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1

Serology as an indicator of Taenia solium tapeworm infections in a rural community in Mexico.  

PubMed

Serial stool examinations were carried out on a sample of 516 persons living in the town of El Salado (1993 inhabitants). In a group of 40 families (198 individuals), selected by random sampling, there were 2 cases of Taenia solium infection (1.2%); an additional group of 67 families (318 individuals), who volunteered for the study, had 4 cases (1.1%). 5 of the 6 T. solium cases were clustered in 4 neighbouring households. Serum antibodies to the larval stage of T. solium were detected by ELISA using bladder fluid as antigen. 22 members of the random sample group were positive (11%); 58 persons of the total sample of 478 were positive (12%). 43% of individuals living in the same household as a T. solium-infected person were positive, compared to 8.6% seropositive individuals among those not known to have been in daily contact with a T. solium carrier. Odds ratio analysis of the random and total samples showed that the risk of being seropositive when living in the same household as a tapeworm carrier was 9.05 and 6.85 respectively. The results showed a significant correlation between T. solium tapeworm clusters and higher seropositivity rates among contacts rather than among non-contacts. The immune response is a sensitive indicator of a tapeworm infection in a household or family, and is easier to determine than the traditional search for taeniid eggs in stool, a method which is difficult to apply in developing countries due to lack of trained personnel.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2091352

Diaz Camacho, S; Candil Ruiz, A; Uribe Beltrán, M; Willms, K

1990-01-01

2

Taenia solium cysticercosis  

PubMed Central

The larval stage of the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) infects the human nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis. This disease is one of the main causes of epileptic seizures in many less developed countries and is also increasingly seen in more developed countries because of immigration from endemic areas. Little information is available on the natural evolution of taeniasis or cysticercosis. Available therapeutic measures include steroids, treatments for symptoms, surgery, and, more controversially, antiparasitic drugs to kill brain parasites. Efforts to control and eliminate this disease are underway through antiparasitic treatment of endemic populations, development of pig vaccines, and other measures.

Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Evans, Carlton A W; Gilman, Robert H

2010-01-01

3

Mini review on chemotherapy of taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Asia, and a case report with 20 tapeworms in China.  

PubMed

A 43-year-old Tibetan woman living in northwest Sichuan, China, confirmed to be a taeniasis carrier of Taenia solium was treated with pumpkin seeds combined with Areca nut extract in October 2009. All 20 tapeworms except one without scolex were expelled under good conditions. She was free of secondary cysticercosis within one year follow up. Although the first choice for treatment of taeniasis is still praziquantel, it may often cause serious side effect on asymptomatic cysticercosis cases to suddenly become symptomatic within a half day of the treatment. Therefore, the problems in treatment of taeniasis and/or cysticercosis in Asia are briefly overviewed, since other platyhelminthic diseases including schistosomiasis, opisthorchiasis etc. are more common and praziquantel is strongly recommended for mass treatment of these trematodiases with no idea on the co-infection with eggs of T. solium which cause asymptomatic cysticercosis. PMID:23959481

Ito, A; Li, T; Chen, X; Long, C; Yanagida, T; Nakao, M; Sako, Y; Okamoto, M; Wu, Y; Raoul, F; Giraudoux, P; Craig, P S

2013-06-01

4

Apoptosis patterns in experimental Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps strobilae from golden hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis or programmed cell death (PCD) patterns of two taeniid species, Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps, were explored in adult tapeworms grown in golden hamsters. Animals were fed either ten viable T. solium cysticerci from naturally infected pigs or from T. crassiceps WFU strain maintained in Balb\\/c mice. Adult strobilae were recovered from the intestine at different times after infection

Ana María Fernández Presas; Lilia Robert; José Agustín Jiménez; Kaethe Willms

2005-01-01

5

Sympatric Distribution of Three Human Taenia Tapeworms Collected between 1935 and 2005 in Korea  

PubMed Central

Taeniasis has been known as one of the prevalent parasitic infections in Korea. Until recently, Taenia saginata had long been considered a dominant, and widely distributed species but epidemiological profiles of human Taenia species in Korea still remain unclear. In order to better understand distribution patterns of human Taenia tapeworms in Korea, partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cox1 and ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) were determined, along with morphological examinations, on 68 Taenia specimens obtained from university museum collections deposited since 1935. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-preserved specimens. Phylogenetic relationships among the genotypes (cox1 haplotype) detected in this study were inferred using the neighbor-joining method as a tree building method. Morphological and genetic analyses identified 3 specimens as T. solium, 51 specimens as T. asiatica, and 14 specimens as T. saginata. Our results indicate that all 3 Taenia tapeworms are sympatrically distributed in Korea with T. asiatica dominating over T. saginata and T. solium.

Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Heon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Rim, Han-Jong

2008-01-01

6

Towards a Taenia solium cysticercosis vaccine: an epitope shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium protects mice against experimental cysticercosis.  

PubMed

The Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigen KETc7 has been shown to be effective as a vaccine against experimental murine cysticercosis, a laboratory model used to test potentially promising molecules against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence of this proline-rich polypeptide, three fragments, GK-1, GK-2, and GK-3, were chemically synthesized in linear form. Of the three peptides, only GK-1 induced sterile protection against T. crassiceps cysticercosis in 40 to 70% of BALB/cAnN male mice. GK-1 is an 18-amino-acid peptide which contains at least one B-cell epitope, as demonstrated by its ability to induce an antibody response to the peptide and T. crassiceps antigen without need of a carrier protein. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that anti-GK1 antibodies strongly react with the native protein in the tegument of T. crassiceps and also with anatomical structures of T. solium eggs, oncospheres, cysticercus, and tapeworm. GK-1 also contains at least one T-cell epitope, capable of stimulating the proliferation of CD8(+) and to a lower extent CD4(+) T cells primed either with the free peptide or T. crassiceps total antigen. The supernatant of the stimulated cells contained high levels of gamma interferon and low levels of interleukin-4. Similar results were obtained with T cells tested for intracellular cytokine production, an indication of the peptide's capacity to induce an inflammatory response. The remarkable protection induced by GK-1 immunization, its physicochemical properties, and its presence in all developmental stages of T. solium point to this synthetic peptide as a strong candidate in the construction of a synthetic vaccine against T. solium pig cysticercosis. PMID:10225916

Toledo, A; Larralde, C; Fragoso, G; Gevorkian, G; Manoutcharian, K; Hernández, M; Acero, G; Rosas, G; López-Casillas, F; Garfias, C K; Vázquez, R; Terrazas, I; Sciutto, E

1999-05-01

7

Towards a Taenia solium Cysticercosis Vaccine: an Epitope Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Protects Mice against Experimental Cysticercosis  

PubMed Central

The Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigen KETc7 has been shown to be effective as a vaccine against experimental murine cysticercosis, a laboratory model used to test potentially promising molecules against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence of this proline-rich polypeptide, three fragments, GK-1, GK-2, and GK-3, were chemically synthesized in linear form. Of the three peptides, only GK-1 induced sterile protection against T. crassiceps cysticercosis in 40 to 70% of BALB/cAnN male mice. GK-1 is an 18-amino-acid peptide which contains at least one B-cell epitope, as demonstrated by its ability to induce an antibody response to the peptide and T. crassiceps antigen without need of a carrier protein. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that anti-GK1 antibodies strongly react with the native protein in the tegument of T. crassiceps and also with anatomical structures of T. solium eggs, oncospheres, cysticercus, and tapeworm. GK-1 also contains at least one T-cell epitope, capable of stimulating the proliferation of CD8+ and to a lower extent CD4+ T cells primed either with the free peptide or T. crassiceps total antigen. The supernatant of the stimulated cells contained high levels of gamma interferon and low levels of interleukin-4. Similar results were obtained with T cells tested for intracellular cytokine production, an indication of the peptide’s capacity to induce an inflammatory response. The remarkable protection induced by GK-1 immunization, its physicochemical properties, and its presence in all developmental stages of T. solium point to this synthetic peptide as a strong candidate in the construction of a synthetic vaccine against T. solium pig cysticercosis.

Toledo, Andrea; Larralde, Carlos; Fragoso, Gladis; Gevorkian, Goar; Manoutcharian, Karen; Hernandez, Marisela; Acero, Gonzalo; Rosas, Gabriela; Lopez-Casillas, Fernando; Garfias, Carlos Kubli; Vazquez, Ricardo; Terrazas, Ignacio; Sciutto, Edda

1999-01-01

8

The key steroidogenic enzyme 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps (WFU).  

PubMed

Larval and adult stages of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps WFU strain were analyzed by histochemical and biochemical methods to determine the existence of steroid pathways. The presence of the key enzyme 3beta-hydroxisteroid-dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) was examined in frozen sections of cysticerci obtained from mice and segments of tapeworms obtained from the intestine of hamsters. 3beta-HSD activity was detected by nitroblue-tetrazolium products after incubation with dehydroepiandrosterone, androstendiol, or pregnenolone. Tapeworm tissues exhibited 3beta-HSD activity in the subtegumentary areas of the neck and immature proglottids following incubation with androstendiol, as well as surrounding the testes in mature proglottids. T. solium cysticerci exhibited 3beta-HSD activity in the subtegumentary tissues. The synthesis of steroid hormones involving the activity of 3beta-HSD was studied in cysticerci or tapeworms incubated in the presence of tritiated steroid precursors. The culture media were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and showed synthesis of androstendiol, testosterone, and 17beta-estradiol by cysticerci, androstendiol, and 17beta-estradiol by tapeworms. The results strongly suggest the activity of 3beta-HSD in taeniid parasites that have at least a part of the enzymatic chain required for androgen and estrogen synthesis and that the enzymes are present in the larval stage and from the early strobilar stages to the mature proglottids. PMID:18626663

Fernández Presas, Ana María; Valdez, Ricardo A; Willms, Kaethe; Romano, Marta C

2008-09-01

9

State of the art of Taenia solium as compared to Taenia asiatica.  

PubMed

Three species of tapeworms infect humans in their adult stage (Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica). The 3 are flat, opaque white or yellowish, and exceptional long segmented parasites, measuring 1 to 12 m in their adult stage. In this review, the development of the knowledge regarding the first species, mainly focused on understanding how the larval stage or cysticercus is transmitted to humans, is described. The second species is a cosmopolitan parasite that only causes taeniosis and not cysticercosis; therefore, it will not be included. Information on the third species, which is presently being produced, since this species was recognized as such only at the end of the 20th century, will be discussed at the end of this review. PMID:23467388

Flisser, Ana

2013-02-01

10

State of the Art of Taenia solium as Compared to Taenia asiatica  

PubMed Central

Three species of tapeworms infect humans in their adult stage (Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica). The 3 are flat, opaque white or yellowish, and exceptional long segmented parasites, measuring 1 to 12 m in their adult stage. In this review, the development of the knowledge regarding the first species, mainly focused on understanding how the larval stage or cysticercus is transmitted to humans, is described. The second species is a cosmopolitan parasite that only causes taeniosis and not cysticercosis; therefore, it will not be included. Information on the third species, which is presently being produced, since this species was recognized as such only at the end of the 20th century, will be discussed at the end of this review.

2013-01-01

11

Praziquantel treatment of muscle Taenia solium cysticercosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro effect of Praziquantel (PZQ) onTaenia solium cysticerci was analyzed. The oxygen consumption rate of the parasites was inhibited and the release of proteins was enhanced, but no statistically significant differences were found between the control group and the experimental groups. The drug had a significant, dose-dependent negative effect on the evagination ability of the larvae; 50% effect

C. Garcia-Dominguez; D. Correa; M. T. Rabiela; A. Flisser

1991-01-01

12

Tamoxifen Treatment in Hamsters Induces Protection during Taeniosis by Taenia solium  

PubMed Central

Human neurocysticercosis by Taenia solium is considered an emergent severe brain disorder in developing and developed countries. Discovery of new antiparasitic drugs has been recently aimed to restrain differentiation and establishment of the T. solium adult tapeworm, for being considered a central node in the disease propagation to both pigs and humans. Tamoxifen is an antiestrogenic drug with cysticidal action on Taenia crassiceps, a close relative of T. solium. Thus, we evaluated the effect of tamoxifen on the in vitro evagination and the in vivo establishment of T. solium. In vitro, tamoxifen inhibited evagination of T. solium cysticerci in a dose-time dependent manner. In vivo, administration of tamoxifen to hamsters decreased the intestinal establishment of the parasite by 70%, while recovered tapeworms showed an 80% reduction in length, appearing as scolices without strobilar development. Since tamoxifen did not show any significant effect on the proliferation of antigen-specific immune cells, intestinal inflammation, and expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines in spleen and duodenum, this drug could exert its antiparasite actions by having direct detrimental effects upon the adult tapeworm. These results demonstrate that tamoxifen exhibits a strong cysticidal and antitaeniasic effect on T. solium that should be further explored in humans and livestock.

Escobedo, Galileo; Palacios-Arreola, M. Isabel; Olivos, Alfonso; Lopez-Griego, Lorena; Morales-Montor, Jorge

2013-01-01

13

Nested PCR for Specific Diagnosis of Taenia solium Taeniasis?  

PubMed Central

Taeniasis due to Taenia solium is a disease with important public health consequences, since the larval stage is not exclusive to the animal intermediate, the pig, but also infects humans, causing neurocysticercosis. Early diagnosis and treatment of T. solium tapeworm carriers is important to prevent human cysticercosis. Current diagnosis based on microscopic observation of eggs lacks both sensitivity and specificity. In the present study, a nested-PCR assay targeting the Tso31 gene was developed for the specific diagnosis of taeniasis due to T. solium. Initial specificity and sensitivity testing was performed using stored known T. solium-positive and -negative samples. The assay was further analyzed under field conditions by conducting a case-control study of pretreatment stool samples collected from a population in an area of endemicity. Using the archived samples, the assay showed 97% (31/32) sensitivity and 100% (123/123) specificity. Under field conditions, the assay had 100% sensitivity and specificity using microscopy/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay coproantigen testing as the gold standards. The Tso31 nested PCR described here might be a useful tool for the early diagnosis and prevention of taeniasis/cysticercosis.

Mayta, Holger; Gilman, Robert H.; Prendergast, Emily; Castillo, Janeth P.; Tinoco, Yeny O.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Sterling, Charles R.

2008-01-01

14

Investigating a hyper-endemic focus of Taenia solium in northern Lao PDR  

PubMed Central

Background The Taenia solium cysticercosis-taeniasis complex is a Neglected Tropical Disease of significant public health importance in many impoverished communities worldwide. The parasite is suspected to be endemic in Lao PDR as a result of widespread risk factors including open human defecation, free ranging pigs and weak systems for meat inspection and carcass condemnation. Reported prevalences of human taeniasis throughout the country have ranged from 0-14%, although few of these have definitively diagnosed T. solium, grossly indistinguishable from Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) and Taenia asiatica. This short communication details the suspicion of a hyper endemic “hotspot” of T. solium in a remote Tai Dam village in northern Lao PDR. Findings Initial antibody serosurveillance of four provinces in Lao PDR in 2011 indicated human taeniasis and cysticercosis prevalences of 46.7% and 66.7% respectively, in the village of Om Phalong in the north of the country. Subsequent copro-antigen ELISA on 92 human faecal samples from this same village, representing a total 27.9% of the target community, indicated a taeniasis prevalence of 26.1% (95% CI?=?18.2-35.9). Subsequent PCR and sequencing of samples (n?=?5) all identified as T. solium; the other human tapeworms T. saginata and T. asiatica were not detected in any of the samples genotyped. Conclusion This is potentially one of the highest documented prevalences of T. solium taeniasis to date in Lao PDR, if not the Southeast Asia region. This result raises suspicion that other “hotspots” of T. solium hyper endemicity may exist in the region, particularly in communities where the consumption of raw pork is commonplace as a result of cultural practices.

2014-01-01

15

High prevalence of Taenia saginata taeniasis and status of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Bali, Indonesia, 2002-2004.  

PubMed

An epidemiological survey of taeniasis/cysticercosis was carried out in one semi-urban and two urban villages in three districts of Bali, Indonesia in 2002 and 2004. In total, 398 local people from 247 families were diagnosed by anamnesis and clinical examinations, and 60 residents were suspected to be taeniasis carriers. Among 60 suspected carriers, 56 persons expelled a total of 61 taeniid adult worms after praziquantel treatment. From 398 residents, 252 stool samples were available for analysis of taeniid eggs, coproantigens or copro-DNA for identification of taeniid species, and 311 serum samples were available for detection of antibodies against Taenia solium cysticercosis. Taeniasis prevalences were highly variable among three villages (1.1-27.5%), and only one case of cysticercosis due to T. solium infection was detected. All expelled tapeworms were confirmed to be Taenia saginata by mtDNA analysis. There was no Taenia asiatica human case in Bali. Case control analysis of 106 families chosen at random from 179 families in 2004 and another 106 families from non-endemic areas revealed that risk factors of T. saginata taeniasis for families were: level of education (P<0.01); consumption of beef lawar (P<0.01); and the source of lawar (P<0.01). PMID:16199069

Wandra, T; Sutisna, P; Dharmawan, N S; Margono, S S; Sudewi, R; Suroso, T; Craig, P S; Ito, A

2006-04-01

16

Taenia solium and Taenia saginata: Identification of sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cysticercosis is one of the most important zoonosis, not only because of the effects on animal health and its economic consequences, but also due to the serious danger it poses to humans. The two main parasites involved in the taeniasis–cysticercosis complex in Brazil are Taenia saginata and Taenia solium. Differentiating between these two parasites is important both for disease control

Ana Karina Kerche Dias; Sérgio Moraes Aoki; José Fernando Garcia; Cáris Maroni Nunes

2007-01-01

17

Immunization of pigs against Taenia solium cysticercosis: factors related to effective protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-six (56) pigs were immunized against Taenia solium cysticercosis with antigens from Taenia crassiceps metacestodes, in a variety of protocols, and then challenged orally with Taenia solium proglottids or eggs. Results of immunization (expressed as individual parasite loads) ranged from significant reduction of parasite loads (host protection) to clear increase (parasite facilitation) in apparent relation to the immunogen dose, adjuvant

E. Sciutto; A. Aluja; G. Fragoso; L. F. Rodarte; M. Hernández; M. N. Villalobos; A. Padilla; N. Keilbach; M. Baca; T. Govezensky; S. Díaz; C. Larralde

1995-01-01

18

Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Japan  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases is increasing in Japan, the current situation is not clear. This is largely because taeniasis and cysticercosis are not notifiable conditions in Japan and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of T. solium infections in Japan conducted in the last 15 years. Herein, we provide an overview of the status of T. solium infection in Japan over the past 35 years and point out the potential risks to Japanese society.

2012-01-01

19

From stillness to motion: 80 years after the first description of Taenia solium oncosphere hatching  

PubMed Central

Background Human neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a considered public health problem in many underdeveloped and developing countries. Because of the enormous increase in international tourism and migration, NCC nowadays is also found in some developed countries. Our group was the first to demonstrate that tapeworm carriers in the household are the main risk factor for acquiring cysticercosis in humans and pigs, since the disease results from the ingestion of microscopic tapeworm eggs. Findings We had the opportunity to film the liberation of the embryo from the oncospheral membrane after the hatching of the egg, which is the activation process required for intestinal wall invasion by the onchosphere. Yoshino (J Formosa Med Ass 32:139-142, 1933) described with great detail in diagrams and photographs this process eighty years ago after he infected himself with three living cysticerci in order to study the life cycle of Taenia solium. Other authors further described this process. Nevertheless it has never been filmed before. The purpose of this paper is to shift from stillness to motion since we can now show for the first time a movie of an activated oncosphere and its release from the oncospheral membrane. Conclusion Oncospheral activation is the requisite for T. solium embryos to invade the intestinal mucosa and develop into cysticerci. This process has been amply described but here it is shown for the first time in motion; thus it may be of interest for readers of the journal and useful for educational purposes towards the control of NCC.

2014-01-01

20

Taenia solium cysticerci synthesize androgens and estrogens in vitro.  

PubMed

Cysticerci from Taenia solium develop in the pig muscle and cause severe diseases in humans. Here we report on the capacity of T. solium cysticerci to synthesize sex steroid hormones. T. solium cysticerci were dissected from infected pork meat. Parasites were incubated for different periods in culture media plus antibiotics and tritiated steroid precursors. Blanks and parasite culture media were extracted and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) in two different solvent systems. In some experiments, the scoleces were incubated separately. Results showed that T. solium cysticerci transform [(3)H]androstenedione to [(3)H]testosterone in a time-dependent manner. The production was confirmed in two different solvent systems. The incubation with [(3)H]testosterone yielded only small amounts of [(3)H]androstenedione. The recrystallization procedure further demonstrated that the metabolite identified by TLC was testosterone. The isolated scoleces incubated in the presence of [(3)H]androstenedione yielded [(3)H]testosterone and small quantities of [(3)H]17beta-estradiol. The results reported here demonstrate that T. solium cysticerci have the capacity to synthesize steroid hormones. PMID:16416116

Valdéz, R A; Jiménez, P; Cartas, A L; Gómez, Y; Romano, M C

2006-04-01

21

Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis: potential linkage with FAO activities; FAO support possibilities.  

PubMed

Neurocysticercosis due to Taenia solium metacestodes is an important cause of human morbidity and mortality, particularly in parts of Latin America, Africa and Asia. The disease has been recognized as potentially eradicable. Emphasis has been placed on control through mass chemotherapy of human populations to remove tapeworm carriers, but this strategy does not control the source of infections, which is cysticercosis in pigs. Also, transmission may continue due to incomplete chemotherapy coverage of human carriers or because of immigration of tapeworm carriers into controlled areas. The FAO through the Veterinary Public Health (VPH) and Food Safety program has provided support for the write-up of guidelines for cysticercosis, diagnoses and control. This should be released in a joint effort with OIE and WHO and will provide regular support to seminars, workshops and congresses related to VPH. The FAO regular program has also established a global network of people directly involved in VPH, and is currently in the process of establishing four regional networks located in Asia, Africa, Eastern and Central Europe and Latin America. The networks should provide a basic framework to spread information related to diagnosis, prevention and control of major zoonotic diseases through electronic conferences, discussions, newsletters, and a Directory to establish contact with people involved in VPH and zoonotic diseases. Through the Technical Cooperation Program (TCP) the FAO has a tool to help Member Countries to create the basic environment to control emerging zoo-sanitary problems, such as zoonotic and food borne diseases. PMID:12781389

Eddi, Carlos; Nari, Armando; Amanfu, William

2003-06-01

22

A Cross-Sectional Study of Taenia solium in a Multiple Taeniid-Endemic Region Reveals Competition May be Protective  

PubMed Central

We conducted cross-sectional surveys for taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans, pigs, and dogs in four northern provinces of Laos. Human cysticercosis and taeniasis prevalence was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4–3.0%) and 8.4% (95% CI = 6.9–9.9%), respectively. Eating uncooked beef, being male, province of residence, age, and ethnicity were significant risk factors for taeniasis and only province of residence was a significant risk factor for cystiercosis. Thirty-five human tapeworms were recovered during the survey and 33 (94.3%) and 2 (5.7%) were identified as Taenia saginata and T. solium, respectively. Maximum-likelihood adjusted prevalence of T. solium and T. hydatigena in pigs was 4.2% (95% CI = 0.5–7.9%) and 55.9% (95% CI = 47.5–64.3%), respectively, and T. hydatigena taeniasis in dogs was 4.8% (95% CI = 0.0–11.3%). Taenia hydatigena and T. saginata were the most prevalent taeniids in the respective pig and human populations and together may suppress T. solium transmission.

Conlan, James V.; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Dorny, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Elliot, Aileen; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R. C. Andrew

2012-01-01

23

Steroid hormone production by parasites: the case of Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium cysticerci.  

PubMed

Many examples of reciprocal endocrine interactions between parasites and hosts have been found in insects, arthropods and mammals. Cysticercosis produced by Taenia solium metacestodes is a widely distributed parasite infection that affects the human and the pig. Taenia crassiceps experimental murine cysticercosis has been used to explore the role of biological factors involved in host-parasite interactions. We had shown that T. crassiceps cysticercosis affects the serum concentration of steroid hormones and the reproduction behavior of the male mice host. In an effort to understand the biology of the parasite, we had investigated the parasite capacity to produce sex steroids. For this purpose, T. crassiceps cysticerci were incubated in the presence of different steroid precursors. TLC and recrystallization procedures showed that testosterone is produced from 3H-androstenedione in cysticerci. The conversion of 3H-testosterone to androstenedione, although present is much less significant. In addition, we had studied the production of testosterone by T. solium cysticerci. For this purpose, cysticerci were dissected from pork meat and incubated as above described. The results showed that T. solium cysticerci also produce testosterone. We have speculated about the importance of androgens in the growth of T. crassiceps cysticerci and found that the addition of the antiandrogen flutamide to the culture media of the parasites significantly decreased 3H-thymidine incorporation. We therefore hypothesized, that the ability of cysticerci to produce testosterone from steroid precursors might be important for the parasite growth and development. PMID:12943707

Romano, M C; Valdéz, R A; Cartas, A L; Gómez, Y; Larralde, C

2003-06-01

24

Evaluating the efficacy of teaching methods regarding prevention of human epilepsy caused by Taenia solium neurocysticercosis in Western Kenya.  

PubMed

Taenia solium neurocysticercosis is a major cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. A questionnaire was administered to 282 Kenyan farmers, followed by a workshop, a second questionnaire, one-on-one training, and a third questionnaire. People who attended workshops were more likely to know how T. solium causes epilepsy in humans in the third visit than the second (P = 0.001). The likelihood that farmers would tether their pigs 100% of the time, limiting exposure to tapeworm eggs, increased after the first (P < 0.001) and second visits (P < 0.001). Farmers were more likely to have heard of Cysticercus cellulosae in the second (P = 0.001) and third visits (P = 0.007), and to know how pigs acquire infection in the second (P = 0.03) and third visits (P = 0.003). Farmers with at least a grade 8 education were more likely to know how T. solium is transmitted to humans in the second (P = 0.001) and third visits (P = 0.009), and were more likely to understand the relationship between epilepsy and T. solium in the second (P = 0.03) and third visits (P = 0.03). Grade 8 education may enhance learning from written material. Workshops followed by individual on-farm training enhanced knowledge acquisition and behavior changes. Training local government extension workers contributed to the sustainability of this project. PMID:20348512

Wohlgemut, Jared; Dewey, Cate; Levy, Mike; Mutua, Florence

2010-04-01

25

Tapeworms.  

PubMed

Dogs and cats become infected with tapeworms by ingesting intermediate hosts that contain encysted juvenile tapeworms called larvae. The dog or cat is said to be the definitive host because it shelters the sexually reproductive, egg-producing stage of the tapeworm. The intermediate hosts, which are vertebrates in the case of Taenia and Mesocestoides and insects in the case of Dipylidium and Hymenolepis, become infected by ingesting unhatched but infective tapeworm eggs discharged in the feces of the dog or cat. The relatively less common Diphyllobothrium and Spirometra tapeworms discharge eggs that are undeveloped when passed in the feces and must fall into water to undergo development to the coracidium stage. Diphyllobothrium and Spirometra may have two or three aquatic intermediate hosts in series. The first of these, a copepod, ingests the free-swimming coracidium or ciliated oncosphere that has hatched from the egg. The final intermediate host containing the larva (plerocercoid) infective for the dog or cat is an aquatic vertebrate (fish, frog, water snake). Thus, dogs and cats become infected with tapeworms by eating uncooked meat or fish or by ingesting certain insects. These intermediate hosts are infected with juvenile tapeworms called larvae, which are the infective form for the dog or cat. The intermediate hosts, in turn, become infected by ingesting tapeworm eggs discharged in the feces of the dog or cat or, in the case of Diphyllobothrium and Spirometra, by ingesting coracidia that have subsequently developed in and hatched from such eggs. By far the most common tapeworms of dogs and cats in North America are D. caninum, T. pisiformis, and T. hydatigena. Therefore, the most common sources of tapeworm infection are, respectively, fleas, wild rabbits, and the uncooked meat and offal of ruminants and swine. Whenever a dose of tapeworm remedy is administered or dispensed, the client should be informed of these potential sources of reinfection. There is considerable overlap in the spectra of activity of currently available cestocides. Mebendazole, fenbendazole, niclosamide, bunamidine, and praziquantel are all effective against Taenia spp. Bunamidine is the drug of choice against Spirometra, Diphyllobothrium, and Mesocestoides. Praziquantel is the drug of choice against Echinococcus and Dipylidium. PMID:3328390

Georgi, J R

1987-11-01

26

Regional status, epidemiology and impact of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Western and Central Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In West Africa, Taenia solium cysticercosis in both pigs and man has been reported in Benin, Burkina-Faso, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Senegal and Togo, and although official data are lacking, T. solium is anticipated to be present in most of the pig-raising regions of other West African countries as well. In some regions of Nigeria, the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and

André Zoli; Oliver Shey-Njila; Emmanuel Assana; Jean-Pierre Nguekam; Pierre Dorny; Jef Brandt; Stanny Geerts

2003-01-01

27

Specific Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Antigenic Peptides for Neurocysticercosis Immunodiagnosis Using Serum Samples  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis (NC), i.e., the presence of the larval form of Taenia solium in tissues, is the most frequent and severe infection involving the central nervous system. Paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with NC, CSF and serum samples from a control group, and serum samples from patients with other parasitoses were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by immunoblotting with Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid antigen (Tcra) and Taenia solium total saline antigen (Tso) for the detection of immunoglobulin G antibodies. ELISAs carried out with the Tso and Tcra antigens showed 94.1 and 95.6% sensitivities, respectively, for the detection of antibodies in CSF and 70.6% and 91.2% sensitivities, respectively, for the detection of antibodies in serum, with 100% specificity for the detection of antibodies in CSF and 80% specificity for the detection of antibodies in serum for both antigens. On the basis of the reactivities of the peptides in the samples analyzed, the peptides of ?23, 39, 85 to 77, and 97 kDa were found to be Tso specific by immunoblotting and the peptides of ?62, 74, 109, 121, and 131 kDa were found to be Tcra specific. Tests with Tcra extract had higher sensitivities and more homogeneous results and permitted us to obtain the parasites easily. We suggest the use of Tcra ELISA for the study of serum and confirmation of the results for sera positive by an immunoblotting analysis in which specific peptides (e.g., peptides of 19 to 13 kDa) are detected.

Bueno, Edneia Casagranda; Vaz, Adelaide Jose; Machado, Luis Dos Ramos; Livramento, Jose Antonio; Mielle, Silvia Regina

2000-01-01

28

Development and evaluation of a magnetic immunochromatographic test to detect Taenia solium, which causes taeniasis and neurocysticercosis in humans.  

PubMed

Taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a frequent parasitic infection of the human brain in most of the world. Rapid and simple screening tools to identify taeniasis and cysticercosis cases are needed for control programs, mostly to identify tapeworm carriers which are the source of infection and need to be treated, or as tools for point-of-care case detection or confirmation. These screening assays should be affordable, reliable, rapid, and easy to perform. Immunochromatographic tests meet these criteria. To demonstrate proof of principle, we developed and evaluated two magnetic immunochromatographic tests (MICTs) for detection of human Taenia solium taeniasis antibodies (ES33-MICT) and neurocysticercosis antibodies (T24-MICT). These assays detected stage-specific antibodies by using two recombinant proteins, rES33 for detection of taeniasis antibodies and rT24H for detection of cysticercosis antibodies. The sensitivity and specificity of the ES33-MICT to detect taeniasis infections were 94.5% and 96%, respectively, and those of the T24-MICT to detect cases of human cysticercosis with two or more viable brain cysts were 93.9% and 98.9%, respectively. These data provide proof of principle that the ES33- and T24-MICTs provide rapid and suitable methods to identify individuals with taeniasis and cysticercosis. PMID:20181766

Handali, Sukwan; Klarman, Molly; Gaspard, Amanda N; Dong, X Fan; Laborde, Ronald; Noh, John; Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Wilkins, Patricia P

2010-04-01

29

Development and Evaluation of a Magnetic Immunochromatographic Test To Detect Taenia solium, Which Causes Taeniasis and Neurocysticercosis in Humans?  

PubMed Central

Taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a frequent parasitic infection of the human brain in most of the world. Rapid and simple screening tools to identify taeniasis and cysticercosis cases are needed for control programs, mostly to identify tapeworm carriers which are the source of infection and need to be treated, or as tools for point-of-care case detection or confirmation. These screening assays should be affordable, reliable, rapid, and easy to perform. Immunochromatographic tests meet these criteria. To demonstrate proof of principle, we developed and evaluated two magnetic immunochromatographic tests (MICTs) for detection of human Taenia solium taeniasis antibodies (ES33-MICT) and neurocysticercosis antibodies (T24-MICT). These assays detected stage-specific antibodies by using two recombinant proteins, rES33 for detection of taeniasis antibodies and rT24H for detection of cysticercosis antibodies. The sensitivity and specificity of the ES33-MICT to detect taeniasis infections were 94.5% and 96%, respectively, and those of the T24-MICT to detect cases of human cysticercosis with two or more viable brain cysts were 93.9% and 98.9%, respectively. These data provide proof of principle that the ES33- and T24-MICTs provide rapid and suitable methods to identify individuals with taeniasis and cysticercosis.

Handali, Sukwan; Klarman, Molly; Gaspard, Amanda N.; Dong, X. Fan; LaBorde, Ronald; Noh, John; Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Wilkins, Patricia P.

2010-01-01

30

Detection of Taenia solium Taeniasis Coproantigen Is an Early Indicator of Treatment Failure for Taeniasis  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective.

Bustos, Javier A.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A.; Moyano, Luz M.; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C.; Craig, Philip S.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.

2012-01-01

31

Detection of Taenia solium taeniasis coproantigen is an early indicator of treatment failure for taeniasis.  

PubMed

Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective. PMID:22336287

Bustos, Javier A; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A; Moyano, Luz M; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C; Craig, Philip S; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

2012-04-01

32

Transcriptome analysis of Taenia solium cysticerci using Open Reading Frame ESTs (ORESTES)  

PubMed Central

Background Human infection by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium affects more than 50 million people worldwide, particularly in underdeveloped and developing countries. Cysticercosis which arises from larval encystation can be life threatening and difficult to treat. Here, we investigate for the first time the transcriptome of the clinically relevant cysticerci larval form. Results Using Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) produced by the ORESTES method, a total of 1,520 high quality ESTs were generated from 20 ORESTES cDNA mini-libraries and its analysis revealed fragments of genes with promising applications including 51 ESTs matching antigens previously described in other species, as well as 113 sequences representing proteins with potential extracellular localization, with obvious applications for immune-diagnosis or vaccine development. Conclusion The set of sequences described here will contribute to deciphering the expression profile of this important parasite and will be informative for the genome assembly and annotation, as well as for studies of intra- and inter-specific sequence variability. Genes of interest for developing new diagnostic and therapeutic tools are described and discussed.

Almeida, Carolina R; Stoco, Patricia H; Wagner, Glauber; Sincero, Thais CM; Rotava, Gianinna; Bayer-Santos, Ethel; Rodrigues, Juliana B; Sperandio, Maisa M; Maia, Antonio AM; Ojopi, Elida PB; Zaha, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Henrique B; Tyler, Kevin M; Davila, Alberto MR; Grisard, Edmundo C; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel

2009-01-01

33

Characterization of a novel Taenia solium oncosphere antigen  

PubMed Central

Infections due to Taenia solium in humans (taeniasis/cysticercosis) remain a complex health problem, particularly in developing countries. We identified two oncosphere proteins that might protect the porcine intermediate host against cysticercosis and therefore help prevent disease in humans. One of these proteins was further identified by two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis and micro-sequencing. The gene encoding this protective protein was also identified, cloned and characterized. The native 31.5 KD protein Tso31 has four variants at the cDNA level. The longest sequence from which the others seem to derive, encodes a 253 amino acid peptide. The predicted protein has a molecular weight of 25.1 KD, one putative N-glycosylation site, two fibronectin type III domains, and one C terminal transmembrane domain. The gene structure of the protein consists of four exons and three introns. The finding of one gene and four different cDNAs for Tso31 suggests the existence of a possible mechanism of differential splicing in this parasite. The Tso31 protein is exclusive to T. solium oncospheres with a putative protein structure of an extra-cellular receptor-like protein. The Tso31 protein was expressed as a recombinant protein fused to GST and tested in a vaccine to determine its effectiveness in protecting pigs against cysticercosis. Only two pigs out of eight vaccinated were protected and although the total median number of cyst decreased in vaccinated pigs compared to controls this decrease was not statistically significant (P=0.09).

Mayta, Holger; Hancock, Kathy; Levine, Min Z.; Gilman, Robert H.; Farfan, Marilu J.; Verastegui, Manuela; Lane, William S.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Tsang, Victor C. W.

2007-01-01

34

Improvement of the synthetic tri-peptide vaccine (S3Pvac) against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis in search of a more effective, inexpensive and manageable vaccine.  

PubMed

Vaccination of pigs may curtail Taenia solium transmission by reducing the number of cysticerci, the precursors of adult intestinal tapeworms in humans. Several antigen preparations induce protection against porcine cysticercosis in experimental settings but only one subunit vaccine (S3Pvac) has been tested and proved effective in the field against naturally acquired disease. Besides improving of the vaccine's effectiveness, significant reductions in production costs and in the logistics of its administration are necessary for the feasibility of nationwide control programs. This review highlights the development of several versions of S3Pvac aimed to increase effectiveness, reduce costs and increase feasibility by novel delivery systems and alternative routes of administration. PMID:17188784

Sciutto, Edda; Rosas, Gabriela; Hernández, Marisela; Morales, Julio; Cruz-Revilla, Carmen; Toledo, Andrea; Manoutcharian, Karen; Gevorkian, Goar; Blancas, Abel; Acero, Gonzalo; Hernández, Beatriz; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Bobes, Raul J; Goldbaum, Fernando A; Huerta, Mirna; Diaz-Orea, Alicia; Fleury, Agnes; de Aluja, Aline S; Cabrera-Ponce, Jose Luis; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Fragoso, Gladis; Larralde, Carlos

2007-02-01

35

Purification of Taenia solium cysticerci superoxide dismutase and myoglobin copurification.  

PubMed

Superoxide dismutase from Taenia solium cysticerci ( Ts SOD) was purified by sequential ion exchange chromatography on quaternary-amino-ethyl-cellulose (QAE) followed by hydrophobic interaction on phenyl sepharose (PS) and chromatofocusing on a polybuffer exchanger 94 (PBE). Ts SOD is a 30 kDa molecular weight dimeric enzyme with 15 kDa monomers. It is partially negative, hydrophilic, with 6.3 isoelectric point and has 2,900 U/mg activity. Bovine erythrocyte SOD antibodies cross react with Ts SOD. This enzyme is 80% inhibited by 10 mM of KCN suggesting that it has a Cu/Zn active site. Furthermore, Ts SOD totally loses its activity at 100 degrees C for 4 min. The first 25 amino acids from the Ts SOD N-terminal are (M K A V X V M R G E E G V K G V V H F T Q A G D A). This sequence is 76% similar to the Schistosoma mansoni Cu/Zn SOD. By chance, myoglobin (Mb) was also found during the purification process. A 16 kDa band was recognized in immunoblotting by horse heart Mb antibodies in QAE, PS and PBE, the last-mentioned being found at pH 7.0. The first 15 amino acids from the amino terminal group (G L S D G E W Q L V L N V W G) in this 16 kDa protein are identical to several other Mbs which have been reported. PMID:12209327

González, R; Mendoza-Hernández, G; Plancarte, A

2002-10-01

36

New Approaches to Improve a Peptide Vaccine Against Porcine Taenia solium Cysticercosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium frequently affects human health and rustic porciculture. Cysticerci may localize in the central nervous system of humans causing neurocysticercosis, a major health problem in undeveloped countries. Prevalence and intensity of this disease in pigs and humans are related to social factors (poor personal hygiene, low sanitary conditions, rustic rearing of pigs, open fecalism) and possibly

Edda Sciutto; Gladis Fragoso; Karen Manoutcharian; Goar Gevorkian; Gabriela Rosas-Salgado; Marisela Hernández-Gonzalez; Luis Herrera-Estrella; José Luis Cabrera-Ponce; Fernando López-Casillas; César González-Bonilla; Araceli Santiago-Machuca; Fernando Ru??z-Pérez; Joaqu??n Sánchez; Fernando Goldbaum; Aline Aluja; Carlos Larralde

2002-01-01

37

Experimental Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs: characteristics of the infection and antibody response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pigs were infected with taeniid eggs to study the susceptibility to infection and reinfection of the animals of mixed breeds and of different ages, the viability and death of the metacestodes in the host tissue, and the antibody response which accompanies these events. Sixteen pigs were infected with Taenia solium eggs for this purpose. At necropsy metacestodes were counted in

A. S. de Aluja; A. N. M. Villalobos; A. Plancarte; L. F. Rodarte; M. Hernández; E. Sciutto

1996-01-01

38

Taenia solium cysticercosis in young pigs: age at first infection and histological characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the vast knowledge that exists in the fields of immunology, biochemistry, diagnosis and treatment, the basic facts about the dynamics of the transmission of Taenia solium are incomplete. The present study determines the age at which piglets become infected in a rural community of Mexico, where the climate is divided into the dry and rainy seasons. It

Aline S de Aluja; J. J Martinez M; A. N. M Villalobos

1998-01-01

39

Limitations of current diagnostic procedures for the diagnosis of Taenia solium cysticercosis in rural pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to evaluate diagnostic procedures for porcine cysticercosis. Sera were obtained from 32 pigs reared in commercial farms, 47 pigs before and after experimental infection, 42 carefully necropsied rural pigs and 191 slaughtered pigs from rural communities in which the presence of the Taenia solium metacestode was assessed by tongue dissection. Sera were analyzed

E. Sciutto; J. J. Mart??nez; N. M. Villalobos; M. Hernández; M. V. José; C. Beltrán; F. Rodarte; I. Flores; J. R. Bobadilla; G. Fragoso; M. E. Parkhouse; L. J. S. Harrison; A. S. de Aluja

1998-01-01

40

Taenia solium taeniosis\\/cysticercosis in Asia: epidemiology, impact and issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several reports of patients with cysticercosis from many countries in Asia such as India, China, Indonesia, Thailand, Korea, Taiwan and Nepal are a clear indicator of the wide prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniosis in these and other Asian countries. However, epidemiological data from community based studies are sparse and available only for a few countries in Asia. Cysticercosis

Vedantam Rajshekhar; Durga Dutt Joshi; Nguyen Quoc Doanh; Nguyen van De; Zhou Xiaonong

41

Taenia solium taeniosis\\/cysticercosis in Asia: epidemiology, impact and issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several reports of patients with cysticercosis from many countries in Asia such as India, China, Indonesia, Thailand, Korea, Taiwan and Nepal are a clear indicator of the wide prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniosis in these and other Asian countries. However, epidemiological data from community based studies are sparse and available only for a few countries in Asia. Cysticercosis

Vedantam Rajshekhar; Durga Dutt Joshi; Nguyen Quoc Doanh; Nguyen van De; Zhou Xiaonong

2003-01-01

42

The Lar Gibbon as Definitive and Intermediate Host of Taenia Solium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Man is generally considered to be the only definitive host for Taenia solium. The host-parasite relationship for the bladderworm stage is not as specific and several intermediate hosts are known. By chance, it was found that the white-handed gibbon (Hylob...

F. C. Cadigan J. S. Stanton P. Tanticharoenyos V. Chaicumpa

1967-01-01

43

Multiple genotypes of Taenia solium--ramifications for diagnosis, treatment and control.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial DNA sequences of Taenia solium have fully been analyzed. Analysis of the full length of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (1620 bp) and cytochrome b (1068 bp) genes of T. solium, isolated from Asia (China, Thailand, Indonesia and India), from Latin America (Mexico, Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru and Brazil) and from Africa (Tanzania, Mozambique and Cameroon), has revealed that the two phylogenies obtained were similar to each other regardless of the genes examined. The isolates from Asia formed a single cluster, whereas those from Latin America combined with those from Africa to form an additional cluster. It was estimated that these two genotypes emerged approximately 4-8 x 10(5) years ago. These results together with recent study of the ancient of human taeniid cestodes emerged several MYA in Africa, historical data on swine domestication, distribution of pigs and colonization patterns suggest that T. solium was introduced recently into Latin America and Africa from different regions of Europe during the colonial age, which started 500 years ago, and that T. solium of another origin independently spread in Asian countries, perhaps from China. Why did not T. solium of European origin invade or spread into Asia during the colonial age? Analysis of T. solium distribution must include other Taenia species, especially T. saginata and T. asiatica, which can not be differentiated from each other morphologically. BESS T-base analysis for differentiation of all human Taenia species including the two genotypes of T. solium, and T. saginata and T. asiatica has also been characterized. BESS T-base analysis differentiates African isolates from Latin American isolates as well but more samples should be analyzed for obtaining conclusive evidence for the latter. Serological analysis of cyst fluid of T. solium cysticerci obtained in China and Indonesia and from Mozambique and Ecuador indicates geographical differences in their banding patterns. These differences are discussed in the light of possible differences in pathology of T. solium worldwide. As it has been speculated that the ancient T. solium emerged several million years ago in Africa, it is necessary to analyze more isolates from Africa. Such working hypothesis may be evaluated combined with symptomatology and serology when we get additional DNA data from such areas, since there are some varieties of manifestation of neurocysticercosis with or without subcutaneous cysticercosis and of antigens of cyst fluid of T. solium from Asia and from Africa and/or America. Transfer of techniques of molecular identification and sero- and immuno-diagnoses between researchers and technicians from endemic countries using their own materials should be promoted with the aim of better international cooperation for the control of cysticercosis. PMID:12781383

Ito, Akira; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Sato, Marcello O; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Margono, Sri S; Ikejima, Takashi; Kassuku, Ayub A; Afonso, Sonia M S; Ortiz, Washington Benitez; Plancarte, Agustin; Zoli, Andre; Geerts, Stanny; Craig, Philip S

2003-06-01

44

Protection of pigs against Taenia solium cysticercosis by immunization with novel recombinant antigens  

PubMed Central

Recombinant antigens from the oncosphere stage of the parasite Taenia solium were expressed in Escherichia coli. The TSOL16, TSOL45-1A and TSOL45-1B recombinant antigens, each consisting of fibronectin type III (FnIII) domain S, were produced as fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and maltose binding protein (MBP). Groups of pigs were immunized twice with the GST fusions of the antigens and boosted a third time with the MBP fusions prior to receiving a challenge infection with T. solium eggs. The TSOL16 antigen was found to be capable of inducing high levels of immunity in pigs against a challenge infection with T. solium. Immunological investigations identified differences in immune responses in the pigs vaccinated with the various antigens. The results demonstrate that the TSOL16 antigen could be a valuable adjunct to current porcine vaccination approaches and may allow the further development of new vaccination strategies against T. solium cysticercosis.

Gauci, Charles G.; Jayashi, Cesar M.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Lackenby, Julia; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

2012-01-01

45

13. tapeworm list below two full sets reproductive organs percolated? a. Dipylidium caninum b. Echinococcus granulosus c. Spirometra mansonoides d. Taenia pisiformis e. Mesocestoide Cort  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: 13. tapeworm list below two full sets reproductive organs percolated? a. Dipylidium caninum b. Echinococcus granulosus c. Spirometra mansonoides d. Taenia pisiformis e. Mesocestoide Cort ?

46

Synthetic peptide vaccine against Taenia solium pig cysticercosis: successful vaccination in a controlled field trial in rural Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taenia solium cysticercosis seriously affects human health when localised in the central nervous system (CNS) and causes great economic loss in pig husbandry in rural areas of endemic countries. Increasing the resistance to the parasite in the obligatory host pig may help in curbing transmission. Three synthetic peptides based on protein sequences of the murine parasite Taenia crassiceps, which had

M Huerta; A. S de Aluja; G Fragoso; A Toledo; N Villalobos; M Hernández; G Gevorkian; G Acero; A D??az; I Alvarez; R Avila; C Beltrán; G Garcia; J. J Martinez; C Larralde; E Sciutto

2001-01-01

47

Characterization and Protective Potential of the Immune Response to Taenia solium Paramyosin in a Murine Model of Cysticercosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paramyosin has been proposed as a vaccine candidate in schistosomiasis and filariasis. However, limited information is available about its protective potential against cysticercosis and the immune response it induces. Immunization of mice with recombinant full-length paramyosin of Taenia solium (TPmy) results in about a 52% reduction in parasite burden after a subsequent challenge by intraperitoneal inoculation of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci.

J. Vazquez-Talavera; C. F. Solis; L. I. Terrazas; J. P. Laclette

2001-01-01

48

Characterization and cloning of T24, a Taenia solium antigen diagnostic for cysticercosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The third and final diagnostic antigen of the lentil lectin purified glycoproteins (LLGP) extracted from the larval stage of Taenia solium has been characterized, cloned, and expressed. T24 is an integral membrane protein that belongs to the tetraspanin superfamily. It migrates at a position corresponding to 24-kDa and as a homodimer at 42-kDa. Antibodies from cysticercosis patients recognize secondary structure

Kathy Hancock; Sowmya Pattabhi; Fatima W. Whitfield; Melinda L. Yushak; Hector H. Garcia; Armando E. Gonzalez; Robert H. Gilman; Victor C. W. Tsang

2006-01-01

49

Protection against Asiatic Taenia solium Induced by a Recombinant 45W-4B Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taenia solium is a great threat not only to human health but also to the pig-raising industry. Oncospheral stage-specific 45W proteins are good candidates for the development of anticysticercosis vaccines. In this study, a recombinant 45W-4B protein was highly produced and used for vaccination. Two animal trials resulted in a significant reduction in parasite burden induced by the definite protein

Xuenong Luo; Yadong Zheng; Junling Hou; Shaohua Zhang; Xuepeng Cai

2009-01-01

50

Prevention and control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Peru  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium is endemic in most of the world, causing seizures and other neurological symptoms. Transmission is mainly maintained in rural areas by a human to pig cycle. Despite claims on its eradicability, sustainable interruption of transmission has not yet been reported. This manuscript reviews the conceptual basis for control, available diagnostic and control tools, and recent experiences on control in the field performed in Peru along the past decade

Gilman, Robert H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Llanos-Zavalaga, Fernando; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

2012-01-01

51

Human Neurocysticercosis Case and an Endemic Focus of Taenia solium in Lao PDR  

PubMed Central

A male patient with neurocysticercosis was identified in Montai Village, Xay District, Oudomxay Province, Lao PDR in February 2004. He had a history of diagnosis for neurocysticercosis by a CT scan in Thailand after an onset of epileptic seizure in 1993. A pig in the same district was found to contain Taenia solium metacestodes (=cysticerci); the slaughtered pig body contained more than 2,000 cysticerci. In addition to morphological identification, molecular identification was also performed on the cysticerci by DNA sequencing analysis of the mitochondrial cox1 gene; they were confirmed as T. solium metacestodes. The patient is regarded as an indigenous case of neurocysticercosis infected in an endemic focus of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Oudomxay Province, Lao PDR.

Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth

2013-01-01

52

Vaccine development against the Taenia solium parasite: the role of recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Taenia solium is a zoonotic parasite that causes cysticercosis. The parasite is a major cause of human disease in impoverished communities where it is transmitted to humans from pigs which act as intermediate hosts. Vaccination of pigs to prevent transmission of T. solium to humans is an approach that has been investigated to control the disease. A recombinant vaccine antigen, TSOL18, has been remarkably successful at reducing infection of pigs with T. solium in several experimental challenge trials. The vaccine has been shown to eliminate transmission of naturally acquired T. solium in a field trial conducted in Africa. We recently reported that the vaccine was also effective in a field trial conducted in Peru. The TSOL18 recombinant antigen for each of these trials has been produced by expression in Escherichia coli. Here we discuss research that has been undertaken on the TSOL18 antigen and related antigens with a focus on improved methods of preparation of recombinant TSOL18 and optimized expression in Escherichia coli. PMID:23196744

Gauci, Charles; Jayashi, César; Lightowlers, Marshall W

2013-01-01

53

Simple and reliable preparation of immunodiagnostic antigens for Taenia solium cysticercosis.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Cysticercosis caused by infection with the larval stage of Taenia solium is an important cause of neurological disease worldwide and immunodiagnosis is important for the control and elimination of cysticercosis. In the present study, we established a simple and reliable preparation of immunodiagnostic low-molecular-weight antigens (LMWAgs) from T. solium cyst fluids by a cation-exchange chromatography (CEC). Banding patterns of LMWAgs on SDS-PAGE were different between isolates from Ecuador and China. All cysticercosis patient sera and some echinococcosis patient sera recognized both LMWAgs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), but sera from healthy persons were not positive. There was no statistical difference in immunodiagnostic performance of LMWAgs prepared from different geographical isolates. These results indicated that these novel immunodiagnostic antigen preparations could contribute the control and prevention of cysticercosis in endemic areas, especially developing countries. PMID:23790268

Sako, Yasuhito; Itoh, Sonoyo; Okamoto, Munehiro; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira

2013-11-01

54

A Calcified Taenia solium Granuloma Associated with Recurrent Perilesional Edema Causing Refractory Seizures: Histopathological Features  

PubMed Central

We describe the first detailed histological description of an excised calcified Taenia solium granuloma from a patient who developed recurrent seizures associated with perilesional edema surrounding a calcified cysticercus (PEC). The capsule, around a degenerated cysticercus, contained marked mononuclear infiltrates that extended to adjacent brain, which showed marked astrocytosis, microgliosis, and inflammatory perivascular infiltrates. The presence of large numbers of mononuclear cells supports an inflammatory cause of PEC. Immunosuppression or anti-inflammatory measures may be able to treat and prevent PEC and recurrent seizures.

Ooi, Winnie W.; Wijemanne, Subhashie; Thomas, Christine B.; Quezado, Martha; Brown, Charles R.; Nash, Theodore E.

2011-01-01

55

Purification, properties, and kinetic studies of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase from Taenia solium cysticerci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malate dehydrogenase (l-malate: NAD oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.37) from the cytoplasm of Taenia solium cysticerci (cMDHTs) was purified 48-fold through a four-step procedure involving salt fractionation, ionic exchange, and dye affinity chromatography.\\u000a cMDHTs had a native M\\u000a r of 64,000, while the corresponding value per subunit, obtained under denaturing conditions, was 32,000. The enzyme is partially\\u000a positive, with an isoelectric point

Agustín Plancarte; Gabriela Nava; Guillermo Mendoza-Hernández

2009-01-01

56

Depressive effect of a Taenia solium cysticercus factor on cultured human lymphocytes stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin.  

PubMed

Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is associated with immunodepression of T and B lymphocytes. In order to ascertain if this parasite affects lymphocyte activity, a factor isolated from the parasite was tested on (3H) thymidine uptake by cultured human lymphocytes stimulated by phytohaemagglutinin. This dialysable factor had a molecular weight of less than 3500 Da, and was isolated from an extract of Cysticercus cellulosae. It decreased phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated uptake of (3H) thymidine. After the material was treated with RNase 'A', the suppressive activity was destroyed. It thus appears that the factor could correspond to an RNA fraction. PMID:2222021

Molinari, J L; Tato, P; Reynoso, O A; Cázares, J M

1990-06-01

57

Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Human Taenia Solium Infections in Mbozi District, Mbeya Region, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis is emerging as a serious public health and economic problem in many developing countries. This study was conducted to determine prevalence and risk factors of human T. solium infections in Mbeya Region, Tanzania. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 13 villages of Mbozi district in 2009. Sera of 830 people (mean 37.9±11.3 years (SD); 43% females) were tested for circulating cysticerci antigen (Ag-ELISA) and antibody (Ab-ELISA). A subset of persons found seropositive by Ag-ELISA underwent computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain for evidence of neurocysticercosis. Stool samples from 820 of the same participants were tested for taeniosis by copro-antigens (copro-Ag-ELISA) and formol-ether concentration technique. Cases of T. solium taeniosis were confirmed serologically by EITB assay (rES38). A questionnaire was used for identification of risk factors. Active cysticercosis by positive Ag-ELISA was found in 139 (16.7%) persons while anti-cysticercal antibodies were detected in 376 (45.3%) persons by Ab-ELISA. Among 55 persons positive for Ag-ELISA undergoing CT scan, 30 (54.6%) were found to have structures in the brain suggestive of neurocysticercosis. Using faecal analysis, 43 (5.2%) stool samples tested positive for taeniosis by copro-Ag-ELISA while Taenia eggs were detected in 9 (1.1%) stool samples by routine coprology. Antibodies specifically against adult T. solium were detected in 34 copro-Ag-ELISA positive participants by EITB (rES38) indicating T. solium taeniosis prevalence of 4.1%. Increasing age and hand washing by dipping in contrast to using running water, were found associated with Ag-ELISA seropositivity by logistic regression. Gender (higher risk in females) and water source were risk factors associated with Ab-ELISA seropositivity. Reported symptoms of chronic severe headaches and history of epileptic seizures were found associated with positive Ag-ELISA (p?0.05). Conclusion The present study indicates T. solium infection in humans is highly endemic in the southern highlands of Tanzania.

Mwanjali, Gloria; Kihamia, Charles; Kakoko, Deodatus Vitalis Conatus; Lekule, Faustin; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Willingham, Arve Lee

2013-01-01

58

Taenia solium Oncosphere Adhesion to Intestinal Epithelial and Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells In Vitro?  

PubMed Central

The specific mechanisms underlying Taenia solium oncosphere adherence and penetration in the host have not been studied previously. We developed an in vitro adhesion model assay to evaluate the mechanisms of T. solium oncosphere adherence to the host cells. The following substrates were used: porcine intestinal mucosal scrapings (PIMS), porcine small intestinal mucosal explants (PSIME), Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO cells), epithelial cells from ileocecal colorectal adenocarcinoma (HCT-8 cells), and epithelial cells from colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cells). CHO cells were used to compare oncosphere adherence to fixed and viable cells, to determine the optimum time of oncosphere incubation, to determine the role of sera and monolayer cell maturation, and to determine the effect of temperature on oncosphere adherence. Light microscopy, scanning microscopy, and transmission microscopy were used to observe morphological characteristics of adhered oncospheres. This study showed in vitro adherence of activated T. solium oncospheres to PIMS, PSIME, monolayer CHO cells, Caco-2 cells, and HCT-8 cells. The reproducibility of T. solium oncosphere adherence was most easily measured with CHO cells. Adherence was enhanced by serum-binding medium with >5% fetal bovine serum, which resulted in a significantly greater number of oncospheres adhering than the number adhering when serum at a concentration less than 2.5% was used (P < 0.05). Oncosphere adherence decreased with incubation of cells at 4°C compared with the adherence at 37°C. Our studies also demonstrated that T. solium oncospheres attach to cells with elongated microvillus processes and that the oncospheres expel external secretory vesicles that have the same oncosphere processes.

Verastegui, Manuela; Gilman, Robert H.; Arana, Yanina; Barber, Dylan; Velasquez, Jeanette; Farfan, Marilu; Chile, Nancy; Kosek, Jon C.; Kosek, Margaret; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando

2007-01-01

59

Studies on abnormality of metacestodes and adult worms of Taenia solium and Taenia saginata asiatica in rodents and pigs.  

PubMed

Abnormalities are not uncommon in Taenia saginata and T. solium. After examining 328 mature proglottids from 2 adult worms from two experimentally infected hamsters, 13 (4.0%) were found to have no genital pore but with numerous testes and several vas efferents; 1 (0.3%) one genital pore with one reproductive system; 12 (3.7%) one on each side with two sets of reproductive system; 17 (5.2%) two on one side with 2 sets of reproductive system; 8 (2.4%) one on one side and two on the other side with 3 sets of reproductive system; 2 (0.6%) two on each side with 4 sets of reproductive system; 4 (1.2%) three on one side with 3 sets of reproductive system, and 4 one on one side and three on the other side with 4 sets of reproductive system. Nine evaginated abnormal cysticerci of T. s. asiatica from three experimentally infected SCID mice each had two protoscoleces and a big bladder. From two experimentally infected pigs, one abnormal cysticercus was observed to have two invaginated canals each in one end. Another one had a neck-band behind the scolex and a big bladder. This paper is not only the first report of abnormality of T. solium from hamster but also the first one of abnormal cysticerci of T. s. asiatica from pigs and mice. PMID:12041572

Fan, P C; Wan, I C; Chung, W C; Guo, J X; Ma, X Y; Xu, Z J

2001-01-01

60

Complete mitochondrial genomes of Taenia multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis: additional molecular markers for a tapeworm genus of human and animal health significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial genomes provide a rich source of molecular variation of proven and widespread utility in molecular ecology, population genetics and evolutionary biology. The tapeworm genus Taenia includes a diversity of tapeworm parasites of significant human and veterinary importance. Here we add complete sequences of the mt genomes of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis, to a data set

Wan-Zhong Jia; Hong-Bin Yan; Ai-Jiang Guo; Xing-Quan Zhu; Yu-Chao Wang; Wan-Gui Shi; Hao-Tai Chen; Fang Zhan; Shao-Hua Zhang; Bao-Quan Fu; D Timothy J Littlewood; Xue-Peng Cai

2010-01-01

61

Characterisation of antibody responses in pigs induced by recombinant oncosphere antigens from Taenia solium.  

PubMed

Recombinant antigens cloned from the oncosphere life cycle stage of the cestode parasite Taenia solium (T. solium) have been proven to be effective as vaccines for protecting pigs against infections with T. solium. Previous studies have defined three different host protective oncosphere antigens, TSOL18, TSOL16 and TSOL45. In this study, we evaluated the potential for combining the antigens TSOL16 and TSOL18 as a practical vaccine. Firstly, in a laboratory trial, we compared the immunogenicity of the combined antigens (TSOL16/18) versus the immunogenicity of the antigens separately. Secondly, in a field trial, we tested the ability of the TSOL16/18 vaccine to induce detectable antibody responses in animals living under environmental stress and traditionally reared in areas where T. solium cysticercosis is endemic; and finally, we characterised the immune response of the study population. Pigs of 8-16 weeks of age were vaccinated with 200 ?g each of TSOL16 and TSOL18, plus 5mg of Quil-A. Specific total IgG, IgG(1) and IgG(2) antibody responses induced by TSOL16 and TSOL18 were determined with ELISA. The immunogenicity of both antigens was retained in the combined TSOL16/18 vaccine. The combined vaccine TSOL16/18 induced detectable specific anti-TSOL18 antibody responses in 100% (113/113) and specific anti-TSOL16 in 99% (112/113) of the vaccinated animals measured at 2 weeks following the booster vaccination. From the two IgG antibody subtypes analysed we found there was stronger response to IgG(2). PMID:23116696

Jayashi, César M; Gonzalez, Armando E; Castillo Neyra, Ricardo; Kyngdon, Craig T; Gauci, Charles G; Lightowlers, Marshall W

2012-12-14

62

Serological Diagnosis of Human Cysticercosis by Use of Recombinant Antigens from Taenia solium Cysticerci  

PubMed Central

A Taenia solium metacestode cDNA expression library in the lambda ZAPII vector was screened with pooled sera from patients with neurocysticercosis. Sixty primary clones were identified and shown to belong to two classes. The clones NC-3 and NC-9 did not reveal any significant homologies to sequences deposited in the databases and were further characterized. Both recombinant antigens were expressed as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins and applied for serological diagnosis of human cysticercosis. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was established and evaluated with 27 serum samples of La Réunion and Madagascar patients with cysticercosis. Diagnosis in these patients was established with radiological and serological procedures. For antigen NC-3 a sensitivity of 96.3% and a specificity of 91.5% for the serodiagnosis were achieved. In contrast, the sensitivity of antigen NC-9 was only 33.3%.

Hubert, Kerstin; Andriantsimahavandy, Abel; Michault, Alain; Frosch, Matthias; Muhlschlegel, Fritz A.

1999-01-01

63

Sequence Analysis and Molecular Characterization of Wnt4 Gene in Metacestodes of Taenia solium  

PubMed Central

Wnt proteins are a family of secreted glycoproteins that are evolutionarily conserved and considered to be involved in extensive developmental processes in metazoan organisms. The characterization of wnt genes may improve understanding the parasite's development. In the present study, a wnt4 gene encoding 491amino acids was amplified from cDNA of metacestodes of Taenia solium using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Bioinformatics tools were used for sequence analysis. The conserved domain of the wnt gene family was predicted. The expression profile of Wnt4 was investigated using real-time PCR. Wnt4 expression was found to be dramatically increased in scolex evaginated cysticerci when compared to invaginated cysticerci. In situ hybridization showed that wnt4 gene was distributed in the posterior end of the worm along the primary body axis in evaginated cysticerci. These findings indicated that wnt4 may take part in the process of cysticerci evagination and play a role in scolex/bladder development of cysticerci of T. solium.

Hou, Junling; Luo, Xuenong; Wang, Shuai; Yin, Cai; Zhang, Shaohua; Zhu, Xueliang; Dou, Yongxi

2014-01-01

64

Efficacy of ivermectin and oxfendazole against Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs.  

PubMed

Smallholder semi-confined pig production is a fast growing practice in sub-Saharan Africa with an unfortunate outcome of high prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses. The widely used anthelmintic for control of endo and ecto-parasites in pigs in the area is ivermectin at a recommended dose of 0.3mg/kg. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety in pigs after subcutaneous injection of ivermectin (IVM, 0.3mg/kg) and orally administration of oxfendazole (OFZ, 30mg/kg) in treatment of porcine cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs. A total of 61 pigs with T. solium cysticercosis (38 males and 23 females) as identified by tongue palpation with age ranging from 3 to 24 months were recruited. The pigs were stratified based on sex, age and number of cysts on the tongue and randomly allocated to IVM, OFZ and control groups. Three days before treatment and two weeks after treatment faecal samples and skin scrapings were taken to establish the burden of endo- and ectoparasites, respectively and the effect of the treatment. No adverse effect was observed in any of the treatment groups throughout the study period. Half of the pigs from each group were slaughtered at week four and the remaining half at week twelve post treatment. The IVM treatment group had no significant effect (p=0.224) on T. solium cysts viability in comparison to the control group. Significant effect on cysts viability was observed in the OFZ treated group (p<0.001) compared to IVM and control groups in all muscle tissues. Regarding to brain cysts, neither of the drugs was efficacious. Ivermectin and OFZ treatments significantly reduced (p<0.001) the faecal egg count of Ascaris suum, strongyles and Trichuris suis two weeks after treatment. At slaughter, Oesophagostomum dentatum, Ascarops strongylina and Physocephalus sexalatus were recovered from pigs in the IVM treated and in the control groups. Ivermectin was 100% effective in control of Sarcoptes scabiei. In conclusion, IVM at a single dose of 0.3mg/kg was efficacious against ectoparasites but did not effectively cure pigs from T. solium cysticercosis or nematodes. Oxfendazole, on the other hand, killed all nematodes and muscle cysts, but did not have any effect on ectoparasites. A combination of the two drugs would be a most useful treatment option for control of pig parasitoses in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:23806569

Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Leifsson, Pall S; Johansen, Maria Vang

2013-10-01

65

Molecular Approaches to Taenia asiatica  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica are taeniid tapeworms that cause taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in intermediate host animals. Taeniases remain an important public health concerns in the world. Molecular diagnostic methods using PCR assays have been developed for rapid and accurate detection of human infecting taeniid tapeworms, including the use of sequence-specific DNA probes, PCR-RFLP, and multiplex PCR. More recently, DNA diagnosis using PCR based on histopathological specimens such as 10% formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and stained sections mounted on slides has been applied to cestode infections. The mitochondrial gene sequence is believed to be a very useful molecular marker for not only studying evolutionary relationships among distantly related taxa, but also for investigating the phylo-biogeography of closely related species. The complete sequence of the human Taenia tapeworms mitochondrial genomes were determined, and its organization and structure were compared to other human-tropic Taenia tapeworms for which complete mitochondrial sequence data were available. The multiplex PCR assay with the Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915 primers will be useful for differential diagnosis, molecular characterization, and epidemiological surveys of human Taenia tapeworms.

Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu

2013-01-01

66

Two Epitopes Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Confer Protection against Murine T. crassiceps Cysticercosis along with a Prominent T1 Response  

PubMed Central

Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigens KETc1 and KETc12 have been shown to induce high level of protection against experimental murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis, an experimental model successfully used to test candidate antigens for use in vaccination against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, KETc1 and KETc12 were chemically synthesized in linear form. Immunization with KETc1 induced 66.7 to 100% protection against murine cysticercosis, and immunization with KETc12 induced 52.7 to 88.1% protection. The elicited immune response indicated that both peptides contain at least one B-cell epitope (as demonstrated by their ability to induce specific antibodies) and one T-cell epitope that strongly stimulated the proliferation of T cells primed with either the free peptide or total cysticercal T. crassiceps antigens. The high percentage of spleen cells expressing inflammatory cytokines points to the likelihood of a T1 response being involved in protection. The protective capacity of the peptides and their presence in all developmental stages of T. solium point to these two epitopes as strong candidates for inclusion in a polyepitopic synthetic vaccine against T. solium pig cysticercosis.

Toledo, Andrea; Fragoso, Gladis; Rosas, Gabriela; Hernandez, Marisela; Gevorkian, Goar; Lopez-Casillas, Fernando; Hernandez, Beatriz; Acero, Gonzalo; Huerta, Mirna; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

2001-01-01

67

Immune response to different fractions of Taenia solium cyst fluid antigens in patients with neurocysticercosis.  

PubMed

The immunopathogenesis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) largely remains unknown. We analyzed the immune response to different fractions of Taenia solium cyst fluid antigens in patients with NCC. Lymphocytes were separated from 48 patients with NCC-related active epilepsy and 30 healthy controls. T. solium (isolated from pig muscles) antigens (crude lysate, CL; cyst wall, CW and cyst fluid, CF) at 20 ?g/well concentrations were used to stimulate the cells in a lymphocyte transformation test (LTT). Only CF antigen stimulated cell proliferation significantly greater than control (p<0.001), hence cyst fluid antigens were further studied. The CF antigens were electro-blotted on nitrocellulose membrane (NC), cut at 0.5 cm distance and particulate antigens were prepared. A total of 12 fractions, designated F1 to F12 according to molecular weight were tested in-vitro for LTT. After 72 h of stimulation by the different fractions, Th1 (IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-2) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-10) cytokine responses were determined in culture supernatants by ELISA. Low molecular weight fractions F1 through F4 (Mol. wt.<25 kDa) were found to be potent inducers of cytokines. Fractions F1, F3 and F4 induced the production of Th1 (IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-2), whereas F2 induced the production of Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10) cytokine. The study shows that the low molecular weight fractions of CF antigens are immuno-dominant. Most of these fractions (F1, F3, F4) induce strong Th1 immune response except F2 which induces Th2 response. Further studies are needed to identify the different antigens present in these fractions to determine the molecules responsible for the immune response. PMID:21115005

Amit, Prasad; Prasad, Kashi Nath; Kumar, Gupta Rakesh; Shweta, Tripathi; Sanjeev, Jha; Kumar, Paliwal Vimal; Mukesh, Tripathi

2011-03-01

68

Visualization and 3D Reconstruction of Flame Cells of Taenia solium (Cestoda)  

PubMed Central

Background Flame cells are the terminal cells of protonephridial systems, which are part of the excretory systems of invertebrates. Although the knowledge of their biological role is incomplete, there is a consensus that these cells perform excretion/secretion activities. It has been suggested that the flame cells participate in the maintenance of the osmotic environment that the cestodes require to live inside their hosts. In live Platyhelminthes, by light microscopy, the cells appear beating their flames rapidly and, at the ultrastructural, the cells have a large body enclosing a tuft of cilia. Few studies have been performed to define the localization of the cytoskeletal proteins of these cells, and it is unclear how these proteins are involved in cell function. Methodology/Principal Findings Parasites of two different developmental stages of T. solium were used: cysticerci recovered from naturally infected pigs and intestinal adults obtained from immunosuppressed and experimentally infected golden hamsters. Hamsters were fed viable cysticerci to recover adult parasites after one month of infection. In the present studies focusing on flame cells of cysticerci tissues was performed. Using several methods such as video, confocal and electron microscopy, in addition to computational analysis for reconstruction and modeling, we have provided a 3D visual rendition of the cytoskeletal architecture of Taenia solium flame cells. Conclusions/Significance We consider that visual representations of cells open a new way for understanding the role of these cells in the excretory systems of Platyhelminths. After reconstruction, the observation of high resolution 3D images allowed for virtual observation of the interior composition of cells. A combination of microscopic images, computational reconstructions and 3D modeling of cells appears to be useful for inferring the cellular dynamics of the flame cell cytoskeleton.

Valverde-Islas, Laura E.; Arrangoiz, Esteban; Vega, Elio; Robert, Lilia; Villanueva, Rafael; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Willms, Kaethe; Zepeda-Rodriguez, Armando; Fortoul, Teresa I.; Ambrosio, Javier R.

2011-01-01

69

Efficacy and safety of anthelmintics tested against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs.  

PubMed

Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE) in 1993, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemotherapy of infected pigs. Different drugs have been tested on porcine cysticercosis with varying efficacies. These include flubendazole, fenbendazole, albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, oxfendazole, praziquantel, and nitazoxanide. This review summarises available information on the efficacies and adverse effects shown by these drugs in pigs. Oxfendazole has shown to be effective for the control of porcine cysticercosis; however, it needs to be integrated with other control approaches. There is a need for standardised guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics against porcine cysticercosis, and more efficacy studies are needed since the conclusions so far are based on a limited number of studies using few infected pigs. PMID:23936558

Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Johansen, Maria Vang

2013-01-01

70

Relationship between Serum Antibodies and Taenia solium Larvae Burden in Pigs Raised in Field Conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Serological tests have been used for the diagnosis of Taenia solium infection in pigs. However, those serological results do not necessarily correlate with the actual infection burden after performing pig necropsy. This study aimed to evaluate the Electro Immuno Transfer Blot (EITB) seropositivity with infection burden in naturally infected pigs. Methodology/Principal Findings In an endemic area of Peru, 476 pigs were sampled. Seroprevalence was 60.5±4.5% with a statistically higher proportion of positive older pigs (>8 months) than young pigs. The logistic model showed that pigs >8 month of age were 2.5 times more likely to be EITB-positive than ?8 months. A subset of 84 seropositive pigs were necropsied, with 45.2% (38/84) positive to 1–2 bands, 46.4% (39/84) to 3 bands, and 8.3% (7/84) to 4+ bands. 41 out of 84 positive pigs were negative to necropsy (48.8%) and 43 (51%) had one or more cysts (positive predictive value). Older pigs showed more moderate and heavy infection burdens compared to younger pigs. In general, regardless of the age of the pig, the probability of having more cysts (parasite burden) increases proportionally with the number of EITB bands. Conclusions/Significance The probability of being necropsy-positive increased with the number of bands, and age. Therefore, the EITB is a measure of exposure rather than a test to determine the real prevalence of cysticercosis infection.

Gavidia, Cesar M.; Verastegui, Manuela R.; Garcia, Hector H.; Lopez-Urbina, Teresa; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Pan, William; Gilman, Robert H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

2013-01-01

71

Serodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis using antigenic components of Taenia solium metacestodes derived from the unbound fraction from jacalin affinity chromatography  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to analyse Taenia solium metacestode antigens that were derived from the unbound fraction of jacalin affinity chromatography and subsequent tert-octylphenoxy poly (oxyethylene) ethanol Triton X-114 (TX-114) partitioning in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis (NCC). Immunoassays were designed to detect T. solium-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA and immunoblot. Serum samples were collected from 132 individuals who were categorised as follows: 40 had NCC, 62 presented Taenia spp or other parasitic diseases and 30 were healthy individuals. The jacalin-unbound (Junbound) fraction presented higher sensitivity and specificity rates than the jacalin-bound fraction and only this fraction was subjected to subsequent TX-114 partitioning, resulting in detergent (DJunbound) and aqueous (AJunbound) fractions. The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were 85% and 84.8% for Junbound, 92.5% and 93.5% for DJunboundand 82.5% and 82.6% for AJunbound. By immunoblot, the DJunboundfraction showed 100% sensitivity and specificity and only serum samples from patients with NCC recognised the 50-70 kDa T. solium-specific components. We conclude that the DJunboundfraction can serve as a useful tool for the differential immunodiagnosis of NCC by immunoblot.

Machado, Gleyce Alves; de Oliveira, Heliana Batista; Gennari-Cardoso, Margareth Leitao; Mineo, Jose Roberto; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

2013-01-01

72

Elimination of Taenia solium transmission to pigs in a field trial of the TSOL18 vaccine in Cameroon  

PubMed Central

A pilot field trial of the TSOL18 vaccine was undertaken in Cameroon. Two hundred and forty, 2–3 month-old piglets were distributed to 114 individual households in pairs. Vaccinated animals received three immunisations with 200 ?g TSOL18 plus 5 mg Quil A and 30 mg/kg oxfendazole at the time of the second immunisation. Necropsies were undertaken when the pigs were approximately 12 months of age. Viable Taenia solium cysticerci were identified in 20 control pigs (prevalence 19.6%); no cysticerci were found in any of the vaccinated animals (P < 0.0001). Combined application of TSOL18 vaccination and a single oxfendazole treatment in pigs may be a relatively simple and sustainable procedure that has the potential to control T. solium transmission in endemic areas and, indirectly, reduce the number of new cases of neurocysticercosis in humans.

Assana, Emmanuel; Kyngdon, Craig T.; Gauci, Charles G.; Geerts, Stanny; Dorny, Pierre; De Deken, Redgi; Anderson, Garry A.; Zoli, Andre P.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

2010-01-01

73

Taenia solium disease in humans and pigs: an ancient parasitosis disease rooted in developing countries and emerging as a major health problem of global dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews current knowledge on human and porcine cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium. It highlights the conditions favorable for its prevalence and transmission, as well as current trends in research on its natural history, epidemiology, immunopathology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Our opinions on the most urgent needs for further research are also presented.

Edda Sciutto; Gladis Fragoso; Agnes Fleury; Juan Pedro Laclette; Julio Sotelo; Aline Aluja; Laura Vargas; Carlos Larralde

2000-01-01

74

Serologic Diagnosis of Human Taenia solium Cysticercosis by Using Recombinant and Synthetic Antigens in QuickELISA(TM)  

PubMed Central

Diagnosis of Taenia solium cysticercosis is an important component in the control and elimination of cysticercosis and taeniasis. New detection assays using recombinant and synthetic antigens originating from the lentil lectin-purified glycoproteins (LLGPs) of T. solium cysticerci were developed in a QuickELISA™ format. We analyzed a panel of 474 serum samples composed of 108 serum samples from donors with two or more viable cysts, 252 serum samples from persons with other parasitic infections, and 114 serum samples from persons with no documented illnesses. The sensitivities and specificities of T24H QuickELISA™, GP50 QuickELISA™, and Ts18var1 QuickELISA™ were 96.3% and 99.2%, 93.5% and 98.6%, and 89.8% and 96.4%, respectively, for detecting cases with multiple, viable cysts. T24H QuickELISA™ performs best among the three assays, and has sensitivity and specificity values comparable to those of the LLGP enzyme-linked immunosorbent blot. The QuickELISA™ are simple, rapid quantitative methods for detecting antibodies specific for T. solium cysticerci antigens.

Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Handali, Sukwan; Hancock, Kathy; Pattabhi, Sowmya; Kovalenko, Victor A.; Levin, Andrew; Rodriguez, Silvia; Lin, Sehching; Scheel, Christina M.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.

2011-01-01

75

Incidence of Human Taenia solium Larval Infections in an Ecuadorian Endemic Area: Implications for Disease Burden Assessment and Control  

PubMed Central

Background Human cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease causing severe health disorders and even death. While prevalence data become available worldwide, incidence rate and cumulative incidence figures are lacking, which limits the understanding of the Taenia solium epidemiology. Methodology/Principal findings A seroepidemiological cohort study was conducted in a south-Ecuadorian community to estimate the incidence rate of infection with and the incidence rate of exposure to T. solium based on antigen and antibody detections, respectively. The incidence rate of infection was 333.6 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: [8.4–1,858] per 100,000 person-years) contrasting with a higher incidence rate of exposure 13,370 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: [8,730–19,591] per 100,000 person-years). The proportion of infected individuals remained low and stable during the whole study year while more than 25% of the population showed at least one antibody seroconversion/seroreversion during the same time period. Conclusions/Significance Understanding the transmission of T. solium is essential to develop ad hoc cost-effective prevention and control programs. The estimates generated here may now be incorporated in epidemiological models to simulate the temporal transmission of the parasite and the effects of control interventions on its life cycle. These estimates are also of high importance to assess the disease burden since incidence data are needed to make regional and global projections of morbidity and mortality related to cysticercosis.

Coral-Almeida, Marco; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Richar; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Rodriguez, Silvia; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Benitez-Ortiz, Washington; Dorny, Pierre; Praet, Nicolas

2014-01-01

76

A novel sigma-like glutathione transferase of Taenia solium metacestode.  

PubMed

GSTs are a group of multifunctional enzymes, whose major functions involve catalysis of conjugation of glutathione thiolate anion with a multitude of bi-substrates or transportation of a range of hydrophobic ligands. Helminth GSTs are intimately involved in the scavenging of endogenously/exogenously-derived toxic compounds and xenobiotics. In this study, we identified a novel GST gene of Taenia solium metacestodes (TsMs), which is a causative agent of neurocysticercosis. The 804 bp-long cDNA encoded a 639 bp open reading frame (212 amino acid polypeptide), which exhibited the structural motif and domain organisation characteristic of GST. It formed a strong clade with trematode and insect sigmaGSTs. We designated this cDNA as TsM sigma-like GST (TsMsigmaGST). Native TsMsigmaGST identified through gel filtration combined with compatible immunoproteomics consisted of four isoforms at approximately 25 kDa with different pIs between 8.2 and 8.7. TsMsigmaGST showed an enzyme activity as a homodimer and was specifically expressed in the scolex cytosol. The recombinant TsMsigmaGST expressed in Escherichia coli showed sigma-like activity with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). The Vmax and Km for CDNB and glutathione (GSH) were 1.08 and 0.78 micromol/min/mg, and 0.16 and 0.17 mM, respectively. Its optimal activity was observed at pH 8.0 and at 40 degrees C. The enzyme activity was potently inhibited by bromosulfophthalein, and to a lesser extent by rose bengal and triphenyltin chloride. Albendazole and praziquantel non-competitively inhibited both G- and H-sites of the enzyme. To our knowledge this is the first description of the sigma-class GST in cestode parasites. The enzyme might be involved in scavenging of intracellularly generated xenobiotics during homeostatic processes and anthelminthic metabolisms. Revelation of biochemical and biological properties of TsMsigmaGST might allow us to understand pathobiological events inherent to this long-standing parasitic disease, and thus to target therapeutic intervention. PMID:20385139

Nguyen, Hung Anh; Bae, Young-An; Lee, Eung-Goo; Kim, Seon-Hee; Diaz-Camacho, Sylvia Paz; Nawa, Yukifumi; Kang, Insug; Kong, Yoon

2010-08-01

77

Detection of Taenia solium Antigens and Anti-T. solium Antibodies in Paired Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples from Patients with Intraparenchymal or Extraparenchymal Neurocysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Background Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a frequent cause of epilepsy worldwide. Compared with the more common parenchymal brain cysts, extraparenchymal infections are difficult to manage and have a poor prognosis. Serological assays are used to detect circulating Taenia solium antigens or anti–T. solium antibodies in serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. There are no guidelines on whether to use serum or CSF specimens for a particular assay. Methods We obtained paired serum and CSF samples from 91 patients with NCC (48 had intraparenchymal NCC, and 43 had extraparenchymal NCC) for detection of antibodies, using an enzyme-linked immunotransfer blot (EITB) assay, and antigens, using a monoclonal antibody–based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results For the intraparenchymal NCC group, the EITB assay yielded more true-positive results for serum samples, and the ELISA yielded slightly more true-positive results for CSF samples than for serum samples, but none of these differences were statistically significant. Most patients with calcified NCC were antibody positive but antigen negative. For extraparenchymal disease, all samples were antibody positive, and all but 2 were antigen positive, with most samples containing high antigen levels. Conclusions The sensitivity of antibody-detecting EITB assays is not increased through the use of CSF samples rather than serum samples. The antigen-detecting ELISA performed better for CSF samples than for serum samples, but for both specimen types it was less sensitive than the EITB assay. Active and inactive NCC are better differentiated from each other by the antigen-detecting ELISA, for both serum and CSF samples. High antigen levels suggest the presence of subarachnoid NCC.

Rodriguez, Silvia; Dorny, Pierre; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Pretell, E. Javier; Brandt, Jef; Lescano, Andres G.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.

2014-01-01

78

Disruption of the blood-brain barrier in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium, untreated and after anthelmintic treatment.  

PubMed

Neurocysticercosis is a widely prevalent disease in the tropics that causes seizures and a variety into of neurological symptoms in most of the world. Experimental models are limited and do not allow assessment of the degree of inflammation around brain cysts. The vital dye Evans Blue (EB) was injected to 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysts to visually identify the extent of disruption of the blood-brain barrier. A total of 369 cysts were recovered from the 11 brains and classified according to the staining of their capsules as blue or unstained. The proportion of cysts with blue capsules was significantly higher in brains from pigs that had received anthelmintic treatment 48 and 120h before the EB infusion, indicating a greater compromise of the blood-brain barrier due to treatment. The model could be useful for understanding the pathology of treatment-induced inflammation in neurocysticercosis. PMID:23684909

Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Balboa, Diana; Orrego, Miguel Ángel; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; García, Hector H; González, Armando E; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E

2013-08-01

79

Use of expressed sequence tags as an alternative approach for the identification of Taenia solium metacestode excretion/secretion proteins  

PubMed Central

Background Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a zoonotic helminth infection mainly found in rural regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. In endemic areas, diagnosis of cysticercosis largely depends on serology, but these methods have their drawbacks and require improvement. This implies better knowledge of the proteins secreted and excreted by the parasite. In a previous study, we used a custom protein database containing protein sequences from related helminths to identify T. solium metacestode excretion/secretion proteins. An alternative or complementary approach would be to use expressed sequence tags combined with BLAST and protein mapping to supercontigs of Echinococcus granulosus, a closely related cestode. In this study, we evaluate this approach and compare the results to those obtained in the previous study. Findings We report 297 proteins organized in 106 protein groups based on homology. Additional classification was done using Gene Ontology information on biological process and molecular function. Of the 106 protein groups, 58 groups were newly identified, while 48 groups confirmed previous findings. Blast2GO analysis revealed that the majority of the proteins were involved in catalytic activities and binding. Conclusions In this study, we used translated expressed sequence tags combined with BLAST and mapping strategies to both confirm and complement previous research. Our findings are comparable to recent studies on other helminth genera like Echinococcus, Schistosoma and Clonorchis, indicating similarities between helminth excretion/secretion proteomes.

2013-01-01

80

In Vitro Analysis of Albendazole Sulfoxide Enantiomers Shows that (+)-(R)-Albendazole Sulfoxide Is the Active Enantiomer against Taenia solium  

PubMed Central

Albendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used in the treatment of neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with Taenia solium cysts. However, drug levels of its active metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), are erratic, likely resulting in decreased efficacy and suboptimal cure rates in NCC. Racemic albendazole sulfoxide is composed of ABZSO (+)-(R)- and (?)-(S) enantiomers that have been shown to differ in pharmacokinetics and activity against other helminths. The antiparasitic activities of racemic ABZSO and its (+)-(R)- and (?)-(S) enantiomers against T. solium cysts were evaluated in vitro. Parasites were collected from naturally infected pigs, cultured, and exposed to the racemic mixture or to each enantiomer (range, 10 to 500 ng/ml) or to praziquantel as a reference drug. The activity of each compound against cysts was assayed by measuring the ability to evaginate and inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and parasite antigen release. (+)-(R)-ABZSO was significantly more active than (?)-(S)-ABZSO in suppressing the release of AP and antigen into the supernatant in a dose- and time-dependent manner, indicating that most of the activity of ABZSO resides in the (+)-(R) enantiomer. Use of this enantiomer alone may lead to increased efficacy and/or less toxicity compared to albendazole.

Paredes, Adriana; de Campos Lourenco, Tiago; Marzal, Miguel; Rivera, Andrea; Dorny, Pierre; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Garcia, Hector H.; Cass, Quezia B.

2013-01-01

81

Characterization of hydrophobic-ligand-binding proteins of Taenia solium that are expressed specifically in the adult stage.  

PubMed

Taenia solium, a causative agent of taeniasis and cysticercosis, has evolved a repertoire of lipid uptake mechanisms. Proteome analysis of T. solium excretory-secretory products (TsESP) identified 10 kDa proteins displaying significant sequence identity with cestode hydrophobic-ligand-binding-proteins (HLBPs). Two distinct 362- and 352-bp-long cDNAs encoding 264- and 258-bp-long open reading frames (87 and 85 amino acid polypeptides) were isolated by mining the T. solium expressed sequence tags and a cDNA library screening (TsHLBP1 and TsHLBP2; 94% sequence identity). They clustered into the same clade with those found in Moniezia expansa and Hymenolepis diminuta. Genomic structure analysis revealed that these genes might have originated from a common ancestor. Both the crude TsESP and bacterially expressed recombinant proteins exhibited binding activity toward 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (1,8-ANS), which was competitively inhibited by oleic acid. The proteins also bound to cis-parinaric acid (cPnA) and 16-(9-anthroyloxy) palmitic acid (16-AP), but showed no binding activity against 11-[(5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl) amino] undecanoic acid (DAUDA) and dansyl-DL-?-aminocaprylic acid (DACA). Unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) showed greater affinity than saturated FAs. The proteins were specifically expressed in adult worms throughout the strobila. The TsHLBPs might be involved in uptake and/or sequestration of hydrophobic molecules provided by their hosts, thus contributing to host-parasite interface interrelationships. PMID:22657393

Rahman, M; Lee, E-G; Kim, S-H; Bae, Y-A; Wang, H; Yang, Y; Kong, Y

2012-09-01

82

Further evaluation of the synthetic peptide vaccine S3Pvac against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs in an endemic town of Mexico.  

PubMed

Taenia solium cysticercosis is a parasitic disease frequently affecting human health and the pig industry in many developing countries. A synthetic peptide vaccine (designated S3Pvac) against porcine cysticercosis has been developed previously as an aid to interrupt transmission and has been shown to be effective. The results of the present study support the effectiveness of the vaccine under endemic field conditions. However, given the time-frame of the vaccination trial, no changes in the local levels of transmission were detectable before and after vaccination using sentinel pigs. Thus, this investigation shows the limited usefulness of single vaccination as the sole means of interrupting Taenia solium transmission in an endemic region. PMID:16948875

Sciutto, E; Morales, J; Martínez, J J; Toledo, A; Villalobos, M N; Cruz-Revilla, C; Meneses, G; Hernández, M; Díaz, A; Rodarte, L F; Acero, G; Gevorkian, G; Manoutcharian, K; Paniagua, J; Fragoso, G; Fleury, A; Larralde, R; De Aluja, A S; Larralde, C

2007-01-01

83

Mitochondrial genes and genomes support a cryptic species of tapeworm within Taenia taeniaeformis.  

PubMed

Taenia taeniaeformis is a globally distributed cestode, which uses felids as definitive and rodents as intermediate hosts. The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of T. taeniaeformis from Germany (Tt-GER) was sequenced, and compared with that of another isolate from China (GenBank NC_014768; Tt-CHN), both taken from cats. Analysis of the two mtDNAs indicated that the isolates are significantly different from one another with 12.6% and 9.9% nucleotide and amino acid divergence between them, for concatenated protein-coding genes; overall difference based on a pairwise nucleotide alignment of complete mtDNAs was 11.8%. A phylogenetic analysis based on the 12 protein-coding genes of all available taeniid mtDNAs confirmed the two T. taeniaeformis isolates as sister taxa (likely separate species) and early divergent members of the genus, as suggested previously by morphology. Phylogenetic analysis of published fragments of mt genes rrnS, cox1 and nad1, which represent multiple geographic isolates of T. taeniaeformis also resolve two distinct clades that at present do not seem to be geographically isolated. Mean pairwise (nucleotide) differences between the two clades of T. taeniaeformis were approximately 11%, 10% and 13% in partial rrnS (182bp), cox1 (371bp) and nad1 (459bp) genes, respectively. Differences between entire mtDNAs and partial mt genes of the two T. taeniaeformis isolates are of a similar magnitude between established taeniid sister species. Tt-CHN differs from all other Taenia mtDNAs in lacking a short (?69bp) non-coding region between trnY and trnL1. Partial mt fragment analysis highlighted likely misidentifications of T. taeniaeformis on GenBank. PMID:22569565

Jia, Wanzhong; Yan, Hongbin; Lou, Zhongzi; Ni, Xingwei; Dyachenko, Viktor; Li, Hongmin; Littlewood, D Timothy J

2012-09-01

84

The genomes of four tapeworm species reveal adaptations to parasitism.  

PubMed

Tapeworms (Cestoda) cause neglected diseases that can be fatal and are difficult to treat, owing to inefficient drugs. Here we present an analysis of tapeworm genome sequences using the human-infective species Echinococcus multilocularis, E. granulosus, Taenia solium and the laboratory model Hymenolepis microstoma as examples. The 115- to 141-megabase genomes offer insights into the evolution of parasitism. Synteny is maintained with distantly related blood flukes but we find extreme losses of genes and pathways that are ubiquitous in other animals, including 34 homeobox families and several determinants of stem cell fate. Tapeworms have specialized detoxification pathways, metabolism that is finely tuned to rely on nutrients scavenged from their hosts, and species-specific expansions of non-canonical heat shock proteins and families of known antigens. We identify new potential drug targets, including some on which existing pharmaceuticals may act. The genomes provide a rich resource to underpin the development of urgently needed treatments and control. PMID:23485966

Tsai, Isheng J; Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Holroyd, Nancy; Garciarrubio, Alejandro; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Brooks, Karen L; Tracey, Alan; Bobes, Raúl J; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Aslett, Martin; Beasley, Helen; Bennett, Hayley M; Cai, Jianping; Camicia, Federico; Clark, Richard; Cucher, Marcela; De Silva, Nishadi; Day, Tim A; Deplazes, Peter; Estrada, Karel; Fernández, Cecilia; Holland, Peter W H; Hou, Junling; Hu, Songnian; Huckvale, Thomas; Hung, Stacy S; Kamenetzky, Laura; Keane, Jacqueline A; Kiss, Ferenc; Koziol, Uriel; Lambert, Olivia; Liu, Kan; Luo, Xuenong; Luo, Yingfeng; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Nichol, Sarah; Paps, Jordi; Parkinson, John; Pouchkina-Stantcheva, Natasha; Riddiford, Nick; Rosenzvit, Mara; Salinas, Gustavo; Wasmuth, James D; Zamanian, Mostafa; Zheng, Yadong; Cai, Xuepeng; Soberón, Xavier; Olson, Peter D; Laclette, Juan P; Brehm, Klaus; Berriman, Matthew

2013-04-01

85

Short report: Evidence and potential for transmission of human and swine Taenia solium cysticercosis in the Piracuruca region, Piauí, Brazil.  

PubMed

The study conducted in the Cocal dos Alves municipality, located in the Piracuruca region of Piauí State, Brazil in November of 2003 was based on both a socio-behavioral survey and analysis of serum antibodies and parasitic materials. Pig raising is the main economic activity with 91.4% using extensive farming. On the studied population, 54.3% of people did not apply any sanitary measures to wastewater, 45.7% used septic tanks, and 69.1% consumed water without treatment. The data collected indicated the occurrence and active transmission of the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex in the region. One of seven voluntary persons was positive in antibody-ELISA tests using both native and recombinant antigens. Multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing of cyst samples obtained from a pig revealed the presence of the Afro-American genotype of Taenia solium. This study revealed the occurrence of human and porcine cysticercosis in the Piracuruca region of Piauí State, middle-north of Brazil. PMID:17123990

Sato, Marcello Otake; Cavalcante, Tânia Vasconcelos; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Yatsuda, Ana Patrícia; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira

2006-11-01

86

Lights and shadows of the Taenia asiatica life cycle and pathogenicity  

PubMed Central

Humans are definitive hosts of two well-known species of the Taenia genus, Taenia solium (the pig tapeworm) and Taenia saginata (the cattle tapeworm). In the 1990s, a third species, Taenia asiatica, was discovered, sharing features with the other two since the adult morphology is similar to that of T. saginata, but its life cycle is like that of T. solium. Human taeniasis usually is asymptomatic or displays mild symptoms, and only T. solium can cause other sometimes serious disorders when humans accidentally ingest the eggs and develop the larval stage in different organs (cysticercosis). In this review, we expose what we currently know (lights) and what we do not yet know (shadows) about the life cycle and pathogenicity of T. asiatica. Concerning its life cycle, the main uncertainty is whether humans can act as intermediate hosts of this species. We also suggest that due to its small size and location in pigs, the cysticerci probably escape veterinary inspection becoming a silent parasite. Concerning pathogenicity, it is still not known if T. asiatica can cause human liver cysticercosis, taking into account its principal hepatic tropism in pigs. To answer all these questions it would be essential to perform sensitive as well as specific diagnostic techniques for T. asiatica in humans and pigs. Currently, only molecular methods are able to determine the Taenia species, since morphology and immunology are useless, but unfortunately although largely used in research those methods are not employed in routine diagnosis.

Galan-Puchades, Maria Teresa; Fuentes, Marius Vicent

2013-01-01

87

Improved diagnosis as an aid to better surveillance of Taenia solium cysticercosis, a potential public health threat to Papua New Guinea.  

PubMed

Taenia solium cysticercosis has been recognized as a public health problem in Indonesian Irian Jaya since its unfortunate introduction in a number of infected pigs imported from Bali. From its original point of introduction in 1971, the infection has spread from the Wissel Lakes area to other places within Irian Jaya. The present situation at the border between Irian Jaya and Papua New Guinea (PNG) is difficult to assess accurately but, in light of the flow of refugees and the traditional rights of movement of people with their pigs in the border area, PNG populations are now at risk. Government health officers and veterinarians in PNG are well aware of this threat and have been watching closely for transmission of Taenia solium into PNG. A rigorous survey of Irianese refugees at the border and surrounding areas in PNG using recently developed immunodiagnostic procedures such as the EITB (enzyme immunoelectrotransfer blot) for detecting human and pig cysticercosis and the dipstick ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for identifying T. solium carriers, coupled with careful assessment of medical history and clinical and stool examination, is, however, required. Such a study would allow evaluation of the prevalence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Irian Jayan refugees residing in camps in PNG. The study would also determine the extent to which the parasite has spread easterly and, importantly, whether cysticercosis/taeniasis has crossed the border and is endemic in PNG, thereby constituting a potentially serious public health problem. PMID:9522870

McManus, D P

1995-12-01

88

Genetic variation in the Cytb gene of human cerebral Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from clinically and radiologically heterogeneous patients with neurocysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous parasitic disease caused by the establishment of larval Taenia solium in the human central nervous system. Host and/or parasite variations may be related to this observed heterogeneity. Genetic differences between pig and human-derived T. solium cysticerci have been reported previously. In this study, 28 cysticerci were surgically removed from 12 human NC patients, the mitochondrial gene that encodes cytochrome b was amplified from the cysticerci and genetic variations that may be related to NC heterogeneity were characterised. Nine different haplotypes (Ht), which were clustered in four haplogroups (Hg), were identified. Hg 3 and 4 exhibited a tendency to associate with age and gender, respectively. However, no significant associations were found between NC heterogeneity and the different T. solium cysticerci Ht or Hg. Parasite variants obtained from patients with similar NC clinical or radiological features were genetically closer than those found in groups of patients with a different NC profile when using the Mantel test. Overall, this study establishes the presence of genetic differences in the Cytb gene of T. solium isolated from human cysticerci and suggests that parasite variation could contribute to NC heterogeneity.

Palafox-Fonseca, Hector; Zuniga, Gerardo; Bobes, Raul Jose; Govezensky, Tzipe; Pinero, Daniel; Texco-Martinez, Laura; Fleury, Agnes; Proano, Jefferson; Cardenas, Graciela; Hernandez, Marisela; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

2013-01-01

89

Prevalence and economic implications of Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis in Uttar Pradesh State of India.  

PubMed

From 1980 to 1985, 3550 pigs, 530 cattle, 370 buffalo, 1850 sheep and 2100 goat of different breeds, age and sex from different parts of Uttar Pradesh State (India) were screened for the presence of cysticerci. Economic losses due to condemnation of affected meat were calculated. The overall incidence in pigs was 9.3%. Indigenous breeds brought from rural areas had the highest infection rate (8.9%). Cysticerci were commonly observed in the muscles of fore and hind limbs, tongue, neck and brain but a few cyst were also seen in other organs including heart, kidney and spleen. No statistical difference in the rate of infection with regards to age and sex was recorded. Sheep, goat, cattle and buffalo were found negative for this infection. Also 600 human faecal samples screened for the presence of adult T. solium revealed 2% infection. PMID:2488998

Pathak, K M; Gaur, S N

1989-01-01

90

Release of Glycoprotein (GP1) from the Tegumental Surface of Taenia solium by Phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens Suggests a Novel Protein-Anchor to Membranes  

PubMed Central

In order to explore how molecules are linked to the membrane surface in larval Taenia solium, whole cysticerci were incubated in the presence of phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens (PLC). Released material was collected and analyzed in polyacrylamide gels with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Two major bands with apparent molecular weights of 180 and 43?kDa were observed. Western blot of released material and localization assays in cysticerci tissue sections using antibodies against five known surface glycoproteins of T. solium cysticerci indicated that only one, previously called GP1, was released. Similar localization studies using the lectins wheat-germ-agglutinin and Concanavalin A showed that N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetylneuraminic, sialic acid, ?methyl-D-mannoside, D-manose/glucose, and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues are abundantly present on the surface. On the other hand, we find that treatment with PLC releases molecules from the surface; they do not reveal Cross Reacting Determinant (CRD), suggesting a novel anchor to the membrane for the glycoprotein GP1.

Landa, Abraham; Willms, Kaethe; Laclette, Juan Pedro

2010-01-01

91

Utility of a Protein Fraction with Cathepsin L-Like Activity Purified from Cysticercus Fluid of Taenia solium in the Diagnosis of Human Cysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis, an endemic parasitic disease in most developing countries, is caused by Taenia solium and compromises the human central nervous system. Cathepsin L-like proteases are secreted by several parasites including T. solium and constitute important antigens for immunodiagnostics. A protein fraction with cathepsin L-like activity was purified from the cysticercus fluid by size exclusion and ion exchange chromatography. Cathepsin L-like activity was measured fluorometrically by detecting the hydrolysis of the fluorogenic substrate Z-Phe-Arg-AMC. The purified protein fraction included antigens of 53 and 25 kD that were tested in a Western immunoblot and in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of human cysticercosis. The sensitivity of the Western immunoblot was 96% for patients infected with multiple cysts and 78% for patients with a single cyst. Specificity was 98%. The sensitivity of the ELISA was 98% in patients with multiple cysts and 84% in patients with a single cyst. Specificity was 92.7%.

Zimic, Mirko; Pajuelo, Monica; Rueda, Daniel; Lopez, Cesar; Arana, Yanina; Castillo, Yesenia; Calderon, Maritza; Rodriguez, Silvia; Sheen, Patricia; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Gonzales, Armando; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

2009-01-01

92

Geographic Correlation between Tapeworm Carriers and Heavily Infected Cysticercotic Pigs  

PubMed Central

Background Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. Sustainable community-based interventions are urgently needed to control transmission of the causative parasite, Taenia solium. We examined the geospatial relationship between live pigs with visible cysticercotic cysts on their tongues and humans with adult intestinal tapeworm infection (taeniasis) in a rural village in northern Peru. The objective was to determine whether tongue-positive pigs could indicate high-risk geographic foci for taeniasis to guide targeted screening efforts. This approach could offer significant benefit compared to mass intervention. Methods We recorded geographic coordinates of all village houses, collected stool samples from all consenting villagers, and collected blood and examined tongues of all village pigs. Stool samples were processed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens indicative of active taeniasis; serum was processed by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot for antibodies against T. solium cysticercosis (EITB LLGP) and T. solium taeniasis (EITB rES33). Findings Of 548 pigs, 256 (46.7%) were positive for antibodies against cysticercosis on EITB LLGP. Of 402 fecal samples, 6 (1.5%) were positive for the presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens. The proportion of coproantigen-positive individuals differed significantly between residents living within 100-meters of a tongue-positive pig (4/79, 5.1%) and residents living >100 meters from a tongue-positive pig (2/323, 0.6%) (p?=?0.02). The prevalence of taeniasis was >8 times higher among residents living within 100 meters of a tongue-positive pig compared to residents living outside this range (adjusted PR 8.1, 95% CI 1.4–47.0). Conclusions Tongue-positive pigs in endemic communities can indicate geospatial foci in which the risk for taeniasis is increased. Targeted screening or presumptive treatment for taeniasis within these high-risk foci may be an effective and practical control intervention for rural endemic areas.

O'Neal, Seth E.; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Diaz, Andre; Rodriguez, Silvia; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

2012-01-01

93

Evans Blue Staining Reveals Vascular Leakage Associated with Focal Areas of Host-Parasite Interaction in Brains of Pigs Infected with Taenia solium  

PubMed Central

Cysticidal drug treatment of viable Taenia solium brain parenchymal cysts leads to an acute pericystic host inflammatory response and blood brain barrier breakdown (BBB), commonly resulting in seizures. Naturally infected pigs, untreated or treated one time with praziquantel were sacrificed at 48 hr and 120 hr following the injection of Evans blue (EB) to assess the effect of treatment on larval parasites and surrounding tissue. Examination of harvested non encapsulated muscle cysts unexpectedly revealed one or more small, focal round region(s) of Evans blue dye infiltration (REBI) on the surface of otherwise non dye-stained muscle cysts. Histopathological analysis of REBI revealed focal areas of eosinophil-rich inflammatory infiltrates that migrated from the capsule into the tegument and internal structures of the parasite. In addition some encapsulated brain cysts, in which the presence of REBI could not be directly assessed, showed histopathology identical to that of the REBI. Muscle cysts with REBI were more frequent in pigs that had received praziquantel (6.6% of 3736 cysts; n?=?6 pigs) than in those that were untreated (0.2% of 3172 cysts; n?=?2 pigs). Similar results were found in the brain, where 20.7% of 29 cysts showed histopathology identical to muscle REBI cysts in praziquantel-treated pigs compared to the 4.3% of 47 cysts in untreated pigs. Closer examination of REBI infiltrates showed that EB was taken up only by eosinophils, a major component of the cellular infiltrates, which likely explains persistence of EB in the REBI. REBI likely represent early damaging host responses to T. solium cysts and highlight the focal nature of this initial host response and the importance of eosinophils at sites of host-parasite interaction. These findings suggest new avenues for immunomodulation to reduce inflammatory side effects of anthelmintic therapy.

Paredes, Adriana; Cangalaya, Carla; Rivera, Andrea; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Garcia, Hector H.; Nash, Theodore E.

2014-01-01

94

STANDARDIZATION OF A FLUORESCENT-BASED QUANTITATIVE ADHESION ASSAY TO STUDY ATTACHMENT OF Taenia solium ONCOSPHERE TO EPITHELIAL CELLS In Vitro  

PubMed Central

To fully understand the preliminary stages of Taenia solium oncosphere attachment in the gut, adequate tools and assays are necessary to observe and quantify this event that leads to infection. A fluorescent-based quantitative adhesion assay, using biotinylated activated-oncospheres and monolayers of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) or human intestinal monolayer cells (INT-407, HCT-8 or HT-29), was developed to study initial events during the infection of target cells and to rapidly quantify the in vitro adhesion of T. solium oncospheres. Fluorescein streptavidin was used to identify biotinylated activated-oncospheres adhered to cells. This adherence was quantified using an automated fluorescence plate reader, and the results were expressed as fluorescence intensity values. A series of three assays were performed. The first was to identify the optimum number of biotinylated activated-oncospheres to be used in the adhesion assay. The goal of the second assay was to validate this novel method with the established oncosphere-binding system using the immunofluorescent-antibody assay (IFA) method to quantify oncosphere adhesion. A total of 10,000 biotinylated activated-oncospheres were utilized to assess the role of sera and laminin (LM) in oncosphere adherence to a CHO-K1 cell monolayer. The findings that sera and LM increase the adhesion of oncospheres to monolayer cells were similar to results that were previously obtained using the IFA method. The third assay compared the adherence of biotinylated activated-oncospheres to different types of human intestinal monolayer cells. In this case, the fluorescence intensity was greatest when using the INT-407 cell monolayer. We believe this new method of quantification offers the potential for rapid, large-scale screening to study and elucidate specific molecules and mechanisms involved in oncosphere-host cell attachment.

Chile, Nancy; Evangelista, Julio; Gilman, Robert H.; Arana, Yanina; Palma, Sandra; Sterling, Charles R; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando; Verastegui, Manuela

2012-01-01

95

Differential diagnosis of Taenia asiatica using multiplex PCR.  

PubMed

Taenia asiatica and T. saginata are frequently confused tapeworms due to their morphological similarities and sympatric distribution in Asian regions. To resolve this problem, a high-resolution multiplex PCR assay was developed to distinguish T. asiatica infections from infection with other human Taenia tapeworms. For molecular characterization, the species specificity of all materials used was confirmed by sequencing of the cox1 gene. Fifty-two samples were analyzed in this study, comprising 20 samples of T. asiatica genomic DNA from China, Korea, and the Philippines; 24 samples of T. saginata from Belgium, Chile, China, Ethiopia, France, Indonesia, Korea, Laos, the Philippines, Poland, Taiwan, Thailand, and Switzerland; and 10 samples of T. solium from Cape Verde, China, Honduras, and Korea. The diagnostic quality of the results obtained using PCR and species-specific primers designed from valine tRNA and NADH genes was equal to that based on the nucleotide sequencing of the cox1 gene. Using oligonucleotide primers Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915, the multiplex PCR assay was useful for the differentially diagnosing T. asiatica, T. saginata, and T. solium based on 706-, 629-, and 474-bp bands. PMID:19017531

Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Chai, Jong-Yil; Kong, Yoon; Waikagul, Jitra; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Rim, Han-Jong; Eom, Keeseon S

2009-02-01

96

Structural and biochemical studies of a recombinant 25.5 kDa glutathione transferase of Taenia solium metacestode (rTs25GST1-1).  

PubMed

In this work, we studied a recombinant mu-class glutathione transferase of 25.5 kDa from Taenia solium metacestode (rTs25GST1-1) that follows Michaelis–Menten kinetics with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). The kinetic parameters obtained for rTs25GST1-1 with CDNB and GSH were V(max) =12.04 ?mol/min/mg and K(m)=1.38 mM, and V(max) =10.20 ?mol/min/mg and K(m)=0.90, respectively. The optimal activity was found at pH 8 in the 37-40 °C temperature range. Circular dichroism studies for rTs25GST1-1 at different pH showed that it maintains a typical ?-helix structure between pH 6.5-7.5, but loses it between pH 8 and 8.5. Thermal CD assays showed rTs25GST1-1 barely changed its secondary structure. Unfolding/refolding assays showed that rTs25GST1-1 retained its structure up to 40 °C without loss of its activity. Additionally, exposure of rTs25GST1-1 to cumene hydroperoxide did not produce significant changes in its structure and only affected 50% of its activity. PMID:23959386

Roldan, Aramis; Torres-Rivera, Anayetzin; Landa, Abraham

2013-11-01

97

A dot-ELISA using a partially purified cathepsin-L-like protein fraction from Taenia solium cysticerci for the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Human neurocysticercosis (NCC), caused by the cestode Taenia solium, is responsible for a significant amount of neurological morbidity and epilepsy in developing countries. The disease remains highly endemic in many areas, despite several efforts and interventions to control it. A simple, cheap and fast diagnostic assay that is suitable for use in field conditions is highly desired. In immunodiagnostics based on western immunoblots or standard ELISA, a cathepsin-L-like protein purified from the cysticercus fluid has previously performed well as an antigen. In a recent study in Peru, the same 53/25-kDa antigen was therefore used in the development of a dot-ELISA that could be employed for mass screenings under field conditions. The assay was standardized and tested not only against sera from a large group of NCC cases but also against sera from patients with other common parasitic infections, so that sensitivity and specificity could be assessed. For NCC, the assay gave better sensitivity in the detection of individuals with extraparenchymal cysts (94.4%–100%) or multiple parenchymal cysts (74.6%–80.0%) than in the detection of individuals with single parenchymal cysts (29.4%–45.1%). The assay also showed a high specificity for NCC (99.0%–100%), with a very low level of cross-reactivity with other parasitic infections. The dot-ELISA developed in this study is a highly specific, simple, cheap and rapid test for NCC that could be used under field conditions, even in the low-resource settings that are common in developing countries.

Pina, Ruby; Gutierrez, Andres H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Rueda, Daniel; Sifuentes, Cecilia; Flores, Myra; Sheen, Patricia; Rodriguez, Silvia; Garcia, Hector H.; Zimic, Mirko

2012-01-01

98

Molecular evidence of host influences on the evolution and spread of human tapeworms.  

PubMed

The taeniasis/cysticercosis complex is included in the list of neglected zoonotic diseases by the World Health Organization due to its significant impact on public health in tropical areas. Cysticercosis is still endemic in many regions of Asia, Africa and Latin America. Long absent in Europe and in other developed countries, cysticercosis has recently re-emerged in the United States and Canada, due to immigration, travel and local transmission. This has encouraged the use of molecular data to understand better the influence of animal and human hosts on the emergence and spread of Taenia species. The increasing number of mitochondrial sequences now available from human tapeworms and recent advances in computational tools has enabled reconstruction of the biogeography and evolutionary history of these organisms. New molecular data have provided insights into the biogeography of T. solium, T. asiatica and T. saginata. A Bayesian statistical framework using variable evolutionary rates from lineage to lineage has allowed an improved timescale analysis of human tapeworms. The dates of divergence obtained were compared to the timing of evolutionary events in the history of their hosts, based on the hypothesis that Taenia spp. and their hosts share a common history. Herein, we review changes in the definitive and secondary hosts and human interactions that underlie the differentiation and evolution of tapeworms. Species diversification of Taenia seems to be closely linked with the evolution of intermediate hosts in response to climatic events during the Pleistocene. Different genotypes of T. solium emerged when European and Asian wild boar Sus spp. populations diverged. Taenia saginata emerged when wild cattle Bos primigenius evolved and when zebu Bos indicus and taurine Bos taurus ancestors separated. Humans through migrations and later with the development of farming and animal husbandry may have had a significant impact on the spread and diversification of tapeworms. Migrations of Homo erectus from Africa to Asia and later of Homo sapiens facilitated the diversification and dispersal of T. solium and T. saginata populations. The development of animal husbandry, making Sus scrofa and Bos taurus preferential intermediate hosts, led to the worldwide distribution of parasites. New molecular data combined with an innovative dating method allow us to explain the ways in which ancient human migrations promoted the emergence and spread of taeniasis and cysticercosis around the world. Another intriguing phenomenon explained better by our approach is the influence of human settlement on the spread of these parasites in recently inhabited areas. The diverse nature of T. solium currently observed in Madagascar may correspond to multiple imports of the parasite during Austronesian migrations, while in Mexico a recent influence of humans during the colonial period is more likely. Human activities, especially food preparation and husbandry methods, remain responsible for the transmission and persistence of these parasites. PMID:22321512

Michelet, Lorraine; Dauga, Catherine

2012-08-01

99

Detailed Transcriptome Description of the Neglected Cestode Taenia multiceps  

PubMed Central

Background The larval stage of Taenia multiceps, a global cestode, encysts in the central nervous system (CNS) of sheep and other livestock. This frequently leads to their death and huge socioeconomic losses, especially in developing countries. This parasite can also cause zoonotic infections in humans, but has been largely neglected due to a lack of diagnostic techniques and studies. Recent developments in next-generation sequencing provide an opportunity to explore the transcriptome of T. multiceps. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained a total of 31,282 unigenes (mean length 920 bp) using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and a new Trinity de novo assembler without a referenced genome. Individual transcription molecules were determined by sequence-based annotations and/or domain-based annotations against public databases (Nr, UniprotKB/Swiss-Prot, COG, KEGG, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, InterPro and Pfam). We identified 26,110 (83.47%) unigenes and inferred 20,896 (66.8%) coding sequences (CDS). Further comparative transcripts analysis with other cestodes (Taenia pisiformis, Taenia solium, Echincoccus granulosus and Echincoccus multilocularis) and intestinal parasites (Trichinella spiralis, Ancylostoma caninum and Ascaris suum) showed that 5,100 common genes were shared among three Taenia tapeworms, 261 conserved genes were detected among five Taeniidae cestodes, and 109 common genes were found in four zoonotic intestinal parasites. Some of the common genes were genes required for parasite survival, involved in parasite-host interactions. In addition, we amplified two full-length CDS of unigenes from the common genes using RT-PCR. Conclusions/Significance This study provides an extensive transcriptome of the adult stage of T. multiceps, and demonstrates that comparative transcriptomic investigations deserve to be further studied. This transcriptome dataset forms a substantial public information platform to achieve a fundamental understanding of the biology of T. multiceps, and helps in the identification of drug targets and parasite-host interaction studies.

Wu, Xuhang; Fu, Yan; Yang, Deying; Zhang, Runhui; Zheng, Wanpeng; Nie, Huaming; Xie, Yue; Yan, Ning; Hao, Guiying; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

2012-01-01

100

Quantitative screening for anticestode drugs based on changes in baseline enzyme secretion by Taenia crassiceps.  

PubMed

Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with the larval stage of the Taenia solium tapeworm, is responsible for an estimated one-third of adult-onset epilepsy cases in regions of the world where it is endemic. Currently, anthelmintic drugs used for treatment of NCC are only partially effective, and there is, therefore, a pressing need for new therapeutic agents. Discovery of new anthelmintics with activity against T. solium has been limited by the lack of suitable sensitive assays that allow high-throughput screening. Using an in vitro culture system with Taenia crassiceps metacestodes, we demonstrate that changes in secretion of parasite-associated alkaline phosphatase (AP) and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) can be used to detect and quantify anthelmintic effects of praziquantel (PZQ), a drug with activity against T. solium. We applied two enzyme release assays to screen for anti-T. crassiceps activity in nonconventional antiparasitic drugs and demonstrate that nitazoxanide and artesunate induced release of both AP and PGI in differing time- and dose-related patterns. Furthermore, imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor previously reported to have parasiticidal activity against Schistosoma mansoni, also induced release of both AP and PGI in a dose-dependent manner, similar in pattern to that observed with the other anthelmintics. We also evaluated release of ATP into cyst supernatants as an indicator of drug effects but did not see any differences between treated and untreated cysts. These data provide the basis for rapid and quantitative screening assays for testing for anthelmintic activity in candidate anticestode agents. PMID:23229489

Mahanty, Siddhartha; Madrid, Elise M; Nash, Theodore E

2013-02-01

101

Quantitative Screening for Anticestode Drugs Based on Changes in Baseline Enzyme Secretion by Taenia crassiceps  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with the larval stage of the Taenia solium tapeworm, is responsible for an estimated one-third of adult-onset epilepsy cases in regions of the world where it is endemic. Currently, anthelmintic drugs used for treatment of NCC are only partially effective, and there is, therefore, a pressing need for new therapeutic agents. Discovery of new anthelmintics with activity against T. solium has been limited by the lack of suitable sensitive assays that allow high-throughput screening. Using an in vitro culture system with Taenia crassiceps metacestodes, we demonstrate that changes in secretion of parasite-associated alkaline phosphatase (AP) and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) can be used to detect and quantify anthelmintic effects of praziquantel (PZQ), a drug with activity against T. solium. We applied two enzyme release assays to screen for anti-T. crassiceps activity in nonconventional antiparasitic drugs and demonstrate that nitazoxanide and artesunate induced release of both AP and PGI in differing time- and dose-related patterns. Furthermore, imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor previously reported to have parasiticidal activity against Schistosoma mansoni, also induced release of both AP and PGI in a dose-dependent manner, similar in pattern to that observed with the other anthelmintics. We also evaluated release of ATP into cyst supernatants as an indicator of drug effects but did not see any differences between treated and untreated cysts. These data provide the basis for rapid and quantitative screening assays for testing for anthelmintic activity in candidate anticestode agents.

Madrid, Elise M.; Nash, Theodore E.

2013-01-01

102

What is Asian Taenia?  

PubMed

Asian Taenia is a human tapeworm which was first recognized in Taiwan aborigines and subsequently from Asian countries: Korea, Indonesia, Vietnam, and China. It was originally described as T. asiatica Eom and Rim, 1993 based on the morphology in its adult and larval stage. A taxonomic disagreement on whether it is species or subspecies level is mainly due to the morphological similarity of this tapeworm with T. saginata, but a sympatric distribution of these two tapeworms is also known in China. The life cycle is quite distinct from T. saginata in using the pig as intermediate host and parasitizing visceral organs such as liver, lung and omentum. A long unresolved question in Asian countries concerns the inconsistency between worm ratio and the food preferences was clarified with this viscerotropic tapeworm. Molecular biological differentiation is possible with DNA techniques and a complete genome of mtDNA was sequenced recently which may provide a resource for comparative mitochondrial genomics and systematic studies of parasitic cestodes. This is a young parasite discovered most recently with many research questions yet to be clarified. PMID:16387528

Eom, Keeseon S

2006-01-01

103

Tapeworm - beef or pork  

MedlinePLUS

... tapeworm can infect themselves if they have poor hygiene. They can ingest tapeworm eggs they pick up on their hands while wiping or scratching their anus or the skin around it. Those who are infected can expose ...

104

Characterization of microRNAs in Taenia saginata of zoonotic significance by Solexa deep sequencing and bioinformatics analysis.  

PubMed

The beef tapeworm Taenia saginata infects human beings with symptoms ranging from nausea, abdominal discomfort to digestive disturbances and intestinal blockage. In the present study, microRNA (miRNA) expressing profile in adult T. saginata was analyzed using Solexa deep sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. A total of 15.8 million reads was obtained by Solexa sequencing, and 13.3 million clean reads (1.73 million unique sequences) was obtained after removing reads smaller than 18 nt. Ten conserved miRNAs corresponding to 607,382 reads were found when matching the reads against known miRNAs of Schistosoma japonicum in miRBase database. The miR-71 had the most abundant expression in T. saginata, followed by miR-219-5p, but some other common miRNAs such as let-7, miR-40, and miR-103 were not identified in T. saginata. Nucleotide bias analysis found that the known miRNAs showed high bias and the uracil was the dominant nucleotide, particularly at the first and 11th positions which were almost at the beginning and middle of conserved miRNAs. One novel miRNA (Tsa-miR-001) corresponding to ten precursors was identified and confirmed by stem-loop RT-PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first report of miRNA profiles in T. saginata, which will contribute to better understanding of the complex biology of this zoonotic trematode. The reported data of T. saginata miRNAs should provide valuable references for miRNA studies of closed related zoonotic Taenia cestodes such as Taenia solium and Taenia asiatica. PMID:22203522

Ai, L; Xu, M J; Chen, M X; Zhang, Y N; Chen, S H; Guo, J; Cai, Y C; Zhou, X N; Zhu, X Q; Chen, J X

2012-06-01

105

A New Parasiticidal Compound in T. solium Cysticercosis  

PubMed Central

The effect of 16?-bromoepiandrosterone (EpiBr), a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) analogue, was tested on the cysticerci of Taenia solium, both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro treatment of T. solium cultures with EpiBr reduced scolex evagination, growth, motility, and viability in dose- and time-dependent fashions. Administration of EpiBr prior to infection with T. solium cysticerci in hamsters reduced the number and size of developed taenias in the intestine, compared with controls. These effects were associated to an increase in splenocyte proliferation in infected hamsters. These results leave open the possibility of assessing the potential of this hormonal analogue as a possible antiparasite drug, particularly in cysticercosis and taeniosis.

Hernandez-Bello, Romel; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Cervantes-Rebolledo, Claudia; Dowding, Charles; Frincke, James; Reading, Chris; Morales-Montor, Jorge

2013-01-01

106

Taenia infestation in the appendix: a case report.  

PubMed

Taenia saginata is a zoonotic cestode causing taeniasis. Taeniasis refers to the intestinal infection with the adult stage of this tapeworm. An association between teaniasis and acute appendicitis is uncommon. We present the case of a 37 year old male who presented with abdominal pain for one day. He was diagnosed with having appendicitis and an appendectomy was performed. Pathology of the appendix showed Taenia saginata with eggs in the lumen. Histological analysis showed acute inflammation consistent with acute appendicitis caused by T. saginata. PMID:24450232

Cicek, Aysegul Copur; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Eksi, Saliha

2013-11-01

107

Public health significance of zoonotic tapeworms in Korea.  

PubMed

Through an epidemiological review on the zoonotic tapeworms in Korea, the frequency and severity of the zoonoses have been recognized. Taeniasis and human cysticercosis are of importance to the public health in Korea. The frequency of taeniasis is 0.3% to 12.7% discovered by stool examination and 4.5% to 38.0% discovered by questionaire survey. Taeniasis occurs more frequently in males than in females and, especially, in both sexes in the age-group of 20 to 49. T. saginata is more common that T. solium. No case of human cysticercosis caused by T.saginata has been reported in Korea. To the contrary, human cysticercosis caused by T. solium has been reported frequently during the 1960's. The severity of human cysticercosis is a significant problem of public health in Korea. Old data on bovine cysticercosis in the 1920's and 1930's are not useful for present control measures. Systematic surveys on bovine and swine cysticercosis as well as taeniasis and human cysticercosis are needed in Korea. Cases of sparganosis have been reported frequently during the past 15 years. Most of the 34 cases of sparganosis reported involved the eating of raw snakes and frogs. Most of the cases occurred in older males. Sparganosis in snakes, frogs, chickens, and swine has been reported in Korea. Human infection of Hymenolepis nana ranged from 0.2% to 1.4% discovered by stool examination. A few cases of adult worm collections of Diphyllobothrium latum and Hymenolepis diminuta have been reported in Korea. Two cases of human hydatid disease have been reported in Korea. No study on the disease in domestic animals is available. No case of human infection with dog tapeworm has been reported, even though it is highly prevalent in the indigenous dogs in Korea. I recommend that further study on the zoonotic tapeworms be conducted epidemiologically in Korea to get basic data for the public health programming. PMID:977229

Moon, J R

1976-06-01

108

Encysted Tenia solium larva of oral cavity: Case report with review of literature  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis is caused by the larvae of the pig tapeworm, Tenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare event and is often a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. We report a 12-year-old girl who presented with a single, painless, nodule on the lower lip that was diagnosed as cysticercosis. Current literature on the clinical presentations, investigations, and treatment of the condition has been reviewed in this article. We have also proposed a set of criteria for the diagnosis of oral cysticercosis.

Krishnamoorthy, Bhuvana; Suma, Gundareddy N; Dhillon, Manu; Srivastava, Siddharth; Sharma, Manisha Lakhanpal; Malik, Sangeeta Singh

2012-01-01

109

The effect of oxfendazole on Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia hydatigena infections in dogs.  

PubMed

Trials with oxfendazole carried out on 120 dogs infected with either Echinococcus granulosus or Taenia hydatigena indicated that a single treatment significantly reduced the proportion of dogs infected with tapeworms. Diarrhoea occurred occasionally when the dose rate exceeded 20 mg/kg. PMID:515529

Gemmell, M A; Johnstone, P D; Oudemans, G

1979-05-01

110

Steroid synthesis by Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci is regulated by enzyme inhibitors.  

PubMed

Cysticerci and tapeworms from Taenia crassiceps WFU, ORF and Taenia solium synthesize sex-steroid hormones in vitro. Corticosteroids increase the 17?-estradiol synthesis by T. crassiceps cysticerci. T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci synthesize corticosteroids, mainly 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC). The aim of this work was to investigate whether classical steroidogenic inhibitors modify the capacity of T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci to synthesize corticosteroids and sex steroid hormones. For this purpose, T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci were obtained from the abdominal cavity of mice, pre-cultured for 24h in DMEM+antibiotics/antimycotics and cultured in the presence of tritiated progesterone ((3)H-P4), androstendione ((3)H-A4), or dehydroepiandrosterone ((3)H-DHEA) plus different doses of the corresponding inhibitors, for different periods. Blanks with the culture media adding the tritiated precursors were simultaneously incubated. At the end of the incubation period, parasites were separated and media extracted with ether. The resulting steroids were separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Data were expressed as percent transformation of the tritiated precursors. Results showed that after 2h of exposure of the cysticerci to 100 ?M formestane, the (3)H-17?-estradiol synthesis from tritiated androstenedione was significantly inhibited. The incubation of cysticerci in the presence of (3)H-DHEA and danazol (100 nM) resulted in (3)H-androstenediol accumulation and a significant reduction of the 17?-estradiol synthesis. The cysticerci (3)H-DOC synthesis was significantly inhibited when the parasites were cultured in the presence of different ketoconazole dosis. The drug treatments did not affect parasite's viability. The results of this study showed that corticosteroid and sex steroid synthesis in T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci can be modified by steroidogenic enzyme inhibitors. As was shown previously by our laboratory and others, parasite survival and development depends on sex steroids, therefore the inhibition of their synthesis is a good starting point exploited in situations where the inhibition of steroidogenesis could help to control the infection for the development of new treatments, or replacement of the usual therapy in resistant parasite infections. We raise the possibility that these drug actions may be beneficially. PMID:23608546

Aceves-Ramos, A; Valdez, R A; Gaona, B; Willms, K; Romano, M C

2013-07-01

111

Einseitige Iritis durch Larve von Taenia solium in der Vorderkammer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 8-year-old girl complained of progressive pain, visual loss and photophobia in her right eye for 1 week. Treatment with local steroids for acute iritis had not been successful. Slitlamp examination revealed a marked cellular and fibrinous inflammatory reaction of the anterior chamber and a whitish, fibrin-like structure on the surface of the iris. There was mild serum eosinophilia and

U. Schmidt; V. Klauss; F. H. Stefani

1990-01-01

112

Geographical distribution of Taenia asiatica and related species.  

PubMed

Geographical information of Taenia asiatica is reviewed together with that of T. solium and T. saginata. Current distribution of T. asiatica was found to be mostly from Asian countries: the Republic of Korea, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Thailand. Molecular genotypic techniques have found out more countries with T. asiatica from Japan, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Specimens used in this paper were collected from around the world and mostly during international collaboration projects of Korean foundations for parasite control activities (1995-2009) in developing countries. PMID:19885327

Eom, Keeseon S; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Rim, Han-Jong

2009-10-01

113

Effects of high pressure processing on hatching of eggs of the zoonotic rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta.  

PubMed

High hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) is an effective non-thermal treatment to remove pathogens from a variety of food and food products. It has been extensively examined using prokaryotic organisms but has had limited study on eukaryotic organisms. Treatment using HPP has been shown to be effective in inactivating nematode larvae in food and Ascaris suum eggs. Nothing is known on the efficacy of HPP on tapeworm cysts or eggs. Eggs of important zoonotic tapeworms including Echinococcus and Taenia spp. can potentially contaminate water and food intended for human consumption. The present study examined the efficacy of HPP on the viability of Hymenolepis diminuta eggs. Efficacy of HPP treatment was measured using an egg hatch assay in two experiments. One thousand unhatched H. diminuta eggs in Hanks balanced salt solution were packaged in sealable bags and exposed to 100-600megapascals (MPa; 1MPa=10atm=147psi) for 60s in a commercial HPP unit. Positive (no HPP) and negative (No HPP but frozen/thawed) controls were examined in each experiment. None of the HPP untreated and frozen eggs (negative controls) were able to hatch or exclude trypan blue when placed in the hatching solution in experiment 1 or 2. HPP untreated and nonfrozen eggs (positive controls) hatched and excluded trypan blue; 75% were positive in experiment 1 and 80% were positive in experiment 2. No hatched eggs were observed when they were exposed to 300-600MPa for 60s. Treatment at 400MPa and above caused rupturing of the oncosphere. Results from this study indicate that HPP is a possible method to inactivate tapeworm eggs and that the susceptibility of tapeworm eggs to HPP is similar to or greater than that of nematode eggs or tissue larvae. PMID:21131130

Merwad, A M A; Mitchell, S M; Zajac, A M; Flick, G J; Lindsay, D S

2011-03-10

114

[Lipids in Taenia saginata].  

PubMed

Lipids of Taenia saginata were analyzed by means of thin layer chromatography and gas liquid chromatography. Total lipids comprised about 3.3% of the fresh weight and consisted mainly of triglycerides (65.62%), sterols (19.58%), phospholipids (10.16%). The fatty acids of the triglycerides were mainly unsaturated and differed from those of phospholipids. The parasite has practically no "de novo" fatty acid biosynthesis, although this cestode did synthetize complex lipids from single lipids provided by the diet. PMID:973747

Cicchini, T; Belli, M; Messeri, E; Passi, S

1976-01-01

115

Molecular identification of Taenia serialis coenurosis in a wild Ethiopian gelada (Theropithecus gelada).  

PubMed

Since morphological identification of a larval Taeniid in geladas (Theropithecus gelada) has produced inconsistent results, genetic information is pivotal for species identification. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from a coenurus in a wild gelada were compared to published sequences from multiple Taeniid species, confirming the identification of this parasite as Taenia serialis. A demographic analysis finds age to be a strong predictor of coenuri. Tapeworms rarely employ primates as intermediate hosts, and the presence of T. serialis in a wild gelada population may indicate a substantial ecological shift in this parasite's life cycle. PMID:24050944

Schneider-Crease, India A; Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Jarvey, Julie C; Bergman, Thore J

2013-11-15

116

Echinococcus and Taenia spp. from captive mammals in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

Taeniid tapeworms which include Echinococcus and Taenia spp. are obligatory parasites of mammals with pathogenicity usually related to the larval stages of the life cycle. Two species (or genotypes) of Echinococcus, E. granulosus sensu stricto and E. equinus, as well as several Taenia spp. are endemic in the UK. Here we report on the occurrence of larval cystic stages of Echinococcus and Taenia spp. in captive mammals in the UK. Using molecular techniques we have identified E. granulosus (G1 genotype) in a guenon monkey and a Philippine spotted deer; E. equinus in a zebra and a lemur; E. ortleppi in a Philippine spotted deer; E. multilocularis in a macaque monkey and Taenia polyacantha in jumping rats. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of E. multilocularis in a captive primate translocated to the UK. As far as we know these are the first reports of E. equinus in a primate (lemur) and in a zebra; as well as E. granulosus (G1 genotype) and E. ortleppi in a cervid translocated to the UK. These infections and implications of the potential establishment of exotic species of cestodes are discussed. PMID:22763348

Boufana, B; Stidworthy, M F; Bell, S; Chantrey, J; Masters, N; Unwin, S; Wood, R; Lawrence, R P; Potter, A; McGarry, J; Redrobe, S; Killick, R; Foster, A P; Mitchell, S; Greenwood, A G; Sako, Y; Nakao, M; Ito, A; Wyatt, K; Lord, B; Craig, P S

2012-11-23

117

Identification of Taenia sp. in a natural human mummy (third century BC) from the Chehrabad salt mine in Iran.  

PubMed

Tapeworm eggs from the genus Taenia sp. were identified during the study of mummy remains dated to 2,286 ± 28 BP from the Chehrabad salt mine in northwestern Iran. The presence of tapeworm in this salt mine provides paleopathological information. Moreover, it brings new information on ancient diet, indicating the consumption of raw or undercooked meat. Cultural aspects as well as archaeozoological data are discussed in order to try to detail meat consumption. Paleoparasitological data are rare in the Middle East, and this case study presents the first recovery of parasites in ancient Iran. It constitutes the earliest evidence of ancient intestinal parasites in this country and contributes to the knowledge of gastrointestinal pathogens in the Near East. PMID:23240712

Nezamabadi, M; Mashkour, M; Aali, A; Stöllner, Th; Le Bailly, M

2013-06-01

118

Human and porcine Taenia solium infections in Mozambique: identifying research priorities.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to critically review and summarize available scientific and lay literature, and ongoing studies on human and porcine cysticercosis in Mozambique to identify knowledge gaps and direct immediate and long-term research efforts. Data on the spatial distribution and prevalence of the disease in human and swine populations are scarce and fragmented. Human serological studies have shown that 15-21% of apparently healthy adults were positive for cysticercosis antibodies or antigen, while in neuropsychiatric patients seroprevalence was as high as 51%. Slaughterhouse records indicate a countrywide occurrence of porcine cysticercosis, while studies have shown that 10-35% of pigs tested were seropositive for cysticercosis antibodies or antigen. Current research in Mozambique includes studies on the epidemiology, molecular biology, diagnosis and control of the disease. Future research efforts should be directed at better understanding the epidemiology of the disease in Mozambique, particularly risk factors for its occurrence and spread in human and swine populations, documenting the socio-economic impact of the disease, identifying critical control points and evaluating the feasibility and epidemiological impact of control measures and development of local level diagnostic tools for use in humans and swine. PMID:21676344

Afonso, S M S; Vaz, Y; Neves, L; Pondja, A; Dias, G; Willingham, A L; Vilhena, M; Duarte, P C; Jost, C C; Noormahomed, E V

2011-06-01

119

Cysticercosis in labial tissue. Case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cysticercosis is a condition in which a human acts as the intermediate host of Taenia solium, a pork tapeworm. The larvae infestation sites frequently include cerebral tissue, ocular organs, and muscles. The present case report describes a rare incidence of cysticercosis in the oral region.

Prapas Pinswasdi; Darunee Jintakanon Charoensiri

1997-01-01

120

Interrelationships and Evolution of the Tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interrelationships of the tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) were examined by use of small (SSU) and large (LSU) subunit ribosomal DNA sequences and morphological characters. Fifty new complete SSU sequences were added to 21 sequences previously determined, and 71 new LSU (D1–D3) sequences were determined for the complementary set of taxa representing each of the major lineages of cestodes as currently understood.

Peter D. Olson; D. Timothy J. Littlewood; Rodney A. Bray; Jean Mariaux

2001-01-01

121

Tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Cestoda)--Neglected or Emerging Human Parasite?  

PubMed Central

Background A total number of 14 valid species of Diphyllobothrium tapeworms have been described in literature to be capable of causing diphyllobothriosis, with D. latum being the major causative agent of all human infections. However, recent data indicate that some of these infections, especially when diagnosed solely on the basis of morphology, have been identified with this causative agent incorrectly, confusing other Diphyllobothrium species with D. latum. Another widely distributed species, D. dendriticum, has never been considered as a frequent parasite of man, even though it is found commonly throughout arctic and subarctic regions parasitizing piscivorous birds and mammals. Recent cases of Europeans infected with this cestode called into question the actual geographic distribution of this tapeworm, largely ignored by medical parasitologists. Methodology and Results On the basis of revision of more than 900 available references and a description and revision of recent European human cases using morphological and molecular (cox1) data supplemented by newly characterized D. dendriticum sequences, we updated the current knowledge of the life-cycle, geographic distribution, epidemiological status, and molecular diagnostics of this emerging causal agent of zoonotic disease of man. Conclusions The tapeworm D. dendriticum represents an example of a previously neglected, probably underdiagnosed parasite of man with a potential to spread globally. Recent cases of diphyllobothriosis caused by D. dendriticum in Europe (Netherlands, Switzerland and Czech Republic), where the parasite has not been reported previously, point out that causative agents of diphyllobothriosis and other zoonoses can be imported throughout the world. Molecular tools should be used for specific and reliable parasite diagnostics, and also rare or non-native species should be considered. This will considerably help improve our knowledge of the distribution and epidemiology of these human parasites.

Kuchta, Roman; Brabec, Jan; Kubackova, Petra; Scholz, Tomas

2013-01-01

122

The emergence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Eastern and Southern Africa as a serious agricultural problem and public health risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pig production has increased significantly in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region during the past decade, especially in rural, resource-poor, smallholder communities. Concurrent with the increase in smallholder pig keeping and pork consumption, there have been increasing reports of porcine cysticercosis in the ESA region. This article reviews the findings concerning the presence and impact of porcine cysticercosis in

Isaac K. Phiri; Helena Ngowi; Sonia Afonso; Elizabeth Matenga; Mathias Boa; Samson Mukaratirwa; Samuel Githigia; Margaret Saimo; Chummy Sikasunge; Ndichu Maingi; George W. Lubega; Ayub Kassuku; Lynne Michael; Seter Siziya; Rosina C. Krecek; Emilia Noormahomed; Manuela Vilhena; Pierre Dorny; A. Lee Willingham III

2003-01-01

123

Alterações hepáticas em roedores com cisticercos de Taenia taeniformis  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO A Taenia taeniformis é um parasito gastrointestinal, pertencente à classe Cestoda, ordem Cyclophilidea e família Taenidae. Este parasito, infecta roedores e felinos principalmente, embora em circunstância s anormais possa parasitar seres humanos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar alterações nas enzimas hepáticas decorrentes de um surto por cisticercos de Taenia taeniformis no fígado de roedores. Ratos (Rattus norvergicus) e

Aleksandro S. SILVA; Patrícia WOLKMER; Carolina K. TRAESEL

124

Two Taenia species found in Japan, with new distribution record of Taenia polyacantha Leuckart, 1856 (Cestoda: Taeniidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an epidemiological survey for Echinococcus multilocularis in rodents and insectivores from the northernmost part of the central mainland of Japan (Honshu), two taeniid species, Taenia crassiceps and Taenia polyacantha, were found in Microtus montebelli and Apodemus argenteus, respectively. The latter is the first record of distribution in Japan, and the former is the second after its first recovery from

Yasushi Ihama; Hiroshi Sato; Youko Makino; Haruo Kamiya

2000-01-01

125

Taenia saginata Metacestode Antigenic Fractions without Affinity to Concanavalin A Are an Important Source of Specific Antigens for the Diagnosis of Human Neurocysticercosis?  

PubMed Central

Taenia saginata metacestode antigens have been constituted a useful alternative antigen for neurocysticercosis (NC) serodiagnosis, particularly due to an increasing difficulty to obtain Taenia solium homologous antigen. Cross-reactivity with Echinococcus granulosus infection occurs in homologous and heterologous antigens and could be avoided by using different purified methods. The present study evaluated antigen fractions obtained from saline extracts of T. saginata metacestodes purified by affinity chromatography with jacalin or concanavalin A (ConA) lectins to detect IgG antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot analysis to diagnose human NC. Serum samples were collected from 142 individuals: 40 of them were diagnosed with NC, 62 presented Taenia sp. and other parasites, and 40 were apparently healthy individuals. The jacalin- and ConA-unbound fractions demonstrated sensitivity and specificity higher than those of bound fractions. Among unbound fractions, ConA demonstrated statistically higher sensitivity and specificity by ELISA (90% and 93.1%, respectively). By immunoblot assay, the 64- to 68-kDa component from the ConA-unbound fraction showed 100% sensitivity and specificity, making this component suitable for use as a specific antigen for diagnosis of NC. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the relevance of using the unbound ConA fraction of T. saginata metacestodes to diagnose NC. In conclusion, the results obtained herein clearly demonstrate that antigenic fractions without affinity to ConA, obtained from T. saginata metacestodes, are an important source of specific peptides and are efficient in the diagnosis of NC when tested by immunoblot assay.

Oliveira, Heliana B.; Machado, Gleyce A.; Mineo, Jose R.; Costa-Cruz, Julia M.

2010-01-01

126

Antimicrobial peptides (Temporin A and Iseganan IB-367): effect on the cysticerci of Taenia crassiceps.  

PubMed

Taenia solium infections continue being a health problem in undeveloped countries, and few effective control measures against this parasite are being applied. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) belong to the innate immune response and capable of destroying pathogens. We tested the ability of two AMPs, Temporin A (TA) and Iseganan IB-367 (IB-367) to damage T. crassiceps cysticerci in vitro. Doses of 200 and 400 microg/ml of TA and IB-367 caused cysticerci to shrink, lose motility, the formation of macrovesicles in the tegument, as well as decreased evagination properties. These changes were observed as early as 3-6h and became more pronounced over 24h, when the morphological changes of the bladders became evident by both light and electron microscopy. Electron micrographs of cysticerci exposed to peptides showed initial changes as collapsed microvesicles in the tegument, with formation of large vesicles and extrusion of tegumentary tissues into the surrounding media, which led to complete loss of the tegument as well as shrinkage and complete loss of structure of parenchymal tissue after 24h. Peptides administered to cysticercotic mice one month post-infection in a single intraperitoneal dose of 200 or 400 microg, reduced the parasite load by 25% for IB-367, and 50% for TA. The humoral response of infected mice does not appear capable of killing surviving cysticerci. Our studies show that in vitro, AMPs severely damage the tegument and the scolex, and open a new pathway for biological drug design or the development of transgenic animals that over express these peptides capable of killing the cysticerci in vivo. PMID:19146887

Landa, Abraham; Jiménez, Lucía; Willms, Kaethe; Jiménez-García, Luis Felipe; Lara-Martínez, Reyna; Robert, Lilia; Cirioni, Oscar; Bara?ska-Rybak, Wioletta; Kamysz, Wojciech

2009-04-01

127

Hymenolepis diminuta:Mucosal Mastocytosis and Intestinal Smooth Muscle Hypertrophy Occur in Tapeworm-Infected Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dwinell, M. B., Wise, R. M., Bass, P., and Oaks, J. A. 1998.Hymenolepis diminuta:Mucosal mastocytosis and intestinal smooth muscle hypertrophy occur in tapeworm-infected rats.Experimental Parasitology89,92–102. The mechanisms mediating motility changes during noninvasive tapeworm infection have not been characterized. In contrast, host intestinal motility changes during invasive nematode infection are mediated by mucosal mast cells (MMC). The purpose of this study

Michael B. Dwinell; Ruth M. Wise; Paul Bass; John A. Oaks

1998-01-01

128

A solitary facial nodular swelling - A case report of intramuscular cysticercosis in buccinator muscle  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium, the larvae of pork tapeworm can cause the parasitic infection known as cysticercosis. It is commonly seen in developing countries. The condition rarely involves orofacial region and represents a difficulty in clinical diagnosis. We present a case report of a healthy middle aged female patient who had a painless swelling on right side of face. The ultrasound examination revealed an intramuscular cysticercosal cyst.

Dysanoor, Sujatha; Pol, Jyoti

2013-01-01

129

Disseminated cysticercosis in a child: whole-body MR diagnosis with the use of parallel imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by infestation with the encysted larval stage of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Disseminated cysticercosis is an exceptional expression of this disease characterized by high morbidity due to massive symptomatic\\u000a parasite burden in the central nervous system, striated muscles, subcutaneous tissues and other organs. Less than 50 such\\u000a cases have been reported worldwide, and

Atin Kumar; Ajit Harishkumar Goenka; Anita Choudhary; Jitendra Kumar Sahu; Sheffali Gulati

2010-01-01

130

A rare manifestation of cysticercosis infestation.  

PubMed

There are many causes of urticaria, which may vary from infections to malignancy. Among the infections, infestations by cysticercosis (larval stage of the tapeworm called Taenia solium) is an important cause. The present report is of forty four years old female who presented with urticaria and swelling on face. The swelling was later diagnosed as cysticercosis by noninvasive ultrasonography. The urticaria subsided after the treatment of cysticercosis. We report this case for rarity of its presentation. PMID:24760810

Gupta, Sanjeev; Gupta, Sunita; Mittal, Amit; Mahendra, Aneet; Aggarwal, Anshu; Batra, Rohit; Jindal, Nidhi

2014-01-01

131

Characterization of a cysteine proteinase from Taenia crassiceps cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human neurocysticercosis, due to infestation of the central nervous system with Taenia cysts, is a common cause of neurologic disease in endemic areas and is being increasingly recognized in the United States. Previous studies have suggested that Taenia cysts bind host IgG via Fc-like receptors and that bound IgG is degraded by the parasite, perhaps as a source of nutrients

A. Clinton White; Salman Baig; Cynthia L. Chappell

1997-01-01

132

A case of taeniasis diagnosed postpartum.  

PubMed

A case of postpartum taeniasis will be discussed along with the pathophysiology, proper treatment, potential risks, and prevention of taeniasis infections to the pregnant mother, her infant, and her family members. Taenia spp. infections are relatively rare in developed societies. Increasing immigration to developed countries and an expanding role of medical aid in developing countries will lead to an increase in the number of taeniasis cases seen by medical providers. Taenia solium and T. saginata are the most common species and can be differentiated by proglottids (a segment of a tapeworm containing both male and female reproductive organs) or scolex (the head of a tapeworm which attaches to the intestine of the definitive host). Both carry different risks when considering autoinfection and transmission. Cystercercosis caused by T. solium is a risk for neonates and is cause for immediate treatment of the mother. A 23-year-old new mother, originally from Ethiopia, passed T. strobili shortly after giving birth. Her pregnancy was complicated by limited prenatal care. She did not experience any symptoms related to tapeworm infection. The patient received treatment with praziquantel. With a possible future increase in the number of cases seen by health care providers, understanding the risks of Taenia sp. infection is important as proper treatment and education are needed to halt the life cycle of the tapeworm before more serious infection ensues. PMID:23707843

Noss, Matthew R; Gilmore, Katherine; Wittich, Arthur C

2013-04-01

133

Tapeworm Eggs in a 270 Million-Year-Old Shark Coprolite  

PubMed Central

Remains of parasites in vertebrates are rare from the Mesozoic and Paleozoic. Once most parasites that live in – or pass through – the gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates, fossil feces (coprolites) or even intestinal contents (enterolites) can eventually preserve their remains. Here we announce the discovery of a spiral shark coprolite from the Paleozoic bearing a cluster of 93 small oval-elliptical smooth-shelled structures, interpreted as eggs of a tapeworm.The eggs were found in a thin section of an elasmobranch coprolite. Most of the eggs are filled by pyrite and some have a special polar swelling (operculum), suggesting they are non-erupted eggs. One of the eggs contains a probable developing larva. The eggs are approximately 145–155 µm in length and 88–100 µm in width and vary little in size within the cluster. The depositional and morphological features of the eggs closely resemble those of cestodes. Not only do the individual eggs have features of extant tapeworms, but their deposition all together in an elongate segment is typical to modern tapeworm eggs deposited in mature segments (proglottids). This is the earliest fossil record of tapeworm parasitism of vertebrates and establishes a timeline for the evolution of cestodes. This discovery shows that the fossil record of vertebrate intestinal parasites is much older than was hitherto known and that the interaction between tapeworms and vertebrates occurred at least since the Middle-Late Permian.

Dentzien-Dias, Paula C.; Poinar, George; de Figueiredo, Ana Emilia Q.; Pacheco, Ana Carolina L.; Horn, Bruno L. D.; Schultz, Cesar L.

2013-01-01

134

Tapeworm eggs in a 270 million-year-old shark coprolite.  

PubMed

Remains of parasites in vertebrates are rare from the Mesozoic and Paleozoic. Once most parasites that live in - or pass through - the gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates, fossil feces (coprolites) or even intestinal contents (enterolites) can eventually preserve their remains. Here we announce the discovery of a spiral shark coprolite from the Paleozoic bearing a cluster of 93 small oval-elliptical smooth-shelled structures, interpreted as eggs of a tapeworm.The eggs were found in a thin section of an elasmobranch coprolite. Most of the eggs are filled by pyrite and some have a special polar swelling (operculum), suggesting they are non-erupted eggs. One of the eggs contains a probable developing larva. The eggs are approximately 145-155 µm in length and 88-100 µm in width and vary little in size within the cluster. The depositional and morphological features of the eggs closely resemble those of cestodes. Not only do the individual eggs have features of extant tapeworms, but their deposition all together in an elongate segment is typical to modern tapeworm eggs deposited in mature segments (proglottids). This is the earliest fossil record of tapeworm parasitism of vertebrates and establishes a timeline for the evolution of cestodes. This discovery shows that the fossil record of vertebrate intestinal parasites is much older than was hitherto known and that the interaction between tapeworms and vertebrates occurred at least since the Middle-Late Permian. PMID:23383033

Dentzien-Dias, Paula C; Poinar, George; de Figueiredo, Ana Emilia Q; Pacheco, Ana Carolina L; Horn, Bruno L D; Schultz, Cesar L

2013-01-01

135

Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in the desert southwestern United States.  

PubMed

The Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea) is an introduced fish parasite in the southwestern United States and is often considered a serious threat to native desert fishes. Determining the geographic distribution of nonnative fish parasites is important for recovery efforts of native fishes. We examined 1,140 individuals belonging to nine fish species from southwestern U.S. streams and springs between January 2005 and April 2007. The Asian fish tapeworm was present in the Gila River, Salt River, Verde River, San Pedro River, Aravaipa Creek, and Fossil Creek, Arizona, and in Lake Tuendae at Zzyzx Springs and Afton Canyon of the Mojave River, California. Overall prevalence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Arizona fish populations was 19% (range = 0-100%) and varied by location, time, and fish species. In California, the prevalence, abundance, and intensity of the Asian fish tapeworm in Mohave tui chub Gila bicolor mohavensis were higher during warmer months than during cooler months. Three new definitive host species--Yaqui chub G. purpurea, headwater chub G. nigra, and longfin dace agosia chrysogaster--were identified. Widespread occurrence of the Asian fish tapeworm in southwestern U.S. waters suggests that the lack of detection in other systems where nonnative fishes occur is due to a lack of effort as opposed to true absence of the parasite. To limit further spread of diseases to small, isolated systems, we recommend treatment for both endo- and exoparasites when management actions include translocation of fishes. PMID:21413512

Archdeacon, Thomas P; Iles, Alison; Kline, S Jason; Bonar, Scott A

2010-12-01

136

Immunoregulation by Taenia crassiceps and its antigens.  

PubMed

Taenia crassiceps is a cestode parasite of rodents (in its larval stage) and canids (in its adult stage) that can also parasitize immunocompromised humans. We have studied the immune response elicited by this helminth and its antigens in mice and human cells, and have discovered that they have a strong capacity to induce chronic Th2-type responses that are primarily characterized by high levels of Th2 cytokines, low proliferative responses in lymphocytes, an immature and LPS-tolerogenic profile in dendritic cells, the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and, specially, alternatively activated macrophages. We also have utilized the immunoregulatory capabilities of this helminth to successfully modulate autoimmune responses and the outcome of other infectious diseases. In the present paper, we review the work of others and ourselves with regard to the immune response induced by T. crassiceps and its antigens, and we compare the advances in our understanding of this parasitic infection model with the knowledge that has been obtained from other selected models. PMID:23484125

Peón, Alberto N; Espinoza-Jiménez, Arlett; Terrazas, Luis I

2013-01-01

137

Age of association between the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum , and tapeworms of the genus Pedibothrium (Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae): implications from geography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first records of the tapeworm genus Pedibothrium from nurse sharks (Ginglymostoma cirratum) in the eastern Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans provide new insights on the age of the association between these tapeworms and this host. Four individuals of G. cirratum examined from the southern tip of the Baja Peninsula, Mexico, were found to host P. manteri and P. brevispine.

J. N. CAIRA; L. EUZET

2001-01-01

138

Guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate: a tapeworm-secreted signal molecule communicating with the rat host's small intestine.  

PubMed

Tapeworms alter the physiological environment of the host's small intestinal lumen by contracting the intestinal smooth muscle, thereby slowing the transit of intestinal contents. We hypothesize that parasite-to-host molecular signaling is responsible for the specific patterns of small intestinal smooth muscle contraction observed both during tapeworm infection and after the infusion of tapeworm-secreted molecules into the intestinal lumen of unanesthetized rats. Of the tapeworm-secreted compounds tested, only lumenal infusion of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) induced contractile patterns that mimic those observed during tapeworm infection. The response to cGMP occurred in a concentration-dependent fashion. Our study clearly demonstrates that cGMP can serve as an extracellular signal molecule regulating small intestinal motility mechanisms in vivo. PMID:14740900

Kroening, K Dubear; Zimmerman, Noah P; Bass, Paul; Oaks, John A

2003-12-01

139

Evolution of the trypanorhynch tapeworms: Parasite phylogeny supports independent lineages of sharks and rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trypanorhynch tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) are among the most diverse and abundant groups of metazoan parasites of elasmobranchs and are a ubiquitous part of the marine food webs that include these apex predators. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of their phylogeny, character evolution and host associations based on 10years of sampling effort, including representatives of 12 of 15 and 44

Peter D. Olson; Janine N. Caira; Kirsten Jensen; Robin M. Overstreet; Harry W. Palm; Ian Beveridge

2010-01-01

140

Asian Fish Tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in the Desert Southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea) is an introduced fish parasite in the southwestern United States and is often considered a serious threat to native desert fishes. Determining the geographic distribution of nonnative fish parasites is important for recovery efforts of native fishes. We examined 1,140 individuals belonging to nine fish species from southwestern U.S. streams and springs

Thomas P. Archdeacon; Alison Iles; Jason S. Kline; Scott A. Bonar

2010-01-01

141

Novel praziquantel treatment regime for controlling asian tapeworm infections in pond-reared fish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus achelognathii is an intestinal fish parasite that is nonnative to but widespread throughout the southwestern United States. Praziquantel is an anthelminthic drug commonly used to treat fish for Asian tapeworm; however, it does not kill tapeworm eggs, so the water in ponds used for fish rearing must be exchanged after treatment. Our objective was to determine whether a system containing both an intermediate copepod host and a definitive fish host for Asian tapeworm could be treated without exchanging the water by using a follow-up treatment for any tapeworms that developed from eggs released before or during the first treatment. Here, we have described a new praziquantel treatment regimen to control Asian tapeworm infections in freshwater-reared fish. To evaluate the efficacy of this regimen, we stocked 50 red shiners Cyprinella lutrensis and an intermediate copepod host, Cyclops vernalis, into each of six pond mesocosms containing artificial macrophytes, sand, and gravel to simulate natural pools and provide suitable substrate for the copepod's life history. The test fish population had been naturally infected with B. achelognathii and had an initial infection prevalence of 14% and an infection intensity of 2.14 ± 2.19 (mean ± SD) worms per fish. Three mesocosms were treated twice, each with 2.5 mg/L praziquantel; 19 d passed between treatments to allow for possible reinfection to occur. After a 2.5-month posttreatment period to allow any remaining tapeworms to reestablish themselves, we killed and dissected all of the remaining fish. No worms were found in treated fish; however, the control group had an infection prevalence of 18 ± 6% and an infection intensity of 3.45 ± 2.1 worms per fish. Based on these results, we concluded that the praziquantel treatment regime administered was efficacious and suggest testing it on a larger scale. We caution that praziquantel has not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use on fish but can be used legally in some situations.

Iles, Alison C.; Archdeacon, Thomas P.; Bonar, Scott A.

2012-01-01

142

A STUDY OF THE INNERVATION OF THE TAENIA COLI  

PubMed Central

An electrophysiological and anatomical study of the guinea pig taenia coli is reported. Changing the membrane potential of single cells cannot modulate the rate of firing action potentials but does reveal electrical coupling between the cells during propagation. The amplitude of the junction potentials which occur during transmission from inhibitory nerves is unaffected in many cells during alteration of the membrane potential, indicating electrical coupling during transmission. The taenia coli is shown to consist of smooth muscle bundles which anastomose. There are tight junctions between the cells in the bundles, and these probably provide the pathway for the electrical coupling. The smooth muscle cells towards the serosal surface of the taenia coli are shown electrophysiologically to have an extensive intramural inhibitory innervation, but a sparse sympathetic inhibitory and cholinergic excitatory innervation. These results are in accordance with the distribution of these nerves as determined histochemically. As single axons are only rarely observed in the taenia coli, it is suggested that the only muscle cells which undergo permeability changes during transmission are those adjacent to varicosities in the nerve bundles. The remaining muscle cells then undergo potential changes during transmission because of electrical coupling through the tight junctions.

Bennett, M. R.; Rogers, D. C.

1967-01-01

143

Seroepidemiological survey of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sero-epidemiological study of Taenia saginata cysticercosis was carried out to determine the prevalence and distribution of the infection in three provinces of Kenya. Serum samples and meat inspection records were collected from cattle at slaughter at export and district abattoirs. Cattle origin and the presence of T. saginata cysticerci were noted as was the prevalence of other helminths such

Jael A. Onyango-Abuje; Joseph M. Nginyi; Moses K. Rugutt; Steven H. Wright; Patrick Lumumba; Gwenda Hughes; Leslie J. S. Harrison

1996-01-01

144

Dietary protein and the growth of rats infected with the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta.  

PubMed

1. Weanling rats fed on a relatively low protein diet were infected with several intestinal tapeworms. The weight gain and daily food intake of the rats were measured for 3 weeks before the animals were killed and the adult tapeworms recovered. The tissues of the rats and worms were then analysed for protein. Controls were provided by uninfected rats either pair fed or fed ad lib. For comparison, a similar experiment was conducted on rats fed on a relatively high protein diet. 2. The effect of the infection on the protein-malnourished rats and of the low level of protein on the worms were apparently not significant. The amount of protein contained in the worm burdens was less than 1.5% of the average total intake of the protein-malnourished rats. PMID:6821690

Hall, A

1983-01-01

145

Solid lipid nanoparticle suspension enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of praziquantel against tapeworm.  

PubMed

Hydatid disease caused by tapeworm is an increasing public health and socioeconomic concern. In order to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of praziquantel (PZQ) against tapeworm, PZQ-loaded hydrogenated castor oil solid lipid nanoparticle (PZQ-HCO-SLN) suspension was prepared by a hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. The stability of the suspension at 4°C and room temperature was evaluated by the physicochemical characteristics of the nanoparticles and in-vitro release pattern of the suspension. Pharmacokinetics was studied after subcutaneous administration of the suspension in dogs. The therapeutic effect of the novel formulation was evaluated in dogs naturally infected with Echinococcus granulosus. The results showed that the drug recovery of the suspension was 97.59% ± 7.56%. Nanoparticle diameter, polydispersivity index, and zeta potential were 263.00 ± 11.15 nm, 0.34 ± 0.06, and -11.57 ± 1.12 mV, respectively and showed no significant changes after 4 months of storage at both 4°C and room temperature. The stored suspensions displayed similar in-vitro release patterns as that of the newly prepared one. SLNs increased the bioavailability of PZQ 5.67-fold and extended the mean residence time of the drug from 56.71 to 280.38 hours. Single subcutaneous administration of PZQ-HCO-SLN suspension obtained enhanced therapeutic efficacy against tapeworm in infected dogs. At the dose of 5 mg/kg, the stool-ova reduction and negative conversion rates and tapeworm removal rate of the suspension were 100%, while the native PZQ were 91.55%, 87.5%, and 66.7%. When the dose reduced to 0.5 mg/kg, the native drug showed no effect, but the suspension still got the same therapeutic efficacy as that of the 5 mg/kg native PZQ. These results demonstrate that the PZQ-HCO-SLN suspension is a promising formulation to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of PZQ. PMID:22072873

Xie, Shuyu; Pan, Baoliang; Shi, Baoxin; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Ming; Zhou, Wenzhong

2011-01-01

146

Intestinal obstruction caused by Taenia taeniaeformis infection in a cat.  

PubMed

An adult domestic shorthair (DSH) cat was presented with acute vomiting, anorexia, lethargy, and dyspnea. The cat's clinical status worsened over 24 hours with conservative medical management. An exploratory celiotomy was performed. Acute intestinal obstruction resulting from infection with Taenia (T.) taeniaeformis was diagnosed. Surgical removal of the cestodes via multiple enterotomies resolved the obstruction. This paper reports, for the first time, small intestinal obstruction caused by T. taeniaeformis infection in a cat. PMID:19258422

Wilcox, Rebbecca S; Bowman, Dwight D; Barr, Stephen C; Euclid, James M

2009-01-01

147

Position of Larval Tapeworms, Polypocephalus sp., in the Ganglia of Shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus  

PubMed Central

Parasites that invade the nervous system of their hosts have perhaps the best potential to manipulate their host’s behavior, but how they manipulate the host, if they do at all, could depend on their position within the host’s nervous system. We hypothesize that parasites that live in the nervous system of their host will be randomly distributed if they exert their influence through non-specific effects (i.e., general pathology), but that their position in the nervous system will be non-random if they exert their influence by targeting specific neural circuits. We recorded the position of larval tapeworms, Polypocephalus sp., in the abdominal ganglia of white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus. Tapeworms are more common within ganglia than in the section of the nerve cord between ganglia, even though the nerve cord has a greater volume than the ganglia. The tapeworms are also more abundant in the periphery of the ganglia. Because most synaptic connections are within the central region of the ganglion, such positioning may represent a trade-off between controlling the nervous system and damaging it.

Carreon, Nadia; Faulkes, Zen

2014-01-01

148

Two Taenia species found in Japan, with new distribution record of Taenia polyacantha Leuckart, 1856 (Cestoda: Taeniidae).  

PubMed

In an epidemiological survey for Echinococcus multilocularis in rodents and insectivores from the northernmost part of the central mainland of Japan (Honshu), two taeniid species, Taenia crassiceps and Taenia polyacantha, were found in Microtus montebelli and Apodemus argenteus, respectively. The latter is the first record of distribution in Japan, and the former is the second after its first recovery from the central part of Japan. Although we have found neither larval nor strobilar stage of E. multilocularis there, discovery of these taeniid species, having overlapping global distribution with E. multilocularis in red foxes Vulpes vulpes as well as multiple occurrences of hydatid patients having no history of visits to the endemic areas shows the possibility that the life-cycle of E. multilocularis might be maintained at least in the northernmost part of Honshu. PMID:10725694

Ihama, Y; Sato, H; Makino, Y; Kamiya, H

2000-02-01

149

Inexpensive anti-cysticercosis vaccine: S3Pvac expressed in heat inactivated M13 filamentous phage proves effective against naturally acquired Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis.  

PubMed

In search of reducing vaccine production costs', a recombinant M13 phage version of the anti-cysticercosis tripeptide vaccine (S3Pvac) was developed. The efficacy of S3Pvac-Phage vs. placebo was evaluated in a randomized trial that included 1,047 rural pigs in 16 villages of Central Mexico. Three to five months after vaccination 530 pigs were examined by tongue inspection. At 5-27 months of age, 331 pigs (197 vaccinated/134 controls) were inspected at necropsy. Vaccination reduced 70% the frequency of tongue cysticercosis and, based on necropsy, 54% of muscle-cysticercosis and by 87% the number of cysticerci. PMID:18440675

Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Manoutcharian, Karen; Hernández, Marisela; Fleury, Agnes; Gevorkian, Goar; Acero, Gonzalo; Blancas, Abel; Toledo, Andrea; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Maza, Victor; Quet, Fabrice; Bonnabau, Henri; de Aluja, Aline S; Fragoso, Gladis; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

2008-06-01

150

Cestode genomics - progress and prospects for advancing basic and applied aspects of flatworm biology.  

PubMed

Characterization of the first tapeworm genome, Echinococcus multilocularis, is now nearly complete, and genome assemblies of E. granulosus, Taenia solium and Hymenolepis microstoma are in advanced draft versions. These initiatives herald the beginning of a genomic era in cestodology and underpin a diverse set of research agendas targeting both basic and applied aspects of tapeworm biology. We discuss the progress in the genomics of these species, provide insights into the presence and composition of immunologically relevant gene families, including the antigen B- and EG95/45W families, and discuss chemogenomic approaches toward the development of novel chemotherapeutics against cestode diseases. In addition, we discuss the evolution of tapeworm parasites and introduce the research programmes linked to genome initiatives that are aimed at understanding signalling systems involved in basic host-parasite interactions and morphogenesis. PMID:21793855

Olson, P D; Zarowiecki, M; Kiss, F; Brehm, K

2012-01-01

151

Spatial and Temporal Distribution of the Asian Fish Tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea) in the Rio Grande (Río Bravo del Norte)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent collections of the Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in the Rio Grande have raised concern about the potential impacts on Rio Grande endemic and imperiled fishes. The objectives of this study were to determine distribution and definitive hosts of the Asian fish tapeworm within the Rio Grande drainage and to quantify occurrences and abundances. In total, 1,992 fish spanning

Megan G. Bean; Timothy H. Bonner

2010-01-01

152

Field trial of the efficacy of a combination of ivermectin and praziquantel in horses infected with roundworms and tapeworms.  

PubMed

Two hundred and thirty-three horses were screened for the presence of roundworms by faecal egg counts (FECs) and for tapeworms by an ELISA specific for antibodies to the immunodominant 12 kDa and 13 kDa tapeworms antigen. The 62 horses were found to be infected with both parasites were treated with a combination of 0.2 mg/kg ivermectin and 1.5 mg/kg praziquantel. The treatment suppressed the median FEC of the horses to zero for 10 weeks and significantly reduced their anti-12/13 kDa antibody levels. The estimated risk of tapeworm-associated colic in these horses was halved by 12 weeks after the treatment. PMID:15068039

Barrett, E J; Farlam, J; Proudman, C J

2004-03-13

153

Effect of lead in water on the absorption of copper, iron, manganese and zinc by sheep (Ovis aries) infected with sheep tapeworm (Moniezia expansa).  

PubMed

The sheep tapeworm (Moniezia expansa) and its host Ovis aries were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) for their copper, iron, manganese, zinc and lead levels. Element concentrations in cestode parasites were compared to those in various organs (liver, kidney, and muscle) of sheep. Tapeworms in the small intestine of sheep that were administered 2g of Pb(CH(3)COO)(2) per os daily (7 days) had significantly higher lead concentrations than sheep tissues. Cu levels significantly increased after Pb administration in sheep muscle and sheep tapeworms. Contrarily, Zn content significantly decreased in sheep muscle, but significantly increased in sheep tapeworms. However, Mn content significantly decreased after Pb administration in sheep tapeworms. Furthermore, Fe content significantly decreased after Pb administration in sheep liver and kidneys. PMID:22425750

Jankovská, I; Száková, J; Lukešová, D; Langrová, I; Válek, P; Vadlejch, J; ?adková, Z; Petrtýl, M

2012-05-01

154

Update on the Human Broad Tapeworm (Genus Diphyllobothrium), Including Clinical Relevance  

PubMed Central

Summary: Tapeworms (Cestoda) continue to be an important cause of morbidity in humans worldwide. Diphyllobothriosis, a human disease caused by tapeworms of the genus Diphyllobothrium, is the most important fish-borne zoonosis caused by a cestode parasite. Up to 20 million humans are estimated to be infected worldwide. Besides humans, definitive hosts of Diphyllobothrium include piscivorous birds and mammals, which represent a significant zoonotic reservoir. The second intermediate hosts include both freshwater and marine fish, especially anadromous species such as salmonids. The zoonosis occurs most commonly in countries where the consumption of raw or marinated fish is a frequent practice. Due to the increasing popularity of dishes utilizing uncooked fish, numerous cases of human infections have appeared recently, even in the most developed countries. As many as 14 valid species of Diphyllobothrium can cause human diphyllobothriosis, with D. latum and D. nihonkaiense being the most important pathogens. In this paper, all taxa from humans reported are reviewed, with brief information on their life history and their current distribution. Data on diagnostics, epidemiology, clinical relevance, and control of the disease are also summarized. The importance of reliable identification of human-infecting species with molecular tools (sequences of mitochondrial genes) as well as the necessity of epidemiological studies aimed at determining the sources of infections are pointed out.

Scholz, Tomas; Garcia, Hector H.; Kuchta, Roman; Wicht, Barbara

2009-01-01

155

The tapeworm Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) inhibits LH expression and puberty in its teleost host, Rutilus rutilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tapeworm Ligula intestinalis occurs in the body cavity of its cyprinid second intermediate host, in this study the roach Rutilus rutilus, and inhibits host gonadal development. The mechanism by which infected fish are prevented from reproducing is unknown. Comparison of parameters, such as body length and weight, and condition factor and age, between infected and uninfected individuals, indicated only

V Carter; R Pierce; S Dufour; C Arme; D Hoole

2005-01-01

156

Disseminated cutaneous cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis: A rare occurrence  

PubMed Central

Disseminated cysticercosis is a parasitic infestation of pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. A 19-year-old female presented with multiple nodules all over her body since 12 months. Histopathology showed features suggestive of parasitic granuloma with multinucleated giant cells and plenty of eosinophils admixed with necrosis. Ultrasonography of these lesions showed multiple well-defined cystic lesions of varying size with a few specks of calcification. Cranial computed tomography scan showed bilateral, multiple, small hyperdense lesions in the supratentorial compartment. She was treated with oral albendazole and oral corticosteroids. This case is being reported because of its rare, disseminated nature with cutaneous, neural and ocular involvement.

Sacchidanand, S.; Namitha, P.; Mallikarjuna, M.; Nataraj, H. V.

2012-01-01

157

Racemose cysticercosis presenting as cystic neck swelling  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis is a parasitic infection caused by the larvae of the tapeworm Taenia solium which occurs in neural and extraneural forms. Latter commonly involves subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscles, and eyes. Head and neck sites commonly involved are buccal mucosa, tongue, and lips. It presents as single or multiple submucosal/cutaneous firm nodules. We report a case of cysticercosis of the supraclavicular region of the neck where it presented as a large soft cystic swelling. The diagnosis was made by sonography and confirmed by gross and microscopic examination to be racemose cysticercosis. This is a very rare cause of a neck swelling not reported previously in the literature.

Jain, Shraddha; Kumar, Sunil; Joshi, Deepti; Kaushal, Amit

2012-01-01

158

Fish tapeworm  

MedlinePLUS

... where humans eat uncooked or undercooked fish from rivers or lakes, including: African countries in which freshwater fish are eaten Eastern Europe North and South America Scandinavia Some Asian countries After a person ...

159

MRS findings in cerebral coenurosis due to Taenia multiceps.  

PubMed

Cerebral coenurosis due to Taenia multiceps is a rare infection with no case reports from India. A 55-year-old male patient had presented with progressive symptoms of hemiparesis of 1-year duration. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the lesion was performed that showed a septated cystic lesion in left parieto-occipital lobe. Multivoxel MRS through the lesion was performed using repetition time of 1500 ms and time to echo of 144 ms at 3T MRI. MRS showed mildly elevated choline (Cho), depressed creatine (Cr), and N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), a large peak of lactate, pyruvate, and acetate peaks. To best of our knowledge, there has been no reported case of in vivo proton MRS finding ever reported. We present MRS findings in this operatively proven case of T. multiceps cyst of the brain. PMID:21699611

Ambekar, Sudheer; Prasad, Chandrajit; Dwarakanath, Srinivas; Mahadevan, Anitha

2013-01-01

160

Advances in diagnosis and spatial analysis of cysticercosis and taeniasis.  

PubMed

Human cysticercosis, caused by accidental ingestion of eggs of Taenia solium, is one of the most pathogenic helminthiases and is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases. Controlling the life-cycle of T. solium between humans and pigs is essential for eradication of cysticercosis. One difficulty for the accurate detection and identification of T. solium species is the possible co-existence of two other human Taenia tapeworms (T. saginata and T. asiatica, which do not cause cysticercosis in humans). Several key issues for taeniasis/cysticercosis (T/C) evidence-based epidemiology and control are reviewed: (1) advances in immunological and molecular tools for screening of human and animals hosts and identification of Taenia species, with a focus on real-time detection of taeniasis carriers and infected animals in field community screenings, and (2) spatial ecological approaches that have been used to detect geospatial patterns of case distributions and to monitor pig activity and behaviour. Most recent eco-epidemiological studies undertaken in Sichuan province, China, are introduced and reviewed. PMID:23985371

Raoul, Francis; Li, Tiaoying; Sako, Yasuhito; Chen, Xingwang; Long, Changping; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Wu, Yunfei; Nakao, Minoru; Okamoto, Munehiro; Craig, Philip S; Giraudoux, Patrick; Ito, Akira

2013-11-01

161

[Original procreation or generational change? The investigation of cysticercus and tapeworms].  

PubMed

The doctrine of the abiogenesis postulated the origin of human and animal intestinal worms from "not complete digested ingesta". Indeed Peter Simon Pallas (1741-1811) defined already 1760 in his dissertation that endoparasitic worms reproduce themselves by eggs. But he characterised the nature of cysticercus as "pathologically degenerated tail bladder". In 1856 Rudolf Leuckart (1822-1898) paraphrased the alternation of generation with "marvellous metamorphoses and peculiar form of development". The Dane Johannes Japetus Smith Steenstrup (1813-1897) recognised finally the principle of the alternation of generation and Gottlob Friedrich Heinrich Küchenmeister (1821-1890), a physician at the Saxon city Zittau realised the special correlation between the alternate and end host of tapeworms. Both, Leuckart and Küchenmeister proved their insights by animal and human experimentations. PMID:17243446

Geus, A

2007-01-01

162

The inability of tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta and fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum to metabolize praziquantel.  

PubMed

Biotransformation enzymes can, to a certain extent, protect parasitic worms against the toxic effects of anthelmintics and can contribute to drug-resistance development. The objective of our work was (1) to find and identify phase I and II metabolites of the anthelmintic praziquantel (PZQ) formed by the lancet fluke (Dicrocoelium dendriticum) and the rat tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta) and (2) to compare PZQ metabolites in helminths with PZQ biotransformation in rat as host species. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS) was used for this purpose. During in vitro incubations, mitochondria-like and microsomes-like fractions (prepared from homogenates of adult worms or from rat liver homogenate) were incubated with 10 and 100 ?M PZQ. Liquid/liquid extraction was used for samples during in vitro experiments. In the ex vivo study, living D. dendriticum and H. diminuta adults were incubated in RPMI-1640 medium in the presence of 50 nM or 100 nM PZQ for 24h. After incubation, the worms were removed from the medium and homogenized. Homogenates of worms, medium from the incubation of worms or rat hepatocytes and rat urine (collected during 24h after oral PZQ administration) were separately extracted using solid-phase extraction. The results showed that both D. dendriticum and H. diminuta enzymatic systems are not able to metabolize PZQ. On the other hand, thirty one different phase I and four phase II PZQ metabolites were detected in rat samples using UHPLC/MS/MS analyses. These results show that our experimental helminths, as the members of tapeworm and fluke groups of parasites, are not able to deactivate PZQ, and that the biotransformation enzymes of the studied helminths do not contribute to PZQ-resistance. PMID:21996005

Vok?ál, Ivan; Jirásko, Robert; Jedli?ková, Veronika; Bártíková, Hana; Skálová, Lenka; Lamka, Ji?í; Hol?apek, Michal; Szotáková, Barbora

2012-04-30

163

Partial characterization of a tapeworm-secreted signal factor inducing sustained spike potentials in the smooth muscle of the rat small intestine.  

PubMed

The rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta alters the myoelectric activity of the small intestine. To determine if secreted factors from the tapeworm are responsible for these alterations of intestinal smooth muscle activity, tapeworm-conditioned medium (TCM) obtained from in vitro culture was infused via an indwelling cannula into the duodenum of an uninfected rat. Myoelectric recordings were analyzed for sustained spike potentials (SSP) and repetitive bursts of action potentials (RBAP), the previously characterized tapeworm modifications of the normal interdigestive myoelectric pattern. Results indicated that TCM initiated SSP, but not RBAP in the intestine of the uninfected rat. The SSP-inducing signal factor activity, present in TCM, was retained after boiling, prolonged freezing, proteinase treatment, and passage through a 10-kDa exclusion filter. The signal factor was soluble in the aqueous phase on lipid extraction. It was concluded that the SSP-inducing signal factor is a nonproteinaceous, heat-resistant, low-molecular weight, water soluble molecule. PMID:12053990

Kroening, K Dubear; Zimmerman, Noah P; Bass, Paul; Oaks, John A

2002-04-01

164

[The infectivity of the population with the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium klebanovskii in an area of infection drift in the Khabarovsk Territory].  

PubMed

Copro-ovoscopic survey of the human population in the Khabarovsk Territory and the analysis of data of account of territorial sanitary epidemiological station showed that people invaded with D. klebanovskii are registered only in areas whose rivers catadromous salmon come to spawn. Most of invaded people are recorded on the seashore. The risk of tapeworm invasion and the epidemiological characteristics of the carry-over zone are discussed. PMID:1435533

Muratov, I V; Posokhov, P S; Romanenko, N A; Kozyreva, T G; Skulkina, A I

1992-01-01

165

Taenia taeniaeformis: colonic hyperplasia in heavily infected rats.  

PubMed

Only one study previously mentioned the involvement of colon during Taenia taeniaeformis larvae infection in rats with inconsistent occurrence of lesions. Present study aimed to determine the consistency of histopathologic changes in colonic epithelia, and the proliferation of mucosal cells through BrdU and PCNA immunohistochemistry. Results demonstrated that crypt hyperplasia of the colon was found in all infected rats, although variable in degree even in a single tissue section. Cystic cavities were frequently seen in severely hyperplastic mucosa. Proliferative zone lengths were significantly increased and PCNA positive cells were observed throughout the colonic crypt lengths at 9 but not at 6 weeks post infection. Cell proliferation involving the major types of cells in the epithelial colon was also increased in infected rats at 9 weeks post infection, with labeling indices significantly greater than the control rats throughout the BrdU time course labeling. Findings suggested that massive increases in epithelial cells and depth of colonic crypts were due to a remarkable increase in cell proliferation. The study concluded that enteropathy in the colon during T. taeniaeformis infection could be consistently observed in heavily infected rats. PMID:18793638

Lagapa, Jose Trinipil; Oku, Yuzaburo; Kamiya, Masao

2008-12-01

166

The activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes and the biotransformation of selected anthelmintics in the model tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta.  

PubMed

The drug-metabolizing enzymes of some helminths can deactivate anthelmintics and therefore partially protect helminths against these drugs' toxic effect. The aim of our study was to assess the activity of the main drug-metabolizing enzymes and evaluate the metabolism of selected anthelmintics (albendazole, flubendazole, mebendazole) in the rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta, a species often used as a model tapeworm. In vitro and ex vivo experiments were performed. Metabolites of the anthelmintics were detected and identified by HPLC with spectrofluorometric or mass-spectrometric detection. The enzymes of H. diminuta are able to reduce the carbonyl group of flubendazole, mebendazole and several other xenobiotics. Although the activity of a number of oxidation enzymes was determined, no oxidative metabolites of albendazole were detected. Regarding conjugation enzymes, a high activity of glutathione S-transferase was observed. A methyl derivative of reduced flubendazole was the only conjugation metabolite identified in ex vivo incubations of H. diminuta with anthelmintics. The results revealed that H. diminuta metabolized flubendazole and mebendazole, but not albendazole. The biotransformation pathways found in H. diminuta differ from those described in Moniezia expanza and suggest the interspecies differences in drug metabolism not only among classes of helminths, but even among tapeworms. PMID:22309895

Bártíková, Hana; Vok?ál, Ivan; Skálová, Lenka; Kubí?ek, Vladimír; Firbasová, Jana; Briestenský, David; Lamka, Ji?í; Szotáková, Barbora

2012-05-01

167

Lifetime inbreeding depression, purging, and mating system evolution in a simultaneous hermaphrodite tapeworm.  

PubMed

Classical theory on mating system evolution suggests that simultaneous hermaphrodites should either outcross if they have high inbreeding depression (ID) or self-fertilize if they have low ID. However, a mixture of selfing and outcrossing persists in many species. Previous studies with the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus have found worms to self-fertilize some of their eggs despite ID. The probability for selfing to spread depends on the relative fitness of selfers, as well as the genetic basis for ID and whether it can be effectively purged. We bred S. solidus through two consecutive generations of selfing and recorded several fitness correlates over the whole life cycle. After one round of selfing, ID was pronounced, particularly in early-life traits, and the conservatively estimated lifetime fitness of selfed progeny was only 9% that of the outcrossed controls. After a second generation of selfing, ID remained high but was significantly reduced in several traits, which is consistent with the purging of deleterious recessive alleles (the estimated load of lethal equivalents dropped by 48%). Severe ID, even if it can be rapidly purged, likely prevents transitions toward pure selfing in this parasite, although we also cannot exclude the possibility that low-level selfing has undetected benefits. PMID:24611487

Benesh, Daniel P; Weinreich, Friederike; Kalbe, Martin; Milinski, Manfred

2014-06-01

168

A new combination and a new species of onchobothriid tapeworm (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae) from triakid sharks.  

PubMed

A new combination and a new species of onchobothriid tapeworm are described from triakid sharks. We found Platybothrium xiamenensis Wang & Yang, 2001 and Erudituncus musteli (Yamaguti, 1952) from Hemitriakis japanica (Müller & Henle). Based on the morphology of the hooks P. xiamenensis is transferred to the genus Erudituncus Healy, Scholz & Caira, 2001. The specimens studied by us differ from the original description in the number of proglottids and testes and in the size of the cirrus-sac. However, we consider them conspecific with E. xiamenensis due to the consistent hook morphology and laciniations in both descriptions and believe the differences reflect intraspecific variation. The type-host of E. xiamenensis was reported as Mustelus griseus Pietschmann. However, in the present study, this parasite was found only in H. japanica and never in M. griseus although many specimens of the latter host were examined. This suggests that the type-host in the original description has probably been misidentified. We found another undescribed species in M. griseus, Calliobothrium shirozame n. sp., which is distinguished from the congeners by having a unique combination of the number of laciniations: four in the cephalic peduncle, six in the immature proglottids and four in the mature proglottids. PMID:24711114

Kurashima, Akira; Shimizu, Toshiya; Mano, Nobuhiro; Ogawa, Kazuo; Fujita, Toshihiko

2014-05-01

169

Human infection by a "fish tapeworm", Diphyllobothrium latum, in a non-endemic country.  

PubMed

We document a case of locally acquired "broad- or fish-tapeworm" infection caused by Diphyllobothrium latum in a 27-year-old Spanish man, confirmed by molecular analysis (COI gene). The patient had naturally expelled a worm of 110 cm in length, but the physical examination did not yield any remarkable findings, and the patient did not suffer from any particular symptoms. Laboratory test results were normal except for a remarkable increase in the red blood cell count, and an evident decrease in the mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Vitamin B12 and folic acid values were in the normal range without signs of anemia. It was suggested that these anomalies in erythrocyte formation might not be related to the parasite, and analysis of the patient's anamnestic data revealed that the infection could only have been caused by the ingestion of imported fish, although no light could be shed on the specific source of infection. From a public health viewpoint, this human case of fish-borne zoonosis is exemplary, suggesting that not only is control of fish and fish product quality essential, but also increased awareness of the general population with regard to changes in culinary habits. PMID:23765513

Esteban, J G; Muñoz-Antoli, C; Borras, M; Colomina, J; Toledo, R

2014-02-01

170

Molecular phylogeny of the genus Taenia (Cestoda: Taeniidae): proposals for the resurrection of Hydatigera Lamarck, 1816 and the creation of a new genus Versteria.  

PubMed

The cestode family Taeniidae generally consists of two valid genera, Taenia and Echinococcus. The genus Echinococcus is monophyletic due to a remarkable similarity in morphology, features of development and genetic makeup. By contrast, Taenia is a highly diverse group formerly made up of different genera. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest the paraphyly of Taenia. To clarify the genetic relationships among the representative members of Taenia, molecular phylogenies were constructed using nuclear and mitochondrial genes. The nuclear phylogenetic trees of 18S ribosomal DNA and concatenated exon regions of protein-coding genes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and DNA polymerase delta) demonstrated that both Taenia mustelae and a clade formed by Taenia parva, Taenia krepkogorski and Taenia taeniaeformis are only distantly related to the other members of Taenia. Similar topologies were recovered in mitochondrial genomic analyses using 12 complete protein-coding genes. A sister relationship between T. mustelae and Echinococcus spp. was supported, especially in protein-coding gene trees inferred from both nuclear and mitochondrial data sets. Based on these results, we propose the resurrection of Hydatigera Lamarck, 1816 for T. parva, T. krepkogorski and T. taeniaeformis and the creation of a new genus, Versteria, for T. mustelae. Due to obvious morphological and ecological similarities, Taenia brachyacantha is also included in Versteria gen. nov., although molecular evidence is not available. Taenia taeniaeformis has been historically regarded as a single species but the present data clearly demonstrate that it consists of two cryptic species. PMID:23428901

Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Iwaki, Takashi; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Konyaev, Sergey; Oku, Yuzaburo; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

2013-05-01

171

Prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in French cattle in 2010.  

PubMed

Bovine cysticercosis is a foodborne disease caused by the cestode Taenia saginata with cattle as the intermediate host and humans as the final host. This disease is responsible for direct financial losses for farmers. It is also economically important because human infestation through raw or undercooked meat consumption can have a negative impact on the confidence the consumer has in the food industry. This study aimed to determine the apparent and true prevalence of bovine cysticercosis in France and describe the locations of identified cysticercosis lesions. The study sample included 4,564,065 cattle slaughtered in 2010 in France, among which 6491 were detected as harbouring cysticercosis lesions using the current EU meat inspection process. The overall apparent prevalence (including both viable and degenerated cysticerci) was estimated at 0.142% [0.142-0.143]. The true overall prevalence defined as the estimation of the prevalence after taking into account the sensitivity of meat inspection (detection fraction) was 1.23% [0.83-1.93]. The true prevalence of cattle with at least one viable cysticercus was 0.113% [0.076-0.189]. Taking into account both our results and those of a previous study on the prevalence of human cysticercosis in France, we estimated that one carcass could infest an average of 8-20 individuals. The spatial distribution of viable cysticerci showed that the highest apparent prevalence was found in eastern France. This study, the largest survey ever conducted on bovine cysticercosis in France, indicated a low but spatially heterogeneous prevalence of the parasite among the cattle population. Considering French eating habits, according to which it is not uncommon to consume undercooked meat, the possibility of humans being infested even though viable cysticerci are not detected during meat inspection is high. Increasing the detection sensitivity of meat inspection through the use of a risk-based meat inspection procedure should improve prevention of human infestation. PMID:24655724

Dupuy, Céline; Morlot, Claire; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Mas, Michel; Grandmontagne, Claude; Gilli-Dunoyer, Pascale; Gay, Emilie; Callait-Cardinal, Marie-Pierre

2014-06-16

172

Distribution of Taenia saginata cysts by muscle group in naturally infected cattle in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of Taenia saginata cysts among organs and muscle groups was determined by slicing the heart, masseters, liver and muscles of the half carcass of 21 naturally infected Zebu cattle from Morogoro abattoir, Tanzania. The carcasses harboured from 1 to 310 cysts. In the muscle groups, normally considered predilection sites, the heart and Musculus triceps brachii harboured the highest

Godfrey E. Maeda; Niels Chr. Kyvsgaard; Peter Nansen; Henrik O. Bøgh

1996-01-01

173

Sero-epidemiological study of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Belgian cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sero-epidemiological survey of Taenia saginata cysticercosis was carried out to determine the prevalence of the infection in cattle presented for slaughter in Belgium. Between November 1997 and June 1998, a total of 1164 serum samples were collected in 20 export abattoirs. Meat inspection was routinely carried out by veterinary inspectors. Serum samples were examined for circulating parasite antigen using

P Dorny; F Vercammen; J Brandt; W Vansteenkiste; D Berkvens; S Geerts

2000-01-01

174

Potential existence of a sylvatic cycle of Taenia ovis krabbei in Patagonia, Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red deer (Cervus elaphus) were introduced in southern Latin America about a century ago and characteristics of the invasion raise concerns over their epidemiological role for various diseases. We report on the possible occurrence of Taenia ovis krabbei established in a sylvatic cycle in Patagonia. Hook characters, size, appearance, and location of a cysticercus from a wild red deer are

Werner T. Flueck; Arlene Jones

2006-01-01

175

The inhibitory innervation of the taenia of the guinea-pig caecum.  

PubMed

1. The inhibitory innervation of the taenia of the guinea-pig caecum has been studied, after blocking the responses to stimulation of excitatory cholinergic nerves with atropine.2. Stimulation of the perivascular nerves supplying the taenia caused relaxations. These nerves had properties which were typical of sympathetic post-ganglionic adrenergic nerves. The relaxations caused by stimulation were maximal at frequencies of stimulation above 30 pulses/sec and they were abolished by bretylium, guanethidine and 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide (DMPP).3. The taenia is also innervated by intramural inhibitory nerves with their cell bodies in Auerbach's plexus. These nerves can be excited by electrical stimulation of the taenia or by the application of ganglion-stimulating drugs.4. The intramural inhibitory nerves have different properties from sympathetic adrenergic nerves. Relaxations in response to stimulation were maximal with frequencies of stimulation of about 5 pulses/sec and they were not blocked by bretylium, guanethidine or DMPP.5. Preganglionic cholinergic fibres in the caecal wall make synaptic connexions with the intramural inhibitory neurones.6. The role of the intramural inhibitory neurones in intestinal activity and their possible connexions with the central nervous system have been discussed. PMID:5942999

Burnstock, G; Campbell, G; Rand, M J

1966-02-01

176

Four cases of Taenia saginata infection with an analysis of COX1 gene.  

PubMed

Human taeniases had been not uncommon in the Republic of Korea (=Korea) until the 1980s. The prevalence decreased and a national survey in 2004 revealed no Taenia egg positive cases. However, a subsequent national survey in 2012 showed 0.04% (10 cases) prevalence of Taenia spp. eggs suggesting its resurgence in Korea. We recently encountered 4 cases of Taenia saginata infection who had symptoms of taeniasis that included discharge of proglottids. We obtained several proglottids from each case. Because the morphological features of T. saginata are almost indistinguishable from those of Taenia asiatica, molecular analyses using the PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) were performed to identify the species. The PCR-RFLP patterns of all of the 4 specimens were consistent with T. saginata, and the cox1 gene sequence showed 99.8-100% identity with that of T. saginata reported previously from Korea, Japan, China, and Cambodia. All of the 4 patients had the history of travel abroad but its relation with contracting taeniasis was unclear. Our findings may suggest resurgence of T. saginata infection among people in Korea. PMID:24623887

Cho, Jaeeun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lim, Hyemi; Kim, Min-Jae; Yooyen, Thanapon; Lee, Dongmin; Eom, Keeseon S; Shin, Eun-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil

2014-02-01

177

Murine autoimmune arthritis is exaggerated by infection with the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta.  

PubMed

Infection with helminth parasites triggers strong and stereotypic immune responses in humans and mice, which can protect against specific experimentally-induced autoimmune diseases. We have shown that infection with the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, confers a protective effect on FCA-induced joint inflammation. Here, we investigated the effect of a prophylactic infection with H. diminuta on the K/BxN-serum model of polyarthritis in BALB/c mice. Mice were infected with 10 cysticercoids of H. diminuta by oral gavage and 8 days later arthritis was induced by i.p. injection of K/BxN arthritogenic serum. Joint swelling and pain measurements were recorded throughout a 13 day time course. At necropsy, joints and blood serum were collected. K/BxN-treated mice developed joint inflammation in the front paws, hind paws and knees as shown by increased swelling, mechanical allodynia and myeloperoxidase activity. Mice infected with H. diminuta had more severe disease, with increased eosinophil peroxidase activity in their paws and greater inflammatory infiltrate and synovitis in the knee joints. Hymenolepis diminuta-infected mice displayed significant increases in serum levels of C5a and mast cell protease-1 compared with K/BxN-serum only treatment, the latter being indicative of mast cell activation. In contrast to the protective effect of infection with H. diminuta in FCA-induced monoarthritis, infection with this helminth exacerbated K/BxN serum-induced polyarthritis in BALB/c mice. This correlated with increases in C5a and mast cell activation: factors critical in the development of K/BxN-induced arthritis. Thus, while data accumulate from animal models showing that infection with helminth parasites may be beneficial for a variety of auto-inflammatory diseases, our findings demonstrate the potential for helminths to exacerbate disease. Hence care is needed when helminth therapy is translated into a clinical setting. PMID:23583716

Graepel, Rabea; Leung, Gabriella; Wang, Arthur; Villemaire, Michelle; Jirik, Frank R; Sharkey, Keith A; McDougall, Jason J; McKay, Derek M

2013-06-01

178

Tapeworms (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of Clarias batrachus (Pisces: Siluriformes) in the Indomalayan region.  

PubMed

Revision of monozoic cestodes (Caryophyllidea) parasitic in commercially important walking catfish Clarias batrachus (L.) in tropical Asia (Indomalayan zoogeographical region) was carried out, based on the evaluation of newly collected material from India, Indonesia, and Thailand, as well as a study of type specimens. Instead of the 59 nominal taxa of 15 genera from 3 caryophyllidean families previously described, only 8 species of the Lytocestidae are considered to be valid: Bovienia indica (Niyogi, Gupta and Agarwal, 1982) n. comb.; Bovienia raipurensis (Satpute and Agarwal, 1980) Mackiewicz, 1994; Bovienia serialis (Bovien, 1926) Fuhrmann, 1931; Djombangia penetrans Bovien, 1926; Lucknowia microcephala (Bovien, 1926) n. comb.; Lytocestus indicus (Moghe, 1925) Woodland 1926; Pseudocaryophyllaeus ritai Gupta and Singh, 1983; and Pseudocaryophyllaeus tenuicollis (Bovien, 1926) n. comb. All valid species are redescribed and SEM photomicrographs of their scolices and photomicrographs of their eggs are provided for the first time. Crescentovitus Murhar, 1963, Heeradevina Srivastav and Khare, 2005, Pseudobatrachus Pathak and Srivastav, 2005, Pseudobilobulata Srivastav and Lohia, 2002, Pseudoclariasis Pathak, 2002, and Pseudoinverta Pathak, 2002 are invalidated and 50 nominal species are newly synonymized, including 4 species described from other fish hosts. Taxonomic status of the remaining caryophyllidean taxa reported from C. batrachus (at least 6 taxa) could not be clarified because of the unavailability of their original descriptions. A key to identification of caryophyllidean tapeworms parasitic in C. batrachus is provided. To avoid current inflation of descriptions of invalid taxa, researchers are strongly encouraged to work only with well-fixed material; damaged, decomposed, or strongly flattened specimens should not be used for taxonomic studies, and type specimens must always be deposited in internationally recognized collections. PMID:21506765

Ash, Anirban; Scholz, Tomáš; Oros, Mikuláš; Kar, Pradip Kumar

2011-06-01

179

On the position of Archigetes and its bearing on the early evolution of the tapeworms.  

PubMed

The tapeworm Archigetes sieboldi Leuckart, 1878 (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) has been cited as a likely representative of the "protocestode" condition, owing to its lack of segmentation and ability to attain sexual maturity in the invertebrate host (aquatic oligochaetes). The idea has been variously amplified or rejected in the literature, although the actual phylogenetic position of the species has not been investigated until now. New collections of Archigetes sp. from both its vertebrate and invertebrate hosts provided the opportunity to estimate its phylogenetic position with the use of molecular systematics, while prompting new analyses aimed at assessing the early diversification of the Cestoda. Additional collections representing the Amphilinidea, Caryophyllidea, and Gyrocotylidea were combined with published gene sequences to construct data sets of complete 18S (110 taxa) and partial (D1-D3) 28S (107 taxa) rDNA sequences, including 8 neodermatan outgroup taxa. Estimates resulting from Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, and maximum parsimony analyses of the separate and combined data sets supported a derived position of the genus within the Caryophyllidea, and thus reject the idea that Archigetes sp. may exemplify a "primitive" condition. Topological constraint analyses rejected the hypothesis that Archigetes represents the most basal lineage of the Eucestoda, but did not rule out that it could represent the earliest branching taxon of the Caryophyllidea. In all analyses, the Eucestoda were monophyletic and supported basal positions of the nonsegmented Caryophyllidea and Spathebothriidea relative to other major lineages of the Eucestoda, implying that segmentation is a derived feature of the common ancestor of the di- and tetrafossate eucestodes. However, constraint analyses could not provide unequivocal evidence as to the precise branching patterns of the cestodarian, spathebothriidean, and caryophyllidean lineages. Phylogenetic analyses favor the interpretation that sexual maturity of Archigetes sp. in the invertebrate host, and similar examples in members of the Spathebothriidea, are the result of progenesis and have little if any bearing on understanding the protocestode condition. PMID:18576801

Olson, P D; Poddubnaya, L G; Littlewood, D T J; Scholz, T

2008-08-01

180

Why are taeniae, haustra, and semilunar folds differentiated in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, including man?  

PubMed

When a small change, either contraction or dilation, of the surface area of a digestive tube coincides with a considerable change in internal volume, this can be considered an effective influence of surface on volume. This study discusses the effects of anatomical differences between those types of digestive tracts where the longitudinal musculature is reduced to small bands, the taeniae, and those where such differentiations are not found. With the help of a geometric model the efficiency of transport (eta = net volume expelled aborally / volume of the tube) from haustra in tubes with two, three, four, and six taeniae was determined. It could be shown that efficiency of transport from haustra decreases when the number of taeniae increases. The second model applies the program "Surface Evolver" (author K.A. Brakke). The program is applied to investigate the relationships between changes in surface area of tubes with different numbers of taeniae (0, 2, 3, 4, and 6) and the respective changes of the internal volumes of tubes. Both haustra formation and formation of semilunar folds between haustra are considered. Tubes with two or three taeniae reduce their internal volume more efficiently than all others, namely, with a relatively small reduction of the surface area and contraction of the Tunica muscularis at a relatively low rate. In addition to chemical and mechanical decomposition of digesta the gastrointestinal tube has three tasks: propagation, storage, and retention of digesta. A tube without taeniae, i.e., with a complete longitudinal muscular layer, propagates contents with peristaltic movements. Storage can take place in areas of the tract with a dilated cross-section. Finally, folds can retain digesta. In many sections of the gastrointestinal tract folds are differentiated as permanent structures. However, folds formed with relatively little contraction of the musculature, i.e., little change in the surface area, represent an effective means of retention and thus of flow regulation. Tubes with taeniae and semilunar folds are adaptations for this effective type of regulation of digesta transit through the tract. PMID:14994329

Langer, Peter; Takács, Aron

2004-03-01

181

Infection level of the Asian tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) in the cyprinid fish, Schizothorax niger, from Anchar Lake, relative to season, sex, length and condition factor.  

PubMed

Various studies have shown that the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi causes great economic loss in hatcheries, fish farms as well as in lakes. In order to understand the seasonal variation of infection in a nutrient-enriched lake, parasitological investigation was carried out in the indigenous cyprinid fish, Schizothorax niger Heckel 1838 from September, 2008 to August, 2009. Overall, this study revealed definite seasonality of infection (p?tapeworm. A strong positive correlation (Pearson's correlation, r?=?0.7; p?=?0.02) between total length of S. niger and number of Asian fish tapeworms was observed. Similarly, a strong positive correlation existed between weight of fish and number of tapeworms (Pearson's correlation, r?=?0.7; p?=?0.005). Prevalence and mean abundance were positively and significantly correlated with water temperature (r?=?0.8, p?tapeworm infection. The above findings will be useful in devising the appropriate control strategies for the Asian tapeworm in wild fish in Kashmir valley as well as in similar climatic zones of other parts of the world. Also, information from this study will be used to assess the spread and extent of B. acheilognathi which is a potential threat to the indigenous fish fauna of Anchar Lake. PMID:21739312

Zargar, Ummer Rashid; Chishti, M Z; Yousuf, A R; Ahmed, Fayaz

2012-01-01

182

DNA content of hepatocyte and erythrocyte nuclei of the spined loach ( Cobitis taenia L.) and its polyploid forms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the DNA content of hepatocyte and erythrocyte nuclei of the spined loach Cobitis taenia (diploid) and its allopolyploid forms. Twenty triploid females and one tetraploid were used. At least 20,000 hepatocyte and\\u000a erythrocyte nuclei were acquired and analyzed by flow cytometry. C. taenia erythrocyte nuclei contain 3.15 ± 0.21 pg of DNA and the hepatocyte nuclei 4.45 ± 0.46 pg of DNA. Triploid Cobitis

Dorota Juchno; Bozena Lackowska; Alicja Boron; Wincenty Kilarski

2010-01-01

183

The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa  

PubMed Central

The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa was held in Asahikawa Medical University, Japan on 15 and 16 Feb 2011. This meeting was fully supported by the Asian Science and Technology Strategic Cooperation Promotion Programs sponsored by the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education Japan (MEXT) for 3 years from 2010 to Akira Ito. A total of 24 researchers from 9 countries joined together and discussed the present situation and problems towards the control of cestode zoonoses. As the meeting was simultaneously for the establishment of joint international, either bilateral or multilateral collaboration projects, the main purposes were directed to 1) how to detect taeniasis/cysticercosis infected patients, 2) how to differentiate Taenia solium from two other human Taenia species, T. saginata and T. asiatica, 3) how to evaluate T. asiatica based on the evidence of hybrid and hybrid-derived adult tapeworms from Thailand and China, 4) how to evaluate T. solium and T. hyaenae and other Taenia species from the wild animals in Ethiopia, and 5) how to detect echinococcosis patients and 6) how to differentiate Echinococcus species worldwide. Such important topics are summarized in this meeting report.

2011-01-01

184

Increased glial-derived neurotrophic factor in the small intestine of rats infected with the tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta  

PubMed Central

The neurotrophin, glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), is essential for the development of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in both the embryo and neonate and may be important for maintenance and plasticity of ENS. The tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, altered the number of cells containing GNDF in the host’s jejunum and ileum. Numbers and locations of GDNF-containing cells were determined by applying monoclonal anti-GDNF antibody to intestinal segments collected from infected and uninfected age-matched rats during the initial 34 days post-infection (dpi). Most cells staining positive for GDNF were present in the lamina propria of the jejunum and ileum from both infected and uninfected rats. The co-localization of staining by the antibodies, anti-GDNF and anti-ED2 (a nuclear specific antibody for resident macrophages) indicated that at least 74% of the cells staining for GDNF were macrophages. Mast cells did not stain with the anti-GDNF antibody. The increased number of GDNF+ cells in the infected rat intestine suggests that this neurotrophin may play a role in the neural and mucosal responses to lumenal tapeworm infection.

Starke-Buzetti, Wilma Aparecida; Oaks, John A

2008-01-01

185

Spatial and temporal distribution of the Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea) in the Rio Grande (Río Bravo del Norte).  

PubMed

Recent collections of the Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in the Rio Grande have raised concern about the potential impacts on Rio Grande endemic and imperiled fishes. The objectives of this study were to determine distribution and definitive hosts of the Asian fish tapeworm within the Rio Grande drainage and to quantify occurrences and abundances. In total, 1,992 fish spanning 11 families were collected and examined for Asian fish tapeworms in the Rio Grande and the Pecos and Devils rivers. The parasite was collected from red shiners Cyprinella lutrensis, Tamaulipas shiners Notropis braytoni, sand shiners N. stramineus, river carpsuckers Carpiodes carpio, plains killifish Fundulus zebrinus, western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis, blue suckers Cycleptus elongatus, blacktail shiners Cyprinella venusta, proserpine shiners Cyprinella proserpina, and Manantial roundnose minnow Dionda argentosa, with the latter four species being new host records. Monthly collections of red shiners from Big Bend National Park exhibited prevalence levels above 15% in January-March and December and below 10% during April-June and October. With over 50% of the Rio Grande icthyofauna in Texas considered imperiled, the occurrence and pathological effects of the Asian fish tapeworm in combination with reduced water quantity and quality and increased habitat fragmentation are of concern for these taxa. PMID:21192548

Bean, Megan G; Bonner, Timothy H

2010-09-01

186

The effect of some anticholinesterases on the response of the taenia to sympathetic nerve stimulation  

PubMed Central

1. A preparation of the taenia from the caecum of the guinea-pig has been used. Acetylcholine caused contraction and noradrenaline caused relaxation. When the perivascular nerves running to the taenia were stimulated, at low frequencies there was sometimes contraction and sometimes relaxation. At high frequencies there was always relaxation. In the presence of hyoscine there was relaxation at all frequencies, the relaxation increasing as the frequency rose up to 20/sec. The relaxation was not affected by the presence of hexamethonium, but was blocked by bretylium. 2. When stimulation was applied in the presence of hyoscine, the addition of physostigmine, Mipafox or Dyflos increased the relaxation to stimulation of low frequency, the increase becoming smaller as the frequency rose. At high frequencies Mipafox decreased the relaxation.

Ng, K. K. F.

1966-01-01

187

Molecular Detection and Characterization of Goat Isolate of Taenia hydatigena in Turkey  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to provide molecular detection and characterization of the goat isolate of Taenia hydatigena from Ankara province of Turkey. For this purpose, PCR amplification of small subunit ribosomal RNA (rrnS) and partial sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (mt-CO1) genes were performed in a one-month-old dead goat. According to rrnS-PCR results, parasites were identified as Taenia spp., and partial sequence of mt-CO1 gene was corresponding to T. hydatigena. At the end of the study, we concluded that molecular tools can be used to define species of parasites in cases where the key morphologic features cannot be detected. Nucleotide sequence data of Turkish goat isolate of T. hydatigena was submitted to GenBank for other researchers interested in this subject. By this study, molecular detection and characterization of T. hydatigena was done for the first time in Turkey.

Utuk, Armagan Erdem; Piskin, Fatma Cigdem

2012-01-01

188

Long-Lasting Actions of Bay K 8644 on Responses of Guinea Pig Taenia Coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Bay K 8644, a dihydropyridine Ca2+ agonist, (10?6 M), induced strong rhythmic contractions in taenia coli and induced a contracture after about 5.5 hr of the application. Increases in Bay K 8644 concentrations prolonged the period of rhythmic contractions and slowed the onset of the contracture.2.Nifedipine, a dihydropyridine Ca2+ antagonist, inhibited the delayed contracture to Bay K 8644 more than

T. Nasu; M. Sasaki; H. Shibata

1998-01-01

189

Postoncospheral development and cycle of Taenia polyacantha Leuckart, 1856 (Cestoda: Taeniidae). First part.  

PubMed

The postoncospheral development and cycle of Taenia polyacantha Leuckart, 1856, an holarctic species of cestode, were investigated in the laboratory as well as in the tundra of northern Alaska. Foxes, Alopex lapogus (L.) and Vulpes vulpes (L.), serve as final host of T. polyacantha; the northern vole, Microtus oeconomus (Pallas), and the brown lemming, Lemmus sibiricus (Kerr), are important as the intermediate host. As determined in experimentally infected voles and lemmings, the oncosphere of T. polyacantha transformed to a primary vesicle in the liver. On the 6th day postexposure, coinciding with its migration to the peritoneal cavity, the larval cestode consisted of a minute aggregation of secondary vesicles. By 9-10 days postexposure, the secondary vesicles dissociated, thereafter developing independently to infective cysticerci by 30-40 days postexposure. At an age of about 60 days, the infective larvae began to undergo further growth and morphological modification, which led to acquisition of some strobilar characteristics by the forebody. Such late transformation of a cysticercus to a more advanced form of larva is known otherwise only in Taenia martis (Zeder, 1803). Differences in numbers and sizes of rostellar hooks provided the basis for recognition of two taxa at the infraspecific level: Taenia p. polyacantha Leuckart, 1856, distributed in Eurasia to the south of the zone of tundra, and T. p. arctica ssp. nov., present throughout the holarctic tundra. Observations concerning interactions of T. polyacantha and its hosts are discussed. PMID:3059953

Rausch, R L; Fay, F H

1988-01-01

190

A proposal to declare neurocysticercosis an international reportable disease.  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis is an infection of the nervous system caused by Taenia solium. It is the most important human parasitic neurological disease and a common cause of epilepsy in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, representing enormous costs for anticonvulsants, medical resources and lost production. Neurocysticercosis is a human-to-human infection, acquired by the faecal-enteric route from carriers of intestinal T. solium, most often in areas with deficient sanitation. Intestinal tapeworms cause few symptoms, but adult taeniae carried by humans release large numbers of infective eggs and are extremely contagious. Ingestion of poorly cooked pig meat infested with T. solium larvae results in intestinal taeniosis but not neurocysticercosis. With a view to hastening the control of taeniosis and neurocysticercosis we propose that neurocysticercosis be declared an international reportable disease. New cases of neurocysticercosis should be reported by physicians or hospital administrators to their health ministries. An epidemiological intervention could then be launched to interrupt the chain of transmission by: (1) searching for, treating and reporting the sources of contagion, i.e. human carriers of tapeworms; (2) identifying and treating other exposed contacts; (3) providing health education on parasite transmission and improvement of hygiene and sanitary conditions; and (4) enforcing meat inspection policies and limiting the animal reservoir by treatment of pigs. We believe that the first step required to solve the problem of neurocysticercosis is to implement appropriate surveillance mechanisms under the responsibility of ministries of health. Compulsory notification also has the major advantage of providing accurate quantification of the incidence and prevalence of neurocysticercosis at regional level, thus permitting the rational use of resources in eradication campaigns.

Roman, G.; Sotelo, J.; Del Brutto, O.; Flisser, A.; Dumas, M.; Wadia, N.; Botero, D.; Cruz, M.; Garcia, H.; de Bittencourt, P. R.; Trelles, L.; Arriagada, C.; Lorenzana, P.; Nash, T. E.; Spina-Franca, A.

2000-01-01

191

Vaccination with recombinant oncosphere antigens reduces the susceptibility of sheep to infection with Taenia multiceps?  

PubMed Central

Taenia multiceps is a cestode parasite, the larval stage of which encysts in the brain of sheep, goats and cattle causing an often fatal condition. The parasite also causes zoonotic infections in humans. Homologues of the recombinant oncosphere vaccine antigens from Taenia ovis and other Taenia species were identified in T. multiceps. Sequencing of the associated T. multiceps genes and cloning of the encoding mRNA has revealed conserved features in the genes and proteins. The T. multiceps oncosphere proteins, designated Tm16 and Tm18, contain a predicted secretory signal and fibronectin type III domain. The recombinant Tm16 and Tm18 proteins were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins with GST. The antigens, formulated with Quil A adjuvant, were tested in a vaccine trial in sheep. The antigens stimulated immunity in sheep against challenge infection with T. multiceps eggs. Five of nine control sheep died due to a challenge infection with T. multiceps whereas none of 20 vaccinated animals died as a result of the parasite challenge (P = 0.001). In addition, vaccination with the Tm16 protein, or Tm16 plus Tm18, induced significant protection against the number of parasites encysting in the brain as a result of the challenge infection (P = 0.023, P = 0.015, respectively). No clear relationship was apparent between the level of specific serum antibody in vaccinated animals and either the presence or absence of parasites or the number of parasites that occurred in some of the vaccinated animals. We believe this study is the first description of recombinant vaccine-related investigations for T. multiceps. The recombinant oncosphere antigens identified may allow development of effective vaccination strategies against T. multiceps infection in sheep. They raise the potential for the development of a combined vaccine with the Echinococcus granulosus EG95 antigen for prevention of T. multiceps as well as preventing the transmission of cystic hydatid disease.

Gauci, Charles; Vural, Gulay; Oncel, Taraneh; Varcasia, Antonio; Damian, Veronica; Kyngdon, Craig T.; Craig, Philip S.; Anderson, Garry A.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

2008-01-01

192

Malakoplakia of the appendix. An unusual association with eggs of Taenia species.  

PubMed

Malakoplakia of the appendix is an unusual condition that has been reported to occur in association with tumors, infections, and immunocompromised states. We describe a case of appendicular malakoplakia associated with eggs of Taenia species. The diagnosis was made on histopathologic examination of surgically resected tissue from an appendicular mass. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that helminths have been documented to be associated with malakoplakia. We also discuss the implications of helminthic infestation in the pathogenesis of the lesion. PMID:11100067

Jain, M; Arora, V K; Singh, N; Bhatia, A

2000-12-01

193

Sequence and immunogenicity of the Taenia saginata homologue of the major surface antigen of Echinococcus spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clone (R-Tso18) was isolated from a Taenia saginata oncosphere cDNA library by screening with sera from rabbits immunised with oncosphere extract. It contained a full-length\\u000a cDNA sequence of 1893?bp with an open reading frame of 1680?bp, corresponding to 559 amino acids with a deduced molecular\\u000a mass of 65.173?kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.08. The R-Tso18 protein showed 80–84%

Laura Benitez; Leslie J. S. Harrison; R. Michael E. Parkhouse; Luis M. Gonzalez; Bruno Gottstein; Teresa Garate

1998-01-01

194

Potential existence of a sylvatic cycle of Taenia ovis krabbei in Patagonia, Argentina.  

PubMed

Red deer (Cervus elaphus) were introduced in southern Latin America about a century ago and characteristics of the invasion raise concerns over their epidemiological role for various diseases. We report on the possible occurrence of Taenia ovis krabbei established in a sylvatic cycle in Patagonia. Hook characters, size, appearance, and location of a cysticercus from a wild red deer are consistent with Taenia ovis ovis or T. o. krabbei. Although it is not possible to differentiate between T. o. ovis and T. o. krabbei on morphological grounds with certainty, several biological characteristics indicate the cysticercus may belong to T. o. krabbei. Red deer have been reported to be refractory to T. o. ovis infection whereas other potential intermediate hosts like cattle, goats, pigs and sheep have been shown to be refractory to T. o. krabbei. Other native ungulates sympatric with red deer in Patagonia include Lama guanicoe and the endangered huemul deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus). Possible or known definitive hosts include native felids like Puma concolor, Felis colocolo, F. guigna and canids like Dusicyon griseus, D. culpaeus, and domestic dogs. PMID:16289565

Flueck, Werner T; Jones, Arlene

2006-02-18

195

Update on the distribution of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, in the U.S. and Canada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The documented range of the invasive and potentially pathogenic Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934 in the United States and Canada is updated based on examination of museum depositions and original field collections. Gravid specimens of B. acheilognathi were collected from the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Rafinesque in Peter Lake, at the University of Notre Dame Environmental Research Center (UNDERC) Land o' Lakes, Wisconsin. A single immature specimen of the parasite was collected from a white bass, Morone chrysops (Rafinesque) in Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. This is the first record of B. acheilognathi in Canada and extends its northern range in the interior of the continent by more than 600 miles over the last documented record. The previous record of B. acheilognathi in Canada, from the northern pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus oregonensis in British Columbia, is a misidentification of Eubothrium tulipai. Examination of selected records of intestinal cestodes from native cyprinids, in the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology (HWML, n = 9) collection and in the United States National Parasite Collection (USNPC, n = 8), provided evidence of the parasite in Nebraska and possibly in the upper Colorado River basin. Introductions into Wisconsin-Michigan were due to the stocking of golden shiners, whereas the source of the introduction in Manitoba remains unknown.

Choudhury, A.; Charipar, E.; Nelson, P.; Hodgson, J. R.; Bonar, S.; Cole, Rebecca. A.

2006-01-01

196

Spatial and temporal consistency of putative reference genes for real-time PCR in a model tapeworm.  

PubMed

Relative quantification of gene expression by real-time PCR relies on the use of reference genes whose expressed levels remain consistent across experimental conditions. Here we compare expression levels of commonly employed endogenous housekeeping genes against a developmental regulatory gene in the model tapeworm Hymenolepis microstoma, examining variation both spatially across regions of the adult worm and temporally through the course of larval metamorphosis. ?-Tubulin, RNA polymerase II and 60S ribosomal subunit L28 showed the most variance among candidate reference genes when comparing changes in expression along the anteroposterior gradient of development represented by the adult body, whereas expression of 18S rDNA and cyclic AMP were highly consistent and could be used reliably for relative quantification. The transcription factor Hox4, referenced to either 18S or cAMP, showed 3-fold higher expression levels in the neck region than in more mature regions of the strobila. In contrast, variance among samples representing progressive stages of larval metamorphosis were greater for candidate reference genes than for Hox4, indicating that none of the candidates can be used reliably for quantifying relative changes in gene expression during metamorphosis. PMID:21907248

Pouchkina-Stantcheva, Natalia N; Cunningham, Lucas J; Olson, Peter D

2011-12-01

197

Neurocysticercosis: A Review  

PubMed Central

Neuroysticercosis is the most common helminthic infection of the nervous system, and a leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The disease occurs when humans become intermediate hosts of Taenia solium by ingesting its eggs from contaminated food or, most often, directly from a taenia carrier by the fecal-to-oral route. Cysticerci may be located in brain parenchyma, subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or spinal cord, causing pathological changes that are responsible for the pleomorphism of neurocysticercosis. Seizures are the most common clinical manifestation, but many patients present with focal deficits, intracranial hypertension, or cognitive decline. Accurate diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is possible after interpretation of clinical data together with findings of neuroimaging studies and results of immunological tests. The introduction of cysticidal drugs have changed the prognosis of most patients with neurocysticercosis. These drugs have shown to reduce the burden of infection in the brain and to improve the clinical course of the disease in most patients. Further efforts should be directed to eradicate the disease through the implementation of control programs against all the interrelated steps in the life cycle of T. solium, including human carriers of the adult tapeworm, infected pigs, and eggs in the environment.

Del Brutto, Oscar H.

2012-01-01

198

Neurocysticercosis.  

PubMed

Cysticercosis is a helmenthic infection involving pigs and man. Most cases of cysticercosis occur in developing countries. The disease is very rare in Islamic countries, as moslems are supposed to abstain from eating pork meat. In the last 10 years, reports of cysticercosis among moslems were published. Imigrants from endemic countries, who work as housemaids and food handlers played a role in transmitting the disease. Man becomes a definitive host if he ingests insufficiently cooked pork meat, which contains viable Iarvae of Taenia Solium or cysticerci. Neurocysticercosis denotes presence of a Taenia Solium larva cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) in the brain parenchyma, meninges, or ventricular spaces. Neuroimaging by computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are the best procedures to diagnose neurocysticercosis. Serological tests (EITB) or ELISA) are not sensitive as more than 50% of patients with neurocysticercosis have negative serology. Alpendazole and praziquentel are the most effective antihelmenthic drugs. Prevention of the disease and its complications as epilepsy is the management corner stone. A single dose of praziquentel for every emigrant from endemic areas will eradicate the adult tapeworm and reduce the incidence of neurocysticercosis. Physicians in moslem countries should be aware about the disease not only among immigrants but among moslems. We reviewed the available information about the disease epidemiologically, clinically, radiologically, laboratory tests, and methods of prevention. PMID:24185216

Hamad, A E; Fawzi, M F

2001-01-01

199

Successful immunization of naturally reared pigs against porcine cysticercosis with a recombinant oncosphere antigen vaccine  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium causes cysticercosis in pigs and taeniasis and neurocysticercosis in humans. Oncosphere antigens have proven to be effective as vaccines to protect pigs against an experimental infection with T. solium. A pair-matched vaccination trial field, using a combination of two recombinant antigens, TSOL16 and TSOL18, was undertaken in rural villages of Peru to evaluate the efficacy of this vaccine under natural conditions. Pairs of pigs (n = 137) comprising one vaccinated and one control animal, were allocated to local villagers. Animals received two vaccinations with 200 ?g of each of TSOL16 and TSOL18, plus 5 mg Quil-A. Necropsies were performed 7 months after the animals were distributed to the farmers. Vaccination reduced 99.7% and 99.9% (p < 0.01) the total number of cysts and the number of viable cysts, respectively. Immunization with the TSOL16–TSOL18 vaccines has the potential to control T. solium transmission in areas where the disease is endemic, reducing the source for tapeworm infections in humans.

Jayashi, Cesar M.; Kyngdon, Craig T.; Gauci, Charles G.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

2012-01-01

200

Neurocysticercosis  

PubMed Central

A single enhancing lesion in the brain parenchyma, also called an inflammatory granuloma, is a frequent neurologic diagnosis. One of the commonest causes of this lesion is human neurocysticercosis, the infection by the larvae of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Following the demonstration that viable cysticercosis cysts survive in good conditions for several years in the human brain, single cysticercal granulomas have been consistently interpreted as representing late degeneration of a long-established parasite. On the basis of epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory evidence detailed in this article, we hypothesize that in most cases these inflammatory lesions correspond to parasites that die in the early steps of infection, likely as the natural result of the host immunity overcoming mild infections. GLOSSARY NCC = neurocysticercosis; SCG = single cysticercal granuloma.

Garcia, H.H.; Gonzalez, A.E.; Rodriguez, S.; Tsang, V.C.W.; Pretell, E.J.; Gonzales, I.; Gilman, R.H.

2010-01-01

201

Rare Case of Disseminated Cysticercosis and Taeniasis in a Japanese Traveler after Returning from India  

PubMed Central

We report disseminated cysticercosis concurrent with taeniasis in a 31-year-old male Japanese, who had visited India three times and stayed for 1 month each time during the previous 1 year. The patient presented increasing numbers of subcutaneous nodules and expelled proglottids, although numerous cysts were also found in the brain in imaging findings, though no neurological symptoms were observed. Histopathological and serological findings strongly indicated cysticercosis. We found taeniid eggs in his stool by microscopic examination and revealed them as the Indian haplotype of Taenia solium by mitochondrial DNA analysis. We concluded that disseminated cysticercosis was caused by the secondary autoinfection with eggs released from the tapeworm carrier himself. After confirming the absence of adult worms in the intestine by copro-polymerase chain reaction, the patient was successfully treated with albendazole at a dose of 15 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Subcutaneous and intracranial lesions had completely disappeared by the end of the treatment period.

Kobayashi, Ken-ichiro; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Nishiguchi, Takeshi; Isoda, Kenichi; Kokubo, Yasumasa; Ando, Katsuhiko; Katurahara, Masaki; Sako, Yasuhito; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Ito, Akira; Iwabuchi, Sentaro; Ohnishi, Kenji

2013-01-01

202

A pilot study of common health problems in smallholder pigs in Angónia and Boane districts, Mozambique.  

PubMed

A pilot survey was conducted in 2 districts in Mozambique to determine the most important health problems facing smallholder pig producers. While African swine fever is the most serious disease that affects pigs at all levels of production in Mozambique, it is likely that productivity is reduced by the presence of mange and gastrointestinal parasites, while in traditional systems the conditions are favourable for the development of porcine cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, which poses a health risk to communities. Results of the pilot survey confirmed that, with the exception of African swine fever, ecto- and endoparasites are probably the most important health risks for producers. Porcine cysticercosis is more prevalent among pigs in traditional, free-ranging systems, while mange becomes a serious factor when pigs are permanently confined. PMID:22332301

Matos, C; Sitoe, C; Afonso, S; Banze, J; Baptista, J; Dias, G; Rodrigues, F; Atanásio, A; Nhamusso, A; Penrith, M L; Willingham, A L

2011-09-01

203

Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide, a novel VIP-like gut-brain peptide, relaxes the guinea-pig taenia caeci via apamin-sensitive potassium channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP-(1-27)) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) on the guinea-pig taenia caeci were studied in the presence of guanethidine and scopolamine. Both peptides (1 nmol\\/1-1 µmol\\/1) concentration-dependently relaxed the smooth muscle of the taenia. PACAP-(1-27) and VIP were nearly equipotent. Apamin (30 nmol\\/1), a selective blocker of calcium-activated potassium channels, abolished the relaxation induced

H. Schwörer; S. Katsoulis; W. Creutzfeldt; W. E. Schmidt

1992-01-01

204

Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta).  

PubMed

Subcutaneous and intraperitoneal cysticercosis due to Taenia crassiceps was diagnosed in a 5-yr-old male ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) in the Madrid Zoo-Aquarium (Madrid, Spain). Under laparoscopic examination, several septated fibrous cystic structures and numerous masses of small transparent vesicles (ca. 3 mm in diameter) were observed subcutaneously and inside the peritoneal cavity. Most of the structures were extirpated but, after 2 days of postsurgical intensive care, the animal died. The loss of body weight of the animal after surgical extirpation (566 g) represented 22% of the total weight (body weight before mass removal, 2582 g). The vesicles were identified under light microscopic examination as cysticerci and by molecular diagnosis as Cysticercus longicollis, the larval form of T. crassiceps. The present report represents the first detection of T. crassiceps in the prosimian genus Lemur. PMID:20597227

Luzón, Mónica; de la Fuente-López, Concepción; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Fernández-Morán, Jesús; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco

2010-06-01

205

Interaction and ovicidal activity of nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia on Taenia saginata eggs.  

PubMed

The ovicidal activity of the nematophagous fungi Pochonia chlamydosporia (isolates VC1 and VC4), Duddingtonia flagrans (isolate AC001) and Monacrosporium thaumasium (isolate NF34) on Taenia saginata eggs was evaluated under laboratory conditions. T. saginata eggs were plated on 2% water-agar with fungal isolates and controls without fungus and examined after 5, 10 and 15 days. At the end of the experiment P. chlamydosporia showed ovicidal activity against T. saginata eggs (p<0.05), mainly for internal egg colonization with results of 12.8% (VC1) and 2.2% (VC4); 18.1% (VC1) and 7.0% (VC4); 9.76% (VC1) and 8.0% (VC4) at 5, 10 and 15 days, respectively. The other fungi showed only lytic effect without morphological damage to the eggshell. Results demonstrated that P. chlamydosporia was effective in vitro against T. saginata eggs unlike the other fungi. PMID:19141298

Araújo, Juliana M; Araújo, Jackson V; Braga, Fabio R; Carvalho, Rogério O; Silva, André R; Campos, Artur K

2009-04-01

206

Evaluation of a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Method Using Fecal Specimens for Differential Detection of Taenia Species from Humans? ‡  

PubMed Central

We compared the performance of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with that of a multiplex PCR method for differential detection of human Taenia parasites in fecal specimens from taeniasis patients. The LAMP method, with no false positives, showed a higher sensitivity (88.4%) than the multiplex PCR (37.2%). Thus, it is expected that the LAMP method has a high value for molecular diagnosis of taeniasis.

Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Wandra, Toni; Swastika, I. Kadek; Nakao, Minoru; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Qiu, Dongchuan; Ito, Akira

2010-01-01

207

A STAT4Dependent Th1 Response Is Required for Resistance to the Helminth Parasite Taenia crassiceps  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the role of STAT4-dependent Th1 responses in the regulation of immunity to the helminth parasite Taenia crassiceps, we monitored infections with this parasite in resistant mice lacking the STAT4 gene. While T. crassiceps-infected STAT4\\/ mice rapidly resolved the infection, STAT4\\/ mice were highly sus- ceptible to infection and displayed large parasite loads. Moreover, the inability of STAT4\\/ mice

M. Rodriguez-Sosa; Rafael Saavedra; Eda P. Tenorio; Lucia E. Rosas; Abhay R. Satoskar; Luis I. Terrazas

2004-01-01

208

Regulation of intracellular free magnesium concentration in the taenia of guinea-pig caecum.  

PubMed Central

1. In the taenia isolated from the guinea-pig caecum, changes in free intracellular magnesium concentration ([Mg2+]i) were measured based on the separation of the chemical shift of the alpha- and beta-peaks of ATP obtained with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). 2. When external Mg2+ was increased from 1.2 to 12 and 40 mM, [Mg2+]i increased from 0.34 +/- 0.05 to 0.39 +/- 0.07 and 0.61 +/- 0.18 mM (n = 3), respectively, in 125-150 min. In the absence of Ca2+, the increase was greater, i.e. [Mg2+]i reached 0.92 +/- 0.05 (n = 3) and 3.37 mM (n = 1), respectively. 3. In Ca(2+)- and Mg(2+)-free solution, [Mg2+]i decreased to about 10 microM in 100 min. This decrease was not affected by substitution of Na+ with K+, but the recovery of [Mg2+]i on Mg2+ readmission was slower in the absence of Na+. This recovery was prevented by Ca2+ (2.4 mM), but Na+ readmission produced full recovery of [Mg2+]i in the presence of Ca2+. 4. When Na+ was substituted with K+ in the absence of Ca2+, [Mg2+]i increased from 0.38 +/- 0.01 mM to 0.56 +/- 0.04 mM (n = 4) in 100 min. Substitution of Na+ with N-methyl-D-glucamine produced a much greater increase (to 2.1 mM in 100 min). Removal of the external K+ in the absence of Ca2+ also increased [Mg2+]i to 0.66 +/- 0.11 mM (n = 4) in 150 min, but no clear change was observed in the presence of Ca2+. Full recovery of [Mg2+]i could be produced in normal solution even when the intracellular phosphocreatine and ATP concentrations were 70-80% of the control. 5. It is concluded that in the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig taenia caeci an Na(+)-Mg2+ exchange process and possibly also an ATP-driven Mg2+ pump are playing important roles in maintaining free [Mg2+]i at about 0.3 mM under the physiological condition. In addition to this, Ca2+ inhibits both Mg2+ efflux and influx, probably by reducing the membrane permeability to Mg2+ and by competing with Mg2+ in the Na(+)-Mg2+ exchange of the plasma membrane.

Nakayama, S; Tomita, T

1991-01-01

209

Zoonotic foodborne parasites and their surveillance.  

PubMed

Humans suffer from several foodborne helminth zoonotic diseases, some of which can be deadly (e.g., trichinellosis, cerebral cysticercosis) while others are chronic and cause only mild illness (e.g., intestinal taeniosis). The route of infection is normally consumption of the parasite's natural host as a human food item (e.g., meat). The risk for infection with these parasites is highest wherever people have an inadequate knowledge of infection and hygiene, poor animal husbandry practices, and unsafe management and disposal of human and animal waste products. The design of surveillance and control strategies for the various foodborne parasite species, and the involvement of veterinary and public health agencies, vary considerably because of the different life cycles of these parasites, and epidemiological features. Trichinella spiralis, which causes most human trichinellosis, is acquired from the consumption of pork, although increasingly cases occur from eating wild game. For cysticercosis, however, the only sources for human infection are pork (Taenia solium) or beef (T. saginata). The chief risk factor for infection of humans with these parasites is the consumption of meat that has been inadequately prepared. For the pig or cow, however, the risk factors are quite different between Trichinella and Taenia. For T. spiralis the major source of infection of pigs is exposure to infected animal meat (which carries the infective larval stage), while for both Taenia species it is human faecal material contaminated with parasite eggs shed by the adult intestinal stage of the tapeworm. Consequently, the means for preventing exposure of pigs and cattle to infective stages of T. spiralis, T. solium, and T. saginata vary markedly, especially the requirements for ensuring the biosecurity of these animals at the farm. The surveillance strategies and methods required for these parasites in livestock are discussed, including the required policy-level actions and the necessary collaborations between the veterinary and medical sectors to achieve a national reporting and control programme. PMID:24547659

Murrell, K D

2013-08-01

210

An epidemiological survey on the determination of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Iran, using a PCR assay.  

PubMed

Bovine cysticercosis caused by Taenia saginata is a zoonotic disease affirming routine inspection measures for the postmortem detection of cysticerci (cysts) in beef destined for human consumption. Detection is based on gross examination of traditional carcase predilection sites; although there is evidence to suggest that examination of other sites may offer improvements in sensitivity. In the current study, a biomolecular-based assay was employed to confirm and differentiate T saginata cysticercosis from other comparable parasitic infection in cattle carcases. Out of 7371 cattle carcases routinely inspected, 72 (0.97 per cent) were initially detected, from which 57 (79.16 per cent), 11(15.27 per cent) and 4 (5.55 per cent) were recorded in masseter muscle, heart and diaphragm, respectively. The PCR assay was also conducted to confirm different stages of the cysts, being able to detect the cyst, and to discriminate its various degenerative stages with other parasitic structures. The technique was proposed as a reliable tool to differentiate the cysticerci and, thus, could be used in further epidemiological studies as there was no difference in view of negative PCR results in lesions found by routine inspection. PMID:23571031

Hosseinzadeh, S; Setayesh, A; Shekarforoush, S S; Fariman, S H

2013-04-27

211

Depressed T-cell proliferation associated with susceptibility to experimental Taenia crassiceps infection.  

PubMed Central

Peritoneal infection with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci of naturally resistant (C57BL/10J and C57BL/6J) and susceptible (BALB/cAnN) mice induces a cellular immune depression. T-cell proliferation in response to concanavalin A (ConA) or anti-CD3 was significantly depressed in infected mice of all strains tested. However, in resistant mice, the diminished response to ConA was transient and animals recovered normal responsiveness at day 40, whereas susceptible mice remained suppressed throughout the 40 days of the experiment. In contrast, the proliferative response to anti-CD3 was lower in infected mice than in noninfected controls regardless of differences in natural susceptibility of the strains. Intraperitoneal injection of mice with a parasite extract also induced a depression of the response to ConA, although not as strong as that produced by the parasite itself. This depression is not due to direct effects by parasite antigens over host lymphocytes, as proliferation is not affected by the presence of cysticercal antigens added in vitro. Diminished interleukin-2 production during the parasitosis accounts at least in part for the diminished responses to ConA. A primary infection favors parasite establishment after a second challenge, pointing to the relevance of the immunodepression in generating a host environment favorable to the parasite.

Sciutto, E; Fragoso, G; Baca, M; De la Cruz, V; Lemus, L; Lamoyi, E

1995-01-01

212

Taenia crassiceps Infection Does Not Influence the Development of Experimental Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

It was previously reported by our group that infection with Taenia crassiceps reduces incidence and severity of inflammatory and autoimmune experimental diseases like type 1 diabetes and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In this research, we set out to study whether infection with T. crassiceps would affect the development of experimental rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We found that mice infected with the parasite and induced with experimental RA showed similar clinical scores as the noninfected experimental RA group; systemic cytokines were not affected while anti-CII Abs were higher in the infected group. Histological evaluation showed damage in both infected and noninfected experimental RA-induced groups and although some surface molecules such as PDL-2 and MR which are associated with immunomodulatory mechanisms were upregulated in the infected and RA-induced group as compared to the noninfected RA group, they did not exert any changes in the outcome of experimental RA. Thus, we determined that infection with T. crassiceps does not influence the outcome of experimental RA.

Ortiz-Flores, Aaxin M.; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Calleja, Elsa A.; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Juarez, Imelda; Terrazas, Luis I.

2013-01-01

213

Taenia taeniaeformis: fate and proliferation of mucosal cells during gastric hyperplasia in larvae infected rats.  

PubMed

Fate and proliferation of gastric mucosal cells during hyperplasia of Taenia taeniaeformis eggs inoculated Wistar rats were investigated using PCNA immunohistochemistry, BrdU labeling and other histopathologic staining techniques. Results revealed marked cell proliferation in gastric corpus and antral mucosa of infected rats as evidenced by increased lengths of proliferative zones and indices of BrdU labeling. The gastropathy in corpus was characterized by massive accumulation of precursors, neck and intermediate cells following significant decreases in numbers of parietal and zymogenic cells. Gastropathy in antrum was described with significant increases in precursors and mucous cells. Our results suggested that T. taeniaeformis-induced gastric hyperplasia was initiated by depletion of parietal cells presumably due to the cestode's ES products. As a result, there was inhibition of zymogenic cell differentiation due to the disruption of normal development pathways of gastric mucosal lineages. These sequences of events were considered to cause the increase in cell proliferation and accumulation of intermediate cells resulting to the hyperplastic lesions. PMID:18226813

Lagapa, J T; Oku, Y; Nonaka, N; Kamiya, M

2008-04-01

214

The immunological response of the rat to infection with Taenia taniaeformis  

PubMed Central

Passive transfer of immunity to Taenia taeniaeformis infection in the rat was achieved with serum taken 14, 21 and 28 days after infection, with maximal activity at 28 days. The protective capacity resided in the globulin fraction, which was further fractionated by gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography. The immunoglobulins present in each passively transferred fraction were detected with specific antisera to 7S?2, 7S?1, ?M and ?A. Protective activity was confined to those fractions containing 7S immunoglobulin. Fractions enriched for ?M were unable to confer protection and it was possible to protect recipient rats against challenge with fractions devoid of ?A and reaginic antibody activity. 7S?2a antibodies were able to confer passive protection when given alone, and probably contributed to the protective capacity of mixtures containing 7S?2 and 7S?1 immunoglobulins. A mechanism for specific acquired resistance to T. taeniaeformis is proposed based upon the recently established biological properties of 7S?2a. Absorption of protective activity from immune rat serum was unsuccessful using a variety of techniques, and an explanation is offered for this finding. The results are discussed in relation to the current understanding of acquired resistance in cysticercosis and hydatid disease in domesticated food animals. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 5FIG. 6

Leid, R. W.; Williams, J. F.

1974-01-01

215

Adding resolution to ordinal level relationships of tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) with large fragments of mtDNA.  

PubMed

The construction of a stable phylogeny for the Cestoda, indicating the interrelationships of recognised orders and other major lineages, has proceeded iteratively since the group first received attention from phylogenetic systematists. Molecular analyses using nuclear ribosomal RNA gene fragments from the small (ssrDNA) and large (lsrDNA) subunits have been used to test competing evolutionary scenarios based on morphological data but could not arbitrate between some key conflicting hypotheses. To the ribosomal data, we have added a contiguous fragment of mitochondrial (mt) genome data (mtDNA) of partial nad1-trnN-trnP-trnI-trnK-nad3-trnS-trnW-cox1-trnT-rrnL-trnC-partial rrnS, spanning 4034-4447 bp, where new data for this region were generated for 18 species. Bayesian analysis of mtDNA and rDNA as nucleotides, and where appropriate as amino acids, demonstrated that these two classes of genes provide complementary signal across the phylogeny. In all analyses, except when using mt amino acids only, the Gyrocotylidea is sister group to all other Cestoda (Nephroposticophora), and Amphilinidea forms the sister group to the Eucestoda. However, an earliest-diverging position of Amphilinidea is strongly supported in the mt amino acid analysis. Amphilinidea exhibit a unique tRNA arrangement (nad1-trnI-trnL2-trnP-trnK-trnV-trnA-trnN-nad3), whereas Gyrocotylidea shares that of the derived lineages, providing additional evidence of the uniqueness of amphilinid genes and genomes. The addition of mtDNA to the rDNA genes supported the Caryophyllidea as the sister group to (Spathebothriidea+remaining Eucestoda), a hypothesis consistently supported by morphology. This relationship suggests a history of step-wise evolutionary transitions from simple monozoic, unsegmented tapeworms to the more familiar polyzoic, externally segmented (strobilate) forms. All our data partitions recovered Haplobothriidea as the sister group to Diphyllobothriidae. The sister-group relationship between Diphyllidea and Trypanorhyncha, as previously established using rDNA, is not supported by the mt data, although it is supported by the combined mt and rDNA analysis. With regards to the more derived taxa, in all except the mt amino acid analysis, the following topology is supported: (Bothriocephalidea (Litobothriidea (Lecanicephalidea (Rhinebothriidea (Tetraphyllidea, (Acanthobothrium, Proteocephalidea), (Nippotaeniidea, Mesocestoididae, Tetrabothriidea, Cyclophyllidea)))))), where the Tetraphyllidea are paraphyletic. Evidence from the mt data provides strong (nucleotides) to moderate (amino acids) support for Tetraphyllidea forming a group to the inclusion of Proteocephalidea, with the latter consistently forming the sister group to Acanthobothrium. The interrelationships among Nippotaeniidea, Mesocestoididae, Tetrabothriidea and Cyclophyllidea remain ambiguous and require further systematic attention. Mitochondrial and nuclear rDNA data provide conflicting signal for certain parts of the cestode tree. In some cases mt data offer results in line with morphological evidence, such as the interrelationships of the early divergent lineages. Also, Tetraphyllidea, although remaining paraphyletic with the inclusion of the Proteocephalidea, does not include the most derived cestodes; a result which has consistently been obtained with rDNA. PMID:22406529

Waeschenbach, Andrea; Webster, B L; Littlewood, D T J

2012-06-01

216

Inhibition of Ca-movement and mechanical movement in rabbit taenia coli by a smooth muscle relaxant (suloctidil).  

PubMed

A smooth muscle relaxant (suloctidil) relaxed a contractile response of taenia coli to acetylcholine and noncompetitively depressed a dose response curve of Cacl2 Ca-uptake by the microsomal fraction was inhibited by suloctidil. Its noncompetitive antiacetylcholine activity and inhibitory action on Ca-uptake were not influenced by an increase of external Ca-concentration. Ca-release from the Ca-incorporated microsomal fraction was not significantly influenced by suloctidil. These results suggest that suloctidil inhibit Ca-influx noncompetitively, thus inducing smooth muscle relaxation. PMID:6119359

Takayanagi, I; Koike, K; Yoshida, Y; Kaneko, M

1981-10-01

217

Nitric oxide contributes to host resistance against experimental Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis.  

PubMed

The immune mechanisms that underlie resistance and susceptibility to cysticercosis are not completely understood. In this paper, using susceptible BALB/c mice and resistant STAT6-/-BALB/c mice, we have analyzed the role of nitric oxide (NO) in determining the outcome of murine cysticercosis caused by the cestode Taenia crassiceps. After T. crassiceps infection, wild-type BALB/c mice developed a strong Th2-like response, produced high levels of IgG1, IgE, IL-5, IL-4, and discrete levels of NO, and remained susceptible to T. crassiceps infection. In contrast, similarly infected BALB/c mice treated with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthase) mounted a similar immune response but with lower levels of NO and harbored nearly 100% more parasites than N(omega)-nitro-D-arginine methyl ester (D-NAME, inactive enantiomer)-treated mice. To further analyze the role of NO in murine cysticercosis, we treated STAT6-/-male mice (known to be highly resistant to T. crassiceps) with L-NAME during 8 weeks of infection. As expected, STAT6-/-mice mounted a strong Th1-like response, produced high levels of IgG2a, IFN-gamma, and IL-17, whereas their macrophages displayed increased transcripts of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and efficiently controlled T. crassiceps infection. However, STAT6-/-male mice receiving L-NAME mounted a similar immune response but with lower iNOS transcripts concomitantly with decreased levels of NO in sera and displayed significantly higher parasite burdens. These findings suggest that macrophage activation and NO production are effector mechanisms that importantly contribute in host resistance to T. crassiceps infection. The immune mechanisms that underlie resistance and susceptibility to cysticercosis are not completely understood. In this paper, using susceptible BALB/c mice and resistant STAT6-/-BALB/c mice, we have analyzed the role of nitric oxide (NO) in determining the outcome of murine cysticercosis caused by the cestode Taenia crassiceps. After T. crassiceps infection, wild-type BALB/c mice developed a strong Th2-like response, produced high levels of IgG1, IgE, IL-5, IL-4, and discrete levels of NO, and remained susceptible to T. crassiceps infection. In contrast, similarly infected BALB/c mice treated with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthase) mounted a similar immune response but with lower levels of NO and harbored nearly 100% more parasites than N(omega)-nitro-d-arginine methyl ester (D-NAME, inactive enantiomer)-treated mice. To further analyze the role of NO in murine cysticercosis, we treated STAT6-/-male mice (known to be highly resistant to T. crassiceps) with L-NAME during 8 weeks of infection. As expected, STAT6-/-mice mounted a strong Th1-like response, produced high levels of IgG2a, IFN-gamma, and IL-17, whereas their macrophages displayed increased transcripts of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and efficiently controlled T. crassiceps infection. However, STAT6-/-male mice receiving L-NAME mounted a similar immune response but with lower iNOS transcripts concomitantly with decreased levels of NO in sera and displayed significantly higher parasite burdens. These findings suggest that macrophage activation and NO production are effector mechanisms that importantly contribute in host resistance to T. crassiceps infection. PMID:17206501

Alonso-Trujillo, Javier; Rivera-Montoya, Irma; Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; Terrazas, Luis I

2007-05-01

218

The distribution of ions in the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig taenia coli  

PubMed Central

1. Tracer movements and ionic composition have been observed in the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig taenia coli in vitro at 4, and 35° C. The muscle was quiescent at 4° C, and did not show spontaneous electrical nor mechanical activity for 25 min after re-warming. It was therefore possible to make observations on the quiescent tissue at 35° C. 2. The rate of loss of tracer sodium was sensitive to changes of temperature, with an average Q10 of 3·4 ± 0·4 on warming in the range 4-35° C. Exponential analysis of 24Na efflux at 35° C showed an initial rapid phase, a second phase with t½ = 2 min, and a slowly exchanging phase. The second phase was most sensitive to changes of temperature and contained 15 m-mole Na/kg fresh wt. The corresponding transmembrane flux in spontaneously active muscle at 35° C would then be 30 p-mole cm-2 sec-1, and 20% of the available metabolic energy would be needed to maintain this exchange. 3. The rate of loss of tracer sodium was reduced in potassium-free or sodium-free solutions, but the effects were not impressive. 4. The cell size increased at 4° C, and fell again on warming while Na and Cl left the cell and K was taken up. Cell chloride content was linearly related to cell size. 5. The observations are interpreted on the assumption that the cytoplasm is osmotically isotonic and electrically neutral, and that some Na, K and Cl are sequestered elsewhere in the tissue. It is concluded that the quiescent smooth-muscle cell membrane is rather more permeable to sodium than the skeletal-muscle cell membrane.

Buck, B.; Goodford, P. J.

1966-01-01

219

The transduction system in the isoproterenol activation of the Ca(2+)- activated K+ channel in guinea pig taenia coli myocytes  

PubMed Central

In freshly dispersed guinea pig taenia coli myocytes the activity of the large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channel (maxi-K+ channel) predominates. The open probability (Po) of this channel is increased by micromolar concentrations of the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (ISO). Low concentrations of cholera toxin (CTX, 1 pM) and guanosine 5'- O-2-thiodiphosphate (GDP beta S, 0.5 mM) suppress the ISO-induced increase of Po. Higher concentrations of CTX (e.g., 0.5 nM) as well as forskolin and dibutyryl cAMP increase the Po. 1,9-Dideoxyforskolin, the forskolin analogue, which lacks the adenylate cyclase-stimulating effect, does not. A specific protein kinase A inhibitor (Wiptide), applied intracellularly via diffusion from the patch electrode, suppresses the ISO-induced increase of whole-cell outward K+ current during step depolarization. In contrast, intracellularly applied protein kinase C (19-36), a specific protein kinase C inhibitor, has no effect on the whole-cell current. TMB-8, an inhibitor of intracellular calcium mobilization, does not affect either the whole-cell outward K+ current during step depolarization or the Po. These observations show that ISO increases the Po of the maxi-K+ channels in the guinea pig taenia coli myocytes through the G protein-adenylate cyclase-protein kinase A system.

1993-01-01

220

Increased sensitivity for the diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercus infection by additional heart examination compared to the EU-approved routine meat inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the statutory meat inspection at abattoirs, Taenia saginata cysticercus infection in cattle remains an economically important parasitic disease for the livestock industry by affecting food safety. The routinely performed standard meat inspection protocol has a low diagnostic sensitivity for the detection of T. saginata cysticerci infections. Therefore, an abattoir trial aiming to increase the detection level was

Ramon Marc Eichenberger; Roger Stephan; Peter Deplazes

2011-01-01

221

Inhibitory action of PPADS on relaxant responses to adenine nucleotides or electrical field stimulation in guinea-pig taenia coli and rat duodenum.  

PubMed Central

1. The effect of pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS) on the relaxant response to adenine nucleotides was examined in the carbachol-contracted guinea-pig taenia coli and rat duodenum, two tissues possessing P2y-purinoceptors. In addition, in the taenia coli PPADS was investigated for its effect on relaxations evoked by adenosine, noradrenaline and electrical field stimulation. In order to assess the selectivity of PPADS between P2-purinoceptor blockade and ectonucleotidase activity, its influence on ATP degradation was studied in guinea-pig taenia coli. 2. The resulting rank order of potency for the adenine nucleotides in guinea-pig taenia coli was: 2-methylthio ATP >> ATP > alpha,beta-methylene ATP with the respective pD2-values 7.96 +/- 0.08 (n = 23), 6.27 +/- 0.12 (n = 21) and 5.88 +/- 0.04 (n = 24). 3. In guinea-pig taenia coli, PPADS (10-100 microM) caused a consistent dextral shift of the concentration-response curve (CRC) of 2-methylthio ATP and ATP resulting in a biphasic Schild plot. A substantial shift was only observed at 100 microM PPADS, the respective pA2-values at this particular concentration were 5.26 +/- 0.16 (n = 5) and 5.15 +/- 0.13 (n = 6). Lower concentrations of PPADS (3-30 microM) antagonized the relaxant effects to alpha,beta-methylene ATP in a surmountable manner. An extensive shift of the CRC was produced only by 30 microM PPADS (pA2 = 5.97 +/- 0.08, n = 6), and the Schild plot was again biphasic.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Windscheif, U.; Pfaff, O.; Ziganshin, A. U.; Hoyle, C. H.; Baumert, H. G.; Mutschler, E.; Burnstock, G.; Lambrecht, G.

1995-01-01

222

Platyhelminthes in tongue--a rare case and review.  

PubMed

Humans are the only known definitive host of the tapeworm Taenia solium and become a carrier by eating undercooked pork contaminated with "Cysticercus cellulosae" (cysticerci). Pigs act as an intermediate host and acquire cysticercosis by ingestion of eggs or proglottids from human feces, which develop into cysticerci within tissue, mostly without causing clinical symptoms in the host. Cysticercosis occurs in humans in a context of "fecal peril" by ingestion of egg-contaminated soil, water, vegetation, or auto-infestation. It has been reported in the published data that the separation of swine from humans, healthy cooking, and hygienic practices would lead to the eradication of the disease. However, cysticercosis is still a major public health problem in endemic regions, with more than 50 million infected people and is now a re-emerging disease in industrialized countries owing to human migration. It is the second most common cause of seizures in tropical countries. We report a case of oral cysticercosis in a 28-year-old woman who presented with a painless swelling in the ventral portion of the tongue. An excisional biopsy was performed, and histopathologic examination revealed a cystic cavity containing the tapeworm. PMID:22364857

Gupta, D S; Goyal, Arun K; Tandon, Padam Narayan; Jurel, Sunit K; Srivastava, Shilpi; Dangi, Uday R; Singh, Sudhansu; Jain, Ravi

2012-11-01

223

Modulation by GABA(B) and delta opioid receptors of neurally induced responses in isolated guinea-pig taenia coli and human colonic circular muscle.  

PubMed

The GABA-ergic and opioid modulation of neurally induced muscle responses was studied in isolated guinea-pig taenia coli and human colonic circular muscle, using identical field stimulation parameters (rectangular pulses of 0.5 ms duration, 9 V x cm(-1) intensity, trains of 3 pulses at 0.5 Hz, repeated every 1/3/5 min). The stimulation-induced contractions were inhibited in both preparations by GABA and baclofen; the IC50 values in human colonic circular muscle were approximately 100 and 31.0 microM, respectively. In guinea-pig taenia coli, the inhibition by 10(-4) M GABA was dose-dependently reversed by 10(-4)-10(-3) M of GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP 35348; antagonism by phaclofen was less effective in the same concentration range. In human colonic circular muscle, inhibition by 3 x 10(-5) M baclofen was fully reversed by 10(-3) M CGP 35348. With the exception of caecum, the delta 2 opioid receptor agonist deltorphin II was a potent inhibitor in human colonic circular muscle. 10(-8) M Deltorphin caused a 74.4 +/- 9.6% (n = 4) inhibition which was reversed by 10(-6) M of delta receptor selective peptide antagonist BOC-Tyr-Pro-Gly-Phe-Leu-Thr(OtBu). Deltorphin II was ineffective in guinea-pig taenia coli even at 10(-6) M; the same concentration caused an 84.3 +/- 7.9 (n = 4) inhibition in human preparations. It is concluded that: 1) GABA-ergic modulatory mechanisms are present both in human colonic circular muscle and guinea-pig taenia coli; 2) the GABA receptors involved are of type B; and 3) delta opioid receptor-mediated modulation functions only in human colonic circular muscle in regions other than the caecum. PMID:10791695

Makó, E; Rónai, A Z; Adám, G; Juhász, G; Ritter, L; Lestár, B; Crunelli, V

2000-01-01

224

Parasite vaccine development: large-scale recovery of immunogenic Taenia ovis fusion protein GST45W(B\\/X) from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified Escherichia coli expressing the Taenia ovis fusion protein GST-45W(B\\/X) as inclusion bodies were grown in volumes ranging up to 1000 l. Bacteria were inactivated by heat\\u000a or chemical treatment without affecting immunogenicity. The fusion protein was recovered in a highly immunogenic form from\\u000a washed inclusion bodies and from urea-solubilised inclusion bodies. The fusion protein was found to be

R. P. Dempster; C. M. Robinson; G. B. L. Harrison

1996-01-01

225

Intracellular-free magnesium in the smooth muscle of guinea pig taenia caeci: a concomitant analysis for magnesium and pH upon sodium removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is concerned with the regulation of intracellular-free Mg 2+ concentration ((Mg~+)i) in the smooth muscle of guinea pig taenia caeci. To assess an interaction of Ca 2+ on the Na§ Mg2§ mechanism (Na § Mg 2§ exchange), effects of Na + removal (N-methyl-n-glucamine substitution) were examined in Ca~+-containing solutions. As changes in pHi in Na+-free solutions perturb estimation

S. Nakayama; H. NOMURA; T. TOMITA

1994-01-01

226

Growth hormone-like factor produced by the tapeworm, Spirometra mansonoides, displaces human growth hormone (hGH) from its receptors on cultured human lymphocytes  

SciTech Connect

An analogue of hGH isolated from plerocercoids of the tapeworm Spirometra mansonoides displaces (/sup 125/I)hGH from its receptors in rabbit, rat, and hamster liver membranes. Biologically, plerocercoid growth factor (PGF) is more similar to hGH than to other mammalian GH's but has not been shown to bond human cells. Receptors specific for hGH have been described on cultured human lymphocytes (IM-9). In this study, the authors compared the binding of PGF and hGH in IM-9 cells and in rabbit hepatic membranes. IM-9 lymphocytes (12 x 10/sup 6/ cells/tube) were incubated with (/sup 125/I)hGH and increasing concentrations of hGH (ng/ml) or PGF (serial dilutions) for 90 min at 30/sup 0/ C. Specific binding (B/sub 0/ - NSB) was determined for each dose of hGH or PGF and the binding curves were analyzed by logit-log regression. The results show that PGF displaced (/sup 125/I)hGH from human cells in a dose dependent manner (r = 0.98). Based on the IM-9 assay, 1 ml of the PGF had an activity equivalent to 625 ng of the hGH standard (ngE). However, the binding activity of the PGF in the rabbit liver RRA was 1653 ngE/ml, indicating that the binding potency of PGF in IM-9 cells was only 38% of that in the rabbit liver. These results clearly demonstrate that PGF binds hGH receptors in cells of human origin, suggesting that PGF will be effective in humans.

Watts, D.J.; Phares, C.K.

1986-03-01

227

Growth and ontogeny of the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus in its copepod first host affects performance in its stickleback second intermediate host  

PubMed Central

Background For parasites with complex life cycles, size at transmission can impact performance in the next host, thereby coupling parasite phenotypes in the two consecutive hosts. However, a handful of studies with parasites, and numerous studies with free-living, complex-life-cycle animals, have found that larval size correlates poorly with fitness under particular conditions, implying that other traits, such as physiological or ontogenetic variation, may predict fitness more reliably. Using the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus, we evaluated how parasite size, age, and ontogeny in the copepod first host interact to determine performance in the stickleback second host. Methods We raised infected copepods under two feeding treatments (to manipulate parasite growth), and then exposed fish to worms of two different ages (to manipulate parasite ontogeny). We assessed how growth and ontogeny in copepods affected three measures of fitness in fish: infection probability, growth rate, and energy storage. Results Our main, novel finding is that the increase in fitness (infection probability and growth in fish) with larval size and age observed in previous studies on S. solidus seems to be largely mediated by ontogenetic variation. Worms that developed rapidly (had a cercomer after 9?days in copepods) were able to infect fish at an earlier age, and they grew to larger sizes with larger energy reserves in fish. Infection probability in fish increased with larval size chiefly in young worms, when size and ontogeny are positively correlated, but not in older worms that had essentially completed their larval development in copepods. Conclusions Transmission to sticklebacks as a small, not-yet-fully developed larva has clear costs for S. solidus, but it remains unclear what prevents the evolution of faster growth and development in this species.

2012-01-01

228

Neurocysticercosis in a 2-year-old boy infected at home  

PubMed Central

A 2-year-old boy presented with seizures and two parenchymal brain ring-enhancing lesions. Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis was confirmed by positive serology and response to albendazole therapy. The patients's mother was a Taenia solium carrier, who had most likely infected the child through the fecal-oral route. Household contacts should always be investigated in children with neurocysticercosis. Proper identification and treatment of Taenia solium carriers will reduce the risk of further spread of the disease.

Brutto, Oscar H. Del

2012-01-01

229

The effect of loop diuretics on Cl- transport in smooth muscle of the guinea-pig vas deferens and taenia from the caecum.  

PubMed Central

1. The role of Na+, K+, Cl- co-transport, identified in the previous paper (Aickin & Brading, 1990), has been characterized further by investigation of the effects of loop diuretics on Cl- movements in the smooth muscle cells of guinea-pig vas deferens measured by 36Cl fluxes and Cl(-)-sensitive microelectrodes. Some flux experiments were also repeated in the taenia from the guinea-pig caecum. 2. Frusemide (2 mM) reduced the steady-state Cl- content, slowed 36Cl loss into Cl(-)-free solution and both slowed and reduced Cl- accumulation by Cl(-)-depleted cells of the vas deferens. When anion exchange was inhibited by the presence of DIDS, (4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid), frusemide further slowed the loss of Cl- into Cl(-)-free solution, further reduced Cl- accumulation such that Cl- uptake amounted to a level consistent with a passive distribution and halted the rise in the intracellular Cl- activity (aiCl) at levels above about 10 mM. 3. Application of the higher-affinity loop diuretics bumetanide and piretanide in vas deferns had no significant effect on 36Cl efflux into Cl(-)-free solution or on the initial rate of rise of aiCl but reduced the final level attained. In the presence of DIDS, however, both agents further slowed efflux into Cl(-)-free solution, and halted the rise in aiCl at levels above about 10 mM. Measurement of greatly slowed intracellular pH transients on removal and readdition of external Cl- (Clo-) in the presence of frusemide suggests that the larger effects of this drug are mediated by inhibition of anion exchange as well as of co-transport. 4. The relative potency of the loop diuretics, investigated in the presence of DIDS was: bumetanide greater than piretanide greater than frusemide. This sequence was found in both vas deferens, using direct measurement of aiCl, and taenia, using 36Cl uptake. 5. Comparison of data from the vas and taenia showed that 36Cl efflux into Cl(-)-free, HCO3(-)-free solution was about twice as fast in the taenia, and that bumetanide or piretanide reduced this efflux to about the same rate as that observed in the vas with or without the loop diuretic. DIDS caused a similar absolute reduction of efflux in both preparations. 6. Stimulation of 36Cl efflux on readdition, and inhibition on removal of Nao+ in the presence of DIDS, was much greater in the taenia than in vas and in both preparations was blocked by bumetanide or piretanide.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Aickin, C C; Brading, A F

1990-01-01

230

Comparison of the effects of ultraviolet light and purinergic nerve stimulation on the guinea-pig taenia coli  

PubMed Central

1 The responses of the guinea-pig taenia coli, urinary bladder, and the rabbit portal vein to ultraviolet (u.v.) light were compared to those elicited by purinergic nerve stimulation and exogenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP). 2 In the presence of sodium nitrite, u.v. light between 340-380 nm produced a maximum relaxation of the taenia coli. The relaxation was reversible and fast in onset. It was unaffected by atropine, guanethidine or low concentrations of phentolamine or propranolol. When the tone was low, the relaxation was usually followed by a `rebound contraction' upon cessation of stimulation. Thus, the response to u.v. light closely resembles the responses to both purinergic nerve stimulation and exogenously applied ATP. 3 U.v. light did not initiate impulses in purinergic nerves since its action was unaffected by tetrodotoxin; nor did it release ATP from nerve terminals (in contrast to its release during purinergic nerve stimulation). The adenosine-uptake inhibitor, dipyridamole, which potentiates the responses to purinergic nerve stimulation and ATP, did not affect the response to u.v. light. 4 Agents known to alter postjunctional responses to purinergic nerve stimulation and ATP also altered the response to u.v. light. High concentrations of the 2-substituted imidazoline compounds, antazoline and phentolamine, which antagonize the responses to purinergic nerve stimulation and ATP, reduced the responses to u.v. irradiation. The prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor, indomethacin, which abolishes the `rebound contraction' following stimulation of purinergic nerves, also blocks the `rebound `contraction' following u.v. irradiation. Increases in the K+ concentration produced parallel changes in the inhibitory responses to u.v. light and purinergic nerve stimulation. 5 U.v. light produced relaxation and inhibition of spontaneous activity of the rabbit portal vein (relaxed by ATP), but had no effect on the guinea-pig urinary bladder (contracted by ATP) and ureter (unaffected by ATP). 6 It is suggested that u.v. light is acting on some part of the purinergic receptor complex which is involved in the mediation of inhibitory responses to ATP and purinergic nerve stimulation, and may therefore provide a way of investigating the chemistry of inhibitory purinergic receptors.

Burnstock, G.; Wong, H.

1978-01-01

231

Age, season and spatio-temporal factors affecting the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis and Taenia taeniaeformis in Arvicola terrestris  

PubMed Central

Background Taenia taeniaeformis and the related zoonotic cestode Echinococcus multilocularis both infect the water vole Arvicola terrestris. We investigated the effect of age, spatio-temporal and season-related factors on the prevalence of these parasites in their shared intermediate host. The absolute age of the voles was calculated based on their eye lens weights, and we included the mean day temperature and mean precipitation experienced by each individual as independent factors. Results Overall prevalences of E. multilocularis and T. taeniaeformis were 15.1% and 23.4%, respectively, in 856 A. terrestris trapped in the canton Zürich, Switzerland. Prevalences were lower in young (? 3 months: E. multilocularis 7.6%, T. taeniaeformis 17.9%) than in older animals (>7 months: 32.6% and 34.8%). Only 12 of 129 E. multilocularis-infected voles harboured protoscoleces. Similar proportions of animals with several strobilocerci were found in T. taeniaeformis infected voles of <5 months and ?5 months of age (12.8% and 11.9%). Multivariate analyses revealed strong spatio-temporal variations in prevalences of E. multilocularis. In one trapping area, prevalences varied on an exceptional high level of 40.6-78.5% during the whole study period. Low temperatures significantly correlated with the infection rate whereas precipitation was of lower importance. Significant spatial variations in prevalences were also identified for Taenia taeniaeformis. Although the trapping period and the meteorological factors temperature and precipitation were included in the best models for explaining the infection risk, their effects were not significant for this parasite. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that, besides temporal and spatial factors, low temperatures contribute to the risk of infection with E. multilocularis. This suggests that the enhanced survival of E. multilocularis eggs under cold weather conditions determines the level of infection pressure on the intermediate hosts and possibly also the infection risk for human alveolar echincoccosis (AE). Therefore, interventions against the zoonotic cestode E. multilocularis by deworming foxes may be most efficient if conducted just before and during winter.

2011-01-01

232

21 CFR 520.903d - Febantel-praziquantel paste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (c) Conditions of use â(1) Amount â(i) Dogs and cats (over 6 months of age): 10 milligrams of febantel and...tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis ). (ii) Cats and kittens: For removal of hookworms (Ancylostoma...

2013-04-01

233

Cysticercosis masquerading as a buccal mass  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is endemic in many parts of the world. We present a case of one such lesion which presented itself as an asymptomatic buccal swelling. We present the life cycle of T. solium, the endemic nature of this infection, and the relevance of histological examination to arrive at a diagnosis.

Thambiah, Lalita J.; Pugazhendi, Satish Kumaran; Thangaswamy, Vinod

2012-01-01

234

Fatal infection with Taenia martis metacestodes in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in an Italian zoological garden.  

PubMed

A case of fatal infection caused by larval forms of Taenia martis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in the Rome zoological garden is described. The animal, living in a semi-natural pen with other 15 conspecific individuals and being fed with fresh fruit and vegetables, yoghurt and eggs, was transported to the Istituto Zooprofilattico of Rome for post-mortem examination. The anamnesis included, ten days before the death, apathy, lack of appetite, abdominal distension and diarrhoea. A severe exudative fibrinous-purulent peritonitis with numerous adhesions between the abdominal wall and the bowel loops was detected. After intestine removal, two free and viable, 4cm long, whitish, leaf-like parasitic forms were pinpointed. Macroscopic examination of the two parasites allowed their identification as larval stages of cestodes, identified via molecular analysis as T. martis metacestodes. This report represents the first record of T. martis infection in the host species and in a zoological garden and for the pathological relevance of the infection. PMID:24928170

De Liberato, Claudio; Berrilli, Federica; Meoli, Roberta; Friedrich, Klaus G; Di Cerbo, Pilar; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Eleni, Claudia

2014-10-01

235

Taenia crassiceps: fatty acids oxidation and alternative energy source in in vitro cysticerci exposed to anthelminthic drugs.  

PubMed

Cysticerci metabolic studies demonstrate alternative pathways responsible for its survival, such as energy sources, fatty acids oxidation and excretion of beta-hydroxybutyrate, which indicates the capability of energy production from proteins. The aim of this study was to detect alternative metabolic pathways for energy production and its end products in Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in vitro exposed to praziquantel and albendazole, in sub-lethal doses. Spectrophotometer and chromatographic analysis were performed to detect: propionate, acetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, total proteins, urea and creatinine, SE by cysticerci in vitro exposed to praziquantel and albendazole. The drugs influenced the metabolism by inducing the creatinine phosphate phosphorylation as an alternative energy source, inhibiting the use of proteins and amino acids in the acid nucleic synthesis; and preventing the budding and replication of the cysticerci. This study also highlights the description of urea excretion, which is an important metabolic pathway to excrete toxic products such as ammonia, and the fatty acid oxidation as an alternative energy source in cysticerci exposed to anthelmintic drugs. PMID:19348802

Vinaud, Marina Clare; Ferreira, Cirlane Silva; Lino Junior, Ruy de Souza; Bezerra, José Clecildo Barreto

2009-07-01

236

Transient inhibition of the muscarinic actions of carbachol during reactivation of the electrogenic sodium pump in guinea pig taenia caeci smooth muscle.  

PubMed

In guinea pig taenia caeci smooth muscle the muscarinic receptor stimulant carbachol evoked depolarization and contraction, which was followed by hyperpolarization and relaxation on its removal. Both the hyperpolarization and relaxation were inhibited by removal of K+ from the external medium. During Na+-pump blockade (K+-free solution) the depolarizing and contracting actions of carbachol decreased. When the Na+ pump was switched on again by readmission of 5.9 mmol/L K+ to K+-depleted and Na+-enriched preparations, electrogenic hyperpolarization and relaxation developed. During this period carbachol failed to produce depolarization and contraction. PMID:4042004

Török, T L; Vizi, S E; Magyar, K

1985-06-01

237

Fatty acids oxidation and alternative energy sources detected in Taenia crassiceps cysticerci after host treatment with antihelminthic drugs.  

PubMed

Human cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps is rare however it is considered of zoonotic risk. The treatment of the infected patients was successful when using albendazole or praziquantel. The active forms of albendazole inhibit the glucose uptake and the active forms of praziquantel alter glycogen levels and nutrients absorption. The aim of this study was to analyze the production of organic acids that indicate the oxidation of fatty acids and the use of alternative energy sources from T. crassiceps cysticerci removed from the peritoneal cavity of mice treated with low dosages of albendazole (5.75 and 11.5mg/kg) or praziquantel (3.83 and 7.67 mg/kg). The beta-hydroxibutyrate production was higher by the larval stage cysticerci in all treated groups and the propionate production was higher in final stage cysticerci treated with 11.5mg/kg of albendazole when compared to the control group. The larval stages of cysticerci from the groups treated with 5.75 mg/kg of albendazole and 3.83 mg/kg of praziquantel produced more urea than the initial and final stages which indicate amino acids breakdown. We conclude that it was possible to detect the fatty acid oxidation and amino acids breakdown which indicate the use of alternative energy production sources as the used dosages only cause a partial blockage of the glucose uptake and leads to metabolic alterations in the cysticerci. The metabolic behavior observed after host treatment was different from former descriptions of the in vitro one which indicates great host-parasite interaction. PMID:22465501

Fraga, Carolina Miguel; Costa, Tatiane Luiza; Bezerra, José Clecildo Barreto; de Souza Lino Junior, Ruy; Vinaud, Marina Clare

2012-05-01

238

Modification of alpha 1-receptor-operated channels by mebeverine in smooth muscle cells of guinea-pig taenia caeci.  

PubMed

Changes in the potential and contractility of smooth muscle cells of guinea-pig taenia caeci were measured (22 degrees C) in order to investigate the effect of mebeverine, a derivative of beta-phenylethylamine, on alpha 1-receptor-operated ion channels in particular. Mebeverine (6 X 10(-6) M) showed atropine-like properties by shifting to the right the concentration-response curve obtained with carbachol. Hyperpolarization and cessation of spike activity of the muscle cells, accompanied by an increased amplitude of the electrotonic potential were observed in the presence of mebeverine (6 X 10(-5] after block of the alpha 2-, beta- and muscarinic receptors. This effect of mebeverine was not observed in low-sodium solution (23.8 mM), suggesting that mebeverine decreased sodium permeability. The alpha 1-receptor-induced hyperpolarization caused by adrenaline (3 X 10(-6) M) in the presence of mebeverine declined after reaching an initial maximum. The hyperpolarization induced by a second addition of adrenaline to the preparation was decreased and sustained in the presence of mebeverine, while the decrease of the electrotonic potential evoked during the alpha 1 response was less pronounced. The transient hyperpolarization representing the alpha 1 response in the absence of extracellular calcium developed more slowly in the presence of mebeverine, the area of the response being constant. When the experiment was continued in calcium-free solution after a short exposure to calcium-containing Krebs solution still in the presence of mebeverine, the alpha 1-receptor-induced hyperpolarization was suppressed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2442008

Den Hertog, A; Van den Akker, J

1987-06-26

239

Distribution of Taenia saginata metacestodes: a comparison of routine meat inspection and carcase dissection results in experimentally infected calves.  

PubMed

A comparison of techniques for detecting the presence of Cysticercus bovis in bovine carcasses was made by using carcass dissection and routine beef inspection guidelines. In the study, 28 calves were used after they were tested and found to be negative for the presence of anti-C. bovis serum antibodies and were inoculated orally with aliquots containing 6×10(4) Taenia saginata eggs. One hundred and twenty days after inoculation, the animals were slaughtered and a post mortem evaluation was done following Brazilian Federal Beef Inspection guidelines. This routine meat inspection was able to identify 71·42% of the assessed infected carcasses as being parasitized. This result implies that 28·58% of the infected carcasses would have been released as fit for human consumption since they would have been considered as free of C. bovis infection when using this method for carcass assessment. Only 3·07% of the total 2311 metacestodes present in the carcasses were identified by the conventional procedures of sanitary inspection. The assessment of different parts of the carcasses showed high infestation rates in shoulder clod (14·37%), head (11·21%), neck+chuck roll (8·05%), heart (7·75%) and top (inside) round (7·18%) which, together, were responsible for housing 48·51% of all the cysts found in the 24 beef cuts assessed. These numbers contrasted to the low incidence of cysts found in organs such as tongue (3·12%), diaphragm (1·69%) and esophagus (1·60%) which are usually described as predilection sites for the parasite. PMID:21929881

Soares, V E; De Andrade Belo, M A; Rezende, P C B; Soccol, V T; Fukuda, R T; De Ooliveira, G P; Da Costa, A J

2011-07-01

240

Taenia taeniaeformis (Cestoda) in the rat: ultrastructure of the host-parasite interface on days 1 to 7 postinfection.  

PubMed

Ultrastructural observation were made on the host-parasite interface from 1 to 7 days postinfection (DPI) with Taenia taeniaeformis in the rat. Over this period the organism developed from a multicellular oncospheral mass, equivalent in size to a host hepatocyte, into a fluid-filled, grossly visible vesicle, the walls of which showed the arrangement of syncytial tegument, cytoplasmic bridges and subtegumental cell bodies typical of older cestodes. Microvilli, often branched, extended from the free, tegumental surface of the parasite from 1 DPI onwards. Fragments of the microvilli were pinched off distally, and became segmented and distended. Some were seen in intercellular spaces as far as 40 micrometers from the free tegumental surface; others were ingested by nearby host phagocytic cells, and appeared to swell and rupture within phagosomes. Microvillar branching was less frequent after 4 DPI and the microvilli became progressively shorter. By 7 DPI the tegumental surface had become irregular and the microvillar bases were broad and knoblike. Electron-dense deposits were present on the outer membrane of microvilli, the tips of which had become truncated or globular. Although phagocytic host cells were seen in migratory tracks and in contact with some organisms as early as 1 DPI, they caused no detectable damage to the parasites. However, many host cells, including hepatocytes and endothelial cells, were injured or destroyed; their contents contributed to the debris surrounding the parasite at all stages. Inclusions, probably lipid, appeared within the tegument and subtegumental cell bodies from 3 DPI onwards, and similar droplets were seen in adjacent host cells. The great increase in surface area of postoncospheral forms over the first week of infection, augmented by the display of multiple, microvillar projections, may provide not only or the absorption of nutrients required for growth, but also for the enhanced release of factors that affect survival of host cells and stimulate immunological defense mechanisms. PMID:7119990

Engelkirk, P G; Williams, J F

1982-08-01

241

Bradykinin B2 receptors and coupling mechanisms in the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig taenia caeci.  

PubMed

1. In the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig taenia caeci, bradykinin produces a relaxation followed by a contraction. In the presence of hexamethonium and guanethidine, both these phases of the response were insensitive to tetrodotoxin (100 nM), omega-conotoxin GVIA (100 nM) and ibuprofen (1 microM), suggesting that they are due to a direct action on the smooth muscle. 2. The B1 receptor-selective agonist, [des-Arg9]-BK (1-100 microM), was inactive in the taenia caeci, and the B1 receptor-selective antagonist, [Leu8,des-Arg9]-BK (1-10 microM), did not inhibit either phase of the bradykinin-induced response. The B2 receptor-selective antagonist, D-Arg-[Hyp3,Thi5,D-Tic7,Oic8]-BK (Hoe 140) (30-300 nM), inhibited both the bradykinin-induced relaxation and contraction with a similar affinity (apparent pKB estimates of 8.5 +/- 0.1 and 8.4 +/- 0.1 respectively). 3. In a depolarizing high-K(+)-solution, bradykinin produced concentration-related contractions, though of diminished magnitude; but no relaxation was observed in such media. In Krebs solution, the Ca(2+)-activated K(+)-channel blocker, apamin (10 nM), abolished relaxant responses. These observations suggest that contraction results both from membrane potential-dependent, and membrane potential-independent, mechanisms; whereas relaxant responses result entirely from membrane potential-dependent mechanisms. Contractile responses obtained in the high K(+)-solution were inhibited by D-Arg-[Hyp3,Thi5,D-Tic7,Oic8]-BK with an apparent pKB value of 8.4 +/- 0.1. 4. In a Ca(2+)-free, EGTA-containing medium, relatively high concentrations of bradykinin (> 100 nM) produced transient contractions, suggesting that a component of the contractile response results from release of Ca2+ from an intracellular store. This intracellular Ca2+ store could be refilled in the presence of extracellular Ca2+. The B, receptor antagonist, [Leu8,des-Argj-BK (10 micro M), did not inhibit this bradykinin-induced contraction, whereas the B2 receptor antagonist, D-Arg-[Hyp3,Thi5,D-Tic7,Oic8]-BK(100 nM) markedly attenuated it (P<0.001; n = 6).5. Bradykinin (10 nM- 100 micro M) significantly elevated tissue levels of total [3H]-inositol phosphates in the presence of Li?, after incubation with myo-[3H]-inositol. The B, receptor-selective agonist, [des-Argl-BK(100IM) did not stimulate [3H]-inositol phosphate formation, and the B, receptor-selective antagonist,[Leu8,des-Argl-BK, did not inhibit the formation of [3H]-inositol phosphates in response to a submaximal concentration of bradykinin (1I0 1M; P> 0.05). Two B2 receptor antagonists, D-Arg-[Hyp3,DPhe7]-BK and D-Arg-[Hyp3,Thi5,D-Tic7,Oic8]-BK, inhibited bradykinin-induced accumulation of total[3H]-inositol phosphates with apparent pKB estimates of 5.4 +/0 0.3 and 8.4 +/- 0.1, respectively.6. These data suggest that in the guinea-pig taenia caeci, the five aspects of the action of bradykinin studied (the relaxant and the contractile elements of the biphasic mechanical response, the contractile response in a depolarizing high-K' solution medium and zero-Ca2+ media, and stimulation of phosphatidylinositol turnover), all result from activation of B2 receptors. A possible causal relationship is suggested between these B2 receptor-mediated membrane potential-dependent, and -independent events,and their roles in excitation contraction coupling. PMID:7834214

Field, J L; Butt, S K; Morton, I K; Hall, J M

1994-10-01

242

Mechanisms of intracellular Mg2+ regulation affected by amiloride and ouabain in the guinea-pig taenia caeci.  

PubMed Central

1. The effects of amiloride and ouabain on the regulation of the intracellular, free Mg2+ concentration ([Mg2+]i) were investigated in the taenia isolated from the guinea-pig caecum, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. 2. [Mg2+]i were mainly estimated from the separation of the alpha- and beta-ATP peaks observed in 31P NMR spectra. In normal (physiological) and nominally Ca(2+)-free solutions, [Mg2+]i was approximately 0.3-0.4 mM. Application of either amiloride or ouabain in Ca(2+)-free solutions significantly increased [Mg2+]i, with only a small change in ATP content. Washout of the drugs reversed the changes in [Mg2+]i. 3. Changes in pHi were estimated from: (1) the chemical shift of phosphoethanolamine, and (2) solving two relational equations of pHi and [Mg2+]i obtained from the beta- and gamma-ATP peaks. Both estimations revealed some intracellular alkalosis during application of these two drugs. After correction for pHi, a significant increase in [Mg2+]i was still obtained 150 min after application of either drug. 4. In the presence of amiloride, simultaneous removal of extracellular Mg2+ and Ca2+ significantly depleted intracellular Mg2+. This result suggests the presence of an amiloride-insensitive (or less sensitive) pathway which passively transports Mg2+ across the plasma membrane. 5. The intracellular Rb+ concentration was monitored as an index of Na(+)-K+ pump activity, using 87Rb NMR. In Ca(2+)-free solutions containing 5 mM Rb+, the intracellular Rb+ concentration was hardly changed by amiloride, but was depleted by additional applications of ouabain. Wash-out of ouabain restored the intracellular Rb+ in the presence of amiloride. 6. These results are consistent with the presence of Na(+)-Mg2+ exchange as an effective Mg(2+)-extruding mechanism in smooth muscle. Although many other factors may cause changes in [Mg2+]i, it seems likely that amiloride directly inhibits the Na(+)-Mg2+ exchanger, whilst ouabain does so indirectly through reduction of the Na+ gradient across the plasma membrane.

Nakayama, S; Nomura, H

1995-01-01

243

Activation of P1- and P2Y-purinoceptors by ADP-ribose in the guinea-pig taenia coli, but not of P2X-purinoceptors in the vas deferens.  

PubMed Central

1. The activity of adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose (ADP-ribose), a ribosylated purine nucleotide, was investigated on the carbachol-contracted taenia coli, a tissue possessing P1- (A2) and P2Y-purinoceptors and on the guinea-pig vas deferens which possesses P2X-purinoceptors. 2. In the vas deferens, where ATP (1 microM-1 mM) produced concentration-dependent contractions, ADP-ribose was without effect at concentrations up to 1 mM. 3. In the taenia coli, ADP-ribose (0.1 microM-1 mM) produced concentration-dependent relaxations with a potency similar to that of adenosine, but less than that of ATP. The pD2 values for ADP-ribose, adenosine and ATP were 4.5 +/- 0.07 (27), 4.4 +/- 0.10 (9) and 5.5 +/- 0.14 (21), respectively. The time-course of the relaxations elicited by ADP-ribose was found to be significantly longer than that for ATP and significantly shorter than that for adenosine. 4. The P1-purinoceptor antagonist, 8-phenyltheophylline (5 microM), produced parallel rightward shifts in the concentration-response curves of the relaxations of the taenia coli elicited by ADP-ribose and adenosine but not ATP. 5. Dipyridamole (0.3 microM), a purine nucleoside uptake inhibitor, potentiated the responses to adenosine and ADP-ribose in the taenia coli. These potentiations were sensitive to 8-phenyltheophylline (5 microM). 6. Reactive blue 2, a P2Y-purinoceptor antagonist, antagonized the inhibitory responses of ADP-ribose and ATP in the taenia coli, without significantly altering the inhibitory responses of either adenosine or noradrenaline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Hoyle, C. H.; Edwards, G. A.

1992-01-01

244

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neurocysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis, a major cause of acquired seizures and epiilepsy, is caused by infection with the larval cystic form of the tapeworm, Taenia solium. CT and MRI imaging, development of sensitive and specific diagnostic methods, and discovery of relatively effective anti-cestode drugs, revolutionized knowledge of the burden of infection and disease and led to effective treatments. Here we review the rationale of treatment, the essential role of inflammation in the genesis of disease and its exacerbation as a result of anti-parasitic treatment, and limitations in the efficacy of current anti-parasitic and anti-inflammatory treatments. The importance of “end stage” calcified granulomas as foci of seizures and epilepsy with and without perilesional edema in endemic populations has recently been recognized. New information indicates perilesional inflammation around some calcified foci is associated with seizures and perilesional edema, which suggests that anti-inflammatory treatments may play a role in controlling or preventing epilepsy in these patients. Most importantly, neurocysticercosis is one of the few diseases that can be eradicated, an accomplishment that would prevent millions of cases of epilepsy.

Nash, Theodore E.; Garcia, Hector H.

2012-01-01

245

Efficacy of Single-Dose and Triple-Dose Albendazole and Mebendazole against Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Taenia spp.: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background The control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections currently relies on the large-scale administration of single-dose oral albendazole or mebendazole. However, these treatment regimens have limited efficacy against hookworm and Trichuris trichiura in terms of cure rates (CR), whereas fecal egg reduction rates (ERR) are generally high for all common STH species. We compared the efficacy of single-dose versus triple-dose treatment against hookworm and other STHs in a community-based randomized controlled trial in the People's Republic of China. Methodology/Principal findings The hookworm CR and fecal ERR were assessed in 314 individuals aged ?5 years who submitted two stool samples before and 3–4 weeks after administration of single-dose oral albendazole (400 mg) or mebendazole (500 mg) or triple-dose albendazole (3×400 mg over 3 consecutive days) or mebendazole (3×500 mg over 3 consecutive days). Efficacy against T. trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Taenia spp. was also assessed. Albendazole cured significantly more hookworm infections than mebendazole in both treatment regimens (single dose: respective CRs 69% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 55–81%) and 29% (95% CI: 20–45%); triple dose: respective CRs 92% (95% CI: 81–98%) and 54% (95% CI: 46–71%)). ERRs followed the same pattern (single dose: 97% versus 84%; triple dose: 99.7% versus 96%). Triple-dose regimens outperformed single doses against T. trichiura; three doses of mebendazole – the most efficacious treatment tested – cured 71% (95% CI: 57–82%). Both single and triple doses of either drug were highly efficacious against A. lumbricoides (CR: 93–97%; ERR: all >99.9%). Triple dose regimens cured all Taenia spp. infections, whereas single dose applications cured only half of them. Conclusions/Significance Single-dose oral albendazole is more efficacious against hookworm than mebendazole. To achieve high CRs against both hookworm and T. trichiura, triple-dose regimens are warranted. Trial Registration www.controlled-trials.com ISRCTN47375023

Steinmann, Peter; Utzinger, Jurg; Du, Zun-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Chen, Jia-Xu; Hattendorf, Jan; Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

2011-01-01

246

Taenia taeniaeformis in Rat Favors Protracted Skin Lesions Caused by Sporothrix schenckii Infection: Dectin-1 and IL-17 Are Dispensable for Clearance of This Fungus  

PubMed Central

We occasionally found that cestode Taenia taeniaeformis in rats favored Sporothrix schenckii infection and survival, causing protracted cutaneous lesions. In this study, we compared the pathology and cytokines profile of rats co-infected with the two pathogens and infected with S. schenckii alone to explore underlying mechanisms. In the co-infection group, there was high expression of ?-glucan receptor Dectin-1 in the cutaneous lesions and no multinucleated giant cells, but in the S. schenckii infection group the opposite was observed. Cytokines profiles demonstrated an expected finding that IL-4, commonly expressed in helminth and fungus infection, is undetectable in the two infection groups. In the single fungal infection group, cytokines IFN-?, IL-10 and IL-17 kept increasing in the first few weeks of infection to a peak which was followed by gradual decrease. This study showed that Dectin-1 and IL-17, which were believed to be the major anti-fungus mechanisms, are Th2 independent and dispensable for clearance of S. schenckii infection, suggesting that S. schenckii has a different molecular recognition pattern and evokes anti-infection mechanisms other than Dectin-1 and IL-17.

Huang, Huaiqiu; Xue, Ruzeng; Hu, Xuchu; Li, Meirong; Zhong, Yi; Yuan, Liyan

2012-01-01

247

Induction of Protection against Porcine Cysticercosis by Vaccination with Recombinant Oncosphere Antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two recombinant Taenia solium oncosphere antigens, designated TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A, were investigated as vaccines to prevent transmission of the zoonotic disease cysticercosis through pigs. Both antigens were effective in inducing very high levels of protection (up to 100%) in three independent vaccine trials in pigs against experimental challenge infection with T. solium eggs, which were undertaken in Mexico and Cameroon.

Ana Flisser; Charles G. Gauci; A. Zoli; J. Martinez-Ocana; A. Garza-Rodriguez; J. L. Dominguez-Alpizar; P. Maravilla; R. Rodriguez-Canul; G. Avila; L. Aguilar-Vega; C. Kyngdon; S. Geerts; M. W. Lightowlers

2004-01-01

248

Intracellular-free magnesium in the smooth muscle of guinea pig taenia caeci: a concomitant analysis for magnesium and pH upon sodium removal  

PubMed Central

This study is concerned with the regulation of intracellular-free Mg2+ concentration ([Mg2+]i) in the smooth muscle of guinea pig taenia caeci. To assess an interaction of Ca2+ on the Na(+)-dependent Mg(2+)- extrusion mechanism (Na(+)-Mg2+ exchange), effects of Na+ removal (N- methyl-D-glucamine substitution) were examined in Ca(2+)-containing solutions. As changes in pHi in Na(+)-free solutions perturb estimation of [Mg2+]i using the single chemical shift only of the beta-ATP peak in 31P NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectra, [Mg2+]i and pHi were concomitantly estimated from the chemical shifts of the gamma- and beta- peaks. When extracellular Na+ was substituted with N-methyl-D- glucamine, [Mg2+]i was reversibly increased. This increase in [Mg2+]i was eliminated in Mg(2+)-free solutions and enhanced in excess Mg2+ solutions. ATP content fluctuated little during removal and readmission of Na+, indicating that [Mg2+]i changes were not induced by Mg2+ release from ATP, and that Mg(2+)-extruding system would not be inhibited by fuel restriction. A slow acidification in Na(+)-free solutions and transient alkalosis by a readmission of Na+ were observed regardless of the extracellular Mg2+ concentration. When the extracellular Ca2+ concentration was increased from normal (2.4 mM) to 12 mM, only a marginal increase in [Mg2+]i was caused by Na+ removal, whereas a similar slow acidosis was observed, indicating that extracellular Ca2+ inhibits Mg2+ entry, and that the increase in [Mg2+]i is negligible through competition between Mg2+ and Ca2+ in intracellular sites. These results imply that Na(+)-Mg2+ exchange is the main mechanism to maintain low [Mg2+]i even under physiological conditions.

1994-01-01

249

A Treatment for Tapeworms in Trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

From these experiments it is concluded that one and one-half to two percent kamala mixed with beef liver or other standard diets and fed for approximately one or two weeks may be relied upon to eradicate Proteocephalus sp. from trout. Facilities were not available for testing this vermifuge on black bass, but the same or a slightly different concentration of

Donald L. Mckernan

1940-01-01

250

Unusual presentation of orbital cysticercosis-ptosis, diminution of vision and medial rectus weakness: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cysticercosis is the most common parasitic disease of the nervous system. The disease occurs when humans become the intermediate host in the life cycle of Taenia solium by ingesting its eggs from contaminated food. The most common sites of involvement of cysticerci are soft tissue, eye and central nervous system. Unusual location of the cysts may result in uncommon manifestations.

Bharati Taksande; Ulhas Jajoo; Samir Yelwatkar; Jaikishan Ashish

2009-01-01

251

Control of echinococcosis and cysticercosis: a public health challenge to international cooperation in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echinococcosis, both cystic and alveolar, and Taenia solium cysticercosis are the most serious zoonotic cestodoses worldwide. Because of the emerging importance of these diseases in China, several international workshops and meetings were held in this country from 1998 to 2001. Based on round table discussions in Chengdu 2000, the proposal of a strategy to control echinococcosis and cysticercosis has been

Akira Ito; Carlo Urbani; Qiu Jiamin; Dominique A Vuitton; Qiu Dongchuan; David D Heath; Philip S Craig; Feng Zheng; Peter M Schantz

2003-01-01

252

Diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis: a comparative study of serological tests for detection of circulating antibody and viable parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies of porcine cysticercosis require identification of pigs harbouring viable Taenia solium cysticerci and estimates of the degree of exposure to the parasite in the pig population destined for human consumption. Identification of infected pigs with viable larvae is achieved through detection of their secretory products. However, detectable levels of circulating antibody may also be present in the absence

E Sciutto; M Hernández; G Garc??a; A. S de Aluja; A. N. M Villalobos; L. F Rodarte; M Parkhouse; L Harrison

1998-01-01

253

Cysticercosis: towards the design of a diagnostic kit based on synthetic peptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a very common disease in developing countries that seriously affects human health. Diagnosis can only be confirmed with the aid of computerized tomography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) creating obvious difficulties for epidemiological studies. Reliable immunoassays employing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been developed, based on the use of cysticercal antigens. However, the reliance on

Marisela Hernández; Constantino Beltrán; Esperanza Garc??a; Gladis Fragoso; Goar Gevorkian; Agnès Fleury; Michael Parkhouse; Leslie Harrison; Julio Sotelo; Edda Sciutto

2000-01-01

254

Oral cysticercosis: case report.  

PubMed

Frequent in developing countries, cysticercosis is a parasitic infection that rarely involves the mouth. This study reports a case of oral cysticercosis in a 13-year-old female patient who had an asymptomatic nodule in the right labial mucosa. An excisional biopsy was carried out and the histopathologic examination revealed a cystic space containing a Taenia solium larva. PMID:17706437

Ribeiro, Ana Carolina Prado; Luvizotto, Maria Cecília; Soubhia, Ana Maria Pires; de Castro, Alvimar Lima

2007-10-01

255

Proposal of diagnostic criteria for human cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taenia solium cysticercosis is a major public health problem in several areas of the world. While the disease has a recognized etiologic agent, its definitive histological diagnosis is not possible in most cases because this parasite tends to lodge in cerebral tissues where routine biopsy is not feasible. Therefore, the diagnosis of human cysticercosis (and neurocysticercosis) should rest on the

Oscar H Del Brutto; Noshir H Wadia; Michel Dumas; Marcelo Cruz; Victor C. W Tsang; Peter M Schantz

1996-01-01

256

Albendazole versus Praziquantel in the Treatment of Neurocysticercosis: A Meta-analysis of Comparative Trials  

PubMed Central

Background Neurocysticercosis, infection of the brain with larvae of Taenia solium (pork tapeworm), is one of several forms of human cysticercosis caused by this organism. We investigated the role of albendazole and praziquantel in the treatment of patients with parenchymal neurocysticercosis by performing a meta-analysis of comparative trials of their effectiveness and safety. Methods and Principal Findings We performed a search in the PubMed database, Cochrane Database of Controlled Trials, and in references of relevant articles. Six studies were included in the meta-analysis. Albendazole was associated with better control of seizures than praziquantel in the pooled data analysis, when the generic inverse variance method was used to combine the incidence of seizure control in the included trials (patients without seizures/[patients×years at risk]) (156 patients in 4 studies, point effect estimate [incidence rate ratio]?=?4.94, 95% confidence interval 2.45–9.98). In addition, albendazole was associated with better effectiveness than praziquantel in the total disappearance of cysts (335 patients in 6 studies, random effects model, OR?=?2.30, 95% CI 1.06–5.00). There was no difference between albendazole and praziquantel in reduction of cysts, proportion of patients with adverse events, and development of intracranial hypertension due to the administered therapy. Conclusions A critical review of the available data from comparative trials suggests that albendazole is more effective than praziquantel regarding clinically important outcomes in patients with neurocysticercosis. Nevertheless, given the relative scarcity of trials, more comparative interventional studies—especially randomized controlled trials—are required to draw a safe conclusion about the best regimen for the treatment of patients with parenchymal neurocysticercosis.

Matthaiou, Dimitrios K.; Panos, Georgios; Adamidi, Eleni S.; Falagas, Matthew E.

2008-01-01

257

Historic of therapeutic efficacy of albendazol sulphoxide administered in different routes, dosages and treatment schemes, against Taenia saginata cysticercus in cattle experimentally infected.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to notify the history of albendazole sulphoxide (ALB-SO) and albendazole (ALBZ) efficacy against Taenia saginata cysticercus (Cysticercus bovis) parasitizing experimentally infected bovines. A total of 11 efficacy trials were performed between the years of 2002 and 2010. In order to perform these trials, animals were individually inoculated with 2×10(4) eggs of T. saginata in each study's day zero (D0). For every trial, a positive control group (untreated infected animals) and a negative control group (animals that were neither infected nor treated) were used. ALB-SO or ALB were administered in the different dosages, in different days of treatments. In a last study with this formulation, this active principle was administered orally, mixed with the mineral supplement, on the 60th DPI, in a dosage of 30mg/kg. In all trials, on the 100th DPI, all animals were euthanized and submitted to the sequenced slicing of 26 anatomical segments (fragments of approximately five millimeters) for the survey of T. saginata cysticercus. With the obtained results it is possible to verify that in the first trials, conducted in 2002, ALB-SO reached, independently of dosage and treatment scheme, efficacies superior to 98% (arithmetic means). The trials conducted in 2005 (2.5mg/kg on the 30th, 60th, and 90th DPI) obtained values of efficacy all inferior to 60%. In 2008, the trials with 2.5 and 7.7mg/kg demonstrated efficacy values inferior to 40%, for both dosages and treatment schemes (30th/60th/90th DPI and 60th DPI). When this formulation was administered orally on the dosage of 30mg/kg on the 60th DPI, the efficacy against T. saginata cysticercus reached 88.28%. ALB administered orally showed efficacy values of 0.0%, 29.88% and 28.64% in the dosages of 5, 10 and 15mg/kg, respectively, using the treatment schemes described above for each dosage. Based on the results of these trials, conducted in an eight year period (2002-2010) using the sequenced slicing method for evaluating the efficacy of the aforementioned formulations against T. saginata cysticercus, it is possible to observe that, amongst the few molecules used in the chemotherapic treatment against T. saginata larvae, ALB-SO, administered in varied routes, dosages and treatment schemes, the studies conducted in 2008, 2009, and 2010, have a low therapeutic efficacy against C. bovis in Brazil, while ALBZ had insignificant efficacy values against T. saginata larvae parasitizing experimentally infected bovines. However, future studies using molecular biology will be necessary to assess whether the difference on the efficacy of the ALB-SO can be related to strain or another specific factor. PMID:24309372

Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Soares, Vando Edésio; Nunes, Jorge Luis N; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Buzzulini, Carolina; Pereira, João Carlos Melo; Felippelli, Gustavo; Soccol, Vanette Thomaz; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José

2014-02-01

258

Current Status of Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Several reports on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam show that they are distributed in over 50 of 63 provinces. In some endemic areas, the prevalence of taeniasis was 0.2-12.0% and that of cysticercosis was 1.0-7.2%. The major symptoms of taeniasis included fidgeted anus, proglottids moving out of the anus, and proglottids in the feces. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis in humans included subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headach, impaired vision, and memory loss. The species identification of Taenia in Vietnam included Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium based on combined morphology and molecular methods. Only T. solium caused cysticercosis in humans. Praziquantel was chosen for treatment of taeniasis and albendazole for treatment of cysticercosis. The infection rate of cysticercus cellulosae in pigs was 0.04% at Hanoi slaughterhouses, 0.03-0.31% at provincial slaughterhouses in the north, and 0.9% in provincial slaughterhouses in the southern region of Vietnam. The infection rate of cysticercus bovis in cattle was 0.03-2.17% at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Risk factors investigated with regard to transmission of Taenia suggested that consumption of raw meat (eating raw meat 4.5-74.3%), inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some endemic areas, and use of untreated human waste as a fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam, although this remains to be validated.

Le, Thanh Hoa; Lien, Phan Thi Huong; Eom, Keeseon S.

2014-01-01

259

Current status of taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam.  

PubMed

Several reports on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam show that they are distributed in over 50 of 63 provinces. In some endemic areas, the prevalence of taeniasis was 0.2-12.0% and that of cysticercosis was 1.0-7.2%. The major symptoms of taeniasis included fidgeted anus, proglottids moving out of the anus, and proglottids in the feces. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis in humans included subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headach, impaired vision, and memory loss. The species identification of Taenia in Vietnam included Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium based on combined morphology and molecular methods. Only T. solium caused cysticercosis in humans. Praziquantel was chosen for treatment of taeniasis and albendazole for treatment of cysticercosis. The infection rate of cysticercus cellulosae in pigs was 0.04% at Hanoi slaughterhouses, 0.03-0.31% at provincial slaughterhouses in the north, and 0.9% in provincial slaughterhouses in the southern region of Vietnam. The infection rate of cysticercus bovis in cattle was 0.03-2.17% at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Risk factors investigated with regard to transmission of Taenia suggested that consumption of raw meat (eating raw meat 4.5-74.3%), inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some endemic areas, and use of untreated human waste as a fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam, although this remains to be validated. PMID:24850954

Van De, Nguyen; Le, Thanh Hoa; Lien, Phan Thi Huong; Eom, Keeseon S

2014-04-01

260

Application of an immunoassay to determine risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis in rural areas of Yucatan, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Western blot assay for identification of 26kDa and\\/or 8kDa antigens in a crude saline extract (CSE) of Taenia solium metacestodes, previously developed for human cysticercosis, was evaluated for use with pigs. The test population used for assay standardisation consisted of 45 cysticercotic pigs (5 pigs positive by necropsy and 40 selected by tongue palpation and LL-Gp immunoblot but not

R Rodriguez-Canul; J. C Allan; J. L Dominguez; S Villegas; L Cob; R. I Rodriguez; A. J Cook; J Williams; F Argaez; P. S Craig

1998-01-01

261

False positive reactivity of recombinant, diagnostic, glycoproteins produced in High Five™ insect cells: Effect of glycosylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baculovirus-mediated expression of recombinant proteins for use in diagnostic assays is commonplace. We expressed a diagnostic antigen for cysticercosis, GP50, caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, in both High Five™ and Sf9 insect cells. Upon evaluation of the specificity of recombinant GP50 (rGP50) in a western blot assay, we observed that 12.5% (21\\/168) of the serum samples from

Kathy Hancock; Someet Narang; Sowmya Pattabhi; Melinda L. Yushak; Azra Khan; Seh-ching Lin; Robert Plemons; Michael J. Betenbaugh; Victor C. W. Tsang

2008-01-01

262

Immunoblot evaluation of the 100 and 130 kDa antigens in camel hydatid cyst fluid for the serodiagnosis of human cystic echinococcosis in Libya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two high molecular weight antigens with molecular masses approximately 100 kDa and 130 kDa were identified by immunoblotting camel hydatid cyst fluid, with 94% sensitivity in sera from surgically confirmed Libyan cystic echinococcosis cases. 40% of sera from surgically confirmed alveolar echinococcosis cases cross-reacted with the 100 and 130 kDa antigens, as did 5·3% of sera from human Taenia solium

M. K. Shambesh; P. S. Craig; A. M. Gusbi; E. F. Echtuish; H. Wen

1995-01-01

263

Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis, toxocariasis and cysticercosis in a rural settlement, S?o Paulo State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background The goal of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Toxocara spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Taenia solium metacestode infection and determine some of the associated risk factors for people living in the Dona Carmen settlement, Pontal of Paranapanema, São Paulo, Brazil. Methods Serum samples from 194 subjects were tested and participants answered a questionnaire. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system based on Toxocara spp. excretory-secretory antigens obtained from the cultured second-stage larvae of Toxocara canis or vesicular fluid (VF) antigen from Taenia crassiceps metacestode was used to detect anti-Toxocara spp. IgG and IgE and anti-T. solium metacestode, respectively. For cysticercosis, the reactive ELISA samples were assayed by Western blotting using 18 kDa and 14 kDa proteins purified from VF. For T. gondii-specific IgG and IgM antibodies, anti-SAG-1, GRA-1, and GRA-7 epitope specificity was determined by ELISA. Results Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies were found in 102/194 individuals (52.6%) with increased infections in females (P ?=? 0.02) and those with ?US$300 monthly income (P ?=? 0.01). Positive IgM antibodies were detected in 21/194 individuals (10.8%). Antibodies specific to Toxocara spp. were found in 28/194 subjects (14.4%). All the individuals with Toxocara spp. also had T. gondii-specific IgG antibodies. Taenia solium metacestode antibodies were detected in 11 subjects (5.7%), but none were reactive based on Western blotting. Conclusion In spite of environmental, educational, and socioeconomic factors favoring parasite infection, the seropositivity rates of T. gondii, Toxocara spp., and T. solium metacestode-specific IgG antibodies are similar to the rates found in studies conducted in different populations in Brazil.

Prestes-Carneiro, Luiz Euribel; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Ferreira, Antonio Walter; Araujo, Patricia Regina; Troiani, Charlene; Zago, Sueli Cristina; Kaiahara, Marcia; Sasso, Leticia; Iha, Alberto; Vaz, Adelaide

2013-01-01

264

Diagnosis of cysticercosis in endemic regions  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium cysticercosis is a frequent cause of neurological disease in developing countries. Specific diagnosis of cysticercosis is difficult. We obtained serum and/or CSF samples from 204 consecutive patients admitted to a neurological ward in Lima, Peru, and looked for antibodies specific for T solium with the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. 21 (12%) of 173 serum samples from these patients were EITB-positive. In contrast only 2 (1·5%) of 135 patients attending a public endoscopy clinic and 1 (1%) of 88 patients attending a private endoscopy clinic were seropositive. 1 (1%) of 98 pregnant women living in a Lima shanty town was EITB-positive. 15 (58%) of 26 neurology patients diagnosed clinically as having cysticercosis were seronegative. Routine screening by EITB of all patients with neurological symptoms from areas of endemic cysticercosis would avoid misdiagnosis of this common and treatable disease.

Garcia, H. H.; Martinez, M.; Gilman, R.; Herrera, G.; Tsang, V. C. W.; Pilcher, J. B.; Diaz, F.; Verastegui, M.; Gallo, C.; Porras, M.; Alvarado, M.; Naranjo, J.; Miranda, E.

2010-01-01

265

Calcific neurocysticercosis and epileptogenesis  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis is responsible for increased rates of seizures and epilepsy in endemic regions. The most common form of the disease, chronic calcific neurocysticercosis, is the end result of the host’s inflammatory response to the larval cysticercus of Taenia solium. There is increasing evidence indicating that calcific cysticercosis is not clinically inactive but a cause of seizures or focal symptoms in this population. Perilesional edema is at times also present around implicated calcified foci. A better understanding of the natural history, frequency, epidemiology, and pathophysiology of calcific cysticercosis and associated disease manifestations is needed to define its importance, treatment, and prevention.

Nash, T.E.; Del Brutto, O.H.; Butman, J.A.; Corona, T.; Delgado-Escueta, A.; Duron, R.M.; Evans, C.A.W.; Gilman, R.H.; Gonzalez, A.E.; Loeb, J.A.; Medina, M.T.; Pietsch-Escueta, S.; Pretell, E.J.; Takayanagui, O.M.; Theodore, W.; Tsang, V.C.W.; Garcia, H.H.

2010-01-01

266

Cysticercosis of the upper lip  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis is a parasitic infestation caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium. It is common in regions where humans and animals live in close contact, with poor sanitation, and due to consumption of infected meat. The tissues affected are the subcutaneous layers, brain, muscle, heart, liver, lungs, and peritoneum. Oral manifestations are very rare. The most common intra-oral site is the tongue. Here, we present a case in a who sought treatment for an asymptomatic nodule in the upper lip. A gross specimen revealed a cystic cavity containing clear watery fluid and white membranous flecks. The histopathology showed features of cysticercosis.

Deshmukh, Atul; Avadhani, Avadhoot; Tupkari, JV; Sardar, Manisha

2011-01-01

267

Isolated intramedullary spinal cysticercosis in a 10-year-old female showing dramatic response with albendazole  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by larvae of Taenia solium. Spinal cysticercosis is an uncommon site of cysticercal infection, and isolated intramedullary involvement is even rarer. We present a case of 10-year-old girl who presented with gradual onset paraparesis with sensory loss and bowel and bladder incontinence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spine revealed a cystic lesion with mural nodule (scolex) which was diagnostic for cysticercosis. Patient was treated with antihelminthic, which led to marked clinico-radiological improvement.

Azfar, Shah F.; Kirmani, Sanna; Badar, Farheen; Ahmad, Ibne

2011-01-01

268

Oral cysticercosis: a clinical dilemma.  

PubMed

Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by cysticercus cellulosae, the larval stage of Taenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare entity and represents difficulty in clinical diagnosis. This article reports two cases of oral cysticercosis involving buccal and labial mucosa. Both the cases presented with solitary, nodular swelling that had been clinically diagnosed as a mucocele. Histopathology of excisional biopsy revealed it to be cysticercosis. Single, cystic nodular swelling of oral cavity may be the only evidence of cysticercosis and may present first to dentist. These cases emphasise the role of dentist and thorough histopathological examination in the early diagnosis of disease that can prevent potential systemic complication. PMID:23580668

Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Tekade, Satyajitraje A

2013-01-01

269

[Cysticercosis and taeniasis in Chollapukdo Province  

PubMed

From 1960 through 1965, 39 cases with epileptic seizure caused by the Cystricercus cellulosae were experienced at Kaejong Mental Hospital, Okku-Gun, Chollapukdo province. The present study was carried on at the area of Chollapukdo province where Cysticercus cellulosae cases were frequently reported. 1. 39 Cystricercus cellulosae cases(35 male and 4 female) with epileptic seizure visited Kaejong Mental Hospital. Okku-Gun, Chollapukdo during the years of 1960~1965 from various Gun(county): Okku-Gun 13, Kimje-Gun 7, and Soonchang-Gun 6. The high incidence was found at the age group of 20~49 years and the distribution of 214 subcutaneous nodules were as follows: Trunk 56.6 %, upper extremities 26.6 %, head and neck 9.3 %, lower extremities 7.5 %. 2. According to the address of above 39 cases, taenia infestation of the inhabitants in the area was examined by questionaire form. Plain rural area (Maryong-Ri, Okku-Gun); Among 803 persons interviewed, 4.0 percent or 32 complained the output of Taenia segments. The male group showed higher incidence (6.4 percent) than the female(1.5 percent). The highest incidence was observed at the age group of 30~39 years. Most of the inhabitants of the area had the eating habit of raw beef and pork. Mountainous rural area(Bok-Heung-Myun, Soonchang-Gun); Among 542 persons interviewed, 33 or 6.1 percent complained Taenia infection. The higher incidence was observed in the male group(8.7 percent) than in the female group(3.1 percent), and also at the age group of 20~49 years. They had eating habit of raw beef and pork. The species of adult worm were identified by morphological examination. Totally 36 adult worms(Taenia saginata 21, T. solium 15) were obtained from 26 cases, and it was experienced that 5 T. solium were eliminated from one person. PMID:12913576

Lee, Keun Tae; Kim, Chong Hwan; Park, Chong Tae; Lee, Man Yong

1966-08-01

270

The location of Taenia pisiformis, Taenia ovis and Taenia hydatigena in the gut of the dog and its effect on net environmental contamination with ova  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autopsy of dogs 56 days after infection with either T. pisiformis, T. ovis or T. hydatigena showed that these worms could be found attached at any point along the length of the small intestine, but were most commonly in the anterior half. The mean relaxed lengths of T. pisiformis, T. ovis and T. hydatigena were 107 cm, 156 cm and

Brian J. Coman; Michael D. Rickard

1975-01-01

271

Cysticercosis: towards the design of a diagnostic kit based on synthetic peptides.  

PubMed

Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a very common disease in developing countries that seriously affects human health. Diagnosis can only be confirmed with the aid of computerized tomography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) creating obvious difficulties for epidemiological studies. Reliable immunoassays employing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been developed, based on the use of cysticercal antigens. However, the reliance on parasite material is restrictive. Herein, we report the advances in the design of a diagnostic kit based on immunodominant synthetic peptides, targeting four candidate epitopes KETc1, KETc12, 410 and 413 which were identified from three different clones (KETc1, 12 and 4) selected from a cDNA library of Taenia crassiceps. CSF antibodies against T. solium cysticercal antigens (TCA) as well as the four peptides were determined by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISA) using two panels of CSF from patients with confirmed neurocysticercosis and other neurological diseases. In the first CSF panel which included patients with high level of antibodies against TCA, KETc12 exhibited almost the same sensitivity (87.5%) as TCA (93.7%) and 100% specificity. In the second panel of 110 CSF collected at random, two peptides (KETc1 and KETc12) exhibited sensitivities of 40 and 36% respectively, and were 100% specific. PMID:10709780

Hernández, M; Beltrán, C; García, E; Fragoso, G; Gevorkian, G; Fleury, A; Parkhouse, M; Harrison, L; Sotelo, J; Sciutto, E

2000-01-10

272

Paramyosin inhibits complement C1.  

PubMed

We report here the results of studies showing that inhibition of C is a property of several invertebrate paramyosins. Paramyosins from Taenia solium, Schistosoma mansoni, and the mussel Mytilus edulis bind polymeric collagen and can be isolated from crude extracts of tissues by collagen affinity. These paramyosins inhibit C1 function whether the C1 is isolated or present in C2-deficient serum. Because T. solium paramyosin was the best inhibitor, we concentrated further studies on this molecule. T. solium paramyosin binds purified C1q in solution with a dose/response similar to C1r2S2. Further studies of the C1-paramyosin interaction indicate that: 1) C4 is not activated, 2) C4b2a decay is not affected, and 3) there is no effect on the efficiency of C3-9, as provided in EDTA-chelated guinea pig serum, in lysing SRBC. Thus, paramyosin inhibition is directed at the initiation of the classical pathway. The results suggest that paramyosins of helminthic parasites may have a role as modulators of the host immune response through C inhibition at C1. PMID:1727860

Laclette, J P; Shoemaker, C B; Richter, D; Arcos, L; Pante, N; Cohen, C; Bing, D; Nicholson-Weller, A

1992-01-01

273

Eating habits of east Asian people and transmission of taeniasis.  

PubMed

In order to understand the role of raw meat and viscera eating habits in the transmission of taeniasis in Asian countries, 1502 infected aborigines in ten mountainous districts/towns of six counties in Taiwan, 58 infected persons in two villages on Cheju Island, Korea, and 97 cases in Ambarita District on Samosir Island, North Sumatra, Indonesia were studied during the field surveys. All infected Taiwan aborigines had the habit of eating raw meat and viscera of wild and/or domestic animals. Among these aborigines, 73% ate wild boar, 66% flying squirrel, 65% wild goat, 56% muntjac, 49% wild rats, 46% monkey, 38% hare, 20% civet-cats, 18% weasel, 17% pheasant, 14% squirrel, 4% grouse, 1% deer, 1% snake, less than 1% bamboo partridge, less than 1% frog, less than 1% bear, less than 1% dog, and less than 1% fox. Of the 58 infected persons with Taenia on Cheju Island, Korea, 72% ate raw meat and/or viscera of pig and cattle, 19% raw pork only, and 9% raw beef only. Among 12 infected persons infected with T. saginata-like tapeworms, 7 had eaten raw pork, 2 raw beef and pork and 3 raw pork. Almost all of the 97 cases of taeniasis on Samosir Island of North Sumatra, Indonesia, had eaten only undercooked pork. Eleven of 15 cases were found to be infected with T. saginata-like tapeworms. Eating habits observed suggest an unusual way of transmission of Taenia in East Asia. PMID:1356301

Fan, P C; Chung, W C; Soh, C T; Kosman, M L

1992-04-01

274

Partial purification and characterization of a soluble acid phosphatase from the tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta.  

PubMed

An acid phosphatase activity (APA; EC 3.1.3.2) was demonstrated in homogenates of adult Hymenolepis diminuta. The APA was soluble based on the observation that it did not sediment at 130,000 g. APA was partially purified using a combination of differential centrifugation, ammonium sulphate precipitation, chloroform extraction, and gel and fast-protein-liquid-chromatography. This combination of techniques resulted in a preparation with a specific activity approximately 500 times greater than the crude enzyme preparation. The temperature and pH optima of the partially purified APA were 44 degrees C and pH 5.0. The enzyme appeared to be a monomer with a molecular weight of approximately 62,000. APA had a higher affinity for a greater activity towards aromatic than aliphatic phosphoesters, and phosphoryl transferase activity was demonstrable using 1-butanol and ethylene glycol as acceptors. APA was inhibited significantly by sodium dodecyl sulphate, fluoride, molybdate and tartrate, but CuSO4 and Fast Garnet GBC were poor inhibitors. The precise cellular localization and function of this enzyme remains unknown since it possesses characteristics of both cytoplasmic and lysosomal APA's of other organisms. PMID:1880385

Bumbulis, M J; Pappas, P W

1991-06-01

275

Screening of cesticidal compounds on a tapeworm hymenolepis nana in vitro  

PubMed Central

A simple and convenient in vitro technique is described for the screening of compounds for action against Hymenolepis nana and probably many other intestinal worms. The results obtained from this test are in broad agreement with the findings of clinical experience and of a small series of in vivo tests. Among the substances tested, the most active ones were oil of chenopodium, dichlorophen, extract of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale), antimony potassium tartrate, and BIQ 20 [eicosamethylenebis(isoquinolinium iodide)].

Sen, A. B.; Hawking, F.

1960-01-01

276

Efficacy of diverse antiparasitic treatments for cysticercosis in the pig model.  

PubMed

Taenia solium cysticercosis infects pigs and humans. Because antiparasitic treatment for human cysticercosis has sub-optimal efficacy, alternative regimes are needed. Seven antiparasitic regimens were tested in 42 naturally infected pigs with cysticercosis, and compared with prednisone alone (n = 6) or no treatment (n = 6). The numbers of viable cysts in muscles and in the brain were examined after necropsy and were significantly decreased in pigs receiving combined albendazole plus praziquantel, albendazole alone, or oxfendazole. Pigs receiving praziquantel alone and nitazoxanide had numerous surviving cysts. Control (untreated) pigs and prednisone-treated pigs had many more viable cysts, suggesting no effect. Combined albendazole plus praziquantel, and oxfendazole, showed a strong cysticidal effect and provide suitable alternative treatments to be further explored for their use for treatment of human neurocysticercosis. PMID:22855760

Gonzalez, Armando E; Bustos, Javier A; Jimenez, Juan A; Rodriguez, Mary L; Ramirez, Mercy G; Gilman, Robert H; Garcia, Hector H

2012-08-01

277

Immunological and molecular diagnosis of cysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis, the infection with the larval stage of Taenia solium, is a cause of neurological symptoms including seizures, affecting the quality of life of patients and their families. Diagnosis focuses on brain imaging and serological tests are mostly used as confirmatory tools. Most cases, however, occur in poor endemic areas, where both kinds of diagnostic tools are poorly available. Development of point of care diagnostic tests is one of the most important priorities for cysticercosis researches today. The ideal point of care test would require detection of viable cysticercosis and hopefully identify cases with severe or progressive forms of neurocysticercosis, leading to referral of the patient for specialized medical attention. This manuscript describes the evolution of the serological diagnosis of cysticercosis over time, and the characteristics of the most common currently available tools, their advantages and disadvantages, and their potential use in future diagnostic tests.

Rodriguez, Silvia; Wilkins, Patricia; Dorny, Pierre

2012-01-01

278

Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States: Cysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal and preventable neglected parasitic infection caused by the larval form of Taenia solium. Patients with symptomatic disease usually have signs and symptoms of neurocysticercosis, which commonly manifest as seizures or increased intracranial pressure. Although there are many persons living in the United States who emigrated from highly disease-endemic countries and there are foci of autochthonous transmission of the parasite in the United States, little is known about burden and epidemiology of the disease in this country. In addition, despite advances in the diagnosis and management of neurocysticercosis, there remain many unanswered questions. Improving our understanding and management of neurocysticercosis in the United States will require improved surveillance or focused prospective studies in appropriate areas and allocation of resources towards answering some of the key questions discussed in this report.

Cantey, Paul T.; Coyle, Christina M.; Sorvillo, Frank J.; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Starr, Michelle C.; Nash, Theodore E.

2014-01-01

279

Cysticercosis as a major cause of epilepsy in Peru  

PubMed Central

In countries where cysticercosis is endemic, the proportion of epilepsy due to cysticercosis is not well documented. To investigate the association between cysticercosis and epilepsy, we used the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay to detect serum antibodies to Taenia solium in 498 consecutive outpatients at a neurology clinic in Lima, Peru. Every patient was classified as epileptic (n = 189) or non-epileptic (n = 309) after neurological, and where possible electroencephalographic, examination. A substantially higher proportion of epileptic than non-epileptic patients was seropositive in the EITB (22 [12%] vs 8 [3%], p < 0·00l). 19% of epileptic patients born outside Lima, 20% of those with late-onset epilepsy, and 29% of patients with both these characteristics were seropositive. Thus, in Peru, cysticercosis is an important aetiological factor for epilepsy.

Garcia, H. H.; Gilman, R.; Martinez, M.; Tsang, V. C. W.; Pilcher, J. B.; Herrera, G.; Diaz, F.; Alvarado, M.; Miranda, E.

2010-01-01

280

Efficacy of Diverse Antiparasitic Treatments for Cysticercosis in the Pig Model  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium cysticercosis infects pigs and humans. Because antiparasitic treatment for human cysticercosis has sub-optimal efficacy, alternative regimes are needed. Seven antiparasitic regimens were tested in 42 naturally infected pigs with cysticercosis, and compared with prednisone alone (n = 6) or no treatment (n = 6). The numbers of viable cysts in muscles and in the brain were examined after necropsy and were significantly decreased in pigs receiving combined albendazole plus praziquantel, albendazole alone, or oxfendazole. Pigs receiving praziquantel alone and nitazoxanide had numerous surviving cysts. Control (untreated) pigs and prednisone-treated pigs had many more viable cysts, suggesting no effect. Combined albendazole plus praziquantel, and oxfendazole, showed a strong cysticidal effect and provide suitable alternative treatments to be further explored for their use for treatment of human neurocysticercosis.

Gonzalez, Armando E.; Bustos, Javier A.; Jimenez, Juan A.; Rodriguez, Mary L.; Ramirez, Mercy G.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.

2012-01-01

281

Seroprevalence of Cysticercosis in Children and Young Adults Living in a Helminth Endemic Community in Leyte, the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis is a significant public health problem in countries where pigs are raised for consumption and remains an important cause of neurological disease worldwide. The Philippines is considered an endemic area for cysticercosis because cases in both humans and pigs have been reported; however, epidemiologic information stays limited. We conducted a pilot survey of the seroprevalence of human cysticercosis in a village in Leyte, the Philippines, by measuring antibody specific for Taenia solium cyst-fluid antigen. There were 497 subjects aged 7–30 years in our study and most subjects were infected with one or more helminths. The overall cysticercosis seroprevalence in this population was 24.6% (95% CI: 20.82% ~ 28.58%) with no significant difference based on age, sex, or other helminth coinfection status. Although the sample may not be representative of the whole community, the findings suggest that cysticercosis is a significant, but underrecognized public health concern in the Philippines.

Xu, Jin-Mei; Acosta, Luz P.; Hou, Min; Manalo, Daria L.; Jiz, Mario; Jarilla, Blanca; Pablo, Archie O.; Ovleda, Remigio M.; Langdon, Gretchen; McGarvey, Stephen T.; Kurtis, Jonathan D.; Friedman, Jennifer F.; Wu, Hai-Wei

2010-01-01

282

Importance of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis of cysticercosis of temporalis muscle mimicking temporal space infection  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis cellulosae, caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium is a common parasitic infection in Indian subcontinent. Although cysticercosis is common in other parts of the human body, its involvement with temporalis muscle is an extremely rare entity and demands documentation. This paper reports a case of cysticercosis cellulosae in a 35-year-old male patient within the temporalis muscle mimicking temporal space infection; due to the presence of concomitant dental infection, which was diagnosed with the help of high resolution ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging and managed conservatively using oral antiparasitic medication. Here, in this case report, we are emphasizing the importance of imaging modalities in diagnosing space infection and cysticercosis.

Rastogi, Sameer; Arora, Pallak; Devi, Parvathi; Wazir, Sartaj Singh; Kapoor, Shalini

2013-01-01

283

Neurocysticercosis in a 14-year-old boy in Italy: An unexpected case  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by larvae of Taenia solium. It represents the most common cause of neurological disease in children living in developing countries. In recent years, NCC is increasingly being diagnosed also in high-socioeconomic countries, mainly due to the high rate of immigration. We describe a case of a 14-year-old Ecuadorian boy living in Italy, who experienced a generalized tonic-clonic seizure and was diagnosed with NCC. The boy was successfully managed with anticonvulsant, anticysticercal and anti-inflammatory treatment. With the present case we would like to emphasize the importance of considering NCC as a possible cause of non febrile seizures in children living in developed countries, particularly in those immigrated from an endemic region or had a long-term stay in an area of high prevalence.

Giacomet, Vania; Penagini, Francesca; Erba, Paola; Di Nello, Francesca; Nannini, Pilar; Pisanelli, Stefania; Ramponi, Giulia; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

2013-01-01

284

Neurocysticercosis.  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system. Varied clinical manifestations occur, due to deposition of larvae of the parasite Taenia solium in cerebral parenchyma, meninges, spinal cord, muscles, eyes and skin. The diagnosis of neurocysticercosis can be made with a fairly high degree of accuracy with the help of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Serological tests and histopathological examination of subcutaneous nodules provide additional support in establishing the diagnosis. The anticysticercal drugs albendazole and praziquantel have been extensively used, and found to be effective for all types of neurocysticercosis. However, recently controversy has been raised about their safety, and long-term clinical usefulness. Preventive health measures, such as provision of safe drinking water and excretion disposal, still offer the best ways to manage this disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7

Garg, R. K.

1998-01-01

285

The relationship between neurocysticercosis and epilepsy: an endless debate.  

PubMed

Neurocysticercosis (NC), or cerebral infection with Taenia solium, is an important public health problem worldwide. Among the neurological sequelae of NC, seizures have been described as the most common symptom. Acute symptomatic seizures often result from degeneration of a viable cyst; however, not all of these patients with acute or provoked seizures will develop epilepsy (i.e., recurrent unprovoked seizures). Because of the high prevalence of epilepsy and NC, a causal, as well as incidental relationship between the two may exist. The epileptogenicity of calcified cysts as well as the potential association between NC and hippocampal sclerosis necessitates future research. Antihelminthic treatment of NC results in disappearance of viable cysts in about one-third of patients with parenchymal disease, but a reduction in seizure recurrence has not been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials. Prevention is critical to reduce the burden of seizure and epilepsy related to NC. PMID:24863516

Carpio, Arturo; Romo, Matthew L

2014-05-01

286

The effects of different plant extracts on intestinal cestodes and on trematodes.  

PubMed

In the present study, chloroform, aqueous, (polyethylene glycol/propylene carbonate) PEG/PC extracts were made from coconut, onion, garlic, fig, date tree, chicory, ananas, and cistrose. These extracts were tested in vivo and in vitro on their anthelmintic activity against cestodes (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. microstoma, Taenia taeniaeformis) and trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, Echinostoma caproni). In all in vitro tests, the target parasites died. It turned out that the treatment of mice and rats with a combination of onion and coconut extracts (with PEG/PC) eliminated all cestodes from their final hosts. In addition, the same composition was effective against the intestinal fluke E. caproni, but not against the liver fluke F. hepatica in the final host, while both worms were killed in vitro. Inoculation of fluids of coconut eliminated T. taeniaeformis tapeworms from naturally infected cats. This goal was not reached with oil of cistrose. PMID:21107861

Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Semmler, Margit; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Strassen, Bianca; Fischer, Katja; Aksu, Gülendem; Klimpel, Sven; Mehlhorn, Heinz

2011-04-01

287

Long-term follow-up of the surgical treatment of intracranial coenurosis.  

PubMed

Intracranial infestation by the coenurus of the tapeworm Taenia multiceps is a rare occurrence in humans, with about 55 cases having been reported so far. Although most of these cases were observed in African or South American countries, the illness was occassionally found also in sheep-raising areas of Western Europe and the United States. Out of 4 personal cases, who were operated upon over an 18-year-period, 2 were neurologically intact respectively 20 and 3 years following surgical treatment. CT scans confirmed the absence of a progression of the disease. One patient was able to work 6 years after surgery, when he was killed in a road accident. A further, severely impaired patient remained unchanged and died with intercurrent infection 10 years following the operation. PMID:2334526

Pau, A; Perria, C; Turtas, S; Brambilla, M; Viale, G

1990-01-01

288

Axenomycins, New Cestocidal Antibiotics  

PubMed Central

Axenomycins are a new group of macrolide antibiotics isolated from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces lisandri n.sp. They exhibit anthelmintic activity against tapeworms (Cestoda). Three different fractions, A, B, and D, have been obtained, the most active fraction being axenomycin D. The activities of the axenomycin complex and axenomycin D against Hymenolepis nana in mice, Taenia pisiformis, Dipylidium caninum, and Diphyllobothrium sp. in dogs, and Moniezia expansa, M. benedeni, and Avitellina centripunctata in lambs were studied in experimentally and naturally infected animals. Axenomycins were effective and well tolerated by the oral route. Worm reduction rates after a single oral dose were 90 to 100% with 5 to 10 mg of axenomycin D/kg and 50 to 100% with 20 mg of axenomycin complex/kg.

Bruna, C. Della; Ricciardi, M. L.; Sanfilippo, A.

1973-01-01

289

A seroepidemiological study of human cysticercosis in West Cameroon.  

PubMed

We studied the occurrence of human cysticercosis in 4993 individuals from three rural communities of Menoua Division, West Province of Cameroon. Circulating antigens of Taenia solium metacestodes were detected in 0.4%, 1.0% and 3.0% of the serum samples taken in Bafou, Bamendou and Fonakekeu, respectively, and examined using a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This test detects only carriers of living cysticerci and gives thus a good idea of the presence of active cysticercosis. The percentage of persons infected with cysticercosis increased with age. Twenty-two of the 34 seropositives underwent computed tomography (CT) of the brain. Thirteen of them were CT-scan positive, which shows that neurocysticercosis was present in 59.1% of the tested seropositive persons. No living cysticerci were detected among 20 seronegative people. About 20.6% of the seropositives had a history of or current taeniasis against only 1.9% of the seronegatives. Based on these figures and on the data on porcine cysticercosis (prevalence: 11%) and human taeniasis (prevalence: 0.13%) collected in the same region, we conclude that T. solium cysticercosis is an endemic, but overlooked public health problem in West Cameroon. PMID:12581440

Nguekam, J P; Zoli, A P; Zogo, P O; Kamga, A C T; Speybroeck, N; Dorny, P; Brandt, J; Losson, B; Geerts, S

2003-02-01

290

A rapid slide agglutination test for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis in the rural health set up  

PubMed Central

Background: Simple and rapid latex-based diagnostic tests have been used for detecting specific antigens or antibodies in several diseases. Aims: The aim of the present study was to standardize and evaluate the latex agglutination test (LAT) for the detection of Taenia solium metacestode antigen in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC). Settings and Design: The study was conducted at Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Post graduate medical education and research after obtaining informed consent from the study subjects. Materials and Methods: In the present study, CSF and serum samples were collected from clinically suspected NCC, CT/MRI proven cases of NCC, non-cysticercal central nervous system infection control and from healthy control subjects. CSF was not collected from healthy controls. Polyclonal antisera raised in rabbits against porcine T. solium metacestode complete homogenate antigen, was used in the LAT to detect the antigen in the specimens. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis was carried out using Epi Info. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the LAT were calculated. Results: The LAT exhibited sensitivity of 64.7% and specificity of 85.7% with CSF samples and sensitivity of 52.08% and specificity of 96% with serum samples. Conclusions: Results of the present study shows that the LAT can be employed as a moderately sensitive and specific test for the detection of T. solium metacestode antigen in the CSF and serum specimens for the diagnosis of NCC in poorly equipped laboratories.

Biswas, Rakhi; Parija, Subhash Chandra

2011-01-01

291

Factors Associated with the Prevalence of Circulating Antigens to Porcine Cysticercosis in Three Villages of Burkina Faso  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about porcine cysticercosis in Burkina Faso. We conducted a pilot study to estimate the prevalence of antigens of Taenia solium cysticercosis and to identify associated factors in pigs of three villages in Burkina Faso, selected to represent different pig management practices: one village where pigs are allowed to roam freely (Batondo), one village where pigs are penned part of the time (Pabré) and one village with limited pig farming (Nyonyogo). Methods/Principal Findings A clustered random sampling design was used. Data on socio-demographic characteristics (source of drinking water, presence of latrines in the household, type and number of breeding animals) and pig management practices were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Blood samples were collected from one pig per household to determine the presence of antigens of the larval stages of T. solium by the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. The associations between seropositivity and socio-demographic and pig management practices were estimated using logistic regression. Proportions of 32.5% (95% CI 25.4–40.3), 39.6% (31.9–47.8), and 0% of pigs, were found positive for the presence of circulating antigens of T. solium in Batondo, Pabré, and Nyonyogo, respectively. The results of the logistic regression analyses suggested that people acquire knowledge on porcine cysticercosis following the contamination of their animals. The presence of antigens in the pigs' sera was not associated with the absence of latrines in the household, the source of drinking water or the status of infection in humans but was associated with pig rearing practices during the rainy season. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that education of pig farmers is urgently needed to reduce the prevalence of this infection.

Ganaba, Rasmane; Praet, Nicolas; Carabin, Helene; Millogo, Athanase; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Dorny, Pierre; Hounton, Sennen; Sow, Adama; Nitiema, Pascal; Cowan, Linda D.

2011-01-01

292

A behavioral study of the beetle Tenebrio molitor infected with cysticercoids of the rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The host-parasite relationship, Tenebrio molitor- Hymenolepis diminuta, was analyzed. The learning behavior of infected and uninfected (control) beetles in a T-maze was compared. The infected beetles moved much slower in the T-maze than the controls. The infected beetles reached the same level of learning as the controls. However, they needed more trials than the controls. The effect of the infection was already distinct after the first week and even higher after the second week. This indicates that the initial phase of infection caused stress in the beetles. Longer infection did not worsen their ability to learn. Thus, the parasites clearly changed the behavior of their intermediate host and probably made them more susceptible to their final host, the rat.

Sheiman, I. M.; Shkutin, M. F.; Terenina, N. B.; Gustafsson, M. K. S.

2006-06-01

293

Extracts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, suppress macrophage activation in vitro and alleviate chemically induced colitis in mice.  

PubMed

Analysis of parasite-host interactions can reveal the intricacies of immunity and identify ways to modulate immunopathological reactions. We assessed the ability of a phosphate-buffered saline-soluble extract of adult Hymenolepis diminuta to suppress macrophage (human THP-1 cell line, murine peritoneal macrophages) activity in vitro and the impact of treating mice with this extract on colitis induced by dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS). A high-molecular-mass fraction of adult H. diminuta (HdHMW) or excretory/secretory products reduced macrophage activation: lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and poly(I:C)-induced TNF-alpha and IL-6 were suppressed by HdHMW. The active component in the HdHMW extract was minimally sensitive to boiling and trypsin digestion, whereas the use of sodium metaperiodate, as a general deglycosylation strategy, indicated that the immunosuppressive effect of HdHMW was at least partially dependent on a glycan: treating the HdHMW with neuraminidase and alpha-mannosidase failed to inhibit its blockade of LPS-induced TNF-alpha production by THP-1 macrophages. Mice treated with DNBS developed colitis, as typified by wasting, shortening of the colon, macroscopic and microscopic tissue damage, and an inflammatory infiltrate. Mice cotreated with HdHMW (three intraperitoneal injections) displayed significantly less inflammatory disease, and this was accompanied by reduced TNF-alpha production and increased IL-10 and IL-4 production by mitogen-stimulated spleen cells. However, cotreatment of mice with neutralizing anti-IL-10 antibodies had only a minor impact on the anticolitic effect of the HdHMW. We speculate that purification of the immunosuppressive factor(s) from H. diminuta has the potential to lead to the development of novel immunomodulatory drugs to treat inflammatory disease. PMID:20028812

Johnston, M J G; Wang, A; Catarino, M E D; Ball, L; Phan, V C; MacDonald, J A; McKay, D M

2010-03-01

294

Sequential and concurrent exposure of flour beetles ( Tribolium confusum ) to tapeworms ( Hymenolepis diminuta ) and pesticide (diatomaceous earth).  

PubMed

The response of Tribolium confusum to sublethal levels of 2 environmental stressors was studied, i.e., parasitic infection represented by the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta , and a physical stressor represented by the natural pesticide diatomaceous earth (DE). These were applied sequentially (DE, then infection) to detect indirect or carryover effects of DE, and concurrently (DE applied immediately after exposure to parasites and DE presence maintained throughout the infection) to detect direct effects of DE. DE alone, but not parasitism alone, produced significant host mortality, and concurrent treatment with DE and parasitism did not increase mortality over DE alone. Parasite abundance was significantly higher following sequential, but not concurrent, DE exposure. Parasite abundance in mated hosts was significantly higher than in virgin hosts. Parasitic infection resulted in significantly fewer eggs retained in the oviduct of beetles, but there was no difference in the number of eggs that accumulated in the culture medium and no difference in the surface-seeking behavior of beetles. Mating status of beetles in all treatments, and DE exposure in concurrent treatments significantly increased their surface-seeking behavior. Concurrent exposure to DE also resulted in a 4- to 6-fold increase in host egg numbers that accumulated in the culture medium. Although DE exposure increased parasite numbers in the beetles, these 2 stressors otherwise appeared to act independently. PMID:22263651

Shostak, Allen W

2012-06-01

295

Growth, Nutritional Composition, and Hematology of Arctic Charr ( Salvelinus Alpinus ) Exposed to Toxaphene and Tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium Dendriticum ) Larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxaphene, an organochlorine pesticide, is the major contaminant of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) in the Canadian Arctic. The objective of this study was to investigate the combined effects of toxaphene exposure and infection by the larval stage of the cestode Diphyllobothrium dendriticum on fish growth, nutritional composition, and hematology. Hatchery-reared Arctic charr were subjected to one of four treatments: (1)

C. A. Blanar; M. A. Curtis; H. M. Chan

2005-01-01

296

A new genus and species of proteocephalidean tapeworm (Cestoda) from Pangasius larnaudii (Siluriformes: Pangasiidae) in Southeast Asia.  

PubMed

A new proteocephalidean cestode is described from spot pangasius, Pangasius larnaudii (Siluriformes: Pangasiidae), from Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia and a new genus, Pangasiocestus , is proposed to accommodate it. The genus is placed in the Gangesiinae because its scolex possesses a large rostellum-like apical organ and its genital organs (testes, ovary, vitellarium, and uterus) are situated in the medulla, with some vitelline follicles paramuscular. Pangasiocestus romani n. gen. and n. sp., the type and only species of the new genus, is characterized mainly by its rosette-like scolex composed of 4 lobes bearing a small sucker in their center, and the apical part with a large, discoidal, rostellum-like apical organ devoid of hooks, by weakly developed inner longitudinal musculature formed by very few isolated muscle fibers, uneven size of testes in immature and mature proglottids, with lateral testes smaller and more dense than median ones, by very narrow lateral bands of vitelline follicles, formed usually by single follicles, and by the vagina anterior to the cirrus sac. This is the first proteocephalidean cestode from a pangasiid catfish identified to the species level (proteocephalidean cestodes from 3 Pangasius spp. reported in an unpublished account from Vietnam, misidentified as Proteocephalus osculatus (Goeze, 1782) [?=? Glanitaenia osculata ], are not considered). PMID:22257242

Scholz, Tomáš; de Chambrier, Alain

2012-06-01

297

Rapid Molecular Identification of Human Taeniid Cestodes by Pyrosequencing Approach  

PubMed Central

Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica are causative agents of taeniasis in humans. The difficulty of morphological identification of human taeniids can lead to misdiagnosis or confusion. To overcome this problem, several molecular methods have been developed, but use of these tends to be time-consuming. Here, a rapid and high-throughput pyrosequencing approach was developed for the identification of three human taeniids originating from various countries. Primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of the three Taenia species were designed. Variations in a 26-nucleotide target region were used for identification. The reproducibility and accuracy of the pyrosequencing technology was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. This technique will be a valuable tool to distinguish between sympatric human taeniids that occur in Thailand, Asia and Pacific countries. This method could potentially be used for the molecular identification of the taeniid species that might be associated with suspicious cysts and lesions, or cyst residues in humans or livestock at the slaughterhouse.

Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Intapan, Pewpan M.; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Tourtip, Somjintana; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Maleewong, Wanchai

2014-01-01

298

Visual diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercosis during meat inspection: is it unequivocal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 267 cysts were collected from March to December 2004 from two main abattoirs in northern Germany. The cysts were classified by the usual organoleptic methods during meat inspection as Cysticercus bovis. The reported prevalence of cysticercosis in the abattoirs was 0.48 and 1.08%, respectively. The cysts were examined macroscopically for description of their morphology and constituents and

S. Abuseir; C. Epe; T. Schnieder; G. Klein; M. Kühne

2006-01-01

299

Exposure to Multiple Parasites Is Associated with the Prevalence of Active Convulsive Epilepsy in Sub-Saharan Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Epilepsy is common in developing countries, and it is often associated with parasitic infections. We investigated the relationship between exposure to parasitic infections, particularly multiple infections and active convulsive epilepsy (ACE), in five sites across sub-Saharan Africa. Methods and Findings A case-control design that matched on age and location was used. Blood samples were collected from 986 prevalent cases and 1,313 age-matched community controls and tested for presence of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium falciparum, Taenia solium and HIV. Exposure (seropositivity) to Onchocerca volvulus (OR?=?1.98; 95%CI: 1.52–2.58, p<0.001), Toxocara canis (OR?=?1.52; 95%CI: 1.23–1.87, p<0.001), Toxoplasma gondii (OR?=?1.28; 95%CI: 1.04–1.56, p?=?0.018) and higher antibody levels (top tertile) to Toxocara canis (OR?=?1.70; 95%CI: 1.30–2.24, p<0.001) were associated with an increased prevalence of ACE. Exposure to multiple infections was common (73.8% of cases and 65.5% of controls had been exposed to two or more infections), and for T. gondii and O. volvulus co-infection, their combined effect on the prevalence of ACE, as determined by the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), was more than additive (T. gondii and O. volvulus, RERI?=?1.19). The prevalence of T. solium antibodies was low (2.8% of cases and 2.2% of controls) and was not associated with ACE in the study areas. Conclusion This study investigates how the degree of exposure to parasites and multiple parasitic infections are associated with ACE and may explain conflicting results obtained when only seropositivity is considered. The findings from this study should be further validated.

Kamuyu, Gathoni; Bottomley, Christian; Mageto, James; Lowe, Brett; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Noh, John C.; Nutman, Thomas B.; Ngugi, Anthony K.; Odhiambo, Rachael; Wagner, Ryan G.; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth; Masanja, Honorati; Osier, Faith H. A.; Odermatt, Peter; Newton, Charles R.

2014-01-01

300

Risk factors of porcine cysticercosis in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.  

PubMed

There is a high prevalence of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis in humans and pigs in the Eastern Cape Province (ECP) of South Africa. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors of porcine cysticercosis in select districts of the ECP. Data were collected in 2003 by interviewing 217 pig producers from the area. Blood samples were collected from 261 of their pigs, which were tested using two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for the presence of antibodies to cysticercosis. Frequencies of both owner- and pig-level characteristics were determined. For pig-level analysis, all bivariable and multivariable associations were determined using the surveylogistic procedure of the SAS/STAT® software to accommodate for the intraclass correlation that exists for clusters of pigs within one owner and for clusters of owners within a district. All tests for significance were performed at the ??=?0.05 level, and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were determined. Among the respondents, 48% of their households lacked a latrine, 98% slaughtered pigs at home, and 99% indicated that meat inspection services were not available. On bivariable analysis, there was a significant association between porcine infection and district (p?=?0.003), breed (p?=?0.041) and the absence of a latrine (p?=?0.006). On multivariable analysis, the absence of a latrine was the only variable significantly associated with porcine infection (aOR?=?1.89; 95% CI?=?1.07, 3.35) (p?=?0.028). The increased odds of porcine infection with households lacking a latrine contributes to our understanding of the transmission of this parasite in the ECP. Determining and addressing the risk factors for T. solium infection can potentially lower the very high prevalence in humans and pigs in this endemic area. PMID:22655065

Krecek, Rosina Claudia; Mohammed, Hamish; Michael, Lynne Margaret; Schantz, Peter Mullineaux; Ntanjana, Lulama; Morey, Liesl; Werre, Stephen Rakem; Willingham, Arve Lee

2012-01-01

301

Risk Factors of Porcine Cysticercosis in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa  

PubMed Central

There is a high prevalence of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis in humans and pigs in the Eastern Cape Province (ECP) of South Africa. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors of porcine cysticercosis in select districts of the ECP. Data were collected in 2003 by interviewing 217 pig producers from the area. Blood samples were collected from 261 of their pigs, which were tested using two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for the presence of antibodies to cysticercosis. Frequencies of both owner- and pig-level characteristics were determined. For pig-level analysis, all bivariable and multivariable associations were determined using the surveylogistic procedure of the SAS/STAT® software to accommodate for the intraclass correlation that exists for clusters of pigs within one owner and for clusters of owners within a district. All tests for significance were performed at the ??=?0.05 level, and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were determined. Among the respondents, 48% of their households lacked a latrine, 98% slaughtered pigs at home, and 99% indicated that meat inspection services were not available. On bivariable analysis, there was a significant association between porcine infection and district (p?=?0.003), breed (p?=?0.041) and the absence of a latrine (p?=?0.006). On multivariable analysis, the absence of a latrine was the only variable significantly associated with porcine infection (aOR?=?1.89; 95% CI?=?1.07, 3.35) (p?=?0.028). The increased odds of porcine infection with households lacking a latrine contributes to our understanding of the transmission of this parasite in the ECP. Determining and addressing the risk factors for T. solium infection can potentially lower the very high prevalence in humans and pigs in this endemic area.

Krecek, Rosina Claudia; Mohammed, Hamish; Michael, Lynne Margaret; Schantz, Peter Mullineaux; Ntanjana, Lulama; Morey, Liesl; Werre, Stephen Rakem; Willingham, Arve Lee

2012-01-01

302

The prevalence of epilepsy follows the distribution of onchocerciasis in a west Ugandan focus.  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological surveys indicate that the prevalence of epilepsy is higher in developing countries than in industrialized countries. Except for neurocystocercosis due to Taenia solium, little is known about possible underlying causes. This article reports the relationship between epilepsy and onchocerciasis in an Onchocerca volvulus endemic area in West Uganda. Individuals complaining of seizures were identified by means of a population census in 12 villages. Active epilepsy was confirmed in 61 of 4743 inhabitants (crude prevalence rate = 1.3%; age-standardized rate = 1.1%). Distribution of epilepsy in the study area was clustered, ranging from a prevalence of 0.2% to 3.4% in different villages. Age-specific prevalence was highest between 10 and 19 years, with a rate of 3.6% for the study are as a whole, and up to 10.0% in villages of high epilepsy prevalence. The prevalence of onchocerciasis in the 10-19-year-old age group was assessed by skin-snip biopsy and ranged from 15% to 85% in different villages. Epilepsy was significantly more frequent in the three villages with the highest levels of O. volvulus endemicity than in other villages (P < 0.0001). Serological testing for T. solium infection was positive in one and borderline in three of 53 epilepsy patients tested. The significant correlation between epilepsy and onchocerciasis did not change when these four patients were excluded from the analysis. These findings suggest a strong association between epilepsy and onchocerciasis in this area. This could have significant implications for the concept of morbidity due to O. volvulus.

Kaiser, C.; Kipp, W.; Asaba, G.; Mugisa, C.; Kabagambe, G.; Rating, D.; Leichsenring, M.

1996-01-01

303

Use of oxfendazole to control porcine cysticercosis in a high-endemic area of Mozambique.  

PubMed

A randomized controlled field trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a single oral dose of 30 mg/kg of oxfendazole (OFZ) treatment for control of porcine cysticercosis was conducted in 4 rural villages of Angónia district, north-western Mozambique. Two hundred and sixteen piglets aged 4 months were selected and assigned randomly to OFZ treatment or control groups. Fifty-four piglets were treated at 4 months of age (T1), while another 54 piglets were treated at 9 months of age (T2) and these were matched with 108 control pigs from the same litters and raised under the same conditions. Baseline data were collected on the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis using antigen ELISA (Ag-ELISA), as well as knowledge and practices related to Taenia solium transmission based on questionnaire interviews and observations. All animals were followed and re-tested for porcine cysticercosis by Ag-ELISA at 9 and 12 months of age when the study was terminated. Overall prevalence at baseline was 5.1% with no significant difference between groups. At the end of the study, 66.7% of the controls were found positive, whereas 21.4% of the T1 and 9.1% of the T2 pigs were positive, respectively. Incidence rates of porcine cysticercosis were lower in treated pigs as compared to controls. Necropsy of 30 randomly selected animals revealed that viable cysts were present in none (0/8) of T2 pigs, 12.5% (1/8) of T1 pigs and 42.8% (6/14) of control pigs. There was a significant reduction in the risk of T. solium cysticercosis if pigs were treated with OFZ either at 4 months (OR?=?0.14; 95% CI: 0.05-0.36) or at 9 months of age (OR?=?0.05; 95% CI: 0.02-0.16). Strategic treatment of pigs in endemic areas should be further explored as a means to control T. solium cysticercosis/taeniosis. PMID:22666509

Pondja, Alberto; Neves, Luís; Mlangwa, James; Afonso, Sónia; Fafetine, José; Willingham, Arve Lee; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang

2012-01-01

304

Use of Oxfendazole to Control Porcine Cysticercosis in a High-Endemic Area of Mozambique  

PubMed Central

A randomized controlled field trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a single oral dose of 30 mg/kg of oxfendazole (OFZ) treatment for control of porcine cysticercosis was conducted in 4 rural villages of Angónia district, north-western Mozambique. Two hundred and sixteen piglets aged 4 months were selected and assigned randomly to OFZ treatment or control groups. Fifty-four piglets were treated at 4 months of age (T1), while another 54 piglets were treated at 9 months of age (T2) and these were matched with 108 control pigs from the same litters and raised under the same conditions. Baseline data were collected on the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis using antigen ELISA (Ag-ELISA), as well as knowledge and practices related to Taenia solium transmission based on questionnaire interviews and observations. All animals were followed and re-tested for porcine cysticercosis by Ag-ELISA at 9 and 12 months of age when the study was terminated. Overall prevalence at baseline was 5.1% with no significant difference between groups. At the end of the study, 66.7% of the controls were found positive, whereas 21.4% of the T1 and 9.1% of the T2 pigs were positive, respectively. Incidence rates of porcine cysticercosis were lower in treated pigs as compared to controls. Necropsy of 30 randomly selected animals revealed that viable cysts were present in none (0/8) of T2 pigs, 12.5% (1/8) of T1 pigs and 42.8% (6/14) of control pigs. There was a significant reduction in the risk of T. solium cysticercosis if pigs were treated with OFZ either at 4 months (OR?=?0.14; 95% CI: 0.05–0.36) or at 9 months of age (OR?=?0.05; 95% CI: 0.02–0.16). Strategic treatment of pigs in endemic areas should be further explored as a means to control T. solium cysticercosis/taeniosis.

Pondja, Alberto; Neves, Luis; Mlangwa, James; Afonso, Sonia; Fafetine, Jose; Willingham, Arve Lee; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang

2012-01-01

305

Prevalence and seasonal incidence of larval and adult cestode infections of sheep and goats in eastern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A study on the prevalence and seasonal incidence of cestode parasite infections of sheep and goats was carried out in eastern Ethiopia for 2 years (May 2003-April 2005). During this period, viscera including liver, lungs, heart, kidneys and the gastro-intestinal tract were collected from 655 sheep and 632 goats slaughtered at four abattoirs located in the towns of Haramaya, Harar, Dire Dawa and Jijiga. At the abattoirs the abdominal, thoracic and pelvic cavities as well as the muscle surfaces of all animals were visually examined for the presence of larval (cystic) stages of cestode parasites. The viscera were transported within 24 h to the parasitology laboratory of Haramaya University and were examined for larval and adult cestodes following standard procedures. The most prevalent metacestodes (larval cestodes) were Cysticercus ovis (Taenia ovis), Cysticercus tenuicollis (T. hydatigena) and hydatid cysts (Echinococcus granulosus). In sheep, the overall prevalence was 26% for C. ovis, 79% for C. tenuicollis, and 68% for hydatid cysts. Similarly, for goats, the corresponding prevalence was 22%, 53% and 65%, respectively. The difference between sheep and goats in prevalence of C. tenuicollis was significant. The high prevalence of hydatid cysts in both sheep and goats indicates that cystic echinococcosis/hydatidosis is a public health problem in these regions which requires implementation of control measures, including public health education, strict meat inspection and control of stray dogs. The results of the survey also implies that infections of small ruminants with these metacestodes are responsible for condemnation of substantial quantities of affected organs and muscles and therefore of direct economic importance. Intestinal infections with adult tapeworms of Moniezia expansa, Avitellina centripunctata and Stilesia globipunctata, and bile duct infections with Stilesia hepatica were also common in both sheep and goats. In sheep, the overall prevalence of these tapeworms were 61%, 20%, 24% and 39%, respectively. Similarly, the overall prevalence of these parasites in goats was 53%, 21%, 27% and 36%, respectively. PMID:18575964

Sissay, Menkir M; Uggla, Arvid; Waller, Peter J

2008-08-01

306

Granuloma cytokines in murine cysticercosis.  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis, caused by Taenia solium, is one of the most common causes of seizures worldwide. The symptoms result from granulomatous inflammation associated with dying cyst forms of the parasite. Although the invasive larvae can be killed by immune serum plus complement, immunity to the cyst stage depends on a cellular response. This dichotomous immune response is reminiscent of the extremes of the immune response associated with T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokine profiles. To characterize the cytokine response in cysticercosis, granulomas were removed from the peritoneal cavity of mice infected with Taenia crassiceps cysts and examined for cytokine message by in situ hybridization using 35S-labeled RNA probes. The granulomas were staged based on histologic appearance of the degenerating parasite. Message for gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) was identified by light microscopy in 11 of the 12 granulomas, and interleukin-2 (IL-2) message was identified in 9 of the 12. By laser scanning confocal microscopy, significantly increased IFN-gamma and IL-2 pixel intensity was identified in nearly all of the granulomas from early histologic stages. Message for IL-4 was seen in 6 of the 12 granulomas. Only granulomas with complete destruction of the parasite architecture displayed more than minimal amounts of IL-4 message by light microscopy, and only 2 of 12 granulomas had IL-4 pixel intensity significantly above background. Only minimal amounts of IL-10 message were detected in 4 of 11 granulomas. Thus, early granulomas in cysticercosis are predominantly associated with a Th1 response, whereas later granulomas, in which parasite destruction is complete, have a mixture of Th1 and IL-4. The Th1 response appears to play an important role both in the pathogenesis of disease as well as in the clearing of the parasites, with IL-4 involved in downregulation of the initial response.

Robinson, P; Atmar, R L; Lewis, D E; White, A C

1997-01-01

307

First report of a gryporhynchid tapeworm (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) from New Zealand and from an eleotrid fish, described from metacestodes and in vitro-grown worms.  

PubMed

Metacestodes are often found in the body cavity of the common bully (Gobiomorphus cotidianus McDowall), from freshwater habitats in Otago, New Zealand. Identification of metacestodes relies only on the number, size and shape of the rostellar hooks. To attempt species determination, we cultivated metacestodes in vitro for up to 23 days, during which they matured to at least the male stage of development, although female organs were not discernable. Identified as members of the genus Paradilepis Hsü, 1935 (family Gryporhynchidae), these specimens are compared to previously described species, in particular P. minima (Goss, 1940), from Australia, the closest species, both geographically and morphologically. Although the size of scolex, suckers and proglottids differ significantly from those of P. minima, we are cautious about interpreting 'adults' grown in vitro, because we are unsure whether the artificial conditions alter development. For this reason, and because of the lack of female organs, we refrain from erecting a new species, and refer to the specimens as Paradilepis cf. minima until such time as the adults are found in the definitive host. With this proviso we present here a description of the in vitro-grown worms and the metacestodes as a preliminary study of this cestode. A molecular analysis of small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences, shows the position of P. cf. minima and another gryporhynchid, Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus (Wedl, 1855), to be equivocal, but confirms their exclusion from the Dilepididae and Hymenolepididae. This is the first record of a gryporhynchid from New Zealand, and the first from the fish family Eleotridae. PMID:22152219

Presswell, B; Poulin, R; Randhawa, H S

2012-12-01

308

A new monozoic tapeworm, Lobulovarium longiovatum n. g., n. sp. (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), from barbs Puntius spp. (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) in the Indomalayan region.  

PubMed

A new caryophyllidean cestode is described from barbs Puntius spp. (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), with P. sophore (Hamilton) as its type-host, in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins in India and Bangladesh, and a new genus, Lobulovarium n. g., is proposed to accommodate it. The genus belongs to the Lytocestidae because its vitelline follicles are situated in the cortex. It is typified by: (i) a peculiar ovary, which is roughly H-shaped, but with asymmetrical, irregular lobes on its ventral and dorsal sides; (ii) an extensive vitellarium formed by numerous vitelline follicles scattered throughout the cortex; (iii) a long, conical postovarian part of the body with numerous vitelline follicles; (iv) a broadly digitate scolex with a slightly protrusible central cone; (v) a single gonopore (male and female genital ducts open via a single pore and a common genital atrium is absent); and (vi) a small number of testes (< 60). Molecular data (partial sequences of the lsrDNA) indicate that Lobulovarium longiovatum n. sp. belongs among the most basal caryophyllidean cestodes, being unrelated to species from siluriform catfishes in the Indomalayan region. Paracaryophyllaeus osteobramensis (Gupta & Sinha, 1984) Hafeezullah, 1993 (syn. Pliovitellaria osteobramensis Gupta & Sinha, 1984) from another cyprinid fish, Osteobrama cotio (Hamilton), in Uttar Pradesh, India, is tentatively transferred to Lobulovarium as L. osteobramense (Gupta & Sinha, 1984) n. comb. It differs from L. longiovatum by having much smaller eggs (length <50 ?m versus >90 ?m in L. longiovatum), which are spherical (length/width ratio 1:1 versus 2.5-3:1 in the new species), and the presence of vitelline follicles alongside the ovarian lobes (almost completely absent in L. longiovatum). PMID:22890375

Oros, Mikuláš; Ash, Anirban; Brabec, Jan; Kar, Pradip Kumar; Scholz, Tomáš

2012-09-01

309

The development of PCR methodology for the identification of species of the tapeworm Moniezia from cattle, goats and sheep in central Vietnam.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of Moniezia spp. in domestic ruminants in central Vietnam and to develop a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to distinguish M. expansa from M. benedeni. Among 2040 examined domestic animals (540 cattle, 800 goats, 700 sheep) Moniezia was recovered from 5.4% of cattle, 16.4% of sheep and 20.6% of goats. A set of primers for PCR was designed to classify M. expansa and M. benedeni based on the amplification of DNA corresponding to the internal transcribed spacer of 5.8S rRNA. The 457 specimens (75 from cattle, 162 from goats, 150 from sheep, 30 from horses, 30 from chickens and 10 from dogs) were subjected to PCR for classification of Moniezia spp. PCR products with the expected sizes were amplified from bovine, ovine and caprine specimens. No specific PCR products were found for specimens from horses, chickens and dogs. Of the 75 specimens from cattle, nine were classified as M. expansa and 66 were M. benedeni. Among 162 caprine specimens, 138 were M. expansa and 24 were M. benedeni. The distribution of M. expansa and M. benedeni in 150 ovine specimens was 132 and 18, respectively. These results show that M. expansa is dominant in goats and sheep, whereas M. benedeni is more common in cattle; PCR can be used for classification of these two species. PMID:22071022

Nguyen, T D; Le, Q D; Huynh, V V; Nguyen, S T; Nguyen, T V; Vu-Khac, H

2012-12-01

310

Gusanos, los Lombrices, los Tenias y Otras Parasitos Intestinales del ser Humano (Hookworm, Pinworm, Tapeworm, and Other Intestinal Parasites of Humans).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four pamphlets review the causes and treatment of intestinal parasites: Morphology of Diagnostic Stages of Intestinal Parasites; Under ordinary laboratory conditions, diagnosis of intestinal parasites in man is a difficult matter. The publication is desig...

1971-01-01

311

Helminth Induced Suppression of Macrophage Activation Is Correlated with Inhibition of Calcium Channel Activity  

PubMed Central

Helminth parasites cause persistent infections in humans and yet many infected individuals are asymptomatic. Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by the cestode Taenia solium, has a long asymptomatic phase correlated with an absence of brain inflammation. However, the mechanisms of immune suppression remain poorly understood. Here we report that murine NCC displays a lack of cell surface maturation markers in infiltrating myeloid cells. Furthermore, soluble parasite ligands (PL) failed to induce maturation of macrophages, and inhibited TLR-induced inflammatory cytokine production. Importantly, PL treatment abolished both LPS and thapsigargin-induced store operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Moreover, electrophysiological recordings demonstrated PL-mediated inhibition of LPS or Tg-induced currents that were TRPC1-dependent. Concomitantly STIM1-TRPC1 complex was also impaired that was essential for SOCE and sustained Ca2+ entry. Likewise loss of SOCE due to PL further inhibited NFkB activation. Overall, our results indicate that the negative regulation of agonist induced Ca2+ signaling pathway by parasite ligands may be a novel immune suppressive mechanism to block the initiation of the inflammatory response associated with helminth infections.

Chauhan, Arun; Sun, Yuyang; Pani, Biswaranjan; Quenumzangbe, Fredice; Sharma, Jyotika; Singh, Brij B.; Mishra, Bibhuti B.

2014-01-01

312

Seizure and radiological outcomes in children with solitary cysticercous granulomas with and without albendazole therapy: A retrospective case record analysis.  

PubMed

Neurocysticercosis, parasitic infestation of the central nervous system by the Taenia solium larvae, is a major public health problem, primarily in the developing countries. Seizures are the primary clinical manifestation which could be acute (secondary to active lesions) or remote symptomatic (due to calcified lesions). Cysticidal therapy is the standard of care for solitary parenchymal active neurocysticerci. However treatment related side effects and tendency to spontaneous resolution raises concern from time to time whether cysticidal therapy is actually required. This is a retrospective case record analysis of two groups of patients with solitary parenchymal neurocysticerci (group A; 171 patients between 2000 and 2004 who did not receive cysticidal therapy, group B; 512 patients between 2008 and 2013 who received cysticidal therapy). Group B had significantly more radiological resolution of lesions whereas group A reported significantly more seizure recurrences on antiepileptics. There was no significant difference in occurrence of calcification in the two groups. Overall patients with calcified lesions had significantly more breakthrough seizures. Well designed prospective studies should be planned in future to understand the mechanism underlying the epileptogenicity of calcified lesions and how they are linked to host and environment factors. PMID:24908563

Gulati, Sheffali; Jain, Puneet; Sachan, Deepak; Chakrabarty, Biswaroop; Kumar, Atin; Pandey, R M; Gupta, Arun K

2014-09-01

313

Biochemical analysis of a recombinant glutathione transferase from the cestode Echinococcus granulosus.  

PubMed

Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are believed to be a major detoxification system in helminths. We describe the expression and functional analysis of EgGST, a cytosolic GST from Echinococcus granulosus, related to the Mu-class of mammalian enzymes. EgGST was produced as an enzymatically active dimeric protein (rEgGST), with highest specific activity towards the standard substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB; 2.5 micromol min(-1)mg(-1)), followed by ethacrynic acid. Interestingly, rEgGST displayed glutathione peroxidase activity (towards cumene hydroperoxide), and conjugated reactive carbonyls (trans-2-nonenal and trans,trans-2,4-decadienal), indicating that it may intercept damaging products of lipid peroxidation. In addition, classical GST inhibitors (cybacron blue, triphenylthin chloride and ellagic acid) and a number of anthelmintic drugs (mainly, hexachlorophene and rafoxanide) were found to interfere with glutathione-conjugation to CDNB; suggesting that they may bind to EgGST. Considered globally, the functional properties of rEgGST are similar to those of putative orthologs from Echinococcus multilcularis and Taenia solium, the other medically important cestodes. Interestingly, our results also indicate that differences exist between these closely related cestode GSTs, which probably reflect specific biological functions of the molecules in each parasitic organism. PMID:20034460

Harispe, Laura; García, Gabriela; Arbildi, Paula; Pascovich, Leticia; Chalar, Cora; Zaha, Arnaldo; Fernandez, Cecilia; Fernandez, Veronica

2010-04-01

314

Clinical and Pathological Characteristics of Intraocular Cysticercosis  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to explore the clinical, radiological, and pathological characteristics of intraocular cysticercosis due to Taenia solium metacestode infection. Total 8 patients diagnosed with intraocular cysticercosis at the Red Cross Hospital of Yunnan Province, China were examined retrospectively. Patients with clear dioptic media had undergone fundus chromophotography. All patients underwent B ultrasonography of the ocular region (CT) successive scanning of the orbit and cerebral tissues. Parasites were extracted surgically and then examined pathologically. The fundus chromophotography showed a white and condensing scolex package in the vesicle. The B ultrasonic examination showed a vesicle-like echogenic mass in the vitreous chamber, in which the high-level echo spot was the cysticercus scolex. The pathological examinations showed that the vesicle wall exhibited hyaline degeneration, inflammatory cell infiltration, neuroglial fiber, and glial cell proliferation layers from the inside to the outside. The scolex is round and is composed of the outer tissue (the body wall) and the inner furrow tissue; these tissues migrated together. Primordially differentiated sucking discs were found in one case, but no hooklets were found. The inner scolex tissue was folded like a paper flower. The severity of intraocular disease is closely correlated with the pathophysiological processes of the cysticercus worm. Pathological examination of the intraocular lesions can help to evaluate the course of the disease as well as to provide a scientific basis for effective antiparasitic medication.

Zhang, Li-Wei; Li, Hua; Hu, Zhu-Lin

2013-01-01

315

Neurocysticercosis: A disease of neglect  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a neglected tropical disease caused by larval forms of the parasite Taenia solium lodging in central nervous system (CNS). There is a huge morbidity and debilitation due to CNS manifestations of NCC in developing and underdeveloped regions of the globe, mainly Asian, African and Latin American countries. It is the cause of epilepsy in about 1% of the population of endemic countries and is the underlying etiology in about 15-50% persons with epilepsy, depending upon the geographical region. There is no perfect diagnostic method and the diagnosis relies on a combination of clinical, radio-imaging, immunologic and epidemiologic data. Treatment includes anti-parasitic treatment by cysticidal drugs and management of associated symptoms and complications. The disease is eradicable and control depends on an integrated and coordinated involvement of international bodies like the World Health Organization along with scientific institutions and political and administrative strata of the endemic countries to provide the essential tools such as adequate sanitation, live-stock management, health education and improved socio-economic conditions.

Mewara, Abhishek; Goyal, Kapil; Sehgal, Rakesh

2013-01-01

316

[Role of infectious agents in the emergence of malignant tumors].  

PubMed

According to the data of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), at least 6 virus species (HPV, EBV, HHV-8/KSHV, HTLV-1, HBV, HCV), 4 helminthes species (Schistosoma haematobium and japonicum, Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis) and I bacterium species (Helicobacter pylori) have been proved to be capable of causing the development of cancer. The analysis of the data available shows that Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), John Cunningham polyomavirus (JCV), monkey virus 40 (SV40), cytomegalovirus (CMV), xenotropic murine leukemia virus (XMRV), Helicobacter bilis and hepaticus, Campylobacter jejuni, Fusobacterium varium, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides vulgatus, Prevotella spp., Streptococcus bovis and anginosus, Treponema denticola, Salmonella typhi, paratyphi and typhimurium, Borrelia burgdorferi, Bartonella spp., Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, trachomatis and psittaci, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Propionibacterium acnes, Tropheryma whippelii, Schistosoma mansoni, Opistorchis felineus, Strongyloides stercoralis, Taenia solium, Candida spp., Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Histoplasma capsulatum and Trichomonas vaginalis can also be potential etiological agents of cancer. Apparently, detection of new associations between infectious agents and risk of the development of cancer will facilitate progress in elaboration of prophylaxis measures, early diagnostic methods and, probably, methods of treatment of malignant tumors. PMID:23163048

Kutikhin, A G; Yuzhalin, A E; Brusina, E B; Briko, N I

2012-01-01

317

Crystallization of the Membrane-Associated Annexin B1: Roles of Additive Screen, Dynamic Light Scattering, and Bioactivity Assay  

SciTech Connect

Annexin B1 (AnxB1) is a calcium-dependent phospholipid binding protein from Taenia solium cysticercus and has been reported to possess anticoagulant activity, to inhibit phospholipase A{sub 2}, and to regulate membrane transport. Native AnxB1 and its selenomethionyl derivative have been overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified. The results of dynamic light scattering analysis showed that Hepes buffer combined with low concentration salts (NaCl or CaCl{sub 2}) was beneficial for preventing aggregation and for AnxB1 stabilization in the storage. After the additive screen, crystals have been yielded in the presence of guanidine hydrochloride (Gn-HCl). We determined that a low concentration of Gn-HCl significantly delayed clotting time and increased anticoagulant activity. Analysis of the crystal showed that in the presence of Gn-HCl, AnxB1 crystallizes in orthorhombic space group, which is modified from the cubic space group for crystals grown in the absence of Gn-HCl. A high quality data set (at 1.9 {angstrom}) has been collected successfully for crystals of L-selenomethionine labeled protein in the presence of Gn-HCl, to solve the structure with the single anomalous dispersion method (SAD). The unit cell parameters are a = 102.35 {angstrom}, b = 103.59 {angstrom}, c = 114.60 {angstrom}, {alpha} = {beta} = {gamma} = 90.00{sup o}.

Ding, F.; Xu, Y; Azzi, A; Zhu, D; Rehse, D; Chen, C; Sun, S; Lin, S

2010-01-01

318

Viability of six species of larval and non-larval helminth eggs for different conditions of temperature, pH and dryness.  

PubMed

Helminth eggs are the most difficult biological parasites to inactivate in wastewater and sludge. In developing countries, in particular, they are present in high concentrations and are the cause of many diseases that impact seriously on the human population. The process conditions for affordable inactivation are very variable, leading to different inactivation efficiencies. Temperature, dryness, pH and the developmental stage of the eggs must be taken into consideration to achieve complete inactivation. The objective of this research was to study the inactivation of six species of larval and non-larval helminth eggs of medical importance in developing countries under controlled conditions of temperature, pH, dryness and contact time. Results showed considerable differences in inactivation conditions among helminth eggs and a high level of resistance was confirmed for the eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum. The appropriate conditions for inactivation of all types of eggs were found by applying combinations of pH, temperature and dryness. At 45 °C it was possible to inactivate all species with a pH of 5.3 and 90% dryness within 6 days. If alkalization was applied, a pH of 12.7 was sufficient over 19 days at the same conditions of dryness and temperature. From these results it is proposed that both Ascaris spp. and Taenia solium may be used as indicators of biological contamination in wastewater and sludge. PMID:22794801

Maya, C; Torner-Morales, F J; Lucario, E S; Hernández, E; Jiménez, B

2012-10-01

319

Intestinal parasitic infection in Bhil tribe of Rajasthan, India.  

PubMed

A total of 224 Bhil tribal individuals (115 males and 109 females) of different age groups inhabiting tribal rural areas of Udaipur district of Rajasthan, India were investigated for the prevalence of intestinal parasitic (protozoan and helminths) infections. Fresh stool samples of these tribal subjects were examined microscopically by direct wet smear with saline and 1 % Lugol's iodine and formaline ether concentration. Of these 116 (51.78 %) were found to be infected with diverse species of intestinal parasites. Male individuals showed relatively higher (56.52 %) prevalence of infection as compared to their counterparts (46.78 %). Out of 116 infected tribal subjects, 53 (23.66 %), 33 (14.73 %) and 30 (13.39 %) were infected with protozoan, helminths and mixed (protozoan + helminths) parasitic infections, respectively. Maximum number of parasitic infections occurred in the age group of 6-10 years (69.23 %) in both sexes. Among the intestinal parasites, Entamoeba histolytica was the commonest (14.73 %) followed by Entamoeba coli (8.92 %), Taenia solium (5.35 %), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.46 %), Hymenolepis nana (2.23 %), Ancylostoma duodenale (0.89 %), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.89 %), Trichuris trichiura (0.44 %) and Hymenolepis diminuta (0.44 %). Data pertaining to distribution of parasite species in different age groups, and variation in prevalence of their infection in relation to age and sex were also analysed statistically and found to be significant. Possible causes for variation in prevalence of protozoan and helminthic infection are discussed. PMID:24082517

Choubisa, S L; Jaroli, V J; Choubisa, Pallavi; Mogra, N

2012-10-01

320

Feasibility study for the detection of Trichinella spiralis in a murine model using mid-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (MID-FTIR) with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and soft independent modelling of class analogies (SIMCA).  

PubMed

Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and soft independent modelling by class analogies (SIMCA) was used to assess the feasibility of detecting Trichinella spiralis in a murine model. The selected FTIR wavenumber range was 1700-900 cm(-1) and the first derivative of the spectra was subjected to SIMCA analysis. The SIMCA model developed for rat meat spiked with T. spiralis larvae was successfully apply to classify non-infected from infected rat meat with a limit of detection of 3 larvae/10 g rat meat and no false positives with 99% confidence limit. To avoid false positives arising from the presence of other parasites, another chemometric model was developed to demonstrate the capacity of the model to discriminate between Ascaris suum, Taenia solium and T. spiralis. Results confirmed that this method could correctly distinguish these parasites. Additional studies are needed to prove the effectiveness of this technique for other types of muscle meats, including those relevant to human consumption. PMID:22874013

Gómez-de Anda, Fabián; Gallardo-Velazquez, Tzayhri; Osorio-Revilla, Guillermo; Dorantes-Alvarez, Lidia; Calderon-Dominguez, Georgina; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín; de-la-Rosa-Arana, Jorge-Luis

2012-12-21

321

[A case of cysticercosis with multiple lesions in the brain and femoral muscles].  

PubMed

A 37-year-old Nepalese man was admitted to Showa University Hospital because of a loss of consciousness and seizures. He had lived in Nepal, Qatar, Singapore, and India before the age of 34 years. He had no history of having eaten raw pork. His physical findings were normal excluding an abnormal visual field, and a positive serum antibody test result for Taenia solium, CT and MRI examinations showed multiple nodular lesions in his brain and thigh. We resected a cyst from his left thigh and diagnosed him as having cysticercosis based on the presence of characteristic hooklets and suckers on a pathological examination. Later, the Asian type of Cysticercus cellulosa was identified using a mitochondrial DNA test. Albendazole (800 mg/day) and prednisolone (60 mg/day) were administered for 14 days. All cysticercus were smaller on Day7 and had almost disappeared on Day 14. No adverse effects from the treatment occurred. Cysticercosis is rare in Japan, and cases requiring treatment for a large number of cysticercus in the brain and thigh are rare. We report a case of neurocysticercosis that had a good clinical course. PMID:24195171

Shoji, Hisashi; Hirai, Takahito; Shirakura, Tetsuro; Takuma, Takahiro; Okino, Tetsuya; Wakatsuki, Yasushi; Okino, Teruhiko; Niki, Yoshihito

2013-09-01

322

Identification and cloning of a novel tetraspanin (TSP) homologue from Brugia malayi.  

PubMed

This is the first report of a tetraspanin (TSP)-like molecule in the lymphatic filarial parasites. Expressed sequence tag (EST) database search for TSP like molecules in the filarial genome resulted in three significant EST hits (two partial ESTs from Brugia malayi and one full length EST from Wuchereria bancrofti). The full length gene cloned from B. malayi showed significant similarity to Caenorhabditis elegans TSP and human TSP and hence the gene was named B. malayi TSP (BmTSP). Subsequent Genbank analysis with the predicted ORF of BmTSP showed additional homologous genes reported from Schistosoma mansoni and Taenia solium parasites. Structural analyses showed that BmTSP has four transmembrane domains and other conserved domains such as CCG and two other critical cysteine residues present within the large extracellular loop similar to other reported TSPs. In addition, putative post-translational modifications such as N-glycosylation, protein kinase c phosphorylation, casein kinase II phosphorylation and N-myristoylation sites have been found in BmTSP sequence. Further, PCR analyses showed that BmTSP is differentially transcribed, with highest level of expression being present in the adult stages followed by L3 and mf stages. This study thus describes a novel TSP cloned from B. malayi, its putative functions in cuticle biogenesis and role in protective immunity. PMID:17852334

Gnanasekar, Munirathinam; Anand, Setty Balakrishnan; Ramaswamy, Kalyanasundaram

2008-04-01

323

Identification and cloning of a novel tetraspanin (TSP) homologue from Brugia malayi†  

PubMed Central

This is the first report of a tetraspanin (TSP)-like molecule in the lymphatic filarial parasites. Expressed sequence tag (EST) database search for TSP like molecules in the filarial genome resulted in three significant EST hits (two partial ESTs from Brugia malayi and one full length EST from Wuchereria bancrofti). The full length gene cloned from B. malayi showed significant similarity to Caenorhabditis elegans TSP and human TSP and hence the gene was named B. malayi TSP (BmTSP). Subsequent Genbank analysis with the predicted ORF of BmTSP showed additional homologous genes reported from Schistosoma mansoni and Taenia solium parasites. Structural analyses showed that BmTSP has four transmembrane domains and other conserved domains such as CCG and two other critical cysteine residues present within the large extracellular loop similar to other reported TSPs. In addition, putative post-translational modifications such as N-glycosylation, protein kinase c phosphorylation, casein kinase II phosphorylation and N-myristoylation sites have been found in BmTSP sequence. Further, PCR analyses showed that BmTSP is differentially transcribed, with highest level of expression being present in the adult stages followed by L3 and mf stages. This study thus describes a novel TSP cloned from B. malayi, its putative functions in cuticle biogenesis and role in protective immunity.

GNANASEKAR, MUNIRATHINAM; ANAND, SETTY BALAKRISHNAN; RAMASWAMY, KALYANASUNDARAM

2011-01-01

324

Automatic analysis of immunocytochemically stained tissue samples.  

PubMed

An automatic colour image segmentation and cell counting software system has been developed for immunocytochemical analysis of stained tissue samples. The system was designed to count the total number of positive and negative cells in tissue samples treated with cytokine DNA probes from pigs naturally parasitised with Taenia solium metacestodes, using in situ hybridisation. A reaction index was calculated as the ratio of the number of cells with a positive reaction to the total number of cells (positives plus negatives) for each of five different probes. The objectives of automatic counting were to improve the reproducibility of the analysis and reduce the processing time of large image batches. A fast KNN classifier was used for colour segmentation. Watershed segmentation combined with edge detection was used to isolate individual cells that were then automatically labelled, using the results of the corresponding colour segmented image. Validation was performed on 122 non-training digital images with a total of 1069 positive cells and 1459 negative cells, with the following results: a mean true positive rate of 90.2% for positive cells and a mean true positive rate of 85.4% for negative cells. The corresponding mean false positive rates were 9.6% and 6.6%. The mean reaction index error of the automatic analysis was 5.35%. The processing of each digital image took 10 s on a Pentium IV PC. PMID:16411641

Arámbula Cosío, F; Márquez Flores, J A; Padilla Castañeda, M A; Solano, S; Tato, P

2005-09-01

325

An epidemiological study of asymptomatic neurocysticercosis in a pig farming community in northern India.  

PubMed

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most frequent parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by the larvae of Taenia solium. The prevalence of NCC is obscured due to variations in the methods used for epidemiological studies and often asymptomatic manifestation. The present study was conducted on 595 apparently healthy individuals belonging to the pig farming community of northern India to estimate the prevalence of asymptomatic NCC and to evaluate risk factors based on questionnaires. Diagnosis of NCC was based on neuroimaging, immunological and epidemiological criteria. Asymptomatic NCC was detected in 90 (15.1%) of 595 individuals. The evaluation of risk factors showed that age >15 years (P=0.001), intake of raw vegetables (P=0.025) and undercooked pork (P=0.005), lack of safe drinking water (P=0.003), inadequate drainage system (P=0.049), no separate place for pigs (P?0.001), NCC related active epilepsy in the family (P?0.001) were significantly associated with asymptomatic NCC. The present study shows high prevalence of asymptomatic NCC in pig farming community of northern India. Further, asymptomatic NCC is associated with most variables of poor socio-economic parameters. PMID:21764415

Prasad, Kashi N; Verma, Avantika; Srivastava, Sandeep; Gupta, Rakesh K; Pandey, Chandra M; Paliwal, Vimal K

2011-09-01

326

Identification of irradiated refrigerated pork with the DNA comet assay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Food irradiation can contribute to a safer and more plentiful food supply by inactivating pathogens, eradicating pests and by extending shelf-life. Particularly in the case of pork meat, this process could be a useful way to inactivate harmful parasites such as Trichinella and Taenia solium. Ionizing radiation causes damage to the DNA of the cells (e.g. strand breaks), which can be used to detect irradiated food. Microelectrophoresis of single cells (``Comet Assay'') is a simple and rapid test for DNA damage and can be used over a wide dose range and for a variety of products. Refrigerated pork meat was irradiated with a 60Co source, Gammacell 220 (A.E.C.L.) installed in IPEN (Sa~o Paulo, Brazil). The doses given were 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5kGy for refrigerated samples. Immediately after irradiation the samples were returned to the refrigerator (6°C). Samples were kept in the refrigerator after irradiation. Pork meat was analyzed 1, 8 and 10 days after irradiation using the DNA ``Comet Assay''. This method showed to be an inexpensive and rapid technique for qualitative detection of irradiation treatment.

Araújo, M. M.; Marin-Huachaca, N. S.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincée, H.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

2004-09-01

327

[Bruns' syndrome: description of a case of neurocysticercosis with pathological study].  

PubMed

Bruns' syndrome is characterized by sudden and strong headache, accompanied by vomiting, acuphenos and vertigo, triggered by abrupt movement of the head and can produce deep coma and death. This can be due to neurocysticercosis by cyst in the fourth ventricle, which contains the larval stage of Taenia solium. In the last years, new cases of this parasitosis are being seen in Spain because of the immigration from endemic areas, but the clinical forms of this infestation are not varied. We present a 44 year old man Ecuadorian who has clinical symptoms consistent with Bruns' syndrome secondary to cyst in the fourth ventricle that progressed badly despite undergoing surgery with ventriculoperitoneal shunt and treatment with albendazol. Finally, he was operated with the excision of the lesion by means of suboccipital craniectomy. We conclude that this syndrome must rule out a cystic or non-cystic, intraventricular lesion and that the appropriate manipulation of the cysticerotic ventricular cysts carries a more favourable prognosis. PMID:15726476

Jiménez Caballero, P E; Mollejo Villanueva, M; Marsal Alonso, C; Alvarez Tejerina, A

2005-03-01

328

Cysticercosis of the Central Nervous System - How Should It Be Managed?  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Taenia solium neurocysticercosis has been long recognized as an important cause of neurological morbidity in most of the world. Unwarranted generalization of diagnostic and treatment recommendations made it difficult to assess individual prognosis and responses for each type of NCC. Understanding of the main clinical presentations (dependent on number, location, size and stage of parasites, as well as on the immune response of the host) allows a better view of treatment options and expected outcomes. Recent findings Current treatment options are still limited and involve symptomatic agents, antiparasitic agents or surgery. The importance of adequate symptomatic management, the potential for improved antiparasitic treatment regimes, in particular combination therapy, and the increasingly important role of minimally invasive neurosurgery are also revised in this manuscript. Summary Treatment decisions in NCC should be individualized in relation to the type of NCC. Initial measures should focus on symptomatic management to later consider antiparasitic therapy when appropriate. Appropiate patient categorization, new antiparasitic regimes and minimally invasive surgery are improving the prognosis of patients with NCC.

Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.

2012-01-01

329

Neuroinfection survey at a neurological ward in a Brazilian tertiary teaching hospital  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to characterize the neuroinfection profile in a tertiary neurological ward. INTRODUCTION: Neuroinfection is a worldwide concern and bacterial meningitis, tetanus and cerebral malaria have been reported as the commonest causes in developing countries. METHODS: From 1999 to 2007, all patients admitted to the Neurology Ward of Hospital das Clínicas, S?o Paulo University School of Medicine because of neuroinfection had their medical records reviewed. Age, gender, immunological status, neurological syndrome at presentation, infectious agent and clinical outcome were recorded. RESULTS: Three hundred and seventy four cases of neuroinfectious diseases accounted for 4.2% of ward admissions and the identification of infectious agent was successful in 81% of cases. Mean age was 40.5±13.4 years, 63.8% were male, 19.7% were immunocompromised patients and meningoencephalitis was the most common clinical presentation despite infectious agent. Viruses and bacteria were equally responsible for 29.4% of neuroinfectious diseases; parasitic, fungal and prion infections accounted for 28%, 9.6% and 3.5% respectively. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1), Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Treponema pallidum, Taenia solium, Schistosoma mansoni, Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum were the more common infectious pathogens in the patients. Infection mortality rate was 14.2%, of which 62.3% occurred in immunocompetent patients. CONCLUSION: Our institution appeared to share some results with developed and developing countries. Comparison with literature may be considered as quality control to health assistance.

Marchiori, Paulo E; Lino, Angelina M M; Machado, Luis R; Pedalini, Livia M; Boulos, Marcos; Scaff, Milberto

2011-01-01

330

[Cisternal cysticercosis of the cerebellopontine angle. A surgically-treated case and review of the literature].  

PubMed

Most neurocysticercosis (N.C.C.) cases reported occur in undeveloped countries where contaminated food by Taenia solium gives rise to human infection. People of developed countries are exposed by migrations and travels. We report a case of a 36 years old french woman living at La Reunion. Her symptomatology consisted of left unilateral hypoacusis progressing over a two years period accompagnied by intermittent headaches. CT scan showed a hypodense mass with a ring enhancement in the left cerebello pontine angle (C.P.A.). M.R.I. showed multicystic arrangement of vesicles in a racemous fashion that spread out to peduncular and carotid cisterns. Parenchymatous or ventricular involvement was not observed. A lateral suboccipital craniectomy was carried up in the sitting position. After division of a thickened arachnoid in the C.P.A., the vesicles were dissected an pulled out easily because the membranes had not any adhesions. Progressive improvement of hearing was observed in the next week. Primary cisternal involvement of N.C.C. is rare and, in literature, there is not any other reported case in the C.P.A. Different mechanisms of invasion to the C.N.S. are discussed. PMID:1603232

Celis, M A; Mourier, K L; Polivka, M; Boissonnet, H; Kato, T; Lot, G; George, B; Cophignon, J

1992-01-01

331

Oxfendazole flukicidal activity in pigs.  

PubMed

Although oxfendazole (OFZ) is a well know broad-spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic, the assessment of its potential trematodicidal activity remains unexplored. OFZ administration at single high doses has been recommended to control Taenia solium cysticercus in pigs. The current study investigated the flukicidal activity obtained after a single high (30mg/kg) oral dose of OFZ in pigs harbouring a natural Fasciola hepatica infection. Sixteen (16) local ecotype pigs were randomly allocated into two (2) experimental groups of 8 animals each named as follow: Untreated control and OFZ treated, in which animals received OFZ (Synanthic(®), Merial Ltd., 9.06% suspension) orally at 30mg/kg. At seven (7) days post-treatment, all the animals were sacrificed and direct adult liver fluke counts were performed following the WAAVP guidelines. None of the animals involved in this experiment showed any adverse event during the study. OFZ treatment as a single 30mg/kg oral dose showed a 100% efficacy against F. hepatica. In conclusion, the trial described here demonstrated an excellent OFZ activity against F. hepatica in naturally infected pigs, after its administration at a single oral dose of 30mg/kg. PMID:24713198

Ortiz, Pedro; Terrones, Susana; Cabrera, María; Hoban, Cristian; Ceballos, Laura; Moreno, Laura; Canton, Candela; Donadeu, Meritxell; Lanusse, Carlos; Alvarez, Luis

2014-08-01

332

Suppression of Spontaneous Spike Generation by Catecholamines in the Smooth Muscle of the GuineaPig Taenia Coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) The mechanism of the action of adrenaline, noradrenaline and isoprenaline on intestinal smooth muscle was investigated. (2) The block of spontaneous and evoked spike activity by adrenaline was associated with hyperpolarization and an increased membrane conductance. Noradrenaline had a similar but weaker action. Isoprenaline blocked spike activity with little or no change in membrane conductance. (3) The effect of

Edith Bulbring; T. Tomita

1969-01-01

333

Infection status with helminthes in feral cats purchased from a market in Busan, Republic of Korea  

PubMed Central

The present study was performed to investigate the infection status with helminth in a group of feral cats in Korea. More than 29 helminth species including adults or eggs were detected in visceral and fecal samples of the examined cats. Among these were a host of nematodes, including toxocarids, Ancylostoma sp. and the larva of Anisakis simplex; trematodes, including Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani, Eurytrema pancreaticum, Pharyngostomum cordatum, Metagonimus spp., Heterophyes nocens, Pygidiopsis summa, Heterophyopsis continua, Stictodora fuscata, Stictodora lari, Acanthotrema felis, Stellantchasmus falcatus, Centrocestus armatus, Procerovum varium, Cryptocotyle sp., Echinostoma revolutum, Echinostoma hortense, Echinochasmus japonicus, Stephanoprora sp., Plagiorchis muris, Neodiplostomum sp. and diplostomulum. We also detected a variety of cestodes, including Spirometra erinacei, Taenia taeniaeformis and unidentified species of tapeworm. We also found examples of the acanthocephalan, Bolbosoma sp. In our assessment of the stools, we detected at least 12 species of helminth eggs. These findings confirmed that feral cats in Korea are infected with a variety of helminth parasite species. Furthermore, among the helminths detected, E. pancreaticum, S. fuscata, S. lari, A. felis, S. falcatus, C. armatus, P. varium, Cryptocotyle sp., E. revolutum, E. japonicus, Stephanoprora sp., P. muris, Neodiplostomum sp. and Bolbosoma sp. represent helminth fauna which have not been reported previously in feral cats in the Republic of Korea.

Chai, Jong-Yil

2005-01-01

334

[Helminth diagnosis in pathologic anatomy].  

PubMed

Most publications devoted to diagnosis of helminths emphasize characteristic parasitological features. Histological feature are seldom described in detail. The purpose of this study was to propose a diagnostic method suitable for use by histologists who, unlike parasitologists, do not visualize the whole worm but rather pieces randomly scattered over a slide. It is relatively easy to distinguish helminths which have smooth muscle, no respiratory or circulatory system, and no coelom from arthropods which have striated muscle, both respiratory and circulatory systems, and coelom. At the adult stage, roundworms or nemathelminths present an external cuticle that may have patterned markings. The visceral cavity is empty. Adults can dwell either in the intestine in which case they are oviparous (oxyuris, ascaris, Ancylostoma, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris...) or in tissue in which case they are viviparous (filaria). Larva of some species can be found in tissues. Adult tape-worms are devoid of cuticle and have a mesenchymatous visceral cavity. Cestodes which are segmented and have no digestive tract (taenias) are readily distinguishable from trematodes which are not segmented and have a digestive tract (faciolasis) Some cestodes unable thrive in man can cause cyst formation (hydatidosis, sparganosis, cysticercosis, coenurosis). On the basis of symptoms and histological features, it is usually possible to diagnose the genus and even the species of the offending helminth provided that the parasite has not been excessively damaged and that a sufficient number of sections are available. PMID:9718562

Pierre, C; Civatte, M; Chevalier, A; Terrier, J P; Gros, P; Carloz, E

1998-01-01

335

Use of a molecular approach for the definitive diagnosis of proliferative larval mesocestoidiasis in a cat.  

PubMed

A 9 year-old male, neutered cat with a history of a sudden onset of lethargy, anorexia and respiratory distress was presented in a veterinary practice in Lucca, Italy. A clinical examination revealed that the cat was severely dehydrated, and had pale mucous membranes and tachypnoea. No pain or discomfort was detected at the time of physical examination. The cat was administered fluids, antibiotics and supportive therapy, but died overnight. The owner of the cat requested for a post mortem examination to be conducted. At necropsy, acephalic structures, consistent with proliferative tapeworm (cestode) larvae, were detected in the thoracic cavity on pleural surfaces. As these larvae could not be identified to genus or species by microscopy, a PCR-based sequencing-phylogenetic approach was used. Part of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene was PCR-amplified from genomic DNAs from five individual larvae and sequenced; all five sequences obtained were identical. This consensus sequence was aligned (over 355 nucleotide positions) with homologous sequences representing a range of cestodes (including Echinococcus granulosus, Echinococcus multilocularis, Hymenolepis microstoma, Mesocestoides spp. and Taenia saginata) from previously published studies and then subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The sequence representing the larval cestode from the affected cat grouped, with strong statistical support, with those representing Mesocestoides corti and Mesocestoides lineatus. Therefore, a definitive diagnosis of pleural proliferative larval mesocestoidiasis could be made. This study illustrates the value of using molecular tools to directly assist clinical and pathological investigations of cestodiases of animals. PMID:22579793

Jabbar, Abdul; Papini, Roberto; Ferrini, Nadia; Gasser, Robin B

2012-10-01

336

Distribution of, and risk factors associated with, sheep carcass condemnations due to Cysticercus ovis infection on Canadian sheep farms.  

PubMed

Cysticercus ovis, the intermediate stage of a canine tapeworm, Taenia ovis, produces cystic lesions in the skeletal and cardiac muscle of sheep which, if numerous, will result in the condemnation of an entire carcass. In 2007 and 2008, the number of carcass condemnations due to C. ovis rose dramatically across Canada, suggesting that the prevalence of this infection on sheep farms was increasing. Trace-back of 237 carcasses condemned at Ontario provincially inspected abattoirs, between March 2009 and March 2011, revealed they originated from 133 farms across Canada. A case-control study was performed (n=40 cases, 56 controls) to identify farm-level risk factors associated with carcass condemnations due to C. ovis. Participating farms, located in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Ontario, were asked to answer a short questionnaire which collected information about each farm's geographic location and management practices. A multivariable logistic regression model revealed that farm dogs scavenging deadstock (OR=4.04; 95% CI: 1.16-14.04) and failing to dispose of deadstock (OR=11.78; 95% CI: 2.93-47.40) were significantly associated with condemnations (p ? 0.05). PMID:22877826

DeWolf, Bradley D; Peregrine, Andrew S; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Jansen, Jocelyn T; Mactavish, Jennifer; Menzies, Paula I

2012-12-21

337

Tape worm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The tapeworm is ingested by humans through raw or undercooked meat. The tapeworm comes to rest in the small intestines of the human and absorbs nutrients from food that its host ingests. It matures in the small intestine.

N/A N/A (None;)

2006-05-11

338

From seizures to epilepsy and its substrates: neurocysticercosis.  

PubMed

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the main risk factor for late-onset seizures in many Taenia solium endemic countries and is also increasingly recognized in high income countries, where it was once thought to have been eliminated. The course and outcome of NCC-associated seizures and epilepsy are poorly understood. Substrates underlying NCC-associated seizures and epilepsy are unknown. Another unknown is if there is an association between NCC and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and if it leads to intractable epilepsy. We review evidence regarding the structural basis of seizures and epilepsy in NCC and its association with HS. There are only a limited number of prospective studies of NCC-associated seizures and epilepsy. From these, it can be inferred that the risk of seizure recurrence is high following a first seizure, even though seizures are well-controlled with antiepileptic drugs. The single most important risk factor for ongoing or recurrent seizures is the persistence of either degenerating or residual calcified cysticercus cysts in the brain parenchyma on follow-up imaging studies. Medically intractable epilepsy requiring surgical treatment appears to be rare in people with NCC. In few cases that have been operated, gliosis around the cysticerci is the principal pathologic finding. Reports of the association between NCC and HS might be categorized into those in which the calcified cysticercus is located within the hippocampus and those in which the calcified cysticercus is located remote from the hippocampus. The former are convincing cases of medically intractable epilepsy with good seizure control following hippocampal resection. In the remaining, it is unclear whether a dual pathology relationship exists between HS and the calcified cysticercus. Carefully planned, follow-up studies incorporating high-resolution and quantitative imaging are desirable in order to clarify the outcome, the structural basis of NCC-associated epilepsy, and also its association with HS. PMID:23621876

Singh, Gagandeep; Burneo, Jorge G; Sander, Josemir W

2013-05-01

339

Increased Accumulation of Regulatory Granulocytic Myeloid Cells in Mannose Receptor C Type 1-Deficient Mice Correlates with Protection in a Mouse Model of Neurocysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a central nervous system (CNS) infection caused by the metacestode stage of the parasite Taenia solium. During NCC, the parasites release immunodominant glycan antigens in the CNS environment, invoking immune responses. The majority of the associated pathogenesis is attributed to the immune response against the parasites. Glycans from a number of pathogens, including helminths, act as pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules (PAMPs), which are recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) known as C-type lectin receptors (CLRs). Using a mouse model of NCC by infection with the related parasite Mesocestoides corti, we have investigated the role of mannose receptor C type 1 (MRC1), a CLR which recognizes high-mannose-containing glycan antigens. Here we show that MRC1?/? mice exhibit increased survival times after infection compared with their wild-type (WT) counterparts. The decreased disease severity correlates with reduced levels of expression of markers implicated in NCC pathology, such as interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-6, CCL5, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), in addition to induction of an important repair marker, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). Furthermore, the immune cell subsets that infiltrate the brain of MRC1?/? mice are dramatically altered and characterized by reduced numbers of T cells and the accumulation of granulocytic cells with an immune phenotype resembling granulocytic myeloid-dependent suppressor cells (gMDSCs). The results suggest that MRC1 plays a critical role in myeloid plasticity, which in turn affects the adaptive immune response and immunopathogenesis during murine NCC.

Mishra, Pramod Kumar; Morris, Elizabeth G.; Garcia, Jenny A.; Cardona, Astrid E.

2013-01-01

340

Diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis, revisited  

PubMed Central

Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) can be a challenge. Clinical manifestations are non-specific, most neuroimaging findings are non-pathognomonic, and some serologic tests have low sensitivity or specificity. A set of diagnostic criteria was proposed in 2001 to avoid the over diagnosis of NCC that occurs in epidemiologic surveys, and to help clinicians evaluating patients with suspected NCC. The set included four stratified categories of criteria, including: (1) absolute: histological demonstration of cysticerci, cystic lesions showing the scolex on neuroimaging studies, and direct visualization of subretinal parasites by fundoscopic examination; (2) major: lesions highly suggestive of NCC on neuroimaging studies, positive serum enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) for the detection of anticysticercal antibodies, resolution of intracranial cystic lesions after cysticidal drug therapy, and spontaneous resolution of single enhancing lesions; (3) minor: lesions compatible with NCC on neuroimaging studies, suggestive clinical manifestations, positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ELISA for detection of anticysticercal antibodies or cysticercal antigens, and cysticercosis outside the nervous system; and (4) epidemiological: evidence of a household contact with Taenia solium infection, individuals coming from or living in cysticercosis endemic areas, and history of travel to disease-endemic areas. Interpretation of these criteria permits two degrees of diagnostic certainty: (1) definitive diagnosis, in patients who have one absolute criterion or in those who have two major plus one minor and one epidemiological criteria; and (2) probable diagnosis, in patients who have one major plus two minor criteria, in those who have one major plus one minor and one epidemiological criteria, and in those who have three minor plus one epidemiological criteria. After 10 years of usage, this set has been proved useful in both, field studies, and hospital settings. Recent advances in neuroimaging and immune diagnostic methods have enhanced its accuracy for the diagnosis of NCC.

Del Brutto, Oscar H

2012-01-01

341

Epilepsy surgery in context of neurocysticercosis  

PubMed Central

The association between neurocysticercosis (NCC) and epilepsy is well known and NCC is an important risk factor for epileptic seizures in many Taenia solium-endemic regions of the world. However, while the relationship between NCC and epilepsy is well known, the association between NCC and medically refractory (or surgically remediable epilepsy) has received little attention in the past. Our experience and review of the sparse literature available suggests that NCC is causally related to surgically remediable epilepsy albeit uncommonly so and that association derives its underpinnings from several different scenarios: (1) Medically refractory lesional epilepsy, in which seizures arise from the vicinity of the calcified neurocysticercus lesion (CNL), (2) Medically refractory epilepsy with dual pathology type of relationship between the hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and CNL in which both have been unequivocally demonstrated to give rise to independent seizures and (3) Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy due to HS with a distantly-located CNL, which is in itself not epileptogenic. A major point of controversy revolves around whether or not there exists a causal association between the CNL and HS. We believe that an association exists between NCC and HS and the most important factor influencing this association is the location of the CNL. Furthermore, NCC is a risk factor for medically-refractory epilepsy and that this might account for a considerable proportion of the intractable epilepsy population in endemic regions; the association has been largely ignored owing to the lack of availability of presurgical work-up facilities in these regions. Finally, from a clinical standpoint of presurgical evaluation, patients with CNL and HS should be evaluated on a case by case basis owing to disparate settings underlying the association.

Singh, Gagandeep; Chowdhary, Ashwani Kumar

2014-01-01

342

Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 12S ribosomal RNA characterization of Coenurus cerebralis from sheep in Iran.  

PubMed

Taenia multiceps is a widely distributed zoonotic tapeworm of canids. The larval stage of the parasite (Coenurus) occurs in sheep, goat and cattle and has been rarely reported from humans. This study investigated genetic variability of two mitochondrial genes in 102 isolates of T. multiceps. Metacestodes were collected from brains and hearts of sheep in Tehran and Qom provinces of Iran. DNA of each isolate was extracted and used for PCR amplification of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (CO1) and 12S ribosomal DNA (12S rRNA) genes. All amplicons were sequenced and the sequence data were analyzed using NCBI Blast and BioEdit. Phylogenetic trees and pairwise calculations were obtained by using Mega5 software. In total 7 and 25 representative haplotypes were differentiated for CO1 and 12S rRNA genes, respectively. For CO1 sequences 11 segregation sites within 7 haplotypes were observed. For 12S rRNA sequences a total of 32 segregation sites were observed in 25 haplotypes. CO1 gene displayed lower diversity than 12S rRNA gene with an overall nucleotide variation of 3.0% for CO1 vs. 7.2% for 12S rRNA. Pairwise comparisons among 7 haplotypes in CO1 and 12S rRNA genes showed the level of nucleotide differences 0.3-2.5% and 0.2-4.0%, respectively. A high degree of genetic variation was found in the isolates of T. multiceps in Iran. Additional molecular studies are required on the parasite from other intermediate hosts. PMID:23890823

Rostami, Sima; Salavati, Reza; Beech, Robin N; Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Babaei, Zahra; Saedi, Sadegh; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

2013-10-18

343

Plerocercoid growth factor (PGF), a human growth hormone (hGH) analogue produced by the tapeworm Spirometra mansonoides, has direct insulin-like action in adipose tissue of normal rats in vitro  

SciTech Connect

The metabolic actions of GH can be divided into acute (insulin-like) and chronic (lipolytic/anti-insulin). The insulin-like actions of GH are most readily elicited in GH-deficient animals as GH induces resistance to its own insulin-like action. Like GH, PGF stimulates growth and cross-reacts with anti-hGH antibodies. Independent experiments were conducted comparing the direct actions of PGF to insulin or hGH in vitro. Insulin-like effects were determined by the ability of PGF, insulin or hGH to stimulate (U-/sup 14/C)glucose metabolism in epidydimal fat pads from normal rats and by inhibition of epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis. Direct stimulation of lipolysis was used as anti-insulin activity. To determine if PGF competes for insulin or GH receptors, adipocytes (3 x 10/sup 5/ cells/ml) were incubated with either (/sup 125/I)insulin or (/sup 125/I)hGH +/- PGF, +/- insulin or +/- hGH. PGF stimulated glucose oxidation and /sup 14/C-incorporation into lipids. Insulin, hGH and PGF inhibited lipolysis (33%, 29% and 34%, respectively). Adipose tissue was very sensitive to the lipolytic effect of hGH but PGF was neither lipolytic nor did it confer refractoriness to its insulin-like action. PGF bound to GH but not to insulin receptors. Therefore, PGF had direct insulin-like effects but did not stimulate lipolysis in tissue from normal rats in vitro.

Salem, M.A.M.; Phares, C.K.

1986-03-01

344

Ophiotaenia bungari n. sp. (Cestoda), a parasite of Bungarus fasciatus (Schneider) (Ophidia: Elapidae) from Vietnam, with comments on relative ovarian size as a new and potentially useful diagnostic character for proteocephalidean tapeworms.  

PubMed

Ophiotaenia bungari n. sp. (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea) is described from the intestine of the banded krait Bungarus fasciatus (Schneider) (Ophidia: Elapidae) in Vietnam. The new species differs from all but three Ophiotaenia species parasitic in Asian reptiles in the possession of a glandular apical organ. It differs from O. andersoni Jensen, Schmidt & Kuntz, 1983 in the position of the vagina in relation to the cirrus-sac (anterior and posterior in O. bungari versus anterior only in the latter species), in the cirrus-sac/proglottis width ratio (29-38 versus 50%) and by having more testes (100-150 versus 42-116 in O. andersoni); from O. chattoraji Srivastava, 1980 in the number of uterine diverticula (50-65 versus 10-26) and in the cirrus-sac/proglottis width ratio (29-38 versus 22%); and from O. rhabdophidis (Burt, 1937) by having more uterine diverticula (50-65 versus 30-45), by the cirrus-sac/proglottis width ratio (29-38 versus 20-25%) and by the width of the scolex (360-420 versus 130-187 ?m). The taxonomic importance of the relative size of the ovary (i.e. the ratio of the ovarian size in relation to that of the entire proglottis), a character previously not used in the systematics of proteocephalidean cestodes, is discussed. Comparison of measurements of all of the nominal species of Ophiotaenia La Rue, 1911 and Proteocephalus Weinland, 1858 (c.135 species) has shown that the ovary of species parasitic in snakes in the Americas, Africa, Asia and Australia is not only considerably smaller than that of congeneric species from European hosts, but also smaller than in all species of Proteocephalus parasitic in teleost fishes throughout the world. PMID:22139008

de Chambrier, Alain; Binh, Tran Thi; Scholz, Tomáš

2012-01-01

345

Crosstalk among Taenia crassiceps (ORF Strain) Cysts Regulates Their Rates of Budding by Ways of Soluble and Contact Signals Exchanged between Them  

PubMed Central

Herein we report that in vitro experiments with different initial parasite densities (1, 5, and 10 cysts per mL of culture medium) show that cysts at densities of 10 and 5 grow faster than those at 1, and that they release into the culture medium factors which increase the budding rates of the slower lower-density ones. Close contact among the incubated cysts also favors budding, thus suggesting the participation of surface sensors of parasite crowding. Thus, contact signals, together with the release of soluble growth factors, could endow cysts with the capacity to sense and regulate their numbers inside their habitat in relation to their population density.

Marcela, Esquivel-Velazquez; Ricardo, Hernandez; Carlos, Larralde; Pedro, Ostoa-Saloma

2014-01-01

346

Anti-oxidant activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase enzymes in skeletal muscles from slaughter cattle infected with Taenia saginata  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that highly reactive oxygene species produced during normal cellular metabolism represent a powerful effector mechanism against parasites. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) belong to the main defense anti-oxidants that prevent the formation of new free radical species. The aim of this study was to assess the activities of SOD and GPx in cattle tissues infected

Joanna ?uszczak; Marta Ziaja-So?tys; Jolanta Rzymowska

2011-01-01

347

A real-time multiplex-nested PCR system for coprological diagnosis of Echinococcus multilocularis and host species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybridization probe-based real-time multiplex-nested PCR system was developed for the simultaneous detection of Echinococcus multilocularis and host species directly from faecal samples. Species identification was determined by melting curve analysis. Specificity\\u000a was assessed by using DNA extracted from various cestodes (E. multilocularis, Echinococcus granulosus (G1), Echinococcus ortleppi, Echinococcus canadensis (G6, G7), Taenia crassiceps, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia mustelae, Taenia pisiformis,

Anke Dinkel; Selina Kern; Anja Brinker; Rainer Oehme; Amélie Vaniscotte; Patrick Giraudoux; Ute Mackenstedt; Thomas Romig

348

Neglected Zoonotic Diseases--The Long and Winding Road to Advocacy  

PubMed Central

Background Years of advocacy for the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have focused the world's attention on these diseases of the poor, resulting most recently in the 2012 “London Declaration” and the recent World Health Assembly Resolution WHA66.12 on NTDs in May 2013. Control of the endemic neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs) would benefit from a similar campaign, which needs the support of a global community. Methodology/Principal Findings The resolutions from all 66 World Health Assembly (WHA) meetings held between 1948 and 2013 were examined to determine how many contain a specific focus on any of the following eight NZDs as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO): anthrax, bovine tuberculosis (TB), brucellosis, Taenia solium cysticercosis, cystic echinococcosis (hydatidosis), leishmaniasis, rabies, and zoonotic human African trypanosomiasis (HAT or sleeping sickness). Twenty-one resolutions adopted in the 16 assemblies between 1948 and 2013 targeted one or more of these eight NZDs, representing 4% of the total resolutions on infectious diseases passed to date. The 2013 adoption of Resolution WHA66.12 targeting all 17 NTDs marks a change in approach by the WHA. Whereas previous resolutions have targeted the NTDs as separate entities, the new approach of the combined resolution will help increase the overall momentum to target these ancient diseases as coendemic clusters in endemic countries. However, three major NZDs remain outside this recent resolution: anthrax, brucellosis, and bovine TB. Conclusions and Significance The recent adoption of a specific resolution at the WHA in 2013 that emphasises a One Health approach for the successful control of 17 NTDs is a major development in advocacy. However, recognition of the importance of three major NZDs to public health in endemic countries—anthrax, brucellosis, and bovine tuberculosis—is still lacking despite being prioritised by the WHA as early as the 1950s. Global advocacy for control of the NZDs as a whole would similarly benefit from adoption of a One Health approach as is promoted for the NTDs under WHA66.12.

Mableson, Hayley E.; Okello, Anna; Picozzi, Kim; Welburn, Susan Christina

2014-01-01

349

Transcriptome analysis of the ependymal barrier during murine neurocysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Background Central nervous system (CNS) barriers play a pivotal role in the protection and homeostasis of the CNS by enabling the exchange of metabolites while restricting the entry of xenobiotics, blood cells and blood-borne macromolecules. While the blood–brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (CSF) control the interface between the blood and CNS, the ependyma acts as a barrier between the CSF and parenchyma, and regulates hydrocephalic pressure and metabolic toxicity. Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an infection of the CNS caused by the metacestode (larva) of Taenia solium and a major cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The common clinical manifestations of NCC are seizures, hydrocephalus and symptoms due to increased intracranial pressure. The majority of the associated pathogenesis is attributed to the immune response against the parasite. The properties of the CNS barriers, including the ependyma, are affected during infection, resulting in disrupted homeostasis and infiltration of leukocytes, which correlates with the pathology and disease symptoms of NCC patients. Results In order to characterize the role of the ependymal barrier in the immunopathogenesis of NCC, we isolated ependymal cells using laser capture microdissection from mice infected or mock-infected with the closely related parasite Mesocestoides corti, and analyzed the genes that were differentially expressed using microarray analysis. The expression of 382 genes was altered. Immune response-related genes were verified by real-time RT-PCR. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software was used to analyze the biological significance of the differentially expressed genes, and revealed that genes known to participate in innate immune responses, antigen presentation and leukocyte infiltration were affected along with the genes involved in carbohydrate, lipid and small molecule biochemistry. Further, MHC class II molecules and chemokines, including CCL12, were found to be upregulated at the protein level using immunofluorescence microcopy. This is important, because these molecules are members of the most significant pathways by IPA analyses. Conclusion Thus, our study indicates that ependymal cells actively express immune mediators and likely contribute to the observed immunopathogenesis during infection. Of particular interest is the major upregulation of antigen presentation pathway-related genes and chemokines/cytokines. This could explain how the ependyma is a prominent source of leukocyte infiltration into ventricles through the disrupted ependymal lining by way of pial vessels present in the internal leptomeninges in murine NCC.

2012-01-01

350

In vitro anthelmintic activity of Melia azedarach naturalized in Argentina.  

PubMed

The anthelmintic activity of the drupe extracts of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) growing in Argentina was tested against tapeworms, hookworms, nodular worms and earthworms, and was shown to be better than the standards piperazine phosphate and hexylresorcinol against tapeworms and hookworms, respectively. PMID:16941610

Szewczuk, Víctor D; Mongelli, Elena R; Pomilio, Alicia B

2006-11-01

351

[Cestode infections in Poland in 2009].  

PubMed

In the year 2009, 26 intestinal cestode infections were registered in Poland. Among them 20 were caused by Taenia saginata, 4 by Taenia sp., 1 by Diphyllobothrium latum, 1 by Hymenolepis diminuta. Moreover, 23 cases of cystic echinococcosis were reported. PMID:21913477

Waloch, Maria

2011-01-01

352

Relaxant effects of forskolin in smooth muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forskolin was found to cause concentration dependent, reversible relaxations of isolated smooth muscle preparations including rat aorta, bovine coronary artery, canine coronary artery, guinea pig taenia caeci and rabbit small intestine. The relaxant effects of forskolin in guinea pig taenia caeci and rabbit small intestine were potentiated by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitors Ro 20-1724 and MIX. In rabbit small intestine,

M. J. Muller; H. P. Baer

1983-01-01

353

21 CFR 520.1453 - Moxidectin and praziquantel gel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...stomach worms: Habronema muscae (adults); horse stomach bots: Gasterophilus intestinalis (2nd and 3rd instars) and G . nasalis (3rd instars); and tapeworms: Anoplocephala perfoliata (adults). One dose also suppresses...

2013-04-01

354

Echinococcosis of the Liver.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Echinococcosis is a parasitic infection that poses a potential health threat to military members and others who travel to endemic regions. While canines are the primary host of the Echinococcus tapeworm, sheep and humans serve as secondary or intermediate...

D. P. Beall J. Q. Ly L. Folio T. G. Sanders

2007-01-01

355

Anemia - B12 deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... alcoholism Crohn's disease , celiac disease , infection with the fish tapeworm, or other problems that make it difficult ... done include: Complete blood count (CBC ) Reticulocyte count LDH level Vitamin B12 level This list may not ...

356

Hymenolepiasis  

MedlinePLUS

... infestation by one of two species of tapeworm : Hymenolepis nana or Hymenolepis diminuta . ... Hymenolepis live in warm climates and are common in the southern United States. Insects eat the eggs ...

357

Survival of Parasite Eggs in Stored Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The inactivation rates of digester-resistant parasite eggs in laboratory-stored sludge were measured to determine their potential fate in sludge lagoons. Eggs from roundworms (Ascaris, Toxocara and Trichuris) and a tapeworm (Hymenolepis) were added to dom...

E. S. Kaneshiro G. Stern

1985-01-01

358

[3H]Adenosine Triphosphate: Release during Stimulation of Enteric Nerves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isolated taenia coli of the guinea pig takes up tritiated adenosine, adenosine monophosphate, adenosine diphosphate, and adenosine triphosphate, in preference to tritiated inosine and adenine. After uptake, [3H]adenosine is converted and retained primarily as [3H]adenosine triphosphate. Tritium is released from taenia coli treated with [3H]adenosine upon activation of the nonadrenergic inhibitory nerves. These results are consistent with the previous

Che Su; John A. Bevan; Geoffrey Burnstock

1971-01-01

359

A real-time multiplex-nested PCR system for coprological diagnosis of Echinococcus multilocularis and host species.  

PubMed

A hybridization probe-based real-time multiplex-nested PCR system was developed for the simultaneous detection of Echinococcus multilocularis and host species directly from faecal samples. Species identification was determined by melting curve analysis. Specificity was assessed by using DNA extracted from various cestodes (E. multilocularis, Echinococcus granulosus (G1), Echinococcus ortleppi, Echinococcus canadensis (G6, G7), Taenia crassiceps, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia mustelae, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia serialis, Taenia taeniaeformis, Mesocestoides leptothylacus), carnivores (Vulpes vulpes, Vulpes corsac, Vulpes ferrilata, Canis familiaris, Felis catus, Martes foina), Microtus arvalis and Arvicola terrestris. The analytical sensitivity was 10 fg, evaluated with serially diluted DNA of E. multilocularis to 10 ?l total DNA solution from E. multilocularis-negative canid faeces. Based on a comparison of 47 dog samples from China, the proportion of the E. multilocularis-positive-tested samples by the real-time multiplex-nested PCR was moderately higher (38% vs. 30%) as when tested with a previously evaluated nested PCR with a sensitivity of 70-100%, depending on the number and gravidity status of worms present in the intestine (Dinkel et al., J Clin Microbiol 36:1871-1876, 1998). To assess the epidemiological applicability of this method, 227 canid faecal samples collected in the field were analysed. This newly developed real-time multiplex-nested PCR system is a specific, sensitive and reliable method for the detection of E. multilocularis and host species in faecal samples for epidemiological purposes. PMID:21327991

Dinkel, Anke; Kern, Selina; Brinker, Anja; Oehme, Rainer; Vaniscotte, Amélie; Giraudoux, Patrick; Mackenstedt, Ute; Romig, Thomas

2011-08-01

360

Diphyllobothrium pacificum Infection is Seldom Associated with Megaloblastic Anemia  

PubMed Central

Twenty cases of Dyphillobothrium pacificum (fish tapeworm) infections were prospectively studied to determine whether this tapeworm is associated with megaloblastic anemia, as commonly reported for D. latum infections. The most frequent symptoms were fatigue and mild abdominal pain, which were identified in approximately 66.6% of the 18 patients interviewed. Fourteen patients received treatment with niclosamide and all were cured. The other six patients spontaneously eliminated the tapeworms. One patient, who also had chronic diabetes and gastric atrophy, had low vitamin B12 levels and megaloblastic anemia. In all other patients, including three other patients with anemia, baseline vitamin B12 levels were in the reference range and did not significantly change when re-assessed three months later. Unlike D. latum, infection with D. pacificum is seldom associated with megaloblastic anemia or vitamin B12 deficit.

Jimenez, Juan A.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gamboa, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Lourdes; Garcia, Hector H.

2012-01-01

361

Diphyllobothriasis associated with eating raw pacific salmon.  

PubMed

The incidence of human infection with the broad tapeworm Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense has been increasing in urban areas of Japan and in European countries. D. nihonkaiense is morphologically similar to but genetically distinct from D. latum and exploits anadromous wild Pacific salmon as its second intermediate host. Clinical signs in humans include diarrhea and discharge of the strobila, which can be as long as 12 m. The natural life history and the geographic range of the tapeworm remain to be elucidated, but recent studies have indicated that the brown bear in the northern territories of the Pacific coast region is its natural final host. A recent surge of clinical cases highlights a change in the epidemiologic trend of this tapeworm disease from one of rural populations to a disease of urban populations worldwide who eat seafood as part of a healthy diet. PMID:19523283

Arizono, Naoki; Yamada, Minoru; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Ohnishi, Kenji

2009-06-01

362

Hymenolepis diminuta: experimental studies on the antioxidant system with short and long term infection periods in the rats.  

PubMed

Many helminths cause long-lasting infections, living for several years in mammalian hosts reflecting a well balanced coexistence between host and parasite. There are many possible explanations as to how they can survive for lengthy periods. One possibility is their antioxidant systems, which can serve as defence mechanisms against host-generated oxygen radicals. Therefore, the aim of this experimental study was to examine the antioxidant system in Hymenolepisdiminuta during short (1.5 months young tapeworms) and long (1.5 years old tapeworms) term infection in the rat small intestine. The strobilae of H. diminuta tapeworms (14 young and three old) were divided into three pieces: the anterior part, containing the genital primordiae in the immature segments; the medial part, containing the early uterus in the mature, hermaphroditic proglottids and the terminal part with the mature gravid uterus in the gravid segments. Supernatants of these fragments were used for determination of markers of oxidative stress: concentration of thiobarbiturate reactive substances (TBARS) and of reduced glutathione (GSH), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD1 and SOD2), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidases (GSHPxs), glutathione transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GSHR). The results indicated changes in levels of oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzyme activity in both the young and old forms of H. diminuta. Relatively high activity of SOD (particularly in the anterior part of young tapeworms) was observed, as was increased activity of total GSHPx and a relatively high concentration of GSH in all parts of the tapeworms. These are caused by exposure to increased amount of ROS, which are produced during the inflammatory state. Due to the high activity of antioxidant enzymes, the anterior section of young and old tapeworms is equipped with a very effective antioxidant system. Old organisms also effectively resist oxidative stress due to reduced levels of lipid peroxidation and the high activity of GST, all of which suggest good adaptation to the hostile environment in the host's intestine. PMID:21782814

Skrzycki, Micha?; Majewska, Monika; Podsiad, Ma?gorzata; Czeczot, Hanna; Salamatin, Rus?an; Twarowska, Joanna; Grytner-Zi?cina, Barbara

2011-10-01

363

[Epidemiologic characteristics of diphyllobothriasis in the lower Amur River valley].  

PubMed

Results of epidemiological studies of diphyllobothriasis in the Lower part of the Amur watershed have demonstrated that the disease nosogeographic range covered the entire region. Potential risk of invasion of humans and animals by the tapeworms exists all over the aforementioned area. Season of invasion coincides with the period of migration of calico and humpback salmon which are additional hosts of Diphyllobothriidae. Invasion occurs outside the Amur freshwater area; thus the real disease foci are absent in the Lower part of the Amur watershed. This is due to the fact that the disease is not induced by wide fish tapeworm, but by a marine or estuarine-marine species. PMID:2811749

Muratov, I V; Posokhov, P S

1989-01-01

364

Coproantigen survey for Echinococcus multilocularis prevalence of red foxes in Hokkaido, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epidemiological survey was conducted on the seasonal variation of Echinococcus multilocularis prevalence in red foxes from 1997 to 1998, using a monoclonal antibody-based detection of the tapeworm coproantigen. Thirty-six breeding dens of reproductive fox families were identified in the endemic area of Koshimizu, eastern Hokkaido, Japan. Fecal samples from each site were examined by coproantigen detection assay and fecal

Yasuyuki Morishima; Hideharu Tsukada; Nariaki Nonaka; Yuzaburo Oku; Masao Kamiya

1999-01-01

365

The prevalence and abundance of internal parasites in working horses autopsied in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The digestive tracts of 50 working horses from private farms in Poland were examined. Thirty-seven nematode species, two tapeworm species and one species of botfly were recovered. The most prevalent small strongyle specieswere Cyathostomum catinatum, Cylicocyclus nassatus, Cylicostephanus goldi, Cylicostephanus longibursatus, Cyathostomum coronatum, Cylicostephanus calicatus, Cylicocyclus leptostmus and Cylicostephanus minutus. Thirteen cyathostome species showed a site preference in the ventral

J. J. Gawor

1995-01-01

366

The distribution of Echinococcus granulosus in moose: evidence for parasite-induced vulnerability to predation by wolves?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of parasites in influencing the trophic dynamics of hosts is becoming increasingly recognized in the ecological literature. Echinococcus granulosus is a tapeworm that relies on the predator-prey relationship between the definitive host (wolf, Canis lupus) and the intermediate host, (moose, Alces alces) to complete its life cycle. Heavy infection by E. granulosus may predispose moose to increased risk

Damien O. Joly; François Messier

2004-01-01

367

Behaviour of roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) altered by Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea): a field demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. We studied the influence of a cestode parasite, the tapeworm Ligula intestinalis (L.) on roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) spatial occupancy in a French reservoir (Lake Pareloup, South- west of France). 2. Fish host age, habitat use and parasite occurrence and abundance were determined during a 1 year cycle using monthly gill-net catches. Multivariate analysis (generalized linear models (GLIM)),

GERALDINE L OOT; S EBASTIEN B ROSSE; S OVAN L EK; J EAN-FRANCO I S G U EGAN

368

A case of Hymenolepis diminuta in a young male from Odisha  

PubMed Central

Hymenolepis diminuta also known as rat tapeworm rarely causes hymenolepiasis in humans. We report a case of H. diminuta infection in an 18-year-old male farmer who presented with intermittent pruritic maculopaular rashes and dull aching left iliac fossa pain for 6 months. Patient was cured with 2 doses of praziquantel 20 mg/kg on day 0 and 7.

Karuna, T; Khadanga, Sagar

2013-01-01

369

A case of Hymenolepis diminuta in a young male from Odisha.  

PubMed

Hymenolepis diminuta also known as rat tapeworm rarely causes hymenolepiasis in humans. We report a case of H. diminuta infection in an 18-year-old male farmer who presented with intermittent pruritic maculopaular rashes and dull aching left iliac fossa pain for 6 months. Patient was cured with 2 doses of praziquantel 20 mg/kg on day 0 and 7. PMID:24471000

Karuna, T; Khadanga, Sagar

2013-07-01

370

Hosts use altered macronutrient intake to circumvent parasite-induced reduction in fecundity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explanations for the evolution of pathogen-induced fecundity reduction usually rely on a common principle: the trade-off between host longevity and reproduction. Recent advances in nutritional research have, however, challenged this assumption and shown that longevity and reproduction are not inextricably linked. In this study, we showed that beetles infected by cysticercoids of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta increased their total food

Fleur Ponton; Fabrice Lalubin; Caroline Fromont; Kenneth Wilson; Carolyn Behm; Stephen J. Simpson

2011-01-01

371

Spatial and temporal variation of cestode infection and its effect on two small barbs (Barbus humilis and B. tanapelagius) in Lake Tana, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudophyllidean cestodes as Ligula have a complex life cycle with cyclopoid copepods as first intermediate host, zooplanktivorous fish as second, and piscivorous birds as final host. We studied the effects of diet, season and habitat occupation on the prevalence of plerocercoid larvae of the tapeworm Ligula intestinalis in two closely related small barbs and the effects of the parasites on

E. Dejen; J. Vijverberg; F. A. Sibbing

2006-01-01

372

Occurrence of Anoplocephala perfoliata infection in horses in Ontario, Canada and associations with colic and management practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection with the tapeworm Anoplocephala perfoliata has been found to be associated with equine colic in horses in the United Kingdom. Using a matched case-control study design, data collected from 117 pairs of horses in Ontario were examined for evidence of associations between risk of colic and A. perfoliata infection, and between seropositivity to infection and management practices. Cases were

Lise Trotz-Williams; Peter Physick-Sheard; Heather McFarlane; David L. Pearl; S. Wayne Martin; Andrew S. Peregrine

2008-01-01

373

Gastric dilation and intestinal obstruction in 76 rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-four incidents of gastric dilation (bloat) were investigated in 76 pet rabbits, and an intestinal obstruction was confirmed in 64 of them. In 49 the obstruction was due to pellets of compressed hair, in four to locust bean seeds, in five to neoplasia, in two to postspay adhesions, and in one case each to carpet fibre, tapeworm cysts, a strangulated

F. M. Harcourt-Brown

2007-01-01

374

Diphyllobothriasis Associated with Eating Raw Pacific Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of human infection with the broad tapeworm Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense has been increasing in urban areas of Japan and in European countries. D. nihonkaiense is morphologically similar to but genetically distinct from D. latum and exploits anadromous wild Pacific salmon as its second intermediate host. Clinical signs in humans include diarrhea and discharge of the strobila, which can be

Naoki Arizono; Minoru Yamada; Fukumi Nakamura-Uchiyama; Kenji Ohnishi

2009-01-01

375

In Vitro Activities of Benzimidazoles against Echinococcus multilocularis Metacestodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alveolar echinococcosis, caused by the larval (metacestode) stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocu- laris, is a lethal parasitosis of the liver prevalent in the Northern Hemisphere. For chemotherapy the benz- imidazole derivatives mebendazole and albendazole were introduced, and their use has resulted in a significant improvement in the survival rates. However, data from experiments with animals and clinical observations indicate

HEIKE JURA; AUGUSTINUS BADER; MATTHIAS FROSCH

1998-01-01

376

Molecular detection of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense in humans, China.  

PubMed

The cause of diphyllobothriosis in 5 persons in Harbin and Shanghai, China, during 2008-2011, initially attributed to the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum, was confirmed as D. nihonkaiense by using molecular analysis of expelled proglottids. The use of morphologic characteristics alone to identify this organism was inadequate and led to misidentification of the species. PMID:24447495

Chen, Shanhong; Ai, Lin; Zhang, Yongnian; Chen, Jiaxu; Zhang, Weizhe; Li, Yihong; Muto, Maki; Morishima, Yasuyuki; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Xu, Xuenian; Zhou, Xiaonong; Yamasaki, Hiroshi

2014-02-01

377

Subcutaneous Sparganosis - a Case Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sparganosis on Taiwan, in most cases, is considered to be due to infections with the spargana or pleurocercoid larva of Diphyllobothrium mansoni, a common intestinal tapeworm of dogs and cats. Humans can become infected with the larval worms by either acc...

T. Y. Chen J. H. Cross

1975-01-01

378

Comparison of the sensitivity of coprological methods in detecting Anoplocephala perfoliata invasions.  

PubMed

The autopsy of 487 slaughter horses revealed the presence of Anoplocephala perfoliata in 36 animals. The invasions varied in the intensity (3 to 2,069 tapeworms) and in the level of tapeworms' proglottid maturity. Twenty nine horses were found to contain tapeworms with gravid proglottid. Fecal samples collected from the rectum were tested using following techniques: flotation with solution-saturated NaCl, decantation, McMaster's, and modified sedimentation-flotation methods (50 g feces samples, flotation solution-saturated NaCl and sucrose, specific gravity 1.25 g/ml). The number of A. perfoliata positive fecal samples was significantly higher using the sedimentation-flotation methods 21 (58.33 %) than flotation 6 (16.66 %), decantation 3 (8.33 %), and McMaster's 1 (2.77 %) techniques. The sensitivities of the coprological methods during the patent period were 20.69, 10.34, 3.45, and 72.41 % for the flotation, decantation, McMaster's, and sedimentation-flotation method, respectively. Sedimentation-flotation techniques proved to be more sensitive than other one. The lowest intensity of invasion possible to detect using this method was nine tapeworms with gravid proglottid. PMID:24777342

Tomczuk, Krzysztof; Kostro, Krzysztof; Szczepaniak, Klaudiusz Oktawian; Grzybek, Maciej; Studzi?ska, Maria; Demkowska-Kutrzepa, Marta; Rocze?-Karczmarz, Monika

2014-06-01

379

Size-dependent sex allocation in a simultaneous hermaphrodite parasite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most models of sex allocation distinguish between sequential and simulta- neous hermaphrodites, although an intermediate sexual pattern, size-depen- dent sex allocation, is widespread in plants. Here we investigated sex allocation in a simultaneous hermaphrodite animal, the tapeworm Schisto- cephalus solidus, in which adult size is highly variable. Sex allocation was determined using stereological techniques, which allow measuring somatic and reproductive

L. Scharer; L. M. Karlsson; M. Christen; C. Wedekind

2001-01-01

380

Aploparaksis kornyushini n. sp. (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae), a parasite of the woodcock Scolopax rusticola (L.), and its life-cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aploparaksis kornyushini n. sp. is described from a woodcock Scolopax rusticola L. from Lithuania, Russia (Tver' Region) and the Ukraine. Initially, one specimen of this tapeworm was described and figured by Kornyushin (1975) as A. scolopacis Yamaguti, 1935 together with another specimens belonging to the latter species. A. kornyushini n. sp. and A. scolopacis are morphologically very similar species. They

Svetlana Bondarenko; Vytautas Kontrimavichus

2006-01-01

381

Antigens for the immunodiagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus infection: An update  

Microsoft Academic Search

The taeniid tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus is the causative agent of the echinococcal disease, an important zoonosis with worldwide distribution. Accurate immunodiagnosis of the infection requires highly specific and sensitive antigens to be used in immunodiagnostic assays. The choice of an appropriate source of antigenic material is a crucial point in the improvement of the diagnostic features of tests, and must

David Carmena; Aitziber Benito; Elena Eraso

2006-01-01

382

Echinococcus granulosus in jordan: assessment of various antigenic preparations for use in the serodiagnosis of surgically confirmed cases using enzyme immuno assays and the indirect haemagglutination test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Enzyme linked immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), indirect haemagglutination (IHA), and immunoblot techniques (IB) were used for the serodiagnosis of surgically confirmed cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. Antigens used for the detection of IgG or total antibodies included crude sheep hydatid fluid (CSHF), autoclaved antigen B (AAB), boiled antigen B (BAB), and homogenate protoscoleces antigen (HPA). The

Manal A Nasrieh; Sami K Abdel-Hafez

2004-01-01

383

Avances recientes en el inmunodiagnóstico de la hidatidosis humana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human cystic echinococcosis is a severe zoonotic infection caused by the larval stage of the taeniid tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The infection may be fatal if proper treatment is not provided; hence, early diagnosis is very important. Currently, ELISA and immunoblotting are the most reliable tests for serodiagnositic purposes, although their accuracy is largely dependent on the quality of the antigenic

David Carmena; Aitziber Benito; Elena Eraso

2007-01-01

384

Molecular Detection of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense in Humans, China  

PubMed Central

The cause of diphyllobothriosis in 5 persons in Harbin and Shanghai, China, during 2008–2011, initially attributed to the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum, was confirmed as D. nihonkaiense by using molecular analysis of expelled proglottids. The use of morphologic characteristics alone to identify this organism was inadequate and led to misidentification of the species.

Chen, Shanhong; Ai, Lin; Zhang, Yongnian; Chen, Jiaxu; Zhang, Weizhe; Li, Yihong; Muto, Maki; Morishima, Yasuyuki; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Xu, Xuenian; Zhou, Xiaonong

2014-01-01

385

INTRAOVARIAN INVASION OF SMALLMOUTH BASS OOCYTES BY 'PROTEOCEPHALUS AMBLOPLITIS' (CESTODA)  

EPA Science Inventory

The bass tapeworm Proteocephalus ambloplites (Cestoda) has long been associated with poor reproduction in bass Micropterus sp. It has been suggested that the prevalence of this parasite in the ovaries of mature bass may be due to the rich blood supply of the ovaries. The authors ...

386

Occurrence of Moniezia expansa (Rud, 1810) Blanchard, 1891 (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) in domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica Linnaeus, 1758) in Perú.  

PubMed

The presence of Moniezia expansa (Rud, 1810) Blanchard, 1891, is reported in domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica Linnaeus, 1758). Four tapeworms were collected and identified as M. expansa. This is the first report of M. expansa collected in a domestic pig in Perú. PMID:19028016

Gómez-Puerta, Luis Antonio; Lopez-Urbina, Maria Teresa; González, Armando E

2008-12-20

387

HUMAN CYSTIC ECHINOCOCCOSIS IN A URUGUAYAN COMMUNITY: A SONOGRAPHIC, SEROLOGIC, AND EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prevalence and transmission study of human cystic echinococcosis (CE), due to infection with the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus,was undertaken in the village of La Paloma in central Uruguay. The human population was registered and screened for CE by abdominal ultrasound scan as well as a number of serologic tests. Dogs were screened for E. granulosus infection by arecoline purgation

HENRY COHEN; ELBIO PAOLILLO; ROSARIO BONIFACINO; BEATRIZ BOTTA; LUIS PARADA; PERLA CABRERA; KAREN SNOWDEN; ROBIN GASSER; ROBERTO TESSIER; LUIS DIBARBOURE; HAO WEN; JAMES C. ALLAN; HANY SOTO DE ALFARO; MICHAEL T. ROGAN; PHILIP S. CRAIG

388

Transcription profiling of immune genes during parasite infection in susceptible and resistant strains of the flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum).  

PubMed

The flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is an intermediate host for the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta and has become an important genetic model to explore immune responses to parasite infection in insect hosts. The present study examined the immune responses to tapeworm infection in resistant (TIW1) and susceptible (cSM) strains of the red flour beetle, T. castaneum, using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR on 29 immunity-related genes that exhibit antimicrobial properties. Thirteen of the 29 genes showed constitutive differences in expression between the two strains. Fourteen to fifteen of the 29 genes exhibited significant differences in transcription levels when beetles were challenged with tapeworm parasite in the resistant and susceptible strains. Nine genes (GNBP3, cSPH2, lysozyme4, defensin1, PGRP-SA, defensin2, coleoptericin1, attacin2 and serpin29) in cSM and 13 genes (lysozyme2, proPO1, GNBP3, cSPH2, lysozyme4, defensin1, PGRP-SA, defensin2, coleoptericin1, attacin2, proPO2/3, PGRP-LE and PGRP-SB) in TIW1 were up-regulated by infections or showed parasite infection-induced expression. Seven genes (attacin2, coleoptericin1, defensin1, defensin2, lysozyme2, PGRP-SA and PGRP-SB) were more than 10 folds higher in the resistant TIW1 strain than in the susceptible cSM strain after exposure to tapeworm parasites. This study demonstrated the effects of genetic background, the transcription profile to parasite infection, and identified the immunity-related genes that were significantly regulated by the infection of tapeworms in Tribolium beetles. PMID:23380036

Zhong, Daibin; Wang, Mei-Hui; Pai, Aditi; Yan, Guiyun

2013-05-01

389

Evolutionary history of asexual hybrid loaches (Cobitis: Teleostei) inferred from phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA variation.  

PubMed

Reconstruction of the evolutionary history of asexual lineages undermines their suitability as models for the studies of evolutionary consequences of sexual reproduction. Using molecular tools we addressed the origin, age and maternal ancestry of diploid and triploid asexual lineages arisen through the hybridization between spiny loaches Cobitis elongatoides, C. taenia and C. tanaitica. Reconstructions of the phylogenetic relationships among mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes, revealed by sequence analyses, suggest that both hybrid complexes (C. elongatoides-taenia and C. elongatoides-tanaitica) contained several asexual lineages of independent origin. Cobitis elongatoides was the exclusive maternal ancestor of all the C. elongatoides-tanaitica hybrids, whereas within the C. elongatoides-taenia complex, hybridization was reciprocal. In both complexes the low haplotype divergences were consistent with a recent origin of asexual lineages. Combined mtDNA and allozyme data suggest that the triploids arose through the incorporation of a haploid sperm genome into unreduced ova produced by diploid hybrids. PMID:14640419

Janko, K; Kotlík, P; Ráb, P

2003-11-01

390

Endoparasites of the coyote (Canis latrans), a recent migrant to insular newfoundland.  

PubMed

This study provides the first data on the helminth fauna of the coyote (Canis latrans) in insular Newfoundland. Sixty-nine coyotes were collected between 2001 and 2003 and examined for helminths. A total of 10 helminth species were recorded: the cestodes Taenia ovis krabbei (9%), Taenia hydatigena (4%), Taenia pisiformis (1%), and Mesocestoides spp. (5%); and the nematodes Toxocara canis (19%), Toxascaris leonina (1%), Crenosoma vulpis (19%), Physaloptera rara (6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (3%), and Angiostrongylus vasorum (1%). No significant differences (P< or =0.05) were detected between sexes. Mesocestoides spp., T. canis, and C. vulpis were more prevalent in juveniles than adults. Angiostrongylus vasorum is reported in coyotes for the second time in Newfoundland, Canada. PMID:19901402

Bridger, Kimberly E; Baggs, Eric M; Finney-Crawley, Jean

2009-10-01

391

Current Status and Perspectives of Cysticercosis and Taeniasis in Japan  

PubMed Central

This mini-review describes recent epidemiological trends in cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan. Some of the topics discussed herein were presented at the first symposium on "Current perspectives of Taenia asiatica researches", that was held in Osong in Chungbuk Province, South Korea, in October 2011 and organized by Prof. K. S. Eom, Chungbuk National University School of Medicine. To better understand the trends in the occurrence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan, clinical cases reported in 2005 have been updated. In addition, the current status of Taenia asiatica infections successively occurring in Japan since 2010 is also discussed.

2013-01-01

392

Zoonotic parasites from exotic meat in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Four zoonotic parasites, Sarcocystis spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella spp. and Taenia spp were screened in exotic meats. A total of forty-six (n=46) meat samples from various species of exotic animals were received from all the 14 states in Malaysia from January 2012 to April 2012. All exotic meat samples were examined macroscopically and histologically for the four zoonotic parasites. Results by histological examination of exotic meats showed the presence of Sarcocystis and Toxoplasma cysts at 8.7% (n=4) and 4.3% (n=2) respectively. No Trichinella spp. and Taenia spp. were found. PMID:24189683

Fazly, Z A; Nurulaini, R; Shafarin, M S; Fariza, N J; Zawida, Z; Muhamad, H Y; Adnan, M; Premaalatha, B; Erwanas, A I; Zaini, C M; Ong, C C; Chandrawathani, P

2013-09-01

393

Cestode cysts in two African giant pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus).  

PubMed

Multiple cestode cysts identified as Taenia serialis were present in the bodies of two wild-caught African giant pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) at necropsy. This rodent species can be an intermediate host for this parasite. Exotic rodents kept as pets in the United States may be affected. PMID:17315463

Lacasse, Claude; Travis, Erika; Gamble, Kathryn C; Craig, Thomas

2005-03-01

394

Cysticercosis of slaughtered cattle in northwestern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of cysticercosis due to Taenia saginata in cattle slaughtered for meat in Amhara National Regional State, northwestern Ethiopia between September 2005 and February 2007 was investigated. Routine meat inspection of various organs of 4456 cattle in eight abattoirs of this region showed that 824 (18.49%) were infected with Cysticercus bovis. The occurrence rate did not vary significantly from

Nigatu Kebede

2008-01-01

395

Case-control study to identify risk factors for bovine cysticercosis on farms in Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Taenia saginata cysticercosis causes financial losses to the beef industry and farmers, and represents a significant source for human infection in many countries. A case-control study was conducted to identify risk factors for bovine cysticercosis on farms in Switzerland. The case group (n=119) consisted of farms with infected cattle identified at slaughter in 2005 and 2006. Infections were confirmed

F. FLÜTSCH; D. HEINZMANN; A. MATHIS; H. HERTZBERG; R. STEPHAN; P. DEPLAZES

2008-01-01

396

21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian. (2) Cats â(i) Indications for use. For removal of feline cestodes...Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis. (ii) Dosage . Cats 4 pounds and under, 11.5 mg; 5 to 11 pounds, 23 mg;...

2013-04-01

397

Parasite contamination of soil in households of a Mexican rural community endemic for neurocysticercosis.  

PubMed

High neurocysticercosis (NC) prevalence was recently determined by a computed tomography (CT) scan study in the community of Tepetzitzintla, State of Puebla, Mexico. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the magnitude of fecal and parasite contamination by Taenia spp. in the soil of households of this community during the four seasons of the year. The toilet, backyard, kitchen, washboard, water containers and corrals of 14 to 26 households were sampled during each season. High Taenia spp. egg intensity was found in 24.2% of the sampled areas. The highest percentage was detected in Spring and the lowest in Summer. Significantly higher levels of Taenia spp. eggs were present in kitchen soil samples. A significant correlation was found between the presence of Taenia spp. eggs in household soil during the Summer, and NC diagnoses of the inhabitants by CT scan. Coproparasitological examinations and anti-cysticercal antibodies were determined in a cohort of inhabitants of the sampled households. Antibody levels and coproparasitological results were not associated with NC. Overall, these results illustrate the high degree of fecal contamination of potential risk to human health in rural communities and could be of use for control programmes. PMID:18325554

Huerta, M; Avila, R; Jiménez, H I; Díaz, R; Díaz, J; Díaz Huerta, M E; Hernández, M; Martinez, J J; Garate, T; Gómez, E; Abad, T; Fragoso, G; Fleury, A; Sciutto, E

2008-04-01

398

Some intestinal parasites of Arctic fox, Banks Island, N. W. T.  

PubMed

Small intestinal parasitology of 50 trapped Arctic fox taken on Banks Island, The Northwest Territories, showed a prevalence of Taenia crassiceps (78%), Toxascaris leonina (60%), Echinococcus multilocularis (2%) and Coccidia (2%). Attention is drawn to the absence of Toxocara sp. and of Uncinaria sp. PMID:497890

Eaton, R D; Secord, D C

1979-04-01

399

Some intestinal parasites of Arctic fox, Banks Island, N. W. T.  

PubMed Central

Small intestinal parasitology of 50 trapped Arctic fox taken on Banks Island, The Northwest Territories, showed a prevalence of Taenia crassiceps (78%), Toxascaris leonina (60%), Echinococcus multilocularis (2%) and Coccidia (2%). Attention is drawn to the absence of Toxocara sp. and of Uncinaria sp.

Eaton, R D; Secord, D C

1979-01-01

400

The efficiency of Lutz, Kato-Katz and Baermann-Moraes (adapted) techniques association to the diagnosis of intestinal helminths.  

PubMed

The association of Lutz/Kato-Katz and Lutz/Baermann-Moraes (adapted) techniques was used to improve better results that ranged from 0.4 to 11 times in the search of eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Schistosoma mansoni, Trichiuris trichiura, Taenia sp. and larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. PMID:1842437

Willcox, H P; Coura, J R

1991-01-01

401

Echinococcus multilocularis infections in dogs from urban and peri-urban areas in France.  

PubMed

Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis, a severe zoonotic disease. It is maintained through a sylvatic life cycle based on predator-prey interactions mainly between foxes and rodents. Dogs are also good definitive hosts; and due to their close proximity to humans, they may represent a major risk factor for the occurrence of human cases. In two medium-sized cities of Eastern France (Annemasse and Pontarlier), located in highly endemic areas, 817 dog feces samples were collected and analyzed by a flotation technique followed by a multiplex PCR assay. For the first time in France, we assessed the presence of E. multilocularis DNA in four dog feces samples, in which it represents an estimated prevalence of 0.5 % (95% CI; 0