O-benzoyl-12-O-(E)-cinnamoyl-3 beta,5 alpha,8 beta,12 beta,14 beta,17 beta,20-heptahydroxy-(20S)-pregn-6-ene and ten new acylated-oxypregnanes, 12-O-benzoyl-20S-hydroxyisolineolon, 12-O-tigloyllineolon, 12-O-salicyloyllineolon, 12-O-salicyloyldeacylmetplexigenin, 12-O-benzoyl-3 beta,5 alpha,8 beta,12 beta,14 beta,17 beta-hexahydroxypregn-6-en-20-one, 12-O-benzoyl-19-benzoyloxydeacylmetapleligenin, 12-O-benzoyl-19-benzoyloxy-20-O-acetylsarcostin, 12-O-benzoyl-19-salicyloyloxy-20-O-acetylsarcostin, 12-O-benzoyl-5 alpha,6 alpha-epoxydeacylmetaplexigenin, and 12-O-benzoyl-5 alpha,6 alpha-epoxylineolon as their aglycones, using both spectroscopic and chemical methods. PMID:12951444

Warashina, Tsutomu; Noro, Tadakata

2003-09-01

392

Recovering glycoside hydrolase genes from active tundra cellulolytic bacteria.  

PubMed

Bacteria responsible for cellulose hydrolysis in situ are poorly understood, largely because of the relatively recent development of cultivation-independent methods for their detection and characterization. This study combined DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) and metagenomics for identifying active bacterial communities that assimilated carbon from glucose and cellulose in Arctic tundra microcosms. Following DNA-SIP, bacterial fingerprint analysis of gradient fractions confirmed isotopic enrichment. Sequenced fingerprint bands and clone library analysis of 16S rRNA genes identified active bacterial taxa associated with cellulose-associated labelled DNA, including Bacteroidetes (Sphingobacteriales), Betaproteobacteria (Burkholderiales), Alphaproteobacteria (Caulobacteraceae), and Chloroflexi (Anaerolineaceae). We also compared glycoside hydrolase metagenomic profiles from bulk soil and heavy DNA recovered from DNA-SIP incubations. Active populations consuming [(13)C]glucose and [(13)C]cellulose were distinct, based on ordinations of light and heavy DNA. Metagenomic analysis demonstrated a ?3-fold increase in the relative abundance of glycoside hydrolases in DNA-SIP libraries over bulk-soil libraries. The data also indicate that multiple displacement amplification introduced bias into the resulting metagenomic analysis. This research identified DNA-SIP incubation conditions for glucose and cellulose that were suitable for Arctic tundra soil and confirmed that DNA-SIP enrichment can increase target gene frequencies in metagenomic libraries. PMID:24983351

Pinnell, Lee J; Dunford, Eric; Ronan, Patrick; Hausner, Martina; Neufeld, Josh D

2014-07-01

393

Steviol Glycosides Modulate Glucose Transport in Different Cell Types  

PubMed Central

Extracts from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a plant native to Central and South America, have been used as a sweetener since ancient times. Currently, Stevia extracts are largely used as a noncaloric high-potency biosweetener alternative to sugar, due to the growing incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and metabolic disorders worldwide. Despite the large number of studies on Stevia and steviol glycosides in vivo, little is reported concerning the cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning the beneficial effects on human health. The effect of four commercial Stevia extracts on glucose transport activity was evaluated in HL-60 human leukaemia and in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. The extracts were able to enhance glucose uptake in both cellular lines, as efficiently as insulin. Our data suggest that steviol glycosides could act by modulating GLUT translocation through the PI3K/Akt pathway since treatments with both insulin and Stevia extracts increased the phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt. Furthermore, Stevia extracts were able to revert the effect of the reduction of glucose uptake caused by methylglyoxal, an inhibitor of the insulin receptor/PI3K/Akt pathway. These results corroborate the hypothesis that Stevia extracts could mimic insulin effects modulating PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:24327825

Rizzo, Benedetta; Zambonin, Laura; Leoncini, Emanuela; Vieceli Dalla Sega, Francesco; Prata, Cecilia; Fiorentini, Diana; Hrelia, Silvana

2013-01-01

394

Prenylflavonol, acylated flavonol glycosides and related compounds from Epimedium sagittatum.  

PubMed

Chemical examination of the n-BuOH extract from the aerial parts of Epimedium sagittatum led to isolation of three prenylated flavonol glycosides sagittasine A-C, two acylated flavonol glycosides kaempferol-3-O-(2''-E-p-coumaroyl,4''-Z-p-coumaroyl)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside and kaempferol-3-O-(3''-Z-p-coumaroyl,4''-E-p-coumaroyl)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside, together with known flavonoids, flavonolignans, 2-phenoxychromones, a lignan, and aromatic acid derivatives. Flavonolignans were identified for the first time in this plant. The vasorelaxing properties of the n-BuOH extract of E. sagittatum and 13 isolated compounds were tested using pre-contracted rat aorta rings in an organ bath apparatus. The results indicated that the n-BuOH extract of E. sagittatum produced a partial endothelial nitric oxide-dependent vasorelaxation, with EC(50) of 0.16+/-0.03 mg/ml. However, the 13 compounds tested, generated only a mild or moderate relaxation, and did not possess significant vasorelaxing effect individually. PMID:17618659

Wang, Guei-Jane; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Lin, Lie-Chwen

2007-10-01

395

Tissue and cellular localization of tannins in Tunisian dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by light and transmission electron microscopy.  

PubMed

A histological approach including light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to provide accurate information on the localization of condensed tannins in the edible tissues and in the stone of date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Light microscopy was carried out on fresh tissues after staining by 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMACA) for a specific detection of condensed tannins. Thus, whether under light microscopy or transmission electron microscopy (TEM), results showed that tannins are not located in the epidermis but more deeply in the mesocarp in the vacuole of very large cells. Regarding the stones, tannins are found in a specific cell layer located at 50 ?m from the sclereid cells of the testa. PMID:24987926

Hammouda, Hédi; Alvarado, Camille; Bouchet, Brigitte; Kalthoum-Chérif, Jamila; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika; Guyot, Sylvain

2014-07-16

396

The effect of feed moisture and temperature on tannin content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extruded chestnuts.  

PubMed

This study focuses on the effect of extrusion processing on tannin reduction, phenolic content, flavonoid content, antioxidant and anitimicrobial activity. Extrusion temperature (120 and 140 °C) and feed moisture (25% and 28%) were used on the tannin content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Extrusion cooking reduced tannin content up to 78%, and improved antioxidant activity from 12.89% to 21.17% in a concentration dependant manner without affecting its antimicrobial activity that varied from 250 to 500 mg. The time-kill assay confirmed the ability of extruded chestnut to reduce Pseudomonas aeruginosa count below detectable limit that reduced the original inoculum by 3log10 CFU/mL. Overall, the results showed that extrusion cooking might serve as a tool for tannin reduction and could improve the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of chestnut, which might be helpful for chestnut related products in the food industry. PMID:23993601

Obiang-Obounou, Brice Wilfried; Ryu, Gi Hyung

2013-12-15

397

Modulation of Proline-Rich Protein Biosynthesis in Rat Parotid Glands by Sorghums with High Tannin Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding of sorghum with a high level of tannin (high-tannin sorghum) to rats caused changes in gene expression in parotid glands similar to isoproterenol treatment. Within 3 days the parotid glands were enlarged about 3-fold and a series of proline-rich proteins were increased about 12-fold. Unlike isoproterenol treatment, no changes were observed in the submandibular glands, and a Mr 220,000

Haile Mehansho; Ann Hagerman; Scott Clements; Larry Butler; John Rogler; Don M. Carlson

1983-01-01

398

Characterisation of hydrolysable tannins from leaves of Betula pubescens by high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-MS) method, assisted by diode array detection, for the characterisation of individual hydrolysable tannins in birch leaves was developed. With the method, it was found that birch (Betula pubescens) leaves contained an exceptionally complex mixture of hydrolysable tannins; 14 gallotannins and 20 ellagitannins were identified. The developed HPLC–ESI-MS method allows the qualitative and

J.-P Salminen; V Ossipov; J Loponen; E Haukioja; K Pihlaja

1999-01-01

399

Assessment of in vivo and in vitro cytotoxic activity of hydrolysable tannin extracted from Rhizophora apiculata barks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizophora apiculata is a common mangrove tree in Malaysia. The bark of this tree has been reported to contain a chemical constituent such as\\u000a tannin that exhibited antimicrobial activity. Recently hydrolysable tannins have been studied for their potential effects\\u000a against pathogenic microorganisms and cancer cells through different mechanisms. The essence of the present study was to focus\\u000a on the in

Lim Sheh Hong; Darah Ibrahim; Jain Kassim

400

Taste Thresholds and Suprathreshold Responses to Tannin-Rich Plant Extracts and Quinine in a Primate Species ( Microcebus murinus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories of plant chemical defenses discriminate between quantitative digestibility reducers (e.g., tannins) and qualitative toxins (e.g., alkaloids). Since the differential effect on taste of these compounds is poorly known, we recorded ingestive responses of a primate species, Microcebus murinus, to four tannin-rich plant extracts and to quinine, by using the behavioral method of the “two-bottle test.” The efficiency of tannic

S. Iaconelli; B. Simmen

2002-01-01

401

The Swarming Motility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Is Blocked by Cranberry Proanthocyanidins and Other Tannin-Containing Materials?  

PubMed Central

Bacterial motility plays a key role in the colonization of surfaces by bacteria and the subsequent formation of resistant communities of bacteria called biofilms. Derivatives of cranberry fruit, predominantly condensed tannins called proanthocyanidins (PACs) have been reported to interfere with bacterial adhesion, but the effects of PACs and other tannins on bacterial motilities remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated whether cranberry PAC (CPAC) and the hydrolyzable tannin in pomegranate (PG; punicalagin) affected the levels of motilities exhibited by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This bacterium utilizes flagellum-mediated swimming motility to approach a surface, attaches, and then further spreads via the surface-associated motilities designated swarming and twitching, mediated by multiple flagella and type IV pili, respectively. Under the conditions tested, both CPAC and PG completely blocked swarming motility but did not block swimming or twitching motilities. Other cranberry-containing materials and extracts of green tea (also rich in tannins) were also able to block or impair swarming motility. Moreover, swarming bacteria were repelled by filter paper discs impregnated with many tannin-containing materials. Growth experiments demonstrated that the majority of these compounds did not impair bacterial growth. When CPAC- or PG-containing medium was supplemented with surfactant (rhamnolipid), swarming motility was partially restored, suggesting that the effective tannins are in part acting by a rhamnolipid-related mechanism. Further support for this theory was provided by demonstrating that the agar surrounding tannin-induced nonswarming bacteria was considerably less hydrophilic than the agar area surrounding swarming bacteria. This is the first study to show that natural compounds containing tannins are able to block P. aeruginosa swarming motility and that swarming bacteria are repelled by such compounds. PMID:21378043

O'May, Che; Tufenkji, Nathalie

2011-01-01

402

Cardiac Procedures and Surgeries  

MedlinePLUS

Cardiac Procedures and Surgeries Updated:Oct 24,2014 If you've had a heart attack, you may have already had certain procedures to ... artery disease (CAD) you have. Cardiac Procedures and Surgeries Angioplasty Also known as Percutaneous Coronary Interventions [PCI], ...

403

Cardiac sarcoidosis: contemporary review.  

PubMed

Cardiac sarcoidosis can occur in up to 25% of patients with sarcoidosis in other organ systems and may present with conduction abnormalities, ventricular arrhythmias, or heart failure. This review will summarize the state of current knowledge and key questions that remain to be answered. Because cardiac sarcoidosis is a rare, complex disease, the most meaningful research will include interdisciplinary, multicenter collaborations. PMID:25231794

Kron, Jordana; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A

2015-01-01

404

Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Upregulates Cardiac Autonomic Control  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on sympathetic nervous function in heart failure (HF). Background: Neurohormonal dysregulation and cardiac autonomic dysfunction are associated with HF and contribute to HF progression and its poor prognosis. We hypothesized that mechanical resynchronization improves cardiac sympathetic function in HF. Methods: Sixteen consecutive patients receiving CRT for advanced cardiomyopathy and 10 controls were included in this prospective study. NYHA class, 6-minute walk distance, echocardiographic parameters, plasma norepinephrine (NE) were assessed at baseline, 3-month and 6-month follow-up. Cardiac sympathetic function was determined by 123iodine metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) scintigraphy and 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography. Results: Along with improvement in NYHA class (3.1 ± 0.3 to 2.1 ± 0.4, P < 0.001) and LVEF (23 ± 6% to 33 ± 12%, P < 0.001 delayed heart/mediastinum (H/M) 123 I-MIBG ratio increased significantly (1.8 ± 0.7 to 2.1 ± 0.6, P = 0.04) while the H/M 123I-MIBG washout rate decreased significantly (54 ± 25% to 34± 24%, P = 0.01) from baseline to 6-month follow-up. The heart rate variability (HRV) measured in SD of normal-to-normal intervals also increased significantly from baseline (82 ± 30 ms) to follow-up (111 ± 32 ms, P = 0.04). The improvement in NYHA after CRT was significantly associated with baseline 123I-MIBG H/M washout rate (r = 0.65, P = 0.03). The improvement in LVESV index was associated with baseline 123I-MIBG delayed H/M ratio (r = ?0.67, P = 0.02) and H/M washout rate (r = 0.65, P = 0.03). Conclusion: After CRT, improvements in cardiac symptoms and LV function were accompanied by rebalanced cardiac autonomic control as measured by 123I-MIBG and HRV. PMID:18479331

CHA, YONG-MEI; OH, JAE; MIYAZAKI, CHINAMI; HAYES, DAVID L.; REA, ROBERT F.; SHEN, WIN-KUANG; ASIRVATHAM, SAMUEL J.; KEMP, BRAD J.; HODGE, DAVID O.; CHEN, PENG-SHENG; CHAREONTHAITAWEE, PANITHAYA

2009-01-01

405

Cardiac Hegemony of Senescence  

PubMed Central

Cardiac senescence and age-related disease development have gained general attention and recognition in the past decades due to increased accessibility and quality of health care. The advancement in global civilization is complementary to concerns regarding population aging and development of chronic degenerative diseases. Cardiac degeneration has been rigorously studied. The molecular mechanisms of cardiac senescence are on multiple cellular levels and hold a multilayer complexity level, thereby hampering development of unambiguous treatment protocols. In particular, the synergistic exchange of the senescence phenotype through a senescence secretome between myocytes and stem cells appears complicated and is of great future therapeutic value. The current review article will highlight hallmarks of senescence, cardiac myocyte and stem cell senescence, and the mutual exchange of senescent secretome. Future cardiac cell therapy approaches require a comprehensive understanding of myocardial senescence to improve therapeutic efficiency as well as efficacy. PMID:24349878

Siddiqi, Sailay; Sussman, Mark A.

2013-01-01

406

Cardiac Hegemony of Senescence.  

PubMed

Cardiac senescence and age-related disease development have gained general attention and recognition in the past decades due to increased accessibility and quality of health care. The advancement in global civilization is complementary to concerns regarding population aging and development of chronic degenerative diseases. Cardiac degeneration has been rigorously studied. The molecular mechanisms of cardiac senescence are on multiple cellular levels and hold a multilayer complexity level, thereby hampering development of unambiguous treatment protocols. In particular, the synergistic exchange of the senescence phenotype through a senescence secretome between myocytes and stem cells appears complicated and is of great future therapeutic value. The current review article will highlight hallmarks of senescence, cardiac myocyte and stem cell senescence, and the mutual exchange of senescent secretome. Future cardiac cell therapy approaches require a comprehensive understanding of myocardial senescence to improve therapeutic efficiency as well as efficacy. PMID:24349878

Siddiqi, Sailay; Sussman, Mark A

2013-12-01

407

Evaluation of the content variation of anthraquinone glycosides in rhubarb by UPLC-PDA  

PubMed Central

Background Rhubarb is an important Chinese medicinal herb with a long history of over 2000 years and has been commonly used as a laxative. It is the radix and rhizome of Rheum officinale Baill., R. palmatum L. and R. tanguticum Maxim, all of which are mainly distributed in a broad region in the Tibetan plateau. Anthraquinone glycosides are a series of major active ingredients found in all three species. They are key intermediates in the anthraquinone secondary metabolism and the sennnoside biosynthesis. The variation of the anthraquinone glycoside content in rhubarb in response to specific factors remains an attractive topic. Results A simple and sensitive Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with Photo-Diode Array (UPLC-PDA) detector was developed for the simultaneous determination of six anthraquinone glycosides in rhubarb, i.e., aloeemodin-8-O-glucoside, rhein-8-O-glucoside, chrysophanol-1-O-glucoside, emodin-1-O-glucoside, chrysophanol-8-O-glucoside, emodin-8-O-glucoside. Twenty-seven batches from three species were submitted to the multi-component analysis. The results showed that the anthraquinone glycoside content varied significantly even within the same species. The results showed that the anthraquinone glycoside content varied significantly within the same species but not between different species. The PCA and content analysis results confirmed that the plant species has no obvious effect on the content variation. Neither was any significant correlation observed between the anthraquinone glycoside content and the geographic distribution of the rhubarb. Through correlational analysis, altitude was found to be the main factor that affects the anthraquinone glycoside content in rhubarb. Rhubarb grown at higher altitude has higher anthraquinone glycoside content. Conclusions This work provides a rapid, sensitive and accurate UPLC-PDA method for the simultaneous determination of six anthraquinone glycosides in rhubarb. The anthraquinone glycoside content varied significantly within the same species. The relationship of the anthraquinone glycoside content with plant species, geographic distribution and altitude were studied using correlational analysis, principal component analysis and spatial autocorrelation analysis through SPSS and ArcGIS. Plant species and geographic distribution were found not to affect the content of the six anthraquinone glycosides in rhubarb. The variations in the anthraquinone glycoside content were primarily due to the different altitude where the plant was grown. PMID:24160332

2013-01-01

408

Studies on Emblica officinalis derived tannins for their immunostimulatory and protective activities against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.  

PubMed

The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis. PMID:24578631

Kaleem, Qari Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Zafar, Muddassar; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir; Anwar, Muhammad Irfan

2014-01-01

409

Effect of condensed tannins on egg hatching and larval development of Trichostrongylus colubriformis in vitro.  

PubMed

The effects of condensed tannins extracted from seven forages on the viability of the eggs and first stage (L1) larvae of the sheep nematode Trichostrongylus colubriformis were evaluated in in vitro assays. The extracts of condensed tannins were obtained from Lotus pedunculatus (LP), Lotus corniculatus (LC), sulla (Hedysarum coronarium), sainfoin (Onobrychus viciifolia), Dorycnium pentaphylum (DP), Dorycnium rectum (DR) and dock (Rumex obtusifolius). Extracts containing 200 to 500 microg/ml reduced the proportion of eggs that hatched. The larval development assay was used to evaluate the effect of the extracts on the development of either eggs or L1 larvae to L3 infective larvae. Development was allowed to proceed for seven days by which time the larvae in control incubations had reached the infective L3 stage. Extracts containing 200 microg/ml from LP, DP, DR or dock prevented egg development, and only 11, 8 and 2 per cent of the eggs developed to L3 larvae with extracts from LC, sulla and sainfoin, respectively. When the concentration was 400 microg/ml no eggs developed to L3 larvae. The addition of the extracts after hatching also inhibited the development of L1 to L3 larvae; 200 microg/ml extracted from LP, LC, sulla, sainfoin, DP, DR and dock resulted in only 14, 18, 17, 15, 14, 16 and 4 per cent of L1 larvae developing to the L3 stage compared with 85 per cent for controls, and 400 microg/ml further reduced the development of L1 larvae. Statistical analyses showed that when the extracts were added before hatching they were significantly (P<0.001) more effective at inhibiting the larval development than when they were added after hatching. The condensed tannins from dock had the greatest inhibitory effect on egg development followed by the tannins from DR, sainfoin, DP, LP, sulla and LC. PMID:11837588

Molan, A L; Waghorn, G C; McNabb, W C

2002-01-19

410

Hepatitis C virus inhibitory hydrolysable tannins from the fruits of Terminalia chebula.  

PubMed

Two new hydrolysable tannins, chebumeinin A (1) and chebumeinin B (2), together with eight known related compounds (3-10), were isolated from the fruits of Terminalia chebula. The new compounds were structurally determined by analysis of their spectroscopic data and the known compounds characterized by comparing their spectroscopic data with literature values. All isolates were evaluated by an HCV protease inhibition assay, and some compounds were found to be potently active. PMID:25261266

Ajala, Olusegun S; Jukov, Azzaya; Ma, Chao-Mei

2014-12-01

411

Feeding behavior of graminivorous grasshoppers in response to host-plant extracts, alkaloids, and tannins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary metabolites exhibit the potential to direct food selection by grass-feeding (graminivorous) grasshoppers. We examined the effects of plant extracts and representative secondary metabolites on the feeding behavior of two such grasshoppers,Ageneotettix deorum (Scudder) andPhoetaliotes nebrascensis (Scudder). Three alkaloids and two tannins were bioassayed for their activity as feeding deterrent allelochemicals, as were extracts from the foliage of the graminoids

Simon Mole; Anthony Joern

1994-01-01

412

Effects of viscosity on the bitterness and astringency of grape seed tannin  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the separate effects of viscosity and sweetness on astringency, aqueous solutions of grape seed tannin (GST) were thickened with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) from 2 to 45 cP (experiment 1) or sweetened with 0 to 1.8 gL aspartame (experiment 2). Trained subjects continuously rated astringency and bitterness in duplicate. Subjects were categorized by the salivary flow induced by citric

Andrew K. Smith; Helen June; Ann C. Noble

1996-01-01

413

Recent Development of Vegetal Tannins in Corrosion Protection of Iron and Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibitors are employed predominantly for corrosion control in closed systems, as a cost-efficiently alternative to the use of high corrosion-resistant materials. Due to the environmental requirements that are currently imposed on the development of cleaner inhibitors, vegetal tannins, a class of natural, non-toxic, biodegradable organic compounds that can be obtained at reduced cost has been proposed. This review relates recent

Afidah A. Rahim; Jain Kassim

2010-01-01

414

Effect of Cultivar, Steeping, and Malting on Tannin, Total Polyphenol, and Cyanide Content of Nigerian Sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 66(2):87-89 Tannin was estimated in the seeds of 15 Nigerian sorghum cultivars and polyphenol content also decreased by 22,68, and 19% for SRN484, KSV7, found to vary between 0.25% (catechin equivalent) for SSVl 1 and SSV12 and SSV3, respectively, after malting. Cyanide content of the grains varied and 2.92% for SRN484. Total polyphenol content ranged from 0.32% from

BOLANLE A. OSUNTOGUN; STEVE R. A. ADEWUSI; CHARLES C. NWASIKE

415

Pre-Ozonation of Commercial Textile Tannins: Effects on Biodegradability and Toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ozonation on the biodegradability and acute toxicity of two frequently used textile dye assisting chemicals, namely natural tannin (NT) having an initial chemical oxygen demand (COD0) of 1195 mg L; initial total organic carbon (TOC0) of 342 mg L; initial 5th-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5,0) of 86 mg L; initial ultraviolet absorbance at 280 nm wavelength (UV280,0)

SEBNEM KOYUNLUOGLU; IDIL ARSLAN-ALATON; GULEN EREMEKTAR; FATOS GERMIRLI-BABUNA

2006-01-01

416

Herbivory, tannins and sclerophylly in Chamaecrista linearifolia (Fabaceae) along an altitudinal gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of tannins in leaves, fruits, and flowers, leaf sclerophylly, leaf size and herbivore damage in Chamaecrista linearifolia (Fabaceae) were measured on three populations along an altitudinal gradient (600m, 850m, and 1,100m), in a cerrado vegetation in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Proportion of leaf area lost to insects was used as an index of herbivore damage, and its relationship

João Augusto Madeira; Katia Torres Ribeiro; G. Wilson Fernandes

1998-01-01

417

Wastewater Toxicity of Tannin Versus Chromium-Based Leather Tanneries in Marrakesh, Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of leather tanning wastewater from a traditional tannery (TT), which is based on vegetable tannin (VT), was compared\\u000a with wastewater from a tannery combining the use of chromium-based tanning (CT) with VT-based tanning operations. Wastewater\\u000a samples from a TT and a CT plant as well as from five sewer sampling points were collected in Marrakesh, Morocco, and the

E. De Nicola; S. Meriç; C. Della Rocca; M. Gallo; M. Iaccarino; P. Manini; D. Petruzzelli; V. Belgiorno; M. Cheggour; A. Di Gennaro; A. Moukrim; O. Tünay; G. Pagano

2007-01-01

418

Surfactants: their role in preventing the precipitation of proteins by tannins in insect guts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much more tannic acid or pin oak tannin is required to precipitate the abundant leaf protein, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase\\/oxygenase (RuBPC), from Manduca sexta gut fluid adjusted to pH 6.5 than is required to precipitate this protein from an aqueous buffer at the same pH. This finding demonstrates that some characteristic of M. sexta gut fluid, in addition to its basicity, counteracts

Michael M. Martin; Joan S. Martin

1984-01-01

419

Tannin Degradation by a Novel Tannase Enzyme Present in Some Lactobacillus plantarum Strains  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus plantarum is frequently isolated from the fermentation of plant material where tannins are abundant. L. plantarum strains possess tannase activity to degrade plant tannins. An L. plantarum tannase (TanBLp, formerly called TanLp1) was previously identified and biochemically characterized. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of a novel tannase (TanALp). While all 29 L. plantarum strains analyzed in the study possess the tanBLp gene, the gene tanALp was present in only four strains. Upon methyl gallate exposure, the expression of tanBLp was induced, whereas tanALp expression was not affected. TanALp showed only 27% sequence identity to TanBLp, but the residues involved in tannase activity are conserved. Optimum activity for TanALp was observed at 30°C and pH 6 in the presence of Ca2+ ions. TanALp was able to hydrolyze gallate and protocatechuate esters with a short aliphatic alcohol substituent. Moreover, TanALp was able to fully hydrolyze complex gallotannins, such as tannic acid. The presence of the extracellular TanALp tannase in some L. plantarum strains provides them an advantage for the initial degradation of complex tannins present in plant environments. PMID:24610854

Jiménez, Natalia; Esteban-Torres, María; Mancheño, José Miguel; de las Rivas, Blanca

2014-01-01

420

Tannins and terpenoids as major precursors of Suwannee River fulvic acid  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) was fractionated into 7 fractions by normal-phase chromatography on silica gel followed by reverse-phase fractionation on XAD-8 resin that produced 18 subfractions. Selected major subfractions were characterized by 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared spectrometry, and elemental analyses. 13C-NMR spectra of the subfractions were more indicative of precursor structures than unfractionated SRFA, and gave spectral profiles that indicated SRFA mass was about equally split between tannin precursors and terpenoid precursors. Lignin precursors were minor components. Synthesis of 13C-NMR data with elemental data for subfractions derived from both tannin and terpenoid precursors revealed high ring contents and low numbers of carbon per rings which is indicative of fused ring structures that are extensively substituted with carboxyl and methyl groups. These results ruled out extended chain structures for SRFA. This information is useful for determining sources and properties of fulvic acid in drinking water supplies as tannins are more reactive with chlorine to produce undesirable disinfection by-products than are terpenoids.

Leenheer, Jerry A.; Rostad, Colleen E.

2004-01-01

421

Towards high resolution ^1H NMR spectra of tannin colloidal aggregates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time dependent colloidal formation of tannins in hydro-alcoholic medium has been studied by 1H-NMR. Line broadening observed with time can be cancelled by making use of magic angle sample spinning (MASS) thus yielding sharp lines that allow structural studies. We used as an example catechin, a constitutive monomer of Bordeaux young red wine tannins. Chemical shift variations of polyphenol protons allow monitoring the time course of aggregation. La formation de tanins colloïdaux au cours du temps, en milieu hydroalcoolique, a été suivie par RMN-^1H. Un élargissement marqué des résonances est observé et peut être supprimé par la rotation de l'échantillon à l'angle magique ce qui ouvre tout un champ d'études structurales sur ces composés colloïdaux. L'exemple proposé est celui de la catéchine, monomère constitutif de tannins présents en grande quantité dans les vins rouges jeunes de Bordeaux. Des variations du déplacement chimique de certains protons polyphénoliques permettent de suivre l'évolution temporelle de l'agrégation.

Mirabel, M.; Glories, Y.; Pianet, I.; Dufourc, E. J.

1999-10-01

422

Feeding behavior of graminivorous grasshoppers in response to host-plant extracts, alkaloids, and tannins.  

PubMed

Secondary metabolites exhibit the potential to direct food selection by grass-feeding (graminivorous) grasshoppers. We examined the effects of plant extracts and representative secondary metabolites on the feeding behavior of two such grasshoppers,Ageneotettix deorum (Scudder) andPhoetaliotes nebrascensis (Scudder). Three alkaloids and two tannins were bioassayed for their activity as feeding deterrent allelochemicals, as were extracts from the foliage of the graminoids commonly eaten by these grasshoppers:Agropyron smithii Rydb.,Andropogon hallii Hack.,Andropogon scoparius Michx.,Bouteloua gracilis (H. B. K) Lag. ex Griffiths,Carex heliophila Mack. andStipa comata Trin. & Rupr. Alkaloids strongly deterred feeding but tannins only exhibited a weak effect, even when present at four times the concentration of total phenolics typical for these graminoids. Host-plant extracts also exhibited weak effects, such that we found no evidence for either strong deterrence or phagostimulation. Our results for alkaloids and host-plant extracts are consistent with the view that grass-feeding grasshoppers may be restricted to graminoids because of: (1) the presence of deterrents in nonhosts and (2) the absence of deterrents in hosts. However, our data for tannins show that these are unlikely to be effective barriers to herbivory by these grasshoppers. PMID:24241979

Mole, S; Joern, A

1994-12-01

423

Tannins, trypsin inhibitors and lectin cytotoxicity in tepary (Phaseolus acutifolius) and common (Phaseolus vulgaris) beans.  

PubMed

This study compared the levels of antinutritional components and cytotoxic effect of extracts, from tepary (Phaseolus acutifolius) and common (Phaseolus vulgaris) beans. Antinutritional factors were evaluated by determining their effect on the viability of epithelial cells isolated from rat small intestine. The protein and carbohydrates content were similar in all the genotypes studied (20 and 60%, respectively). Common beans presented higher content of trypsin inhibitors, tannins and lectins than tepary beans. There was not a significant correlation between tannins and cooking time. However, water absorption and cooking time correlated significantly (p < 0.05). Considerable variation was observed in lectin activity (1302-18161 Ul/mg) of extracts from different beans. Tannins, lectins, trypsin inhibitors and fat content differed between bean varieties whereas protein content was similar. The percent cellularity on rat epithelial cells was significantly different among protein extracts from different bean cultivars and ranged between 53.5% and 87.4% (p < 0.05). These results suggest that the incorporation of tepary beans in the diet would not alter the current nutritional contribution of common beans or introduce adverse toxic effects. The agronomic characteristics of tepary beans make them attractive for cultivation. However, the harder to cook phenomenon may be a limiting factor that needs further consideration. PMID:16187017

De Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez; Del Carmen Valadez-Vega, Maria; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalia; Loarca-Pina, Guadalupe

2005-09-01

424

A comparison of sample preparation techniques for quantifying iridoid glycosides sequestered by lepidopteran larvae.  

PubMed

This study compared different methods of tissue preparation for extraction of iridoid glycosides sequestered by three species of lepidopteran larvae. Junonia coenia is a specialist on plant species that produce iridoid glycosides, while the arctiids Estigmene acrea and Spilosoma congrua are both polyphagous and will eat plants that produce iridoid glycosides. Larvae of all three species were reared on leaves of Plantago lanceolata, which produces two primary iridoid glycosides, aucubin and catalpol. Three methods of preparing the specimens before extraction in methanol were compared in all three species: 1) larvae were flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen, 2) larvae were macerated fresh in boiling methanol, or 3) larvae were macerated fresh in room temperature methanol. A set of J. coenia larvae was oven-dried before maceration as an additional treatment for this species only. Junonia coenia sequestered the most iridoid glycosides, while E. acrea sequestered the least, and S. congrua was intermediate. Estigmene acrea was poor at sequestering catalpol. Tissue preparation method only significantly influenced iridoid glycoside recovery from S. congrua, with maceration in room-temperature methanol being the most effective of the three methods. This study shows that treatment of insects prior to iridoid glycoside extraction can influence recovery of the compounds, and that the effects of treatment may vary among different species. PMID:21475987

Lampert, Evan C; Bowers, M Deane

2011-05-01

425

Studies on cardiac ingredients of plants. IX. Chemical transformation of proscillaridin by utilizing its 1,4-cycloadducts as key compounds and biological activities of their derivatives.  

PubMed

Three aromatic compounds (2-4) possessing a carbomethoxyl group or a dimethoxyphthaloyl group, prepared by the Diels-Alder reaction of the cardiac glycoside, proscillaridin (1), with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate and methyl propiolate, were transformed into alcohols, carboxylic acids and amides. The biological activities of the resulting derivatives were evaluated by the use of Na+, K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (Na+,K(+)-ATPase) from dog kidney and isolated guinea-pig papillary muscle. Although the biological activities of the resulting derivatives were less potent than that of 1, a para-substituted benzylalcohol (5), methylbenzamides (9a and 10a), and ethylbenzamides (9b and 10b) inhibited the activity of Na+,K(+)-ATPase almost as potently as naturally occurring cardiac glycosides such as digoxin and digitoxin. PMID:1318790

Tanase, T; Murakami, N; Nagai, S; Ueda, T; Sakakibara, J; Ando, H; Hotta, Y; Takeya, K

1992-02-01

426

Agrobacterium Mediated Transient Gene Silencing (AMTS) in Stevia rebaudiana: Insights into Steviol Glycoside Biosynthesis Pathway  

PubMed Central

Background Steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway has emerged as bifurcation from ent-kaurenoic acid, substrate of methyl erythritol phosphate pathway that also leads to gibberellin biosynthesis. However, the genetic regulation of steviol glycoside biosynthesis has not been studied. So, in present study RNA interference (RNAi) based Agrobacterium mediated transient gene silencing (AMTS) approach was followed. SrKA13H and three SrUGTs (SrUGT85C2, SrUGT74G1 and SrUGT76G1) genes encoding ent-kaurenoic acid-13 hydroxylase and three UDP glycosyltransferases of steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway were silenced in Stevia rebaudiana to understand its molecular mechanism and association with gibberellins. Methodology/Principal Findings RNAi mediated AMTS of SrKA13H and three SrUGTs has significantly reduced the expression of targeted endogenous genes as well as total steviol glycoside accumulation. While gibberellins (GA3) content was significantly enhanced on AMTS of SrUGT85C2 and SrKA13H. Silencing of SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 was found to block the metabolite flux of steviol glycoside pathway and shifted it towards GA3 biosynthesis. Further, molecular docking of three SrUGT proteins has documented highest affinity of SrUGT76G1 for the substrates of alternate pathways synthesizing steviol glycosides. This could be a plausible reason for maximum reduction in steviol glycoside content on silencing of SrUGT76G1 than other genes. Conclusions SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 were identified as regulatory genes influencing carbon flux between steviol glycoside and gibberellin biosynthesis. This study has also documented the existence of alternate steviol glycoside biosynthesis route. PMID:24023961

Guleria, Praveen; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

2013-01-01

427

A genomics investigation of partitioning into and among flavonoid-derived condensed tannins for carbon sequestration in Populus  

SciTech Connect

The project set out to use comparative (genotype and treatment) and transgenic approaches to investigate the determinants of condensed tannin (CT) accrual and chemical variability in Populus. CT type and amount are thought to effect the decomposition of plant detritus in the soil, and thereby the sequestering of carbon in the soil. The stated objectives were: 1. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling (microarrays) to analyze structural gene, transcription factor and metabolite control of CT partitioning; 2. Transcriptomic (microarray) and chemical analysis of ontogenetic effects on CT and PG partitioning; and 3. Transgenic manipulation of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes to modify the control of CT composition. Objective 1: A number of approaches for perturbing CT content and chemistry were tested in Objective 1, and those included nitrogen deficit, leaf wounding, drought, and salicylic acid spraying. Drought had little effect on CTs in the genotypes we used. Plants exhibited unpredictability in their response to salicylic acid spraying, leading us to abandon its use. Reduced plant nitrogen status and leaf wounding caused reproducible and magnitudinally striking increases in leaf CT content. Microarray submissions to NCBI from those experiments are the following: GSE ID 14515: Comparative transcriptomics analysis of Populus leaves under nitrogen limitation: clone 1979. Public on Jan 04, 2010; Contributor(s) Harding SA, Tsai C GSE ID 14893: Comparative transcriptomics analysis of Populus leaves under nitrogen limitation: clone 3200. Public on Feb 19, 2009; Contributor(s) Harding SA, Tsai C GSE ID 16783 Wound-induced gene expression changes in Populus: 1 week; clone RM5. Status Public on Dec 01, 2009; Contributor(s) Harding SA, Tsai C GSE ID 16785 Wound-induced gene expression changes in Populus: 90 hours; clone RM5 Status Public on Dec 01, 2009; Contributor(s) Harding SA, Tsai C Although CT amount changed in response to treatments, CT composition was essentially conserved. Overall phenylpropanoid composition exhibited changes due to large effects on phenolic glycosides containing a salicin moiety. There were no effects on lignin content. Efforts to publish this work continue, and depend on additional data which we are still collecting. This ongoing work is expected to strengthen our most provocative metabolic profiling data which suggests as yet unreported links controlling the balance between the two major leaf phenylpropanoid sinks, the CTs and the salicin-PGs. Objective 2: Ontogenic effects on leaf CT accrual and phenylpropanoid complexity (Objective 2) have been reported in the past and we contributed two manuscripts on how phenylpropanoid sinks in roots and stems could have an increasing effect on leaf CT as plants grow larger and plant proportions of stem, root and leaf change. Tsai C.-J., El Kayal W., Harding S.A. (2006) Populus, the new model system for investigating phenylpropanoid complexity. International Journal of Applied Science and Engineering 4: 221-233. We presented evidence that flavonoid precursors of CT rapidly decline in roots under conditions that favor CT accrual in leaves. Harding SA, Jarvie MM, Lindroth RL, Tsai C-J (2009) A comparative analysis of phenylpropanoid metabolism, N utilization and carbon partitioning in fast- and slow-growing Populus hybrid clones. Journal of Experimental Botany. 60:3443-3452. We presented evidence that nitrogen delivery to leaves as a fraction of nitrogen taken up by the roots is lower in high leaf CT genotypes. We presented a hypothesis from our data that N was sequestered in proportion to lignin content in stem tissues. Low leaf N content and high leaf CT in genotypes with high stem lignin was posited to be a systemic outcome of N demand in lignifiying stem tissues. Thereby, stem lignin and leaf CT accrual might be systemically linked, placing control of leaf phenylpropanoids under systemic rather than solely organ specific determinants. Analyses of total structural and non-structural carbohydrates contributed to the model presented. Harding SA, Xue L, Du L, Nyamd

Harding, Scott, A; Tsai, Chung-jui; Lindroth, Richard, L

2013-03-24

428

Phenolic Glycosides from the Twigs of Salix glandulosa.  

PubMed

As a part of an ongoing search for bioactive constituents from Korean medicinal plants, the phytochemical investigations of the twigs of Salix glandulosa afforded 12 new phenolic glycosides (1-12) and a known analogue (13). The structures of 1-13 were characterized by a combination of NMR methods ((1)H and (13)C NMR, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HMQC, and HMBC), chemical hydrolysis, and GC/MS. The absolute configuration of 13 [(1R,2S)-2-hydroxycyclohexyl-2'-O-trans-p-coumaroyl-?-d-glucopyranoside] was determined for the first time. Compounds 1-3, 6, and 7 exhibited inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated murine microglial cells (IC50 values in the range 6.6-20.5 ?M). PMID:25098650

Kim, Chung Sub; Kwon, Oh Wook; Kim, Sun Yeou; Choi, Sang Un; Kim, Jae Yoon; Han, Ji Young; Choi, Soo Im; Choi, Jong Gil; Kim, Ki Hyun; Lee, Kang Ro

2014-08-01

429

Additional minor diterpene glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.  

PubMed

Two additional novel minor diterpene glycosides were isolated from the commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. The structures of the new compounds were identified as 13-{?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 3)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-oxy} ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid {?-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 3)]-O-?-D-glucupyranosyl-ester} (1), and 13-{?-D-6-deoxy-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 3)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-oxy} ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid {?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 3)-?-D-gluco-pyranosyl-ester} (2), on the basis of extensive 1D (1H- and 13C-) 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC and HMBC) and MS spectroscopic data as well as chemical studies. PMID:24184820

Prakash, Indra; Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash

2013-01-01

430

Flavonol glycosides from the south African medicinal plant Sutherlandia frutescens.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Sutherlandia frutescens led to the isolation of four new 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaroyl-containing flavonol glycosides, sutherlandins A-D ( 1- 4). Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods as quercetin 3- O- beta- D-xylopyranosyl(1 --> 2)-[6- O-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaroyl)]- beta- D-glucopyranoside ( 1), quercetin 3- O- beta- D-apiofuranosyl(1 --> 2)-[6- O-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaroyl)]- beta- D-glucopyranoside ( 2), kaempferol 3- O- beta- D-xylopyranosyl(1 --> 2)-[6- O-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaroyl)]- beta- D-glucopyranoside ( 3), and kaempferol 3- O- beta- D-apiofuranosyl(1 --> 2)-[6- O-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaroyl)]- beta- D-glucopyranoside ( 4). PMID:19670162

Fu, Xiang; Li, Xing-Cong; Wang, Yan-Hong; Avula, Bharathi; Smillie, Troy J; Mabusela, Wilfred; Syce, James; Johnson, Quinton; Folk, William; Khan, Ikhlas A

2010-02-01

431

Aromatic glycosides from the flower buds of Lonicera japonica.  

PubMed

Six new glycosides (1-6) have been isolated from the flower buds of Lonicera japonica. Their structures including the absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods as ( - )-2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzoic acid 2-O-?-d-(6-O-benzoyl)-glucopyranoside (1), ( - )-4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid 4-O-?-d-(6-O-benzoyl)-glucopyranoside (2), ( - )-(E)-3,5-dimethoxyphenylpropenoic acid 4-O-?-d-(6-O-benzoyl)-glucopyranoside (3), ( - )-(7S,8R)-(4-hydroxyphenylglycerol 9-O-?-d-[6-O-(E)-4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenylpropenoyl]-glucopyranoside (4), ( - )-(7S,8R)-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycerol 9-O-?-d-[6-O-(E)-4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenylpropenoyl]-glucopyranoside (5), and ( - )-4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenol ?-d-{6-O-[4-O-(7S,8R)-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycerol-8-yl)-3-methoxybenzoyl]}-glucopyranoside (6), respectively. PMID:23614462

Wang, Fang; Jiang, Yue-Ping; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Wang, Su-Juan; Bu, Peng-Bin; Lin, Sheng; Zhu, Cheng-Gen; Shi, Jian-Gong

2013-01-01

432

Two new lignan glycosides from the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis.  

PubMed

Two new lignan glycosides, 2'-hydroxyl asarinin 2'-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (cuscutoside C, 1) and 2'-hydroxyl asarinin 2'-O-?-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 ? 2)-[?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 6)]-?-D-glucopyranoside (cuscutoside D, 2), were isolated from the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis Lam., along with six known compounds, 2'-hydroxyl asarinin 2'-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 6)-?-D-glucopyranoside (3), 2'-hydroxyl asarinin 2'-O-?-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 ? 2)-?-D-glucopyranoside (cuscutoside A, 4), kaempferol 3,7-di-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (5), 5-caffeoyl quinic acid (6), 4-caffeoyl quinic acid (7), and cinnamic acid (8). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses including HR-ESI-MS, ESI-MS/MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR, HSQC, HMBC, and TOCSY. PMID:21061214

He, Xiang-Hui; Yang, Wen-Zhi; Meng, A-Hui; He, Wen-Ni; Guo, De-An; Ye, Min

2010-11-01

433

A new hemiterpene glycoside from the ripe tomatoes.  

PubMed

[Figure: see text]A new hemiterpene glycoside (1) was isolated from ripe tomatoes (the fruit of Lycopersicon esculentum, Solanaceae) along with eight known compounds. The chemical structure of 1 was determined to be 2-methylbutan-1-ol ?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 6)-?-d-glucopyranoside, based on spectroscopic data as well as chemical evidence. In addition, the radical-scavenging activities of the isolated compounds on the free radical of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl were examined. Among the tested compounds, tryptophan, 4-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl caffeic acid and dihydro-p-coumaryl alcohol ?-O-?-d-glucopyranoside demonstrated 42.0%, 50.1% and 76.0% scavenging activities, respectively, at a concentration of 0.5 mM. PMID:25421719

Ono, Masateru; Yasuda, Shin; Shiono, Yuki; Furusawa, Chisato; Inaba, Shinya; Tanaka, Takayuki; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro

2015-02-01

434

Two new anthraquinone glycosides from the roots of Rheum palmatum.  

PubMed

Two new anthraquinone glycosides, named 1-methyl-8-hydroxyl-9,10-anthraquinone-3-O-?-D-(6'-O-cinnamoyl)glucopyranoside (1) and rhein-8-O-?-D-[6'-O-(3''-methoxyl malonyl)]glucopyranoside (2), have been isolated from the roots of Rheum palmatum, together with seven known compounds, rhein-8-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (3), physcion-8-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (4), chrysophanol-8-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (5), aleo-emodin-8-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (6), emodin-8-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (7), aleo-emodin-?-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (8), and emodin-1-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (9). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectral analysis. PMID:21128142

Zhang, Cun; Li, Li; Xiao, Yong-Qing; Tian, Guo-Fang; Chen, Dong-Dong; Wang, Yun; Li, Yu-Tian; Huang, Wen-Qian

2010-12-01

435

Two new anthraquinone glycosides from the roots of Rheum palmatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new anthraquinone glycosides, named 1-methyl-8-hydroxyl-9,10-anthraquinone-3-O-?-d-(6?-O-cinnamoyl)glucopyranoside (1) and rhein-8-O-?-d-[6?-O-(3?-methoxyl malonyl)]glucopyranoside (2), have been isolated from the roots of Rheum palmatum, together with seven known compounds, rhein-8-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (3), physcion-8-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (4), chrysophanol-8-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (5), aleo-emodin-8-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (6), emodin-8-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (7), aleo-emodin-?-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (8), and emodin-1-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (9). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectral analysis.

Cun Zhang; Li Li; Yong-Qing Xiao; Guo-Fang Tian; Dong-Dong Chen; Yun Wang; Yu-Tian Li; Wen-Qian Huang

2010-01-01

436

New Flavonoid Glycosides from Arnicae Flos DAB 91.  

PubMed

Five flavonoid glycosides were identified from flowers of Arnica montana, ten from A. CHAMISSONIS subsp. FOLIOSA var. INCANA. The structures were established on the basis of acid hydrolysis and spectral data (UV, NMR, MS) as the 7-beta-glucosides of pectolinarigenin, apigenin, and chrysoeriol; luteolin 3'- O-beta-glucoside; the 3-beta-glucuronides of kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and 6-methoxykaempferol; the 3,7-di-beta-glucosides of quercetin and patuletin; the 3-beta-glucosides of betuletol and quercetagetin 6,3',4'-trimethyl ether; and the 7-[6''- O-(2-methylbutyryl)]=glucosides of luteolin and eupafolin. The latter four are new natural compounds. Differences between these two ARNICA species are discussed. PMID:17226484

Merfort, I; Wendisch, D

1992-08-01

437

Triterpene glycosides from the leaves of Pittosporum angustifolium.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Pittosporum angustifolium resulted in the isolation and structural elucidation of nine new triterpene saponins, named pittangretosides A-I (1-9), together with a known compound (10). Mainly by NMR and HRESIMS experiments, eight compounds were identified as A1-barrigenol glycosides (1-7, 10), whereas two compounds exhibited an unusual 17,22-seco-backbone of oleanolic acid (8, 9). All compounds were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicities against human urinary bladder carcinoma cells (5637). Only compounds with an angeloyl-residue at C-22 of the aglycone (1-4 and 10) showed antiproliferative effects with IC50 values of 4.1, 5.2, 2.1, 17.9, and 2.4 µM, respectively. PMID:24046217

Bäcker, Christian; Jenett-Siems, Kristina; Siems, Karsten; Wurster, Martina; Bodtke, Anja; Chamseddin, Chamseddin; Crüsemann, Max; Lindequist, Ulrike

2013-10-01

438

Enzymatic hydrolysis of steryl glycosides for their analysis in foods.  

PubMed

Steryl glycosides (SG) contribute significantly to the total intake of phytosterols. The standard analytical procedure involving acid hydrolysis fails to reflect the correct sterol profile of SG due to isomerization of some of the labile sterols. Therefore, various glycosylases were evaluated for their ability to hydrolyse SG under milder conditions. Using a pure SG mixture in aqueous solution, the highest glycolytic activity, as demonstrated by the decrease in SG and increase in free sterols was achieved using inulinase preparations (decrease of >95%). High glycolytic activity was also demonstrated using hemicellulase (63%). The applicability of enzymatic hydrolysis using inulinase preparations was further verified on SG extracted from foods. For example in potato peel ?(5)-avenasteryl glucoside, a labile SG, was well preserved and contributed 26.9% of the total SG. Therefore, enzymatic hydrolysis is suitable for replacing acid hydrolysis of SG in food lipid extracts to accurately determine the sterol profile of SG. PMID:24912717

Münger, Linda H; Nyström, Laura

2014-11-15

439

Steroidal glycosides from the underground parts of Yucca glauca and their cytotoxic activities.  

PubMed

Six steroidal glycosides and 14 known compounds were isolated from the underground parts of Yucca glauca (Agavaceae). Their structures were determined from extensive spectroscopic analysis, including analysis of two-dimensional NMR data, and from chemical transformations. The compounds were also evaluated for cytotoxic activities against HL-60 human leukemia cells and A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Four spirostanol glycosides and three furostanol glycosides exhibited cytotoxic activities against both HL-60 and A549 cells. Two of the compounds induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells. PMID:24612536

Yokosuka, Akihito; Suzuki, Tomoka; Tatsuno, Satoru; Mimaki, Yoshihiro

2014-05-01

440

Characterization of an anti-tuberculosis resin glycoside from the prairie medicinal plant Ipomoea leptophylla.  

PubMed

The organic soluble extract from the leaves of the native North American prairie plant Ipomoea leptophylla (big root morning glory) showed in vitro activity against M. tuberculosis. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract resulted in the identification of two new resin glycosides (6, 7). Base-catalyzed hydrolysis of these glycosides gave operculinic acid (1) as the glycosidic acid component as well as trans-cinnamic acid, propanoic acid, and lauric acid. The complete structure elucidation was accomplished through derivatization, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy (TOCSY, ROESY, HSQC, HMBC), and MS/MS experiments on 6 and 7 as well as the permethylated derivative 8. PMID:14640518

Barnes, Curtis C; Smalley, Mary K; Manfredi, Kirk P; Kindscher, Kelly; Loring, Hillary; Sheeley, Douglas M

2003-11-01

441

Two new cytotoxic triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra.  

PubMed

Two new triterpene glycosides, scabraside A (1) and B (2), and a structurally known compound (3), were isolated from the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra (Holothuriidae) collected from the South China Sea. Structure of these compounds was elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods. The glycosides 1 and 2 exhibit the same common structural features, i. e., the presence of 12- and 17-hydroxy groups in the holostane-type triterpene aglycone with a 9(11)-ene bond, but are different in the side chains of the triterpene aglycone. The glycosides 1 and 2 had significant in vitro cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines in comparison to 10-hydroxycamptothecin. PMID:19598081

Han, Hua; Yi, Yanghua; Xu, Qiangzhi; La, Mingping; Zhang, Hongwei

2009-12-01

442

Analytical approach and effects of condensed tannins in carob pods ( Ceratonia siliqua) on feed intake, digestive and metabolic responses of kids  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are contradicting data in the literature regarding condensed tannins content in carobs. In this study, urea (0.5 g\\/ml) under reflux conditions increased dramatically the yield of condensed tannins to 17% of dry matter, as compared to 3.5% in acidic methanol extraction. This shows that carob pods are rich source of nonextractable condensed tannins. The effect of PEG in diet

Nissim Silanikove; Serge Landau; Diti; Dorit Kababya; Israel Bruckental; Zafrira Nitsan

2006-01-01

443

Dietary Grape Seed Tannins: Effects on Nutritional Balance and on Some Enzymic Activities along the Crypt-Villus Axis of Rat Small Intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to determine the nutritional and intestinal effects of grape seed tannins. For this purpose, tannins were incorporated in diets of rats at levels of 0.2 or 2.0% for 31 days in comparison to a control diet. The animals were pair-fed. Nutritional balances were not affected by feeding 0.2% tannins. At the highest dose (2%)

Jocelyne Vallet; Jean-Max Rouanet; Pierre Besançon

1994-01-01

444

Molecular Basis of Cardiac Myxomas  

PubMed Central

Cardiac tumors are rare, and of these, primary cardiac tumors are even rarer. Metastatic cardiac tumors are about 100 times more common than the primary tumors. About 90% of primary cardiac tumors are benign, and of these the most common are cardiac myxomas. Approximately 12% of primary cardiac tumors are completely asymptomatic while others present with one or more signs and symptoms of the classical triad of hemodynamic changes due to intracardiac obstruction, embolism and nonspecific constitutional symptoms. Echocardiography is highly sensitive and specific in detecting cardiac tumors. Other helpful investigations are chest X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography scan. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for primary cardiac tumors and is usually associated with a good prognosis. This review article will focus on the general features of benign cardiac tumors with an emphasis on cardiac myxomas and their molecular basis. PMID:24447924

Singhal, Pooja; Luk, Adriana; Rao, Vivek; Butany, Jagdish

2014-01-01

445

Ouabain increases iNOS-dependent nitric oxide generation which contributes to the hypertrophic effect of the glycoside: possible role of peroxynitrite formation.  

PubMed

In addition to inotropic effects, cardiac glycosides exert deleterious effects on the heart which limit their use for cardiac therapeutics. In this study, we determined the possible contribution of ouabain-induced iNOS stimulation to the resultant hypertrophic as well as cytotoxic effects of the glycoside on cultured adult rat ventricular myocytes. Myocytes were treated with ouabain (50 ?M) for up to 24 h. Ouabain significantly increased gene and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) which was associated with significantly increased release of NO from myocytes as well as increased total release of reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide anion (O(2) (-)), and increased peroxynitrite formation as assessed by protein tyrosine nitration. Administration of ouabain was also associated with increased levels of myocyte toxicity as determined by myocyte morphology, trypan blue staining and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) efflux. The nonspecific NOS inhibitor N?-nitro-L: -arginine methyl ester and the more selective iNOS inhibitor 1400W both abrogated the increase in LDH release but had no significant effect on either morphology or trypan blue staining. Ouabain also significantly increased both myocyte surface area and expression of atrial natriuretic peptide indicating a hypertrophic response with both parameters being completely prevented by NOS inhibition. The effects of iNOS inhibitors were associated with diminished ouabain tyrosine nitration as well as abrogation of ouabain-induced p38 and ERK phosphorylation. Our study shows that ouabain is a potent inducer of NO formation, iNOS upregulation, and increased production of ROS. Inhibition of ouabain-dependent peroxynitrite formation may contribute to the antihypertrophic effect of iNOS inhibition possibly by preventing downstream MAPK activation. PMID:22160804

Gan, Xiaohong Tracey; Hunter, J Craig; Huang, Cathy; Xue, Jenny; Rajapurohitam, Venkatesh; Javadov, Sabzali; Karmazyn, Morris

2012-04-01

446

N cycling and the composition of terpenes and tannins in boreal forest soils: Effects of logging residues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is increasing evidence available that certain terpenes and tannins may mediate substantial changes in nitrogen cycling processes in boreal forest soils. Terpenes and tannins are two important groups of plant secondary metabolites: Terpenes are hydrocarbons having different number of isoprene-derived units and tannins are complex polyphenolic compounds able to interact with proteins. Logging residues, consisting of fresh tree tops and branches with needles contain large amounts of terpenes and tannins. Currently there is increasing demand for forest biomass for bioenergy production. Therefore, harvesting of logging residues has become more common from both clear-cutting and thinning stands, instead of conventional stem-only harvest where logging residues are retained on the site. Our aim was to determine how logging residues affect soil N cycling processes in Scots pine and Norway spruce thinning stands in long-term, and how these processes are related to the composition of terpenes and tannins in the soil. Samples were taken from the humus layer of pine and spruce experiments which had been thinned 4-to-19 years before; in the thinning different amounts of logging residues had been distributed on the plots. Logging residues had only little effect on soil microbial biomass N or C. However, in several sites logging residues increased the rate of net N mineralization and the ratios net N mineralization/ C mineralization and net N mineralization/microbial biomass N, and these positive effects were very long-lasting. Logging residues also changed the composition of different terpenes and condensed tannins in soil. In general, with regard to the processes and ratios indicating N availability, stem-only harvest seems to be more favorable than whole-tree harvest. The results from long-term field experiments will be discussed in relation to the effects of different terpenes and tannins, observed in short-term laboratory experiments, on N cycling processes.

Smolander, Aino; Kitunen, Veikko; Kukkola, Mikko; Tamminen, Pekka

2014-05-01

447

Cardiac Risk Assessment  

MedlinePLUS

... helpful? Formal name: Cardiac Risk Assessment Related tests: Lipid Profile , VLDL Cholesterol , hs-CRP , Lp(a) Overview | ... on Coronary artery disease: Tests and diagnosis .) The lipid profile is the most important blood test for ...

448

Autonomic cardiac innervation  

PubMed Central

Autonomic cardiac neurons have a common origin in the neural crest but undergo distinct developmental differentiation as they mature toward their adult phenotype. Progenitor cells respond to repulsive cues during migration, followed by differentiation cues from paracrine sources that promote neurochemistry and differentiation. When autonomic axons start to innervate cardiac tissue, neurotrophic factors from vascular tissue are essential for maintenance of neurons before they reach their targets, upon which target-derived trophic factors take over final maturation, synaptic strength and postnatal survival. Although target-derived neurotrophins have a central role to play in development, alternative sources of neurotrophins may also modulate innervation. Both developing and adult sympathetic neurons express proNGF, and adult parasympathetic cardiac ganglion neurons also synthesize and release NGF. The physiological function of these “non-classical” cardiac sources of neurotrophins remains to be determined, especially in relation to autocrine/paracrine sustenance during development.   Cardiac autonomic nerves are closely spatially associated in cardiac plexuses, ganglia and pacemaker regions and so are sensitive to release of neurotransmitter, neuropeptides and trophic factors from adjacent nerves. As such, in many cardiac pathologies, it is an imbalance within the two arms of the autonomic system that is critical for disease progression. Although this crosstalk between sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves has been well established for adult nerves, it is unclear whether a degree of paracrine regulation occurs across the autonomic limbs during development. Aberrant nerve remodeling is a common occurrence in many adult cardiovascular pathologies, and the mechanisms regulating outgrowth or denervation are disparate. However, autonomic neurons display considerable plasticity in this regard with neurotrophins and inflammatory cytokines having a central regulatory function, including in possible neurotransmitter changes. Certainly, neurotrophins and cytokines regulate transcriptional factors in adult autonomic neurons that have vital differentiation roles in development. Particularly for parasympathetic cardiac ganglion neurons, additional examinations of developmental regulatory mechanisms will potentially aid in understanding attenuated parasympathetic function in a number of conditions, including heart failure. PMID:23872607

Hasan, Wohaib

2013-01-01

449

Missed cardiac tamponade  

PubMed Central

Cardiac tamponade can have an insidious onset, becoming life threatening when an adequate cardiac output can no longer be maintained. This case provides an example of a presentation where all the classic signs were present but unfortunately they were missed, in this way providing good revision of what these signs are. It gives some anaesthetic and procedure based perspectives for this rare presentation. It is noteworthy for the speed at which symptoms and signs resolved after the tamponade was relieved. PMID:22679253

Thomson-Moore, Alexandra Louise

2011-01-01

450

Cardiac Rehabilitation After Acute Myocardial Infarction Resuscitated From Cardiac Arrest  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the safety and effectiveness of cardiac rehabilitation on patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest due to acute myocardial infarction. Methods The study included 23 subjects, including 8 with history of cardiac arrest and 15 without history of cardiac arrest. Both groups underwent initial graded exercise test (GXT) and subsequent cardiac rehabilitation for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, both groups received follow-up GXT. Results Statistically significant (p<0.05) increase of VO2peak and maximal MVO2 but significant (p<0.05) decrease of submaximal MVO2 and resting heart rate were observed in both groups after 6 weeks of cardiac rehabilitation. An increasing trend of maximal heart rates was observed in both groups. However, the increase was not statistically significant (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant change of resting heart rate, maximal heart rate, maximal MVO2, or submaximal MVO2 in both groups after cardiac rehabilitation. Fatal cardiac complications, such as abnormal ECG, cardiac arrest, death or myocardial infarction, were not observed. All subjects finished the cardiac rehabilitation program. Conclusion Improvement was observed in the exercise capacity of patients after aerobic exercise throughout the cardiac rehabilitation program. Therefore, cardiac rehabilitation can be safely administered for high-risk patients with history of cardiac arrest. Similar improvement in exercise capacity can be expected in patients without cardiac arrest experience. PMID:25566479

Kim, Chul; Choi, Hee Eun; Kang, Seong Hoon

2014-01-01

451

Analysis of supercooling-facilitating (anti-ice nucleation) activity of flavonol glycosides.  

PubMed

Deep supercooling xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) of katsura tree (Cercidiphyllum japonicum) contain four kinds of flavonol glycosides with high supercooling-facilitating (anti-ice nucleation) activities. These flavonol glycosides have very similar structures, but their supercooling-facilitating activities are very different. In this study, we analyzed the supercooling-facilitating activities of 12 kinds of flavonol glycosides in order to determine the chemical structures that might affect supercooling-facilitating activity. All of the flavonol glycosides tested showed supercooling-facilitating activity, although the magnitudes of activity differed among the compounds. It was clear that the combination of the position of attachment of the glycosyl moiety, the kind of attached glycosyl moiety and the structure of aglycone determined the magnitude of anti-ice nucleation activity. However, there is still some ambiguity preventing the exact identification of features that affect the magnitude of supercooling-facilitating activity. PMID:20040364

Kasuga, Jun; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Kuwabara, Chikako; Wang, Donghui; Nishioka, Atsushi; Fujikawa, Emiko; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

2010-04-01

452

Ultra-sonication-assisted solvent extraction of quercetin glycosides from 'Idared' apple peels.  

PubMed

Quercetin and quercetin glycosides are physiologically active flavonol molecules that have been attributed numerous health benefits. Recovery of such molecules from plant matrices depends on a variety of factors including polarity of the extraction solvent. Among the solvents of a wide range of dielectric constants, methanol recovered the most quercetin and its glycosides from dehydrated 'Idared' apple peels. When ultra-sonication was employed to facilitate the extraction, exposure of 15 min of ultrasound wavelengths of dehydrated apple peel powder in 80% to 100% (v/v) methanol in 1:50 (w:v) solid to solvent ratio provided the optimum extraction conditions for quercetin and its glycosides. Acidification of extraction solvent with 0.1% (v/v) or higher concentrations of HCl led to hydrolysis of naturally occurring quercetin glycosides into the aglycone as an extraction artifact. PMID:22117169

Vasantha Rupasinghe, H P; Kathirvel, Priya; Huber, Gwendolyn M

2011-01-01

453

Resin glycosides from the yellow-skinned variety of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas).  

PubMed

Native to tropical America, Ipomoea batatas has been cultivated for over 5000 years in Mexico. The yellow-skinned tuber crop variety, with an orange flesh, has a higher nutritional value than potato. Raw sweet potato can cause a purge due to its resin glycoside content. Purification of the chloroform-soluble resin glycosides from the roots of this variety was accomplished by preparative-scale HPLC, which allowed for the collection of six oligosaccharides, batatin VII (1) and batatinosides VII-IX (2-4), all of novel structure, together with the known resin glycosides pescaprein I and batatinoside IV. High-field NMR spectroscopy and FAB mass spectrometry were used to characterize each structure, identifying operculinic acid A for compounds 2 and 4, and simonic acid B for 3, as their pentasaccharide glycosidic cores. Batatin VII (1) represents a dimer of the know batatinoside IV, consisting of two units of simonic acid B. PMID:24053411

Rosas-Ramírez, Daniel; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio

2013-10-01

454

Cytotoxic holostane-type triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Pentacta quadrangularis.  

PubMed

Two new holostane-type triterpene glycosides, named pentactasides I (1) and II (2), and a new natural product, pentactaside III (3), together with two known glycosides, philinopsides A (4) and B (5), were isolated from the sea cucumber Pentacta quadrangularis. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidences. Compounds 1 and 2 possess the same trisaccharide moiety which is a rare structural feature among naturally occurring sea cucumber glycosides and has been infrequently reported, while 3 is a sulfated diglycoside. All the glycosides showed significant in vitro cytotoxicities against six tumor cell lines (P-388, A-549, MCF-7, MKN-28, HCT-116, and U87MG) with IC(50) in the range of 0.60-3.95 µM. PMID:20425691

Han, Hua; Xu, Qiang-Zhi; Tang, Hai-Feng; Yi, Yang-Hua; Gong, Wei

2010-11-01

455

A novel flavonoid C-glycoside from Sphaeranthus indicus L. (family Compositae).  

PubMed

A novel flavonoid C-glycoside, 5-hydroxy-7-methoxy-6-C-glycosylflavone (1), was isolated from the aerial part of Sphaeranthus indicus. Its structure was elucidated by spectroscopic methods. PMID:17978758

Mishra, Bhuwan B; Yadav, S B; Singh, Rakesh K; Tripathi, Vyasji

2007-01-01

456

Direct and correlated responses to selection on iridoid glycosides in Plantago lanceolata L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plantago lanceolata L. (ribwort plantain) produces two costly terpenoid secondary plant compounds, the iridoid glycosides aucubin and catalpol. We performed an artificial selection experiment to investigate direct and correlated responses to selection on the constitutive level of iridoid glycosides in the leaves for four generations. Estimated realized heritabilities (+\\/-SE) were 0.23 +\\/- 0.07 and 0.23 +\\/- 0.04 for upward and

H. B. Marak; A. Biere; J. M. M. Van Damme

2000-01-01

457

Steroidal glycosides from the aerial part of Asclepias incarnata L. II.  

PubMed

Thirty new steroidal glycosides were obtained from the aerial part of Asclepias incarnata L. (Asclepiadaceae). These glycosides were confirmed to have lineolon, isolineolon, 12-O-acetyllineolon, 12-O-(Z)-cinnamoyllineolon, metaplexigenin, 15 beta-hydroxylineolon, 15 beta-hydroxyisolineolon, 16 alpha-hydroxyisolineolon, 12-O-tigloyl-16 alpha-hydroxyisolineolon as the aglycone and 2,6-dideoxyhexopyranose as the sugar sequence by spectroscopic methods and chemical evidence. PMID:10705484

Warashina, T; Noro, T

2000-01-01

458

Components of the ether-insoluble resin glycoside-like fraction from Cuscuta chinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A trisaccharide and four new glycosidic acids, named cuscutic acids A-D, along with known organic acids, acetic acid, propionic acid, (2S)-2-methylbutyric acid, tiglic acid, (2R, 3R)-nilic acid, (11S) convolvulinolic acid and (11S)-jalapinolic acid have been isolated from the alkaline hydrolysate of the ether-insoluble resin glycoside-like fraction of the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis. The compounds were characterized on the basis of

Xiao-Ming Du; Toshio Kawasaki; Yong-Tian Guo; Kazumoto Miyahara

1998-01-01

459

A new biologically active flavonol glycoside from the seeds of Abrus precatorius Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new flavonol glycoside m.f. C 29 H 34 O 16 , m.p. 260-262°C, [M] + 638 (EIMS) was separated from the chloroform soluble fraction of the concentrated 80% methanolic extract of the seeds of Abrus precatorius (Linn). It was characterised as a new biologically active flavonol glycoside 7,3',5'-trimethoxy-4'-hydroxy flavone-3- O - g - d -galactosyl-(1 M 4)- f -

R. N. Yadava; V. Madhu Sudhan Reddy

2002-01-01

460

Free and Glycosidically Bound Volatiles of Mentha longifolia Growing in Croatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glycosides of volatile compounds and the essential oil were isolated from wild Mentha longifolia. After the enzymatic hydrolysis of glycosides, fourteen volatile aglycones were identified by GC\\/MS. The main aglycones were eugenol, 2-phenylethanol, benzyl alcohol, lavandulol, trans- and cis-carveol, 3-octanol, and 3-hexen-1-ol. The content of aglycones was 40.85 mg kg-1 of dried plant material. The main components of the

J. Mastelic; I. Jerkovic

2002-01-01

461

Cyanogenic glycosides content in two edible leaves of tree spinach ( Cnidoscolus spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyanogenic glycosides content (ranging from 0.79±0.2 to 14.79±0.4?g HCN equivalent\\/g fresh wt) of two edible tree spinach (Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh and C. aconitifolius (P. Mill.) I.M. Johnston) leaves was quantitatively analyzed using enzymatic assay and UV-vis spectrum techniques. Both techniques equally show efficiency and reliability in assessing cyanogen content in tree spinach vegetable tissues. Cyanogenic glycoside concentration was significantly

Joseph O. Kuti; Hima B. Konoru

2006-01-01

462

Deglycosylation of flavonoid and isoflavonoid glycosides by human small intestine and liver ?-glucosidase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavonoid and isoflavonoid glycosides are common dietary phenolics which may be absorbed from the small intestine of humans. The ability of cell-free extracts from human small intestine and liver to deglycosylate various (iso)flavonoid glycosides was investigated. Quercetin 4?-glucoside, naringenin 7-glucoside, apigenin 7-glucoside, genistein 7-glucoside and daidzein 7-glucoside were rapidly deglycosylated by both tissue extracts, whereas quercetin 3,4?-diglucoside, quercetin 3-glucoside, kaempferol

Andrea J Day; M. Susan DuPont; Saxon Ridley; Mike Rhodes; Michael J. C Rhodes; Michael R. A Morgan; Gary Williamson

1998-01-01

463

Domestication and defence: Foliar tannins and C/N ratios in cassava and a close wild relative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant domestication is accompanied by shifts in resource allocation, as a result of farmer selection for genotypes that give high yields in agricultural habitats. Relaxed natural selection for chemical and physical defences in these habitats could facilitate resource allocation to yield. We compared the concentrations of tannins, and C/N ratios, which are often correlated with investment in cell-wall compounds, in leaves of landraces of domesticated cassava ( Manihot esculenta) and a close wild relative in French Guiana. Foliar concentrations of tannins were about 1.9 times higher in the wild relative than in domesticated cassava. Histochemical analyses showed that tannins were present in nearly all palisade and spongy parenchyma cells of the wild taxon, but in only some cells of these tissues in M. esculenta. C/N ratios were also 1.9 times higher in leaves of the wild relative than in those of domesticated cassava. Tannins accounted for only a small proportion of total carbon, and the higher C/N ratio in wild than in domesticated cassava may reflect higher investment in carbon-containing compounds additional to tannins, such as cell-wall compounds. The divergence in these traits between cassava and this close wild relative mirrors a broad pattern observed in wild plant species across habitats varying in resource availability. One explanation for our results is that domestication in cassava may have favoured a shift from a resource conservation strategy to a resource acquisition strategy.

Mondolot, Laurence; Marlas, Amandine; Barbeau, Damien; Gargadennec, Annick; Pujol, Benoît; McKey, Doyle

2008-09-01

464

Removing tannins from medicinal plant extracts using an alkaline ethanol precipitation process: a case study of Danshen injection.  

PubMed

The alkaline ethanol precipitation process is investigated as an example of a technique for the removal of tannins extracted from Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma for the manufacture of Danshen injection. More than 90% of the tannins can be removed. However, the recoveries of danshensu, rosmarinic acid, and salvianolic acid B were less than 60%. Total tannin removal increased as the refrigeration temperature decreased or the amount of NaOH solution added increased. Phenolic compound recoveries increased as refrigeration temperature increased or the amount of NaOH solution added decreased. When operated at a low refrigeration temperature, a relative high separation selectivity can be realized. Phenolic compound losses and tannin removal were mainly caused by precipitation. The formation of phenol salts, whose solubility is small in the mixture of ethanol and water used, is probably the reason for the precipitation. A model considering dissociation equilibrium and dissolution equilibrium was established. Satisfactory correlation results were obtained for phenolic compound recoveries and total tannin removal. Two important parameters in the model, which are the water content and pH value of alkaline supernatant, are suggested to be monitored and controlled to obtain high batch-to-batch consistency. PMID:25405288

Gong, Xingchu; Li, Yao; Qu, Haibin

2014-01-01

465

Biophysical studies of interaction between hydrolysable tannins isolated from Oenothera gigas and Geranium sanguineum with human serum albumin.  

PubMed

Tannins, secondary plant metabolites, possess diverse biological activities and can interact with biopolymers such as lipids or proteins. Interactions between tannins and proteins depend on the structures of both and can result in changes in protein structure and activity. Because human serum albumin is the most abundant protein in plasma and responsible for interactions with important biological compounds (e.g. bilirubin) and proper blood pressure, therefore, it is very important to investigate reactions between HSA and tannins. This paper describes the interaction between human serum albumin (HSA) and two tannins: bihexahydroxydiphenoyl-trigalloylglucose (BDTG) and 1-O-galloyl-4,6-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-?-d-glucose (OG?DG), isolated from Geranium sanguineum and Oenothera gigas leafs, respectively. Optical (spectrofluorimetric) and chiral optical (circular dichroism) methods were used in this study. Fluorescence analysis demonstrated that OG?DG quenched HSA fluorescence more strongly than BDTG. Both OG?DG and BDTG formed complexes with albumin and caused a red shift of the fluorescence spectra but did not significantly change the protein secondary structure. Our studies clearly demonstrate that the tested tannins interact very strongly with human serum albumin (quenching constant K=88,277.26±407.04 M(-1) and K=55,552.67±583.07 M(-1) respectively for OG?DG and BDTG) in a manner depending on their chemical structure. PMID:25456986

Sekowski, Szymon; Ionov, Maksim; Kaszuba, Mateusz; Mavlyanov, Saidmukhtar; Bryszewska, Maria; Zamaraeva, Maria

2014-11-01

466

Assessment of Anti-nutritive Activity of Tannins in Tea By-products Based on In vitro Rumen Fermentation.  

PubMed

Nutritive values of green and black tea by-products and anti-nutritive activity of their tannins were evaluated in an in vitro rumen fermentation using various molecular weights of polyethylene glycols (PEG), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and polyvinyl polypyrrolidone as tannin-binding agents. Significant improvement in gas production by addition of PEG4000, 6000 and 20000 and PVP was observed only from black tea by-product, but not from green tea by-product. All tannin binding agents increased NH3-N concentration from both green and black tea by-products in the fermentation medium, and the PEG6000 and 20000 showed relatively higher improvement in the NH3-N concentration. The PEG6000 and 20000 also improved in vitro organic matter digestibility and metabolizable energy contents of both tea by-products. It was concluded that high molecular PEG would be suitable to assess the suppressive activity of tannins in tea by-products by in vitro fermentation. Higher responses to gas production and NH3-N concentration from black tea by-product than green tea by-product due to PEG indicate that tannins in black tea by-product could suppress rumen fermentation more strongly than that in green tea by-product. PMID:25358316

Kondo, Makoto; Hirano, Yoshiaki; Ikai, Noriyuki; Kita, Kazumi; Jayanegara, Anuraga; Yokota, Hiro-Omi

2014-11-01

467

Assessment of Anti-nutritive Activity of Tannins in Tea By-products Based on In vitro Rumen Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Nutritive values of green and black tea by-products and anti-nutritive activity of their tannins were evaluated in an in vitro rumen fermentation using various molecular weights of polyethylene glycols (PEG), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and polyvinyl polypyrrolidone as tannin-binding agents. Significant improvement in gas production by addition of PEG4000, 6000 and 20000 and PVP was observed only from black tea by-product, but not from green tea by-product. All tannin binding agents increased NH3-N concentration from both green and black tea by-products in the fermentation medium, and the PEG6000 and 20000 showed relatively higher improvement in the NH3-N concentration. The PEG6000 and 20000 also improved in vitro organic matter digestibility and metabolizable energy contents of both tea by-products. It was concluded that high molecular PEG would be suitable to assess the suppressive activity of tannins in tea by-products by in vitro fermentation. Higher responses to gas production and NH3-N concentration from black tea by-product than green tea by-product due to PEG indicate that tannins in black tea by-product could suppress rumen fermentation more strongly than that in green tea by-product. PMID:25358316

Kondo, Makoto; Hirano, Yoshiaki; Ikai, Noriyuki; Kita, Kazumi; Jayanegara, Anuraga; Yokota, Hiro-omi

2014-01-01

468

Selective sequestration of iridoid glycosides from their host plants in Longitarsus flea beetles.  

PubMed

We investigated in eight species of the flea beetles genus Longitarsus (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) whether the beetles take up iridoid glycosides from their host plants of the Lamiaceae, Plantaginaceae, and Scrophulariaceae. Five of the beetle species, L. australis, L. lewisii, L. melanocephalus, L. nigrofasciatus, and L. tabidus, could be shown to sequester iridoid glycosides in concentrations between 0.40 and 1.55% of their dry weight. Eight different iridoid glycosides, acetylharpagide, ajugol, aucubin, catalpol, 8-epi-loganic acid, gardoside, geniposidic acid, and harpagide could be identified in the host plants, yet only aucubin and catalpol are sequestered by the beetles. No iridoid glycosides could be detected in the beetles if neither aucubin nor catalpol were present in the host plant, as in L. minusculus on Stachys recta (acetylharpagide only) and in L. salviae on Salvia pratensis (no iridoid glycosides). In one beetle species, L. luridus, we could not detect any iridoid glycosides although its field host, Plantago lanceolata, had considerable amounts of aucubin and catalpol plus two further iridoids. The five sequestering Longitarsus species differ in their capacity to store the compounds and in their affinity for catalpol relative to aucubin. PMID:11182483

Willinger, G; Dobler, S

2001-04-01

469

Comparison of three thermostable ?-glucosidases for application in the hydrolysis of soybean isoflavone glycosides.  

PubMed

A novel thermostable ?-glucosidase (Te-BglA) from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus JW200 was cloned, characterized and compared for its activity against isoflavone glycosides with two ?-glucosidases (Tm-BglA, Tm-BglB) from Thermotoga maritima. Te-BglA exhibited maximum hydrolytic activity toward pNP-?-d-glucopyranoside (pNPG) at 80 °C and pH 7.0, was stable for a pH range of 4.6-7.8 and at 65 °C for 3 h, and had the lowest K(m) for the natural glycoside salicin and the highest relative substrate specificity (k(cat)/K(m))((salicin))/(k(cat)/K(m))((pNPG)) among the three enzymes. It converted isoflavone glycosides, including malonyl glycosides, in soybean flour to their aglycons more efficiently than Tm-BglA and Tm-BglB. After 3 h of incubation at 65 °C, Te-BglA produced complete hydrolysis of four isoflavone glycosides (namely, daidzin, genistin and their malonylated forms), exhibiting higher productivity of genistein and daidzein than the other two ?-glucosidases. Our results suggest that Te-BglA is preferable to Tm-BglA and Tm-BglB, but all three enzymes have great potential applications in converting isoflavone glycosides into their aglycons. PMID:21294581

Song, Xiangfei; Xue, Yemin; Wang, Qilei; Wu, Xixi

2011-03-01

470

Influence of steviol glycosides on the stability of vitamin C and anthocyanins.  

PubMed

A high level of sweetness and health-promoting properties make steviol glycosides an interesting alternative to sugars or artificial sweeteners. The radical oxygen species scavenging activity of these compounds may influence the stability of labile particles present in food. Model buffer solutions containing steviol glycosides, a selected food antioxidant (vitamin C or anthocyanins), and preservative were analyzed during storage. The addition of steviol glycosides at concentrations of 50, 125, and 200 mg/L increased the stability of both ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acid (degradation rates decreased up to 3.4- and 4.5-fold, respectively); the effect was intensified by higher sweetener concentrations and higher acidity of the solutions. Glycosides used alone did not affect the stability of anthocyanins; however, they enhanced the protective effect of sugars; half-life times increased by ca. 33% in the presence of sucrose (100 g/L) and by ca. 52% when both sucrose (100 g/L) and glycosides (total 200 mg/L) were used. Steviol glycosides concentrations remained stable during experiments. PMID:25376304

Wo?niak, ?ukasz; Marsza?ek, Krystian; Sk?pska, Sylwia

2014-11-19

471

Tannin-Metal Interactions in Soils: An Incubation-Extraction Approach in Hill-Land Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tannins, plant polyphenols known to react with proteins, metals and soil organic matter, are commonly found in the vegetation growing in Appalachian hill-lands. Establishing silvopastoral grazing systems in these environments is a means for improving productivity however the fate of tannins in soils and, in particular, the effect on solubility/mobility of metals in soils is poorly understood. Soils from forest and pasture systems were sampled from two depths, treated with tannic acid or related phenolic compounds, and analyzed for metals in solution. The amount of Mn and Ca detected in solution varied among the different phenolic treatments, highest for gallic acid, and was also influenced by depth and land use. As expected, the Ca content in solution was correlated with the electrical conductivity (EC) and the Mn content was correlated with the redox potential in solution. Interestingly, the EC was also correlated with both Mn content and redox potential. The higher Ca content found in solution may result from the low pH of the phenolic compounds. The higher Mn in solution may result from the redox reaction of Mn (IV) oxides with the phenolic compounds, producing soluble Mn2+ and quinones. These quinones are very reactive compounds that can self-polymerize and/or copolymerize with other biomolecules, such as amino-containing compounds and carbohydrates, to form humic-like substances. Successful management of silvopastures, requires an understanding of factors that affect the quality and quantity of plant secondary compounds like tannins entering soil not only to increase forage productivity but also to enhance formation/stabilization of soil organic matter to increase nutrient cycling and reduce the toxicity risk of some metals such as Mn.

Gonzalez, J. M.; Halvorson, J. J.

2007-12-01

472

Effects of gamma radiation on total phenolics, trypsin and tannin inhibitors in soybean grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective was determining possible radiation-induced alterations (with doses of 2, 4 and 8 kGy) in raw or cooked grains from five soybean cultivars through the analysis of some antinutrient. Total phenolic ranged from 2.46 to 10.83 mg/g, the trypsin inhibited from 18.19 to 71.64 UTI/g and tannins from 0.01 to 0.39 mg/g. All the antinutrient studied underwent reduction with increases in the doses and cooking process was effective too.

de Toledo, T. C. F.; Canniatti-Brazaca, S. G.; Arthur, V.; Piedade, S. M. S.

2007-10-01

473

Microwave-assisted synthesis of carbon nanotubes from tannin, lignin, and derivatives  

SciTech Connect

A method of synthesizing carbon nanotubes. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of: (a) dissolving a first amount of a first transition-metal salt and a second amount of a second transition-metal salt in water to form a solution; (b) adding a third amount of tannin to the solution to form a mixture; (c) heating the mixture to a first temperature for a first duration of time to form a sample; and (d) subjecting the sample to a microwave radiation for a second duration of time effective to produce a plurality of carbon nanotubes.

Viswanathan, Tito

2014-06-17

474

Cardiac radiology: centenary review.  

PubMed

During the past century, cardiac imaging technologies have revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of acquired and congenital heart disease. Many important contributions to the field of cardiac imaging were initially reported in Radiology. The field developed from the early stages of cardiac imaging, including the use of coronary x-ray angiography and roentgen kymography, to nowadays the widely used echocardiographic, nuclear medicine, cardiac computed tomographic (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) applications. It is surprising how many of these techniques were not recognized for their potential during their early inception. Some techniques were described in the literature but required many years to enter the clinical arena and presently continue to expand in terms of clinical application. The application of various CT and MR contrast agents for the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia is a case in point, as the utility of contrast agents continues to expand the noninvasive characterization of myocardium. The history of cardiac imaging has included a continuous process of advances in our understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system, along with advances in imaging technology that continue to the present day. PMID:25340434

de Roos, Albert; Higgins, Charles B

2014-11-01

475

CHARMM Additive All-Atom Force Field for Glycosidic Linkages between Hexopyranoses.  

PubMed

We present an extension of the CHARMM hexopyranose monosaccharide additive all-atom force field to enable modeling of glycosidic-linked hexopyranose polysaccharides. The new force field parameters encompass 1?1, 1?2, 1?3, 1?4, and 1?6 hexopyranose glycosidic linkages, as well as O-methylation at the C(1) anomeric carbon, and are developed to be consistent with the CHARMM all-atom biomolecular force fields for proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. The parameters are developed in a hierarchical fashion using model compounds containing the key atoms in the full carbohydrates, in particular O-methyl-tetrahydropyran and glycosidic-linked dimers consisting of two molecules of tetrahyropyran or one of tetrahydropyran and one of cyclohexane. Target data for parameter optimization include full two-dimensional energy surfaces defined by the ?/? glycosidic dihedral angles in the disaccharide analogs as determined by quantum mechanical MP2/cc-pVTZ single point energies on MP2/6-31G(d) optimized structures (MP2/cc-pVTZ//MP2/6-31G(d)). In order to achieve balanced, transferable dihedral parameters for the ?/? glycosidic dihedral angles, surfaces for all possible chiralities at the ring carbon atoms involved in the glycosidic linkages are considered, resulting in over 5000 MP2/cc-pVTZ//MP2/6-31G(d) conformational energies. Also included as target data are vibrational frequencies, pair interaction energies and distances with water molecules, and intramolecular geometries including distortion of the glycosidic valence angle as a function of the glycosidic dihedral angles. The model-compound optimized force field parameters are validated on full disaccharides through comparison of molecular dynamics results to available experimental data. Good agreement is achieved with experiment for a variety of properties including crystal cell parameters and intramolecular geometries, aqueous densities, and aqueous NMR coupling constants associated with the glycosidic linkage. The newly-developed parameters allow for the modeling of linear, branched, and cyclic hexopyranose glycosides both alone and in heterogenous systems including proteins, nucleic acids and/or lipids when combined with existing CHARMM biomolecular force fields. PMID:20161005

Guvench, Olgun; Hatcher, Elizabeth R; Venable, Richard M; Pastor, Richard W; Mackerell, Alexander D

2009-08-20

476

Properties of wine polymeric pigments formed from anthocyanin and tannins differing in size distribution and subunit composition.  

PubMed

To explore the effect of tannin composition on pigment formation, model ferments of purified 3-O-monoglucoside anthocyanins (ACN) were conducted either alone or in the presence of two different tannins. Tannins were isolated from grape seeds (Sd) or skins (Sk) following exhaustive extraction in 70% v/v acetone. The Sd and Sk tannin fractions had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 25.6, respectively. The Sd fraction was highly galloylated, at 22%, but galloylation was <2% in the Sk fraction. The Sk fraction was distinguished by a high proportion of prodelphinidin, at 58%. After a 6 month aging period, polymeric pigments were quantified and their color properties determined following isolation by solid-phase extraction. Wine color and polymeric pigment were highest in the treatment containing ACN+Sd and similar in the ACN+Sk and ACN treatments. The same trend between treatments was observed for total and polymeric nonbleachable pigments. Only minor changes in tannin subunit composition were found following ACN incorporation, but the size distribution of polymeric pigments determined by gel permeation chromatography decreased, in particular for the ACN+Sk treatment. Color incorporation in the higher molecular mass range was lower for ACN+Sk wines than for ACN+Sd wines. Compositional differences between the two tannin fractions may therefore limit the incorporation of ACNs in the colored form. The results suggest that in the ACN+Sk and ACN treatments, the formation of lower molecular mass oligomeric pigments was favored. In polymeric pigments derived from ACNs, the presence of ethyl- and vinyl-linked ACNs to the level of trimers was identified using mass spectrometry. PMID:25356846

Bindon, Keren; Kassara, Stella; Hayasaka, Yoji; Schulkin, Alex; Smith, Paul

2014-11-26

477

Polyethylene glycol as a means for reducing the impact of condensed tannins in carob pulp: Effects on lamb growth performance and meat quality1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted an experiment to evalu- ate the effects that a diet containing condensed tannins with and without polyethylene glycol (PEG) has on lamb growth and meat quality. Twenty-three male Comisana lambs were introduced to the three experi- mental diets between 45 and 50 d of age. Eight were given a diet containing 56% of Ceratonia siliqua (carob) pulp (tannin

A. Priolo; G. C. Waghorn; M. Lanza; L. Biondi; P. Pennisi

478

The Evaluation of High Tannin Cotton Lines and Their Use in Breeding for Resistance to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum, Pythium aphanidermatum and Rhizoctonia solani  

E-print Network

lines developed and released in 1989 by Texas A&M AgriLife Research may possess resistance to these three diseases. In this research, the usefulness of these high tannin lines in breeding for resistance to these pathogens as well as the role of tannin...

Kennett, Raymond

2012-02-14

479

Effects of feed-supplementation and hide-spray application of two sources of tannins on enteric and hide bacteria of feedlot cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alternative pre-harvest interventions have to be evaluated to prevent carcass contamination at the slaughter house. The objectives of this study were to examine the antimicrobial effects of hydrolysable tannin-rich chestnut and condensed tannin-rich mimosa extracts on bacterial indicators of foodbo...

480

Phenotypic and phylogentic characterisation of tannin degrading\\/tolerating bacterial isolates from the rumen of goats fed on pakar (Ficus infectoria) leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tannin degrading\\/tolerating bacteria were isolated from goat rumen fed on tannin rich diet on a medium containing 1% tannic acid. One hundred and twenty five isolates were picked up and screened for their potential to grow on a medium containing tannic acid as one of the ingredients and eight best isolates were selected for further characterisation. The isolates were

B. Singh; L. C. Chaudhary; Neeta Agarwal; D. N. Kamra

2011-01-01