Species identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed using morphologic observations and multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. In 2008 and 2009, a total of 1,057 fecal samples were collected from residents of Kongwa district of Dodoma region, Tanzania, and examined microscopically for helminth eggs and proglottids. Of these, 4 Taenia egg positive cases were identified, and the eggs were subjected to DNA analysis. Several proglottids of Taenia solium were recovered from 1 of the 4 cases. This established that the species were T. solium (n = 1) and T. saginata (n = 3). One further T. solium specimen was found among 128 fecal samples collected from Mbulu district in Arusha, and this had an intact strobila with the scolex. Phylegenetic analysis of the mtDNA cox1 gene sequences of these 5 isolates showed that T. saginata was basal to the T. solium clade. The mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences of 3 of these Tanzanian isolates showed 99% similarity to T. saginata, and the other 2 isolates showed 100% similarity to T. solium. The present study has shown that Taenia tapeworms are endemic in Kongwa district of Tanzania, as well as in a previously identified Mbulu district. Both T. solium isolates were found to have an "African/Latin American" genotype (cox1). PMID:22355207
Eom, Keeseon S; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Kihamia, Charles; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu
Humans acquire taeniasis by ingesting pork meat infected with Taenia solium cysticerci, which are the only definitive hosts of the adult stage (tapeworm) and responsible for transmitting the human and porcine cysticercosis. Hence, detection of human tapeworm carriers is a key element in the development of viable strategies to control the disease. This paper presents the identification of specific antigens using sera from hamsters infected with T. solium tapeworms analyzed by western blot assay with crude extracts (CEs) and excretion-secretion antigens (E/S Ag) obtained from T. solium cysticerci and tapeworms and extracts from other helminthes as controls. The hamster sera infected with T. solium tapeworms recognized specific bands of 72, 48, 36, and 24?kDa, in percentages of 81, 81, 90, and 88%, respectively, using the T. solium tapeworms E/S Ag. The antigens recognized by these hamster sera could be candidates to improve diagnosis of human T. solium taeniasis.
Ochoa-Sanchez, Alicia; Jimenez, Lucia; Landa, Abraham
Cysticercosis caused by infection with embryonated eggs of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium is an important cause of neurological disease worldwide. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA, the pathogen has been divided into two geographic clades, corresponding to Afro-American and Asian genotypes. In this study the genotyping of T. solium was carried out by using the nuclear DNA sequences of the immunodiagnostic antigen genes Ag1V1 and Ag2. The two geographic genotypes were supported by the Ag2 sequences, especially showing unique substitutions in each of the genotypes. It seems likely that the Ag2 may be a novel nuclear DNA marker to distinguish the two geographic genotypes of T. solium. PMID:21109020
Sato, Marcello Otake; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Wandra, Toni; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Ito, Akira
Genetic polymorphism was determined among 13 isolates of Taenia solium from various regions using PCR-amplified sequences of 2 mitochondrial genes: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and cytochrome b. The 2 phylogenies obtained were similar to each other regardless of the genes examined. The isolates from Asia (China, Thailand, Irian Jaya and India) formed a single cluster, whereas the isolates from Latin America (Mexico, Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia and Brazil) combined with those from Africa (Tanzania, Mozambique and Cameroon) to form an additional cluster. These results and historical data of swine domestication, distribution of pigs and colonization suggest that T. solium was introduced recently into Latin America and Africa from different regions of Europe during the colonial age, which started 500 years ago, and that the tapeworm of another origin independently spread in Asian countries. PMID:12118722
Nakao, M; Okamoto, M; Sako, Y; Yamasaki, H; Nakaya, K; Ito, A
Cysticercosis is a serious public health problem in Madagascar. The prevalence rate of active cysticercosis reached 21% in regions with a high level of livestock farming. Taenia solium of African-American and Asian genotypes are both present on the island. The times of divergence of the 13 specimens studied suggests a very ancient diversification of T. solium. These events are widely thought to be prior to the domestication of pigs, and seem to follow the expansion of Homo in Asia. Multiple human migrations and the diversity of potential intermediate hosts may have led to a complex epidemiological situation on the island. PMID:20093191
Michelet, Lorraine; Carod, Jean-François; Rakontondrazaka, Mahenintsoa; Ma, Laurence; Gay, Frédérick; Dauga, Catherine
The larval stage of the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) infects the human nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis. This disease is one of the main causes of epileptic seizures in many less developed countries and is also increasingly seen in more developed countries because of immigration from endemic areas. Little information is available on the natural evolution of taeniasis or cysticercosis. Available therapeutic measures include steroids, treatments for symptoms, surgery, and, more controversially, antiparasitic drugs to kill brain parasites. Efforts to control and eliminate this disease are underway through antiparasitic treatment of endemic populations, development of pig vaccines, and other measures.
Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Evans, Carlton A W; Gilman, Robert H
A 43-year-old Tibetan woman living in northwest Sichuan, China, confirmed to be a taeniasis carrier of Taenia solium was treated with pumpkin seeds combined with Areca nut extract in October 2009. All 20 tapeworms except one without scolex were expelled under good conditions. She was free of secondary cysticercosis within one year follow up. Although the first choice for treatment of taeniasis is still praziquantel, it may often cause serious side effect on asymptomatic cysticercosis cases to suddenly become symptomatic within a half day of the treatment. Therefore, the problems in treatment of taeniasis and/or cysticercosis in Asia are briefly overviewed, since other platyhelminthic diseases including schistosomiasis, opisthorchiasis etc. are more common and praziquantel is strongly recommended for mass treatment of these trematodiases with no idea on the co-infection with eggs of T. solium which cause asymptomatic cysticercosis. PMID:23959481
Ito, A; Li, T; Chen, X; Long, C; Yanagida, T; Nakao, M; Sako, Y; Okamoto, M; Wu, Y; Raoul, F; Giraudoux, P; Craig, P S
We collected fecal samples from 21 individuals infected with Taenia tapeworms in Koh Kong Province, Cambodia, and performed nucleotide sequencing of the cox1 gene and multiplex PCR on the eggs for DNA differential diagnosis of human Taenia tapeworms. Genomic DNA was extracted from the eggs of a minimum number of 10 isolated from fecal samples. Using oligonucleotide primers Ta7126F, Ts7313F, Tso7466F, and Rev7915, the multiplex PCR assay proved useful for differentially diagnosing Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, and Taenia asiatica based on 706, 629, and 474 bp bands, respectively. All of the Taenia specimens from Kho Kong, Cambodia, were identified as either T. saginata (n=19) or T. solium (n=2) by cox1 sequencing and multiplex PCR. PMID:21738280
Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Hong, Sung-Jong; Han, Eun-Taek; Jeong, Hoo-Gn; Chhakda, Tep; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong; Eom, Keeseon S
Sixty-eight residents of Ban Luang and Ban Pang Kae villages, in Nan Province, northern Thailand, visited our mobile field station in September 2006 and March 2007, seeking treatment for taeniasis. After treatment, 22 cases discharged tapeworm strobila in their fecal samples and 17 scolices were recovered. Among these, 3 were morphologically abnormal, with six suckers on the scolex. To confirm the species of these tapeworms, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was used as a molecular marker. The partial COI sequences (800 bp) of the abnormal tapeworms were identical to the sequences of Taenia saginata deposited in Genbank. PMID:22299430
Maipanich, Wanna; Sato, Megumi; Pubampen, Somchit; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Kusolsuk, Teera; Thaenkham, Urusa; Waikagul, Jitra
Larval and adult stages of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps WFU strain were analyzed by histochemical and biochemical methods to determine the existence of steroid pathways. The presence of the key enzyme 3beta-hydroxisteroid-dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) was examined in frozen sections of cysticerci obtained from mice and segments of tapeworms obtained from the intestine of hamsters. 3beta-HSD activity was detected by nitroblue-tetrazolium products after incubation with dehydroepiandrosterone, androstendiol, or pregnenolone. Tapeworm tissues exhibited 3beta-HSD activity in the subtegumentary areas of the neck and immature proglottids following incubation with androstendiol, as well as surrounding the testes in mature proglottids. T. solium cysticerci exhibited 3beta-HSD activity in the subtegumentary tissues. The synthesis of steroid hormones involving the activity of 3beta-HSD was studied in cysticerci or tapeworms incubated in the presence of tritiated steroid precursors. The culture media were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and showed synthesis of androstendiol, testosterone, and 17beta-estradiol by cysticerci, androstendiol, and 17beta-estradiol by tapeworms. The results strongly suggest the activity of 3beta-HSD in taeniid parasites that have at least a part of the enzymatic chain required for androgen and estrogen synthesis and that the enzymes are present in the larval stage and from the early strobilar stages to the mature proglottids. PMID:18626663
Fernández Presas, Ana María; Valdez, Ricardo A; Willms, Kaethe; Romano, Marta C
The presence of two oncosphere antigens (OAs) of 22.5 and 31.3 kD in whole and excretory/secretory (ES) OA preparations of both Taenia solium and T. saginata or in antigen preparations from T. solium metacestodes or immature tapeworms was assessed. This included an evaluation of whether antibodies to other cestodes cross-reacted to these OAs. The OAs were present in whole oncosphere extract and E/S antigens of T. solium, but were not present in other stages (immature tapeworm or metacestode) or in OAs of T. saginata. The majority (95%) of T. solium tapeworm carriers had antibodies to these OAs, while only 20% of active neurocysticercosis cases were positive. No antibodies to the OAs were found in healthy controls, subjects infected with Hymenolepis nana, patients with hydatid disease, T. saginata tapeworm carriers, hamsters infected with immature T. solium tapeworms, or dogs infected with Echinococcus granulosus. The OAs are stage and species specific to T. solium and antibodies to OAs are usually present in tapeworm carriers. PMID:14640505
Verastegui, Manuela; Gilman, Robert H; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Arana, Yanina; Jeri, Cesar; Tuero, Iskra; Gavidia, Cesar M; Levine, Min; Tsang, Victor C W
Neurocysticercosis due to Taenia solium metacestodes is an important cause of human morbidity and mortality, particularly in parts of Latin America, Africa and Asia. The disease has been recognized as potentially eradicable. Emphasis has been placed on control through mass chemotherapy of human populations to remove tapeworm carriers, but this strategy does not control the source of infections, which is
Carlos Eddi; Armando Nari; William Amanfu
Neurocysticercosis due to Taenia solium metacestodes is an important cause of human morbidity and mortality, particularly in parts of Latin America, Africa and Asia. The disease has been recognized as potentially eradicable. Emphasis has been placed on control through mass chemotherapy of human populations to remove tapeworm carriers, but this strategy does not control the source of infections, which is
Carlos Eddi; Armando Nari; William Amanfu
Three species of tapeworms infect humans in their adult stage (Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica). The 3 are flat, opaque white or yellowish, and exceptional long segmented parasites, measuring 1 to 12 m in their adult stage. In this review, the development of the knowledge regarding the first species, mainly focused on understanding how the larval stage or cysticercus is transmitted to humans, is described. The second species is a cosmopolitan parasite that only causes taeniosis and not cysticercosis; therefore, it will not be included. Information on the third species, which is presently being produced, since this species was recognized as such only at the end of the 20th century, will be discussed at the end of this review. PMID:23467388
Three species of tapeworms infect humans in their adult stage (Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica). The 3 are flat, opaque white or yellowish, and exceptional long segmented parasites, measuring 1 to 12 m in their adult stage. In this review, the development of the knowledge regarding the first species, mainly focused on understanding how the larval stage or cysticercus is transmitted to humans, is described. The second species is a cosmopolitan parasite that only causes taeniosis and not cysticercosis; therefore, it will not be included. Information on the third species, which is presently being produced, since this species was recognized as such only at the end of the 20th century, will be discussed at the end of this review.
Human neurocysticercosis by Taenia solium is considered an emergent severe brain disorder in developing and developed countries. Discovery of new antiparasitic drugs has been recently aimed to restrain differentiation and establishment of the T. solium adult tapeworm, for being considered a central node in the disease propagation to both pigs and humans. Tamoxifen is an antiestrogenic drug with cysticidal action on Taenia crassiceps, a close relative of T. solium. Thus, we evaluated the effect of tamoxifen on the in vitro evagination and the in vivo establishment of T. solium. In vitro, tamoxifen inhibited evagination of T. solium cysticerci in a dose-time dependent manner. In vivo, administration of tamoxifen to hamsters decreased the intestinal establishment of the parasite by 70%, while recovered tapeworms showed an 80% reduction in length, appearing as scolices without strobilar development. Since tamoxifen did not show any significant effect on the proliferation of antigen-specific immune cells, intestinal inflammation, and expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines in spleen and duodenum, this drug could exert its antiparasite actions by having direct detrimental effects upon the adult tapeworm. These results demonstrate that tamoxifen exhibits a strong cysticidal and antitaeniasic effect on T. solium that should be further explored in humans and livestock. PMID:23509701
Escobedo, Galileo; Palacios-Arreola, M Isabel; Olivos, Alfonso; López-Griego, Lorena; Morales-Montor, Jorge
In endemic areas of Taenia tapeworms in Korea, most of the reports showed that T. saginata was dominant over T. solium, but eating pigs is the dominant habit over eating cattle. Why do they have more T. saginata despite lower consumption of beef? This problem actually has long been recognized but until recently there has been no intensive trial to give a scientific explanation on this epidemiological enigma. By summing up the data published between the years 1963 and 1999, the ratio of armed versus unarmed tapeworms in humans was estimated at approximately 1:5. The ratio of pig-eaters versus cattle-eaters, however, was approximately 5:1. This inconsistency could be explained with the recently described T. asiatica, which infects humans through the eating of pig's viscera. We re-evaluate the importance of the consumption of visceral organ of pigs, leading us to an improved epidemiological understanding of the T. asiatica infection together with co-existing T. saginata and T. solium in Korea.
In this study, the authors have generated a tapeworm Taenia solium genomic DNA expression library where foreign peptides\\/ proteins were fused to N-termini of M13 cpVIII and expressed at a high copy number on the phage surface, and they showed that this library may be used in bioselection against antipathogen immune sera, allowing the identification of disease-related antigens recognizing antibodies
Erik González; Yetzi Robles; Tzipe Govezensky; Raul J. Bobes; Goar Gevorkian; Karen Manoutcharian
Having redescribed the two species Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, it has been established that T. solium is not so rare as is usually supposed. The apparent scarcity is often due to a mis-identification of the proglottids of T. saginata. The apparent greater frequency of T. saginata can be explained insomuch that gravid proglottids of this species are voided spontaneously
Anna Verster; JEAN G. BAER
In this study, we applied a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for identification of human Taenia tapeworms in Tibetan communities in Sichuan, China. Out of 51 proglottids recovered from 35 carriers, 9, 1, and 41 samples were identified as Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata, respectively. Same results were obtained afterwards in the laboratory, except one sample. These results demonstrated that the LAMP method enabled rapid identification of parasites in the field surveys, which suggested that this method would contribute to the control of Taenia infections in endemic areas. PMID:22698671
Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Nakao, Minoru; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Okamoto, Munehiro; Giraudoux, Patrick; Raoul, Francis; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Xiao, Ning; Qiu, Jiamin; Qiu, Dongchuan; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira
Species-specific identification of human tapeworm infections is important for public health purposes, because prompt identification of Taenia solium carriers may prevent further human cysticercosis infections (a major cause of acquired epilepsy). Two practical methods for the differentiation of cestode proglottids, (i) routine embedding, sectioning, and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and (ii) PCR with restriction enzyme analysis (PCR-REA), were tested on samples from 40 individuals infected with T. solium (n = 34) or Taenia saginata (n = 6). Microscopic examination of HE staining of sections from 24 cases, in which conserved proglottids were recovered, clearly revealed differences in the number of uterine branches. Distinct restriction patterns for T. solium and T. saginata were observed when the PCR products containing the ribosomal 5.8S gene plus internal transcribed spacer regions were digested with either AluI, DdeI, or MboI. Both HE histology and PCR-REA are useful techniques for differentiating T. solium from T. saginata. Importantly, both techniques can be used in zones of endemicity. HE histology is inexpensive and is currently available in most regions of endemicity, and PCR-REA can be performed in most hospital centers already performing PCR without additional equipment or the use of radioactive material.
Mayta, H.; Talley, A.; Gilman, R. H.; Jimenez, J.; Verastegui, M.; Ruiz, M.; Garcia, H. H.; Gonzalez, A. E.
The transmission dynamics of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, remain a matter of research and debate. In a longitudinal field study performed in southeastern Nepal, 18 sentinel pigs were serologically monitored to study the field kinetics of Taenia antigens and anti-T. solium antibodies. At the end of the twelve months' study period, necropsy was performed and suspected lesions were subjected to molecular identification of the Taenia species. The study generated new hypotheses on the transmission dynamics of Taenia spp. and exposed crucial complexities in the use of sentinel pigs in longitudinal field studies. Sentinel pigs can be useful epidemiological tools, but their use should be thoroughly planned before initiating a study and carefully monitored throughout the course of the study. Important aspects to be considered are those affecting the pig's susceptibility to infection, such as passive immunity, age, hormonal levels, and infection with competing Taenia species. In addition, serological test results should be interpreted considering possible cross-reactions and with proper understanding of the significance of a positive test result. PMID:23298565
Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aryal, Arjun; Tharmalingam, Jayaraman; Joshi, Durga Datt; Rijal, Suman; Speybroeck, Niko; Gabriël, Sarah; Victor, Bjorn; Dorny, Pierre
Vaccination of pigs may curtail Taenia solium transmission by reducing the number of cysticerci, the precursors of adult intestinal tapeworms in humans. Several antigen preparations induce protection against porcine cysticercosis in experimental settings but only one subunit vaccine (S3Pvac) has been tested and proved effective in the field against naturally acquired disease. Besides improving of the vaccine's effectiveness, significant reductions
Edda Sciutto; Gabriela Rosas; Marisela Hernández; Julio Morales; Carmen Cruz-Revilla; Andrea Toledo; Karen Manoutcharian; Goar Gevorkian; Abel Blancas; Gonzalo Acero; Beatriz Hernández; Jacquelynne Cervantes; Raul J. Bobes; Fernando A. Goldbaum; Mirna Huerta; Alicia Diaz-Orea; Agnes Fleury; Aline S. de Aluja; Jose Luis Cabrera-Ponce; Luis Herrera-Estrella; Gladis Fragoso; Carlos Larralde
The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causative organism of porcine cysticercosis and human neurocysticercosis is known to occur in areas of South Africa including Eastern Cape Province but, despite increasing reports of its occurrence throughout the subregion, the prevalence is yet to be clearly established. The parasite presents a potentially serious agricultural problem and public health risk in endemic areas. The
R. C. Krecek; L. M. Michael; P. M. Schantz; L. Ntanjana; M. F. Smith; P. Dorny; L. J. S. Harrison; F. Grimm; N. Praet; A WILLINGHAMIII
We have designed species-specific oligonucleotides which permit the differential detection of two species of cestodes, Taenia saginata and Taenia solium. The oligonucleotides contain sequences established for two previously reported, noncoding DNA fragments cloned from a genomic library of T. saginata. The first, which is T. saginata specific (fragment HDP1), is a repetitive sequence with a 53-bp monomeric unit repeated 24
LUIS MIGUEL GONZALEZ; ESTRELLA MONTERO; LESLIE J. S. HARRISON; MICHAEL E. PARKHOUSE; TERESA GARATE; Ministerio de Sanidad
Cysticercosis is one of the most important zoonosis, not only because of the effects on animal health and its economic consequences, but also due to the serious danger it poses to humans. The two main parasites involved in the taeniasis–cysticercosis complex in Brazil are Taenia saginata and Taenia solium. Differentiating between these two parasites is important both for disease control
Ana Karina Kerche Dias; Sérgio Moraes Aoki; José Fernando Garcia; Cáris Maroni Nunes
In this study, 12 Small-Ear-Miniature pigs aged 142 to 185 days were used to determine whether pigs injected with nonviable oncospheres of Taenia solium or Taenia saginata asiatica can become resistant to the challenge of viable eggs of T. solium. The 12 pigs were equally divided into 4 groups: 3 experimental groups in which each pig was injected subcutaneously with a mixture of 0.2 mL complete Freund's adjuvant and 10(4)/0.2 mL nonviable Taiwan/Asian Taenia, Indonesia Taenia, or T. solium oncospheres, and 1 control group in which each pig was injected subcutaneously with 0.2 mL phosphate buffer solution and 0.2 mL complete Freund's adjuvant. Each pig was orally inoculated with 10000 viable T. solium eggs 1 month later. The infection rates were 100% (2/2), 100% (3/3), 33% (1/3), and 100% (3/3) and cysticerci recovery rates were 1.3% (254/20000), 1.2% (371/30000), 0.01% (4/30000), and 8.6% (2,577/30000), respectively. Except for the location of 72 cysticerci located in the viscera, 3134 cysticerci were recovered from the muscles. In the experimental groups, 4 cysticerci recovered were viable and the remaining 625 were either calcified or degenerated. However, 2567 cysticerci recovered from the control group remained viable and only 10 were calcified or degenerated. The results indicate that in addition to the vaccine of T. solium, those of Taiwan Taenia and Indonesia Taenia can also induce high-crossing immunologic reactions against T. solium infection. PMID:12886959
Fan, Ping-Chin; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Chun-Yun; Wu, Chin-Cheng
Fifty-six (56) pigs were immunized against Taenia solium cysticercosis with antigens from Taenia crassiceps metacestodes, in a variety of protocols, and then challenged orally with Taenia solium proglottids or eggs. Results of immunization (expressed as individual parasite loads) ranged from significant reduction of parasite loads (host protection) to clear increase (parasite facilitation) in apparent relation to the immunogen dose, adjuvant
E. Sciutto; A. Aluja; G. Fragoso; L. F. Rodarte; M. Hernández; M. N. Villalobos; A. Padilla; N. Keilbach; M. Baca; T. Govezensky; S. Díaz; C. Larralde
Hox genes are important in forming the anterior-posterior body axis pattern in the early developmental stage of animals. The conserved nature of the genomic organization of Hox genes is well known in diverse metazoans. To understand the Hox gene architecture in human-infecting Taenia tapeworms, we conducted a genomic survey of the Hox gene using degenerative polymerase chain reaction primers in Taenia asiatica. Six Hox gene orthologs from 276 clones were identified. Comparative analysis revealed that T. asiatica has six Hox orthologs, including two lab/Hox1, two Hox3, one Dfd/Hox4, and one Lox2/Lox4. The results suggest that Taenia Hox genes may have undergone independent gene duplication in two Hox paralogs. The failure to detect Post1/2 orthologs in T. asiatica may suggest that sequence divergence or the secondary loss of the posterior genes has occurred in the lineage leading to the cestode and trematode. PMID:17265186
Kim, Kyu-Heon; Lee, Yong Seok; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Park, Joong-Ki; Kim, Chang-Bae; Eom, Keeseon S
Chinchilla laniger has been reported as an experimental definitive host for Taenia solium; however no information about its suitability and yield of gravid tapeworm proglottids containing viable and infective eggs has been published. In total 55 outbred female chinchillas were infected with 4 cysticerci each; hosts were immunodeppressed with 6 or 8 mg of methyl-prednisolone acetate every 14 days starting the day of infection and their discomfort was followed. Kinetics of coproantigen ELISA or expelled proglottids was used to define the infection status. Efficiency of tapeworm establishment was 21% and of parasite gravidity was 8%; chinchillas showed some degree of suffering along the infection. Viability of eggs obtained from gravid proglottids was tested comparing methods previously published, our results showed 62% viability with propidium iodide, 54% with trypan blue, 34% with neutral red, 30% by oncosphere activation and 7% with bromide 3-(4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-il)-2,5-difenil-tetrazolio (MTT) reduction; no statistical differences were obtained between most techniques, except activation. Four piglets were infected with 50,000 eggs each, necropsy was performed 3 months later and, after counting the number of cysticerci recovered, the percentage of infection was similar to data obtained with T. solium eggs recovered from humans. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of T. solium taeniasis in C. laniger is a good alternative for providing eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments; optimization of the model probably depends on the use of inbred hosts and on the reduction of infected animals' suffering. PMID:21723412
Maravilla, Pablo; Garza-Rodriguez, Adriana; Gomez-Diaz, Benjamin; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Diego Emiliano; Toral-Bastida, Elizabeth; Martinez-Ocaña, Joel; West, Brett; Molina, Nadia; Garcia-Cortes, Ramon; Kawa-Karasik, Simon; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Avila-Ramirez, Guillermina; Flisser, Ana
Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases is increasing in Japan, the current situation is not clear. This is largely because taeniasis and cysticercosis are not notifiable conditions in Japan and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of T. solium infections in Japan conducted in the last 15 years. Herein, we provide an overview of the status of T. solium infection in Japan over the past 35 years and point out the potential risks to Japanese society.
Oral immunization with functional recombinant Taenia solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) induces 37% reduction in tapeworm burden in the experimental model of intestinal taeniosis in hamsters. Furthermore, tapeworms recovered from vaccinated animals exhibit diminished length, being frequently found in more posterior parts of the small intestine. The aim of this study was to analyze the immunological mechanisms involved in protection in response to rTsCRT oral immunization. Hamsters were orally immunized with rTsCRT using cholera toxin (CT) as adjuvant, weekly for 4 weeks. Fifteen days after the last boost animals were challenged with four T. solium cysticerci. Reduction in the adult worm recovery and increased transcription of mRNA for IL-4 and IFN-? in the mucosa of rTsCRT+CT immunized animals were observed. Immunization also induced goblet cell hyperplasia in the mucosa surrounding the implantation site of the parasite. Specific IgG and IgA antibodies in serum and fecal supernatants were detected after the second immunization, being more pronounced after challenge. Our data suggest that oral vaccination with rTsCRT+CT regulates a local expression of IL-4 and IFN-?, stimulating secretion of IgA that, together with the increase of goblet cells and mucin production, could result in an unfavorable environment for T. solium promoting an impaired tapeworm development. PMID:22921496
Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Mendlovic, Fela; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Vaughan, Gilberto; Salazar, Ana María; Avila, Guillermina; Flisser, Ana
Cysticerci from Taenia solium develop in the pig muscle and cause severe diseases in humans. Here we report on the capacity of T. solium cysticerci to synthesize sex steroid hormones. T. solium cysticerci were dissected from infected pork meat. Parasites were incubated for different periods in culture media plus antibiotics and tritiated steroid precursors. Blanks and parasite culture media were extracted and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) in two different solvent systems. In some experiments, the scoleces were incubated separately. Results showed that T. solium cysticerci transform [(3)H]androstenedione to [(3)H]testosterone in a time-dependent manner. The production was confirmed in two different solvent systems. The incubation with [(3)H]testosterone yielded only small amounts of [(3)H]androstenedione. The recrystallization procedure further demonstrated that the metabolite identified by TLC was testosterone. The isolated scoleces incubated in the presence of [(3)H]androstenedione yielded [(3)H]testosterone and small quantities of [(3)H]17beta-estradiol. The results reported here demonstrate that T. solium cysticerci have the capacity to synthesize steroid hormones. PMID:16416116
Valdéz, R A; Jiménez, P; Cartas, A L; Gómez, Y; Romano, M C
The transmission of the zoonotic pork tapeworms Taenia solium and T. asiatica depends on a combination of specific risk factors, such as open defecation, backyard pig raising and the consumption of raw or undercooked pork and viscera. A community-based survey was conducted among 289 households in south-eastern Nepal to study the heterogeneity of these risk factor frequencies as a function of the social composition of the population. The frequency of open defecation, backyard pig raising and pork consumption differed significantly (P < 0.005) among the different coexisting caste and ethnic groups. In the same survey, the taeniosis prevalence was examined among the different groups. Tapeworm carriers were identified at a high prevalence among the Dum, one of the most disadvantaged communities of Nepal. A PCR-RFLP assay revealed that all collected tapeworm specimens were T. asiatica, a species thus far not known to occur in South Asia. These results can help to understand the epidemiology of T. solium in Nepal, which appears to be more complex than thought so far. PMID:22643112
Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aryal, Arjun; Joshi, Durga Datt; Rijal, Suman; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Duchateau, Luc; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre
The objective of this work was the rapid and easy differential diagnosis of Taenia saginata and T. solium. First, a T. saginata size-selected genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (gDNA) library was constructed in the vector ?gt10 using the 2–4 kb fraction from the parasite DNA digested with EcoR1, under ‘star’ conditions. After differential screening of the library and hybridization analysis with DNA
Luis Miguel González; Estrella Montero; Edda Sciutto; Leslie J. S. Harrison; R. Michael E. Parkhouse; Teresa Garate
We have designed species-specific oligonucleotides which permit the differential detection of two species of cestodes, Taenia saginata and Taenia solium. The oligonucleotides contain sequences established for two previously reported, noncoding DNA fragments cloned from a genomic library of T. saginata. The first, which is T. saginata specific (fragment HDP1), is a repetitive sequence with a 53-bp monomeric unit repeated 24 times in direct tandem along the 1,272-bp fragment. From this sequence the two oligonucleotides that were selected (oligonucleotides PTs4F1 and PTs4R1) specifically amplified genomic DNA (gDNA) from T. saginata but not T. solium or other related cestodes and had a sensitivity down to 10 pg of T. saginata gDNA. The second DNA fragment (fragment HDP2; 3,954 bp) hybridized to both T. saginata and T. solium DNAs and was not a repetitive sequence. Three oligonucleotides (oligonucleotides PTs7S35F1, PTs7S35F2, and PTs7S35R1) designed from the sequence of HDP2 allowed the differential amplification of gDNAs from T. saginata, T. solium, and Echinococcus granulosus in a multiplex PCR, which exhibits a sensitivity of 10 pg.
Gonzalez, Luis Miguel; Montero, Estrella; Harrison, Leslie J. S.; Parkhouse, R. Michael E.; Garate, Teresa
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a disease caused by central nervous system infection by the larval stage of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. In developing countries, NCC is a leading cause of adult-onset epilepsy. Case reports of NCC are increasing among refugees resettled to the United States and other nations, but the underlying prevalence among refugee groups is unknown. We tested stored serum samples from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Migrant Serum Bank for antibodies against T. solium cysts by using the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot. Seroprevalence was high among all 4 populations tested: refugees from Burma (23.2%), Lao People's Democratic Republic (18.3%), Bhutan (22.8%), and Burundi (25.8%). Clinicians caring for refugee populations should suspect NCC in patients with seizure, chronic headache, or unexplained neurologic manifestations. Improved understanding of the prevalence of epilepsy and other associated diseases among refugees could guide recommendations for their evaluation and treatment before, during, and after resettlement. PMID:22377408
O'Neal, Seth E; Townes, John M; Wilkins, Patricia P; Noh, John C; Lee, Deborah; Rodriguez, Silvia; Garcia, Hector H; Stauffer, William M
Neurocysticercosis due to Taenia solium metacestodes is an important cause of human morbidity and mortality, particularly in parts of Latin America, Africa and Asia. The disease has been recognized as potentially eradicable. Emphasis has been placed on control through mass chemotherapy of human populations to remove tapeworm carriers, but this strategy does not control the source of infections, which is cysticercosis in pigs. Also, transmission may continue due to incomplete chemotherapy coverage of human carriers or because of immigration of tapeworm carriers into controlled areas. The FAO through the Veterinary Public Health (VPH) and Food Safety program has provided support for the write-up of guidelines for cysticercosis, diagnoses and control. This should be released in a joint effort with OIE and WHO and will provide regular support to seminars, workshops and congresses related to VPH. The FAO regular program has also established a global network of people directly involved in VPH, and is currently in the process of establishing four regional networks located in Asia, Africa, Eastern and Central Europe and Latin America. The networks should provide a basic framework to spread information related to diagnosis, prevention and control of major zoonotic diseases through electronic conferences, discussions, newsletters, and a Directory to establish contact with people involved in VPH and zoonotic diseases. Through the Technical Cooperation Program (TCP) the FAO has a tool to help Member Countries to create the basic environment to control emerging zoo-sanitary problems, such as zoonotic and food borne diseases. PMID:12781389
Eddi, Carlos; Nari, Armando; Amanfu, William
Complete nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (CO I) genes from various isolates of Taenia solium were examined. Eleven isolates were analyzed; two isolates from China, two isolates from Indonesia, one isolate each from India, Thailand, Mexico, Ecuador, Peru, Mozambique and Tanzania. In both genes, two isolates from Indonesia shared the same sequences. Similarly, the isolate from Mexico shared same sequences with that from Peru, and the isolate from Mozambique shared same sequences with that from Tanzania. Phylogenetic trees inferred from different mitochondrial genes yielded almost the same topology. Both the UPGMA and NJ-trees were also very similar. These trees indicate that T. solium may be diverged to 2 genetic groups; isolates from Asia form one group and isolates from Africa and Latin America belong to the other. It seems that T. solium prevalent in Africa and in Latin America shares the related origin and has recently been introduced to each area, perhaps with domestic pigs or human. PMID:12041611
Okamoto, M; Nakao, M; Sako, Y; Ito, A
We conducted cross-sectional surveys for taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans, pigs, and dogs in four northern provinces of Laos. Human cysticercosis and taeniasis prevalence was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4–3.0%) and 8.4% (95% CI = 6.9–9.9%), respectively. Eating uncooked beef, being male, province of residence, age, and ethnicity were significant risk factors for taeniasis and only province of residence was a significant risk factor for cystiercosis. Thirty-five human tapeworms were recovered during the survey and 33 (94.3%) and 2 (5.7%) were identified as Taenia saginata and T. solium, respectively. Maximum-likelihood adjusted prevalence of T. solium and T. hydatigena in pigs was 4.2% (95% CI = 0.5–7.9%) and 55.9% (95% CI = 47.5–64.3%), respectively, and T. hydatigena taeniasis in dogs was 4.8% (95% CI = 0.0–11.3%). Taenia hydatigena and T. saginata were the most prevalent taeniids in the respective pig and human populations and together may suppress T. solium transmission.
Conlan, James V.; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Dorny, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Elliot, Aileen; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R. C. Andrew
We conducted cross-sectional surveys for taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans, pigs, and dogs in four northern provinces of Laos. Human cysticercosis and taeniasis prevalence was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-3.0%) and 8.4% (95% CI = 6.9-9.9%), respectively. Eating uncooked beef, being male, province of residence, age, and ethnicity were significant risk factors for taeniasis and only province of residence was a significant risk factor for cystiercosis. Thirty-five human tapeworms were recovered during the survey and 33 (94.3%) and 2 (5.7%) were identified as Taenia saginata and T. solium, respectively. Maximum-likelihood adjusted prevalence of T. solium and T. hydatigena in pigs was 4.2% (95% CI = 0.5-7.9%) and 55.9% (95% CI = 47.5-64.3%), respectively, and T. hydatigena taeniasis in dogs was 4.8% (95% CI = 0.0-11.3%). Taenia hydatigena and T. saginata were the most prevalent taeniids in the respective pig and human populations and together may suppress T. solium transmission. PMID:22855759
Conlan, James V; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Dorny, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Elliot, Aileen; Blacksell, Stuart D; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R C Andrew
Cysticercosis caused by the zoonotic pork tapeworm Taenia solium is emerging as a constraint for the nutritional and economic well-being of small-holder farming communities in many underdeveloped areas of Southeast Asia. It occurs mainly in impoverished regions with inadequate sanitation, poor pig management practices and lack of meat inspection and control. Neurocysticercosis, the most serious form of the disease, is considered the most common parasitic infection of the human nervous system and the most frequent preventable cause of epilepsy in the developing world. Although theoretically easy to control and declared eradicable, T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis remains a neglected disease. There is a lack of information and awareness of the burden and transmission of the disease at the regional and global level, partially explained by the unavailability of good quality diagnostic tools in field-applicable formats. These factors are further compounded by a lack of validated simple and sustainable intervention packages as part of integrated helminth control programmes. To date, T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis has not been eliminated from any region by a specific programme in Southeast Asia, and no national control programmes are yet in place except in parts of the People's Republic of China. The presence, distribution, public health importance and economic relevance of cysticercosis need to be better documented in Southeast Asia in order to bring it to the attention of affected communities, decision-makers and funding bodies. A number of proven cost-effective intervention tools for combating cysticercosis appear to be available but need to be field validated. The Regional Network for Asian Schistosomiasis and Other Helminth Zoonoses (RNAS(+)) serves as an important regional 'driving force' for managing research, capacity building, knowledge and stakeholder engagement essential for controlling cysticercosis in the Southeast Asian region while ensuring that research efforts are integrated with regional needs for surveillance and control. PMID:20624534
Willingham, A Lee; Wu, Hai-Wei; Conlan, James; Satrija, Fadjar
Many examples of reciprocal endocrine interactions between parasites and hosts have been found in insects, arthropods and mammals. Cysticercosis produced by Taenia solium metacestodes is a widely distributed parasite infection that affects the human and the pig. Taenia crassiceps experimental murine cysticercosis has been used to explore the role of biological factors involved in host-parasite interactions. We had shown that T. crassiceps cysticercosis affects the serum concentration of steroid hormones and the reproduction behavior of the male mice host. In an effort to understand the biology of the parasite, we had investigated the parasite capacity to produce sex steroids. For this purpose, T. crassiceps cysticerci were incubated in the presence of different steroid precursors. TLC and recrystallization procedures showed that testosterone is produced from 3H-androstenedione in cysticerci. The conversion of 3H-testosterone to androstenedione, although present is much less significant. In addition, we had studied the production of testosterone by T. solium cysticerci. For this purpose, cysticerci were dissected from pork meat and incubated as above described. The results showed that T. solium cysticerci also produce testosterone. We have speculated about the importance of androgens in the growth of T. crassiceps cysticerci and found that the addition of the antiandrogen flutamide to the culture media of the parasites significantly decreased 3H-thymidine incorporation. We therefore hypothesized, that the ability of cysticerci to produce testosterone from steroid precursors might be important for the parasite growth and development. PMID:12943707
Romano, M C; Valdéz, R A; Cartas, A L; Gómez, Y; Larralde, C
Genotoxicity induced by neurocysticercosis has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo in humans. The adult stage of Taenia solium lodges in the small intestine and is the main risk factor to acquire neurocysticercosis, nevertheless its carcinogenic potential has not been evaluated. In this study, we determined the genotoxic effect of T. solium infection in the hamster model of taeniosis. In addition, we assessed the effect of oral immunization with recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) plus cholera toxin as adjuvant on micronuclei induction, as this protein has been shown to induce 33-44% protection in the hamster model of taeniosis. Blood samples were collected from the orbital venous plexus of noninfected and infected hamsters at different days postinfection, as well as from orally immunized animals, to evaluate the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes as a measure of genotoxicity induced by parasite exposure and rTsCRT vaccination. Our results indicate that infection with T. solium caused time-dependent DNA damage in vivo and that rTsCRT immunization reduced the genotoxic damage induced by the presence of the tapeworms. PMID:23704053
Salazar, Ana María; Mendlovic, Fela; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Chávez-Talavera, Oscar; Sordo, Monserrat; Avila, Guillermina; Flisser, Ana; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia
Mitochondrial DNA sequences of Taenia solium have fully been analyzed. Analysis of the full length of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (1620 bp) and cytochrome b (1068 bp) genes of T. solium , isolated from Asia (China, Thailand, Indonesia and India), from Latin America (Mexico, Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru and Brazil) and from Africa (Tanzania, Mozambique and Cameroon), has revealed that
Akira Ito; Hiroshi Yamasaki; Minoru Nakao; Yasuhito Sako; Munehiro Okamoto; Marcello O. Sato; Kazuhiro Nakaya; Sri S. Margono; Takashi Ikejima; Ayub A. Kassuku; Sonia M. S. Afonso; Washington Benitez Ortiz; Agustin Plancarte; Andre Zoli; Stanny Geerts; Philip S. Craig
In West Africa, Taenia solium cysticercosis in both pigs and man has been reported in Benin, Burkina-Faso, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Senegal and Togo, and although official data are lacking, T. solium is anticipated to be present in most of the pig-raising regions of other West African countries as well. In some regions of Nigeria, the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and
André Zoli; Oliver Shey-Njila; Emmanuel Assana; Jean-Pierre Nguekam; Pierre Dorny; Jef Brandt; Stanny Geerts
Taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a frequent parasitic infection of the human brain in most of the world. Rapid and simple screening tools to identify taeniasis and cysticercosis cases are needed for control programs, mostly to identify tapeworm carriers which are the source of infection and need to be treated, or as tools for point-of-care case detection or confirmation. These screening assays should be affordable, reliable, rapid, and easy to perform. Immunochromatographic tests meet these criteria. To demonstrate proof of principle, we developed and evaluated two magnetic immunochromatographic tests (MICTs) for detection of human Taenia solium taeniasis antibodies (ES33-MICT) and neurocysticercosis antibodies (T24-MICT). These assays detected stage-specific antibodies by using two recombinant proteins, rES33 for detection of taeniasis antibodies and rT24H for detection of cysticercosis antibodies. The sensitivity and specificity of the ES33-MICT to detect taeniasis infections were 94.5% and 96%, respectively, and those of the T24-MICT to detect cases of human cysticercosis with two or more viable brain cysts were 93.9% and 98.9%, respectively. These data provide proof of principle that the ES33- and T24-MICTs provide rapid and suitable methods to identify individuals with taeniasis and cysticercosis.
Handali, Sukwan; Klarman, Molly; Gaspard, Amanda N.; Dong, X. Fan; LaBorde, Ronald; Noh, John; Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Wilkins, Patricia P.
Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective. PMID:22336287
Bustos, Javier A; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A; Moyano, Luz M; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C; Craig, Philip S; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H
Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective.
Bustos, Javier A.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A.; Moyano, Luz M.; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C.; Craig, Philip S.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.
Background Human infection by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium affects more than 50 million people worldwide, particularly in underdeveloped and developing countries. Cysticercosis which arises from larval encystation can be life threatening and difficult to treat. Here, we investigate for the first time the transcriptome of the clinically relevant cysticerci larval form. Results Using Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) produced by the ORESTES method, a total of 1,520 high quality ESTs were generated from 20 ORESTES cDNA mini-libraries and its analysis revealed fragments of genes with promising applications including 51 ESTs matching antigens previously described in other species, as well as 113 sequences representing proteins with potential extracellular localization, with obvious applications for immune-diagnosis or vaccine development. Conclusion The set of sequences described here will contribute to deciphering the expression profile of this important parasite and will be informative for the genome assembly and annotation, as well as for studies of intra- and inter-specific sequence variability. Genes of interest for developing new diagnostic and therapeutic tools are described and discussed.
Almeida, Carolina R; Stoco, Patricia H; Wagner, Glauber; Sincero, Thais CM; Rotava, Gianinna; Bayer-Santos, Ethel; Rodrigues, Juliana B; Sperandio, Maisa M; Maia, Antonio AM; Ojopi, Elida PB; Zaha, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Henrique B; Tyler, Kevin M; Davila, Alberto MR; Grisard, Edmundo C; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel
A tapeworm, Taenia solium, remains a great threat to human health, particularly in developing countries. The life cycle of T. solium is thought to be terminated via vaccination of intermediate hosts. In this study, we constructed a recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium live vaccine strain ?4558 expressing a TSOL18 antigen. SDS-PAGE and Western blot confirmed the expression of the interest protein and its antigenic property. The recombinant strain stably propagated in vitro, of which the growth was not reversely influenced by TSOL18 protein expressed. It was also shown that mice survived 10(12) CFU of S. typhimurium ?4558, while all mice infected with 10(7) CFU of the wild-type died within five days. The mouse experiment indicated that vaccine strain ?4558 induced a high titer of specific antibody for a long time. In contrast to the controls, the vaccinated mice had an obvious augment of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes and the percentage of helper CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocytes was significantly increased (p<0.01). After oral administration, S. typhimurium ?4558 was first colonized mainly in the Peyer's patches and then predominantly in the mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens in the vaccinated mice. In addition, the high levels of specific anti-TSOL18 antibodies were also observed in pigs administrated with S. typhimurium ?4558. Collectively, these results demonstrate the possibility of use of an attenuated S. typhimurium strain as a vector to deliver protective antigens of T. solium. PMID:23219684
Ding, Juntao; Zheng, Yadong; Wang, Ying; Dou, Yongxi; Chen, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Xueliang; Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Shaohua; Liu, Zhenyong; Hou, Junling; Zhai, Junjun; Yan, Hongbin; Luo, Xuenong; Cai, Xuepeng
Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease of cattle and swine caused by the larval (cyst) stage of the tapeworm Taenia saginata in cattle and Taenia solium in swine. Ingestion by man of viable larvae in undercooked meat results in intestinal tapeworm infection...
D. S. Zarlenga M. L. Rhoads
Two novel genes encoding lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) and B (LDHB) homologues, respectively, were identified from the cDNA\\u000a libraries of adult Taenia solium (T. solium). The two deduced amino acid sequences both show more than 50% identity to the homologues for Danio rerio, Xenopus laevis, Schistosoma japonicum, Sus scrofa, Homo sapiens, et al. The identity of the amino acid sequence
Wuying Du; Fengyu Hu; Yabo Yang; Dong Hu; Xuchu Hu; Xinbing Yu; Jin Xu; Jialin Dai; Xinjiang Liao; Jiang Huang
Taenia solium is a cestode parasite that causes cysticercosis in humans and pigs. TSOL18 has been identified as a host-protective oncosphere\\u000a antigen. To obtain mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against TSOL18 and to map its antigenic epitopes are potentials to develop\\u000a a vaccine for the prevention of T. solium infection. In this study, mAbs were produced by the hybridoma technique using
Aijiang Guo; Xuepeng Cai; Wanzhong Jia; Bing Liu; Shaohua Zhang; Peiya Wang; Hongbing Yan; Xuenong Luo
An active Taenia solium cysticercosis case in Bali, Indonesia, was followed-up by serology and computed tomography. Serology using semi-purified glycoprotein and recombinant antigens showed a drastic drop in titers after calcification of the cysts. Three paraffin-embedded cysts, prepared for histopathological examination, from three other patients were used for mtDNA analysis. The sequences of cox1 gene from T. solium cysticerci from Bali differed from those in Papua and other Asian countries. PMID:17920648
Sudewi, A A R; Wandra, T; Artha, A; Nkouawa, A; Ito, A
Herein we present a review of our research dealing with vaccination against experimental and naturally acquired porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis using Taenia crassiceps-derived antigens. Results strongly support that the different versions of S3Pvac vaccine are indeed effective against porcine T. solium cysticercosis. Immunological results related to vaccination prove that protection is at least partially mediated by specific immunity. The data also support the validity of T. crassiceps murine cysticercosis as an effective tool to identify vaccine candidates against some metacestode infections. PMID:23445359
Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Hernández, Marisela; Rosas, Gabriela; Martínez, José J; Fleury, Agnès; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Aluja, Aline; Larralde, Carlos
Several reports of patients with cysticercosis from many countries in Asia such as India, China, Indonesia, Thailand, Korea, Taiwan and Nepal are a clear indicator of the wide prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniosis in these and other Asian countries. However, epidemiological data from community based studies are sparse and available only for a few countries in Asia. Cysticercosis
Vedantam Rajshekhar; Durga Dutt Joshi; Nguyen Quoc Doanh; Nguyen van De; Zhou Xiaonong
Several reports of patients with cysticercosis from many countries in Asia such as India, China, Indonesia, Thailand, Korea, Taiwan and Nepal are a clear indicator of the wide prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniosis in these and other Asian countries. However, epidemiological data from community based studies are sparse and available only for a few countries in Asia. Cysticercosis
Vedantam Rajshekhar; Durga Dutt Joshi; Nguyen Quoc Doanh; Nguyen van De; Zhou Xiaonong
Taeniosis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium are public health problems in many developing countries. Many studies of this parasitic zoonosis have focused on clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, surveillance, epidemiology and risk factors analysis. More recently projects on community and mass intervention strategies had been conducted in several rural areas worldwide focused on pig vaccination, pig cysticercosis treatment, human mass
Elsa Sarti; Vedantam Rajshekhar
Man is generally considered to be the only definitive host for Taenia solium. The host-parasite relationship for the bladderworm stage is not as specific and several intermediate hosts are known. By chance, it was found that the white-handed gibbon (Hylob...
F. C. Cadigan J. S. Stanton P. Tanticharoenyos V. Chaicumpa
Mass treatment of the human population with niclosamide was carried out in 2 villages in rural Guatemala where Taenia solium was endemic, to determine how this would affect the epidemiology of the parasite. Intestinal taeniasis was diagnosed by microscopy and coproantigen testing, and porcine cysticercosis by a specific Western blot. Before mass treatment, the prevalence of human taeniasis was 3·5%;
J. C. Allan; M. Velasquez-Tohom; C. Fletes; R. Torres-Alvarez; G. Lopez-Virula; P. Yurrita; H. Soto de Alfaro; A. Rivera; J. Garcia-Noval
Mitochondrial (mt) cox1 and ribosomal ITS1 DNA sequences from Taenia solium cysticercus isolates from pigs and cysticerci (racemose and cellulose types) from patients with neurocysticercosis were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplicons were sequenced in order to determine the genetic relationship between these types of cysticerci. Phylogenetic trees were constructed and evolutionary distances were calculated. ITS1 and
Araceli Consuelo Hinojosa-Juarez; Miguel Sandoval-Balanzario; Donald Peter McManus; Amalia Monroy-Ostria
A Japanese woman presenting with neurologic symptoms was presumptively diagnosed with neurocysticercosis based on imaging findings. Hooklets in the scolex of the resected lesion were not confirmed through histopathological observation. However, the illness was confirmed by mitochondrial DNA analysis to be a solitary neurocysticercosis case caused by the Asian genotype of Taenia solium. PMID:15297559
Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Shigeo; Yamamura, Koji; Chang, Chia-Cheng; Kawamura, Shunji; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira
Recombinant antigens that have been cloned from Taenia solium and Taenia ovis have been shown to be highly effective when used as vaccines against cysticercosis in the intermediate hosts. This study investigated the presence of mRNA encoding the TSOL18 and TSOL16 antigens in different life-cycle stages of T. solium, and their related homologues in T. ovis. Reverse transcription-PCR and Southern
Charles G. Gauci; Manuela R. Verástegui; Robert H. Gilman; Marshall W. Lightowlers
Genes and transcripts which show homology to the host-protective 45W antigen of Taenia ovis have been cloned from the human parasite Taenia solium. The T. solium genes cloned in this study (TSO45) show conserved genomic structural features which are also features of the T. ovis 45W gene family. The TSO45 genes consist of a four exon and three intron structure.
Charles G. Gauci; Marshall W. Lightowlers
Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is clustered or widely dispersed in a limited rural area, a spatial analysis of rural porcine cysticercosis was applied to 13 villages of the Sierra de Huautla in Central Mexico. Clustering of cases in specific households would indicate tapeworm carriers in the vicinity, whereas their dispersal would suggest that the ambulatory habits of both humans and pigs contribute to the spread of cysticercosis. A total of 562 pigs were included in this study (August-December 2003). A global positioning system was employed in order to plot the geographic distribution of both cysticercotic pigs and risk factors for infection within the villages. Prevalence of pig tongue cysticercosis varied significantly in sampled villages (p = 0.003), ranging from 0% to 33.3% and averaging 13.3%. Pigs were clustered in households, but no differences in the clustering of cysticercotic and healthy pigs were found. In contrast, the presence of pigs roaming freely and drinking stagnant water correlated significantly with porcine cysticercosis (p = 0.07), as did the absence of latrines (p = 0.0008). High prevalence of porcine cysticercosis proves that transmission is still quite common in rural Mexico. The lack of significant differentiation in the geographical clustering of healthy and cysticercotic pigs weakens the argument that focal factors (e.g., household location of putative tapeworm carriers) play an important role in increasing the risk of cysticercosis transmission in pigs. Instead, it would appear that other wide-ranging biological, physical, and cultural factors determine the geographic spread of the disease. Extensive geographic dispersal of the risk of cysticercosis makes it imperative that control measures be applied indiscriminately to all pigs and humans living in this endemic area. PMID:18846230
Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda
Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence with confocal microscopy were used to localize the host-protective antigens of Taenia saginata (TSA9 and TSA18) and Taenia solium (TSOL16, TSOL18 and TSOL45). In nonactivated oncospheres, TSA9 and TSOL45 antigens were found primarily in the cytoplasm of the penetration gland type one (PG1) cell. A similar pattern of staining was seen for TSOL45 in oncospheres of T. solium that remained within the oncospheral membrane. In addition, there was less intense staining of TSA9 and TSOL45 in the quadri-nucleate penetration gland type 2 (PG2) cell. TSA18, TSOL16 and TSOL18 were predominantly found in the PG2 cell. In activated oncospheres that had escaped the oncospheral membrane, the antigens (other than TSA9) were seen both in the penetration gland cell locations and throughout the oncospheral parenchyma. Co-localization analyses revealed that only TSOL16 and TSOL18 antigens were co-localized in the PG2 cell of oncospheres that had not escaped the oncospheral membrane. However, in activated oncospheres that escaped the oncospheral membrane, all three antigens of T. solium were co-localized as they were present throughout the parenchyma. No positive staining was observed on the surface of nonactivated or recently activated oncospheres of T. saginata or T. solium. PMID:20691020
Jabbar, A; Verástegui, M; Lackenby, J A; Walduck, A K; Gauci, C G; Gilman, R H; Lightowlers, M W
Mitochondrial DNA sequences of Taenia solium have fully been analyzed. Analysis of the full length of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (1620 bp) and cytochrome b (1068 bp) genes of T. solium, isolated from Asia (China, Thailand, Indonesia and India), from Latin America (Mexico, Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru and Brazil) and from Africa (Tanzania, Mozambique and Cameroon), has revealed that the two phylogenies obtained were similar to each other regardless of the genes examined. The isolates from Asia formed a single cluster, whereas those from Latin America combined with those from Africa to form an additional cluster. It was estimated that these two genotypes emerged approximately 4-8 x 10(5) years ago. These results together with recent study of the ancient of human taeniid cestodes emerged several MYA in Africa, historical data on swine domestication, distribution of pigs and colonization patterns suggest that T. solium was introduced recently into Latin America and Africa from different regions of Europe during the colonial age, which started 500 years ago, and that T. solium of another origin independently spread in Asian countries, perhaps from China. Why did not T. solium of European origin invade or spread into Asia during the colonial age? Analysis of T. solium distribution must include other Taenia species, especially T. saginata and T. asiatica, which can not be differentiated from each other morphologically. BESS T-base analysis for differentiation of all human Taenia species including the two genotypes of T. solium, and T. saginata and T. asiatica has also been characterized. BESS T-base analysis differentiates African isolates from Latin American isolates as well but more samples should be analyzed for obtaining conclusive evidence for the latter. Serological analysis of cyst fluid of T. solium cysticerci obtained in China and Indonesia and from Mozambique and Ecuador indicates geographical differences in their banding patterns. These differences are discussed in the light of possible differences in pathology of T. solium worldwide. As it has been speculated that the ancient T. solium emerged several million years ago in Africa, it is necessary to analyze more isolates from Africa. Such working hypothesis may be evaluated combined with symptomatology and serology when we get additional DNA data from such areas, since there are some varieties of manifestation of neurocysticercosis with or without subcutaneous cysticercosis and of antigens of cyst fluid of T. solium from Asia and from Africa and/or America. Transfer of techniques of molecular identification and sero- and immuno-diagnoses between researchers and technicians from endemic countries using their own materials should be promoted with the aim of better international cooperation for the control of cysticercosis. PMID:12781383
Ito, Akira; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Sato, Marcello O; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Margono, Sri S; Ikejima, Takashi; Kassuku, Ayub A; Afonso, Sonia M S; Ortiz, Washington Benitez; Plancarte, Agustin; Zoli, Andre; Geerts, Stanny; Craig, Philip S
Neurocysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium infection of the brain. Diagnosis is most often made by visualization of the parasitic scolex by magnetic resonance imaging of the brain or by characteristic neuroimaging findings with serologic test results positive for T. solium. A patient who presents with a solitary brain lesion usually poses a diagnostic dilemma, because the differential diagnosis often includes neurocysticercosis and other infections or neoplasm. Although the sensitivity of serologic testing for T. solium approaches 100% in patients with multiple intraparenchymal cysts, the sensitivity of testing for patients with solitary cysts is <50%, which makes serologic testing a less useful diagnostic tool for patients with solitary central nervous system (CNS) lesions. We describe 2 patients with solitary CNS lesions who received a neurocysticercosis diagnosis after identification of T. solium DNA in brain biopsy tissue with use of a global DNA screening platform. Global screening is a promising tool for the diagnosis of CNS infection, especially when traditional diagnostic tools are insensitive.
Harrington, Amanda T.; Creutzfeldt, Claire J.; SenGupta, Dhruba J.; Hoogestraat, Daniel R.; Zunt, Joseph R.; Cookson, Brad T.
Recombinant antigens from the oncosphere stage of the parasite Taenia solium were expressed in Escherichia coli. The TSOL16, TSOL45-1A and TSOL45-1B recombinant antigens, each consisting of fibronectin type III (FnIII) domain S, were produced as fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and maltose binding protein (MBP). Groups of pigs were immunized twice with the GST fusions of the antigens and boosted a third time with the MBP fusions prior to receiving a challenge infection with T. solium eggs. The TSOL16 antigen was found to be capable of inducing high levels of immunity in pigs against a challenge infection with T. solium. Immunological investigations identified differences in immune responses in the pigs vaccinated with the various antigens. The results demonstrate that the TSOL16 antigen could be a valuable adjunct to current porcine vaccination approaches and may allow the further development of new vaccination strategies against T. solium cysticercosis.
Gauci, Charles G.; Jayashi, Cesar M.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Lackenby, Julia; Lightowlers, Marshall W.
BackgroundTaenia solium, a zoonotic parasite that is endemic in most developing countries where pork is consumed, is recognised as the main cause of acquired epilepsy in these regions. T. solium has been reported in almost all of the neighboring countries of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) but data on the current prevalence of the disease in the country itself are
Nicolas Praet; Kirezi Kanobana; Constantin Kabwe; Vivi Maketa; Philippe Lukanu; Pascal Lutumba; Katja Polman; Peter Matondo; Niko Speybroeck; Pierre Dorny; Julienne Sumbu
After collecting calcareous corpuscles from plerocercoid of Spirometra mansoni (sparganum), we evaluated the antigenic values of calcareous corpuscles binding proteins obtained from the cyst fluid of Taenia solium metacestodes. Immunoblot analysis revealed that cysticercosis patient sera strongly recognized 10 and 95 kDa calcareous corpuscles binding proteins. This result demonstrated that calcareous corpuscles are bound with major secretory antigenic proteins, which is possibly involved in the secretory pathways of the 10 and 95 kDa proteins presenting in the cyst fluid of T. solium metacestodes.
Taenia solium cysticercosis seriously affects human health when localised in the central nervous system (CNS) and causes great economic loss in pig husbandry in rural areas of endemic countries. Increasing the resistance to the parasite in the obligatory host pig may help in curbing transmission. Three synthetic peptides based on protein sequences of the murine parasite Taenia crassiceps, which had
M Huerta; A. S de Aluja; G Fragoso; A Toledo; N Villalobos; M Hernández; G Gevorkian; G Acero; A D??az; I Alvarez; R Avila; C Beltrán; G Garcia; J. J Martinez; C Larralde; E Sciutto
Paramyosin has been proposed as a vaccine candidate in schistosomiasis and filariasis. However, limited information is available about its protective potential against cysticercosis and the immune response it induces. Immunization of mice with recombinant full-length paramyosin of Taenia solium (TPmy) results in about a 52% reduction in parasite burden after a subsequent challenge by intraperitoneal inoculation of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci.
J. Vazquez-Talavera; C. F. Solis; L. I. Terrazas; J. P. Laclette
Taenia solium is a great threat not only to human health but also to the pig-raising industry. Oncospheral stage-specific 45W proteins are good candidates for the development of anticysticercosis vaccines. In this study, a recombinant 45W-4B protein was highly produced and used for vaccination. Two animal trials resulted in a significant reduction in parasite burden induced by the definite protein
Xuenong Luo; Yadong Zheng; Junling Hou; Shaohua Zhang; Xuepeng Cai
This study examines the carbohydrate composition of Taenia solium whole oncosphere antigens (WOAs), in order to improve the understanding of the antigenicity of the T. solium. Better knowledge of oncosphere antigens is crucial to accurately diagnose previous exposure to T. solium eggs and thus predict the development of neurocysticercosis. A set of seven lectins conjugates with wide carbohydrate specificity were used on parasite fixations and somatic extracts. Lectin fluorescence revealed that D-mannose, D-glucose, D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues were the most abundant constituents of carbohydrate chains on the surface of T. solium oncosphere. Lectin blotting showed that posttranslational modification with N-glycosylation was abundant while little evidence of O-linked carbohydrates was observed. Chemical oxidation and enzymatic deglycosylation in situ were performed to investigate the immunoreactivity of the carbohydrate moieties. Linearizing or removing the carbohydrate moieties from the protein backbones did not diminish the immunoreactivity of these antigens, suggesting that a substantial part of the host immune response against T. solium oncosphere is directed against the peptide epitopes on the parasite antigens. Finally, using carbohydrate probes, we demonstrated for the first time that the presence of several lectins on the surface of the oncosphere was specific to carbohydrates found in intestinal mucus, suggesting a possible role in initial attachment of the parasite to host cells. PMID:23982308
Arana, Yanina; Verastegui, Manuela; Tuero, Iskra; Grandjean, Louis; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H
Taenia solium is a predominant food-borne parasitic zoonosis (FBPZ) in Nepal. Using the PRECEDE framework, as defined by Green and Kreuter, we can identify the factors behind the high incidence of this disease. Armed with this information, we can define the actions necessary to control T. solium. In accordance with the first step of PRECEDE, social assessment, we set the goal of decreasing the potential for T. solium transmission in Nepal by the year 2003. This goal has yet to be endorsed by policy makers. However, an epidemiological assessment based on hospital data alone showed that T. solium is an endemic problem in urban Nepal that must be addressed. Based on behavioral and environmental assessments (Steps 1 and 2 of PRECEDE-PROCEED), we defined the following action objectives to be achieved by 2003: 1) Train meat producers and sellers to detect contaminated pork and avoid selling it, 2) Improve pig husbandry to limit the animals' access to human feces, 3) Construct hygienic model slaughterhouses. These improvements could control the meat-producing environment, thus limiting the potential for cross-carcass contamination and other hygiene deficiencies associated with the spread of T. solium. An educational and ecological assessment shows all predisposing, reinforcing and enabling factors are present in Nepal, consistent with PRECEDE requirements. While T. solium is clearly defined as a health problem according to PRECEDE, there remain significant hurdles to controlling it. These hurdles lie in administration and policy, where standardized law-enforcement and meat inspection practices are needed. Finally, the government of Nepal must assign high priority to T. solium control, as it is a preventable, yet prevalent disease. PMID:12041612
Joshi, D D; Poudyal, P M; Jimba, M; Mishra, P N; Neave, L A; Maharjan, M
Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigens KETc1 and KETc12 have been shown to induce high level of protection against experimental murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis, an experimental model successfully used to test candidate antigens for use in vaccination against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, KETc1 and KETc12 were chemically synthesized in linear form. Immunization with KETc1 induced
ANDREA TOLEDO; GLADIS FRAGOSO; GABRIELA ROSAS; MARISELA HERNANDEZ; GOAR GEVORKIAN; FERNANDO LOPEZ-CASILLAS; BEATRIZ HERNANDEZ; GONZALO ACERO; MIRNA HUERTA; CARLOS LARRALDE; EDDA SCIUTTO
We report herein the complete coding sequence of a Taenia solium cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (TscMDH). The cDNA fragment, identified from the T. solium genome project database, encodes a protein of 332 amino acid residues with an estimated molecular weight of 36517Da. For recombinant expression, the full length coding sequence was cloned into pET23a. After successful expression and enzyme purification, isoelectrofocusing
Gabriela Nava; Juan P. Laclette; Raúl Bobes; Julio C. Carrero; Horacio Reyes-Vivas; Sergio Enriquez-Flores; Guillermo Mendoza-Hernández; Agustín Plancarte
Taenia solium is a zoonotic parasite that causes cysticercosis. The parasite is a major cause of human disease in impoverished communities where it is transmitted to humans from pigs which act as intermediate hosts. Vaccination of pigs to prevent transmission of T. solium to humans is an approach that has been investigated to control the disease. A recombinant vaccine antigen, TSOL18, has been remarkably successful at reducing infection of pigs with T. solium in several experimental challenge trials. The vaccine has been shown to eliminate transmission of naturally acquired T. solium in a field trial conducted in Africa. We recently reported that the vaccine was also effective in a field trial conducted in Peru. The TSOL18 recombinant antigen for each of these trials has been produced by expression in Escherichia coli. Here we discuss research that has been undertaken on the TSOL18 antigen and related antigens with a focus on improved methods of preparation of recombinant TSOL18 and optimized expression in Escherichia coli. PMID:23196744
Gauci, Charles; Jayashi, César; Lightowlers, Marshall W
Oxfendazole is recommended as the drug of choice for treating porcine cysticercosis. The drug does not kill brain cysts and is not registered for use in pigs. Latest its safety in the recommended dose has been questioned. The aim of this study was to investigate two alternative anthelminthics. The efficacy of praziquantel and ivermectin was compared to oxfendazole In Vitro on Taenia solium. Cysts of T. solium were isolated from infected pork and incubated in culture media together with the drugs. The degree of evagination was used as effect measurement and determined after 6 hours. Praziquantel had a half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of value 0.006 ± 0.001??g/mL. Ivermectin did not show any impact on the evagination in concentrations from 0.001 to 30??g/mL and neither did oxfendazole in concentrations from 0.001 to 50??g/mL.
Cederberg, S.; Sikasunge, C. S.; Andersson, A.; Johansen, M. V.
Malate dehydrogenase (l-malate: NAD oxidoreductase, EC 220.127.116.11) from the cytoplasm of Taenia solium cysticerci (cMDHTs) was purified 48-fold through a four-step procedure involving salt fractionation, ionic exchange, and dye affinity chromatography.\\u000a cMDHTs had a native M\\u000a r of 64,000, while the corresponding value per subunit, obtained under denaturing conditions, was 32,000. The enzyme is partially\\u000a positive, with an isoelectric point
Agustín Plancarte; Gabriela Nava; Guillermo Mendoza-Hernández
Cytosolic Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide (O(2)(-)) to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and plays an important role in the establishment and survival of helminthes in their hosts. In this work, we describe the Taenia solium Cu,Zn-SOD gene (TsCu,Zn-SOD) and a Taenia crassiceps (TcCu,Zn-SOD) cDNA. TsCu,Zn-SOD gene that spans 2.841 kb, and has three exons and two introns; the splicing junctions follow the GT-AG rule. Analysis in silico of the gene revealed that the 5'-flanking region has three putative TATA and CCAAT boxes, and transcription factor binding sites for NF1 and AP1. The transcription start site was a C, located at 22 nucleotides upstream of the translation start codon (ATG). Southern blot analysis showed that TcCu,Zn-SOD and TsCu,Zn-SOD genes are encoded by a single copy. The deduced amino acid sequences of TsCu,Zn-SOD gene and TcCu,Zn-SOD cDNA reveal 98.47% of identity, and the characteristic motives, including the catalytic site and ?-barrel structure of the Cu,Zn-SOD. Proteomic and immunohistochemical analysis indicated that Cu,Zn-SOD does not have isoforms, is distributed throughout the bladder wall and is concentrated in the tegument of T. solium and T. crassiceps cysticerci. Expression analysis revealed that TcCu,Zn-SOD mRNA and protein expression levels do not change in cysticerci, even upon exposure to O(2)(-) (0-3.8 nmol/min) and H(2)O(2) (0-2mM), suggesting that this gene is constitutively expressed in these parasites. PMID:22019409
Parra-Unda, Ricardo; Vaca-Paniagua, Felipe; Jiménez, Lucia; Landa, Abraham
Abnormalities are not uncommon in Taenia saginata and T. solium. After examining 328 mature proglottids from 2 adult worms from two experimentally infected hamsters, 13 (4.0%) were found to have no genital pore but with numerous testes and several vas efferents; 1 (0.3%) one genital pore with one reproductive system; 12 (3.7%) one on each side with two sets of reproductive system; 17 (5.2%) two on one side with 2 sets of reproductive system; 8 (2.4%) one on one side and two on the other side with 3 sets of reproductive system; 2 (0.6%) two on each side with 4 sets of reproductive system; 4 (1.2%) three on one side with 3 sets of reproductive system, and 4 one on one side and three on the other side with 4 sets of reproductive system. Nine evaginated abnormal cysticerci of T. s. asiatica from three experimentally infected SCID mice each had two protoscoleces and a big bladder. From two experimentally infected pigs, one abnormal cysticercus was observed to have two invaginated canals each in one end. Another one had a neck-band behind the scolex and a big bladder. This paper is not only the first report of abnormality of T. solium from hamster but also the first one of abnormal cysticerci of T. s. asiatica from pigs and mice. PMID:12041572
Fan, P C; Wan, I C; Chung, W C; Guo, J X; Ma, X Y; Xu, Z J
A Taenia solium metacestode cDNA expression library in the lambda ZAPII vector was screened with pooled sera from patients with neurocysticercosis. Sixty primary clones were identified and shown to belong to two classes. The clones NC-3 and NC-9 did not reveal any significant homologies to sequences deposited in the databases and were further characterized. Both recombinant antigens were expressed as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins and applied for serological diagnosis of human cysticercosis. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was established and evaluated with 27 serum samples of La Réunion and Madagascar patients with cysticercosis. Diagnosis in these patients was established with radiological and serological procedures. For antigen NC-3 a sensitivity of 96.3% and a specificity of 91.5% for the serodiagnosis were achieved. In contrast, the sensitivity of antigen NC-9 was only 33.3%.
Hubert, Kerstin; Andriantsimahavandy, Abel; Michault, Alain; Frosch, Matthias; Muhlschlegel, Fritz A.
In the present study, we obtained and characterized partially a monoclonal antibody (4H11D10B11 mAb) against triosephosphate isomerase from Taenia solium (TTPI). This antibody recognized the enzyme by both ELISA and western blot and was able to inhibit its enzymatic activity in 74%. Moreover, the antigen-binding fragments (Fabs), products of digestion of the monoclonal antibody with papain, retained almost the same inhibitory effect. We determined the binding site by ELISA; synthetic peptides containing sequences from different non-conserved regions of the TTPI were confronted to the 4H11D10B11 mAb. The epitope recognized by the monoclonal antibody was located on peptide TTPI-56 (ATPAQAQEVHKVVRDWIRKHVDAGIADKARI), and an analysis of mimotopes, obtained with the 4H11D10B11 mAb, suggests that the epitope spans the sequence WIRKHVDAGIAD, residues 193-204 of the enzyme. This epitope is located within helix 6, next to loop 6, an essential active loop during catalysis. The antibody did not recognize triosephosphate isomerase from man and pig, definitive and intermediary hosts of T. solium, respectively. Furthermore, it did not bind to the catalytic site, since kinetic analysis demonstrated that inhibition had a non-competitive profile. PMID:23707345
Víctor, Sanabria-Ayala; Yolanda, Medina-Flores; Araceli, Zavala-Carballo; Lucía, Jiménez; Abraham, Landa
We have observed the seropositive rate of Taenia solium cysticercosis in residents at Nabo Village, Tiandong County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The village had been found to be a relatively high endemic area of porcine cysticercosis among roaming pigs. Of 202 persons examined four males aged 15, 25, 35 and 41 year-old exhibited absorbance (abs) at 0.18, 0.20, 0.35 and 0.55, respectively. In addition, two females whose ages were 35 and 39 years revealed specific antibody levels of abs 0.26 and 0.41 in their sera. Overall positive rate among the people was 2.97%. All of these persons agreed that they had ingested the pork infected with T. solium metacestode (TsM), while history of proglottid discharge was not noticed from all of them. Three males and one female complained of intermittent headache. Our findings reinforced not only that the prevalence of cysticercosis might be related with roaming pigs infected with TsM but also that behavioral and environmental practices in local community constituted risk factors for transmission of the infection.
Chung, Joon-Yong; Eom, Keeseon S.; Yang, Yichao; Li, Xenming; Feng, Zheng; Rim, Han-Jong; Cho, Seung-Yull
We have observed the seropositive rate of Taenia solium cysticercosis in residents at Nabo Village, Tiandong County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The village had been found to be a relatively high endemic area of porcine cysticercosis among roaming pigs. Of 202 persons examined four males aged 15, 25, 35 and 41 year-old exhibited absorbance (abs) at 0.18, 0.20, 0.35 and 0.55, respectively. In addition, two females whose ages were 35 and 39 years revealed specific antibody levels of abs 0.26 and 0.41 in their sera. Overall positive rate among the people was 2.97%. All of these persons agreed that they had ingested the pork infected with T. solium metacestode (TsM), while history of proglottid discharge was not noticed from all of them. Three males and one female complained of intermittent headache. Our findings reinforced not only that the prevalence of cysticercosis might be related with roaming pigs infected with TsM but also that behavioral and environmental practices in local community constituted risk factors for transmission of the infection. PMID:16340302
Chung, Joon Yong; Eom, Keeseon S; Yang, Yichao; Li, Xenming; Feng, Zheng; Rim, Han Jong; Cho, Seung Yull; Kong, Yoon
Research note a Taenia solium oncosphere protein homologous to host-protective Taenia ovis and Taenia saginata 18 kDa antigens fn1 fn1 The nucleotide sequence reported in this paper was deposited in the Genbank, embl and DDBJ databases under accession number AFO17788
A Taenia solium cDNA (TSOL-18) encoding a protein with close homology to host protective oncosphere antigens from Taenia ovis (To18) and Taenia saginata (TSA-18) is described here. TSOL-18 was cloned from mRNA obtained from hatched and activated oncospheres of T. solium. The high level of predicted amino acid sequence homology among TSOL-18 and other host protective taeniid antigens suggests that
Charles G. P Gauci; Ana Flisser; Marshall W Lightowlers
Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica are taeniid tapeworms that cause taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in intermediate host animals. Taeniases remain an important public health concerns in the world. Molecular diagnostic methods using PCR assays have been developed for rapid and accurate detection of human infecting taeniid tapeworms, including the use of sequence-specific DNA probes, PCR-RFLP, and multiplex PCR. More recently, DNA diagnosis using PCR based on histopathological specimens such as 10% formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and stained sections mounted on slides has been applied to cestode infections. The mitochondrial gene sequence is believed to be a very useful molecular marker for not only studying evolutionary relationships among distantly related taxa, but also for investigating the phylo-biogeography of closely related species. The complete sequence of the human Taenia tapeworms mitochondrial genomes were determined, and its organization and structure were compared to other human-tropic Taenia tapeworms for which complete mitochondrial sequence data were available. The multiplex PCR assay with the Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915 primers will be useful for differential diagnosis, molecular characterization, and epidemiological surveys of human Taenia tapeworms. PMID:23467738
Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S
Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica are taeniid tapeworms that cause taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in intermediate host animals. Taeniases remain an important public health concerns in the world. Molecular diagnostic methods using PCR assays have been developed for rapid and accurate detection of human infecting taeniid tapeworms, including the use of sequence-specific DNA probes, PCR-RFLP, and multiplex PCR. More recently, DNA diagnosis using PCR based on histopathological specimens such as 10% formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and stained sections mounted on slides has been applied to cestode infections. The mitochondrial gene sequence is believed to be a very useful molecular marker for not only studying evolutionary relationships among distantly related taxa, but also for investigating the phylo-biogeography of closely related species. The complete sequence of the human Taenia tapeworms mitochondrial genomes were determined, and its organization and structure were compared to other human-tropic Taenia tapeworms for which complete mitochondrial sequence data were available. The multiplex PCR assay with the Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915 primers will be useful for differential diagnosis, molecular characterization, and epidemiological surveys of human Taenia tapeworms.
Rivera-Guerrero MI, Sánchez-Rueda L, Rodríguez-Bataz E, Martínez-Villalobos AN, Martínez-Maya JJ. Efecto de algunos agentes físicos y químicos sobre el metacéstodo de Taenia solium presente en carne adobada y chorizo. Salud Publica Mex 2004;46:425-429. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http:\\/\\/www.insp.mx\\/salud\\/index.html Resumen Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de diferentes temperaturas y tiempos, así como de algunos condimentos
Ma Isabel Rivera-Guerrero; Leticia Sánchez-Rueda
The immunopathogenesis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) largely remains unknown. We analyzed the immune response to different fractions of Taenia solium cyst fluid antigens in patients with NCC. Lymphocytes were separated from 48 patients with NCC-related active epilepsy and 30 healthy controls. T. solium (isolated from pig muscles) antigens (crude lysate, CL; cyst wall, CW and cyst fluid, CF) at 20 ?g/well concentrations were used to stimulate the cells in a lymphocyte transformation test (LTT). Only CF antigen stimulated cell proliferation significantly greater than control (p<0.001), hence cyst fluid antigens were further studied. The CF antigens were electro-blotted on nitrocellulose membrane (NC), cut at 0.5 cm distance and particulate antigens were prepared. A total of 12 fractions, designated F1 to F12 according to molecular weight were tested in-vitro for LTT. After 72 h of stimulation by the different fractions, Th1 (IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-2) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-10) cytokine responses were determined in culture supernatants by ELISA. Low molecular weight fractions F1 through F4 (Mol. wt.<25 kDa) were found to be potent inducers of cytokines. Fractions F1, F3 and F4 induced the production of Th1 (IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-2), whereas F2 induced the production of Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10) cytokine. The study shows that the low molecular weight fractions of CF antigens are immuno-dominant. Most of these fractions (F1, F3, F4) induce strong Th1 immune response except F2 which induces Th2 response. Further studies are needed to identify the different antigens present in these fractions to determine the molecules responsible for the immune response. PMID:21115005
Amit, Prasad; Prasad, Kashi Nath; Kumar, Gupta Rakesh; Shweta, Tripathi; Sanjeev, Jha; Kumar, Paliwal Vimal; Mukesh, Tripathi
Cysticercosis caused by infection with embryonated eggs of Taenia solium is an important cause of neurological disease worldwide. On the basis of mitochondrial DNA analysis, T. solium is divided into 2 (African/American and Asian) genotypes. Glycoproteins (GPs) in cyst fluid purified from the 2 genotypes of T. solium were characterized and compared with the recombinant chimeric T. solium-Ag1V1/Ag2 protein (Rec-Ag1V1/Ag2) as serodiagnostic antigens. Immunoblot analysis revealed that banding patterns of GPs differed between the 2 genotypes because of posttranslation modification, especially glycosylation. The comparison of native GPs with Rec-Ag1V1/Ag2 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated that there was no statistical difference in sensitivity. In addition, the conservation of the genes encoding Ag1V1 and Ag2 in T. solium worldwide was verified. These results indicate that Rec-Ag1V1/Ag2 has great potential for usefulness in serodiagnosis as an alternative to native antigens. PMID:17109353
Sato, Marcello Otake; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira
Background Serological tests have been used for the diagnosis of Taenia solium infection in pigs. However, those serological results do not necessarily correlate with the actual infection burden after performing pig necropsy. This study aimed to evaluate the Electro Immuno Transfer Blot (EITB) seropositivity with infection burden in naturally infected pigs. Methodology/Principal Findings In an endemic area of Peru, 476 pigs were sampled. Seroprevalence was 60.5±4.5% with a statistically higher proportion of positive older pigs (>8 months) than young pigs. The logistic model showed that pigs >8 month of age were 2.5 times more likely to be EITB-positive than ?8 months. A subset of 84 seropositive pigs were necropsied, with 45.2% (38/84) positive to 1–2 bands, 46.4% (39/84) to 3 bands, and 8.3% (7/84) to 4+ bands. 41 out of 84 positive pigs were negative to necropsy (48.8%) and 43 (51%) had one or more cysts (positive predictive value). Older pigs showed more moderate and heavy infection burdens compared to younger pigs. In general, regardless of the age of the pig, the probability of having more cysts (parasite burden) increases proportionally with the number of EITB bands. Conclusions/Significance The probability of being necropsy-positive increased with the number of bands, and age. Therefore, the EITB is a measure of exposure rather than a test to determine the real prevalence of cysticercosis infection.
Gavidia, Cesar M.; Verastegui, Manuela R.; Garcia, Hector H.; Lopez-Urbina, Teresa; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Pan, William; Gilman, Robert H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.
Fatty acids (FAs) are the main energy sources of living organisms and are the major components of cellular and organelle membranes. Their compositions also affect the flexibility/rigidity of cells and cell vitality. The Taenia solium metacestode (TsM) causes neurocysticercosis (NC), which is one of the most common helminthic infections of the central nerve system. We investigated the FA composition of the cyst fluid (CF) and parenchyma of the TsM, together with those of the granuloma and swine tissue surrounding the granuloma. The FA fractions of the TsM CF and swine tissue showed a composition and proportional contents comparable to each other, in which C18:0 (stearic acid), C18:1n9c (oleic acid), C20:4 (arachidonic acid) and C16:0 (palmitic acid) constituted the major fractions. However, the relative amount of individual FAs of the TsM parenchyma and granuloma differed from those of TsM CF and swine tissue, which contained enriched C16:0 and a lower amount of C20:4. Saturated FAs were the major constituents in parenchyma and granuloma, 50.4% and 46.1%, respectively. Conversely, monounsaturated FAs were the major constituents of CF and swine tissue, 38.7% and 40.3%, respectively. Our results strongly suggest that host-derived FAs might translocate across the parasite syncytial membrane and be stored in the CF. PMID:22971473
Kim, Seon-Hee; Bae, Young-An; Nam, Jin-Sik; Yang, Yichao; Nawa, Yukifumi; Kong, Yoon
Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium frequently affects human health and rustic porciculture. Cysticerci may localize in the central nervous system of humans causing neurocysticercosis, a major health problem in undeveloped countries. Prevalence and intensity of this disease in pigs and humans are related to social factors (poor personal hygiene, low sanitary conditions, rustic rearing of pigs, open fecalism) and possibly to biological factors such as immunity, genetic background, and gender. The indispensable role of pigs as an obligatory intermediate host in the life cycle offers the possibility of interfering with transmission through vaccination of pigs. An effective vaccine based on three synthetic peptides against pig cysticercosis has been successfully developed and proved effective in experimental and field conditions. The well-defined peptides that constitute the cysticercosis vaccine offer the possibility to explore alternative forms of antigen production and delivery systems that may improve the cost/benefit of this and other vaccines. Encouraging results were obtained in attempts to produce large amounts of these peptides and increased its immunogenicity by expression in recombinant filamentous phage (M13), in transgenic plants (carrots and papaya), and associated to bacterial immunogenic carrier proteins. PMID:12234527
Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Manoutcharian, Karen; Gevorkian, Goar; Rosas-Salgado, Gabriela; Hernández-Gonzalez, Marisela; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Cabrera-Ponce, José; López-Casillas, Fernando; González-Bonilla, César; Santiago-Machuca, Araceli; Ruíz-Pérez, Fernando; Sánchez, Joaquín; Goldbaum, Fernando; Aluja, Aline; Larralde, Carlos
Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE) in 1993, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemotherapy of infected pigs. Different drugs have been tested on porcine cysticercosis with varying efficacies. These include flubendazole, fenbendazole, albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, oxfendazole, praziquantel, and nitazoxanide. This review summarises available information on the efficacies and adverse effects shown by these drugs in pigs. Oxfendazole has shown to be effective for the control of porcine cysticercosis; however, it needs to be integrated with other control approaches. There is a need for standardised guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics against porcine cysticercosis, and more efficacy studies are needed since the conclusions so far are based on a limited number of studies using few infected pigs. PMID:23936558
Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Johansen, Maria Vang
The aim of the present study was to analyse Taenia solium metacestode antigens that were derived from the unbound fraction of jacalin affinity chromatography and subsequent tert-octylphenoxy poly (oxyethylene) ethanol Triton X-114 (TX-114) partitioning in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis (NCC). Immunoassays were designed to detect T. solium-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA and immunoblot. Serum samples were collected from 132 individuals who were categorised as follows: 40 had NCC, 62 presented Taenia spp or other parasitic diseases and 30 were healthy individuals. The jacalin-unbound (J unbound ) fraction presented higher sensitivity and specificity rates than the jacalin-bound fraction and only this fraction was subjected to subsequent TX-114 partitioning, resulting in detergent (DJ unbound ) and aqueous (AJ unbound ) fractions. The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were 85% and 84.8% for J unbound , 92.5% and 93.5% for DJ unbound and 82.5% and 82.6% for AJ unbound . By immunoblot, the DJ unbound fraction showed 100% sensitivity and specificity and only serum samples from patients with NCC recognised the 50-70 kDa T. solium-specific components. We conclude that the DJ unbound fraction can serve as a useful tool for the differential immunodiagnosis of NCC by immunoblot. PMID:23778661
Machado, Gleyce Alves; Oliveira, Heliana Batista de; Gennari-Cardoso, Margareth Leitão; Mineo, José Roberto; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria
Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a health threat for humans and pigs living in developing countries, for which there is neither a flawless immunodiagnostic test nor a totally effective vaccine. Suspecting of individual diversity of hosts and parasites as possible sources of the variations of the parasite loads among cysticercotic animals and of the limited success of such immunological applications as well as, we explored and measured both in nine cases of naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis. For this purpose, 2-Dimensional IgG immunoblots were performed by reacting the sera of each cysticercotic pig with the antigens contained in the vesicular fluid (VF) of their own cysticerci. We found an unexpectedly large diversity among the proteins and antigens contained in each of the nine VFs. Also diverse were the serum IgG antibody responses of the nine pigs, as none of their 2D- immunoblot images exhibited the same number of spots and resembled each other in only 6.3% to 65.3% of their features. So large an individual immunological diversity of the cysticercal antigens and of the infected pigs´ IgG antibody response should be taken into account in the design of immunological tools for diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis and should also be considered as a possibly significant source of diversity in Taenia solium´s infectiveness and pathogenicity.
Esquivel-Velazquez, Marcela; Larralde, Carlos; Morales, Julio; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro
The family Taeniidae of tapeworms is composed of two genera, Echinococcus and Taenia, which obligately parasitize mammals including humans. Inferring phylogeny via molecular markers is the only way to trace back their evolutionary histories. However, molecular dating approaches are lacking so far. Here we established new markers from nuclear protein-coding genes for RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and DNA polymerase delta (pold). Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of the concatenated gene sequences allowed us to reconstruct phylogenetic trees for taeniid parasites. The tree topologies clearly demonstrated that Taenia is paraphyletic and that the clade of Echinococcus oligarthrus and Echinococcusvogeli is sister to all other members of Echinococcus. Both species are endemic in Central and South America, and their definitive hosts originated from carnivores that immigrated from North America after the formation of the Panamanian land bridge about 3 million years ago (Ma). A time-calibrated phylogeny was estimated by a Bayesian relaxed-clock method based on the assumption that the most recent common ancestor of E. oligarthrus and E. vogeli existed during the late Pliocene (3.0 Ma). The results suggest that a clade of Taenia including human-pathogenic species diversified primarily in the late Miocene (11.2 Ma), whereas Echinococcus started to diversify later, in the end of the Miocene (5.8 Ma). Close genetic relationships among the members of Echinococcus imply that the genus is a young group in which speciation and global radiation occurred rapidly. PMID:21907295
Knapp, Jenny; Nakao, Minoru; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Okamoto, Munehiro; Saarma, Urmas; Lavikainen, Antti; Ito, Akira
Several reports of patients with cysticercosis from many countries in Asia such as India, China, Indonesia, Thailand, Korea, Taiwan and Nepal are a clear indicator of the wide prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniosis in these and other Asian countries. However, epidemiological data from community based studies are sparse and available only for a few countries in Asia. Cysticercosis is the cause of epilepsy in up to 50% of Indian patients presenting with partial seizures. It is also a major cause of epilepsy in Bali (Indonesia), Vietnam and possibly China and Nepal. Seroprevalence studies indicate high rates of exposure to the parasite in several countries (Vietnam, China, Korea and Bali (Indonesia)) with rates ranging from 0.02 to 12.6%. Rates of taeniosis, as determined by stool examination for ova, have also been reported to range between 0.1 and 6% in the community in India, Vietnam, China, and Bali (Indonesia). An astonishingly high rate of taeniosis of 50% was reported from an area in Nepal populated by pig rearing farmers. In addition to poor sanitation, unhealthy pig rearing practices, low hygienic standards, unusual customs such as consumption of raw pork is an additional factor contributing to the spread of the disease in some communities of Asia. Undoubtedly, cysticercosis is a major public health problem in several Asian countries effecting several million people by not only causing neurological morbidity but also imposing economic hardship on impoverished populations. However, there are wide variations in the prevalence rates in different regions and different socio-economic groups in the same country. It is important to press for the recognition of cysticercosis as one of the major public health problems in Asia that needs to be tackled vigorously by the governments and public health authorities of the region. PMID:12781378
Rajshekhar, Vedantam; Joshi, Durga Dutt; Doanh, Nguyen Quoc; van De, Nguyen; Xiaonong, Zhou
The potential value of PCRs in the species-specific diagnosis of have been investigated, using samples of T. saginata and T. solium from different geographical areas. The PCRs examining inter-species differences were based on the sequence of the HDP2 DNA fragment, specific for T. saginata\\/T. solium, and the sequence of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 and spacer 2 (ITS-1 and
Luis Miguel González; Estrella Montero; Sabino Puente; Rogelio López-Velez; Marisela Hernández; Edda Sciutto; Leslie J. S Harrison; R. Michael E Parkhouse; Teresa Gárate
Diagnosis of Taenia solium cysticercosis is an important component in the control and elimination of cysticercosis and taeniasis. New detection assays using recombinant and synthetic antigens originating from the lentil lectin-purified glycoproteins (LLGPs) of T. solium cysticerci were developed in a QuickELISA™ format. We analyzed a panel of 474 serum samples composed of 108 serum samples from donors with two or more viable cysts, 252 serum samples from persons with other parasitic infections, and 114 serum samples from persons with no documented illnesses. The sensitivities and specificities of T24H QuickELISA™, GP50 QuickELISA™, and Ts18var1 QuickELISA™ were 96.3% and 99.2%, 93.5% and 98.6%, and 89.8% and 96.4%, respectively, for detecting cases with multiple, viable cysts. T24H QuickELISA™ performs best among the three assays, and has sensitivity and specificity values comparable to those of the LLGP enzyme-linked immunosorbent blot. The QuickELISA™ are simple, rapid quantitative methods for detecting antibodies specific for T. solium cysticerci antigens.
Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Handali, Sukwan; Hancock, Kathy; Pattabhi, Sowmya; Kovalenko, Victor A.; Levin, Andrew; Rodriguez, Silvia; Lin, Sehching; Scheel, Christina M.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.
Background Fatty acid (FA) binding proteins (FABPs) of helminths are implicated in acquisition and utilization of host-derived hydrophobic substances, as well as in signaling and cellular interactions. We previously demonstrated that secretory hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs) of Taenia solium metacestode (TsM), a causative agent of neurocysticercosis (NC), shuttle FAs in the surrounding host tissues and inwardly transport the FAs across the parasite syncytial membrane. However, the protein molecules responsible for the intracellular trafficking and assimilation of FAs have remained elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings We isolated two novel TsMFABP genes (TsMFABP1 and TsMFABP2), which encoded 133- and 136-amino acid polypeptides with predicted molecular masses of 14.3 and 14.8 kDa, respectively. They shared 45% sequence identity with each other and 15–95% with other related-members. Homology modeling demonstrated a characteristic ?-barrel composed of 10 anti-parallel ?-strands and two ?-helices. TsMFABP2 harbored two additional loops between ?-strands two and three, and ?-strands six and seven, respectively. TsMFABP1 was secreted into cyst fluid and surrounding environments, whereas TsMFABP2 was intracellularly confined. Partially purified native proteins migrated to 15 kDa with different isoelectric points of 9.2 (TsMFABP1) and 8.4 (TsMFABP2). Both native and recombinant proteins bound to 11-([5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl]amino)undecannoic acid, dansyl-DL-?-amino-caprylic acid, cis-parinaric acid and retinol, which were competitively inhibited by oleic acid. TsMFABP1 exhibited high affinity toward FA analogs. TsMFABPs showed weak binding activity to retinol, but TsMFABP2 showed relatively high affinity. Isolation of two distinct genes from an individual genome strongly suggested their paralogous nature. Abundant expression of TsMFABP1 and TsMFABP2 in the canal region of worm matched well with the histological distributions of lipids and retinol. Conclusions/Significance The divergent biochemical properties, physiological roles and cellular distributions of the TsMFABPs might be one of the critical mechanisms compensating for inadequate de novo FA synthesis. These proteins might exert harmonized or independent roles on lipid assimilation and intracellular signaling. The specialized distribution of retinol in the canal region further implies that cells in this region might differentiate into diverse cell types during metamorphosis into an adult worm. Identification of bioactive systems pertinent to parasitic homeostasis may provide a valuable target for function-related drug design.
Yang, Hyun-Jong; Shin, Joo-Ho; Diaz-Camacho, Sylvia Paz; Nawa, Yukifumi; Kang, Insug; Kong, Yoon
Neurocysticercosis is a widely prevalent disease in the tropics that causes seizures and a variety into of neurological symptoms in most of the world. Experimental models are limited and do not allow assessment of the degree of inflammation around brain cysts. The vital dye Evans Blue (EB) was injected to 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysts to visually identify the extent of disruption of the blood-brain barrier. A total of 369 cysts were recovered from the 11 brains and classified according to the staining of their capsules as blue or unstained. The proportion of cysts with blue capsules was significantly higher in brains from pigs that had received anthelmintic treatment 48 and 120h before the EB infusion, indicating a greater compromise of the blood-brain barrier due to treatment. The model could be useful for understanding the pathology of treatment-induced inflammation in neurocysticercosis. PMID:23684909
Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Balboa, Diana; Orrego, Miguel Ángel; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; García, Hector H; González, Armando E; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E
Albendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used in the treatment of neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with Taenia solium cysts. However, drug levels of its active metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), are erratic, likely resulting in decreased efficacy and suboptimal cure rates in NCC. Racemic albendazole sulfoxide is composed of ABZSO (+)-(R)- and (-)-(S) enantiomers that have been shown to differ in pharmacokinetics and activity against other helminths. The antiparasitic activities of racemic ABZSO and its (+)-(R)- and (-)-(S) enantiomers against T. solium cysts were evaluated in vitro. Parasites were collected from naturally infected pigs, cultured, and exposed to the racemic mixture or to each enantiomer (range, 10 to 500 ng/ml) or to praziquantel as a reference drug. The activity of each compound against cysts was assayed by measuring the ability to evaginate and inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and parasite antigen release. (+)-(R)-ABZSO was significantly more active than (-)-(S)-ABZSO in suppressing the release of AP and antigen into the supernatant in a dose- and time-dependent manner, indicating that most of the activity of ABZSO resides in the (+)-(R) enantiomer. Use of this enantiomer alone may lead to increased efficacy and/or less toxicity compared to albendazole. PMID:23229490
Paredes, Adriana; de Campos Lourenço, Tiago; Marzal, Miguel; Rivera, Andrea; Dorny, Pierre; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E; Cass, Quezia B
Background Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a zoonotic helminth infection mainly found in rural regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. In endemic areas, diagnosis of cysticercosis largely depends on serology, but these methods have their drawbacks and require improvement. This implies better knowledge of the proteins secreted and excreted by the parasite. In a previous study, we used a custom protein database containing protein sequences from related helminths to identify T. solium metacestode excretion/secretion proteins. An alternative or complementary approach would be to use expressed sequence tags combined with BLAST and protein mapping to supercontigs of Echinococcus granulosus, a closely related cestode. In this study, we evaluate this approach and compare the results to those obtained in the previous study. Findings We report 297 proteins organized in 106 protein groups based on homology. Additional classification was done using Gene Ontology information on biological process and molecular function. Of the 106 protein groups, 58 groups were newly identified, while 48 groups confirmed previous findings. Blast2GO analysis revealed that the majority of the proteins were involved in catalytic activities and binding. Conclusions In this study, we used translated expressed sequence tags combined with BLAST and mapping strategies to both confirm and complement previous research. Our findings are comparable to recent studies on other helminth genera like Echinococcus, Schistosoma and Clonorchis, indicating similarities between helminth excretion/secretion proteomes.
Albendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used in the treatment of neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with Taenia solium cysts. However, drug levels of its active metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), are erratic, likely resulting in decreased efficacy and suboptimal cure rates in NCC. Racemic albendazole sulfoxide is composed of ABZSO (+)-(R)- and (?)-(S) enantiomers that have been shown to differ in pharmacokinetics and activity against other helminths. The antiparasitic activities of racemic ABZSO and its (+)-(R)- and (?)-(S) enantiomers against T. solium cysts were evaluated in vitro. Parasites were collected from naturally infected pigs, cultured, and exposed to the racemic mixture or to each enantiomer (range, 10 to 500 ng/ml) or to praziquantel as a reference drug. The activity of each compound against cysts was assayed by measuring the ability to evaginate and inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and parasite antigen release. (+)-(R)-ABZSO was significantly more active than (?)-(S)-ABZSO in suppressing the release of AP and antigen into the supernatant in a dose- and time-dependent manner, indicating that most of the activity of ABZSO resides in the (+)-(R) enantiomer. Use of this enantiomer alone may lead to increased efficacy and/or less toxicity compared to albendazole.
Paredes, Adriana; de Campos Lourenco, Tiago; Marzal, Miguel; Rivera, Andrea; Dorny, Pierre; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Garcia, Hector H.; Cass, Quezia B.
In this paper we discuss, with a new analysis of published data, the phylogenetic hypothesis of two genotypes of Taenia solium previously suggested. Sequences of mitochondrial (co1, cob, nad) and nuclear (18S+ITS1+5.8S, LMWA1 and LMWA2) T. solium DNA from Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Oceania deposited in GenBank international databases were analyzed for diversity and genetic structure. Overall, we found that percentages of polymorphic and informative sites were comparatively less in mitochondrial genes, and minimum or null values of nucleotide diversity and nucleotide polymorphism were also observed. Analysis of co1 populations showed two associations of particular interest: Asia/Latin America and Africa/Latin America; with minimal differentiation between them and a constant genetic flow. Bayesian phylogenetic trees built with the available sequences for co1+cob showed two clusters, one for Asia and another one for Africa/Latin America while with ribosomal sequences only one cluster was obtained that grouped Asian and Latin American populations. The haplotype network tree built using co1+cob showed two major clades, one clustering African and Latin American parasite populations and the other grouping Asian populations, hallmarking Mexican/Peruvian and the Indian populations as dispersion centers, respectively. The haplotype network tree built with ribosomal sequences exhibited Philippines and Peru/Mexico/Colombia as the two major dispersion centers, with several Latin American haplotypes diverging from the latter. Our results suggest that the gene flow within the different T. solium populations has the same dispersion pattern than the main maritime trade routes used between the XV and XIX centuries. PMID:19778639
Martinez-Hernandez, Fernando; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Diego Emiliano; Chenillo, Paola; Alonso-Fernandez, Cristina; Maravilla, Pablo; Flisser, Ana
Taeniasis occurs after ingestion of undercooked pork infected with cysticerci. Most Taenia solium infections are mild; proglottids are rarely noticed in the feces. Cysticercosis develops with ingestion of eggs from a tapeworm carrier. Cysticercosis affects approximately 50 million people worldwide, and is seen mostly in Central and South America, sub-Saharan Africa, India, and Asia. We present a case of an 18-month-old child living in New York, who presented with seizures caused by neurocysticercosis. A family study found a 22-year-old mother, 7 months pregnant, positive for T. solium, which presented a management dilemma. PMID:19706913
Asnis, Deborah; Kazakov, Jordan; Toronjadze, Tamar; Bern, Caryn; Garcia, Hector H; McAuliffe, Isabel; Bishop, Henry; Lee, Lillian; Grossmann, Rami; Garcia, Minerva A; Di John, David
Tapeworms (Cestoda) cause neglected diseases that can be fatal and are difficult to treat, owing to inefficient drugs. Here we present an analysis of tapeworm genome sequences using the human-infective species Echinococcus multilocularis, E. granulosus, Taenia solium and the laboratory model Hymenolepis microstoma as examples. The 115- to 141-megabase genomes offer insights into the evolution of parasitism. Synteny is maintained with distantly related blood flukes but we find extreme losses of genes and pathways that are ubiquitous in other animals, including 34 homeobox families and several determinants of stem cell fate. Tapeworms have specialized detoxification pathways, metabolism that is finely tuned to rely on nutrients scavenged from their hosts, and species-specific expansions of non-canonical heat shock proteins and families of known antigens. We identify new potential drug targets, including some on which existing pharmaceuticals may act. The genomes provide a rich resource to underpin the development of urgently needed treatments and control. PMID:23485966
Tsai, Isheng J; Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Holroyd, Nancy; Garciarrubio, Alejandro; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Brooks, Karen L; Tracey, Alan; Bobes, Raúl J; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Aslett, Martin; Beasley, Helen; Bennett, Hayley M; Cai, Jianping; Camicia, Federico; Clark, Richard; Cucher, Marcela; De Silva, Nishadi; Day, Tim A; Deplazes, Peter; Estrada, Karel; Fernández, Cecilia; Holland, Peter W H; Hou, Junling; Hu, Songnian; Huckvale, Thomas; Hung, Stacy S; Kamenetzky, Laura; Keane, Jacqueline A; Kiss, Ferenc; Koziol, Uriel; Lambert, Olivia; Liu, Kan; Luo, Xuenong; Luo, Yingfeng; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Nichol, Sarah; Paps, Jordi; Parkinson, John; Pouchkina-Stantcheva, Natasha; Riddiford, Nick; Rosenzvit, Mara; Salinas, Gustavo; Wasmuth, James D; Zamanian, Mostafa; Zheng, Yadong; Cai, Xuepeng; Soberón, Xavier; Olson, Peter D; Laclette, Juan P; Brehm, Klaus; Berriman, Matthew
Background Mitochondrial genomes provide a rich source of molecular variation of proven and widespread utility in molecular ecology, population genetics and evolutionary biology. The tapeworm genus Taenia includes a diversity of tapeworm parasites of significant human and veterinary importance. Here we add complete sequences of the mt genomes of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis, to a data set of 4 published mtDNAs in the same genus. Seven complete mt genomes of Taenia species are used to compare and contrast variation within and between genomes in the genus, to estimate a phylogeny for the genus, and to develop novel molecular markers as part of an extended mitochondrial toolkit. Results The complete circular mtDNAs of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis were 13,693, 13,492 and 13,387 bp in size respectively, comprising the usual complement of flatworm genes. Start and stop codons of protein coding genes included those found commonly amongst other platyhelminth mt genomes, but the much rarer initiation codon GTT was inferred for the gene atp6 in T. pisiformis. Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNAs offered novel estimates of the interrelationships of Taenia. Sliding window analyses showed nad6, nad5, atp6, nad3 and nad2 are amongst the most variable of genes per unit length, with the highest peaks in nucleotide diversity found in nad5. New primer pairs capable of amplifying fragments of variable DNA in nad1, rrnS and nad5 genes were designed in silico and tested as possible alternatives to existing mitochondrial markers for Taenia. Conclusions With the availability of complete mtDNAs of 7 Taenia species, we have shown that analysis of amino acids provides a robust estimate of phylogeny for the genus that differs markedly from morphological estimates or those using partial genes; with implications for understanding the evolutionary radiation of important Taenia. Full alignment of the nucleotides of Taenia mtDNAs and sliding window analysis suggests numerous alternative gene regions are likely to capture greater nucleotide variation than those currently pursued as molecular markers. New PCR primers developed from a comparative mitogenomic analysis of Taenia species, extend the use of mitochondrial markers for molecular ecology, population genetics and diagnostics.
PCR-based molecular diagnosis was done for identification of causative agents found in paraffin-embedded specimens that were resected from two suspected neurocysticercosis patients. DNA samples were extracted from tissues or sections and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene and cytochrome b gene were amplified for the detection of taeniid DNA. Two different genes were successfully amplified in both specimens, but the sizes of amplified products seemed to depend on the quality of DNA. Based on the nucleotide sequences of the PCR-amplified genes, the causative agents from two cases were identified as T. solium Asian genotype. When infection with T. solium is not confirmed by histopathological examination, molecular diagnosis will be more useful for definitive diagnosis. PMID:16438197
Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira
Cystic fluid, which has antigenic properties of whole Taenia solium cysticerci, was used to discriminate neurocysticercosis cases and other parasitic infections, especially helminthiases. Twenty-one neurocysticercosis and several kinds of 22 different parasitic infections, including HIV cases (n=234) evaluated a 90.48% sensitivity and 86.32% specificity of indirect ELISA as follows: a low antigen concentration of 5 microg/ml. serum dilution of 1:400, conjugate dilution of 1:2,000 and a cut-off value of 0.349. Eight different helminthic infections (n = 25); echinococcosis (8/10), gnathostomiasis (6/8), strongyloidiasis (5/14), hookworm infection (1/18), angiostrongyliasis (2/25), opisthorchiasis (1/18), onchocercosis (1/3) and toxocariasis (1/6) were cross-reactive with this antigen. No serum antibody from other brain infections in the study gave a reaction with the antigen. In this study, the cystic fluid antigen gave high sensitivity of the test. However, the antigen contains various antigenic molecules able to bind with antibodies from several of the above helminthic sera, especially echinococcosis and gnathostomiasis. In Thailand, gnathostomiasis is one of the more famous tropical diseases but echinococcosis is quite rare. Cystic fluid antigen should be further investigated for its specific finding in diagnosis. PMID:11414454
Dekumyoy, P; Anantaphruti, M T; Nuamtanong, S; Watthanakulpanich, D; Waikagu, J; Danis, M
In the present study, we have determined the growth and development pattern of rostellar hooklets of Taenia solium cysticerci (Zhengzhou and Harbin strains) in three pigs (1 SEM and 2 L-SEM strains) 89-196 days post experimental infection. A total of 3,675 cysticerci were collected from 3 pigs, 3,007 (82%) of 3,675 cysticerci were evaginated by enzyme method. 439 (15%) evaginated cysticerci were carefully examined and measured after dehydration, staining, and mounting on microscopic slides. Among 439 cysticerci, 234 (53%) had pair rostellar hooks, 88 (20%) with unpair hooks, 60 (14%) only small (outer row) hooks, and 57 (13%) no hooks including 34 hooks were completely dropped and 23 no hooks developed. The number ranged from 10 to 17 pairs for pair hooks and 1 to 29 for unpair ones. The length and width of rostallar hooks on the scolex of cysticerci were usually larger in the pig with longer infection time. Moreover, cysticerci with pair and unpair rostellar hooks had only small hooks and no hooks were present on their scolices. However, cysticerci with only large (inner row) hooks were not found. These findings indicate that the growth and development of small hooks precedes that of the large hooks in the formation of the two-row pattern rostellar hook in Cysticercus cellulosae. PMID:11556578
Fan, P C; Chung, W C; Guo, J X; Ma, X Y; Xu, Z J
Objective Neurocysticercosis, an infection with the larval form of the tapeworm, Taeniasolium, is the cause of 29% of epilepsy in endemic regions. Epilepsy in this population is mostly associated with calcified granulomas; at the time of seizure recurrence 50% of those with calcifications demonstrate transient surrounding perilesional edema. Whether edema is consequence of the seizure, or a result of host inflammation directed against parasite antigens or other processes is unknown. To investigate whether perilesional edema is due to inflammation, we imaged a marker of neuroinflammation, translocater protein (TSPO), using positron emission tomography (PET) and the selective ligand 11C-PBR28. Methods In nine patients with perilesional edema, degenerating cyst or both, PET findings were compared to the corresponding magnetic resonance images. Degenerating cysts were also studied because unlike perilesional edema, degenerating cysts are known to have inflammation. In three of the nine patients, changes in 11C-PBR28 binding were also studied over time. 11C-PBR28 binding was compared to the contralateral un-affected region. Results 11C-PBR28 binding increased by a mean of 13% in perilesional edema or degenerating cysts (P = 0·0005, n = 13 in nine patients). Among these 13 lesions, perilesional edema (n=10) showed a slightly smaller increase of 10% compared to the contralateral side (P = 0·005) than the three degenerating cysts. In five lesions with perilesional edema in which repeated measurements of 11C-PBR28 binding were done, increased binding lasted for 2-9 months. Conclusions Increased TSPO in perilesional edema indicates an inflammatory etiology. The long duration of increased TSPO binding after resolution of the original perilesional edema and the pattern of periodic episodes is consistent with intermittent exacerbation from a continued baseline presence of low level inflammation. Novel anti-inflammatory measures may be useful in the prevention or treatment of seizures in this population.
Fujita, Masahiro; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Zoghbi, Sami S.; Ferraris Araneta, Maria Desiree; Hong, Jinsoo; Pike, Victor W.; Innis, Robert B.; Nash, Theodore E.
Synthetic peptide-targeted selection of phage display mimotopes highlights immunogenic features of ?-helical vs non-helical epitopes of Taenia solium paramyosin: Implications for parasite- and host-protective roles of the protein
Paramyosin of the pig-human parasite Taenia solium (TPmy) is a ?-helical protein located on the worm surface that is suggested to fulfill an immunomodulatory role protecting the parasite against host immune system. Besides, in challenging experiments the protein shows a vaccine potential. These observations imply that TPmy harbors antigenic determinants for each of these contrasting actions. However the suggestion was
Karlen G. Gazarian; Carlos F. Solis; Tatiana G. Gazarian; Merrill Rowley; Juan P. Laclette
Cathepsin L-like proteases are secreted by several parasites including Taenia solium. The mechanism used by T. solium oncospheres to degrade and penetrate the intestine and infect the host is incompletely understood. It is assumed that intestinal degradation is driven by the proteolytic activity of enzymes secreted by the oncosphere. Blocking the proteolytic activity by an antibody response would prevent the oncosphere penetration and further infection. Serine and cysteine proteases including chymotrypsin, trypsin, elastase, and cathepsin L, are secreted by T. solium and Taenia saginata oncospheres when cultured in vitro, being potential vaccine candidates. However, the purification of a sufficient quantity of proteases secreted by oncospheres to conduct a vaccine trial is costly and lengthy. A 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like fraction partially purified from T. solium cyst fluid was described previously as an important antigen for immunodiagnostics. In this study we found that this antigen is present in the T. solium oncosphere and is also secreted by the cysticercus. This protein fraction was tested for its ability to protect pigs against an oral challenge with T. solium oncospheres in a vaccine trial. IgG antibodies against the 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like protein fraction were elicited in the vaccinated animals but did not confer protection.
Zimic, Mirko; Pajuelo, Monica; Gilman, Robert H.; Gutierrez, Andres H.; Rueda, Luis D.; Flores, Myra; Chile, Nancy; Verastegui, Manuela; Gonzalez, Armando; Garcia, Hector H.; Sheen, Patricia
Background Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. Sustainable community-based interventions are urgently needed to control transmission of the causative parasite, Taenia solium. We examined the geospatial relationship between live pigs with visible cysticercotic cysts on their tongues and humans with adult intestinal tapeworm infection (taeniasis) in a rural village in northern Peru. The objective was to determine whether tongue-positive pigs could indicate high-risk geographic foci for taeniasis to guide targeted screening efforts. This approach could offer significant benefit compared to mass intervention. Methods We recorded geographic coordinates of all village houses, collected stool samples from all consenting villagers, and collected blood and examined tongues of all village pigs. Stool samples were processed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens indicative of active taeniasis; serum was processed by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot for antibodies against T. solium cysticercosis (EITB LLGP) and T. solium taeniasis (EITB rES33). Findings Of 548 pigs, 256 (46.7%) were positive for antibodies against cysticercosis on EITB LLGP. Of 402 fecal samples, 6 (1.5%) were positive for the presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens. The proportion of coproantigen-positive individuals differed significantly between residents living within 100-meters of a tongue-positive pig (4/79, 5.1%) and residents living >100 meters from a tongue-positive pig (2/323, 0.6%) (p?=?0.02). The prevalence of taeniasis was >8 times higher among residents living within 100 meters of a tongue-positive pig compared to residents living outside this range (adjusted PR 8.1, 95% CI 1.4–47.0). Conclusions Tongue-positive pigs in endemic communities can indicate geospatial foci in which the risk for taeniasis is increased. Targeted screening or presumptive treatment for taeniasis within these high-risk foci may be an effective and practical control intervention for rural endemic areas.
O'Neal, Seth E.; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Diaz, Andre; Rodriguez, Silvia; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.
The TEG-Tsag gene of Taenia saginata is homologous to the genes expressing the two major surface antigens of Echinococcus spp. (EM10 and EG10). Surface antigens of parasites are logical candidates for vaccines, and in this paper we demonstrate\\u000a that cattle vaccinated with the recombinant TEG-Tsag protein, either used singly or in conjunction with the recombinant HP6-Tsag\\u000a protein, the major 18 kDa
Andrea Spickett; Lynne M. Michael; Adriano F. Vatta; Teresa Gárate; Leslie J. S. Harrison; R. Michael E. Parkhouse
Taenia asiatica and T. saginata are frequently confused tapeworms due to their morphological similarities and sympatric distribution in Asian regions. To resolve this problem, a high-resolution multiplex PCR assay was developed to distinguish T. asiatica infections from infection with other human Taenia tapeworms. For molecular characterization, the species specificity of all materials used was confirmed by sequencing of the cox1 gene. Fifty-two samples were analyzed in this study, comprising 20 samples of T. asiatica genomic DNA from China, Korea, and the Philippines; 24 samples of T. saginata from Belgium, Chile, China, Ethiopia, France, Indonesia, Korea, Laos, the Philippines, Poland, Taiwan, Thailand, and Switzerland; and 10 samples of T. solium from Cape Verde, China, Honduras, and Korea. The diagnostic quality of the results obtained using PCR and species-specific primers designed from valine tRNA and NADH genes was equal to that based on the nucleotide sequencing of the cox1 gene. Using oligonucleotide primers Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915, the multiplex PCR assay was useful for the differentially diagnosing T. asiatica, T. saginata, and T. solium based on 706-, 629-, and 474-bp bands. PMID:19017531
Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Chai, Jong-Yil; Kong, Yoon; Waikagul, Jitra; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Rim, Han-Jong; Eom, Keeseon S
The Western blot for cysticercosis, which uses lentil lectin purified glycoprotein (LLGP) antigens extracted from the metacestode of Taenia solium, has been the “gold standard” serodiagnostic assay since it was first described in 1989. We report that the diagnostic antigens at 14, 18, and 21 kDa, as well as some larger disulfide-bonded antigens, are actually all members of a very closely related family of proteins, the 8-kDa antigens. The genes for 18 unique, mature proteins have been identified. Nine of these were chemically synthesized and tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with a battery of defined serum samples, including 32 cysticercosis-positive serum samples reactive with the 8-kDa antigens of LLGP on Western blotting, 34 serum samples from patients with other parasitic infections, and 15 normal human serum samples. One of the 8-kDa antigens, TsRS1, is 100% sensitive and 100% specific. TsRS1 will be one component of a cocktail of three to four synthetic or recombinant antigens, based on the diagnostic bands of the Western blot, which will be used for the serodiagnosis of cysticercosis.
Hancock, Kathy; Khan, Azra; Williams, Fatima B.; Yushak, Melinda L.; Pattabhi, Sowmya; Noh, John; Tsang, Victor C. W.
The low-molecular weight proteins (LMWPs) of Taenia solium metacestode (TsM) constituted pertinent serodiagnostic antigens for cysticercosis. We established a novel single-step purification of the LMWPs from TsM cyst fluid (CF). When the CF was precipitated with trichloroacetic acid/acetone mixture at the final concentrations of 5 and 50%, most LMWPs (ranging 7-38kDa) remained in the supernatant fraction. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblot analyses revealed that the LMWPs consisted mainly with the previously reported subunit proteins of the 120- and 150-kDa antigen complexes. Serum samples from neurocysticercosis (NC) and other helminthic infections, as well as those from healthy controls were tested by both immunoblotting and micro-ELISA. In 135 cases of active stage NC patients, 132 cases (97.7%) showed positive reactions. Serum samples from other helminthic diseases (n=125) and healthy controls (n=100) exhibited no positive reactions except for cystic echinococcosis, of which 12% (3/25 cases) exhibited low levels of cross-reactivity. The LMWPs from different geographical regions (Korea and Mexico) showed diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 97.7% and 98.7% against active stage NC. Our single-step separation method for the LMWPs provided excellent performance with easy applicability and high reproducibility, which has a great benefit for preparation of potent antigen in endemic areas. PMID:20801471
Lee, E-G; Bae, Y-A; Kim, S-H; Díaz-Camacho, S P; Nawa, Y; Kong, Y
The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.
Human neurocysticercosis (NCC), caused by the cestode Taenia solium, is responsible for a significant amount of neurological morbidity and epilepsy in developing countries. The disease remains highly endemic in many areas, despite several efforts and interventions to control it. A simple, cheap and fast diagnostic assay that is suitable for use in field conditions is highly desired. In immunodiagnostics based on western immunoblots or standard ELISA, a cathepsin-L-like protein purified from the cysticercus fluid has previously performed well as an antigen. In a recent study in Peru, the same 53/25-kDa antigen was therefore used in the development of a dot-ELISA that could be employed for mass screenings under field conditions. The assay was standardized and tested not only against sera from a large group of NCC cases but also against sera from patients with other common parasitic infections, so that sensitivity and specificity could be assessed. For NCC, the assay gave better sensitivity in the detection of individuals with extraparenchymal cysts (94.4%–100%) or multiple parenchymal cysts (74.6%–80.0%) than in the detection of individuals with single parenchymal cysts (29.4%–45.1%). The assay also showed a high specificity for NCC (99.0%–100%), with a very low level of cross-reactivity with other parasitic infections. The dot-ELISA developed in this study is a highly specific, simple, cheap and rapid test for NCC that could be used under field conditions, even in the low-resource settings that are common in developing countries.
Pina, Ruby; Gutierrez, Andres H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Rueda, Daniel; Sifuentes, Cecilia; Flores, Myra; Sheen, Patricia; Rodriguez, Silvia; Garcia, Hector H.; Zimic, Mirko
The antigenicity of ether-delipidized Taenia solium metacestode extract (DLPAg) was investigated by IgG-ELISA. The antigen showed higher antigenicity than that of non-delipidized antigen (NDLPAg). Then the DLPAg was subjected to Sephacryl S-200 gel chromatography and a partially purified antigen (DLPP1Ag) was identified as the promised antigen by IgG-ELISA using 25 sera from cysticercosis cases, 177 cases of 24 heterologous infections, and healthy controls. Sensitivity was 52% and specificity was 91.8% at the cut-off value (X + 7SD), 0.399. Cross-reactivity occurred with 17 cases of eight diseases: cystic echinococcosis (7/11), taeniasis (1/16), gnathostomiasis (2/8), strongyloidiasis (1/12), angiostrongyliasis (1/12), paragonimiasis heterotremus (2/15), opisthorchiasis (1/9) and fascioliasis (2/7). When DLPP1Ag was fractionated through Ultra free centrifugal tube (retained 30 kDa) and Amicon (PM10), MWCOP1Ag (<30-10> kDa) was obtained; the antigen showed better results than DLPP1Ag with 88% sensitivity and 95.6% specificity at the cut-off value (X + 4SD), 0.264. Nine cases of six diseases cross-reacted with this antigen: cystic echinococcosis (2/11), gnathostomiasis (2/8), trichinellosis (2/12), toxocariasis (1/5), schistosomiasis (1/6), and fascioliasis (1/7). MWCOP1Ag gave higher sensitivity than that of DLPP1Ag but some cross-reactivity occurred. PMID:15272737
Dekumyoy, Paron; Waikagul, Jitra; Vanijanonta, Sirivan; Thairungroj, Malinee; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Watanabe, Sonoyo; Ito, Akira
Synthetic peptide-targeted selection of phage display mimotopes highlights immunogenic features of ?-helical vs non-helical epitopes of Taenia solium paramyosin: implications for parasite- and host-protective roles of the protein.
Paramyosin of the pig-human parasite Taenia solium (TPmy) is a ?-helical protein located on the worm surface that is suggested to fulfill an immunomodulatory role protecting the parasite against host immune system. Besides, in challenging experiments the protein shows a vaccine potential. These observations imply that TPmy harbors antigenic determinants for each of these contrasting actions. However the suggestion was not given a support from experimental data because respective epitopes have not been described thus far. To circumvent this difficulty, we use synthetic peptides with sequences of regions composed of ?-helical or linear structure to induce rabbit antibody responses for phage-display mapping of epitope core amino-acid sets. Antibodies to ?-helical regions were weak binders and M13 phage-displayed peptides selected by them from two different libraries exhibited no amino-acid similarities with the original protein site. In contrast, the antibodies produced in response to non-helical segment within ?-helical structure were better binders and selectors of perfect structural mimics of the protein site. This first phage display epitope analysis of TPmy supports the notion that the rod-like ?-helix, which encompasses over 90% of the total amino acids, may serve as an immunomodulatory shield that protects the parasite. Further, the seven non-helical segments of the TPmy molecule may represent the only anti-parasite discrete immunogenic epitopes whose representative mimotopes can be utilized in development of pure epitope vaccines. PMID:22015270
Gazarian, Karlen G; Solis, Carlos F; Gazarian, Tatiana G; Rowley, Merrill; Laclette, Juan P
Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with the larval stage of the Taenia solium tapeworm, is responsible for an estimated one-third of adult-onset epilepsy cases in regions of the world where it is endemic. Currently, anthelmintic drugs used for treatment of NCC are only partially effective, and there is, therefore, a pressing need for new therapeutic agents. Discovery of new anthelmintics with activity against T. solium has been limited by the lack of suitable sensitive assays that allow high-throughput screening. Using an in vitro culture system with Taenia crassiceps metacestodes, we demonstrate that changes in secretion of parasite-associated alkaline phosphatase (AP) and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) can be used to detect and quantify anthelmintic effects of praziquantel (PZQ), a drug with activity against T. solium. We applied two enzyme release assays to screen for anti-T. crassiceps activity in nonconventional antiparasitic drugs and demonstrate that nitazoxanide and artesunate induced release of both AP and PGI in differing time- and dose-related patterns. Furthermore, imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor previously reported to have parasiticidal activity against Schistosoma mansoni, also induced release of both AP and PGI in a dose-dependent manner, similar in pattern to that observed with the other anthelmintics. We also evaluated release of ATP into cyst supernatants as an indicator of drug effects but did not see any differences between treated and untreated cysts. These data provide the basis for rapid and quantitative screening assays for testing for anthelmintic activity in candidate anticestode agents. PMID:23229489
Mahanty, Siddhartha; Madrid, Elise M; Nash, Theodore E
Taeniasis is a helminthic infection endemic in southeast Asia, including Taiwan. Recent studies suggest that Asian Taenia is a new subspecies of Taenia saginata and has been renamed as Taenia saginata asiatica. It is usually asymptomatic or associated with only mild gastrointestinal symptoms. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with acute epigastric pain and vomiting. Her levels of amylase and lipase were significantly elevated on admission. Gastrointestinal endoscopy showed proglottids of a tapeworm in the papilla of the duodenum. The epigastric pain subsided and the amylase and lipase levels decreased after removal of the tapeworm by endoscopy and anthelminthic treatment. Although parasites are not an uncommon cause of pancreatitis, especially in disease-endemic areas, it is rare for Taenia to cause acute pancreatitis. PMID:16103608
Liu, Yu-Min; Bair, Ming-Jong; Chang, Wen-Hsiung; Lin, Shee-Chan; Chan, Yu-Jan
Not only Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, but also Taenia asiatica infects humans. The last species is not included in the evaluation of the specificity of the immunodiagnostic techniques for taeniasis/cysticercosis. There is currently no specific immunodiagnostic method for T. asiatica available. Therefore, due to the fact that molecular techniques (the only tool to distinguish the 3 Taenia species) are normally not employed in routine diagnostic methods, the 2 questions concerning T. asiatica (its definite geographic distribution and its ability to cause human cysticercosis), remain open, turning T. asiatica into the most neglected agent of human taeniasis-cysticercosis. PMID:23467406
Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Fuentes, Mario V
Not only Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, but also Taenia asiatica infects humans. The last species is not included in the evaluation of the specificity of the immunodiagnostic techniques for taeniasis/cysticercosis. There is currently no specific immunodiagnostic method for T. asiatica available. Therefore, due to the fact that molecular techniques (the only tool to distinguish the 3 Taenia species) are normally not employed in routine diagnostic methods, the 2 questions concerning T. asiatica (its definite geographic distribution and its ability to cause human cysticercosis), remain open, turning T. asiatica into the most neglected agent of human taeniasis-cysticercosis.
Asian Taenia is a human tapeworm which was first recognized in Taiwan aborigines and subsequently from Asian countries: Korea, Indonesia, Vietnam, and China. It was originally described as T. asiatica Eom and Rim, 1993 based on the morphology in its adult and larval stage. A taxonomic disagreement on whether it is species or subspecies level is mainly due to the morphological similarity of this tapeworm with T. saginata, but a sympatric distribution of these two tapeworms is also known in China. The life cycle is quite distinct from T. saginata in using the pig as intermediate host and parasitizing visceral organs such as liver, lung and omentum. A long unresolved question in Asian countries concerns the inconsistency between worm ratio and the food preferences was clarified with this viscerotropic tapeworm. Molecular biological differentiation is possible with DNA techniques and a complete genome of mtDNA was sequenced recently which may provide a resource for comparative mitochondrial genomics and systematic studies of parasitic cestodes. This is a young parasite discovered most recently with many research questions yet to be clarified. PMID:16387528
Eom, Keeseon S
This study investigated the protective capacity of the recombinant Taenia saginata Tso18 antigen administered as a DNA vaccine in the Taenia crassiceps murine model of cysticercosis. This Tso18 DNA sequence, isolated from a T. saginata oncosphere cDNA library, has homologies with Taenia solium and Echinococcus sp. It was cloned in the pcDNA3.1 plasmid and injected once intramuscularly into mice. Compared to
Gabriela Rosas; Gladis Fragoso; Teresa Garate; Beatriz Hernández; Patricia Ferrero; Mildred Foster-Cuevas; R. Michael E. Parkhouse; Leslie J. S. Harrison; Sergio López Briones; Luis Miguel González; Edda Sciutto
Speciation of Taenia in human stool is important because of their different clinical and epidemiological features. DNA analysis has recently become possible which overcomes the problems of differentiating human taeniid cestodes morphologically. In the present study, we evaluated PCR coupled to restriction fragment length polymorphism to differentiate Taenia solium from Taenia saginata eggs present in fecal samples from naturally infected
Cáris Maroni Nunes; Ana Karina Kerche Dias; Francisca Elda Ferreira Dias; Sérgio Moraes Aoki; Henrique Borges de Paula; Luis Gustavo Ferraz Lima; José Fernando Garcia
The beef tapeworm Taenia saginata infects human beings with symptoms ranging from nausea, abdominal discomfort to digestive disturbances and intestinal blockage. In the present study, microRNA (miRNA) expressing profile in adult T. saginata was analyzed using Solexa deep sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. A total of 15.8 million reads was obtained by Solexa sequencing, and 13.3 million clean reads (1.73 million unique sequences) was obtained after removing reads smaller than 18 nt. Ten conserved miRNAs corresponding to 607,382 reads were found when matching the reads against known miRNAs of Schistosoma japonicum in miRBase database. The miR-71 had the most abundant expression in T. saginata, followed by miR-219-5p, but some other common miRNAs such as let-7, miR-40, and miR-103 were not identified in T. saginata. Nucleotide bias analysis found that the known miRNAs showed high bias and the uracil was the dominant nucleotide, particularly at the first and 11th positions which were almost at the beginning and middle of conserved miRNAs. One novel miRNA (Tsa-miR-001) corresponding to ten precursors was identified and confirmed by stem-loop RT-PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first report of miRNA profiles in T. saginata, which will contribute to better understanding of the complex biology of this zoonotic trematode. The reported data of T. saginata miRNAs should provide valuable references for miRNA studies of closed related zoonotic Taenia cestodes such as Taenia solium and Taenia asiatica. PMID:22203522
Ai, L; Xu, M J; Chen, M X; Zhang, Y N; Chen, S H; Guo, J; Cai, Y C; Zhou, X N; Zhu, X Q; Chen, J X
Most species of the genus Taenia are of considerable medical and veterinary significance. In this study, complete nuclear 18S rRNA gene sequences were obtained from seven members of genus Taenia [Taenia multiceps, Taenia saginata, Taenia asiatica, Taenia solium, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia hydatigena, and Taenia taeniaeformis] and a phylogeny inferred using these sequences. Most of the variable sites fall within the variable regions, V1-V5. We show that sequences from the nuclear 18S ribosomal RNA gene have considerable promise as sources of phylogenetic information within the genus Taenia. Furthermore, given that almost all the variable sites lie within defined variable portions of that gene, it will be appropriate and economical to sequence only those regions for additional species of Taenia. PMID:23183704
Yan, Hongbin; Lou, Zhongzi; Li, Li; Ni, Xingwei; Guo, Aijiang; Li, Hongmin; Zheng, Yadong; Dyachenko, Viktor; Jia, Wanzhong
Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci and tapeworms have the ability to synthesize sex steroid hormones and have a functional 3?-hydroxisteroid dehydrogenase. Corticosteroids (CS) like corticosterone and dexamethasone have been shown to stimulate in vitro estrogen production by Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci. The aim of this work was to study the ability of T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci to synthesize corticosteroids, and the effect of the inhibitor metyrapone on the CS synthesis. For this purpose T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci were obtained from the abdominal cavity of mice, thoroughly washed and pre-incubated in multiwells for 24 h in DMEM plus antibiotics/antimycotics. The tritiated CS precursor progesterone ((3)H-P4) was added to the culture media and parasites cultured for different periods. Blanks containing the culture media plus the (3)H-P4 were simultaneously incubated. Blanks and parasite culture media were ether extracted and analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) in two different solvent systems. Corticosterone production was measured in the culture media by RIA. In some experiments metyrapone (0.1-0.5 mM) was added for 24, 48 or 72 h. Results showed that cysticerci mainly synthesized tritiated 11-deoxy corticosterone (DOC) and small amounts of corticosterone that was also detected by RIA. Small amounts of (3)H-11-deoxy cortisol were also found. Corticosteroid synthesis was time dependent. The addition of metyrapone significantly inhibited tritiated DOC, deoxycortisol and corticosterone synthesis. These results show for the first time that parasites have the capacity to synthesize CS that is modulated by metyrapone. Data suggest that DOC is the main corticosteroid in the parasites. PMID:22321721
Valdez, R A; Hinojosa, L; Gómez, Y; Willms, K; Romano, M C
The effect of 16?-bromoepiandrosterone (EpiBr), a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) analogue, was tested on the cysticerci of Taenia solium, both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro treatment of T. solium cultures with EpiBr reduced scolex evagination, growth, motility, and viability in dose- and time-dependent fashions. Administration of EpiBr prior to infection with T. solium cysticerci in hamsters reduced the number and size of developed taenias in the intestine, compared with controls. These effects were associated to an increase in splenocyte proliferation in infected hamsters. These results leave open the possibility of assessing the potential of this hormonal analogue as a possible antiparasite drug, particularly in cysticercosis and taeniosis. PMID:23509732
Hernández-Bello, Romel; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Cervantes-Rebolledo, Claudia; Dowding, Charles; Frincke, James; Reading, Chris; Morales-Montor, Jorge
In certain Asian countries, a third form of human Taenia, also known as the Asian Taenia, has been discovered. This Asian Taenia seems to be an intermediate between Taenia solium and T. saginata since in morphological terms it is similar to T. saginata, yet biologically, as it uses the same intermediate host (pigs), it is more akin to T. solium. Taenia solium causes human cysticercosis, while T. saginata does not. It is not known whether the Asian taeniid is able to develop to the larval stage in humans or not. The arguments proposed by those authors who consider it unlikely that the Asian Taenia causes human cysticercosis are: (a) its molecular similarities with T. saginata; (b) the absence of cases of human cysticercosis in populations where the Asian adult is highly prevalent; and (c) the unsupporting results derived from an experimental infestation study. These three arguments are debated, although bearing in mind that at present there is still no clear scientific data to support that human cysticercosis can be caused by the Asian Taenia. PMID:10743352
Galán-Puchades, M T; Fuentes, M V
Five Taenia tapeworms collected from humans in Tibetan Plateau, Sichuan, China, where three species of human Taenia are sympatrically endemic, were examined for the mitochondrial cox1 gene and two nuclear genes, ef1 and elp. Phylogenetic analyses of these genes revealed that two adult worms showed nuclear-mitochondrial discordance, suggesting that they originated from hybridization between Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. One of two worms had T. asiatica-type mtDNA, whereas another worm had T. saginata-type mtDNA, indicating that reciprocal hybridization between T. saginata and T. asiatica could occur. The worm having T. asiatica-type mtDNA was heterozygous at both nuclear loci with T. saginata-type alleles and T. asiatica-type alleles. In another worm, the ef1 locus was heterozygous with a T. saginata-type alleles and T. asiatica-type alleles, while the elp locus was homozygous with T. saginata-type alleles. Self-fertilization is the main reproductive method of the genus Taenia. Since self-fertilization represents a type of inbreeding, each locus in the offspring would become homozygous over generations with genetic drift. The fact that some nuclear loci are still heterozygous means that hybridization might have occurred recently. Hybridization between T. asiatica and T. saginata is probably an ongoing event in many areas in which they are sympatrically endemic. PMID:22301089
Yamane, Kanako; Suzuki, Yumi; Tachi, Eiko; Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Nakao, Minoru; Nkouawa, Agathe; Yanagida, Testuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Ito, Akira; Sato, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Munehiro
The taeniasis–cysticercosis complex is a zoonosis of great medical and economic importance where humans play an important role as the carrier of adult stage of Taenia solium and Taenia saginata. This paper describes PCR standardization that can be applied in human fecal samples for taeniasis diagnosis. DNA extraction was achieved with DNAzol reagent, after egg disruption with glass beads. DNA
Cáris Maroni Nunes; Luiz Gustavo Ferraz Lima; Camila Santos Manoel; Rodrigo Norberto Pereira; Mauro Massaharu Nakano; José Fernando Garcia
A ?ZAP-express cDNA library of Taenia saginata metacestodes was constructed. Antibody screening yielded a clone with an insert of 3,408 bp, an open reading frame of 2,589 bp, a deduced sequence of 863 amino acid and a molecular mass of 98.89 kDa. Alignments of the predicted amino acid sequence showed identity with paramyosins from several species: 98.8% with Taenia solium, 96.3% with Echinococcus.granulosus
Elizabeth Ferrer; Eva Moyano; Laura Benitez; Luis Miguel González; Denise Bryce; Mildred Foster-Cuevas; Iris Dávila; Maria Milagros Cortéz; Leslie J. S. Harrison; R. Michael E. Parkhouse; Teresa Gárate
Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland. In total, 135 tapeworms from 72 lynx were subjected to molecular identification based on sequences of 2 mtDNA regions, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes. Available morphological characters of the rostellar hooks and strobila were compared. Two species of Taenia were found: T. laticollis (127 samples) and an unknown Taenia sp. (5 samples). The latter could not be identified to species based on mtDNA, and the rostellar hooks were short relative to those described among other Taenia spp. recorded in felids from the Holarctic region. In the phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences, T. laticollis was placed as a sister species of T. macrocystis, and the unknown Taenia sp. was closely related to T. hydatigena and T. regis. Our analyses suggest that these distinct taeniid tapeworms represent a putative new species of Taenia. The only currently recognized definitive host is L. lynx and the intermediate host is unknown. PMID:23347590
Lavikainen, A; Haukisalmi, V; Deksne, G; Holmala, K; Lejeune, M; Isomursu, M; Jokelainen, P; Näreaho, A; Laakkonen, J; Hoberg, E P; Sukura, A
With the objective of providing inexpensive and reproducible assays for the detection of antibodies indicating exposure to\\u000a Taenia saginata and Taenia solium, we have evaluated the diagnostic utility of the T. saginata oncosphere adhesion protein (HP6-Tsag), expressed in baculovirus (HP6-Bac) and bacteria (HP6-GST [glutathione S-transferase]),\\u000a employing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and sera from T. saginata infected cattle, T. solium infected
Elizabeth Ferrer; Luís Miguel González; José Ángel Martínez-Escribano; María Eugenia González-Barderas; María Milagros Cortéz; Iris Dávila; Leslie J. S. Harrison; R. Michael E. Parkhouse; Teresa Gárate
Serological tests are an important tool for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC), the disease caused by Taenia solium metacestodes. The aim of the present research was to test the application of Taenia saginata metacestodes as an alternative antigen for use in the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent\\u000a assay (ELISA), and Western blotting (WB) tests compared with the metacestodes antigen
Heliana B. Oliveira; Gleyce A. Machado; Dagmar D. Cabral; Julia M. Costa-Cruz
An overview of the epidemiological, biological, and clinical studies of Taenia and taeniasis in Taiwan for the past century is presented. The phenomenal observations that led to the discovery of Taenia asiatica as a new species, which differ from Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, are described. Parasitological surveys of the aborigines in Taiwan revealed a high prevalence of taeniasis, which might be due to the culture of eating raw liver of hunted wild boars. Chemotherapeutic deworming trials involving many patients with taeniasis were discussed. Praziquantel was found to be very effective, but sometimes complete worms could not be recovered from the feces after treatment, probably due to the dissolution of the proglottids. Atabrine, despite some side effects, can still be used, in properly controlled dosages, as the drug of choice for human T. asiatica infection if we need to recover the expelled worms for morphological examinations. Research results on the infection of T. asiatica eggs from Taiwan aborigines in experimental animals were also noted. Since the pig serve as the natural intermediate host of T. asiatica and the predilection site is the liver, a differential comparison of other parasitic pathogens that might cause apparently similar lesions is also presented. PMID:23467308
Ooi, Hong Kean; Ho, Chau-Mei; Chung, Wen-Cheng
An overview of the epidemiological, biological, and clinical studies of Taenia and taeniasis in Taiwan for the past century is presented. The phenomenal observations that led to the discovery of Taenia asiatica as a new species, which differ from Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, are described. Parasitological surveys of the aborigines in Taiwan revealed a high prevalence of taeniasis, which might be due to the culture of eating raw liver of hunted wild boars. Chemotherapeutic deworming trials involving many patients with taeniasis were discussed. Praziquantel was found to be very effective, but sometimes complete worms could not be recovered from the feces after treatment, probably due to the dissolution of the proglottids. Atabrine, despite some side effects, can still be used, in properly controlled dosages, as the drug of choice for human T. asiatica infection if we need to recover the expelled worms for morphological examinations. Research results on the infection of T. asiatica eggs from Taiwan aborigines in experimental animals were also noted. Since the pig serve as the natural intermediate host of T. asiatica and the predilection site is the liver, a differential comparison of other parasitic pathogens that might cause apparently similar lesions is also presented.
Ho, Chau-Mei; Chung, Wen-Cheng
Background Taenia pisiformis is one of the most common intestinal tapeworms and can cause infections in canines. Adult T. pisiformis (canines as definitive hosts) and Cysticercus pisiformis (rabbits as intermediate hosts) cause significant health problems to the host and considerable socio-economic losses as a consequence. No complete genomic data regarding T. pisiformis are currently available in public databases. RNA-seq provides an effective approach to analyze the eukaryotic transcriptome to generate large functional gene datasets that can be used for further studies. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, 2.67 million sequencing clean reads and 72,957 unigenes were generated using the RNA-seq technique. Based on a sequence similarity search with known proteins, a total of 26,012 unigenes (no redundancy) were identified after quality control procedures via the alignment of four databases. Overall, 15,920 unigenes were mapped to 203 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Through analyzing the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and axonal guidance pathways, we achieved an in-depth understanding of the biochemistry of T. pisiformis. Here, we selected four unigenes at random and obtained their full-length cDNA clones using RACE PCR. Functional distribution characteristics were gained through comparing four cestode species (72,957 unigenes of T. pisiformis, 30,700 ESTs of T. solium, 1,058 ESTs of Eg+Em [conserved ESTs between Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis]), with the cluster of orthologous groups (COG) and gene ontology (GO) functional classification systems. Furthermore, the conserved common genes in these four cestode species were obtained and aligned by the KEGG database. Conclusion This study provides an extensive transcriptome dataset obtained from the deep sequencing of T. pisiformis in a non-model whole genome. The identification of conserved genes may provide novel approaches for potential drug targets and vaccinations against cestode infections. Research can now accelerate into the functional genomics, immunity and gene expression profiles of cestode species.
Yang, Deying; Fu, Yan; Wu, Xuhang; Xie, Yue; Nie, Huaming; Chen, Lin; Nong, Xiang; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yan, Ning; Zhang, Runhui; Zheng, Wanpeng; Yang, Guangyou
Cysticerci and tapeworms from Taenia crassiceps WFU, ORF and Taenia solium synthesize sex-steroid hormones in vitro. Corticosteroids increase the 17?-estradiol synthesis by T. crassiceps cysticerci. T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci synthesize corticosteroids, mainly 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC). The aim of this work was to investigate whether classical steroidogenic inhibitors modify the capacity of T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci to synthesize corticosteroids and sex steroid hormones. For this purpose, T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci were obtained from the abdominal cavity of mice, pre-cultured for 24h in DMEM+antibiotics/antimycotics and cultured in the presence of tritiated progesterone ((3)H-P4), androstendione ((3)H-A4), or dehydroepiandrosterone ((3)H-DHEA) plus different doses of the corresponding inhibitors, for different periods. Blanks with the culture media adding the tritiated precursors were simultaneously incubated. At the end of the incubation period, parasites were separated and media extracted with ether. The resulting steroids were separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Data were expressed as percent transformation of the tritiated precursors. Results showed that after 2h of exposure of the cysticerci to 100 ?M formestane, the (3)H-17?-estradiol synthesis from tritiated androstenedione was significantly inhibited. The incubation of cysticerci in the presence of (3)H-DHEA and danazol (100 nM) resulted in (3)H-androstenediol accumulation and a significant reduction of the 17?-estradiol synthesis. The cysticerci (3)H-DOC synthesis was significantly inhibited when the parasites were cultured in the presence of different ketoconazole dosis. The drug treatments did not affect parasite's viability. The results of this study showed that corticosteroid and sex steroid synthesis in T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci can be modified by steroidogenic enzyme inhibitors. As was shown previously by our laboratory and others, parasite survival and development depends on sex steroids, therefore the inhibition of their synthesis is a good starting point exploited in situations where the inhibition of steroidogenesis could help to control the infection for the development of new treatments, or replacement of the usual therapy in resistant parasite infections. We raise the possibility that these drug actions may be beneficially. PMID:23608546
Aceves-Ramos, A; Valdez, R A; Gaona, B; Willms, K; Romano, M C
There has long been a debate as to the specific status of the cestode Taenia asiatica, with some people regarding it as a distinct species and some preferring to recognize it as a strain of Taenia saginata. The balance of current opinion seems to be that T. asiatica is a distinct species. In this study we performed an allelic analysis to explore the possibility of gene exchange between these closely related taxa. In total, 38 taeniid tapeworms were collected from humans living in many localities including Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand where the two species are sympatric. A mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-based multiplex PCR tentatively identified those parasites as T. asiatica (n=20) and T. saginata (n=18). Phylogenetic analyses of a mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene and two nuclear loci, for elongation factor-1 alpha (ef1) and ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM)-like protein (elp), assigned all except two individual parasites to the species indicated by multiplex PCR. The two exceptional individuals, from Kanchanaburi Province, showed a discrepancy between the mtDNA and nuclear DNA phylogenies. In spite of their possession of sequences typical of the T. saginata cox1 gene, both were homozygous at the elp locus for one of the alleles found in T. asiatica. At the ef1 locus, one individual was homozygous for the allele found at high frequency in T. asiatica while the other was homozygous for the major allele in T. saginata. These findings are evidence of occasional hybridization between the two species, although the possibility of retention of ancestral polymorphism cannot be excluded. PMID:19874910
Okamoto, Munehiro; Nakao, Minoru; Blair, David; Anantaphruti, Malinee T; Waikagul, Jitra; Ito, Akira
Bovine cysticercosis causing damage to the beef industry is closely linked to human taeniasis due to Taenia saginata. In African countries, Taenia spp. from wildlife are also involved as possible sources of infections in livestock. To identify the aetiological agents of bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia, cysticerci were collected from 41 cattle slaughtered in the eastern and central areas during 2010-2012. A single cysticercus per animal was subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, and the resultant sequence was compared with those of members of the genus Taenia. Although 38 out of 41 cysticerci (92.7%) were identified as T. saginata, three samples (7.3%) showed the hitherto unknown sequences of Taenia sp., which is distantly related to Taenia solium, Taenia arctos and Taenia ovis. Old literatures suggest it to be Taenia hyaenae, but morphological identification of species could not be completed by observing only the larval samples. PMID:23452760
Hailemariam, Z; Nakao, M; Menkir, S; Lavikainen, A; Iwaki, T; Yanagida, T; Okamoto, M; Ito, A
In an effort to develop an effective and affordable oral vaccine against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis, the S3Pvac anti-cysticercosis vaccine was expressed in papaya calli. Taenia pisiformis experimental rabbit cysticercosis was used as a model to compare the efficacy of the oral vaccine vs. the injectable S3Pvac-synthetic and S3Pvac-phage versions. Oral S3Pvac-papaya significantly reduced the expected number of hepatic lesions and peritoneal cysticerci to a similar extent than the injectable vaccines. This study reports for the first time an effective oral vaccine against T. pisiformis cysticercosis, possibly useful against porcine T. solium cysticercosis. PMID:22349522
Betancourt, Miguel Angel; de Aluja, Aline S; Sciutto, Edda; Hernández, Marisela; Bobes, Raúl J; Rosas, Gabriela; Hernández, Beatriz; Fragoso, Gladis; Hallal-Calleros, Claudia; Aguilar, Liliana; Flores-Peréz, Iván
Cestodes of the genus Taenia occur as adult tapeworms in the small intestine of carnivorous definitive hosts and are transmitted to particular mammalian intermediate hosts, in which they develop as fluid-filled larvae in tissues, causing the disease cysticercosis or coenuriasis. A number of species are of medical importance and\\/or cause losses to the meat and livestock industry mainly due to
Robin B. Gasser; Bronwyn E. Campbell; Aaron R. Jex
... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...
Geographical information of Taenia asiatica is reviewed together with that of T. solium and T. saginata. Current distribution of T. asiatica was found to be mostly from Asian countries: the Republic of Korea, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Thailand. Molecular genotypic techniques have found out more countries with T. asiatica from Japan, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Specimens used in this paper were collected from around the world and mostly during international collaboration projects of Korean foundations for parasite control activities (1995-2009) in developing countries.
Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Rim, Han-Jong
Geographical information of Taenia asiatica is reviewed together with that of T. solium and T. saginata. Current distribution of T. asiatica was found to be mostly from Asian countries: the Republic of Korea, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Thailand. Molecular genotypic techniques have found out more countries with T. asiatica from Japan, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Specimens used in this paper were collected from around the world and mostly during international collaboration projects of Korean foundations for parasite control activities (1995-2009) in developing countries. PMID:19885327
Eom, Keeseon S; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Rim, Han-Jong
Many cestodes are capable of invading the central nervous system (CNS), and several are highly prevalent in the developing world. Neurocysticercosis due to Taenia solium and echinococcosis due to Echinoccocus granulosus are two of the most common parasitic infections affecting humans, but other less well-known parasites can also infect the nervous system. Coenurosis, caused by Taenia spp. such as T. multiceps, T. serialis, or T. brauni; sparganosis, caused by Spirometra spp., and neurocysticercosis caused by T. crassiceps are three less frequent zoonotic conditions that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with CNS infection - especially if they have lived in or traveled through areas where these infections are endemic. Diagnosis of these infections is typically made through a combination of serological testing, histopathology, and neuroimaging. PMID:23829923
Lescano, Andres G; Zunt, Joseph
...2010-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 ...PARTS Â§ 311.24 Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) may be...
...2009-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 ...PARTS Â§ 311.24 Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) may be...
Cysticercosis is caused by the larvae of the pig tapeworm, Tenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare event and is often a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. We report a 12-year-old girl who presented with a single, painless, nodule on the lower lip that was diagnosed as cysticercosis. Current literature on the clinical presentations, investigations, and treatment of the condition has been reviewed in this article. We have also proposed a set of criteria for the diagnosis of oral cysticercosis. PMID:23230370
Krishnamoorthy, Bhuvana; Suma, Gundareddy N; Dhillon, Manu; Srivastava, Siddharth; Sharma, Manisha Lakhanpal; Malik, Sangeeta Singh
Taenia tapeworms of Finnish and Swedish wolves (Canis lupus) and Finnish brown bears (Ursus arctos), and muscle cysticerci of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus), Alaskan Grant's caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) and Alaskan moose (Alces americanus) were identified on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of a 396 bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Two species were found from wolves: Taenia hydatigena and Taenia krabbei. The cysticerci of reindeer, caribou and one moose also represented T. krabbei. Most of the cysticercal specimens from Alaskan moose, however, belonged to an unknown T. krabbei-like species, which had been reported previously from Eurasian elks (Alces alces) from Finland. Strobilate stages from two bears belonged to this species as well. The present results suggest that this novel Taenia sp. has a Holarctic distribution and uses Alces spp. as intermediate and ursids as final hosts. PMID:21571090
Lavikainen, Antti; Laaksonen, Sauli; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Oksanen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Meri, Seppo
In spite of the EU directives that regulate meat inspection for bovine cysticercosis, Taenia saginata is still present in Europe and causes economic losses due to condemnation, refrigeration and downgrading of infected carcasses. The main reasons for this persistence include the low sensitivity of current meat inspection protocols, the dissemination and survival of eggs in the environment and cattle husbandry
P. Dorny; N. Praet
A previously described Taenia saginata HDP2 DNA sequence, a 4-kb polymorphic fragment, was previously used as the basis for developing PCR diagnostic protocols for the species-specific discrimination of T. saginata from T. solium and for the differentiation of T. saginata from T. asiatica. The latter was shown subsequently to lack the required specificity, so we undertook genetic studies of the HDP2 sequence from T. saginata and T. asiatica to determine why, and to develop a novel HDP2-PCR protocol for the simultaneous unambiguous identification of human taeniids. Sequencing and further analysis of the HDP2 DNA fragments of 19 Asiatic isolates of T. saginata and T. asiatica indicated that the HDP2 sequences of both species exhibited clear genomic variability, due to polymorphic variable fragments, that could correspond to the non-transcribed region of ribosomal DNA. This newly observed polymorphism allowed us to develop a novel, reproducible and reliable HDP2-PCR protocol which permitted the simultaneous discrimination of all T. saginata and T. asiatica isolates examined. This species-specific identification was based on, and facilitated by, the clear size difference in amplicon profiles generated: fragments of 1300 bp, 600 bp and 300 bp were produced for T. asiatica, amplicons of 1300 bp and 300 bp being obtained for T. saginata. Control T. solium samples produced one amplicon of 600 bp with the HDP2-PCR protocol. The assay has the potential to prove useful as a diagnostic tool in areas such as South East Asia where T. saginata, T. asiatica and T. solium coexist. PMID:20540755
González, Luis M; Bailo, Begoña; Ferrer, Elizabeth; García, Maria D Fernandez; Harrison, Leslie Js; Parkhouse, Michael Re; McManus, Donald P; Gárate, Teresa
A previously described Taenia saginata HDP2 DNA sequence, a 4-kb polymorphic fragment, was previously used as the basis for developing PCR diagnostic protocols for the species-specific discrimination of T. saginata from T. solium and for the differentiation of T. saginata from T. asiatica. The latter was shown subsequently to lack the required specificity, so we undertook genetic studies of the HDP2 sequence from T. saginata and T. asiatica to determine why, and to develop a novel HDP2-PCR protocol for the simultaneous unambiguous identification of human taeniids. Sequencing and further analysis of the HDP2 DNA fragments of 19 Asiatic isolates of T. saginata and T. asiatica indicated that the HDP2 sequences of both species exhibited clear genomic variability, due to polymorphic variable fragments, that could correspond to the non-transcribed region of ribosomal DNA. This newly observed polymorphism allowed us to develop a novel, reproducible and reliable HDP2-PCR protocol which permitted the simultaneous discrimination of all T. saginata and T. asiatica isolates examined. This species-specific identification was based on, and facilitated by, the clear size difference in amplicon profiles generated: fragments of 1300 bp, 600 bp and 300 bp were produced for T. asiatica, amplicons of 1300 bp and 300 bp being obtained for T. saginata. Control T. solium samples produced one amplicon of 600 bp with the HDP2-PCR protocol. The assay has the potential to prove useful as a diagnostic tool in areas such as South East Asia where T. saginata, T. asiatica and T. solium coexist.
There has long been a debate as to the specific status of the cestode Taenia asiatica, with some people regarding it as a distinct species and some preferring to recognize it as a strain of Taenia saginata. The balance of current opinion seems to be that T. asiatica is a distinct species. In this study we performed an allelic analysis
Munehiro Okamoto; Minoru Nakao; David Blair; Malinee T. Anantaphruti; Jitra Waikagul; Akira Ito
We report herein a new case of teniasis caused by Taenia saginata (tapeworm) in a pediatric patient with done-on-purpose dispersion of proglottids happened in an elementary school inside the health district ASL CN-1. This new case highlights how teniasis in children is not as rare, as it is not so rare dispersal of proglottids in the environmental, made on purpose, by the same subjects that have been parasitized. The environmental dispersion of proglottids is an important public health problem that requires a rapid and joint management of the problem aiming to identify the parasite as quickly as possible, given the different pathogenic larval stage of three species of tapeworm that can infest the man. PMID:21425650
Dutto, M; Sapino, G; Giovanetti, F; Pellegrino, A
Many states ban the importation of fish infested with the Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Treatment with an effective tapeworm parasiticide (one that would eliminate all tapeworms) would allow the shipment of fish that would otherwise be rejected. Extended bath treatments of infected...
Taeniid cestodes infect humans and livestock, causing considerable morbidity and mortality, as well as economic loss. Substantial progress has been made toward the production of recombinant vaccines against cysticercosis in livestock animals. Further development of these vaccines would be aided if a reliable in vitro test were available to measure host-protective immune responses in vaccinated animals. Here, we describe in
Craig T. Kyngdon; Charles G. Gauci; Rick A. Rolfe; Jeanette C. Velásquez Guzmán; Marilú J. Farfán Salazar; Manuela R. Verástegui Pimentel; Armando E. Gonzalez; Hector H. Garcia; Robert H. Gilman; Richard A. Strugnell; Marshall W. Lightowlers
A 46-year-old Japanese man visited our hospital for chronic abdominal pain, persistent diarrhea and discharge of proglottids for 7 years. He had been living in Lao People's Democratic Republic. Ileography using meglumine/diatrizoate sodium (Gastrografin) revealed a long tapeworm. A Taenia saginata including the scolex was excreted through the intestinal tract by the administration of total 780 ml of Gastrografin. Taeniasis is an important disease in the differential diagnosis of imported diseases in Japan. Parasite infection should be suspected in patients with chronic abdominal pain or persistent diarrhea regardless of the findings for small bowel obstruction when there is a history of overseas travel. PMID:22246486
Hirasaki, Shoji; Murakami, Kazutoshi; Mizushima, Takaaki; Hiramatsu, Kazuhisa; Hanayama, Yoshihisa; Kanamori, Tatsuya; Koide, Norio
Since morphological identification of a larval Taeniid in geladas (Theropithecus gelada) has produced inconsistent results, genetic information is pivotal for species identification. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from a coenurus in a wild gelada were compared to published sequences from multiple Taeniid species, confirming the identification of this parasite as Taenia serialis. A demographic analysis finds age to be a strong predictor of coenuri. Tapeworms rarely employ primates as intermediate hosts, and the presence of T. serialis in a wild gelada population may indicate a substantial ecological shift in this parasite's life cycle. PMID:24050944
Schneider-Crease, India A; Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Jarvey, Julie C; Bergman, Thore J
Genomic characterization of the genes encoding the Taenia 18 kDa/HP6 protective antigens was carried out for Taenia saginata and T. asiatica using 42 taeniid isolates comprising 23 samples of T. saginata, 13 samples of T. asiatica and 6 samples of T. solium. The corresponding sequences from all taeniid isolates were PCR-amplified with specific primers and then sequenced. All the genes, and other described taeniid gene homologues, had the same genomic structure. Surprisingly, the T. saginata TSA18 gene showed nucleotide variability within the 23 samples analyzed. This resulted in two distinct genotypes with 96% DNA sequence similarity and deduced amino acid sequences with 21 substitutions, mainly located in the second exon which contains the fibronectin type III domain. In regards to T. asiatica, the 18 kDa gene (TASI18) was very similar to the T. saginata antigen homologues, both at the DNA and deduced amino acid sequence levels, and the TSOL18 gene was conserved among T. solium isolates as previously described. The implications of these findings on the future development of taeniid vaccines are discussed. PMID:21232558
González, Luis M; Ramiro, Raquel; García, Luz; Parkhouse, R Michael E; McManus, Donald P; Gárate, Teresa
Taeniid tapeworms which include Echinococcus and Taenia spp. are obligatory parasites of mammals with pathogenicity usually related to the larval stages of the life cycle. Two species (or genotypes) of Echinococcus, E. granulosus sensu stricto and E. equinus, as well as several Taenia spp. are endemic in the UK. Here we report on the occurrence of larval cystic stages of Echinococcus and Taenia spp. in captive mammals in the UK. Using molecular techniques we have identified E. granulosus (G1 genotype) in a guenon monkey and a Philippine spotted deer; E. equinus in a zebra and a lemur; E. ortleppi in a Philippine spotted deer; E. multilocularis in a macaque monkey and Taenia polyacantha in jumping rats. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of E. multilocularis in a captive primate translocated to the UK. As far as we know these are the first reports of E. equinus in a primate (lemur) and in a zebra; as well as E. granulosus (G1 genotype) and E. ortleppi in a cervid translocated to the UK. These infections and implications of the potential establishment of exotic species of cestodes are discussed. PMID:22763348
Boufana, B; Stidworthy, M F; Bell, S; Chantrey, J; Masters, N; Unwin, S; Wood, R; Lawrence, R P; Potter, A; McGarry, J; Redrobe, S; Killick, R; Foster, A P; Mitchell, S; Greenwood, A G; Sako, Y; Nakao, M; Ito, A; Wyatt, K; Lord, B; Craig, P S
Our work of the last 25 yr was concerned with the development of a vaccine aimed to prevent porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis and was based on cross-reacting Taenia crassiceps antigens that had proved protective against experimental intraperitoneal murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis (EIMTcC). In recent times the efficacy of the vaccine has been considered in need of confirmation, and the use of EIMTcC has been questioned as a valid tool in screening for vaccine candidates among the many antigens possibly involved. A review of our work divided in 2 parts is presented at this point, the first dealing with EIMTcC and the second with porcine T. solium cysticercosis (presented in this issue). Herein, we revise our results using EIMTcC as a measure of the protective capacity of T. crassiceps complex antigen mixtures, of purified native antigens, and of S3Pvac anti-cysticercosis vaccine composed by 3 protective peptides: GK-1, KETc1, and KETc12 either synthetic or recombinantly expressed and collectively or separately, by diverse delivery systems when administered at different doses and by different routes. Statistical analyses of the data lead confidently to the strong inference that S3Pvac is indeed an effective vaccine against EIMTcC via specific and non-specific mechanisms of protection. PMID:23409920
Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Hernández, Marisela; Rosas, Gabriela; Martínez, José J; Fleury, Agnès; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Aluja, Aline; Larralde, Carlos
Tapeworm eggs from the genus Taenia sp. were identified during the study of mummy remains dated to 2,286 ± 28 BP from the Chehrabad salt mine in northwestern Iran. The presence of tapeworm in this salt mine provides paleopathological information. Moreover, it brings new information on ancient diet, indicating the consumption of raw or undercooked meat. Cultural aspects as well as archaeozoological data are discussed in order to try to detail meat consumption. Paleoparasitological data are rare in the Middle East, and this case study presents the first recovery of parasites in ancient Iran. It constitutes the earliest evidence of ancient intestinal parasites in this country and contributes to the knowledge of gastrointestinal pathogens in the Near East. PMID:23240712
Nezamabadi, M; Mashkour, M; Aali, A; Stöllner, Th; Le Bailly, M
The 18S rDNA gene of adult worms of Taenia parva found in Genetta genetta in the Iberian Peninsula and larval stages of T. pisiformis from the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Tenerife (Canary Islands) were amplified and sequenced. The sequences of the 18S rDNA gene of T. parva (1768 bp) and T. pisiformis (1760 bp) are reported for the first time (GenBank accession nos. AJ555167-AJ555168 and AJ555169-AJ555170, respectively). In 168 alignment positions microsatellites in the 18S rDNA of both taxa were detected for the first time (TGC in T. parva and TGCT in T. pisiformis) and differences in their sequences with different repetition numbers were observed. The use of nucleotide sequences of this gene in the resolution of systematic problems in cestodes is discussed with reference to the systematic status of Taenia spp. and mainly in human taeniids such as T. solium, T. saginata, and Asian human isolates of Taenia. PMID:15946391
Foronda, P; Casanova, J C; Martinez, E; Valladares, B; Feliu, C
The current status and species of Taenia sp. were investigated in Midu County by sedimentation method to examine eggs of Taenia sp. in stool, questionnairing as well as deworming by areca-pumpkin seeds in October-December, 2010. The infection rate of Taenia sp. was 15.7% (65/414). Among the positives, it was fairly high in the age groups of 40- and 50-, being 24% (21/85) and 26% (15/57), respectively. 26 cases with positive stool examination and 47 cases with a history of discharging proglottids were treated. Adult worms were collected from all 26 egg positive cases and 23 persons discharging proglottids. The highest number of adult worms expelled was 11 in a woman, 2 worms from another villager, but only one worm each from all other cases. 15 tapeworms with scolex and mature proglottids were examined and morphologically identified as T. asiatia. The high prevalence was related to the residents' dietetic habits (eg. eating raw pork and liver) , behaviour (eg. defecating in field) , and the egg-contaminated environment (eg. by untreated feces). PMID:22908811
Fang, Wen; Liu, Hong-Kun; Li, Ke-Rong; Luo, Hua; Xu, Xin; Chen, Feng; Li, Rong; Liu, Ji-Bing; Huang, Ming-Hao; Li, Su-Mei
A survey of ligulid tapeworms carried out from 1979 through 1985 covered 29 provinces and autonomous regions in China. Of the 25,800 fishes of 219 species that were dissected, fishes of 43 species were found to serve as second intermediate hosts. These tapeworms inflict heavy losses on freshwater commercial fisheries. Their distribution indicates 3 distinct major zones: the Qing Zang Gaoyuan is dominated by Ligula; the rest of China, with the exception of a crescent area in Guangdong Province bordering part of the southern coast down to Hainan Island, is dominated by Digramma; and a saddle-shaped corridor, north of 42 degrees N latitude, is characterized by a mix of both genera. Schizothoracinae are the primary hosts for Ligula, of which only Gymnocypris przewalskii przewalskii (Kessler) has economic value. Digramma is predominant in Carassius auratus auratus L. in reservoirs and lakes of 3 main water systems, Heilongjiang, Huang He (the Yellow River), and Chang Jiang (the Yangtze River), and in cultured cyprinids along the lower section of Huang He as well as in bodies of water on the Loess Plateau. Generic validity of ligulids and host specificity, their infection and periodicity, and control methods are discussed. PMID:3572664
Liao, X H; Liang, Z X
The results of a preliminary survey of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Yajiang County, Ganze Tibetan Prefecture in southwest Sichuan Province, China, indicated a very high prevalence of taeniasis (22.5%), with Taenia saginata as the dominant species. There was also a significant occurrence of late-onset epilepsy (8.5% prevalence and 16.4% seropositive for Taenia solium antibodies) attributable in large part to probable neurocysticercosis caused by T. solium. The poor sanitation and hygiene in this Tibetan community likely contributed to a high risk of human cysticercosis despite a low level of T. solium taeniasis (actually no T. solium carriers were detected amongst the 21 proven Taenia carriers). In addition, three taeniasis cases were confirmed by DNA genotyping as Taenia asiatica, which is the first report of this tapeworm in Tibetans, the first report for Sichuan Province and only the third report for mainland China. PMID:17166477
Li, Tiaoying; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira; Chen, Xingwang; Qiu, Dongchuan; Qiu, Jiamin; Sato, Marcello O; Wandra, Toni; Bradshaw, Helen; Li, Li; Yang, Yun; Wang, Qian
The tapeworms of the family Ligulidae are of great significance for the fishing industry. In the larval, plerocercoid, phase they are widespread and dangerous parasites of many fish, primarily carp (Cyprinidae), causing massive epizootic ligulosis and res...
M. N. Dubinina
Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium cysticerci were produced and showed cross-reactivity with a 14-kDa protein from T. solium and with 18- and 14-kDa proteins from T. crassiceps. These MAbs and antibodies from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as well as serum samples from patients with neurocysticercosis (NC) reacted with 18- and 14-kDa T. crassiceps proteins purified by immunoaffinity chromatography using a Sepharose column coupled with MAbs (anti-excretory/secretory or anti-vesicular fluid antigens). Immunoaffinity-purified 18- and 14-kDa proteins were used in the design of a diagnostic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies in 23 CSF and 20 serum samples from patients with NC, showing 100% sensitivity. The test specificity was determined using 42 noninflammatory CSF samples and 70 inflammatory CSF samples from patients with other neurological disorders (OND), showing 100% and 99.1% (confidence interval, 97.3% to 100%) specificity, respectively. A false-positive CSF sample result in the OND group was from a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient with meningoencephalitis. By using serum samples from 194 healthy individuals, the specificity was 100%. Analysis of an additional 16 serum samples from individuals with other parasitic diseases (13 with intestinal parasitosis and 3 with schistosomiasis) showed negative results. Three (10%) serum samples from patients with hydatidosis were positive in our ELISA and in ELISA with T. solium cysticerci antigens. Two of them were also positive by immunoblotting. The use of 18- and 14-kDa T. crassiceps immunoaffinity-purified proteins for detection of anti-cysticercus antibodies in CSF and/or serum samples using an ELISA system showed a good performance and high specificity for serum samples, dispensing with the use of confirmatory tests, such as immunoblotting, for checking specificity.
Espindola, Noeli Maria; Iha, Alberto Hiroshi; Fernandes, Irene; Takayanagui, Osvaldo Massaiti; Machado, Luis dos Ramos; Livramento, Jose Antonio; Mendes Maia, Antonio Augusto; Peralta, Jose Mauro; Vaz, Adelaide Jose
Parasitic infestations of the galdbladder and biliary tract are quite rare. Taenia saginata is an intestinal helmint and patients harbouring adult T.saginata tapeworms are mostly asymptomatic and discharge only fecal proglottids. In some cases there might be nonspecific symptoms like vomiting, nausea, epigastric pain, diarrhea and weight loss. Tenia saginata is a also rare cause of ileus, pancreatitis, cholecystitis and cholangitis. We report a case of acute cholangitis caused by T. saginata presenting with fever, nausea, vomiting, jaundice and right upper quadrant pain. Although parasites are not an uncommon cause of cholangitis especially in diseaseendemic areas like the Far East, this is not true for T. saginata causing acute cholangitis. PMID:23340150
Uygur-Bayramiçli, O; Ak, O; Dabak, R; Demirhan, G; Ozer, S
Factors Associated With Occurrence of Cysticercosis Among Wamena People's, at Jayawijaya District, Papua Province, In 2002. Cysticercosis is a disease caused by the larva of Taenia solium, the pig tapeworm, whereas taeniasis solium is caused by the adult worm, which lives in the small human intestines. The prevalence of taeniasis\\/cysticercosis in Indonesia varies from 1.0% to 42.7% and until now
Wilfried H. Purba; Tri Yunis; Miko W; Akira Ito; Abdulbar Hamid; Rizal Subahar; Sri S. Margono
The polyphyletic nature of the tapeworm order Tetraphyllidea Carus, 1863 is addressed in part with the establishment of the new order Rhinebothriidea for a subset of the taxa formerly comprising the phyllobothriid subfamily Rhinebothriinae (Platyhelminthes: Eucestoda). Support for the order comes from Bayesian, maximum likelihood, and parsimony analyses of complete ssrDNA and partial (D1-D3) lsrDNA sequence data for 58 cestode species. These data consisted of novel data generated for 40 species in 15 genera of candidate rhinebothriines and the cathetocephalidean species Sanguilevator yearsleyi as well as comparable data taken from GenBank for an additional 18 cestode species in 17 genera. In total, the species analyzed consisted of two Cathetocephalidea, two Litobothriidea, two Lecanicephalidea, three Proteocephalidea, and 49 Tetraphyllidea. The tetraphyllideans consisted of three Onchobothriidae, three Serendipidae, and 43 Phyllobothriidae (one Thysanocephalinae, one Echeneibothriinae, five Phyllobothriinae, 35 candidate Rhinebothriinae and the poorly known Spongiobothrium). This work suggests that some elements of current membership in the group are in need of revision. For example, while inclusion of the echeneibothriine genus Echeneibothrium and the phyllobothriine genera Rhodobothrium and Anthocephalum, and also Spongiobothrium, in the Rhinebothriidea is supported, inclusion of Duplicibothrium and Caulobothrium in the new order is not. Histological sections and scanning electron microscopy of selected members of the study group suggest that the presence of bothridial stalks may serve as an effective morphological feature to characterise the order. The group is restricted to elasmobranchs, and appears to have a particular affinity for Myliobatiformes. The new order includes at least 13 genera. Intraordinal relationships were determined to be insufficiently stable to justify the formal reorganization of rhinebothriidean families at this time. PMID:18929566
Healy, Claire J; Caira, Janine N; Jensen, Kirsten; Webster, Bonnie L; Littlewood, D Timothy J
...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS Â§ 311.23 Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle...Carcasses of cattle showing one or more tapeworm lesions of cysticercus bovis but...
...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS Â§ 311.23 Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle...Carcasses of cattle showing one or more tapeworm lesions of cysticercus bovis but...
The Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus achelognathii is an intestinal fish parasite that is nonnative to but widespread throughout the southwestern United States. Praziquantel is an anthelminthic drug commonly used to treat fish for Asian tapeworm; however, it does not kill tapeworm eggs, so the water in ponds used for fish rearing must be exchanged after treatment. Our objective was to determine
Alison C. Iles; Thomas P. Archdeacon; Scott A. Bonar
We conducted a differential identification of Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata, through the mapping of mitochondrial genomes and the sequencing of the cox1 and cob genes. The entire mitochondrial genomes of T. asiatica and T. saginata were amplified by long-extension PCR and cloned; each was approximately 14kb in size. Restriction maps of T. asiatica and T. saginata mitochondrial genomes were
H. K. Jeon; K. S. Eom
The book presents studies on tapeworms of the genus Triaenophorus, which in the adult phase parasitize primarily species of the genus Esox (pike), and in the plerocercoid phase parasitize many species of different fish groups. All the species of the genus...
B. I. Kuperman
For the first time, a palaeoparasitological study was performed on 12 mummies from a Christian cemetery excavated in El-Deir, Oasis of Kharga, Egypt. The analysis revealed the presence of a tapeworm, probably Taenia sp., in a single individual. The presence of just the presumed taeniid egg is surprising and raises the question of the relationship between residents of Egyptian oases and those residing in the Nile Valley. The result suggests information on the health status of the ancient oasis population and re-enforces a hypothesis regarding possible social stratification of the inhabitants. The work must be continued if we are to acquire additional knowledge dealing with life in ancient Egyptian oases. PMID:19681649
Le Bailly, Matthieu; Mouze, Sidonie; da Rocha, Gino Chaves; Heim, Jean-Louis; Lichtenberg, Roger; Dunand, Françoise; Bouchet, Françoise
We have shown previously that cultured Taenia crassiceps Wake Forest University (WFU) and Taenia solium cysticerci, as well as the adult worms, synthesize sex steroid hormones from [3H]steroid precursors and that androgens and oestrogens influence the in vitro development of the parasites. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are used to control the inflammation caused by T. solium cysticerci in the brain. These steroids stimulate oestrogen synthesis in several tissues. Since there is no information on the effect of GC on the endocrine function of cysticerci, we investigated the effect of natural and synthetic GCs on the synthesis of oestrogens in cultured T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci. The cysticerci were obtained from the peritoneal cavity of infected female BALB/c mice; the cysts were washed extensively and pre-cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) plus antibiotics for 5 days. The parasites were further cultured with different doses of corticosterone, dexamethasone or the vehicle for 5 days. [3H]Dehydroepiandrosterone (3H-DHEA) was added to the media and the cysticerci were further incubated for 6 or 24 h. Media were then removed and the steroids ether-extracted. Aliquots of the media were seeded on silica gel plates and developed in solvent systems. Parasites incubated in the presence of 3H-DHEA synthesized [3H]androstenediol, [3H]testosterone and [3H]17?-oestradiol ([3H]17?-E2). The addition of 100 nm or higher corticosterone doses to the media increased [3H]17?-E2 synthesis fourfold after 24 h. Dexamethasone also increased [3H]17?-E2 synthesis. The experiments presented here show for the first time that corticosterone and the synthetic GC dexamethasone modulate the synthesis of oestrogens by cysticerci. PMID:22152276
Hinojosa, L; Valdez, R A; Salvador, V; Rodríguez, A G; Willms, K; Romano, M C
New multiplex-PCR and PCR-linked restriction fragment length polymorphism protocols, derived from Taenia saginata HDP2 DNA sequence (AccN#AJ133740), have been designed that allow the simultaneous and specific identification of T. saginata and Taenia saginata asiatica. Proglottids expelled from 20 different Spanish taeniasis patients, previously diagnosed as T. saginata by both morphological identification and multiplex HDP2-PCR, were also examined by the newly
Luis Miguel González; Estrella Montero; Nimit Morakote; Sabino Puente; Jose Luis Díaz De Tuesta; Teresa Serra; Rogelio López-Velez; Donald P McManus; Leslie J. S Harrison; R. Michael E Parkhouse; Teresa Gárate
A base-line survey was carried out on the transmission dynamics of Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis in sheep in the Department of Florida, Uruguay. Mean life expectancy at birth of the sheep population in this Department was estimated at 3.5 and 4.8 years for male and female sheep, respectively. Both intensity and prevalence of E. granulosus infection increased
P. A. Cabrera; G. Haran; U. Benavidez; S. Valledor; G. Perera; S. Lloyd; M. A. Gemmell; M. Baraibar; A. Morana; J. Maissonave; M. Carballo
Identification of species of human tapeworms is crucial because the consequences of infection by Taenia solium and T saginata are very different. However, evacuation of species-identifiable tapeworms is uncommon and Taenia spp eggs are indistinguishable under the microscope. Treatment of taeniasis consists of niclosamide followed by a purgative. Recently, we adopted preniclosamide and postniclosamide electrolyte-polyethyleneglycol salt (EPS) purges to improve bowel cleaning. Retrospective comparison of traditional castor oil with EPS purge showed that recovery of the tapeworm scolex was significantly improved (20 of 68 vs none of 46, p=0.0001) in the EPS group. Furthermore, 42 of 68 (62%) individuals receiving EPS excreted identifiable gravid proglottids. EPS treatment helps the visual identification of Taenia spp. PMID:15043964
Jeri, Cesar; Gilman, Robert H; Lescano, Andres G; Mayta, Holger; Ramirez, Maria E; Gonzalez, Armando E; Nazerali, Rahim; Garcia, Hector H
The metacestode stage of the tapeworm, Taenia ovis, causes cystic lesions in the skeletal and cardiac muscle of sheep, which can result in the condemnation of the entire carcass. In recent years, Canadian farms have seen a marked increase in the number of condemnations due to T. ovis. Mathematical transmission models provide a useful tool for predicting parasite transmission and for evaluating the efficacy of potential control options. To date, no model has been developed exclusively for T. ovis. In the work described here, a compartmental, deterministic transmission model was developed to better understand the transmission dynamics of T. ovis on Canadian sheep farms. The model was intended to be practical, and represent the transmission of infection burdens in lambs that result in carcass condemnation, or transmission to canids. All transmission parameters were obtained from the literature or, when unavailable, expert opinion. The model incorporated each stage of the parasite lifecycle using the most probable transmission route on Canadian sheep farms; including definitive host (guard dogs), intermediate host (pastured lambs), and environment. Based on literature, the model performed as expected, and provided a reasonable estimate of parasite prevalence in lambs. In addition, modeling allowed the efficacy of potential control options to be evaluated and compared. Model simulations suggested that infection risk in market lambs could be eliminated through the regular treatment of guardian dogs every fifth week with an appropriate cestocide, or through eliminating carcass consumption by guardian dogs. PMID:23993638
Dewolf, Bradley D; Poljak, Zvonimir; Peregrine, Andrew S; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Jansen, Jocelyn T; Menzies, Paula I
Neurocysticercosis is the most frequent parasitic infection of the CNS and the main cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide.\\u000a Seizures are the most common symptoms of the disease, together with headache, involuntary movements, psychosis and a global\\u000a mental deterioration. Absolute diagnostic criteria include the identification of cysticerci, with scolex, in the brain by\\u000a MRI imaging. We demonstrate here, for the first
Carolina R. Almeida; Elida P. Ojopi; Cáris M. Nunes; Luis R. Machado; Osvaldo M. Takayanagui; José A. Livramento; Ronaldo Abraham; Wagner F. Gattaz; Adelaide J. Vaz; Emmanuel Dias-Neto
The present invention is directed to a method for diagnosing active human neurocysticercosis utilizing an immunoblot assay which comprises: detecting the presence of antibodies in the serum or cerebrospinal fluid of a human to be diagnosed, wherein said a...
V. C. W. Tsang J. A. Brand A. E. Boyer M. Wilson P. M. Schantz
We report a case of biliary peritonitis caused by gall bladder perforation due to Taenia saginata induced gangrenous cholecystitis. Although parasites are not unusual causes of biliary tract disorders, especially in disease endemic areas, but this is for the first time that Taenia saginata has been reported to cause gall bladder perforation. PMID:22792505
Hakeem, Suhail Yaqoob; Rashid, Arshad; Khuroo, Suhail; Bali, Rajandeep Singh
We report a case of biliary peritonitis caused by gall bladder perforation due to Taenia saginata induced gangrenous cholecystitis. Although parasites are not unusual causes of biliary tract disorders, especially in disease endemic areas, but this is for the first time that Taenia saginata has been reported to cause gall bladder perforation.
Hakeem, Suhail Yaqoob; Rashid, Arshad; Khuroo, Suhail; Bali, Rajandeep Singh
Cystic echinococcosis (hydatid disease), caused by the tapeworm E. granulosus, is responsible for considerable human morbidity and mortality. This cosmopolitan disease is difficult to diagnose, treat and control. We present a draft genomic sequence for the worm comprising 151.6 Mb encoding 11,325 genes. Comparisons with the genome sequences from other taxa show that E. granulosus has acquired a spectrum of genes, including the EgAgB family, whose products are secreted by the parasite to interact and redirect host immune responses. We also find that genes in bile salt pathways may control the bidirectional development of E. granulosus, and sequence differences in the calcium channel subunit EgCav?1 may be associated with praziquantel sensitivity. Our study offers insights into host interaction, nutrient acquisition, strobilization, reproduction, immune evasion and maturation in the parasite and provides a platform to facilitate the development of new, effective treatments and interventions for echinococcosis control. PMID:24013640
Zheng, Huajun; Zhang, Wenbao; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Li, Jun; Lu, Gang; Zhu, Yongqiang; Wang, Yuezhu; Huang, Yin; Liu, Jing; Kang, Hui; Chen, Jie; Wang, Lijun; Chen, Aojun; Yu, Shuting; Gao, Zhengchao; Jin, Lei; Gu, Wenyi; Wang, Zhiqin; Zhao, Li; Shi, Baoxin; Wen, Hao; Lin, Renyong; Jones, Malcolm K; Brejova, Brona; Vinar, Tomas; Zhao, Guoping; McManus, Donald P; Chen, Zhu; Zhou, Yan; Wang, Shengyue
Human taeniasis was investigated in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) between 2000 and 2011 as part of the nation's helminthiasis survey. A total of 55,038 inhabitants, including 29,846 school children, were examined using the Kato-Katz and scotch-tape anal swab method, and morphological observation of adult worms. Molecular identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed by multiplex PCR or DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. Taenia eggs were present at a rate of 1.5% (845/55,038) in the subject population. Adult tapeworms were identified as T. solium or T. saginata by analyzing the collectable stool specimens (n=126). Three specimens identified as T. solium were found in Luang Prabang, while the remaining 123 specimens, which were T. saginata, were found in Bokeo, Bolikhamxay, Champasak, Houaphan, Khammouane, Luang Namta, Luang Prabang, Oudomxay, Phongsaly, Saysomboune, Saravane, Savannakhet, Xayaboury, Xekong, Xieng Khouang Province, and Vientiane Municipality. PMID:23710098
Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Yun, Cheong-Ha; Rim, Han-Jong; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Banouvong, Virasack; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay; Eom, Keeseon S
Human taeniasis was investigated in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) between 2000 and 2011 as part of the nation's helminthiasis survey. A total of 55,038 inhabitants, including 29,846 school children, were examined using the Kato-Katz and scotch-tape anal swab method, and morphological observation of adult worms. Molecular identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed by multiplex PCR or DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. Taenia eggs were present at a rate of 1.5% (845/55,038) in the subject population. Adult tapeworms were identified as T. solium or T. saginata by analyzing the collectable stool specimens (n=126). Three specimens identified as T. solium were found in Luang Prabang, while the remaining 123 specimens, which were T. saginata, were found in Bokeo, Bolikhamxay, Champasak, Houaphan, Khammouane, Luang Namta, Luang Prabang, Oudomxay, Phongsaly, Saysomboune, Saravane, Savannakhet, Xayaboury, Xekong, Xieng Khouang Province, and Vientiane Municipality.
Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Yun, Cheong-Ha; Rim, Han-Jong; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Banouvong, Virasack; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay
Taenia saginata metacestode antigens have been constituted a useful alternative antigen for neurocysticercosis (NC) serodiagnosis, particularly due to an increasing difficulty to obtain Taenia solium homologous antigen. Cross-reactivity with Echinococcus granulosus infection occurs in homologous and heterologous antigens and could be avoided by using different purified methods. The present study evaluated antigen fractions obtained from saline extracts of T. saginata metacestodes purified by affinity chromatography with jacalin or concanavalin A (ConA) lectins to detect IgG antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot analysis to diagnose human NC. Serum samples were collected from 142 individuals: 40 of them were diagnosed with NC, 62 presented Taenia sp. and other parasites, and 40 were apparently healthy individuals. The jacalin- and ConA-unbound fractions demonstrated sensitivity and specificity higher than those of bound fractions. Among unbound fractions, ConA demonstrated statistically higher sensitivity and specificity by ELISA (90% and 93.1%, respectively). By immunoblot assay, the 64- to 68-kDa component from the ConA-unbound fraction showed 100% sensitivity and specificity, making this component suitable for use as a specific antigen for diagnosis of NC. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the relevance of using the unbound ConA fraction of T. saginata metacestodes to diagnose NC. In conclusion, the results obtained herein clearly demonstrate that antigenic fractions without affinity to ConA, obtained from T. saginata metacestodes, are an important source of specific peptides and are efficient in the diagnosis of NC when tested by immunoblot assay. PMID:20130125
Oliveira, Heliana B; Machado, Gleyce A; Mineo, José R; Costa-Cruz, Julia M
Taenia saginata metacestode antigens have been constituted a useful alternative antigen for neurocysticercosis (NC) serodiagnosis, particularly due to an increasing difficulty to obtain Taenia solium homologous antigen. Cross-reactivity with Echinococcus granulosus infection occurs in homologous and heterologous antigens and could be avoided by using different purified methods. The present study evaluated antigen fractions obtained from saline extracts of T. saginata metacestodes purified by affinity chromatography with jacalin or concanavalin A (ConA) lectins to detect IgG antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot analysis to diagnose human NC. Serum samples were collected from 142 individuals: 40 of them were diagnosed with NC, 62 presented Taenia sp. and other parasites, and 40 were apparently healthy individuals. The jacalin- and ConA-unbound fractions demonstrated sensitivity and specificity higher than those of bound fractions. Among unbound fractions, ConA demonstrated statistically higher sensitivity and specificity by ELISA (90% and 93.1%, respectively). By immunoblot assay, the 64- to 68-kDa component from the ConA-unbound fraction showed 100% sensitivity and specificity, making this component suitable for use as a specific antigen for diagnosis of NC. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the relevance of using the unbound ConA fraction of T. saginata metacestodes to diagnose NC. In conclusion, the results obtained herein clearly demonstrate that antigenic fractions without affinity to ConA, obtained from T. saginata metacestodes, are an important source of specific peptides and are efficient in the diagnosis of NC when tested by immunoblot assay.
Oliveira, Heliana B.; Machado, Gleyce A.; Mineo, Jose R.; Costa-Cruz, Julia M.
Human neurocysticercosis (NC) caused by Taenia solium is a parasitic disease of the central nervous system that is endemic in many developing countries. In this study, a genetic approach using the murine intraperitoneal cysticercosis caused by the related cestode Taenia crassiceps was employed to identify host factors that regulate the establishment and proliferation of the parasite. A/J mice are permissive to T. crassiceps infection while C57BL/6J mice (B6) are comparatively restrictive, with a 10-fold difference in numbers of peritoneal cysticerci recovered 30 days after infection. The genetic basis of this inter-strain difference was explored using 34 AcB/BcA recombinant congenic strains derived from A/J and B6 progenitors, that were phenotyped for T. crassiceps replication. In agreement with their genetic background, most AcB strains (A/J-derived) were found to be permissive to infection while most BcA strains (B6-derived) were restrictive with the exception of a few discordant strains, together suggesting a possible simple genetic control. Initial haplotype association mapping using >1200 informative SNPs pointed to linkages on chromosomes 2 (proximal) and 6 as controlling parasite replication in the AcB/BcA panel. Additional linkage analysis by genome scan in informative [AcB55xDBA/2]F1 and F2 mice (derived from the discordant AcB55 strain), confirmed the effect of chromosome 2 on parasite replication, and further delineated a major locus (LOD = 4.76, p<0.01; peak marker D2Mit295, 29.7 Mb) that we designate Tccr1 (T. crassiceps cysticercosis restrictive locus 1). Resistance alleles at Tccr1 are derived from AcB55 and are inherited in a dominant fashion. Scrutiny of the minimal genetic interval reveals overlap of Tccr1 with other host resistance loci mapped to this region, most notably the defective Hc/C5 allele which segregates both in the AcB/BcA set and in the AcB55xDBA/2 cross. These results strongly suggest that the complement component 5 (C5) plays a critical role in early protective inflammatory response to infection with T. crassiceps. PMID:22206032
Ramirez-Aquino, Ruben; Radovanovic, Irena; Fortin, Anny; Sciutto-Conde, Edda; Fragoso-González, Gladis; Gros, Philippe; Aguilar-Delfin, Irma
Human neurocysticercosis (NC) caused by Taenia solium is a parasitic disease of the central nervous system that is endemic in many developing countries. In this study, a genetic approach using the murine intraperitoneal cysticercosis caused by the related cestode Taenia crassiceps was employed to identify host factors that regulate the establishment and proliferation of the parasite. A/J mice are permissive to T. crassiceps infection while C57BL/6J mice (B6) are comparatively restrictive, with a 10-fold difference in numbers of peritoneal cysticerci recovered 30 days after infection. The genetic basis of this inter-strain difference was explored using 34 AcB/BcA recombinant congenic strains derived from A/J and B6 progenitors, that were phenotyped for T. crassiceps replication. In agreement with their genetic background, most AcB strains (A/J-derived) were found to be permissive to infection while most BcA strains (B6-derived) were restrictive with the exception of a few discordant strains, together suggesting a possible simple genetic control. Initial haplotype association mapping using >1200 informative SNPs pointed to linkages on chromosomes 2 (proximal) and 6 as controlling parasite replication in the AcB/BcA panel. Additional linkage analysis by genome scan in informative [AcB55xDBA/2]F1 and F2 mice (derived from the discordant AcB55 strain), confirmed the effect of chromosome 2 on parasite replication, and further delineated a major locus (LOD?=?4.76, p<0.01; peak marker D2Mit295, 29.7 Mb) that we designate Tccr1 (T. crassiceps cysticercosis restrictive locus 1). Resistance alleles at Tccr1 are derived from AcB55 and are inherited in a dominant fashion. Scrutiny of the minimal genetic interval reveals overlap of Tccr1 with other host resistance loci mapped to this region, most notably the defective Hc/C5 allele which segregates both in the AcB/BcA set and in the AcB55xDBA/2 cross. These results strongly suggest that the complement component 5 (C5) plays a critical role in early protective inflammatory response to infection with T. crassiceps.
Fortin, Anny; Sciutto-Conde, Edda; Fragoso-Gonzalez, Gladis; Gros, Philippe; Aguilar-Delfin, Irma
Cysticercosis is a common parasitic infection caused by encysted larvae of the helminth Taenia solium (pork tapeworm). The central nervous system (CNS) is the most important primary site of infection and the disease can present\\u000a with solitary or multiple space occupying lesions. Less common presentations in the CNS include the racemose variety with\\u000a macroscopic groups of cysticerci in the subarachnoid
Prahlad K. Sethi; Nitin K. Sethi; Josh Torgovnick; Edward Arsura
Cattle infected with the tapeworm cyst, Taenia saginata metacestode (synonym: Cysticercus bovis) are a source of human infection if affected beef is eaten raw or undercooked. Control measures targeted at individual cattle rather than all animals in a T. saginata-exposed herd should help reduce costs and alleviate current constraints associated with managing an outbreak. To that end, we have developed a reliable diagnostic test for use in live animals that would enable veterinary regulators to focus disease control strategies. The test detects bovine anti-T. saginata immunoglobulin G1 antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) which relies on the excretory-secretory antigens of T. saginata. Animals were inoculated with 10, 100 or 1000 viable T. saginata eggs in order to simulate the parasite burden of field-infected animals (parasite load=1-86; n=28). By testing sera obtained from the inoculated animals 84 days post-inoculation, test sensitivity was estimated to be 92.9% (95% confidence interval or CI=83.4-100.0%). Another 17 animals inoculated with 5000 or 10,000 viable eggs of T. saginata and shown to harbour metacestodes at post-mortem, all tested positive in the ELISA. Test specificity estimated from a herd of field animals with no historical, epidemiological, or post-mortem evidence of infection was 90.6% (95% CI=87.0-94.2%; n=256 field cattle). Using the test on samples (n=347) from a T. saginata-infected feedlot, the Bayesian approach estimate of seroprevalence was 4.6% (95% probability intervals=0.5-10.3%). The test performance characteristics of the ELISA suggest that it will be adequate for field application in bovine cysticercosis outbreaks. PMID:20083357
Ogunremi, Oladele; Benjamin, Jane
Bovine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of the human tapeworm Taenia saginata. According to European data on meat inspection, the prevalence ranges from 0.007% to 6.8%, but the real prevalence is considered to be at least 10 times higher. Laboratory confirmation of the etiological agent is based on gross, stereomicroscopic, and histological examination of submitted specimens. False identifications may occur, possibly because of death and degeneration of cysts, or because taeniid larvae and other tissue parasites, such as Sarcocystis spp., may cause similar macroscopic morphological lesions. Therefore, tests that can warrant sure identification of taeniid lesions and calcified cysts in the muscle are needed. The focus of our study was to develop a suitable postmortem test that could be applied on putative lesions by T. saginata cysticerci, as ambiguously diagnosed after routine meat inspection. In particular, we proposed a biomolecular assay targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). For developing the polymerase chain reaction assay, viable cysts of Cysticercus bovis (n?=?10) were used as positive reference samples, and those of Echinococcus granulosus (n?=?3), Cysticercus tenuicollis (n?=?3), and Sarcocystis spp. (n?=?4) as reference negative controls. Further, to evaluate the applicability of the proposed assay, 171 samples of bovine muscular tissue, obtained from local slaughterhouses and containing lesions recognized as T. saginata cysticerci by macroscopic examination, were tested. The proposed test confirmed the diagnosis at postmortem inspection in 94.7% (162/171) of samples. In conclusion, the assay developed in this study, amplifying a short fragment from the mitochondrial gene COI, showed to be suitable for samples containing both viable and degenerating T. saginata cysticerci, yielding an unequivocal diagnosis. PMID:20618079
Chiesa, Francesco; Dalmasso, Alessandra; Bellio, Alberto; Martinetti, Manuela; Gili, Stefano; Civera, Tiziana
Spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon ultrastructure of the adult Didymobothrium rudolphii (Spathebothriidea) have been examined using transmission electron microscopy for the first time. The dense material is present in the apical region of the differentiation zone in the early stage of spermiogenesis, similarly as in other basal tapeworms examined to date. The orthogonal development of the two flagella is followed by a flagellar rotation and their proximodistal fusion with the median cytoplasmic process (MCP). The two pairs of electron-dense attachment zones in the MCP mark the lines where the proximodistal fusion of MCP with two axonemes takes place. D. rudolphii exhibits polymorphism of the intercentriolar body during spermiogenesis. The mature spermatozoon possesses the two axonemes of 9 + "1" trepaxonematan pattern, nucleus, cortical microtubules (CMs), and electron-dense granules. The anterior extremity of the gamete lacks a crested body and exhibits a centriole surrounded by a semiarc of electron-dense tubular structures. The two parallel rows of the CMs have been found in the proximal part of the two-axoneme region of the spermatozoon for the first time in the Eucestoda. The posterior extremity of the gamete exhibits pattern of the disorganized axoneme. The ultrastructural features of the sperm/spermiogenesis support a view about the close relationships of the Spathebothriidea and Diphyllobothriidea and the basal position of the Spathebothriidea within the Eucestoda. PMID:20352452
Brunanská, Magdaléna; Poddubnaya, Larisa G
Cattle and mice were immunized against infection withTaenia saginata andTaenia taeniaeformis, respectively, using antigens obtained from both homologous and heterologous species of cestodes. Mice were protected against infection withT. taeniaeformis when they were immunized intramuscularly or orally with either a somatic antigen extracted from the metacestodes or an excretory\\/secretory (E\\/S) antigen collected during the in vitro culture of oncospheres ofT.
Remains of parasites in vertebrates are rare from the Mesozoic and Paleozoic. Once most parasites that live in – or pass through – the gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates, fossil feces (coprolites) or even intestinal contents (enterolites) can eventually preserve their remains. Here we announce the discovery of a spiral shark coprolite from the Paleozoic bearing a cluster of 93 small oval-elliptical smooth-shelled structures, interpreted as eggs of a tapeworm.The eggs were found in a thin section of an elasmobranch coprolite. Most of the eggs are filled by pyrite and some have a special polar swelling (operculum), suggesting they are non-erupted eggs. One of the eggs contains a probable developing larva. The eggs are approximately 145–155 µm in length and 88–100 µm in width and vary little in size within the cluster. The depositional and morphological features of the eggs closely resemble those of cestodes. Not only do the individual eggs have features of extant tapeworms, but their deposition all together in an elongate segment is typical to modern tapeworm eggs deposited in mature segments (proglottids). This is the earliest fossil record of tapeworm parasitism of vertebrates and establishes a timeline for the evolution of cestodes. This discovery shows that the fossil record of vertebrate intestinal parasites is much older than was hitherto known and that the interaction between tapeworms and vertebrates occurred at least since the Middle-Late Permian.
Dentzien-Dias, Paula C.; Poinar, George; de Figueiredo, Ana Emilia Q.; Pacheco, Ana Carolina L.; Horn, Bruno L. D.; Schultz, Cesar L.
The Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea) is an introduced fish parasite in the southwestern United States and is often considered a serious threat to native desert fishes. Determining the geographic distribution of nonnative fish parasites is important for recovery efforts of native fishes. We examined 1,140 individuals belonging to nine fish species from southwestern U.S. streams and springs between January 2005 and April 2007. The Asian fish tapeworm was present in the Gila River, Salt River, Verde River, San Pedro River, Aravaipa Creek, and Fossil Creek, Arizona, and in Lake Tuendae at Zzyzx Springs and Afton Canyon of the Mojave River, California. Overall prevalence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Arizona fish populations was 19% (range = 0-100%) and varied by location, time, and fish species. In California, the prevalence, abundance, and intensity of the Asian fish tapeworm in Mohave tui chub Gila bicolor mohavensis were higher during warmer months than during cooler months. Three new definitive host species--Yaqui chub G. purpurea, headwater chub G. nigra, and longfin dace agosia chrysogaster--were identified. Widespread occurrence of the Asian fish tapeworm in southwestern U.S. waters suggests that the lack of detection in other systems where nonnative fishes occur is due to a lack of effort as opposed to true absence of the parasite. To limit further spread of diseases to small, isolated systems, we recommend treatment for both endo- and exoparasites when management actions include translocation of fishes. PMID:21413512
Archdeacon, Thomas P; Iles, Alison; Kline, S Jason; Bonar, Scott A
...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS Â§ 311.25 Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm...showing evidence of infestation with parasites not transmissible to man, the...
...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS Â§ 311.25 Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm...showing evidence of infestation with parasites not transmissible to man, the...
The first records of the tapeworm genus Pedibothrium from nurse sharks (Ginglymostoma cirratum) in the eastern Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans provide new insights on the age of the association between these tapeworms and this host. Four individuals of G. cirratum examined from the southern tip of the Baja Peninsula, Mexico, were found to host P. manteri and P. brevispine.
J. N. CAIRA; L. EUZET
Taenia multiceps is a cestode parasite, the larval stage of which encysts in the brain of sheep, goats and cattle causing an often fatal condition. The parasite also causes zoonotic infections in humans. Homologues of the recombinant oncosphere vaccine antigens from Taenia ovis and other Taenia species were identified in T. multiceps. Sequencing of the associated T. multiceps genes and
Charles Gauci; Gulay Vural; Taraneh Öncel; Antonio Varcasia; Veronica Damian; Craig T. Kyngdon; Philip S. Craig; Garry A. Anderson; Marshall W. Lightowlers
We report a case of jejunal perforation caused by infection with taeniid tapeworm possessing unusual morphology that has not been previously described. Among five cestodes recovered during operation, one exhibited a bifurcation at the posterior end and the other harbored a lateral branching of immature segments from the main strobila. By sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I
Somchai Jongwutiwes; Chaturong Putaporntip; Nutaros Chantachum; Pichet Sampatanukul
Interrelationships of the tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) were examined by use of small (SSU) and large (LSU) subunit ribosomal DNA sequences and morphological characters. Fifty new complete SSU sequences were added to 21 sequences previously determined, and 71 new LSU (D1-D3) sequences were determined for the complementary set of taxa representing each of the major lineages of cestodes as currently understood. New sequences were determined for three amphilinidean taxa, but were removed from both alignments due to their excessively high degree of divergence from other cestode sequences. A morphological character matrix coded for supraspecific taxa was constructed by the modification of matrices from recently published studies. Maximum-parsimony (MP) analyses were performed on the LSU, SSU, LSU+SSU, and morphological data partitions, and minimum-evolution (ME) analyses utilizing a general time reversible model of nucleotide substitution including estimates of among-site rate heterogeneity were performed on the molecular data partitions. Resulting topologies were rooted at the node separating the Gyrocotylidea from the Eucestoda. The LSU data were found to be more informative than the SSU data and were more consistent with inferences from morphology, although nodal support was generally weak for most basal nodes. One class of transitions was found to be saturated for comparisons between the most distantly related taxa (gyrocotylideans vs cyclophyllideans and tetrabothriideans). Differences in the topologies resulting from MP and ME analyses were not statistically significant. Nonstrobilate orders formed the basal lineages of trees resulting from analysis of LSU data and morphology. Difossate orders were basal to tetrafossate orders, the latter of which formed a strongly supported clade. A clade including the orders Cyclophyllidea, Nippotaeniidea, and Tetrabothriidea was supported by all data partitions and methods of analysis. Paraphyly of the orders Pseudophyllidea, Tetraphyllidea, and Trypanorhyncha was consistent among the molecular data partitions. Inferences are made regarding a monozoic (nonsegmented) origin of the Eucestoda as represented by the Caryophyllidea and for the evolution of the strobilate and acetabulate/tetrafossate conditions having evolved in a stepwise pattern. PMID:11399152
Olson, P D; Littlewood, D T; Bray, R A; Mariaux, J
Taenia crassiceps is a cestode parasite of rodents (in its larval stage) and canids (in its adult stage) that can also parasitize immunocompromised humans. We have studied the immune response elicited by this helminth and its antigens in mice and human cells, and have discovered that they have a strong capacity to induce chronic Th2-type responses that are primarily characterized by high levels of Th2 cytokines, low proliferative responses in lymphocytes, an immature and LPS-tolerogenic profile in dendritic cells, the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and, specially, alternatively activated macrophages. We also have utilized the immunoregulatory capabilities of this helminth to successfully modulate autoimmune responses and the outcome of other infectious diseases. In the present paper, we review the work of others and ourselves with regard to the immune response induced by T. crassiceps and its antigens, and we compare the advances in our understanding of this parasitic infection model with the knowledge that has been obtained from other selected models.
Peon, Alberto N.; Espinoza-Jimenez, Arlett; Terrazas, Luis I.
Self-infections with the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta were carried out to study the haematological and immunological responses in man. Infection caused pronounced eosinophilia, an increase in plasma viscosity and the production of parasite-specific IgG and IgM. Circulating IgE was not detected. There were no significant changes in erythrocyte values or serum transaminases. PMID:1162734
Turton, J A; Williamson, J R; Harris, W G
A novel serological assay which measures IgG(T) specific for a 12/13 kDa protein of the equine tapeworm Anoplocephala perfoliata was used as part of a colic outbreak investigation. A training/rehabilitation yard for Thoroughbreds and Arabs was found to have an increasing incidence of colic over a 5 year period, culminating in a peak incidence of 1.15 episodes/horse year at risk. Four animals suffered from ileal impaction colic which necessitated surgical management. A case-control study design suggested a strong association between tapeworm infection and colic, with evidence of a dose-response relationship. Intervention, in the form of anticestode anthelminthics, coincided with a decrease in the incidence of colic and a fall in anti-12/13 kDa IgG(T) antibody levels of 8 horses monitored post-treatment. This study demonstrates that anthelminthic regimens, using exclusively ivermectin, may lead to an increase in tapeworm infection intensity which may in turn lead to an increased incidence of colic. Furthermore, it provides support to the hypothesis that the risk of ileal impaction colic and spasmodic colic increases with tapeworm infection intensity. The practical application of the anti-12/13 kDa IgG(T) ELISA is demonstrated by this study. PMID:11202380
Proudman, C J; Holdstock, N B
The great white shark Carcharodon carcharias Linnaeus, 1758 is a versatile and fierce predator (and responsible for many shark attacks on humans). This apex predator feeds on a wide range of organisms including teleosts, other elasmobranchs, cephalopods, pinnipeds, and cetaceans. Although much is known about its diet, no trophic links have been empirically identified as being involved in the transmission of its tapeworm parasites. Recently, the use of molecular tools combined with phylogenetics has proven useful to identify larval and immature stages of marine tapeworms; utilization of the technique has been increasing rapidly. However, the usefulness of this approach remains limited by the availability of molecular data. Here, I employed gene sequence data from the D2 region of the large subunit of ribosomal DNA to link adults of the tapeworm Clistobothrium carcharodoni Dailey and Vogelbein, 1990 (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) to larvae for which sequence data for this gene are available. The sequences from the adult tapeworms were genetically identical (0% sequence divergence) to those available on GenBank for "SP" 'small' Scolex pleuronectis recovered from the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus). This study is the first to provide empirical evidence linking the trophic interaction between great white sharks and cetaceans as a definitive route for the successful transmission of a tetraphyllidean tapeworm. Using the intensity of infection data from this shark and from cetaceans as proxies for the extent of predation, I estimate that this individual shark would have consumed between 9 to 83 G. griseus , fresh, dead, or both, in its lifetime. PMID:21506792
Randhawa, Haseeb S
Two clones from an activated Taenia saginata oncosphere cDNA library, Ts45W and Ts45S, were isolated and sequenced. Both of these genes belong to the Taenia ovis 45W gene family. The Ts45W and Ts45S cDNAs are 997- and 1,004-bp-long, each corresponding to 255 amino acids and with theoretical\\u000a molecular masses of 27.8 and 27.7 kDa, respectively. Southern blot profiles obtained with Ts45W
Luis Miguel Gonzalez; Pedro Bonay; Laura Benitez; Elizabeth Ferrer; Leslie J. S. Harrison; R. Michael E. Parkhouse; Teresa Garate
Cysticercosis is a major cause of economic loss in bovine production due to meat condemnation. Chemotherapy is being used in Brazilian cattle and a diagnostic test to improve the treatment program is desired. We produced monoclonal antibodies against crude (TAEB) and cyst fluid (TAEF) Taenia saginata metacestode antigens using immunized BALB/c mice. After cell fusion, 10 TAEB and nine TAEF hybrids were selected and cloned resulting in 18 IgG(1) and 32 IgM TAEB clones, and 9 IgG(1) and 9 IgM TAEF clones. Ascites was produced and Western blot testing was performed resulting in reactivity to protein fractions of low molecular weight (<18kDa), 43, 55, 66 and 100kDa. The indirect immunofluorescence test, with one monoclonal antibody against crude and one against cyst fluid antigens, recognized antigenic fractions of both the scolex and the bladder wall of metacestodes from naturally infected bovine. PMID:20542032
Vicentini-Oliveira, Josy Campanhã; Golim, Marjorie A; de Cássia Paulan, Silvana; Biondi, Germano Francisco; Rossi-Ferreira, Rosana; Deffune, Elenice; Nunes, Cáris Maroni
Taenia saginata cysticercosis was experimentally produced in 4 Soay sheep, 1 four-horned sheep and 1 Texel sheep by oral administration of eggs of the parasite. Some of these sheep were given dexamethasone therapy. The evolution ofT. saginata cysticercosis in this host is characterised by a rapid immune reaction so that by 6 weeks after infection almost all the cysts were
S. Geerts; V. Kumar; J. Mortelmans
A sero-epidemiological study of Taenia saginata cysticercosis was carried out to determine the prevalence and distribution of the infection in three provinces of Kenya. Serum samples and meat inspection records were collected from cattle at slaughter at export and district abattoirs. Cattle origin and the presence of T. saginata cysticerci were noted as was the prevalence of other helminths such
Jael A. Onyango-Abuje; Joseph M. Nginyi; Moses K. Rugutt; Steven H. Wright; Patrick Lumumba; Gwenda Hughes; Leslie J. S. Harrison
Istope-labeled glucose was used to study the kinetics of glucose entry into the tissues of taenia crassiceps larvae. The rate of absorption decreased after 3 to 5 min of incubation and the rate fitted an adsorption isotherm. Galactose competitively inhibi...
K. D. Murrell
It has been reported that three human Taenia species are distributed in Indonesia: Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata. T. asiatica is well known in North Sumatra, especially on Samosir island in Lake Toba. T. solium and T. saginata are known from Bali. T. solium is most serious public health issue in Papua (former Irian Jaya). In this report,
Toni Wandra; A. A. Depary; Putu Sutisna; Sri S. Margono; Thomas Suroso; Munehiro Okamoto; Philip S. Craig; Akira Ito
Hydatid disease caused by tapeworm is an increasing public health and socioeconomic concern. In order to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of praziquantel (PZQ) against tapeworm, PZQ-loaded hydrogenated castor oil solid lipid nanoparticle (PZQ-HCO-SLN) suspension was prepared by a hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. The stability of the suspension at 4°C and room temperature was evaluated by the physicochemical characteristics of the nanoparticles and in-vitro release pattern of the suspension. Pharmacokinetics was studied after subcutaneous administration of the suspension in dogs. The therapeutic effect of the novel formulation was evaluated in dogs naturally infected with Echinococcus granulosus. The results showed that the drug recovery of the suspension was 97.59% ± 7.56%. Nanoparticle diameter, polydispersivity index, and zeta potential were 263.00 ± 11.15 nm, 0.34 ± 0.06, and ?11.57 ± 1.12 mV, respectively and showed no significant changes after 4 months of storage at both 4°C and room temperature. The stored suspensions displayed similar in-vitro release patterns as that of the newly prepared one. SLNs increased the bioavailability of PZQ 5.67-fold and extended the mean residence time of the drug from 56.71 to 280.38 hours. Single subcutaneous administration of PZQ-HCO-SLN suspension obtained enhanced therapeutic efficacy against tapeworm in infected dogs. At the dose of 5 mg/kg, the stool-ova reduction and negative conversion rates and tapeworm removal rate of the suspension were 100%, while the native PZQ were 91.55%, 87.5%, and 66.7%. When the dose reduced to 0.5 mg/kg, the native drug showed no effect, but the suspension still got the same therapeutic efficacy as that of the 5 mg/kg native PZQ. These results demonstrate that the PZQ-HCO-SLN suspension is a promising formulation to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of PZQ.
Xie, Shuyu; Pan, Baoliang; Shi, Baoxin; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Ming; Zhou, Wenzhong
The ultrastructural details are presented of the ovary, ovicapt and oviduct of the spathebothriidean tapeworm Didymobothrium rudolphii (Monticelli, 1890) from the intestine of the sand sole Solea lascaris. Oogonia, maturing oocytes and mature oocytes are surrounded by a syncytial interstitial cytoplasm, one of the distinctive\\u000a traits of which is the presence of numerous myelin-like bodies. Oocyte inclusions comprise cortical granules
Larisa G. Poddubnaya; David I. Gibson; Peter D. Olson
Hydatid disease caused by tapeworm is an increasing public health and socioeconomic concern. In order to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of praziquantel (PZQ) against tapeworm, PZQ-loaded hydrogenated castor oil solid lipid nanoparticle (PZQ-HCO-SLN) suspension was prepared by a hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. The stability of the suspension at 4°C and room temperature was evaluated by the physicochemical characteristics of the nanoparticles and in-vitro release pattern of the suspension. Pharmacokinetics was studied after subcutaneous administration of the suspension in dogs. The therapeutic effect of the novel formulation was evaluated in dogs naturally infected with Echinococcus granulosus. The results showed that the drug recovery of the suspension was 97.59% ± 7.56%. Nanoparticle diameter, polydispersivity index, and zeta potential were 263.00 ± 11.15 nm, 0.34 ± 0.06, and -11.57 ± 1.12 mV, respectively and showed no significant changes after 4 months of storage at both 4°C and room temperature. The stored suspensions displayed similar in-vitro release patterns as that of the newly prepared one. SLNs increased the bioavailability of PZQ 5.67-fold and extended the mean residence time of the drug from 56.71 to 280.38 hours. Single subcutaneous administration of PZQ-HCO-SLN suspension obtained enhanced therapeutic efficacy against tapeworm in infected dogs. At the dose of 5 mg/kg, the stool-ova reduction and negative conversion rates and tapeworm removal rate of the suspension were 100%, while the native PZQ were 91.55%, 87.5%, and 66.7%. When the dose reduced to 0.5 mg/kg, the native drug showed no effect, but the suspension still got the same therapeutic efficacy as that of the 5 mg/kg native PZQ. These results demonstrate that the PZQ-HCO-SLN suspension is a promising formulation to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of PZQ. PMID:22072873
Xie, Shuyu; Pan, Baoliang; Shi, Baoxin; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Ming; Zhou, Wenzhong
...of tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus ); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria...Trichuris vulpis ) and for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii)...
Effects of heat treatments on activation and infectivity of Taenia hydatigena eggs were assessed. Eggs containing oncospheres were used for in vitro and in vivo studies to determine the response to 5min of heat treatment, ranging from room temperature (22°C) to 60°C. The study demonstrated 99.47% and 100% reduction in oncosphere activation or infectivity after 5min of heat treatment at 60°C and 57.38°C under in vitro and in vivo conditions, respectively. Similar results between the two approaches indicted the appropriateness of the in vitro methods to identify oncosphericidal treatments of practical significance. Similar heat treatments may also be effective against Taenia saginata and help to reduce occurrence of beef cysticercosis. PMID:23333617
Buttar, Birpal S; Nelson, Mark L; Busboom, Jan R; Hancock, Dale D; Walsh, Douglas B; Jasmer, Douglas P
Three taeniid tapeworms infect humans in Asia and the Pacific: Taenia solim, Taenia saginata, and Taenia asiatica. Although there is continuing debate about the definition of a new species, phylogenetic analyses of these parasites have provided multiple lines of evidence that T. asiatica is an independent species and the sister species of T. saginata. Here we review briefly the morphology, pathology, molecular biology, distribution and control options of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Asia and the Pacific and comment on the potential role which dogs may play in the transmission of T. solium. Special attention is focused on Indonesia: taeniasis caused by T. asiatica in North Sumatra, taeniasis/cysticercosis of T. solium and taeniasis of T. saginata in Bali, and taeniasis/cysticercosis of T. solium in Papua (formerly Irian Jaya). Issues relating to the spread of taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by T. solium in Papua New Guinea are highlighted, since serological evidence suggests that cysticercosis occurs among the local residents. The use of modern techniques for detection of taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in humans, pigs and dogs, with the possible adoption of new control measures will provide a better understanding of the epidemiology of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Asia and the Pacific and lead to improved control of zoonotic and simultaneously meat-borne disease transmission. PMID:15228810
Ito, Akira; Wandra, Toni; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Margono, Sri S; Suroso, Thomas; Gauci, Charles; Lightowlers, Marshall W
Multiplex PCR was established for differential diagnosis of taeniasis and cysticercosis, including their causative agents. For identification of the parasites, multiplex PCR with cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene yielded evident differential products unique for Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica and for American/African and Asian genotypes of Taenia solium with molecular sizes of 827, 269, 720, and 984 bp, respectively. In the PCR-based detection of tapeworm carriers using fecal samples, the diagnostic markers were detected from 7 of 14 and 4 of 9 T. solium carriers from Guatemala and Indonesia, respectively. Test sensitivity may have been reduced by the length of time (up to 12 years) that samples were stored and/or small sample volumes (ca. 30 to 50 mg). However, the diagnostic markers were detected by nested PCR in five worm carriers from Guatemalan cases that were found to be negative by multiplex PCR. It was noteworthy that a 720 bp-diagnostic marker was detected from a T. solium carrier who was egg-free, implying that it is possible to detect worm carriers and treat before mature gravid proglottids are discharged. In contrast to T. solium carriers, 827-bp markers were detected by multiplex PCR in all T. saginata carriers. The application of the multiplex PCR would be useful not only for surveillance of taeniasis and cysticercosis control but also for the molecular epidemiological survey of these cestode infections. PMID:14766815
Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Allan, James C; Sato, Marcello Otake; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Qiu, Dongchuan; Mamuti, Wulamu; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira
Sex hormones are known to modulate immune responses and may be implicated in sex associated susceptibilities to infections. Taenia crassiceps cysticerci grow to larger numbers in female mice than in males. Gonadectomy alters the course of this infection and hormone replacement with 17?-estradiol increases the parasite numbers. However, in chronic Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis the sex-hormone profile of males becomes more
Y Gomez; R. A Valdez; C Larralde; M. C Romano
Recent collections of the Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in the Rio Grande have raised concern about the potential impacts on Rio Grande endemic and imperiled fishes. The objectives of this study were to determine distribution and definitive hosts of the Asian fish tapeworm within the Rio Grande drainage and to quantify occurrences and abundances. In total, 1,992 fish spanning
Megan G. Bean; Timothy H. Bonner
The sheep tapeworm (Moniezia expansa) and its host Ovis aries were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) for their copper, iron, manganese, zinc and lead levels. Element concentrations in cestode parasites were compared to those in various organs (liver, kidney, and muscle) of sheep. Tapeworms in the small intestine of sheep that were administered 2g of Pb(CH(3)COO)(2) per os daily (7 days) had significantly higher lead concentrations than sheep tissues. Cu levels significantly increased after Pb administration in sheep muscle and sheep tapeworms. Contrarily, Zn content significantly decreased in sheep muscle, but significantly increased in sheep tapeworms. However, Mn content significantly decreased after Pb administration in sheep tapeworms. Furthermore, Fe content significantly decreased after Pb administration in sheep liver and kidneys. PMID:22425750
Jankovská, I; Száková, J; Lukešová, D; Langrová, I; Válek, P; Vadlejch, J; ?adková, Z; Petrtýl, M
Summary: Tapeworms (Cestoda) continue to be an important cause of morbidity in humans worldwide. Diphyllobothriosis, a human disease caused by tapeworms of the genus Diphyllobothrium, is the most important fish-borne zoonosis caused by a cestode parasite. Up to 20 million humans are estimated to be infected worldwide. Besides humans, definitive hosts of Diphyllobothrium include piscivorous birds and mammals, which represent a significant zoonotic reservoir. The second intermediate hosts include both freshwater and marine fish, especially anadromous species such as salmonids. The zoonosis occurs most commonly in countries where the consumption of raw or marinated fish is a frequent practice. Due to the increasing popularity of dishes utilizing uncooked fish, numerous cases of human infections have appeared recently, even in the most developed countries. As many as 14 valid species of Diphyllobothrium can cause human diphyllobothriosis, with D. latum and D. nihonkaiense being the most important pathogens. In this paper, all taxa from humans reported are reviewed, with brief information on their life history and their current distribution. Data on diagnostics, epidemiology, clinical relevance, and control of the disease are also summarized. The importance of reliable identification of human-infecting species with molecular tools (sequences of mitochondrial genes) as well as the necessity of epidemiological studies aimed at determining the sources of infections are pointed out.
Scholz, Tomas; Garcia, Hector H.; Kuchta, Roman; Wicht, Barbara
The synergism facilitated by a series of recent developments has conspired to catalyze rapid advancements in the taxonomy and systematics of elasmobranch tapeworms. These developments are: (1) increased interest in global biodiversity; (2) globalization-facilitated communication; (3) enhanced microscopic and digital technologies; (4) availability of web-based taxonomic resources; (5) ease of use and low cost of molecular techniques and (6) the impressive repertoire of available phylogenetic methods. As a consequence, an estimation of global elasmobranch tapeworm diversity is now within our grasp, as is a basic understanding of the effort and resources required to complete the discovery and description of this fauna globally. The generation of robust hypotheses of the phylogenetic relationships for most elasmobranch-parasitizing cestode orders is also well underway. An international community of cestodologists has emerged and through their sharing of knowledge and specimens is making great strides towards expanding knowledge of the cestode fauna of vertebrates worldwide. It is important that these efforts continue to move forward in a collaborative fashion, integrating morphological and molecular data, but also fully engaging elasmobranch taxonomists and systematists. It is equally important that efforts to characterize and describe global biodiversity are not derailed by such seductive, but ultimately unrewarding impracticable initiatives as molecular taxonomy. Integrated taxonomy is certainly not for the feint of heart, but those with the courage to pursue this strategy will be responsible for maintaining and enhancing the biologically relevant context required for effective species recognition well into the future. PMID:21729352
Caira, Janine N
New data on spermiogenesis and the ultrastructure of spermatozoa of 'true' tapeworms (Eucestoda) are summarized. Since 2001, more than 50 species belonging to most orders of the Eucestoda have been studied or reinvestigated, particularly members of the Caryophyllidea, Spathebothriidea, Diphyllobothriidea, Bothriocephalidea, Trypanorhyncha, Tetraphyllidea, Proteocephalidea, and Cyclophyllidea. A new classification of spermatozoa of eucestodes into seven basic types is proposed and a key to their identification is given. For the first time, a phylogenetic tree inferred from spermatological characters is provided. New information obtained in the last decade has made it possible to fill numerous gaps in the character data matrix, enabling us to carry out a more reliable analysis of the evolution of ultrastructural characters of sperm and spermiogenesis in eucestodes. The tree is broadly congruent with those based on morphological and molecular data, indicating that convergent evolution of sperm characters in cestodes may not be as common as in other invertebrate taxa. The main gaps in the current knowledge of spermatological characters are mapped and topics for future research are outlined, with special emphasis on those characters that might provide additional information about the evolution of tapeworms and their spermatozoa. Future studies should be focused on representatives of those major groups (families and orders) in which molecular data indicate paraphyly or polyphyly (e.g. 'Tetraphyllidea' and Trypanorhyncha) and on those that have a key phylogenetic position among eucestodes (e.g. Diphyllidea, 'Tetraphyllidea', Lecanicephalidea, Nippotaeniidea). PMID:20015312
Levron, Céline; Miquel, Jordi; Oros, Mikulás; Scholz, Tomás
The bear tapeworm Diphyllobothrium ursi is described based upon the morphology of adult tapeworms recovered from the brown bear (Ursus arctos middendorffi) and larval plerocercoids found in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) from Kodiak Island in Alaska in 1952. However, in 1987 D. ursi was synonymized with Diphyllobothrium dendriticum, and the taxonomic relationship between both species has not subsequently been revised. In this study mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) sequences of holotype and paratype D. ursi specimens that had been preserved in a formalin-acetic acid-alcohol solution since the time the species was initially described approximately 60 yr ago were analyzed. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the cox1 sequences revealed that D. ursi is more closely related to D. dendriticum than it is to Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense and Diphyllobothrium latum. In addition to molecular evidence, differences in the life cycle and ecology of the larval plerocercoids between D. ursi and D. dendriticum also suggest that D. ursi is a distinct species, separate from D. dendriticum and D. nihonkaiense, and also possibly from D. latum . PMID:22663179
Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Muto, Maki; Yamada, Minoru; Arizono, Naoki; Rausch, Robert L
Neurocysticercosis in humans is caused by the tapeworm Taenia solium and generates substantial morbidity in Latin America, Africa and Asia.The life cycle of T. solium includes pigs as intermediate hosts and human beings as definitive hosts. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for acquiring cysticercosis in the household, thus prevention and control programs are being developed. Infected people have no symptoms, therefore are difficult to identify and treat, thus vaccination against the adult tapeworm is an alternative control measure. Since the infection occurs naturally only in human beings, experimental models have been standardized. Hamsters are believed to be good models to study the infection but they have not been properly evaluated for vaccination. Since taeniosis is gained by ingesting pork meat with cysticerci, oral vaccination was evaluated, and given that intestinal immunity is enhanced with adjuvants, cholera toxin was used, because it is one of the most potent adjuvants, in view of the fact that it increases epithelium permeability enhancing entrance of the co-administered unrelated antigens. Recombinant functional T. solium calreticulin was employed for the standardization of the methodology and the evaluation of oral vaccination. Protection was associated with the type of cysticerci and the age of the hamsters used. When reddish bigger parasites were orally introduced in hamsters as challenge, protection was around 40%, while when yellowish small parasites were used, protection increased to 100%, suggesting that the characteristics of cysticerci are determinant. Protection was gained in 9month old hamsters, but not in 3month old animals. PMID:19651215
León-Cabrera, Sonia; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Mendlovic, Fela; Avila-Ramírez, Guillermina; Carrero, Julio César; Laclette, Juan Pedro; Flisser, Ana
The recent emergence of zoonotic parasitic diseases of public health importance represents a growing global concern. Among zoonotic helminthic diseases, both echinococcosis and cysticercosis are the most serious diseases threatening human life. Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by ingestion of eggs of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, is spreading worldwide and not rare even in Muslim or Jewish communities. Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by the proliferation of metacestodes of the fox tapeworm, Echinococcus multilocularis, is the most potentially lethal parasitic infection of the non-tropical northern hemisphere, whereas cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by the proliferation of metacestodes of the dog tapeworm, E. granulosus, has rather a cosmopolitan distribution. As the life cycles of T. solium, E. multilocularis and E. granulosus are completed through predator-prey interactions, including humans, it is crucial to interrupt the cycle for control of these zoonotic cestodiases. Both NCC and CE are expected to be eradicable, since the principal life cycles of T. solium and E. granulosus are maintained between humans and pigs and between dogs and herbivorous domestic animals, respectively. In contrast, AE is perhaps not eradicable, since the life cycle of E. multilocularis is maintained between wild foxes and rodents. Modern technologies, including imaging, immunology and molecular biology, have been applied for epidemiological surveys. In the present review, we introduce such technologies applied in Japan, China and Indonesia, and point out the problems that need to be solved for control of these three zoonotic cestodiases. PMID:19238666
Ito, Akira; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Mamuti, Wulamu; Xiao, Ning; Sato, Marcello O; Ishikawa, Yuji
Accelerated body growth is associated with experimental infections with the plerocercoid stage of the pseudophyllidean tapeworm, Spirometra mansonoides. The growth response is due to a protein that is synthesized and released by plerocercoids in the host. Plerocercoid growth factor (PGF) is transported by the blood, interacts with growth hormone (GH) receptors and mimics many of the biological actions of GH.
Although humans can be definitive hosts for cestodes (tapeworms), major pathologic conditions occur during cestode larval stages when humans serve as the intermediate host for these parasites. The most relevant forms of human disease caused by cestode larvae are echinococcosis, caused by Echinococcus granulosus (cystic echinococcosis) and Echinococcus multilocularis (alveolar echinococcosis), and cysticercosis, caused by Taenia solium. These infections occur worldwide, but their relevance is particularly high in developing countries, where poor hygiene conditions facilitate the transmission of the parasites. The therapeutic approach is often complex, requiring surgery and/or chemotherapy or, in the case of cystic echinococcosis, percutaneous treatments. PMID:22632647
Brunetti, Enrico; White, A Clinton
Disseminated cysticercosis is a parasitic infestation of pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. A 19-year-old female presented with multiple nodules all over her body since 12 months. Histopathology showed features suggestive of parasitic granuloma with multinucleated giant cells and plenty of eosinophils admixed with necrosis. Ultrasonography of these lesions showed multiple well-defined cystic lesions of varying size with a few specks of calcification. Cranial computed tomography scan showed bilateral, multiple, small hyperdense lesions in the supratentorial compartment. She was treated with oral albendazole and oral corticosteroids. This case is being reported because of its rare, disseminated nature with cutaneous, neural and ocular involvement.
Sacchidanand, S.; Namitha, P.; Mallikarjuna, M.; Nataraj, H. V.
Disseminated cysticercosis is a parasitic infestation of pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. A 19-year-old female presented with multiple nodules all over her body since 12 months. Histopathology showed features suggestive of parasitic granuloma with multinucleated giant cells and plenty of eosinophils admixed with necrosis. Ultrasonography of these lesions showed multiple well-defined cystic lesions of varying size with a few specks of calcification. Cranial computed tomography scan showed bilateral, multiple, small hyperdense lesions in the supratentorial compartment. She was treated with oral albendazole and oral corticosteroids. This case is being reported because of its rare, disseminated nature with cutaneous, neural and ocular involvement. PMID:23130290
Sacchidanand, S; Namitha, P; Mallikarjuna, M; Nataraj, H V
Taenia saginata is the most common human Taenia in Thailand. By cox1 sequences, 73 isolates from four localities in north and northeast were differentiated into 14 haplotypes, 11 variation sites and haplotype diversity of 0.683. Among 14 haplotypes, haplotype A was the major (52.1%), followed by haplotype B (21.9%). Clustering diagram of Thai and GenBank sequences indicated mixed phylogeny among localities. By MJ analysis, haplotype clustering relationships showed paired-stars-like network, having two main cores surrounded by minor haplotypes. Tajima's D values were significantly negative in T. saginata world population, suggesting population expansion. Significant Fu's F s values in Thai, as well as world population, also indicate that population is expanding and may be hitchhiking as part of selective sweep. Haplotype B and its dispersion were only found in populations from Thailand. Haplotype B may evolve and ultimately become an ancestor of future populations in Thailand. Haplotype A seems to be dispersion haplotype, not just in Thailand, but worldwide. High genetic T. saginata intraspecies divergence was found, in contrast to its sister species, T. asiatica; among 30 samples from seven countries, its haplotype diversity was 0.067, while only 2 haplotypes were revealed. This extremely low intraspecific variation suggests that T. asiatica could be an endangered species. PMID:23864933
Anantaphruti, Malinee; Thaenkham, Urusa; Kusolsuk, Teera; Maipanich, Wanna; Saguankiat, Surapol; Pubampen, Somjit; Phuphisut, Orawan
Taenia saginata is the most common human Taenia in Thailand. By cox1 sequences, 73 isolates from four localities in north and northeast were differentiated into 14 haplotypes, 11 variation sites and haplotype diversity of 0.683. Among 14 haplotypes, haplotype A was the major (52.1%), followed by haplotype B (21.9%). Clustering diagram of Thai and GenBank sequences indicated mixed phylogeny among localities. By MJ analysis, haplotype clustering relationships showed paired-stars-like network, having two main cores surrounded by minor haplotypes. Tajima's D values were significantly negative in T. saginata world population, suggesting population expansion. Significant Fu's Fs values in Thai, as well as world population, also indicate that population is expanding and may be hitchhiking as part of selective sweep. Haplotype B and its dispersion were only found in populations from Thailand. Haplotype B may evolve and ultimately become an ancestor of future populations in Thailand. Haplotype A seems to be dispersion haplotype, not just in Thailand, but worldwide. High genetic T. saginata intraspecies divergence was found, in contrast to its sister species, T. asiatica; among 30 samples from seven countries, its haplotype diversity was 0.067, while only 2 haplotypes were revealed. This extremely low intraspecific variation suggests that T. asiatica could be an endangered species.
Anantaphruti, Malinee; Thaenkham, Urusa; Kusolsuk, Teera; Maipanich, Wanna; Saguankiat, Surapol; Pubampen, Somjit; Phuphisut, Orawan
We report the first case of egg isolation of the Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Bothriocephalidea) from human stool. A male patient from Saint Laurent du Maroni (French Guiana) presenting abdominal pain was examined in France for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites. Diphyllobothrium-like eggs were observed in his stool. However, molecular phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of rDNA and COI genes showed that the eggs observed belong to a bothriocephalidean cestode B. acheilognathi. The adult life stages of B. acheilognathi cestodes are known as invasive parasites of a wide spectrum of fish; however, they have not been described to parasitize any mammals. This human infection seems to be accidental and represents a parasite passage through human intestine after the consumption of an infected fish host. PMID:23422154
Yera, Hélène; Kuchta, Roman; Brabec, Jan; Peyron, François; Dupouy-Camet, Jean
Biotransformation enzymes can, to a certain extent, protect parasitic worms against the toxic effects of anthelmintics and can contribute to drug-resistance development. The objective of our work was (1) to find and identify phase I and II metabolites of the anthelmintic praziquantel (PZQ) formed by the lancet fluke (Dicrocoelium dendriticum) and the rat tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta) and (2) to compare PZQ metabolites in helminths with PZQ biotransformation in rat as host species. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS) was used for this purpose. During in vitro incubations, mitochondria-like and microsomes-like fractions (prepared from homogenates of adult worms or from rat liver homogenate) were incubated with 10 and 100 ?M PZQ. Liquid/liquid extraction was used for samples during in vitro experiments. In the ex vivo study, living D. dendriticum and H. diminuta adults were incubated in RPMI-1640 medium in the presence of 50 nM or 100 nM PZQ for 24h. After incubation, the worms were removed from the medium and homogenized. Homogenates of worms, medium from the incubation of worms or rat hepatocytes and rat urine (collected during 24h after oral PZQ administration) were separately extracted using solid-phase extraction. The results showed that both D. dendriticum and H. diminuta enzymatic systems are not able to metabolize PZQ. On the other hand, thirty one different phase I and four phase II PZQ metabolites were detected in rat samples using UHPLC/MS/MS analyses. These results show that our experimental helminths, as the members of tapeworm and fluke groups of parasites, are not able to deactivate PZQ, and that the biotransformation enzymes of the studied helminths do not contribute to PZQ-resistance. PMID:21996005
Vok?ál, Ivan; Jirásko, Robert; Jedli?ková, Veronika; Bártíková, Hana; Skálová, Lenka; Lamka, Ji?í; Hol?apek, Michal; Szotáková, Barbora
Evolutionary relationships of the Eucestoda have received intense but sporadic attention over the past century. Since 1996, the landscape has dramatically changed with respect to our knowledge of the phylogenetic relationships among the tapeworms. The 2nd International Workshop for Tapeworm Systematics (IWTS) held in Lincoln, Nebraska in October of that year provided the catalyst for development of novel hypotheses for inter- and intraordinal phylogeny. The working-group structure of the 2nd IWTS and results of phylogenetic studies are briefly introduced in the present manuscript. Higher-level phylogenies derived from parsimony analysis of independent data bases representing comparative morphology or molecular sequences were largely congruent and supported monophyly for the Eucestoda. The Caryophyllidea are basal; difossate forms such as the Pseudophyllidea are primitive; tetrafossates including the Tetraphyllidea, Proteocephalidea, Nippotaeniidea, Tetrabothriidea and Cyclophyllidea are derived; and hypotheses differed in the placement of the Trypanorhyncha and the Diphyllidea. These studies may provide a foundation for resolution of inter- and intra-ordinal relationships for the tapeworms. Additionally, the first comprehensive phylogenetic hypotheses for the Pseudophyllidea, Diphyllidea, Trypanorhyncha, the paraphyletic Tetraphyllidea + Lecanicephalidea, Proteocephalidea and Cyclophyllidea were developed during and subsequent to the 2nd IWTS. The stage is now set for continued and rapid advances in our understanding of the eucestodes. These studies have also served to re-emphasise the rich genealogical diversity of tapeworms and the temporally deep history for their origin. A co-evolutionary history and radiation of eucestodes may involve deep co-speciation with vertebrate host taxa, accompanied by some level of colonisation and extinction, extending into the Palaeozoic, minimally 350-420 million years ago. PMID:10613542
Hoberg, E P; Gardner, S L; Campbell, R A
The drug-metabolizing enzymes of some helminths can deactivate anthelmintics and therefore partially protect helminths against these drugs' toxic effect. The aim of our study was to assess the activity of the main drug-metabolizing enzymes and evaluate the metabolism of selected anthelmintics (albendazole, flubendazole, mebendazole) in the rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta, a species often used as a model tapeworm. In vitro and ex vivo experiments were performed. Metabolites of the anthelmintics were detected and identified by HPLC with spectrofluorometric or mass-spectrometric detection. The enzymes of H. diminuta are able to reduce the carbonyl group of flubendazole, mebendazole and several other xenobiotics. Although the activity of a number of oxidation enzymes was determined, no oxidative metabolites of albendazole were detected. Regarding conjugation enzymes, a high activity of glutathione S-transferase was observed. A methyl derivative of reduced flubendazole was the only conjugation metabolite identified in ex vivo incubations of H. diminuta with anthelmintics. The results revealed that H. diminuta metabolized flubendazole and mebendazole, but not albendazole. The biotransformation pathways found in H. diminuta differ from those described in Moniezia expanza and suggest the interspecies differences in drug metabolism not only among classes of helminths, but even among tapeworms. PMID:22309895
Bártíková, Hana; Vok?ál, Ivan; Skálová, Lenka; Kubí?ek, Vladimír; Firbasová, Jana; Briestenský, David; Lamka, Ji?í; Szotáková, Barbora
Seasonal surveys were conducted at the Vaal Dam between April 2000 and January 2001. Twenty smallmouth yellowfish (Labeobarbus aeneus) and 20 largemouth yellowfish (Labeobarbus kimberleyensis) were collected with the aid of gill nets. Surface water quality variables were included. The cestodes were identified as either Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934 or "other cestode spp.". The majority (99.8%) of the cestodes found in both yellowfish species were identified as B. acheilognathi (Asian tapeworm). The prevalence, mean intensity and abundance of B. acheilognathi in both yellowfish species were calculated. Ecological parameters including species specificity, seasonality, gender specificity and relationships between fish size and the Asian tapeworm prevalence were also included. In this study, B. acheilognathi preferred L. kimberleyensis over L. aeneus although a low intensity was observed in smallmouth yellowfish. Furthermore, the infection (in terms of prevalence, abundance and mean intensity) in largemouth yellowfish was markedly higher. Seasonal patterns observed in the Asian tapeworm's infection of smallmouth yellowfish are attributed to breeding and subsequent feeding patterns of this fish species with relatively high infections recorded in winter and spring. For L. kimberleyensis no explanation can be given regarding the seasonal patterns observed for the mean intensity and abundance of B. acheilognathi. The maximum and minimum mean intensity and abundance values in largemouth yellowfish were recorded in autumn and spring, respectively. In addition, the prevalence of B. acheilognathi was consistently high in all four seasons. PMID:16300189
Bertasso, A; Avenant-Oldewage, A
The Asian tapeworm Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) is a large-sized (body length up to 11.5 cm) monozoic (unsegmented) parasite of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) that may cause mortality of young fish (fry). Since the 1960s, this cestode successfully colonized a large part of Europe, including the British Isles, North America and Japan. However, a review of published records provides evidence that the tapeworm K. sinensis, invasive parasite of carp, has become less common during the last two decades. Decline of K. sinensis may have been related to the recent introduction of another invasive tapeworm, the caryophyllidean Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 to Europe. Other factors that may have caused that K. sinensis is much less common than previously are also briefly discussed. A comparison of K. sinensis from feral and cultured carp, published to date, with those recently found for the first time in wild populations of carp in Slovakia did not reveal any marked differences in their morphology or measurements. PMID:19520514
Oros, Mikulás; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Scholz, Tomás
Mitochondrial thioredoxin-glutathione reductase was purified from larval Taenia crassiceps (cysticerci). The preparation showed NADPH-dependent reductase activity with either thioredoxin or GSSG, and was able to perform thiol/disulfide exchange reactions. At 25°C specific activities were 437 ± 27 mU mg?1 and 840 ± 49 mU mg?1 with thioredoxin and GSSG, respectively. Apparent Km values were 0.87 ± 0.04??M, 41 ± 6??M and 19 ± 10??M for thioredoxin, GSSG and NADPH, respectively. Thioredoxin from eukaryotic sources was accepted as substrate. The enzyme reduced H2O2 in a NADPH-dependent manner, although with low catalytic efficiency. In the presence of thioredoxin, mitochondrial TGR showed a thioredoxin peroxidase-like activity. All disulfide reductase activities were inhibited by auranofin, suggesting mTGR is dependent on selenocysteine. The reductase activity with GSSG showed a higher dependence on temperature as compared with the DTNB reductase activity. The variation of the GSSG- and DTNB reductase activities on pH was dependent on the disulfide substrate. Like the cytosolic isoform, mTGR showed a hysteretic kinetic behavior at moderate or high GSSG concentrations, but it was less sensitive to calcium. The enzyme was able to protect glutamine synthetase from oxidative inactivation, suggesting that mTGR is competent to contend with oxidative stress.
Guevara-Flores, Alberto; del Arenal, Irene P.; Mendoza-Hernandez, Guillermo; Pardo, Juan Pablo; Flores-Herrera, Oscar; Rendon, Juan L.
From March 1996 to February 1997, slaughtered-sheeps' heads were examined for the metacestode of Taenia multiceps. Out of 451 sheep heads, only 12 (3%) were infested. All cysts but one were in the age group 0.5-2.5 years old, with prevalence of 10% (11 of 108). Eleven of 12 infested heads were found during the spring and autumn seasons. Out of 95 flocks involved in questionnaire survey unrelated to the abattoir survey, all the farmers reported the existence of the clinical signs known for coenurosis and described it in locally known names and diseases. Twenty-five of them had recent cases that were diagnosed by the veterinarian as coenurosis cases. Each flock reported one or two cases at the time of survey. A variety of clinical signs were reported from these cases (n = 42). These included circling (86%), head pressing (52%), blindness (29%) and paresis (40%). Coenurosis is a sheep-health problem and an important cause of sheep culling in Jordan. PMID:12383656
Abo-Shehada, Mahmoud N; Jebreen, Eyad; Arab, Baker; Mukbel, Rami; Torgerson, Paul R
The cellular organisation of Taenia ovis oncospheres is interpreted from ultrathin serial sections and transmission electron microscopy following high pressure freezing and freeze-substitution. The surface of a hatched, non-activated T. ovis oncosphere is covered by an oncospheral membrane below which is the tegument bearing microvilli. The basal lamina of the tegument is underlain by broad bands of peripheral somatic musculature. Three pairs of hooks and associated muscles are present in the somatophoric third of the oncosphere. Approximately 19 cells of seven different types were identified which include: (i) a quadri-nucleated syncytium of penetration gland type 1 containing two lateral pairs of cell bodies interconnected by narrow cytoplasmic bridges (PG1); (ii) a quadri-nucleated syncytium of penetration gland type 2 (PG2); (iii) a single-nucleated median mesophoric gland cell; (iv) 10 somatic cells; (v) two germinative cells; (vi) two nerve cells; and (vii) a pair of median somatophoric cells. This study provides a clear understanding of the morphology of T. ovis oncospheres and forms the basis for further investigations into the biology of taeniid oncospheres. PMID:20478311
Jabbar, Abdul; Crawford, Simon; M?ocicki, Daniel; Swiderski, Zdzis?aw P; Conn, David B; Jones, Malcolm K; Beveridge, Ian; Lightowlers, Marshall W
The paper describes the epidemiological investigation carried out on two dairy farms with cattle infected with Taenia saginata cysts. On the first affected farm it was estimated using Bayesian techniques that approximately 65% of 1400 mixed-age cattle were infected with Taenia saginata cysts. The investigation aimed to determine potential exposure pathways of cattle to Taenia saginata with a view to finding the human source of infection and to describe the epidemiology of the outbreak on the affected farms. In order to determine potential exposure pathways, investigation was centred on how feed or water could have been contaminated with eggs. The plausibility of pathways was determined by examining the spatial and temporal association between factors related to the pathway and the prevalence of infection in cattle strata. We describe the investigation carried out on affected farms. PMID:21130574
McFadden, A M J; Heath, D D; Morley, C M; Dorny, P
Superoxide dismutase was purified from Taenia taeniaeformis metacestodes by sequential ion exchange chromatography on quaternary-amino-ethyl-cellulose, gel filtration chromatography on ACA 44 and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, followed by chromatofocusing on polybuffer exchanger 94. This isolation procedure resulted in the detection of a single protein-staining band on alkaline gels, coincident with enzyme activity. We have, however, detected what appear to be two peaks of enzyme activity within this single protein-staining band. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using gradient slab gels and analysis under reducing conditions, resulted in the detection of only one protein at an apparent Mr of 16,600, while analysis under non-reducing conditions, gave a single protein of an apparent Mr of 64,000. The isoelectric point of the purified protein is 6.6. Boiling for 3 min completely destroyed the enzyme, whereas incubation for 2 h at 37 degrees C resulted in the loss of 56% of the enzymic activity. Incubation with 10 mM KCN resulted in 83% inhibition of the enzyme. We have detected up to 168 U ml-1 of enzyme activity in the cyst fluid surrounding the parasite in situ. This is the first instance in which any parasite superoxide dismutase has been purified to apparent homogeneity. Parasite-mediated enzymic destruction of superoxide anion can not only protect against oxygen toxicity as a result of normal parasite respiratory processes but also may serve as yet another mechanism used by tissue-dwelling parasites to evade host immunologic attack. PMID:3960056
Leid, R W; Suquet, C M
Infection with helminth parasites triggers strong and stereotypic immune responses in humans and mice, which can protect against specific experimentally-induced autoimmune diseases. We have shown that infection with the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, confers a protective effect on FCA-induced joint inflammation. Here, we investigated the effect of a prophylactic infection with H. diminuta on the K/BxN-serum model of polyarthritis in BALB/c mice. Mice were infected with 10 cysticercoids of H. diminuta by oral gavage and 8 days later arthritis was induced by i.p. injection of K/BxN arthritogenic serum. Joint swelling and pain measurements were recorded throughout a 13 day time course. At necropsy, joints and blood serum were collected. K/BxN-treated mice developed joint inflammation in the front paws, hind paws and knees as shown by increased swelling, mechanical allodynia and myeloperoxidase activity. Mice infected with H. diminuta had more severe disease, with increased eosinophil peroxidase activity in their paws and greater inflammatory infiltrate and synovitis in the knee joints. Hymenolepis diminuta-infected mice displayed significant increases in serum levels of C5a and mast cell protease-1 compared with K/BxN-serum only treatment, the latter being indicative of mast cell activation. In contrast to the protective effect of infection with H. diminuta in FCA-induced monoarthritis, infection with this helminth exacerbated K/BxN serum-induced polyarthritis in BALB/c mice. This correlated with increases in C5a and mast cell activation: factors critical in the development of K/BxN-induced arthritis. Thus, while data accumulate from animal models showing that infection with helminth parasites may be beneficial for a variety of auto-inflammatory diseases, our findings demonstrate the potential for helminths to exacerbate disease. Hence care is needed when helminth therapy is translated into a clinical setting. PMID:23583716
Graepel, Rabea; Leung, Gabriella; Wang, Arthur; Villemaire, Michelle; Jirik, Frank R; Sharkey, Keith A; McDougall, Jason J; McKay, Derek M
Various studies have shown that the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi causes great economic loss in hatcheries, fish farms as well as in lakes. In order to understand the seasonal variation of infection in a nutrient-enriched lake, parasitological investigation was carried out in the indigenous cyprinid fish, Schizothorax niger Heckel 1838 from September, 2008 to August, 2009. Overall, this study revealed definite seasonality of infection (p?0.05), with greater infection in summer (prevalence?=?39.5%) and lesser in winter (prevalence?=?8.1%). The prevalence among different seasons revealed significant differences (p?0.05). Sex was not an important factor influencing the prevalence of the Asian tapeworm. A strong positive correlation (Pearson's correlation, r?=?0.7; p?=?0.02) between total length of S. niger and number of Asian fish tapeworms was observed. Similarly, a strong positive correlation existed between weight of fish and number of tapeworms (Pearson's correlation, r?=?0.7; p?=?0.005). Prevalence and mean abundance were positively and significantly correlated with water temperature (r?=?0.8, p?0.01 and r?=?0.8, p?0.01, respectively). Thus seasonal dynamics, total length and weight of the host significantly influenced the tapeworm infection. The above findings will be useful in devising the appropriate control strategies for the Asian tapeworm in wild fish in Kashmir valley as well as in similar climatic zones of other parts of the world. Also, information from this study will be used to assess the spread and extent of B. acheilognathi which is a potential threat to the indigenous fish fauna of Anchar Lake. PMID:21739312
Zargar, Ummer Rashid; Chishti, M Z; Yousuf, A R; Ahmed, Fayaz
Fate and proliferation of gastric mucosal cells during hyperplasia of Taenia taeniaeformis eggs inoculated Wistar rats were investigated using PCNA immunohistochemistry, BrdU labeling and other histopathologic staining techniques. Results revealed marked cell proliferation in gastric corpus and antral mucosa of infected rats as evidenced by increased lengths of proliferative zones and indices of BrdU labeling. The gastropathy in corpus was
J. T. Lagapa; Y. Oku; N. Nonaka; M. Kamiya
A first record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) from the Kangerlussuaq population in West Greenland suggests that introduced muskoxen now contributes to the transmission of this parasite in addition to previous observations from caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Muskoxen and caribou are the only wild ungulates in Greenland. PMID:21955737
Raundrup, Katrine; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen
Bovine cysticercosis caused by Taenia saginata is a zoonotic disease warranting routine inspection measures for the postmortem detection of cysticerci (cysts) in beef destined for human consumption. Detection is based on gross examination of traditional carcass predilection sites, although there is evidence to suggest that examination of other sites may offer improvements in sensitivity. In order to evaluate the efficacy
Brad Scandrett; Sarah Parker; Lorry Forbes; Alvin Gajadhar; Paron Dekumyoy; Jitra Waikagul; Deborah Haines
A sero-epidemiological survey of Taenia saginata cysticercosis was carried out to determine the prevalence of the infection in cattle presented for slaughter in Belgium. Between November 1997 and June 1998, a total of 1164 serum samples were collected in 20 export abattoirs. Meat inspection was routinely carried out by veterinary inspectors. Serum samples were examined for circulating parasite antigen using
P Dorny; F Vercammen; J Brandt; W Vansteenkiste; D Berkvens; S Geerts
The distribution of Taenia saginata cysts among organs and muscle groups was determined by slicing the heart, masseters, liver and muscles of the half carcass of 21 naturally infected Zebu cattle from Morogoro abattoir, Tanzania. The carcasses harboured from 1 to 310 cysts. In the muscle groups, normally considered predilection sites, the heart and Musculus triceps brachii harboured the highest
Godfrey E. Maeda; Niels Chr. Kyvsgaard; Peter Nansen; Henrik O. Bøgh
The Taenia saginata taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a cosmopolitan zoonosis of great medical, veterinary and economic importance where humans play an important role as the carrier of adult stage and cattle as carrier of the larval stage of the parasite. Here we reviewed aspects concerning diagnosis, vaccine development, biological control and treatment of the disease. PMID:20701576
Silva, Claudio V; Costa-Cruz, Julia M
Taenia saginatais a medically and economically important cestode parasite. Infection with the cysticercus larval stage in cattle causes economic loss in the beef meat industry. A practical vaccine to prevent infection with the parasite in cattle would be valuable and would assist in control of transmission of the parasite to humans, the obligate definitive host. Here we use recombinant DNA
Marshall W. Lightowlers; Rick Rolfe; Charles G. Gauci
Two groups of 12 calves were given either a single infection dose of 30,000 Taenia saginata eggs (group A) or trickle infected with 12 × 2500 T saginata eggs (group B). The calves were killed 16, 22 or 54 weeks after infection and the numbers of viable and dead parasites were counted by slicing selected organs and muscles of half
The preferential sites of infection of Cysticercus bovis were evaluated in the skeletal muscle and entrails of 25 cattle that were experimentally infected with Taenia saginata (2×104 eggs). Two other animals were not inoculated (control). Ninety days after inoculation, all the cattle were euthanized. The carcasses were deboned and dissected into 26 anatomical sections (masseter muscles, brain, tongue, esophagus, heart,
Welber D. Z. Lopes; Thaís R. Santos; Vando E. Soares; Jorge L. N. Nunes; Rafael P. Mendonça; Roberto C. A. de Lima; Cláudio A. M. Sakamoto; Gustavo H. N. Costa; Vanete Thomaz-Soccol; Gilson P. Oliveira; Alvimar J. Costa
Cysticercosis, an infection caused by the cystic larvae of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, is one of the most frequent parasitic infections of the human nervous system (neurocysticercosis). It is endemic in most of Latin America, the sub-Saharan Africa, and vast parts of Asia, including the Indian subcontinent. It has also been increasingly diagnosed in developed countries because of migration of people from endemic zones and exposure in travelers. The life cycle involves the development of the adult tapeworm in the human small intestine (after ingesting infected pork with cysts) and larval infection in pig tissues (after ingesting human stools containing the eggs of the tapeworm). Humans get infected by the fecal-oral route, most often from a direct contact with an asymptomatic Taenia carrier. Most common clinical presentations are seizures (particularly late-onset seizures), chronic headaches, and intracranial hypertension. However, cysticerci can locate anywhere in the human nervous system, thus potentially causing almost any neurological syndrome and making clinical diagnosis a difficult task. Neuroimaging is the main diagnostic tool, and specific serology confirms the diagnosis and helps to define the diagnosis when images are unclear. Factors such as location (extraparenchymal versus intraparenchymal), number, size and evolutive stage of the parasites determine the clinical manifestations, therapeutic approach, and prognosis. Management includes symptomatic drugs (analgesics, antiepileptic drugs, anti-inflammatory agents) and in many cases cysticidal drugs, either albendazole or praziquantel. In recent years, efforts have focused on transmission control and potential elimination in endemic regions. PMID:23829921
Del Brutto, Oscar H; Garcia, Hector H
Different species of Cassia plant are widely available in India and are commonly used either for their laxative, antimicrobial or antibacterial activity. In the present study the effectiveness in vitro of the crude alcoholic extracts of three species, namely Cassia alata, C. occidentalis and C. angustifolia, in the early paralysis and mortality of the fowl tapeworm Raillietina tetragona at concentrations ranging from 5 to 80 mg/ml was investigated. Time of paralysis and death were monitored frequently. Immediately after paralysis the tapeworms were processed for electron microscopic studies. While the untreated or control parasites survived for 81.93 ± 5.85 h, the parasites treated with C. alata took less time (1.68 ± 0.27 h) to be paralysed, followed by those treated with C. angustifolia (2.95 ± 0.29 h). Although C. occidentalis took more time (4.13 ± 0.31 h) to paralyse, in combination with either C. alata or C. angustifolia the time taken to paralyse became shorter. All the plant-treated parasites showed irrevocable changes in the scolex and proglottids as compared with the control, and these observations are comparable with those obtained with praziquantel. These results indicate that the three plants tested can be claimed to have anthelmintic activity in addition to their known properties, both when used individually and in combination. Further investigations will be required to evaluate their mechanism of action. PMID:22433293
Kundu, S; Lyndem, L M
The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa was held in Asahikawa Medical University, Japan on 15 and 16 Feb 2011. This meeting was fully supported by the Asian Science and Technology Strategic Cooperation Promotion Programs sponsored by the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education Japan (MEXT) for 3 years from 2010 to Akira Ito. A total of 24 researchers from 9 countries joined together and discussed the present situation and problems towards the control of cestode zoonoses. As the meeting was simultaneously for the establishment of joint international, either bilateral or multilateral collaboration projects, the main purposes were directed to 1) how to detect taeniasis/cysticercosis infected patients, 2) how to differentiate Taenia solium from two other human Taenia species, T. saginata and T. asiatica, 3) how to evaluate T. asiatica based on the evidence of hybrid and hybrid-derived adult tapeworms from Thailand and China, 4) how to evaluate T. solium and T. hyaenae and other Taenia species from the wild animals in Ethiopia, and 5) how to detect echinococcosis patients and 6) how to differentiate Echinococcus species worldwide. Such important topics are summarized in this meeting report. PMID:21693001
Ito, Akira; Okamoto, Munehiro; Li, Tiaoying; Wandra, Toni; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Swastika, Kadek I; Dekumyoy, Paron; Kusolsuk, Teera; Davvajav, Abmed; Davaasuren, Anu; Dorjsuren, Temuulen; Mekonnen, Sissay M; Negasi, Zerihun H; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Lavikainen, Antti J; Nkouawa, Agathe; Mohammadzadeh, Tahereh
The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa was held in Asahikawa Medical University, Japan on 15 and 16 Feb 2011. This meeting was fully supported by the Asian Science and Technology Strategic Cooperation Promotion Programs sponsored by the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education Japan (MEXT) for 3 years from 2010 to Akira Ito. A total of 24 researchers from 9 countries joined together and discussed the present situation and problems towards the control of cestode zoonoses. As the meeting was simultaneously for the establishment of joint international, either bilateral or multilateral collaboration projects, the main purposes were directed to 1) how to detect taeniasis/cysticercosis infected patients, 2) how to differentiate Taenia solium from two other human Taenia species, T. saginata and T. asiatica, 3) how to evaluate T. asiatica based on the evidence of hybrid and hybrid-derived adult tapeworms from Thailand and China, 4) how to evaluate T. solium and T. hyaenae and other Taenia species from the wild animals in Ethiopia, and 5) how to detect echinococcosis patients and 6) how to differentiate Echinococcus species worldwide. Such important topics are summarized in this meeting report.
We analyzed the DNA content of hepatocyte and erythrocyte nuclei of the spined loach Cobitis taenia (diploid) and its allopolyploid forms. Twenty triploid females and one tetraploid were used. At least 20,000 hepatocyte and\\u000a erythrocyte nuclei were acquired and analyzed by flow cytometry. C. taenia erythrocyte nuclei contain 3.15 ± 0.21 pg of DNA and the hepatocyte nuclei 4.45 ± 0.46 pg of DNA. Triploid Cobitis
Dorota Juchno; Bozena Lackowska; Alicja Boron; Wincenty Kilarski
In guinea-pig taenia coli, cobalt ions (Co2+) inhibited the tonic response to a highly concentrated K+ solution (high-K+, 40 mM) more strongly than the phasic response. Co2+ displaced Ca2+ concentration-response curves to the right, inhibited the increase in tissue calcium content caused by high-K+, and inhibited Ca2+ binding at low affinity sites more than at high affinity sites. After treatment with Co2+, the tonic tension caused by high-K+ was not restored by a wash with normal medium, but it was restored by a wash with EDTA. The cobalt remaining in muscles was almost completely eliminated after a 20-30 min wash with EDTA. The results suggest that Co2+ binds chiefly to the surface membrane of taenia coli. Co2+ probably reduced the tension in response to high-K+ mainly by inhibiting Ca2+ influx rather than by affecting Ca2+ release. PMID:1361529
Caulis Bambusae in Taenia is a medicinal preparation from Bambusa tuldoides Munro consisting of skinless slices of the stem (bamboo shavings) and used as a traditional health food in tea, wine, and soup in Asia. Three novel lignans, (-)-7'-epi-lyoniresinol 4,9'-di-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (7), (-)-lyoniresinol 4,9'-di-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (8), bambulignan A (10), and seven known lignan compounds (1-6 and 9) were isolated from Caulis Bambusae in Taenia. The structures of the lignans were determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis (HRESIMS, HSQC, HMBC, NOE). All the isolated lignans were tested for antioxidant activities by DPPH and FARP assays. The results showed that the compounds (+)-lyoniresinol 9'-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (1) and (-)-7'-epi-lyoniresinol 9'-O-?-D- glucopyranoside (9) have strong free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. PMID:23578339
Sun, Jia; Yu, Jin; Zhang, Pei-Cheng; Tang, Feng; Yue, Yong-De; Yang, Ya-Nan; Feng, Zi-Ming; Guo, Xue-Feng
The aim of this study was to provide molecular detection and characterization of the goat isolate of Taenia hydatigena from Ankara province of Turkey. For this purpose, PCR amplification of small subunit ribosomal RNA (rrnS) and partial sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (mt-CO1) genes were performed in a one-month-old dead goat. According to rrnS-PCR results, parasites were identified as Taenia spp., and partial sequence of mt-CO1 gene was corresponding to T. hydatigena. At the end of the study, we concluded that molecular tools can be used to define species of parasites in cases where the key morphologic features cannot be detected. Nucleotide sequence data of Turkish goat isolate of T. hydatigena was submitted to GenBank for other researchers interested in this subject. By this study, molecular detection and characterization of T. hydatigena was done for the first time in Turkey.
Utuk, Armagan Erdem; Piskin, Fatma Cigdem
Immunodeficient mice were studied to determine their suitability as models in investigating the role of Taenia taeniaeformis larval products in the development of gastric hyperplasia. Recombinant active gene 2 (RAG2)-deficient and severe combined immune-deficient (SCID) mice were studied as candidate animal models. RAG2-deficient mice inoculated orally with T. taeniaeformis eggs developed gastric hyperplasia with alcian blue-periodic acid-Schiff-positive cell proliferation similar
Jose Trinipil Lagapa; Kenjiro Konno; Yuzaburo Oku; Nariaki Nonaka; Mamoru Ito; Masao Kamiya
The serological response of five calves which had received a dose of 10,000Taenia saginata eggs at 2–3 days of age and weekly serial doses of 500 eggs for 12 months thereafter, was compared with that of a similar group of five calves which had received a single infection of 10,000 eggs at 2–3 days of age only. Both groups developed
G. J. Gallie; M. M. H. Sewell
Calves were infected with eggs ofTaenia saginata and the haematologic response and the antigen-induced responsiveness of their peripheral blood lymphocytes was followed. No changes were observed in the erythrocyte levels, but a leukocytosis developed. This was contributed to primarily by a lymphocytosis, but also by an eosinophilia. Antigen-induced lymphocyte blastogenesis measured the antigen-sensitive cell population in peripheral blood and this
Sera from calves, either experimentally or naturally infected with Taenia saginata, were screened for an antibody response to T. saginata, and for parasite antigen, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). An antibody response was detected by 3 weeks post infection (p.i.), rose to a peak at 10–12 weeks p.i., and was still in evidence 1 year p.i. Parasite antigen was first
J. A. Onyango-Abuje; G. Hughes; M. Opicha; K. M. Nginyi; M. K. Rugutt; S. H. Wright; L. J. S. Harrison
This article reviews the epidemiological investigation of taeniasis saginata in 10 counties of 7 provinces/ autonomous regions in western China. The morphological observation of adult worms, molecular identification of 10 isolates of the worms, experimental infection on pigs and cattle with Taenia saginata and T. asiatica, observation on development and biology behavior of cysticercus, and pathological changes in the intermediate host pig and cattle revealed that T. asiatica is a new species, instead of a subspecies of T. saginata. PMID:20232638
Bao, Huai-En; Mou, Rong
Approximately 50,000Taenia saginata eggs were given orally to bullocks. Ten weeks later, mebendazole or praziquantel was administered in the fodder in single or multiple doses. The animals were slaughtered at intervals after medication when the numbers and viability of cysticerci in various sites were recorded. Single doses of 5 mg\\/kg mebendazole or 10 mg\\/kg praziquantel had little effect on the
Z. Pawlowski; B. Kozakeiwicz; H. Wroblewski
1.Bay K 8644, a dihydropyridine Ca2+ agonist, (10?6 M), induced strong rhythmic contractions in taenia coli and induced a contracture after about 5.5 hr of the application. Increases in Bay K 8644 concentrations prolonged the period of rhythmic contractions and slowed the onset of the contracture.2.Nifedipine, a dihydropyridine Ca2+ antagonist, inhibited the delayed contracture to Bay K 8644 more than
T. Nasu; M. Sasaki; H. Shibata
Immunity in Taeniids is predominantly antibody mediated and thus many serological immuno-determinants will have potential in both protection and diagnosis. The antigenicity of six peptides derived from four potentially protective molecules cloned from a Taenia saginata oncospheres cDNA library have been evaluated as targets for the specific diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis. The six peptides consist of: two peptides (HP6-2 and
E Ferrer; L Benitez; M Foster-Cuevas; D Bryce; L. W Wamae; J. A Onyango-Abuje; T Garate; L. J. S Harrison; R. M. E Parkhouse
This report describes the use of a nucleic acid vaccine in a large outbred animal species both alone and in combination with a conventionally adjuvanted vaccine. The gene encoding a host-protective antigen (45W) from the sheep parasite Taenia ovis was cloned into the expression vector pcDNA3 and the resultant plasmid termed pcDNA3-45W. Eleven of 15 sheep injected either intramuscularly or
JS Rothel; JG Waterkeyn; RA Strugnell; PR Wood; H-F Seow; J Vadolas; MW Lightowlers
The postoncospheral development and cycle of Taenia polyacantha Leuckart, 1856, an holarctic species of cestode, were investigated in the laboratory as well as in the tundra of northern Alaska. Foxes, Alopex lapogus (L.) and Vulpes vulpes (L.), serve as final host of T. polyacantha; the northern vole, Microtus oeconomus (Pallas), and the brown lemming, Lemmus sibiricus (Kerr), are important as the intermediate host. As determined in experimentally infected voles and lemmings, the oncosphere of T. polyacantha transformed to a primary vesicle in the liver. On the 6th day postexposure, coinciding with its migration to the peritoneal cavity, the larval cestode consisted of a minute aggregation of secondary vesicles. By 9-10 days postexposure, the secondary vesicles dissociated, thereafter developing independently to infective cysticerci by 30-40 days postexposure. At an age of about 60 days, the infective larvae began to undergo further growth and morphological modification, which led to acquisition of some strobilar characteristics by the forebody. Such late transformation of a cysticercus to a more advanced form of larva is known otherwise only in Taenia martis (Zeder, 1803). Differences in numbers and sizes of rostellar hooks provided the basis for recognition of two taxa at the infraspecific level: Taenia p. polyacantha Leuckart, 1856, distributed in Eurasia to the south of the zone of tundra, and T. p. arctica ssp. nov., present throughout the holarctic tundra. Observations concerning interactions of T. polyacantha and its hosts are discussed. PMID:3059953
Rausch, R L; Fay, F H
A total of 16 Taenia multiceps isolates collected from naturally infected sheep or goats in Gansu Province, China were characterized by sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The complete cox1 gene was amplified for individual T. multiceps isolates by PCR, ligated to pMD18T vector, and sequenced. Sequence analysis indicated that out of 16 T. multiceps isolates 10 unique cox1 gene sequences of 1,623 bp were obtained with sequence variation of 0.12-0.68%. The results showed that the cox1 gene sequences were highly conserved among the examined T. multiceps isolates. However, they were quite different from those of the other Taenia species. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete cox1 gene sequences revealed that T. multiceps isolates were composed of 3 genotypes and distinguished from the other Taenia species.
Li, Wen Hui; Jia, Wan Zhong; Qu, Zi Gang; Xie, Zhi Zhou; Luo, Jian Xun; Yin, Hong; Sun, Xiao Lin; Blaga, Radu
The flatworm mitochondrial genetic code, which has been used for all species of the Platyhelminthes, is mainly characterized by AUA codon for isoleucine, AAA codon for asparagine and UAA codon for tyrosine. In eight species of cestodes (Echinococcus multilocularis, Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia crassiceps, Hymenolepis nana and Mesocestoides corti), the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I
Minoru Nakao; Yasuhito Sako; Noriko Yokoyama; Masahito Fukunaga; Akira Ito
Taenia multiceps is a cestode parasite, the larval stage of which encysts in the brain of sheep, goats and cattle causing an often fatal condition. The parasite also causes zoonotic infections in humans. Homologues of the recombinant oncosphere vaccine antigens from Taenia ovis and other Taenia species were identified in T. multiceps. Sequencing of the associated T. multiceps genes and cloning of the encoding mRNA has revealed conserved features in the genes and proteins. The T. multiceps oncosphere proteins, designated Tm16 and Tm18, contain a predicted secretory signal and fibronectin type III domain. The recombinant Tm16 and Tm18 proteins were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins with GST. The antigens, formulated with Quil A adjuvant, were tested in a vaccine trial in sheep. The antigens stimulated immunity in sheep against challenge infection with T. multiceps eggs. Five of nine control sheep died due to a challenge infection with T. multiceps whereas none of 20 vaccinated animals died as a result of the parasite challenge (P = 0.001). In addition, vaccination with the Tm16 protein, or Tm16 plus Tm18, induced significant protection against the number of parasites encysting in the brain as a result of the challenge infection (P = 0.023, P = 0.015, respectively). No clear relationship was apparent between the level of specific serum antibody in vaccinated animals and either the presence or absence of parasites or the number of parasites that occurred in some of the vaccinated animals. We believe this study is the first description of recombinant vaccine-related investigations for T. multiceps. The recombinant oncosphere antigens identified may allow development of effective vaccination strategies against T. multiceps infection in sheep. They raise the potential for the development of a combined vaccine with the Echinococcus granulosus EG95 antigen for prevention of T. multiceps as well as preventing the transmission of cystic hydatid disease.
Gauci, Charles; Vural, Gulay; Oncel, Taraneh; Varcasia, Antonio; Damian, Veronica; Kyngdon, Craig T.; Craig, Philip S.; Anderson, Garry A.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.
A clone (R-Tso18) was isolated from a Taenia saginata oncosphere cDNA library by screening with sera from rabbits immunised with oncosphere extract. It contained a full-length\\u000a cDNA sequence of 1893?bp with an open reading frame of 1680?bp, corresponding to 559 amino acids with a deduced molecular\\u000a mass of 65.173?kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.08. The R-Tso18 protein showed 80–84%
Laura Benitez; Leslie J. S. Harrison; R. Michael E. Parkhouse; Luis M. Gonzalez; Bruno Gottstein; Teresa Garate
Using ''long-PCR'' we have amplified in overlapping fragments the complete mitochondrial genome of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) and determined its 13,900 nucleotide sequence. The gene content is the same as that typically found for animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) except that atp8 appears to be lacking, a condition found previously for several other animals. Despite the small size of this mtDNA, there are two large non-coding regions, one of which contains 13 repeats of a 31 nucleotide sequence and a potential stem-loop structure of 25 base pairs with an 11-member loop. Large potential secondary structures are identified also for the non-coding regions of two other cestode mtDNAs. Comparison of the mitochondrial gene arrangement of H. diminuta with those previously published supports a phylogenetic position of flatworms as members of the Eutrochozoa, rather than being basal to either a clade of protostomes or a clade of coelomates.
von Nickisch-Rosenegk, Markus; Brown, Wesley M.; Boore, Jeffrey L.
The ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and mature spermatozoon in Lytocestus indicus (Cestoda: Lytocestidae) is described; this is the first representative of this group of monozoic, presumably most basal, tapeworms (Eucestoda) from the Indomalayan region to be documented in this manner. Similarly, as in other caryophyllideans, its spermiogenesis involves the formation of a conical differentiation zone with 2 centrioles associated with striated roots and an intercentriolar body. In the course of the process, 1 of the centrioles develops a free flagellum, which fuses with a cytoplasmic protrusion, whereas the other remains oriented in a cytoplasmic bud. Spermiogenesis is also characterized by the presence of electron-dense material in the early stages of spermiogenesis and a slight rotation of the flagellar bud. The mature spermatozoon of L. indicus is a filiform cell tapered at both extremities that lacks mitochondria; its nucleus has parallel disposition to the axoneme and does not reach up to the posterior extremity of the spermatozoon, which is typical for spermatozoa of the type III pattern. The new data confirm that caryophyllideans share the same type of spermiogenesis that is considered to be plesiomorphic in the Eucestoda. The existing information on spermatological ultrastructure of 8 members for 3 of 4 caryophyllidean families from different host groups (cyprinids and catostomids, both Cypriniformes, and mochokids and clariids, both Siluriformes) from 4 zoogeographical regions (Palearctic, Neotropic, Ethiopian, and Indomalayan regions) demonstrates great uniformity in spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure, which does not reflect different taxonomic position of the species studied. PMID:22010629
Yoneva, Aneta; Levron, Céline; Ash, Anirban; Scholz, Tomáš
The family Nematotaeniidae, tapeworms commonly found in the small intestines of amphibians and reptiles, includes 27 recognised species distributed among four genera: Bitegmen Jones, Cylindrotaenia Jewell, Distoichometra Dickey and Nematotaenia Lühe. The taxonomy of these cestodes is poorly defined, due in part to the difficulties of observing many anatomical traits. This study presents and describes a new genus and species of nematotaeniid parasite found in cane toads (Rhinella marina) from eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The cestodes were collected during the necropsy of 20 hosts captured in the urban area of Belém, Pará. The specimens were fixed and processed for light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. Samples were also collected for molecular analyses. The specimens presented a cylindrical body, two testes and paruterine organs. However, they could not be allocated to any of the four existing nematotaeniid genera due to the presence of two each of dorsal compact medullary testes, cirri, cirrus pouches, genital pores, ovaries and vitelline glands per mature segment. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. is the first nematotaeniid studied using Historesin analysis, SEM and 3D reconstruction, and it is the second taxon for which molecular data have been deposited in GenBank. PMID:22012220
Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Soares, Maurílio José; Gonçalves, Evonnildo Costa; Vallinoto, Antonio Carlos Rosário; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento dos
A parasitological survey in the Bay of Fundy, Canada, resulted in the recovery of mature specimens from 5 species of phyllobothriid tapeworms (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) from 4 rajid skates: Echeneibothrium canadensis and E. dubium abyssorum specimens from Amblyraja radiata; E. vernetae and Pseudanthobothrium n.sp. from Leucoraja erinacea and L. ocellata; and P. hanseni from A. radiata and Malacoraja senta. Partial sequence data of a variable region (D2) from the large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU) were used here to determine the host distribution of immature specimens for 4 of these 5 species (E. d. abyssorum was not included in the analyses). Immature specimens from both Pseudanthobothrium spp. were identified in the same hosts as recorded previously for mature specimens, thus suggesting that there are mechanisms that prevent the attachment of the parasite in an 'unsuitable' host species. Immature E. canadensis specimens were recovered exclusively from A. radiata, whereas immature E. vernetae specimens were recovered from L. erinacea and A. radiata, despite the latter host species not harbouring mature E. vernetae specimens. Their presence in the latter host species may be explained by host restriction or resistance, which allows the attachment of the parasites in the 'wrong' host species, but not establishment or development. PMID:17462121
Randhawa, H S; Saunders, G W; Burt, M D B
The documented range of the invasive and potentially pathogenic Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934 in the United States and Canada is updated based on examination of museum depositions and original field collections. Gravid specimens of B. acheilognathi were collected from the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Rafinesque in Peter Lake, at the University of Notre Dame Environmental Research Center (UNDERC) Land o' Lakes, Wisconsin. A single immature specimen of the parasite was collected from a white bass, Morone chrysops (Rafinesque) in Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. This is the first record of B. acheilognathi in Canada and extends its northern range in the interior of the continent by more than 600 miles over the last documented record. The previous record of B. acheilognathi in Canada, from the northern pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus oregonensis in British Columbia, is a misidentification of Eubothrium tulipai. Examination of selected records of intestinal cestodes from native cyprinids, in the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology (HWML, n = 9) collection and in the United States National Parasite Collection (USNPC, n = 8), provided evidence of the parasite in Nebraska and possibly in the upper Colorado River basin. Introductions into Wisconsin-Michigan were due to the stocking of golden shiners, whereas the source of the introduction in Manitoba remains unknown.
Choudhury, A.; Charipar, E.; Nelson, P.; Hodgson, J. R.; Bonar, S.; Cole, Rebecca. A.
Neuroysticercosis is the most common helminthic infection of the nervous system, and a leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The disease occurs when humans become intermediate hosts of Taenia solium by ingesting its eggs from contaminated food or, most often, directly from a taenia carrier by the fecal-to-oral route. Cysticerci may be located in brain parenchyma, subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or spinal cord, causing pathological changes that are responsible for the pleomorphism of neurocysticercosis. Seizures are the most common clinical manifestation, but many patients present with focal deficits, intracranial hypertension, or cognitive decline. Accurate diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is possible after interpretation of clinical data together with findings of neuroimaging studies and results of immunological tests. The introduction of cysticidal drugs have changed the prognosis of most patients with neurocysticercosis. These drugs have shown to reduce the burden of infection in the brain and to improve the clinical course of the disease in most patients. Further efforts should be directed to eradicate the disease through the implementation of control programs against all the interrelated steps in the life cycle of T. solium, including human carriers of the adult tapeworm, infected pigs, and eggs in the environment.
Del Brutto, Oscar H.
Red deer (Cervus elaphus) were introduced in southern Latin America about a century ago and characteristics of the invasion raise concerns over their epidemiological role for various diseases. We report on the possible occurrence of Taenia ovis krabbei established in a sylvatic cycle in Patagonia. Hook characters, size, appearance, and location of a cysticercus from a wild red deer are consistent with Taenia ovis ovis or T. o. krabbei. Although it is not possible to differentiate between T. o. ovis and T. o. krabbei on morphological grounds with certainty, several biological characteristics indicate the cysticercus may belong to T. o. krabbei. Red deer have been reported to be refractory to T. o. ovis infection whereas other potential intermediate hosts like cattle, goats, pigs and sheep have been shown to be refractory to T. o. krabbei. Other native ungulates sympatric with red deer in Patagonia include Lama guanicoe and the endangered huemul deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus). Possible or known definitive hosts include native felids like Puma concolor, Felis colocolo, F. guigna and canids like Dusicyon griseus, D. culpaeus, and domestic dogs. PMID:16289565
Flueck, Werner T; Jones, Arlene
The management of these infections requires protocols that allow the clinic and laboratory to reach a timely and accurate diagnosis through the differential identification of Taenia species and consequently determine appropriate treatment. On the other hand, the inadequate implementation of treatments and the lack of follow-up coupled with biological phenomena such as resistance to drugs contribute important risks of infection for the population. This case could be caused by a strain of T. saginata with a low sensitivity to albendazole. This case emphasizes the need of developing and implementing techniques that will help us differentiate the species of Taenia in laboratories as well as establish treatments with alternative drugs. It is important to report this kind of infection with the aim of giving laboratory personnel as well as healthcare providers a broader knowledge of these parasites in order to improve treatment with alternative drugs. In addition, improvements in the habits among individuals must be addressed to avoid the increased risk of infection. PMID:22472672
Márquez-Navarro, Adrián; Cornejo-Coria, María del Carmen; Cebada-López, Flora; Sánchez-Manzano, Rosa M; Díaz-Chiguer, Dylan L; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín
Development of Taenia saginata asiatica metacestodes in SCID mice, and its infectivity in humans, golden hamsters, and Mongolian gerbils as alternative definitive hosts, were investigated. Cysticerci were recovered from SCID mice that were subcutaneously injected with hatched oncospheres of T. s. asiatica. The morphological changes of metacestodes were observed. The recovered cysticerci were fed to gerbils, hamsters and humans, to
S. L. Chang; N. Nonaka; M. Kamiya; Y. Kanai; H. K. Ooi; W. C. Chung; Y. Oku
Three calves, to which had been given100,000 eggs ofTaenia saginata at3 months of age, were significantly more resistant to a challenge infection10 months later than two previously uninfected control calves, although their resistance to reinfection was not complete.
G. J. Gallie; M. M. H. Sewell
A monoclonal antibody-based dot-ELISA was developed for the detection of antigen in the sera of cattle with Taenia saginata cysticercosis. After pretreatment of the sera with trichloroacetic acid, antigen could be detected in experimentally infected animals from five weeks after infection. The assay distinguished animals harbouring living cysts from those carrying only dead cysts. A reliable diagnosis of animals harbouring
E Draelants; E Hofkens; E Harding; J Brandt; S Geerts
The present work was undertaken to determine by immunocytochemical methods which of the putative enteric neurotransmitters are contained in axons supplying the guinea-pig taenia coli and what proportion of axons is accounted for by the presence of these substances. Numerous fibres displayed immunoreactivity for dynorphin (DYN), enkephalin (ENK), ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), substance P (SP) and vasoactive
J. B. Furness; S. Pompolo; C. W. R. Shuttleworth; D. E. Burleigh
Cysticerci metabolic studies demonstrate alternative pathways responsible for its survival, such as energy sources, fatty acids oxidation and excretion of ?-hydroxybutirate, which indicates the capability of energy production from proteins. The aim of this study was to detect alternative metabolic pathways for energy production and its end products in Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in vitro exposed to praziquantel and albendazole, in
Marina Clare Vinaud; Cirlane Silva Ferreira; Ruy de Souza Lino Junior; José Clecildo Barreto Bezerra
When potassium (45.4 mM) was applied to isolated taenia of guinea-pig caecum, the muscle developed a rapid phasic and sustained tonic tension during aerobic conditions bubbled with 95% O2:5% CO2. Under hypoxic conditions bubbled with 95% N2:5% CO2, the taenia lost its ability to respond to high potassium with sustained tonic contraction, although it still showed rapid phasic contraction. Raising the glucose concentration from 5.5 to 55.5 mM in the presence of high potassium during hypoxia caused development of a sustained contraction which was 50% that of the muscle in aerobic conditions. In the presence of high potassium, the ATP content of the taenia decreased in hypoxia, but increased with increasing glucose concentration. When the taenia was exposed to hypoxic conditions, the amount of lactate released from the muscle increased. Raising the glucose concentration caused a further increase in lactate release in the presence of high potassium under hypoxia. Good correlations (gamma greater than 0.9) were observed between tension development, the ATP content and lactate release of the taenia in the presence of high potassium under hypoxia when the glucose concentration was varied between 5.5 and 55.5 mM. The total calcium content was increased by the presence of high potassium under aerobic conditions and the increase was abolished when the muscle was exposed to hypoxic conditions. Under hypoxia the total calcium content was not increased by raising the glucose concentration in the presence of high potassium. The cellular calcium content of the taenia, determined by the lanthanum method, was increased in the presence of high potassium under aerobic and hypoxic conditions, but the content was smaller in hypoxic conditions than in aerobic conditions. Under hypoxic conditions, raising the glucose concentration in the presence of high potassium did not affect the cellular calcium content. These results suggest that under hypoxic conditions the potassium-induced sustained contraction of the taenia is increased by raising the glucose concentration owing to increased ATP production through the glycolytic pathway, but not through mechanisms increasing the intracellular Ca concentration.
Ishida, Y; Takagi, K; Urakawa, N
Taenia solium causes cysticercosis in pigs and taeniasis and neurocysticercosis in humans. Oncosphere antigens have proven to be effective as vaccines to protect pigs against an experimental infection with T. solium. A pair-matched vaccination trial field, using a combination of two recombinant antigens, TSOL16 and TSOL18, was undertaken in rural villages of Peru to evaluate the efficacy of this vaccine under natural conditions. Pairs of pigs (n = 137) comprising one vaccinated and one control animal, were allocated to local villagers. Animals received two vaccinations with 200 ?g of each of TSOL16 and TSOL18, plus 5 mg Quil-A. Necropsies were performed 7 months after the animals were distributed to the farmers. Vaccination reduced 99.7% and 99.9% (p < 0.01) the total number of cysts and the number of viable cysts, respectively. Immunization with the TSOL16–TSOL18 vaccines has the potential to control T. solium transmission in areas where the disease is endemic, reducing the source for tapeworm infections in humans.
Jayashi, Cesar M.; Kyngdon, Craig T.; Gauci, Charles G.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.
Cysticercosis caused by the larval stage, cysticercus or cysticerci, of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium was recognized at first in Bali and in Paniai District, Irian Jaya (Papua), Indonesia in the 1970s. In the 1990s a rapid increase in the number of the cases of epileptic seizures and burns in Jayawijaya district, eastern Papua, was observed. There were a total of 1,120 new cases of burns (7.0%) and 293 new cases of epileptic seizures (1.8%) from 15,939 local people during 1991-1995. Both histopathological examination and mitochondrial DNA analysis of resected cysts from patients and pigs revealed cysticerci of T. solium. Antibody responses highly specific to cysticercosis were revealed in approximately 67% and 65% of persons respectively with epileptic seizures and with subcutaneous nodules. Therefore, most cases of epileptic seizures and burns were considered to be associated with cysticercosis in Papua. Additional serologically data from Bali showed that 13.5% of epileptic seizures (10/74) and 12.6% of asymptomatic individuals (94/746) were supposed having been exposed to T. solium. Histopathological evaluation of 80,000 tissue samples in East Java revealed that nine were cysticercosis. All cases were non-moslems and from two ethnic groups, Chinese and Balinese. Epidemiological data on cysticercosis are not available from other provinces of Indonesia, although cases of cysticercosis are occasionally reported. Therefore, other intensive epidemiological studies are strongly recommended, especially covering the eastern part of Indonesia. PMID:12041608
Margono, S S; Subahar, R; Hamid, A; Wandra, T; Sudewi, S S; Sutisna, P; Ito, A
1. Previously, Ishida, Takagi & Urakawa (1984) reported that, in the presence of high K+ (45.4 mM) under hypoxia (95% N2-5% CO2 bubbling), tension and ATP content of the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig taenia caeci increased concomitantly when the glucose concentration was raised. Tension and energy metabolism of the taenia seemed to be closely correlated. In the present experiments, we investigated the metabolic changes during the relaxation phase after the taenia was exposed to hypoxia in the presence of high K+ by measuring the content of phosphagen, inorganic phosphate (Pi) and lactate in the tissue. Oxygen consumption and lactate release from the tissue were also determined to estimate the rate of ATP synthesis. 2. Under hypoxic conditions, high-K(+)-induced tension decreased to one-tenth of maximum in aerobic conditions (95% O2-5% CO2 bubbling); increasing the calcium concentration from 2.5 to 10 mM had no effect. To test receptor-associated stimuli, carbachol or histamine (both 5 microM) had little effect on tension in hypoxia. The calcium ionophore A23187 (10 microM) also did not produce any significant contraction in the presence of high K+ under hypoxia. 3. Hypoxia in the presence of high K+ elicited a rapid decrease in phosphocreatine, approximately in parallel with the decrease in tension. The ATP content decreased gradually while Pi content increased. Lactate content increased rapidly and then partially decreased. 4. The rate of ATP synthesis estimated from the oxygen consumption and lactate release of the taenia was linearly correlated with tension development under aerobic and hypoxic conditions. 5. These results suggest that the decrease in tension of the taenia observed under hypoxic conditions is due to an inhibition of energy metabolism, and not due to an oxygen-sensing step in excitation-contraction coupling.
Ishida, Y; Paul, R J
A pilot survey was conducted in 2 districts in Mozambique to determine the most important health problems facing smallholder pig producers. While African swine fever is the most serious disease that affects pigs at all levels of production in Mozambique, it is likely that productivity is reduced by the presence of mange and gastrointestinal parasites, while in traditional systems the conditions are favourable for the development of porcine cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, which poses a health risk to communities. Results of the pilot survey confirmed that, with the exception of African swine fever, ecto- and endoparasites are probably the most important health risks for producers. Porcine cysticercosis is more prevalent among pigs in traditional, free-ranging systems, while mange becomes a serious factor when pigs are permanently confined. PMID:22332301
Matos, C; Sitoe, C; Afonso, S; Banze, J; Baptista, J; Dias, G; Rodrigues, F; Atanásio, A; Nhamusso, A; Penrith, M L; Willingham, A L
A single enhancing lesion in the brain parenchyma, also called an inflammatory granuloma, is a frequent neurologic diagnosis. One of the commonest causes of this lesion is human neurocysticercosis, the infection by the larvae of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Following the demonstration that viable cysticercosis cysts survive in good conditions for several years in the human brain, single cysticercal granulomas have been consistently interpreted as representing late degeneration of a long-established parasite. On the basis of epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory evidence detailed in this article, we hypothesize that in most cases these inflammatory lesions correspond to parasites that die in the early steps of infection, likely as the natural result of the host immunity overcoming mild infections. GLOSSARY NCC = neurocysticercosis; SCG = single cysticercal granuloma.
Garcia, H.H.; Gonzalez, A.E.; Rodriguez, S.; Tsang, V.C.W.; Pretell, E.J.; Gonzales, I.; Gilman, R.H.
We report disseminated cysticercosis concurrent with taeniasis in a 31-year-old male Japanese, who had visited India three times and stayed for 1 month each time during the previous 1 year. The patient presented increasing numbers of subcutaneous nodules and expelled proglottids, although numerous cysts were also found in the brain in imaging findings, though no neurological symptoms were observed. Histopathological and serological findings strongly indicated cysticercosis. We found taeniid eggs in his stool by microscopic examination and revealed them as the Indian haplotype of Taenia solium by mitochondrial DNA analysis. We concluded that disseminated cysticercosis was caused by the secondary autoinfection with eggs released from the tapeworm carrier himself. After confirming the absence of adult worms in the intestine by copro-polymerase chain reaction, the patient was successfully treated with albendazole at a dose of 15 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Subcutaneous and intracranial lesions had completely disappeared by the end of the treatment period. PMID:23629930
Kobayashi, Ken-ichiro; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Nishiguchi, Takeshi; Isoda, Kenichi; Kokubo, Yasumasa; Ando, Katsuhiko; Katurahara, Masaki; Sako, Yasuhito; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Ito, Akira; Iwabuchi, Sentaro; Ohnishi, Kenji
Human cysticercosis is an infection which is caused by the larvae of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. They can affect any part of the body, the most common sites being the muscle, the CNS and the subcutaneous tissues. In this report , we are presenting the case of a 32-year old woman who came with a history of a painless, freely mobile lump in the left breast. A clinical diagnosis of a fibroadenoma was made and an excision biopsy was done, which revealed the presence of cysticercus lavae, along with a foreign body giant cell reaction. A diagnosis of cysticercus at the atypical sites is rare and it depends mainly on the histopathological examination. Although it is rare, cysticercus should be considered as a differential diagnosis for a mass in the breast and in the areas of a greater prevalence.
T.M., Karthikeyan; D., Manimaran; V.R., Mrinalini
Already the most common brain parasite disease, cysticercosis has been increasingly seen throughout the American Southwest. Symptoms arise from infection with larvae of Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm. Seizures, hydrocephalus, focal deficits and chronic meningitis most commonly result. Cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilia, serology by indirect hemagglutination and computed tomography are helpful adjuncts to diagnosis. New evidence suggests that selective immunosuppression is important for the parasites' survival and that cyst death permits renewed host immunity, which may actually precipitate an acute neurologic presentation. New larvicides, including praziquantel, are being tested in humans; caution is indicated in assessing these drugs because of the acute worsening associated with cyst death. Conventional therapy includes anticonvulsants, steroids or ventricular drainage as needed. Prevention remains the best management. Person-to-person transmission within the United States has recently been documented and merits public health scrutiny.
Grisolia, James Santiago
Voltage-gated calcium (Ca2+) channels provide the pathway for Ca2+ influxes that underlie Ca2+-dependent responses in muscles, nerves and other excitable cells. They are also targets of a wide variety of drugs and toxins. Ca2+ channels are multisubunit protein complexes consisting of a pore-forming ?1 subunit and other modulatory subunits, including the ? subunit. Here, we review the structure and function of schistosome Ca2+ channel subunits, with particular emphasis on variant Ca2+ channel ? subunits (Cav?var) found in these parasites. In particular, we examine the role these ? subunits may play in the action of praziquantel, the current drug of choice against schistosomiasis. We also present evidence that Cav?var homologs are found in other praziquantel-sensitive platyhelminths such as the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, and that these variant ? subunits may thus represent a platyhelminth-specific gene family.
Jeziorski, Michael C.; Greenberg, Robert M.
The interrelationships of the tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoidea) were inferred by analysis of complete gene sequences (approximately 2,200 bp) of 18S small subunit ribosomal DNA (18S) and partial gene sequences (approximately 900 bp) of elongation factor-1alpha (Ef-1alpha). New collections were made of 23 species representing each of the 14 currently recognized orders of tapeworms, including the Amphilinidea, Gyrocotylidea, and the 12 orders of the Eucestoda. Sequences were determined directly from polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products by either manual or automated methods. Nucleotide sequences of platyhelminth species outside of the Cestoidea were obtained for rooting the resulting trees. The 18S sequences were aligned with reference to the secondary structural features of the gene and the Ef-1alpha sequences were aligned with reference to their corresponding amino acid residues. Significant length variation among taxa was observed in the V2, V4, and V7 variable regions of the 18S gene. Such positions where sequences could not be aligned confidently were excluded from the analyses. Third codon positions of the Ef-1alpha gene were inferred to be saturated at an ordinal level of comparison. In addition, a short (approximately 35 bp) intron region of the Ef-1alpha gene was found to be shared only among the eucestode taxa, with the exception of Spathebothrium simplex (Spathebothriidea), which lacked the intron. Complete alignments showing structural features of the genes and sites excluded from analysis are provided as appendices. The sequence data were partitioned into 7 data sets in order to examine the effects of analyses on different subsets of the data. Analyses were conducted on the 2 genes independently, different codon positions of Ef-1alpha, amino acid sequences of Ef-1alpha, and combinations thereof. All subsets of the data were analyzed under the criterion of maximum parsimony as well as minimum evolution using both maximum-likelihood estimated, and LogDet-transformed distances. Results varied among the different data partitions and methods of analysis. Nodes with strong character support, however, were consistently recovered, and a general pattern of evolution was observed. Monophyly of the Cestoidea (Amphilinidea + Gyrocotylidea + Eucestoda) and Eucestoda and the traditionally accepted positions of the Amphilinidea and Gyrocotylidea as sister lineages to the Eucestoda were supported. Within the Eucestoda, the Spathebothriidea was found to be the sister of all other eucestodes. The remaining orders generally formed a diphyletic pattern of evolution consisting of separate difossate and tetrafossate lineages. This pattern was not universally observed among the analyses, primarily because the trypanorhynch and diphyllidean taxa showed instability in their phylogenetic position. Additional relationships that showed high levels of nodal support included a sister relationship between the Pseudophyllidea and Haplobothriidea and a clade uniting the Cyclophyllidea, Nippotaeniidea, and Tetrabothriidea. The Tetraphyllidea, as currently defined, was found to be paraphyletic without the inclusion of the orders Proteocephalidea and, possibly, Lecanicephalidea. Ordinal status of a monophyletic Litobothriidea, currently classified within the Tetraphyllidea, was found to be supported from a phylogenetic perspective. PMID:10647048
Olson, P D; Caira, J N
Four "strains" of Hymenolepis diminuta were examined for morphological variation. These included the ARME "strain" (currently maintained at the University of Keele, U.K.), the OSU "strain" (currently maintained at The Ohio State University) and the TOR (or UT) "strain" (currently maintained at the University of Toronto), all of which were derived from the parental RICE "strain," and the ANU "strain" (currently maintained at the Australian National University). Additionally, 2 separate "clonal" populations (populations derived from single cysticercoids) from both the OSU and ANU "strains" were examined. All "strains" and "clones" were maintained under identical conditions using Tenebrio molitor and male Sprague-Dawley rats as the intermediate and definitive hosts, respectively. The lengths and widths of eggs and larvae (oncospheres) passed in the hosts' feces, and the numbers and distributions of testes in proglottids were quantified and the data analyzed. Although analyses of the lengths and widths of eggs and larvae demonstrated significant differences among some "strains" and "clones," a discriminate analysis of the data indicated these parameters to be of questionable taxonomic significance. The eggs of all "strains" and "clones" consisted of 2 distinct populations differing in density and size but not infectivity; the relative proportions of eggs in the 2 populations were not determined. Considering all possible numbers and distributions of testes, 17 variations were seen in the strobilae of tapeworms. Analyses of the data demonstrated that the "strains" and "clones" could be differentiated clearly using only the frequencies of the 1p2a (1 poral and 2 aporal testes) or 1p3a distribution, or the frequencies of proglottids containing 3 or 4 testes; all other variations failed to clearly differentiate or group the various "strains" and "clones."(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3746559
Pappas, P W; Leiby, D A
The proteocephalidean tapeworm, Corallobothrium solidum, type species of the genus, is redescribed on the basis of the examination of its type specimens and extensive material recently collected from Malapterurus electricus (type host). Some morphological characteristics of taxonomic importance are reported for the first time, such as the presence of semispherical (U-shaped) sphincters on the external (outer) margin of the suckers, a vaginal sphincter, a well-developed seminal receptacle, and a unique morphology of the eggs. Corallobothrium solidum differs from the 2 remaining species of the genus, both parasitic in channel catfishes (Ictaluridae), in its scolex shape, morphology of its suckers, presence of longitudinal and transverse grooves on the body surface, dense network of excretory canals in the apical part of the scolex, morphology of the eggs, and uterine development. The non-monophyletic nature of Corallobothrium is further supported by molecular data (partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene) because C. solidum and the 2 remaining species from ictalurids do not form a monophyletic assemblage. Therefore, Essexiella n. gen. is proposed to accommodate Essexiella fimbriatum new comb. (type and only species; syn. Corallobothrium fimbriatum) from channel catfish. Essexiella n. gen. differs from Corallobothrium, Megathylacoides, and Megathylacus by the absence of a sphincter in the suckers, from Corallotaenia by the shape of the scolex and the number and shape of proglottids, and from Paraproteocephalus by the structure of the uterus. The diagnosis of Corallobothrium, which becomes monotypic and restricted to electric catfishes in Africa, is emended. The remaining species of Corallobothrium, Corallobothrium parafimbriatum, is tentatively transferred to Corallotaenia as Corallotaenia parafimbriata n. comb., based on molecular data, small size of the strobila, and shape of the scolex. PMID:21721903
Scholz, Tomáš; de Chambrier, Alain; Mariaux, Jean; Kuchta, Roman
Incubation in immune rat serum (IRS) was shown to increase the rate of absorption of 125I RNase-A but not 125I BSA by larvae of Taenia taeniaeformis and T. crassiceps. This effect required a heat labile factor in serum, and partial activity could be restored in heat-treated IRS by adding normal rat serum (NRS) as a source of complement. In addition, the effectiveness of IRS in altering permeability was shown to be dependent on the concentration of functional complement. Both live and dead larvae incubated in NRS rapidly depleted hemolytic complement levels in the surrounding medium. Immunoglobulin fractions from IRS separated by anion exchange chromatography and and gel filtration were tested in the presence of excess complement for their ability to affect uptake of 125I RNase-A. Enhanced permeability was observed in larvae incubated in each fraction. The results show that antibodies in conjunction with complement are capable of disrupting larval permeability control in vitro. The observation that larvae were able to restore normal control as complement levels declined suggests that the parasites may overcome this immunologic effector mechanism by interfering with complement function. PMID:859087
Hustead, S T; Williams, J F
Subcutaneous and intraperitoneal cysticercosis due to Taenia crassiceps was diagnosed in a 5-yr-old male ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) in the Madrid Zoo-Aquarium (Madrid, Spain). Under laparoscopic examination, several septated fibrous cystic structures and numerous masses of small transparent vesicles (ca. 3 mm in diameter) were observed subcutaneously and inside the peritoneal cavity. Most of the structures were extirpated but, after 2 days of postsurgical intensive care, the animal died. The loss of body weight of the animal after surgical extirpation (566 g) represented 22% of the total weight (body weight before mass removal, 2582 g). The vesicles were identified under light microscopic examination as cysticerci and by molecular diagnosis as Cysticercus longicollis, the larval form of T. crassiceps. The present report represents the first detection of T. crassiceps in the prosimian genus Lemur. PMID:20597227
Luzón, Mónica; de la Fuente-López, Concepción; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Fernández-Morán, Jesús; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco
Based on ELISA results from randomly selected serum samples taken from 128 cattle from different administrative and urban districts in the federal state of Lower Saxony in Germany a seroprevalence estimate of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in this area was derived. This estimate was subsequently used to calculate the sample size required in an epidemiological study to determine the actual prevalence of this infection in the cattle population (n = 2 604 767) in this federal state. The sample size was calculated as 1518 and the samples were collected according to the distribution of cattle among the 48 administrative and urban districts in Lower Saxony. The samples were tested with an evaluated antibody ELISA. The results showed a positive antibody titre rate of 8.83% from the total tested samples. PMID:21038810
Abuseir, Sameh; Nagel-Kohl, Uschi; Probst, Dieter; Kühne, Michael; Epe, Christian; Doherr, Marcus G; Schnieder, Thomas
The aim of this study was to evaluate jacalin-bound fraction (JBF) and jacalin-unbound fraction (JUF) of the total saline extract from Taenia saginata metacestodes for human neurocysticercosis (NC) immunodiagnosis in cerebrospinal fluid. Total extract, JBF, and JUF were separated by affinity chromatography using Sepharose(®)-jacalin and were tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting (WB) to detect immunoglobulin G. In ELISA test, JUF showed the higher diagnostic efficiency and specificity indexes, 92% and 100%, respectively. In WB, 5 immunodominant proteins (39-42, 47-52, 64-68, 70, and 75 kDa) were detected when using JUF. In conclusion, the results achieved demonstrate that JUF, obtained from T. saginata metacestodes, are an important source of specific peptides and are efficient in the diagnosis of NC. PMID:20846809
da Silva Nunes, Daniela; da Silva Ribeiro, Vanessa; Manhani, Marianna Nascimento; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria
An investigation aimed to check the influence of Taenia taeniaeformis larvae on morphometrical parameters of muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) was carried. A total of 30 animals were hunted down in upper Vistula river basin in south Poland, then measured, weighed and dissected. Statistical comparison were done using U Mann-Whitney test. T. taeniaeformis larvae--cysticercus fasciolaris was found in the liver of 24 muskrats (80%). Significant differences between infected and non infected animals are reported, as regards their body mass, total length, abdomen circumference (p < 0.01) and also in body length (total minus tail length), head length, or chest and neck circumference (p < 0.05). The effect of infection on both muskrat condition and the presence of adult cestodes in definitive hosts are discussed. PMID:20707301
Kowal, Jerzy; Nosa?, Pawe?; Adamczyk, Ireneusz; Korna?, S?awomir; Wajdzik, Marek; Tomek, Andrzej
1. The effects of hypoxia on whole-cell current in single smooth muscle cells and on a high K(+)-induced contraction of strips of the guinea-pig taenia caeci were studied. 2. In physiological salt solution (PSS) and K(+)-based pipette solution, hypoxia (PO2 = 20 mmHg) reversibly inhibited both the inward Ca2+ current (ICa) and outward Ca(2+)-activated K+ current (IK(Ca)) components of the whole-cell current. 3. In PSS and Cs(+)-based pipette solution, hypoxia reversibly suppressed ICa by 30 +/- 5% at 0 mV. 4. When Ba2+ was used as a charge carrier, the IBa was suppressed by hypoxia in a potential-dependent manner, with the maximum of 40 +/- 7% at +10 mV. Alterations of concentrations of EGTA, GDB beta S or ATP in the pipette solution did not change the inhibitory effects of hypoxia on ICa and IBa. 5. In PSS with 2 mM CaCl2 replaced by CoCl2, hypoxia did not affect the Ca2+ influx-independent potassium current. 6. In cells voltage clamped at -20 mV hypoxia reversibly inhibited the spontaneous transient outward currents. 7. The response of high K(+)-contracted taenia caeci to hypoxia was composed of an initial rapid relaxation followed by a small transient contraction and slow relaxation. The transient contraction was blocked by atropine (1-10 microM), while relaxations were unaffected by atropine and guanethidine (10 microM). 8. The results show that hypoxia reversibly inhibits ICa and secondarily suppresses IK(Ca) due to decreased Ca2+ influx through Ca2+ channels. 9. It is suggested that inhibition of ICa was responsible for the rapid relaxation, whereas transient contraction may have been due to release of acetylcholine from nerve terminals upon hypoxia.
Rekalov, V; Juranek, I; Malekova, L; Bauer, V
Intrauterine embryonic development in the caryophyllidean tapeworm Khawia sinensis has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy and cytochemical staining with periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate for glycogen. Contrary to previous light microscopy findings that reported the release of non-embryonated eggs of K. sinenesis to the external environment, the present study documents various stages of embryonation (ovoviviparity) within the intrauterine eggs of this cestode. At the initial stage of embryonic development, each fertilised oocyte is accompanied by several vitellocytes that become enclosed within the operculate, electrondense shell. Cleavage divisions result in formation of blastomeres (up to about 24 cells) of various sizes. Mitotic divisions and apparent rosette arrangment of the blastomeres, the latter atypical within the Eucestoda, are observed for the first time in the intrauterine eggs of K. sinenesis. The early embryo enclosed within the electrondense shell is surrounded by a thin membraneous layer which in some enlarged regions shows presence of nuclei. Simultaneously to multiplication and differentiation, some of the blastomeres undergo deterioration. A progressive degeneration of the vitellocytes within eggs provides nutritive reserves, including lipids, for the developing embryo. The possible significance of this atypical timing of the intrauterine embryonic development to (1) the ecology of K. sinensis and that of a recent introduction of another invasive tapeworm, the caryophyllidean Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 to Europe; and (2) the affiliation of caryophyllideans with other lower cestodes, are discussed. PMID:21894510
Bru?anská, Magdaléna; Mackiewicz, John S; M?ocicki, Daniel; Swiderski, Zdzis?aw; Nebesá?ová, Jana
Caryophyllidean cestodes (Platyhelminthes) represent an unusual group of tapeworms lacking serially repeated body parts that potentially diverged from the common ancestor of the Eucestoda prior to the evolution of segmentation. Here we evaluate the utility of two nuclear and two mitochondrial molecular markers (ssrDNA and lsrDNA, nad3 and cox1) for use in circumscribing generic boundaries and estimating interrelationships in the group. We show that these commonly employed markers do not contain sufficient signal to infer well-supported phylogenetic estimates due to substitution saturation. Moreover, we detected multiple trnK+nad3+trnS+trnW+cox1 haplotypes within individuals, indicating a history of gene exchange between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. The presence of such nuclear paralogs (i.e. numts), to our knowledge described here in cestodes for the first time, together with the results of phylogenetic, saturation and split-decomposition analyses all suggest that finding informative markers for estimating caryophyllidean evolution is unusually problematic in comparison to other major lineages of tapeworms. PMID:22366732
Brabec, Jan; Scholz, Tomáš; Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Olson, Peter D
Basic fibroblast growth factor immunoreactivity (bFGF-IR) was detected in a specific set of nerve cells in the central nervous system of the gull-tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Cestoda)--an obligatory endoparasite. The long varicose processes of the bFGF-IR neurons extend along the two main nerve cords, which contain an actively growing population of nerve cells. A neurotrophic function for the bFGF-like material is proposed. The adult tapeworm lives in the intestine of a homeothermic host and has a pattern of very active and never ending growth. The larval stages live in poikilothermic hosts and grow very slowly. The bFGF-IR nerve cells occur both in II stage larvae and in adult worms. Thus, no correlation between the presence of bFGF-IR and the general growth rate of the worm was found. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of an anti-bFGF immunoreactive peptide with a molecular mass of 47 kDa in both larval and adult worms. PMID:1306687
Gustafsson, M K; Eriksson, K
Atractolytocestus tenuicollis (Li, 1964) Xi, Wang, Wu, Gao et Nie, 2009 is a monozoic, non-segmented tapeworm of the order Caryophyllidea, parasitizing exclusively common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). In the current work, the first molecular data, in particular complete ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) on A. tenuicollis from Niushan Lake, Wuhan, China, are provided. In order to evaluate molecular interrelationships within Atractolytocestus, the data on A. tenuicollis were compared with relevant data on two other congeners, Atractolytocestus huronensis and Atractolytocestus sagittatus. Divergent intragenomic copies (ITS2 paralogues) were detected in the ITS2 ribosomal spacer of A. tenuicollis; the same phenomenon has previously been observed also in two other congeners. ITS2 structure of A. tenuicollis was very similar to that of A. huronensis from Slovakia, USA and UK; overall pairwise sequence identity was 91.7-95.2 %. On the other hand, values of sequence identity between A. tenuicollis and A. sagittatus were lower, 69.7-70.9 %. Cox1 sequence, analysed in five A. tenuicollis individuals, were 100 % identical and no intraspecific variation was observed. Comparison of A. tenuicollis cox1 with respective sequences of two other Atractolytocestus species showed that the mitochondrial haplotype found in Chinese A. tenuicollis is structurally specific (haplotype 4; Ha4) and differs from all so far determined Atractolytocestus haplotypes (Ha1 and Ha2 for A. huronensis; Ha3 for A. sagittatus). Pairwise sequence identity between A. tenuicollis cox1 haplotype and remaining three haplotypes followed the same pattern as in ITS2. The nucleotide and amino acide (aa) sequence comparison with A. huronensis Ha1 and Ha2 revealed higher sequence identity, 90.3-90.8 % (96.9 % in aa), while lower values were achieved between A. tenuicollis haplotype and Ha3 of Japanese A. sagittatus-75.2 % (81.9 % in aa). The phylogenetic analyses using cox1, ITS2 and combined cox1?+?ITS2 sequences revealed close genetic interrelationship between A. tenuicollis and A. huronensis. Independently of a type of analysis and DNA region used, the topology of obtained trees was always identical; A. tenuicollis formed separate clade with A. huronensis forming a closely related sister group. PMID:23832640
Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Stefka, Jan; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Bokorová, Silvia; Oros, Mikuláš
Sequence data from the V4 and V7-V9 variable regions of the 18S small subunit ribosomal DNA (ssrDNA) gene were used to examine relationships among 26 tetraphyllidean and two lecanicephalidean taxa. Newly collected specimens of 21 of the tetraphyllidean species were used to generate ssrDNA sequences that were combined with sequences previously available, including those of two diphyllidean taxa used for outgroup rooting. The sequences were aligned by eye according to secondary structural motifs of the conserved core of the molecule. Of the 1520 sites in the alignment, 874 (58%) were excluded from analysis due to alignment gaps and lack of positional homology as inferred by manual inspection. Genetic variability of the ssrDNA gene regions compared was greater than would be expected, based on the present taxonomy of the ingroup species, and the genetic divergences among tetraphyllidean 'families' and genera were comparable to that among tapeworm orders. Phylogenetic hypotheses were generated by the methods of maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood (GTR + I + Gamma nucleotide substitution model). Four most parsimonious trees resulted from analysis by maximum parsimony. Strict consensus of the four trees supported the monophyly of the Tetraphyllidea, with the lecanicephalidean taxa forming a sister lineage. Among the tetraphyllidean taxa included in the analysis were three major clades: a basal clade including species of the phyllobothriid genera Anthocephalum, Echeneibothrium, Rhinebothrium, Rhodobothrium and Spongiobothrium; a clade uniting the phyllobothriids of the genus Duplicibothrium with the dioecotaeniid genus Dioecotaenia; and a larger sister clade to the Duplicibothrium + Dioecotaenia clade that included the phyllobothriid genera Caulohothrium, Ceratobothrium, Clistobothrium, Paraoryigmatobothrium and Prosobothrium, the litobothriid genus Litobothrium and the onchobothriid genera Acanthobothrium, Calliobothrium, Phoreiobothrium and Platybothrium. Maximum likelihood analysis resulted in a topology that was congruent where nodes were strongly supported by parsimony analysis, but differed in the relative positions of the well-supported clades. In addition,maximum likelihood analysis grouped the lecanicephalidean taxa among the tetraphyllidean taxa, indicating paraphyly of the order Tetraphyllidea as currently defined. Relationships suggested by both methods of analysis reflected common host associations of the taxa better than their current classification, suggesting that coevolution has had a significant role in the evolution of the group. PMID:10579434
Olson, P D; Ruhnke, T R; Sanney, J; Hudson, T
The study was carried out during a 3-year period. Of 9501 cattle examined, 736 (7.7%) were infected with cysticerci of Taenia saginata. The endemic foci were identified and prevalence was significantly higher (P < 0.005) in animals from Noorabad Mammasani (10.7%), Kenareh (10.0%) and Shiraz area (8.5%) than elsewhere. The prevalence was significantly higher (P < 0.005) during spring and
A. Oryan; N. Moghaddar; S. N. S. Gaur
Two peptides, HP6-2 and Ts45S-10, were used as antigens for the detection of antibodies against Taenia saginata cysticercosis in serum and meat juice samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positive control samples were\\u000a obtained from animals experimentally infected (serum) and from animals naturally infected (meat juice). The two peptides and\\u000a a pooled preparation of both peptides were evaluated, and their
S. Abuseir; M. Kühne; T. Schnieder; G. Klein; C. Epe
During antibody screening of a Taenia saginata oncosphere cDNA library a clone (R-Tso2) sharing a high degree of homology at both the DNA and amino acid levels with the\\u000a small heat-shock protein (shsp) family was identified. The R-Tso2 clone was a full-length sequence (1162 bp) with an open\\u000a reading frame of 945?bp and 314 amino acids, corresponding to a deduced
L. Benitez; L. J. S. Harrison; R. M. E. Parkhouse; T. Garate
Following intramuscular inoculation ofTaenia saginata eggs hatchedin vitro, 1-month-old calves were capable of developing a complete immunity to the establishment of a living infection by oral challenge. Cysticerci developed at the injection sites and produced an effective immunity whether the hatched oncospheres were activatedin vitro or not. A few living cysticerci found at sites other than the inoculation sites were
G. J. Gallie; M. M. H. Sewell
Oncosphere antigens of Taenia ovis were solubilised in sodium dodecyl sulphate and separated by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels (SDS-PAGE). Antigen-containing gel fractions cut from the region covering 18–12 kDa were shown to be highly immunogenic in sheep challenge experiments. Specific antisera against 2 candidate antigens at 18 and 16 kDa were used to screen a cDNA library prepared from T.
G. B. L. Harrison; D. D. Heath; R. P. Dempster; C. Gauci; S. E. Newton; W. G. Cameron; C. M. Robinson; S. B. Lawrence; M. W. Lightowlers; M. D. Rickard
1. The diffusion of the cryoprotective non-electrolyte dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) in the isolated guinea-pig taenia coli at 37, 25 and 0° C has been studied using [35S]DMSO. 2. Within 1 hr after immersion at 37° C in Krebs solution containing 20% (w/v) DMSO and trace amounts of [35S]DMSO, the non-electrolyte was distributed uniformly throughout a volume equivalent to the total initial water content of the muscle. 3. The kinetics of efflux of [35S]DMSO from muscles at constant volume were analysed on the basis of two models: one incorporated radial diffusion in extracellular fluid with simultaneous permeation into the cells, the other involved only radial diffusion in homogeneous cylinders of tissue having no internal barriers to diffusion; the former was found to give a better representation of the efflux kinetics. 4. If it was assumed that the rate of diffusion of DMSO in the extracellular space of taenia coli was the same as that in the bathing medium, the values of the extracellular space and the permeability of smooth muscle to DMSO, obtained from the analysis of the efflux kinetics, were 454 ± 19 ml./kg and 2·36 ± 0·05 × 10-6 cm sec-1 at 37° C. 5. The activation energy for the transfer of DMSO across the surface of the cell was estimated to be 6·0 kcal/mole at 37° C, 6·6 kcal/mole at 25° C and 11·6 kcal/mole at 0° C, indicating either that the equivalent pore radius of the cells decreased with temperature or that the cell permeability represented the sum of two fluxes, one through the aqueous pores of the cell and the other through the lipid phase of the cell membrane, each with a different energy of activation. 6. A net flux of water across the surface of the cells, superimposed on the efflux of DMSO, markedly affected the rate of diffusion of the non-electrolyte out of the whole tissue; however, it was considered that an analysis of the efflux kinetics was not possible under these conditions. 7. These results provide a basis for methods which will be used to investigate the possibility of preserving tissue in unfrozen aqueous media at sub-zero temperatures.
Elford, B. C.
The construction of a stable phylogeny for the Cestoda, indicating the interrelationships of recognised orders and other major lineages, has proceeded iteratively since the group first received attention from phylogenetic systematists. Molecular analyses using nuclear ribosomal RNA gene fragments from the small (ssrDNA) and large (lsrDNA) subunits have been used to test competing evolutionary scenarios based on morphological data but could not arbitrate between some key conflicting hypotheses. To the ribosomal data, we have added a contiguous fragment of mitochondrial (mt) genome data (mtDNA) of partial nad1-trnN-trnP-trnI-trnK-nad3-trnS-trnW-cox1-trnT-rrnL-trnC-partial rrnS, spanning 4034-4447 bp, where new data for this region were generated for 18 species. Bayesian analysis of mtDNA and rDNA as nucleotides, and where appropriate as amino acids, demonstrated that these two classes of genes provide complementary signal across the phylogeny. In all analyses, except when using mt amino acids only, the Gyrocotylidea is sister group to all other Cestoda (Nephroposticophora), and Amphilinidea forms the sister group to the Eucestoda. However, an earliest-diverging position of Amphilinidea is strongly supported in the mt amino acid analysis. Amphilinidea exhibit a unique tRNA arrangement (nad1-trnI-trnL2-trnP-trnK-trnV-trnA-trnN-nad3), whereas Gyrocotylidea shares that of the derived lineages, providing additional evidence of the uniqueness of amphilinid genes and genomes. The addition of mtDNA to the rDNA genes supported the Caryophyllidea as the sister group to (Spathebothriidea+remaining Eucestoda), a hypothesis consistently supported by morphology. This relationship suggests a history of step-wise evolutionary transitions from simple monozoic, unsegmented tapeworms to the more familiar polyzoic, externally segmented (strobilate) forms. All our data partitions recovered Haplobothriidea as the sister group to Diphyllobothriidae. The sister-group relationship between Diphyllidea and Trypanorhyncha, as previously established using rDNA, is not supported by the mt data, although it is supported by the combined mt and rDNA analysis. With regards to the more derived taxa, in all except the mt amino acid analysis, the following topology is supported: (Bothriocephalidea (Litobothriidea (Lecanicephalidea (Rhinebothriidea (Tetraphyllidea, (Acanthobothrium, Proteocephalidea), (Nippotaeniidea, Mesocestoididae, Tetrabothriidea, Cyclophyllidea)))))), where the Tetraphyllidea are paraphyletic. Evidence from the mt data provides strong (nucleotides) to moderate (amino acids) support for Tetraphyllidea forming a group to the inclusion of Proteocephalidea, with the latter consistently forming the sister group to Acanthobothrium. The interrelationships among Nippotaeniidea, Mesocestoididae, Tetrabothriidea and Cyclophyllidea remain ambiguous and require further systematic attention. Mitochondrial and nuclear rDNA data provide conflicting signal for certain parts of the cestode tree. In some cases mt data offer results in line with morphological evidence, such as the interrelationships of the early divergent lineages. Also, Tetraphyllidea, although remaining paraphyletic with the inclusion of the Proteocephalidea, does not include the most derived cestodes; a result which has consistently been obtained with rDNA. PMID:22406529
Waeschenbach, Andrea; Webster, B L; Littlewood, D T J
Tapeworm bolus expelled from New Zealand variable oystercatchers (Haematopus unicolor) during handling: first record of this phenomenon in wild birds, and a global checklist of Haematopus cestode parasites.
On two occasions in November and December 2009, whilst being captured and handled for banding in Tasman Bay, New Zealand, two variable oystercatchers (Haematopus unicolor Forster, 1844) voided a number of cestode strobilae from their cloaca. Their morphology indicates that they belong to the family Hymenolepididae, confirmed by BLASTn searches of large and small subunits of ribosomal DNA partial sequences (18S and 28S, respectively). However, they cannot currently be assigned to any species reported for any oystercatcher species from New Zealand nor from oystercatchers worldwide. We present a checklist of all cestode parasites reported in the literature for Haematopus species, along with their sources and synonyms. While the taxonomy of New Zealand oystercatchers is currently uncertain, more detailed knowledge of the parasite fauna of this bird group may help to elucidate the historical biogeography of the oystercatchers. The means of collection of these tapeworms is unusual and does not appear to have been reported in the literature previously. PMID:22752698
Presswell, B; Melville, D S; Randhawa, H S
Several compounds were tested as inhibitors of the alkaline phosphatase (AlkPase) activity associated with the isolated brush border membrane of the tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta. Molybdate, arsenate, arsenite and beta-glycerophosphate (BGP) were competitive inhibitors of the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate, while levamisole and clorsulon were uncompetitive and mixed inhibitors, respectively. Molybdate was also a competitive inhibitor of the hydrolysis of BGP and 5'-adenosine monophosphate, and levamisole was an uncompetitive inhibitor of BGP hydrolysis. The apparent inhibitor constants (Ki') for molybdate and levamisole were virtually identical regardless of the substrate, and these data support the hypothesis that the AlkPase activity is represented by a single membrane-bound enzyme with low substrate specificity. Quinacrine, Hg2+, and ethylenediaminetetraacetate were also potent inhibitors of the AlkPase activity, but the mechanisms by which these latter three inhibitors function were not clear. PMID:2768348
Pappas, P W; Leiby, D A
This study was undertaken to compare 2 species of Tetraphyllidea and 2 species of Trypanorhyncha with regard to the relationship between attachment structure morphology, mode of attachment, and tapeworm size, to damage at the sites of attachment in the Atlantic nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum. Regions of the spiral intestine with worms attached were removed from 8 nurse sharks and sectioned according to conventional techniques. Sections of 5-50 specimens of each tapeworm species were examined. Regions of the spiral intestine devoid of worms were processed for characterization of the normal mucosa. The normal mucosa was found to consist of a folded surface covered with round-to-oval primary mucosal crypts. In the first 7 or 8 chambers of the spiral intestine the mucosal surface was thrown into secondary folds, forming ridges and secondary crypts. The primary mucosal crypts were lined with a single layer of columnar epithelium resting on a basement membrane. A highly cellular lamina propria and submucosa were found between the crypts and the muscularis mucosa. The small tetraphyllidean Pedibothrium brevispine was found with its scolex lying within the primary mucosal crypts with its hooks embedded in the basement membrane. Epithelial denudation was evident. The large tetraphyllidean Pedibothrium globicephalum was found with its bothridia engulfing large portions of the mucosa and its hooks embedded into the lamina propria. It was associated with moderate to severe mucosal necrosis. The small trypanorhynch Prochristianella tenuispine was found lying between the mucosal ridges in the secondary crypts with its tentacles either penetrating the epithelium, or occasionally, the lamina propria.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8459335
Borucinska, J; Caira, J N
The effects of caffeine (0.2–10 mM) on the electrical and mechanical activities of guinea pig taenia coli were investigated with the double sucrose-gap method. Caffeine evoked a small tension with a latency of 20–30 sec, then phasic contraction developed and finally relaxation. The initial tension development also appeared in the Na-free solution without any marked changes in the membrane potential and membrane resistance. The phasic contraction disappeared in the Na-free solution. The relaxation in the presence of caffeine was accompanied by depolarization block of the spike generation. The minimum concentration of Ca ion needed to evoke the tension development by the caffeine was 10-7 M. Caffeine also potentiated the twitch tension below a concentration of 5 mM either in the Na-free solution or at low temperature (5°C). NO3- and Br- showed a similar response to caffeine on the potentiation of the twitch tension at low temperature.
Ito, Y.; Kuriyama, H.
Taenia crassiceps has been widely experimented as a model for in vitro and in vivo studies on drug responses. The purpose of this study was to treat BALB/c mice infected with T. crassiceps strain WFU with commercially available albendazole and to analyze the reduction in parasite infrapopulations. Here, we describe the reduction and apparent damage of T. crassicceps WFU cysticerci in infected mice after antihelminthic drug treatment and subsequent inoculation of those treated parasites into a naïve host. We were able to reduce significantly the parasite counts to 33 and 48 % after albendazole treatment for 20 or 25 days and compared with the untreated mice. We also observed morphological damage such as the partial blebbing in the tegument and parenchyma of treated parasites, as well as disorganized musculature and the loss of cell membranes in subtegumental tissue section. However, larvae from albendazole-treated mice inoculated into the next host were able to become re-established in the next murine host due, probably, to the survival of proliferative parasite cells. PMID:24005476
Zurabian, R; Aguilar-Vega, L; Terrones Vargas, E; Cervera Hernández, M E; Willms, K; Ruíz-Velasco Acosta, S
It was previously reported by our group that infection with Taenia crassiceps reduces incidence and severity of inflammatory and autoimmune experimental diseases like type 1 diabetes and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In this research, we set out to study whether infection with T. crassiceps would affect the development of experimental rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We found that mice infected with the parasite and induced with experimental RA showed similar clinical scores as the noninfected experimental RA group; systemic cytokines were not affected while anti-CII Abs were higher in the infected group. Histological evaluation showed damage in both infected and noninfected experimental RA-induced groups and although some surface molecules such as PDL-2 and MR which are associated with immunomodulatory mechanisms were upregulated in the infected and RA-induced group as compared to the noninfected RA group, they did not exert any changes in the outcome of experimental RA. Thus, we determined that infection with T. crassiceps does not influence the outcome of experimental RA.
Ortiz-Flores, Aaxin M.; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Calleja, Elsa A.; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Juarez, Imelda; Terrazas, Luis I.
Recombinant oncosphere antigens have been found to be remarkably effective when used as vaccines against cysticercosis and hydatid disease. Comparison of the structural features of these proteins and their associated genes suggest common features between antigens. Here molecular cloning is used to complete comparisons of Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Taenia ovis, Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis oncosphere antigens and genes.
Charles Gauci; Marshall W. Lightowlers
Recombinant oncosphere antigens have been used in the development of effective vaccines for the prevention of cysticercosis caused by Taenia ovis, Taenia saginata, Taenia solium and hydatid disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus. These vaccines were developed utilizing information gathered from numerous researchers over some 60 years which had established many of the principals concerning immunity to taeniid cestodes in their
Marshall W. Lightowlers
Nitric oxide synthase-containing nerve fibres are abundant within taenia of the guinea-pig caecum, but there is little previous evidence supporting a direct role for nitric oxide (NO) in responses to enteric inhibitory nerve stimulation. In this study we have attempted to identify an NO-dependent component of inhibitory transmission in isolated taenia coli.Isometric tension was recorded in the presence of atropine and guanethidine (both 1??M). Tone was raised with histamine (1??M), and intrinsic inhibitory neurons stimulated using either a nicotinic agonist (1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide; DMPP) or electrical field stimulation (EFS).DMPP (1–100??M) produced concentration-dependent biphasic relaxations, comprising an initial peak relaxation followed by a sustained relaxation. Responses to DMPP were antagonized by tetrodotoxin (1??M) or apamin (0.3??M) and abolished by hexamethonium (300??M). L-nitro-arginine (L-NOARG; 100??M) and oxyhaemoglobin (2%) both significantly reduced sustained relaxations produced by DMPP.EFS (5?Hz, 30?s) also produced biphasic relaxations. Both L-NOARG and an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase (ODQ, 1–10??M) reduced the sustained component of EFS responses.Two NO donors, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and diethylenetriamine-nitric oxide adduct (DENO), produced concentration-dependent relaxations. Responses to SNP and DENO were antagonized by ODQ (1??M) and by apamin (0.3??M).These results suggest that NO contributes directly to a component of inhibitory transmission in guinea-pig taenia coli. The actions of NO appear to be mediated via cyclic GMP synthesis, and may involve activation of small conductance calcium activated K+ channels. A role for NO is most evident during sustained relaxations evoked by longer stimulus trains or chemical stimulation of intrinsic neurons.
Shuttleworth, C W R; Sweeney, K M; Sanders, K M
Background Tribendimidine is an anthelminthic drug with a broad spectrum of activity. In 2004 the drug was approved by Chinese authorities for human use. The efficacy of tribendimidine against soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura) has been established, and new laboratory investigations point to activity against cestodes and Strongyloides ratti. Methodology/Principal Findings In an open-label randomized trial, the safety and efficacy of a single oral dose of albendazole or tribendimidine (both drugs administered at 200 mg for 5- to 14-year-old children, and 400 mg for individuals ?15 years) against soil-transmitted helminths, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Taenia spp. were assessed in a village in Yunnan province, People's Republic of China. The analysis was on a per-protocol basis and the trial is registered with controlled-trials.com (number ISRCTN01779485). Both albendazole and tribendimidine were highly efficacious against A. lumbricoides and, moderately, against hookworm. The efficacy against T. trichiura was low. Among 57 individuals who received tribendimidine, the prevalence of S. stercoralis was reduced from 19.3% to 8.8% (observed cure rate 54.5%, p?=?0.107), and that of Taenia spp. from 26.3% to 8.8% (observed cure rate 66.7%, p?=?0.014). Similar prevalence reductions were noted among the 66 albendazole recipients. Taking into account “new” infections discovered at treatment evaluation, which were most likely missed pre-treatment due to the lack of sensitivity of available diagnostic approaches, the difference between the drug-specific net Taenia spp. cure rates was highly significant in favor of tribendimidine (p?=?0.001). No significant adverse events of either drug were observed. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that single-dose oral tribendimidine can be employed in settings with extensive intestinal polyparasitism, and its efficacy against A. lumbricoides and hookworm was confirmed. The promising results obtained with tribendimidine against S. stercoralis and Taenia spp. warrant further investigations. In a next step, multiple-dose schedules should be evaluated.
Steinmann, Peter; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Du, Zun-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Xiao, Shu-Hua; Wu, Zhong-Xing; Zhou, Hui; Utzinger, Jurg
The effects of removal and readmission of substrates on the K contracture were investigated in the guinea-pig taenia coli. When, after exposure to excess K in Ca-free and glucose-free medium, the readmission and removal of 2.4 mM-Ca were repeated at regular intervals, the Ca-induced contractions decreased progressively. The decrease was more marked in the late than in the early part of the tension response. The rate of O2 consumption decreased when the normal medium was replaced by glucose-free, Ca-free, excess-K solution, but substantially recovered following Ca readmission. ATP and creatine phosphate contents decreased during the Ca-induced contraction, but recovered partially during the subsequent relaxation in Ca-free solution. The effects of glucose removal were rapidly reversed when glucose or beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-HB) were readmitted to the bathing solution. In the absence of Ca, readmission and removal of the substrates produced an insignificant change in O2 consumption, but the next Ca contraction was potentiated, the effect being stronger with glucose than beta-HB. When the tonic contraction evoked by 2.4 mM-Ca readmission had been abolished in glucose-free, high-K solution, a rise of the external Ca concentration to 10 mM, or 5 microM-carbachol, still produced a transient contraction. This suggests that the tonic contraction has disappeared partially because of diminished Ca influx. In glycogen-depleted preparations, the depolarization caused by carbachol, or by 20 mM-K, was increased and spike discharge initiated when glucose was readmitted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Ashoori, F; Takai, A; Tokuno, H; Tomita, T
Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, a tapeworm known to be pathogenic to some fish species, has become established in the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha Miller, 1964) in Grand Canyon, USA, following the tapeworm's introduction into the Colorado River system. The potential impact of this tapeworm on humpback chub was studied by exposing the closely related bonytail chub (Gila elegans Baird and Girard, 1853) to the parasite under a range of conditions that included potential stressors of humpback chub in their natal waters, such as abrupt temperature change and a limited food base. Survival of infected fish under low food rations was considerably lower than that of control fish, and mortality of infected fish began 20days earlier. Growth of infected fish was significantly reduced, and negative changes in health condition indices were found. No significant negative impacts were revealed from the synergistic effects between temperature shock and infection. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi does present a potential threat to humpback chub in Grand Canyon and should be considered, along with conventional concerns involving altered flow regimes and predation, when management decisions are made concerning conservation of this endangered species.// Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, un ver plat connu comme pathog??ne pour certaines esp??ces de poissons, s'est associ?? au A (Gila cypha Miller, 1964), une esp??ce menac??e du Grand Canyon, ??.-U., apr??s l'introduction du ver dans le r??seau hydrographique du Colorado. Nous avons ??tudi?? l'impact potentiel de ce ver plat sur le m??n?? bossu en exposant l'esp??ce proche Gila elegans Baird et Girard, 1853 au parasite sous une gamme de conditions qui incluent les facteurs potentiels de stress des m??n??s bossus dans leurs cours d'eau d'origine, tels que les changements abrupts de temp??rature et des ressources alimentaires limit??es. La survie des poissons infect??s dans des conditions de nourriture limit??e est substantiellement r??duite par comparaison aux poissons t??moins et la mortalit?? des poissons infect??s d??bute 20 jours plus t?'t. La croissance des poissons infect??s est significativement r??duite et il y a des changements n??gatifs dans les indicateurs des conditions de sant??. Il n'y a pas d'impact n??gatif significatif apparent des effets de synergie du choc thermique et de l'infection. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi est donc une menace potentielle pour le m??n?? bossu dans le Grand Canyon et il devra ??tre pris en consid??ration, au m??me titre que les pr??occupations habituelles au sujet de la modification du r??gime des eaux et de la pr??dation, lorsque des d??cisions seront prises au sujet de la conservation de cette esp??ce menac??e.
Hansen, S. P.; Choudhury, A.; Heisey, D. M.; Ahumada, J. A.; Hoffnagle, T. L.; Cole, R. A.
To determine the role of endogenous migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in regulation of immune response during murine cysticercosis caused by the helminth parasite Taenia crassiceps, we analyzed the course of T. crassiceps infection in MIF(-/-) BALB/c mice. MIF(-/-) mice were highly susceptible to T. crassiceps and developed significantly higher parasite loads compared to similarly infected MIF(+/+) mice. Throughout the course of infection, Taenia crassiceps soluble antigen-stimulated spleen cells from both MIF(+/+) and MIF(-/-) mice produced significant and comparable levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), but those from MIF(-/-) mice produced significantly more IL-13, as well as gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), suggesting that the susceptibility of MIF(-/-) mice to T. crassiceps was not due to the lack of IFN-gamma production. Interestingly, low levels of both total and specific immunoglobulin G2a were observed in MIF(-/-) cysticercotic mice despite the high IFN-gamma levels; in addition, peritoneal macrophages obtained from T. crassiceps-infected MIF(-/-) mice at different time points failed to respond efficiently to stimulation in vitro with lipopolysaccharide plus IFN-gamma and produced significantly lower levels of IL-12, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and NO compared to those from MIF(+/+) mice. These findings demonstrate that MIF plays a critical role in mediating protection against T. crassiceps in vivo. Moreover, these findings also suggest that impaired macrophage function rather than the lack of Th1 development may be responsible for mediating susceptibility to T. crassiceps. PMID:12595439
Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; Rosas, Lucia E; David, John R; Bojalil, Rafael; Satoskar, Abhay R; Terrazas, Luis I
Twelve 924 bp cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mitochondrial DNA sequences from Taenia asiatica isolates from Thailand were aligned and compared with multiple sequence isolates from Thailand and 6 other countries from the GenBank database. The genetic divergence of T. asiatica was also compared with Taenia saginata database sequences from 6 different countries in Asia, including Thailand, and 3 countries from other continents. The results showed that there were minor genetic variations within T. asiatica species, while high intraspecies variation was found in T. saginata. There were only 2 haplotypes and 1 polymorphic site found in T. asiatica, but 8 haplotypes and 9 polymorphic sites in T. saginata. Haplotype diversity was very low, 0.067, in T. asiatica and high, 0.700, in T. saginata. The very low genetic diversity suggested that T. asiatica may be at a risk due to the loss of potential adaptive alleles, resulting in reduced viability and decreased responses to environmental changes, which may endanger the species. PMID:23467439
Anantaphruti, Malinee Thairungroj; Thaenkham, Urusa; Watthanakulpanich, Dorn; Phuphisut, Orawan; Maipanich, Wanna; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Pubampen, Somjit; Sanguankiat, Surapol
Twelve 924 bp cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mitochondrial DNA sequences from Taenia asiatica isolates from Thailand were aligned and compared with multiple sequence isolates from Thailand and 6 other countries from the GenBank database. The genetic divergence of T. asiatica was also compared with Taenia saginata database sequences from 6 different countries in Asia, including Thailand, and 3 countries from other continents. The results showed that there were minor genetic variations within T. asiatica species, while high intraspecies variation was found in T. saginata. There were only 2 haplotypes and 1 polymorphic site found in T. asiatica, but 8 haplotypes and 9 polymorphic sites in T. saginata. Haplotype diversity was very low, 0.067, in T. asiatica and high, 0.700, in T. saginata. The very low genetic diversity suggested that T. asiatica may be at a risk due to the loss of potential adaptive alleles, resulting in reduced viability and decreased responses to environmental changes, which may endanger the species.
Thaenkham, Urusa; Watthanakulpanich, Dorn; Phuphisut, Orawan; Maipanich, Wanna; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Pubampen, Somjit; Sanguankiat, Surapol
Cysticercosis: parasitic disease which affects 3% of the population in Mexico. It is considered that there are more than 50 million infected people in the world, endemic in Mexico, Central and South America, Africa, Asia and India. It is considered the most important neurological infectious disease world-wide for its clinical manifestations. The causal agent in pigs and humans is the cysticercus of the Taenia solium, that can lodge in muscle, brain and ventricles. If pork meat contaminated with cysticercus is eaten, the tapeworm will live in the human intestine and create thousands of eggs that are excreted by the feces. When food contaminated with fecal matter is consumed by man or pig, the cisticercosis is disseminated in several parts of the organism, specially CNS. Man is the only host of the tapeworm and the pig is the only intermediary, reason why the prevalence of the teniasis-cisticercosis depends on this bond. It is diagnosed in endemic zones by the presence of convulsion crises, focal migraine, neurological symptoms, disorders of vision, endocraneal hypertension and CT scan with hypodense zones or cysts with a hyperdense ring. The antiparasitic treatment in children is controversial among pediatricians; it is suggested to use it only in the non calcified cystic phase and in cases associated with epilepsy. Few are the cases of hydrocephalic or intraventricular cysticercus that need surgical treatment. PMID:19240009
Malagón Valdez, Jorge
We studied the ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and of the mature spermatozoon of Taenia parva, an intestinal cestode of the common genet, Genetta genetta. Spermiogenesis in T. parva is characterized by the growth of the axoneme externally to a cytoplasmic extension. After a slight rotation, the free flagellum fuses with the cytoplasmic extension. This pattern corresponds to type III spermiogenesis according
Papa Ndiaye; Jordi Miquel; Bernard Marchand
Using the tight-seal voltage-clamp method, the ionic currents in the enzymatically dispersed single smooth muscle cells of the guinea pig taenia coli have been studied. In a physiological medium containing 3 mM Ca2+, the cells are gently tapering spindles, averaging 201 (length) x 8 microns (largest diameter in center of cell), with a volume of 5 pl. The average cell capacitance is 50 pF, and the specific membrane capacitance 1.15 microF/cm2. The input impedance of the resting cell is 1-2 G omega. Spatially uniform voltage-control prevails after the first 400 microseconds. There is much overlap of the inward and outward currents, but the inward current can be isolated by applying Cs+ internally to block all potassium currents. The inward current is carried by Ca2+. Activation begins at approximately -30 mV, maximum ICa occurs at +10-+20 mV, and the reversal potential is approximately +75 mV. The Ca2+ channel is permeable to Sr2+ and Ba2+, and to Cs+ moving outwards, but not to Na+ moving inwards. Activation and deactivation are very rapid at approximately 33 degrees C, with time-constants of less than 1 ms. Inactivation has a complex time course, resolvable into three exponential components, with average time constants (at 0 mV) of 7, 45, and 400 ms, which are affected differently by voltage. Steady- state inactivation is half-maximal at -30 mV for all components combined, but -36 mV for the fast component and -26 and -23 mV for the other two components. The presence of multiple forms of Ca2+ channel is inferred from the inactivation characteristics, not from activation properties. Recovery of the fast channel occurs with a time-constant of 72 ms (at +10 mV). Ca2+ influx during an action potential can transfer approximately 9 pC of charge, which could elevate intracellular Ca2+ concentration adequately for various physiological functions.
1. The rate of heat production of chemically skinned guinea-pig taenia coli smooth muscle at 25 degrees C was measured using microcalorimetric techniques. 2. Muscle strips were mounted isometrically and incubated in solutions containing MgATP (3.2 mM) and phosphocreatine (PCr, 12 mM), pH 6.9. Activation was obtained by the injection of Ca2+ into the sample compartment of the calorimeter. 3. The heat production rate of the resting preparation (pCa 9) was 0.40 +/- 0.03 mW g-1 wet weight (n = 23). During maximal activation (pCa 4.8) the heat rate increased to 1.12 +/- 0.07 mW g-1 (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 15). With stepwise increase in [Ca2+] from pCa 9 to 4.8 the energetic cost of force maintenance tended to increase at higher [Ca2+]. 4. After activation by Ca2+, the heat production rate reached its maximum while force was still increasing. 5. Changing ionic strength from 90 to 150 mM had no effect on either basal or activated heat rate. Oligomycin, amphotericin B and the adenylate kinase inhibitor Ap5A had no effect on the basal heat rate. 6. Exchanging ATP in the incubation medium for inosine triphosphate (ITP) reduced the force and heat production after injection of Ca2+. The basal heat production was not lowered when ATP was exchanged for ITP. 7. The observed enthalpy change for PCr splitting at 25 degrees C (pH 6.9, ionic strength 90 mM) was -28 +/- 3 kJ mol-1 (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 9). After correction for the phosphate equilibrium, buffer reactions, and Mg2+ binding to PCr and HPO42-, the net enthalpy change is calculated to be -39 +/- 3 kJ mol-1. 8. Heat production in the skinned smooth muscle consists of one basal component present in relaxed muscle, and one component associated with contraction. The nature of the basal heat production is unclear but does not seem to involve turnover of phosphate on the myosin light chains. The increase in the energetic tension cost with increasing activation by Ca2+ has implications for the understanding of the contractile mechanism in smooth muscle.
Lonnbro, P; Hellstrand, P
Both cysticercosis and echinococcosis are potentially among the most serious helminth zoonoses threatening human health worldwide. However, due to the lack of reliable tools for confirmation or identification of patients or infected animals, epidemiological data are expected to be underestimated. Conversely, sometimes, such data are over estimated due to the lack of specificity. The most important issue for doing field surveys is that they use evidence based science. In this communication, advanced immunological and molecular tools for detection of individuals infected with either metacestodes or adult tapeworms are briefly overviewed, and the applications of such tools for epidemiological surveys in Indonesia, China and other countries are introduced. As immunological tools are based on antigen-antibody responses, there may exist some cross-reactions. Therefore, immunodiagnostic tools are expected to be useful for primary screening, and should be combined with confirmation of direct parasitological evidence (morphology or DNA), and imaging techniques for cysts. As a risk factor for human cysticercosis is the presence of tapeworm carriers, detection of taeniasis cases and differentiation of the three human Taenia species (Taenia solium, T. saginata and T. asiatica) in Asia and the Pacific requires consideration. Similarly, in northwest China, Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis are coendemic and differentiation of these species is required in humans and definitive hosts. It is stressed that combination of several tools for identification of the parasite and for confirmation of diseases is important for obtaining highly reliable data before consideration of control of these zoonoses. Recent projects coordinated by Asahikawa Medical College have concentrated on immunological and molecular diagnostic techniques transferable to colleagues from endemic regions of Asia and the Pacific, and on organization of two international symposia to establish a platform for further collaboration in the future. PMID:17547058
Ito, Akira; Wandra, Toni; Sato, Marcello O; Mamuti, Wulamu; Xiao, Ning; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Munehiro; Craig, Philip S
Methods to determine viability of taeniid oncospheres following treatments with potential lethality have practical application in efforts to control transmission. Here we investigated several methods, in lieu of infectivity studies, to assess oncosphere viability and determine lethal temperature treatment regimens. In the first experiment, a standard treatment to exshell oncospheres with 0.5% hypochlorite was assessed for influence on oncosphere recovery of Taenia taeniaeformis eggs. Recovery of eggs and exshelled oncospheres decreased with increasing time in hypochlorite, which indicated that hypochlorite can damage eggs and oncospheres, translating into potential overestimation of lethality of experimental treatments. Losses in hypochlorite were accentuated when eggs were pretreated at 75 degrees C, but not lower temperatures, including 65 degrees C, indicating a sharp threshhold between 65 degrees C and 75 degrees C where eggs and oncospheres became hypersensitive to subsequent hypochlorite treatment. To further investigate this change in relation to temperature, non-vital (acridine orange, AO) and vital (propidium iodide, PI; trypan blue, TB) dyes were used to assess staining of oncospheres (exshelled or not) under conditions ranging from room temperature up to 95 degrees C. The behaviors of dyes as related to internal staining of oncospheres were described using non-linear regression and a sigmoid four-parametric model to determine the inflection point (T50). Each of the dyes differed significantly in T50 estimates, e.g. AO (69.22+/-0.53), PI (73.89+/-0.52) and TB (79.43+/-0.45). For these dyes, the T50 increased in relation to the increasing molecular weight of the dyes. Collectively, the results suggested that barriers to chemical permeability exist in eggs that breakdown incrementally with increasing temperatures above 65 degrees C. This staining behavior and the likelihood that the temperatures involved are above a lethal threshhold clarify a basic limitation in the use of vital dyes to assess oncosphere viability. The results may be relevant to other Taenia spp. PMID:18063313
Chapalamadugu, Kalyan C; Busboom, Jan R; Nelson, Mark L; Hancock, Dale D; Tang, Juming; Jasmer, Douglas P
The acid phosphate activity (APA) associated with the isolated brush border membrane of the tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl phosphate (PNPP), pyrophosphate (PPi), and beta-glycerophosphate (beta GP). Inhibition of PNPP hydrolysis at pH 4.0 was inhibited in a competitive manner by the following compounds (listed in order of decreasing affinity with their apparent inhibitor constants (Ki')): molybdate (0.031 mM); PPi (0.147 mM); NaF (0.150 mM); o-carboxyphenyl phosphate (0.261 mM); inorganic phosphate (0.770)); arsenate (3.45 mM); tartrate (22.1 mM); and beta GP (29.8 mM). Cu2+, formaldehyde, and arsenite at 10:1, 80:1, and 200:1 inhibitor to substrate ratios did not inhibit APA. The maximal rate of hydrolysis (Vmax) of each substrate was greater at pH 4.0 than 5.0. The apparent Michaelis constant (Km') for PNPP increased from 0.233 to 0.351 mM when the pH was raised from 4.0 to 5.0. The Km' for PPi decreased from 0.101 to 0.046 mM, while the Km' for beta GP changed from 2.04 to 2.22 mM under similar circumstances. APA and alkaline phosphatase activity increased as a function of temperature up to 45 degrees C. PMID:1851102
Pappas, P W
An analogue of hGH isolated from plerocercoids of the tapeworm Spirometra mansonoides displaces (/sup 125/I)hGH from its receptors in rabbit, rat, and hamster liver membranes. Biologically, plerocercoid growth factor (PGF) is more similar to hGH than to other mammalian GH's but has not been shown to bond human cells. Receptors specific for hGH have been described on cultured human lymphocytes (IM-9). In this study, the authors compared the binding of PGF and hGH in IM-9 cells and in rabbit hepatic membranes. IM-9 lymphocytes (12 x 10/sup 6/ cells/tube) were incubated with (/sup 125/I)hGH and increasing concentrations of hGH (ng/ml) or PGF (serial dilutions) for 90 min at 30/sup 0/ C. Specific binding (B/sub 0/ - NSB) was determined for each dose of hGH or PGF and the binding curves were analyzed by logit-log regression. The results show that PGF displaced (/sup 125/I)hGH from human cells in a dose dependent manner (r = 0.98). Based on the IM-9 assay, 1 ml of the PGF had an activity equivalent to 625 ng of the hGH standard (ngE). However, the binding activity of the PGF in the rabbit liver RRA was 1653 ngE/ml, indicating that the binding potency of PGF in IM-9 cells was only 38% of that in the rabbit liver. These results clearly demonstrate that PGF binds hGH receptors in cells of human origin, suggesting that PGF will be effective in humans.
Watts, D.J.; Phares, C.K.
A “crude” antigen prepared from the strobilate stage ofTaenia saginata was tested for its suitability in the peroxidase microenzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the diagnosis ofT. saginata cysticercosis in cattle. Sera were tested from laboratory and pasture-reared calves experimentally infected withT. saginata as well as from cattle naturally infected by grazing on pasture irrigated with sewage effluent. The specificity of
P. S. Craig; M. D. Rickard
The immunoreactivity ofTaenia saginata andT. crassiceps metacestode neutral glyco(sphingo)lipids towards IgG antibodies derived from the sera of calves with experimental cysticercosis has been established. The glyco(sphingo)lipids are separable by normal-phase HPTLC (high-performance thin-layer chromatography) into groups of increasing sugar-chain length (lipid\\/ceramide mono-, di-, tri-, tetra- and >tetrasaccharides), with those corresponding to three and four hexoses being the main immunoreactive components
S. Baumeister; Carmen Schuh; R. D. Dennis; M. Walther; K. Pfister; E. Geyer
The GABA-ergic and opioid modulation of neurally induced muscle responses was studied in isolated guinea-pig taenia coli and human colonic circular muscle, using identical field stimulation parameters (rectangular pulses of 0.5 ms duration, 9 V x cm(-1) intensity, trains of 3 pulses at 0.5 Hz, repeated every 1/3/5 min). The stimulation-induced contractions were inhibited in both preparations by GABA and baclofen; the IC50 values in human colonic circular muscle were approximately 100 and 31.0 microM, respectively. In guinea-pig taenia coli, the inhibition by 10(-4) M GABA was dose-dependently reversed by 10(-4)-10(-3) M of GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP 35348; antagonism by phaclofen was less effective in the same concentration range. In human colonic circular muscle, inhibition by 3 x 10(-5) M baclofen was fully reversed by 10(-3) M CGP 35348. With the exception of caecum, the delta 2 opioid receptor agonist deltorphin II was a potent inhibitor in human colonic circular muscle. 10(-8) M Deltorphin caused a 74.4 +/- 9.6% (n = 4) inhibition which was reversed by 10(-6) M of delta receptor selective peptide antagonist BOC-Tyr-Pro-Gly-Phe-Leu-Thr(OtBu). Deltorphin II was ineffective in guinea-pig taenia coli even at 10(-6) M; the same concentration caused an 84.3 +/- 7.9 (n = 4) inhibition in human preparations. It is concluded that: 1) GABA-ergic modulatory mechanisms are present both in human colonic circular muscle and guinea-pig taenia coli; 2) the GABA receptors involved are of type B; and 3) delta opioid receptor-mediated modulation functions only in human colonic circular muscle in regions other than the caecum. PMID:10791695
Makó, E; Rónai, A Z; Adám, G; Juhász, G; Ritter, L; Lestár, B; Crunelli, V
Emodepside+praziquantel topical solution was developed to provide broad–spectrum anthelmintic activity against gastrointestinal parasites in cats. Eight controlled studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a topical solution of emodepside (3 mg\\/kg) and praziquantel (12 mg\\/kg) (Profender®, BayerAG, Leverkusen, Germany) against feline infections with three species of cestodes. Studies featured naturally acquired infections of Dipylidium caninum or Taenia taeniaeformis, or
S. D. Charles; G. Altreuther; C. R. Reinemeyer; J. Buch; T. Settje; L. Cruthers; D. J. Kok; D. D. Bowman; K. R. Kazacos; D. J. Jenkins; E. Schein
This study is concerned with the regulation of intracellular-free Mg 2+ concentration ((Mg~+)i) in the smooth muscle of guinea pig taenia caeci. To assess an interaction of Ca 2+ on the Na§ Mg2§ mechanism (Na § Mg 2§ exchange), effects of Na + removal (N-methyl-n-glucamine substitution) were examined in Ca~+-containing solutions. As changes in pHi in Na+-free solutions perturb estimation
S. Nakayama; H. NOMURA; T. TOMITA
Histochemical, pharmacological, biochemical and chromatographic evidence that pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating peptide is involved in inhibitory neurotransmission in the taenia of the guinea-pig caecum
The possibility that pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter has been investigated in the taenia of the guinea-pig caecum. The action of PACAP on muscle contractility and its ability to alter levels of adenosine-3? : 5?-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) and guanosine-3? : 5?-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) were investigated. PACAP-1-27 was an effective agonist, giving relaxations comparable in
Karen McConalogue; John B. Furness; Melinda A. Vremec; Jens J. Holst; Karen Tornøe; Philip D. Marley
...caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala ) and as an aid in removing tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus granulosus ) from dogs and cats. (3) Limitations. Withhold solid foods and milk for at least 12 hours prior...
Background Taenia taeniaeformis and the related zoonotic cestode Echinococcus multilocularis both infect the water vole Arvicola terrestris. We investigated the effect of age, spatio-temporal and season-related factors on the prevalence of these parasites in their shared intermediate host. The absolute age of the voles was calculated based on their eye lens weights, and we included the mean day temperature and mean precipitation experienced by each individual as independent factors. Results Overall prevalences of E. multilocularis and T. taeniaeformis were 15.1% and 23.4%, respectively, in 856 A. terrestris trapped in the canton Zürich, Switzerland. Prevalences were lower in young (? 3 months: E. multilocularis 7.6%, T. taeniaeformis 17.9%) than in older animals (>7 months: 32.6% and 34.8%). Only 12 of 129 E. multilocularis-infected voles harboured protoscoleces. Similar proportions of animals with several strobilocerci were found in T. taeniaeformis infected voles of <5 months and ?5 months of age (12.8% and 11.9%). Multivariate analyses revealed strong spatio-temporal variations in prevalences of E. multilocularis. In one trapping area, prevalences varied on an exceptional high level of 40.6-78.5% during the whole study period. Low temperatures significantly correlated with the infection rate whereas precipitation was of lower importance. Significant spatial variations in prevalences were also identified for Taenia taeniaeformis. Although the trapping period and the meteorological factors temperature and precipitation were included in the best models for explaining the infection risk, their effects were not significant for this parasite. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that, besides temporal and spatial factors, low temperatures contribute to the risk of infection with E. multilocularis. This suggests that the enhanced survival of E. multilocularis eggs under cold weather conditions determines the level of infection pressure on the intermediate hosts and possibly also the infection risk for human alveolar echincoccosis (AE). Therefore, interventions against the zoonotic cestode E. multilocularis by deworming foxes may be most efficient if conducted just before and during winter.
Taenia solium is the most common helminthic infection of the central nervous system and a leading cause of epilepsy in developing nations. Little is known about neurocysticercosis in refugees from Southeast Asia which is endemic for T solium. We present two cases in a single household of refugees from Burma. PMID:22414037
O'Neal, Seth E; Robbins, Nathaniel M; Townes, John M
Taenia multiceps (Cestoda: Taeniidae), a worldwide cestode parasite, is emerging as an important helminthic zoonosis due to serious or fatal central nervous system disease commonly known as coenurosis in domestic and wild ruminants including humans. Herein, a fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) gene was identified from transcriptomic data in T. multiceps. This gene, which contains a complete coding sequence, was amplified by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The corresponding protein, which was named TmFABP, had a molecular weight of 14 kDa, and subsequently was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli. The fusion protein was purified on Ni-NTA beads (Bio-Rad). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analyses showed that the purified recombinant protein caused immunogenicity. Immunohistochemical studies showed that TmFABP was expressed at the tegumental level in the protoscolices and in the cells between the body wall and parenchyma layer of the cestode. In sections from gravid proglottids, intense staining was detected in the uterus and eggs. Based on this, TmFABP could be switched on during differentiation of germinative layers to protoscoleces and from metacestodes to adult worms. Taken together, our results already reported for T. multiceps suggest the possibility of TmFABP developing a vaccine to control and prevent coenurosis. PMID:23474657
Nie, Hua-Ming; Xie, Yue; Fu, Yan; Yang, Ying-Dong; Gu, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Shu-Xian; Peng, Xi; Lai, Wei-Ming; Peng, Xue-Rong; Yang, Guang-You
A commercial coproantigen ELISA test for fasciolosis, based on the use of MM3 monoclonal antibody for antigen capture, was investigated for possible cross-reactivity with Paramphistomum cervi, a trematode that commonly infects cattle and sheep grazing in fluke-infested pasture in Ireland. Histological sections of adult and immature Fasciola hepatica and P cervi were incubated with MM3 monoclonal antibody, and its binding to tissue-localised coproantigen was subsequently visualised by immunocytochemistry. In a related study, the soluble antigenic fractions derived from homogenates of P cervi adults and Taenia hydatigena metacestodes were tested for cross-reactivity with MM3 monoclonal antibody in an antigen-capture ELISA, using known F hepatica-positive and F hepatica-negative ovine faecal samples as natural controls. It was found that, while intense immunocytochemical labelling was located over the gastrodermis and gut contents of adult and immature F hepatica, sections of adult and immature P cervi were unlabelled. In the ELISA tests, the soluble fractions of F hepatica reacted strongly with MM3 monoclonal antibody, but those of P cervi and T hydatigena gave negative results. These findings support the specificity of the coproantigen ELISA test for fasciolosis in areas where paramphistomosis and cysticercosis are liable to occur singly or as coinfections with F hepatica. PMID:23077134
Kajugu, P-E; Hanna, R E B; Edgar, H W; Forster, F I; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I
The time course and kinetics of force development following activation by opening of L-type Ca2+ channels was investigated using photodestruction of the Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine in smooth muscle from the guinea-pig taenia coli. In muscles activated using high K+ and Ca2+ and subsequently inhibited with nifedipine, photodestruction of the drug using a strong ultraviolet light flash initiated a rapid contraction. The force initiated by photodestruction of nifedipine reached near-maximal levels. This procedure eliminates diffusional delays and can thus be used to investigate the kinetics of depolarization-induced contractions. The rate of force development of contractions initiated by photodestruction of nifedipine was slower than that observed in maximally thiophosphorylated skinned fibres. This suggests the rate of force development is limited by activation steps in the activation cascade prior to the force generation of the cross-bridge system. The rate of force development and the plateau force were dependent on the extracellular [CaCl2] suggesting that the intracellular [Ca2+] determines the rate of phosphorylation and force development. The delay between illumination and increase in force was about 300 ms. The delay was similar at low and high extracellular [CaCl2] indicating that buffering by superficial sarcoplasmatic reticulum does not introduce a delay in force development following activation of Ca2+ channels in this muscle.
Malmqvist, Ulf; Arner, Anders
In the year 2008, 109 intestinal cestode infections were registered in Poland. Among them 69 were caused by Taenia saginata, 2 by T. solium, 30 by Taenia sp., 1 by Diphyllobothrium latum. Moreover, 28 cases of cystic echinococcosis were reported. The obtained results confirmed decreasing frequency of intestinal cestodoses in Poland. PMID:20731234
A case of moving ileal Taenia saginata parasites is presented with demonstrative images. We came across the parasites surprisingly while performing robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystoprostatectomy with intracorporeal Studer pouch urinary diversion. We recommend stool sample evaluation in the preoperative period for possible presence of intestinal parasitic diseases, particularly in patients with bladder cancer who are admitted from areas with an increased incidence of intestinal parasitic diseases, before opening the bowel segments during surgery to perform radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. PMID:21231881
Canda, Abdullah Erdem; Asil, Erem; Balbay, Mevlana Derya
A comparison of techniques for detecting the presence of Cysticercus bovis in bovine carcasses was made by using carcass dissection and routine beef inspection guidelines. In the study, 28 calves were used after they were tested and found to be negative for the presence of anti-C. bovis serum antibodies and were inoculated orally with aliquots containing 6×10(4) Taenia saginata eggs. One hundred and twenty days after inoculation, the animals were slaughtered and a post mortem evaluation was done following Brazilian Federal Beef Inspection guidelines. This routine meat inspection was able to identify 71·42% of the assessed infected carcasses as being parasitized. This result implies that 28·58% of the infected carcasses would have been released as fit for human consumption since they would have been considered as free of C. bovis infection when using this method for carcass assessment. Only 3·07% of the total 2311 metacestodes present in the carcasses were identified by the conventional procedures of sanitary inspection. The assessment of different parts of the carcasses showed high infestation rates in shoulder clod (14·37%), head (11·21%), neck+chuck roll (8·05%), heart (7·75%) and top (inside) round (7·18%) which, together, were responsible for housing 48·51% of all the cysts found in the 24 beef cuts assessed. These numbers contrasted to the low incidence of cysts found in organs such as tongue (3·12%), diaphragm (1·69%) and esophagus (1·60%) which are usually described as predilection sites for the parasite. PMID:21929881
Soares, V E; De Andrade Belo, M A; Rezende, P C B; Soccol, V T; Fukuda, R T; De Ooliveira, G P; Da Costa, A J
Female BALB/cJ (resistant), C3H/HeJ (intermediate resistant), and C3H/HeDub (susceptible) inbred mice, 4-5 wk old, were infected with Taenia taeniaeformis. Liver sections were stained for the enzymes acid phosphatase, beta-glucuronidase, and peroxidase. Eosinophils present around the parasite were identified by the ethanolic Congo red method. Possible gross changes in lipid metabolism in the hepatocytes surrounding the parasite were investigated with the Sudan black B method. The results of observations made by light microscopy were: (1) beta-glucuronidase activity above background levels was observed only in the hepatocytes around the parasite in BALB/cJ mice at 4, 5, and 6 days postinfection (PI); no reaction was observed in the other 2 strains of mice studied; (2) acid phosphatase activity was very strong at 2, 3, and 4 in the 3 strains of mice while this reactivity was weak at 5 and 6 days PI; (3) the cytoplasm of the hepatocytes around the metacestode stained more heavily with Sudan black B than other hepatocytes; and (4) the presence of eosinophils appearing at 3 days PI around the parasite in all 3 strains of mice was demonstrated by staining with Sudan black B, the substrate of peroxidase, and Congo red. Infected C3H/HeJ and BALB/cJ mice had higher numbers of liver eosinophils than infected C3H/HeDub mice throughout the observation time. The present results suggest 2 conclusions: (1) a parasite-liver interaction occurs as is evident by hepatocyte changes in beta-glucuronidase activity and Sudan black B staining, and (2) resistance to the early stages of T. taeniaeformis is associated with the appearance of eosinophils. PMID:2443633
Letonja, T; Hammerberg, C
Taenia arctos n. sp. (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Taeniidae) is described from the brown bear Ursus arctos Linnaeus (definitive host) and moose/elk Alces spp. (intermediate hosts) from Finland (type-locality) and Alaska, USA. The independent status of the new species and the conspecificity of its adults and metacestodes have been recently confirmed by the mtDNA sequence data of Lavikainen et al. (2011; Parasitology International, 60, 289-295). Special reference is given to morphological differences between the new species and T. krabbei Moniez, 1879 (definitive hosts primarily canines for the latter), both of which use the moose/elk (Alces spp.) as intermediate hosts (the latter also uses Rangifer and perhaps other northern ruminants), and between the new species and T. ursina Linstow, 1893, both of which use the brown bear U. arctos as a definitive host. New morphological data are also provided for adults and cysticerci of T. krabbei. The analysis includes potentially useful morphometric features that have not been previously applied to Taenia spp. PMID:22002024
Haukisalmi, Voitto; Lavikainen, Antti; Laaksonen, Sauli; Meri, Seppo
1. The activity of adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose (ADP-ribose), a ribosylated purine nucleotide, was investigated on the carbachol-contracted taenia coli, a tissue possessing P1- (A2) and P2Y-purinoceptors and on the guinea-pig vas deferens which possesses P2X-purinoceptors. 2. In the vas deferens, where ATP (1 microM-1 mM) produced concentration-dependent contractions, ADP-ribose was without effect at concentrations up to 1 mM. 3. In the taenia coli, ADP-ribose (0.1 microM-1 mM) produced concentration-dependent relaxations with a potency similar to that of adenosine, but less than that of ATP. The pD2 values for ADP-ribose, adenosine and ATP were 4.5 +/- 0.07 (27), 4.4 +/- 0.10 (9) and 5.5 +/- 0.14 (21), respectively. The time-course of the relaxations elicited by ADP-ribose was found to be significantly longer than that for ATP and significantly shorter than that for adenosine. 4. The P1-purinoceptor antagonist, 8-phenyltheophylline (5 microM), produced parallel rightward shifts in the concentration-response curves of the relaxations of the taenia coli elicited by ADP-ribose and adenosine but not ATP. 5. Dipyridamole (0.3 microM), a purine nucleoside uptake inhibitor, potentiated the responses to adenosine and ADP-ribose in the taenia coli. These potentiations were sensitive to 8-phenyltheophylline (5 microM). 6. Reactive blue 2, a P2Y-purinoceptor antagonist, antagonized the inhibitory responses of ADP-ribose and ATP in the taenia coli, without significantly altering the inhibitory responses of either adenosine or noradrenaline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Hoyle, C. H.; Edwards, G. A.
1. Mechanical transients in fibre bundles of skinned smooth muscle of guinea-pig taenia coli at 21-22 degrees C were investigated by recording tension responses to length changes of up to 9%, complete within 0.3 ms. 2. The length-force relationship, recorded continuously during rapid stretch of a Ca(2+)-activated contracted muscle, was linear up to at least 2.5 times the isometric force, corresponding to a stretch of about 1%. The slope of the relationship (stiffness) increased with the velocity of stretch. 3. During rapid release (about 120 muscle lengths s-1) the length-force relationship was linear down to about 50% of the initial isometric force, reached at about 80 microseconds after the beginning of the release. At lower force the length-force relationship was concave upwards. The linear portion extrapolated to zero force at about -0.008 muscle lengths. In large releases the length-force plot approached the force baseline under an acute angle, and negative force was transiently exerted. 4. When the muscle was stretched back to the initial length after a shortening step, force transiently rose above the isometric force, but decayed back within a few milliseconds. Stiffness at the time of restretch was compared with that in the initial shortening step by plotting force vs. length, and was found to be decreased to 63% within 0.3 ms of a step to zero force. Stiffness decreased further with time at zero force, and after 256 ms was about 29% of the isometric value. 5. In rigor, caused by the introduction of ATP-free solution during the plateau of isometric contraction, fibre tension decreased to about 30% of the active tension, whereas stiffness relative to force increased; 82% of the initial stiffness in rigor was detected in a restretch immediately after a shortening step, decreasing to 59% at 256 ms. When the fibre was activated at suboptimal [Ca2+] to cause the same force as in rigor, stiffness was lower than in rigor and decreased more after a release. 6. After completion of a release-stretch cycle, stiffness was rapidly restored to the same value as in isometric contraction. Test stretches at different points in time after completion of the cycle revealed that most of the stiffness had been restored within 1 ms of the restretch, occurring concomitantly with a decay in force.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Arheden, H; Hellstrand, P
Neurocysticercosis, a major cause of acquired seizures and epiilepsy, is caused by infection with the larval cystic form of the tapeworm, Taenia solium. CT and MRI imaging, development of sensitive and specific diagnostic methods, and discovery of relatively effective anti-cestode drugs, revolutionized knowledge of the burden of infection and disease and led to effective treatments. Here we review the rationale of treatment, the essential role of inflammation in the genesis of disease and its exacerbation as a result of anti-parasitic treatment, and limitations in the efficacy of current anti-parasitic and anti-inflammatory treatments. The importance of “end stage” calcified granulomas as foci of seizures and epilepsy with and without perilesional edema in endemic populations has recently been recognized. New information indicates perilesional inflammation around some calcified foci is associated with seizures and perilesional edema, which suggests that anti-inflammatory treatments may play a role in controlling or preventing epilepsy in these patients. Most importantly, neurocysticercosis is one of the few diseases that can be eradicated, an accomplishment that would prevent millions of cases of epilepsy.
Nash, Theodore E.; Garcia, Hector H.
The infection of brain and its coverings by larval stage of tapeworm Taenia solium leads to Neurocysticercosis (NCC). The intraventricular form of NCC (IVNCC) has a rapidly progressive course and seen in 15-54% cases. This demands prompt management, as the patients usually present with features of raised intracranial pressure because of cyst load or occlusion of CSF pathways due to associated ependymitis and basal arachnoiditis. The commonest site of occurrence is in fourth ventricle. Neuroimaging is mainstay of diagnosis of IVNCC. The treatment depends on clinical presentation, location within the ventricular system and evolutionary stage of parasite. However, the efficacy of antihelminthic treatment in IVNCC may require further collaborative clinical trials. The decision to operate in a viable intraventricular cyst depends on the presence of: (i) mass effect (ii) CSF obstruction (iii) fourth ventricular cysts. Recently, endoscopic approaches have been the favorable treatment option for IVNCC with hydrocephalus as the clinical results far outbetter those for open approaches used previously. PMID:22168964
Sinha, Sumit; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar
Cysticercosis is a tropical disease caused by infection with the larval stage of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Humans and pigs acquire cysticercosis by ingesting T. solium eggs shed in the feces of humans with taeniasis (i.e., infected with an adult intestinal tapeworm). Cerebral cysticercosis occurs when the cysts of T. solium develop within the central nervous system, and it is the primary cause of illness in T. solium infection. Currently, cerebral cysticercosis is endemic worldwide, and it is a leading cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. However, it is now increasingly detected in developed countries due to the immigration of T. solium carriers from the endemic areas. The antiparasitic treatment of cerebral cysticercosis remains controversial till now. In China, except a few cases who conform to the contraindicated criteria of antiparasitic therapy, most cerebral cysticercosis patients with symptoms and signs are given etiological treatment. This paper reviews the antiparasitic therapy of cerebral cysticercosis in China during the past several decades. Praziquantel treatment with different regimens has been used, and various efficacies are achieved. In the early stage, unsatisfactory therapeutic efficacy was achieved due to small doses and short treatment courses. Afterwards, the therapeutic efficacy became increasingly remarkable in both adults and children with the increases in dosage and courses. Albendazole also presents activity against cysticercosis with slow and moderate action, and it has been widely used in the treatment of the infection. The comparison between praziquantel and albendazole treatments showed that the immediate and short-term effects of albendazole treatment were better than those of praziquantel treatment, but similar mid- and long-term efficacies were observed following albendazole and praziquantel treatments. The combination of albendazole and praziquantel treatments can increase the therapeutic efficacy, and now, from the massive clinical practices, most of Chinese clinical specialists propose the combination therapy of albendazole and praziquantel for cerebral cysticercosis with simultaneous administration of steroids, especially in the first course. In addition, administration of praziquantel at a high dose can become a diagnostic treatment for suspected cerebral cysticercosis and serve as a supplement of the currently available diagnostic methods, such as diagnoses based on the clinical features, immunology, CT and MRI imaging, etc., in some atypical cerebral cysticercosis patients. Praziquantel and albendazole treatments have some adverse reactions, and to control these adverse effects, all the cerebral cysticercosis patients should be treated in hospital. According to the type of cerebral cysticercosis, especially for intracranial hypertension type and meningocephalitis type, the dosages of anti-cysticercus drugs need to follow a gradually increasing pattern. During the period of anti-cysticercosis treatments, steroids and/or dehydrating agents need be administered which can alleviate the intracranial hypertension and so on. Traditional Chinese medicines have been also used in the treatment of cerebral cysticercosis and achieve satisfactory outcomes. However, the compound prescription of traditional Chinese medicines is very complex, and the effective components are not fully clear. Some cerebral cysticercosis patients with very high intracranial tension could not receive antiparasitic treatment immediately, and surgical treatment is required. Chinese surgeons also achieve some successful experiences, but not all the cysticercus can be removed completely during the surgery. Therefore, antiparasitic drugs are still needed after the operation. The rehabilitative treatment is supplementary in the therapy of cerebral cysticercosis. In China, the rehabilitative treatment of cerebral cysticercosis is still at the initial stage. These lessons and experiences in China can be shared with medical staff and researchers from other countries where the disease is endemic. PMI
Wu, Wei; Jia, Fengju; Wang, Wei; Huang, Yixin; Huang, Yong
Background The control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections currently relies on the large-scale administration of single-dose oral albendazole or mebendazole. However, these treatment regimens have limited efficacy against hookworm and Trichuris trichiura in terms of cure rates (CR), whereas fecal egg reduction rates (ERR) are generally high for all common STH species. We compared the efficacy of single-dose versus triple-dose treatment against hookworm and other STHs in a community-based randomized controlled trial in the People's Republic of China. Methodology/Principal findings The hookworm CR and fecal ERR were assessed in 314 individuals aged ?5 years who submitted two stool samples before and 3–4 weeks after administration of single-dose oral albendazole (400 mg) or mebendazole (500 mg) or triple-dose albendazole (3×400 mg over 3 consecutive days) or mebendazole (3×500 mg over 3 consecutive days). Efficacy against T. trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Taenia spp. was also assessed. Albendazole cured significantly more hookworm infections than mebendazole in both treatment regimens (single dose: respective CRs 69% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 55–81%) and 29% (95% CI: 20–45%); triple dose: respective CRs 92% (95% CI: 81–98%) and 54% (95% CI: 46–71%)). ERRs followed the same pattern (single dose: 97% versus 84%; triple dose: 99.7% versus 96%). Triple-dose regimens outperformed single doses against T. trichiura; three doses of mebendazole – the most efficacious treatment tested – cured 71% (95% CI: 57–82%). Both single and triple doses of either drug were highly efficacious against A. lumbricoides (CR: 93–97%; ERR: all >99.9%). Triple dose regimens cured all Taenia spp. infections, whereas single dose applications cured only half of them. Conclusions/Significance Single-dose oral albendazole is more efficacious against hookworm than mebendazole. To achieve high CRs against both hookworm and T. trichiura, triple-dose regimens are warranted. Trial Registration www.controlled-trials.com ISRCTN47375023
Steinmann, Peter; Utzinger, Jurg; Du, Zun-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Chen, Jia-Xu; Hattendorf, Jan; Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Xiao-Nong
The effects of gallamine, gallopamil and nifedipine on isotonic contractions of the isolated taenia of the guinea-pig caecum produced by acetylcholine (ACh) or carbachol (CCh) were investigated. Gallamine (0.1 to 0.3 mM) inhibited contractions produced by CCh more than those produced by ACh. The difference was still present after pretreatment of the tissue with paraoxon (10 microM for 20 min) to inhibit cholinesterases or in experiments carried out in the presence of tetrodotoxin (0.3 microM) to exclude possible ganglionic stimulation by the agonists. Gallopamil or nifedipine selectively inhibited the tonic response to ACh in the absence or presence of paraoxon. The phasic response to ACh or the tonic response to CCh (0.1 or 1 microM) was much less affected. Reduction of the Ca2+ content of the bath medium reduced phasic and tonic responses to ACh more than the tonic response to CCh. These results suggest that there are differences in the interaction of ACh and CCh with muscarinic receptors in this muscle.
Mitchelson, F.; Ziegler, A.
A key feature of helminth infections is the induction of strong Th2-biased immune responses in their hosts. We have previously found that Th2-like responses mediate susceptibility to the helminth parasite Taenia crassiceps, probably by inhibiting Th1 responses required for the development of protective immunity against this parasite. Here we show that mice lacking interleukin-12p35 (IL-12p35-/-) following T. crassiceps infection, failed to mount a Th1 response, but developed a strong Th2-type response, produced higher levels of IgG1, IgE, interleukin-4, interleukin-5 as well as interleukin-13 than wild-type mice, and became highly susceptible to the larval stage of this cestode. In contrast, similarly-infected CD40 deficient BALB/c mice (CD40-/-) displayed impairment of both Th1 and Th2-type responses associated with low levels of interferon-gamma as well as IgE, interleukin-4, interleukin-5 and interleukin-13, but efficiently controlled T. crassiceps infection. Together, these findings suggest a detrimental role for Th2-biased responses during the larval stage of T. crassiceps infection. Furthermore, they also suggest a pivotal role for CD40 in developing Th2-type responses. PMID:12814650
Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; Satoskar, Abhay R; David, John R; Terrazas, Luis I
1. The intra- and extracellular spaces and ionic content of the taenia coli of the guinea-pig have been measured in a series of bathing solutions in which the tonicity varied from 0.5 to 3 times the tonicity of the normal Krebs solution.2. Equilibrium of the tissue in the experimental solution is reached within about 30 min.3. The absolute values of the parameters measured have been shown to depend on the blotting technique used. These differences were eliminated by expressing the results as a percentage of the values found in the normal Krebs solution.4. In hypertonic solutions the cell behaves as a perfect osmometer, the cell volume changing in proportion to the tonicity of the bathing medium. Only a small amount of cations is lost from the cells. A considerable amount of chloride is lost, making the postulation of its replacement by some other anions necessary in order to maintain electroneutrality of the intracellular solution.5. In hypotonic solutions the cells do not behave as predicted for a perfect osmometer. In 0.5 hypotonic solution an actual decrease in cell volume was observed associated with an increase of the extracellular space probably due to penetration of [(14)C]sorbitol into the cell. The intracellular ionic concentration was decreased. These findings suggest damage of the cell membrane.6. The observed hyperpolarization of the membrane in hypertonic solution can be explained by the increased intracellular potassium concentration. PMID:5639794
Brading, A F; Setekleiv, J
It is known that highly reactive oxygene species produced during normal cellular metabolism represent a powerful effector mechanism against parasites. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) belong to the main defense anti-oxidants that prevent the formation of new free radical species. The aim of this study was to assess the activities of SOD and GPx in cattle tissues infected with Taenia saginata. We observed a statistically significant increase in the SOD and GPx activities (p=0.00003, 0.00008, respectively, Student's t-test) in skeletal muscles infected with T. saginata in spectrophotometric analysis. With the use of western blot technique, SOD synthesis stimulation has appeared in the host tissues containing cysticerci in contrast with the control samples. There was no statistically significant increase in the GPx band intensity observed in the studied samples in comparison to controls (Gene Tools Version 4.01 program). These results support the significance of anti-oxidant processes in host defense mechanism during parasitic infections. PMID:21272584
?uszczak, Joanna; Ziaja-So?tys, Marta; Rzymowska, Jolanta
The aim of this study was to fractionate and partially characterize fractions obtained from the total saline extract (SE) of Taenia saginata metacestodes after ion-exchange procedure in carboxymethyl sepharose (CM) and diethylaminoethyl sepharose (DEAE) resins, as a source of antigenic markers applicable in the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC). For IgG detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting, 140 serum samples were analyzed: 45 from patients with NCC (G1), 50 from patients with other parasitic infections (G2), and 45 from healthy individuals. Sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), area under curve (AUC), and likelihood ratios (LR) were calculated. CM S2 and DEAE S2 fractions provided high diagnostic values (Se 88.8% and 93.4%; Sp 93.7% and 92.6%; AUC 0.965 and 0.987; LR+ 14.07 and 12.67; LR- 0.11 and 0.07, respectively). In conclusion, CM S2 and DEAE S2 fractions are important sources of specific peptides, with high efficiency to diagnose NCC. PMID:23433713
Nunes, Daniela da Silva; Gonzaga, Henrique Tomaz; Ribeiro, Vanessa da Silva; da Cunha, Jair Pereira; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria
We occasionally found that cestode Taenia taeniaeformis in rats favored Sporothrix schenckii infection and survival, causing protracted cutaneous lesions. In this study, we compared the pathology and cytokines profile of rats co-infected with the two pathogens and infected with S. schenckii alone to explore underlying mechanisms. In the co-infection group, there was high expression of ?-glucan receptor Dectin-1 in the cutaneous lesions and no multinucleated giant cells, but in the S. schenckii infection group the opposite was observed. Cytokines profiles demonstrated an expected finding that IL-4, commonly expressed in helminth and fungus infection, is undetectable in the two infection groups. In the single fungal infection group, cytokines IFN-?, IL-10 and IL-17 kept increasing in the first few weeks of infection to a peak which was followed by gradual decrease. This study showed that Dectin-1 and IL-17, which were believed to be the major anti-fungus mechanisms, are Th2 independent and dispensable for clearance of S. schenckii infection, suggesting that S. schenckii has a different molecular recognition pattern and evokes anti-infection mechanisms other than Dectin-1 and IL-17. PMID:23285072
Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Huaiqiu; Xue, Ruzeng; Hu, Xuchu; Li, Meirong; Zhong, Yi; Yuan, Liyan
We occasionally found that cestode Taenia taeniaeformis in rats favored Sporothrix schenckii infection and survival, causing protracted cutaneous lesions. In this study, we compared the pathology and cytokines profile of rats co-infected with the two pathogens and infected with S. schenckii alone to explore underlying mechanisms. In the co-infection group, there was high expression of ?-glucan receptor Dectin-1 in the cutaneous lesions and no multinucleated giant cells, but in the S. schenckii infection group the opposite was observed. Cytokines profiles demonstrated an expected finding that IL-4, commonly expressed in helminth and fungus infection, is undetectable in the two infection groups. In the single fungal infection group, cytokines IFN-?, IL-10 and IL-17 kept increasing in the first few weeks of infection to a peak which was followed by gradual decrease. This study showed that Dectin-1 and IL-17, which were believed to be the major anti-fungus mechanisms, are Th2 independent and dispensable for clearance of S. schenckii infection, suggesting that S. schenckii has a different molecular recognition pattern and evokes anti-infection mechanisms other than Dectin-1 and IL-17.
Huang, Huaiqiu; Xue, Ruzeng; Hu, Xuchu; Li, Meirong; Zhong, Yi; Yuan, Liyan
Infection by the cestode Taenia taeniaeformis was investigated within numerous cyclic populations of the fossorial water vole Arvicola terrestris sampled during 4 years in Franche-Comté (France). The relative influence of different rodent demographic parameters on the presence of this cestode was assessed by considering (1) the demographic phase of the cycle; (2) density at the local geographical scale (<0.1 km2); (3) mean density at a larger scale (>10 km2). The local scale corresponded to the rodent population (intermediate host), while the large scale corresponded to the definitive host population (wild and feral cats). General linear models based on analyses of 1804 voles revealed the importance of local density but also of year, rodent age, season and interactions between year and season and between age and season. Prevalence was significantly higher in low vole densities than during local outbreaks. By contrast, the large geographical scale density and the demographic phase had less influence on infection by the cestode. The potential impacts of the cestode on the fitness of the host were assessed and infection had no effect on the host body mass, litter size or sexual activity of voles. PMID:16329763
Deter, J; Berthier, K; Chaval, Y; Cosson, J F; Morand, S; Charbonnel, N
A case of obsolete intramuscular cysticercosis diagnosed definitively by mitochondrial DNA analysis of extremely calcified cysts was reported. X-ray and computed tomography findings highly suggested cysticercosis due to Taenia solium; however, no direct evidence of cysticercosis was obtained through serological or histopathological examinations. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of a histopathological specimen confirmed the causative agent to be the Asian genotype of T. solium. PMID:16406683
Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nagase, Teruaki; Kiyoshige, Yoshiro; Suzuki, Mamoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Itoh, Yukio; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Ito, Akira
Several topics on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Asia and the Pacific are overviewed. In Asia and the Pacific, three human taeniid species have been recognized: Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. The first topic is on evolution of T. solium. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms of T. solium worldwide are discussed with emphasis of two specific genotypes: American-African and Asian. The second topic is recent major advances in sero- and molecular-diagnosis of T. solium cysticercosis in humans, pigs and dogs. The third is the present situation of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Papua (Irian Jaya), Indonesia. The forth is the present situation of T. solium cysticercosis and T. saginata taeniasis in Bali, Indonesia. The fifth is the present situation of T. asiatica taeniasis in Asia and the Pacific and in North Sumatra, Indonesia. The sixth is on the debate of the exact definition of T. asiatica. Because T. asiatica can not be differentiated from T. saginata morphologically, it is time to re-evaluate T. saginata in Asia and the Pacific. New and broad-based surveys across this region are necessary from epidemiological and public health perspectives, based on evidence. PMID:16438196
Ito, Akira; Nakao, Minoru; Wandra, Toni; Suroso, Thomas; Okamoto, Munehiro; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakaya, Kazuhiro
The effect of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor antagonist PACAP(6-38) on the relaxant response to exogenous PACAP, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) nerve stimulation was tested in the guinea-pig taenia caeci, in the presence of atropine (10-6 M) and guanethidine (3᎒-6 M). PACAP(6-38) (3᎒-6 M) strongly inhibited sub-maximal relaxations evoked by exogenous PACAP (1-3᎒-8
L. Lénárd Jr.; Z. Lázár; R. Benkó; R. Szigeti; Z. Báthori; G. K. Tóth; B. Penke; L. Barthó
Antigens were detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with neurocysticercosis (NC) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using polyclonal sera of rabbit anti-Taenia solium cysticerci (anti-Tso) and anti- Taenia crassiceps cysticerci vesicular fluid (anti-Tcra or anti-Tcra <30 kDa). A group of NC patients (n 174) were studied (NC), including 40 patients in different phases of the disease. ELISAs carried
ALESSANDRA XAVIER PARDINI; ADELAIDE JOSEVAZ; LUIS DOS; RAMOS MACHADO; JOSEANTONIO LIVRAMENTO
Between 1997-2006, 3,523 intestinal cestode infections were registered in Poland. Among them 2,748 were caused by Taenia saginata, 41 by T. solium, 533 by Taenia species, 20 by Hymenolepis nana, 5 by Hymenolepis diminuta, 11 by Diphyllobothrium latum, 3 by Dipylidium caninum. Moreover, 350 cases of cystic echinococcosis and 8 cases of cysticercosis were also registered. The obtained results confirmed decreasing frequency of intestinal cestodoses in Poland. PMID:21473070
Waloch, Maria; Sobolewska, Alicja; Dzbe?ski, Tadeusz H
1. The effects of the muscarinic agonists acetylcholine (ACh), carbachol (CCh), AHR-602, and McN-A-343 on contractility and on inositol phosphate accumulation in the presence of lithium were compared in the taenia of the guinea-pig caecum. 2. Compared to CCh, ACh was a full agonist for contraction but AHR-602 and McN-A-343 were partial agonists producing 80-85% of the maximal response to CCh. Similar to previous findings with CCh, tonic contractions produced by AHR-602 and McN-A-343 were less sensitive to inhibition by nifedipine or verapamil than tonic contractions to ACh. 3. CCh and ACh produced similar increases in inositol phosphate accumulation and the effect of CCh (0.1 mM) was inhibited by atropine (IC50 8.5 nM) and pirenzepine (IC50 450 nM). The accumulation of inositol phosphates in the presence of AHR-602 or McN-A-343 was not significantly different (P greater than 0.05) from basal levels. 4. A concentration of 0.2 mM AHR-602 produced a parallel shift of the concentration-response curve to CCh on inositol phosphate accumulation. The IC50 value for inhibition of CCh (0.1 mM) was greater than 50 fold higher than the EC50 value for contraction produced by the partial agonist. McN-A-343 (20 microM) produced a flattening of the concentration-response curve to CCh for inositol phosphate accumulation. 5. The results suggest that the increase in phosphatidylinositol turnover produced by muscarinic agonists, like the contractile response, involves an M2-muscarinic receptor. AHR-602 and McN-A-343 are partial agonists for the contractile response and while producing no significant increase in phosphatidylinositol turnover inhibit the response to CCh.
Gardner, A. L.; Choo, L. K.; Mitchelson, F.
131 specimens of 3 species of Galliformes from Vietnam were investigated (Gallus gallus dom., G. g. jaboruillei, Francolinus pintadeanus and Lophora nycthemerus). In them 9 species of cestodes were found as follows: Davainea proglottina (Davainea, 1860), Cotugnia digonopora (Pasquale, 1890), Raillietina tetragona (Molin, 1858), R. echinobothrida (Megnin, 1880), Skrjabinia cesticillus (Molin, 1858), Paroniella tinguiana Tubangui et Masilungan, 1937, Amoebotaenia cuneata (Linstow, 1872), Echinolepis carioca (Magalhaes, 1898), Dilepidoides bauchei (Joyeux, 1924). In domestic hens there were found all 9 species of cestodes while in wild Galliformes--only 7, which are mentioned for them for the first time. PMID:733321
Nguen Thi, K y; Dubinina, M N
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a common central nervous system (CNS) infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes. Despite the well-documented importance of the granulomatous response in the pathogenesis of this infection, there is limited information about the types of cells and cytokines involved. In fact, there has been limited characterization of human brain granulomas with any infectious agent. In the present study
BLANCA I. RESTREPO; JORGE I. ALVAREZ; JORGE A. CASTANO; LUIS F. ARIAS; MARGARITA RESTREPO; JUDITH TRUJILLO; CARLOS H. COLEGIAL; JUDY M. TEALE
A woman with a history of cured breast cancer and multiple trips to India presented with a cervical nodule. Primarily suspected as metastasis of breast cancer, histopathology, however, showed the scolex of Taenia solium. Although the patient was neurologically asymptomatic neuroimaging showed multiple cysts. During treatment with praziquantel, albendazole, and dexamethason the patient developed seizures. PMID:23992578
Salzer, Helmut J F; Hoenigl, Martin; Valentin, Thomas; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Krause, Robert
Cysticercosis in humans is caused by Taenia solium larvae infestation. Oral cysticercosis is a rare condition and is challenging to diagnose. We present a case of masseter cysticercosis in a young woman who presented with painful recurrent cheek swelling. Diagnosis confirmed it after neuroimaging and histopathological examination of the excised lesion from masseter muscle. PMID:23645645
Chaurasia, Rameshwar Nath; Jaiswal, Shalini; Gautam, Deepak; Mishra, Vijay Nath
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an infection of the central nervous system (CNS) by the metacestode of the helminth Taenia solium. The severity of the symptoms is associated with the intensity of the immune response. First, there is a long asymptomatic period where host immunity seems incapable of resolving the infection, followed by a chronic hypersensitivity reaction. Since little is known about
Jorge I. Alvarez; Jennifer Rivera; Judy M. Teale
Human neurocysticercosis (NC) is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous disease caused by the establishment of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. Herein, the immunological and endocrinological features involved in resistance to infection and severe forms of the disease are reviewed, and their clinical relevance is discussed. PMID:23542217
Sciutto, Edda; Cárdenas, Graciela; Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Fragoso, Gladis; Larralde, Carlos; Fleury, Agnes
Taenia solium taeniasis\\/cysticercosis is one of few potentially eradicable infectious diseases and is the target of control programs in several countries. The larval stage of this zoonotic cestode invades the human brain and is responsible for most cases of adult-onset epilepsy in the world. The pig is the natural intermediate host, harboring the larvae or cysticerci. Our current understanding of
ARMANDO E. GONZALEZ; TERESA LÓPEZ-URBINA; BYRON Y. TSANG; CÉSAR M. GAVIDIA; HÉCTOR H. GARCIA; MARÍA E. SILVA; DAPHNE D. RAMOS; RAFAEL MANZANEDO; LELIA SÁNCHEZ-HIDALGO
Background Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a major public health problem in many developing countries where health education, sanitation, and meat inspection infrastructure are insufficient. The condition occurs when humans ingest eggs of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, which then develop into larvae in the central nervous system. Although NCC is endemic in many areas of the world and is associated with considerable socio-economic losses, the burden of NCC remains largely unknown. This study provides the first estimate of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with NCC in Mexico. Methods DALYs lost for symptomatic cases of NCC in Mexico were estimated by incorporating morbidity and mortality due to NCC-associated epilepsy, and morbidity due to NCC-associated severe chronic headaches. Latin hypercube sampling methods were employed to sample the distributions of uncertain parameters and to estimate 95% credible regions (95% CRs). Findings In Mexico, 144,433 and 98,520 individuals are estimated to suffer from NCC-associated epilepsy and NCC-associated severe chronic headaches, respectively. A total of 25,341 (95% CR: 12,569–46,640) DALYs were estimated to be lost due to these clinical manifestations, with 0.25 (95% CR: 0.12–0.46) DALY lost per 1,000 person-years of which 90% was due to NCC-associated epilepsy. Conclusion This is the first estimate of DALYs associated with NCC in Mexico. However, this value is likely to be underestimated since only the clinical manifestations of epilepsy and severe chronic headaches were included. In addition, due to limited country specific data, some parameters used in the analysis were based on systematic reviews of the literature or primary research from other geographic locations. Even with these limitations, our estimates suggest that healthy years of life are being lost due to NCC in Mexico.
Bhattarai, Rachana; Budke, Christine M.; Carabin, Helene; Proano, Jefferson V.; Flores-Rivera, Jose; Corona, Teresa; Ivanek, Renata; Snowden, Karen F.; Flisser, Ana