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Sample records for tapeworm taenia solium

  1. Molecular Identification of Zoonotic Tissue-Invasive Tapeworm Larvae Other than Taenia solium in Suspected Human Cysticercosis Cases.

    PubMed

    Tappe, Dennis; Berkholz, Jörg; Mahlke, Uwe; Lobeck, Hartmut; Nagel, Thomas; Haeupler, Alexandra; Muntau, Birgit; Racz, Paul; Poppert, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Rarely, zoonotic Taenia species other than Taenia solium cause human cysticercosis. The larval stages are morphologically often indistinguishable. We therefore investigated 12 samples of suspected human cysticercosis cases at the molecular level and surprisingly identified one Taenia crassiceps and one Taenia serialis (coenurosis) infection, which were caused by tapeworm larvae normally infecting rodents and sheep via eggs released from foxes and dogs. PMID:26491175

  2. Challenges and opportunities in detecting Taenia solium tapeworm carriers in Los Angeles County California, 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Croker, Curtis

    2015-12-01

    Carriers of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, are the sole source of neurocysticercosis, a parasitic tissue infection that can be chronic and severe. Identifying T. solium tapeworm carriers is challenging. Many are asymptomatic and go undetected and unreported. In addition, T. solium is difficult to distinguish from other Taenia species of less concern. From 2009 to 2014, 24 taeniasis cases were reported to the Los Angeles County (LAC) Department of Public Health. Twenty reports were received solely from our automated electronic laboratory reporting system (ELR), two from health care providers, and two were generated internally from investigation of households with a reported neurocysticercosis case. Further investigation identified one T. solium carrier originally reported by ELR and one identified from a neurocysticercosis case investigation. These results suggest that T. solium tapeworm carriers can be identified from investigation of ELR reports of unspeciated Taenia cases as well as from households of neurocysticercosis cases. PMID:25814395

  3. Taenia solium cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    García, Héctor H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Evans, Carlton A W; Gilman, Robert H

    2010-01-01

    The larval stage of the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) infects the human nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis. This disease is one of the main causes of epileptic seizures in many less developed countries and is also increasingly seen in more developed countries because of immigration from endemic areas. Little information is available on the natural evolution of taeniasis or cysticercosis. Available therapeutic measures include steroids, treatments for symptoms, surgery, and, more controversially, antiparasitic drugs to kill brain parasites. Efforts to control and eliminate this disease are underway through antiparasitic treatment of endemic populations, development of pig vaccines, and other measures. PMID:12932389

  4. Tapeworm - beef or pork

    MedlinePLUS

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata; Taenia solium; Taeniasis ... Tapeworm infection is caused by eating the raw or undercooked meat of infected animals. Cattle usually carry ...

  5. Taenia solium Cysticercosis - The lessons of history.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; García, Héctor H

    2015-12-15

    Human taeniasis as well as porcine and human cysticercosis - caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium - are ancient diseases. The fact that pigs were considered impure in the ancient Greece and that the Koran prohibited the consumption of pork, were likely related to the knowledge that cysticercosis may affect swine. Evidence suggests that human cysticercosis was also present in the ancient Egypt and Rome. During the Renaissance, the causative agent was properly identified and human cases were recognized. Confirmation that both taeniasis and cysticercosis were caused by the same parasite was provided during the 19th Century by German pathologists. During the 20th Century, bouts of human cysticercosis in non-endemic regions left us valuable lessons on the mechanisms of disease acquisition and spread. These included a large series of neurocysticercosis cases in the United Kingdom that occurred after the return of troops stationed in India (which demonstrated that symptoms may occur years after infection), the epidemic of cysticercosis-related epilepsy in the Ekari people of Papua New Guinea occurring after the gift of pigs with cysticercosis received from Indonesia (demonstrating the fast establishment of endemic transmission and the impact of cysticercosis in epilepsy frequency), and the occurrence of neurocysticercosis among members of an Orthodox Jewish community of New York City, related to Latin American Taenia carriers working in their houses (highlighting the fact that cysticercosis transmission do not require the presence of infected pigs). These lessons of history have significantly contributed to our current knowledge on this disease. PMID:26320098

  6. Immunology of Taenia solium taeniasis and human cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Garcia, H H; Rodriguez, S; Friedland, J S

    2014-08-01

    The life cycle of Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm, is continuously closed in many rural settings in developing countries when free roaming pigs ingest human stools containing T. solium eggs and develop cysticercosis, and humans ingest pork infected with cystic larvae and develop intestinal taeniasis, or may also accidentally acquire cysticercosis by faecal-oral contamination. Cysticercosis of the human nervous system, neurocysticercosis, is a major cause of seizures and other neurological morbidity in most of the world. The dynamics of exposure, infection and disease as well as the location of parasites result in a complex interaction which involves immune evasion mechanisms and involutive or progressive disease along time. Moreover, existing data are limited by the relative lack of animal models. This manuscript revises the available information on the immunology of human taeniasis and cysticercosis. PMID:24962350

  7. Tamoxifen treatment in hamsters induces protection during taeniosis by Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Escobedo, Galileo; Palacios-Arreola, M Isabel; Olivos, Alfonso; López-Griego, Lorena; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis by Taenia solium is considered an emergent severe brain disorder in developing and developed countries. Discovery of new antiparasitic drugs has been recently aimed to restrain differentiation and establishment of the T. solium adult tapeworm, for being considered a central node in the disease propagation to both pigs and humans. Tamoxifen is an antiestrogenic drug with cysticidal action on Taenia crassiceps, a close relative of T. solium. Thus, we evaluated the effect of tamoxifen on the in vitro evagination and the in vivo establishment of T. solium. In vitro, tamoxifen inhibited evagination of T. solium cysticerci in a dose-time dependent manner. In vivo, administration of tamoxifen to hamsters decreased the intestinal establishment of the parasite by 70%, while recovered tapeworms showed an 80% reduction in length, appearing as scolices without strobilar development. Since tamoxifen did not show any significant effect on the proliferation of antigen-specific immune cells, intestinal inflammation, and expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines in spleen and duodenum, this drug could exert its antiparasite actions by having direct detrimental effects upon the adult tapeworm. These results demonstrate that tamoxifen exhibits a strong cysticidal and antitaeniasic effect on T. solium that should be further explored in humans and livestock. PMID:23509701

  8. Epidemiology of Taenia solium Cysticercosis in western Kenya 

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Lian Francesca

    2014-06-28

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic helminth which is thought to be one of the leading causes of acquired epilepsy in the developing world. T. solium cysticercosis infections in pigs and humans and human taeniasis were diagnosed ...

  9. Apoptosis patterns in experimental Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps strobilae from golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Presas, Ana María Fernández; Robert, Lilia; Jiménez, José Agustín; Willms, Kaethe

    2005-04-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death (PCD) patterns of two taeniid species, Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps, were explored in adult tapeworms grown in golden hamsters. Animals were fed either ten viable T. solium cysticerci from naturally infected pigs or from T. crassiceps WFU strain maintained in Balb/c mice. Adult strobilae were recovered from the intestine at different times after infection and either frozen at -70 degrees C or fixed in paraformaldehyde-glutaraldehyde. Frozen sections were processed using the DNA fragmentation fluorescent TUNEL reagents and examined in an epifluorescent microscope. Fixed tissues were processed for light and electron microscopy. Typical apoptotic cells were found in the central core of scolex and strobilar tissues, mainly in the germinal tissue and subtegumentary areas. By the TUNEL technique, cells exhibited the characteristic fluorescent images of condensed nuclear chromatin. By light microscopy of thick sections stained with toluidine blue, we found a number of small rounded cells which had lost their cytoplasmic bridges and had shrunken nuclei with aggregated chromatin, cells which were found interspersed with normal syncytial cells. Similar cell morphology was confirmed by electron microscopy. Stunted viable worms, recovered with longer mature specimens, had very short strobilae and exhibited a large number of apoptotic cells in the germinal neck tissues. The results are consistent with the syncytial nature of these parasites, and strongly suggest that cell proliferation and PCD in these adult cestodes are continuous processes of the germinal tissue and tegumentary cytons. PMID:15759155

  10. TAENIA TAPEWORMS: THEIR BIOLOGY, EVOLUTION AND SOCIOECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A biological context for understanding human pathogens and parasites emanates from evolutionary studies among tapeworms of the genus Taenia. Human taeniasis and cysticercosis represent archaic associations and remain significant challenges for socioeconomic development, public health and food safet...

  11. Taenia solium Infection in Peru: A Collaboration between Peace Corps Volunteers and Researchers in a Community Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Nathaniel S.; Pajuelo, Monica; Clark, Taryn; Loader, Maria-Cristina I.; Verastegui, Manuela R.; Sterling, Charles; Friedland, Jon S.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of seizures and epilepsy in most of the world, and it occurs when Taenia solium larval cysts infect the central nervous system. T. solium tapeworm infection is endemic in much of Peru, but there are scarce data on the prevalence in many rural highland communities where it is likely to be hyper-endemic. Peace Corps Volunteers live and work in these communities; however, to our knowledge, they have not been used to facilitate public health research. Materials and Methods We utilized Peace Corps Volunteers to estimate the prevalence of T. solium tapeworm infection in seven rural communities in northern Peru. A convenience non-random sampling frame was used. Peace Corps Volunteers facilitated the collection of stool samples (N?=?2,328), which were analyzed by sedimentation and microscopy. Niclosamide treatment and purgation preceded species identification, which was done by PCR-REA. Results Taenia sp. egg-positive stool samples were found in three of the seven communities we surveyed. The overall prevalence of Taenia sp. egg positivity was 2.1% (49/2,328) (95% CI?=?1.6–2.8%) with prevalence up to 4.3% (42/977) (95% CI?=?3.1–5.8%) by community. All 34 of the specimens tested by PCR-REA were T. solium. The overall prevalence of T. solium tapeworm infection was 1.5% (34/2,328) (95% CI?=?1.0–2.0%). Prevalence up to 2.9% (28/977) (95% CI?=?1.9–4.1%) by community was observed. Conclusion/Significance This study recorded high T. solium tapeworm prevalence, and identified hyper-endemic rural communities. It demonstrates that synergy between researchers and Peace Corps Volunteers can be an effective means to conducting large-scale, community-based studies in remote areas of Peru. PMID:25469506

  12. High prevalence of Taenia saginata taeniasis and status of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Bali, Indonesia, 2002-2004.

    PubMed

    Wandra, T; Sutisna, P; Dharmawan, N S; Margono, S S; Sudewi, R; Suroso, T; Craig, P S; Ito, A

    2006-04-01

    An epidemiological survey of taeniasis/cysticercosis was carried out in one semi-urban and two urban villages in three districts of Bali, Indonesia in 2002 and 2004. In total, 398 local people from 247 families were diagnosed by anamnesis and clinical examinations, and 60 residents were suspected to be taeniasis carriers. Among 60 suspected carriers, 56 persons expelled a total of 61 taeniid adult worms after praziquantel treatment. From 398 residents, 252 stool samples were available for analysis of taeniid eggs, coproantigens or copro-DNA for identification of taeniid species, and 311 serum samples were available for detection of antibodies against Taenia solium cysticercosis. Taeniasis prevalences were highly variable among three villages (1.1-27.5%), and only one case of cysticercosis due to T. solium infection was detected. All expelled tapeworms were confirmed to be Taenia saginata by mtDNA analysis. There was no Taenia asiatica human case in Bali. Case control analysis of 106 families chosen at random from 179 families in 2004 and another 106 families from non-endemic areas revealed that risk factors of T. saginata taeniasis for families were: level of education (P<0.01); consumption of beef lawar (P<0.01); and the source of lawar (P<0.01). PMID:16199069

  13. Progesterone Induces Mucosal Immunity in a Rodent Model of Human Taeniosis by Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Escobedo, Galileo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Nava-Luna, Paul; Olivos, Alfonso; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Carrero, J.C.; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    More than one quarter of human world's population is exposed to intestinal helminth parasites. The Taenia solium tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor in the transmission of both human neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis. Sex steroids play an important role during T. solium infection, particularly progesterone has been proposed as a key immunomodulatory hormone involved in susceptibility to human taeniosis in woman and cysticercosis in pregnant pigs. Thus, we evaluated the effect of progesterone administration upon the experimental taeniosis in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Intact female adult hamsters were randomly divided into 3 groups: progesterone-subcutaneously treated; olive oil-treated as the vehicle group; and untreated controls. Animals were treated every other day during 4 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, all hamsters were orally infected with 4 viable T. solium cysticerci. After 2 weeks post infection, progesterone-treated hamsters showed reduction in adult worm recovery by 80%, compared to both vehicle-treated and non-manipulated infected animals. In contrast to control and vehicle groups, progesterone treatment diminished tapeworm length by 75% and increased proliferation rate of leukocytes from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of infected hamsters by 5-fold. The latter exhibited high expression levels of IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-? at the duodenal mucosa, accompanied with polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration. These results support that progesterone protects hamsters from the T. solium adult tapeworm establishment by improving the intestinal mucosal immunity, suggesting a potential use of analogues of this hormone as novel inductors of the gut immune response against intestinal helminth infections and probably other bowel-related disorders. PMID:22110394

  14. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers Derived from the Whole Genome Analysis of Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Pajuelo, Mónica J.; Eguiluz, María; Dahlstrom, Eric; Requena, David; Guzmán, Frank; Ramirez, Manuel; Sheen, Patricia; Frace, Michael; Sammons, Scott; Cama, Vitaliano; Anzick, Sarah; Bruno, Dan; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Wilkins, Patricia; Nash, Theodore; Gonzalez, Armando; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Porcella, Steve; Zimic, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    Background Infections with Taenia solium are the most common cause of adult acquired seizures worldwide, and are the leading cause of epilepsy in developing countries. A better understanding of the genetic diversity of T. solium will improve parasite diagnostics and transmission pathways in endemic areas thereby facilitating the design of future control measures and interventions. Microsatellite markers are useful genome features, which enable strain typing and identification in complex pathogen genomes. Here we describe microsatellite identification and characterization in T. solium, providing information that will assist in global efforts to control this important pathogen. Methods For genome sequencing, T. solium cysts and proglottids were collected from Huancayo and Puno in Peru, respectively. Using next generation sequencing (NGS) and de novo assembly, we assembled two draft genomes and one hybrid genome. Microsatellite sequences were identified and 36 of them were selected for further analysis. Twenty T. solium isolates were collected from Tumbes in the northern region, and twenty from Puno in the southern region of Peru. The size-polymorphism of the selected microsatellites was determined with multi-capillary electrophoresis. We analyzed the association between microsatellite polymorphism and the geographic origin of the samples. Results The predicted size of the hybrid (proglottid genome combined with cyst genome) T. solium genome was 111 MB with a GC content of 42.54%. A total of 7,979 contigs (>1,000 nt) were obtained. We identified 9,129 microsatellites in the Puno-proglottid genome and 9,936 in the Huancayo-cyst genome, with 5 or more repeats, ranging from mono- to hexa-nucleotide. Seven microsatellites were polymorphic and 29 were monomorphic within the analyzed isolates. T. solium tapeworms were classified into two genetic groups that correlated with the North/South geographic origin of the parasites. Conclusions/Significance The availability of draft genomes for T. solium represents a significant step towards the understanding the biology of the parasite. We report here a set of T. solium polymorphic microsatellite markers that appear promising for genetic epidemiology studies. PMID:26697878

  15. Taenia solium and Taenia saginata: identification of sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers.

    PubMed

    Dias, Ana Karina Kerche; Aoki, Sérgio Moraes; Garcia, José Fernando; Nunes, Cáris Maroni

    2007-09-01

    Cysticercosis is one of the most important zoonosis, not only because of the effects on animal health and its economic consequences, but also due to the serious danger it poses to humans. The two main parasites involved in the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex in Brazil are Taenia saginata and Taenia solium. Differentiating between these two parasites is important both for disease control and for epidemiological studies. The purpose of this work was to identify genetic markers that could be used to differentiate these parasites. Out of 120 oligonucleotide decamers tested in random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assays, 107 were shown to discriminate between the two species of Taenia. Twenty-one DNA fragments that were specific for each species of Taenia were chosen for DNA cloning and sequencing. Seven RAPD markers were converted into sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers with two specific for T. saginata and five specific for T. solium as shown by agarose gel electrophoresis. These markers were developed as potential tools to differentiate T. solium from T. saginata in epidemiological studies. PMID:17466296

  16. Cytokine, Antibody and Proliferative Cellular Responses Elicited by Taenia solium Calreticulin upon Experimental Infection in Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Mendlovic, Fela; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Ávila, Guillermina; Vaughan, Gilberto; Flisser, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis. PMID:25811778

  17. Cytokine, antibody and proliferative cellular responses elicited by Taenia solium calreticulin upon experimental infection in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Mendlovic, Fela; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Ávila, Guillermina; Vaughan, Gilberto; Flisser, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis. PMID:25811778

  18. Corticosteroid withdrawal precipitates perilesional edema around calcified Taenia solium cysts.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Rojelio; Nash, Theodore E

    2013-11-01

    Calcified Taenia solium granulomas are the focus of repeated episodes of perilesional edema and seizures in 50% of persons with calcifications, history of seizures, and a positive serology for cysticercosis. The pathophysiology is unclear but recent studies suggest the edema is caused by inflammation. We report two new cases and four other published cases where cessation of corticosteroids appeared to result in recurrence or new appearance of perilesional edema around calcifications. This suggests that perilesional edema is an immune-mediated phenomenon. PMID:24002482

  19. Identification and characterization of a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease from Taenia solium metacestode.

    PubMed

    Li, Ai Hua; Moon, Sung-Ung; Park, Yun-Kyu; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Hwang, Myung-Gi; Oh, Chang-Mi; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Kong, Yoon; Kim, Tong-Soo; Chung, Pyung-Rim

    2006-11-01

    Taenia solium metacestode, a larval pork tapeworm, is a causative agent of neurocysticercosis, one of the most common parasitic diseases in the human central nervous system. In this study, we identified a cDNA encoding for a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease from the T. solium metacestode (TsCL-1) and characterized the biochemical properties of the recombinant enzyme. The cloned cDNA of 1216 bp encoded 339 amino acids with an approximate molecular weight of 37.6 kDa which containing a typical signal peptide sequence (17 amino acids), a pro-domain (106 amino acids), and a mature domain (216 amino acids). Sequence alignments of TsCL-1 showed low sequence similarity of 27.3-44.6 to cathepsin L-like cysteine proteases from other helminth parasites, but the similarity was increased to 35.9-55.0 when compared to mature domains. The bacterially expressed recombinant protein (rTsCL-1) did not show enzyme activity; however, the rTsCL-1 expressed in Pichia pastoris showed typical biochemical characteristics of cysteine proteases. It degraded human immunoglobulin G (IgG) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), but not collagen. Western blot analysis of the rTsCL-1 showed antigenicity against the sera from patients with cysticercosis, sparganosis or fascioliasis, but weak or no antigenicity against the sera from patients with paragonimiasis or clonorchiasis. PMID:16872751

  20. Novel rat model for neurocysticercosis using Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Verastegui, Manuela R; Mejia, Alan; Clark, Taryn; Gavidia, Cesar M; Mamani, Javier; Ccopa, Fredy; Angulo, Noelia; Chile, Nancy; Carmen, Rogger; Medina, Roxana; García, Hector H; Rodriguez, Silvia; Ortega, Ynes; Gilman, Robert H

    2015-08-01

    Neurocysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium infecting the central nervous system and is the leading cause of acquired epilepsy and convulsive conditions worldwide. Research into the pathophysiology of the disease and appropriate treatment is hindered by lack of cost-effective and physiologically similar animal models. We generated a novel rat neurocysticercosis model using intracranial infection with activated T. solium oncospheres. Holtzman rats were infected in two separate groups: the first group was inoculated extraparenchymally and the second intraparenchymally, with different doses of activated oncospheres. The groups were evaluated at three different ages. Histologic examination of the tissue surrounding T. solium cysticerci was performed. Results indicate that generally infected rats developed cysticerci in the brain tissue after 4 months, and the cysticerci were observed in the parenchymal, ventricle, or submeningeal brain tissue. The route of infection did not have a statistically significant effect on the proportion of rats that developed cysticerci, and there was no dependence on infection dose. However, rat age was crucial to the success of the infection. Epilepsy was observed in 9% of rats with neurocysticercosis. In histologic examination, a layer of collagen tissue, inflammatory infiltrate cells, perivascular infiltrate, angiogenesis, spongy change, and mass effect were observed in the tissue surrounding the cysts. This study presents a suitable animal model for the study of human neurocysticercosis. PMID:26216286

  1. Evaluating the efficacy of teaching methods regarding prevention of human epilepsy caused by Taenia solium neurocysticercosis in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Wohlgemut, Jared; Dewey, Cate; Levy, Mike; Mutua, Florence

    2010-04-01

    Taenia solium neurocysticercosis is a major cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. A questionnaire was administered to 282 Kenyan farmers, followed by a workshop, a second questionnaire, one-on-one training, and a third questionnaire. People who attended workshops were more likely to know how T. solium causes epilepsy in humans in the third visit than the second (P = 0.001). The likelihood that farmers would tether their pigs 100% of the time, limiting exposure to tapeworm eggs, increased after the first (P < 0.001) and second visits (P < 0.001). Farmers were more likely to have heard of Cysticercus cellulosae in the second (P = 0.001) and third visits (P = 0.007), and to know how pigs acquire infection in the second (P = 0.03) and third visits (P = 0.003). Farmers with at least a grade 8 education were more likely to know how T. solium is transmitted to humans in the second (P = 0.001) and third visits (P = 0.009), and were more likely to understand the relationship between epilepsy and T. solium in the second (P = 0.03) and third visits (P = 0.03). Grade 8 education may enhance learning from written material. Workshops followed by individual on-farm training enhanced knowledge acquisition and behavior changes. Training local government extension workers contributed to the sustainability of this project. PMID:20348512

  2. Taenia solium: Development of an Experimental Model of Porcine Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Agnès; Trejo, Armando; Cisneros, Humberto; García-Navarrete, Roberto; Villalobos, Nelly; Hernández, Marisela; Villeda Hernández, Juana; Hernández, Beatriz; Rosas, Gabriela; Bobes, Raul J.; S. de Aluja, Aline; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2015-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. NC is a severe disease still affecting the population in developing countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. While great improvements have been made on NC diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, the management of patients affected by extraparenchymal parasites remains a challenge. The development of a T. solium NC experimental model in pigs that will allow the evaluation of new therapeutic alternatives is herein presented. Activated oncospheres (either 500 or 1000) were surgically implanted in the cerebral subarachnoid space of piglets. The clinical status and the level of serum antibodies in the animals were evaluated for a 4-month period after implantation. The animals were sacrificed, cysticerci were counted during necropsy, and both the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of cysts were described. Based on the number of established cysticerci, infection efficiency ranged from 3.6% (1000 oncospheres) to 5.4% (500 oncospheres). Most parasites were caseous or calcified (38/63, 60.3%) and were surrounded by an exacerbated inflammatory response with lymphocyte infiltration and increased inflammatory markers. The infection elicited specific antibodies but no neurological signs. This novel experimental model of NC provides a useful tool to evaluate new cysticidal and anti-inflammatory approaches and it should improve the management of severe NC patients, refractory to the current treatments. PMID:26252878

  3. In vitro oncosphere-killing assays to determine immunity to the larvae of Taenia pisiformis, Taenia ovis, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Kyngdon, Craig T; Gauci, Charles G; Rolfe, Rick A; Velásquez Guzmán, Jeanette C; Farfán Salazar, Marilú J; Verástegui Pimentel, Manuela R; Gonzalez, Armando E; Garcia, Hector H; Gilmanl, Robert H; Strugnell, Richard A; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2006-04-01

    Taeniid cestodes infect humans and livestock, causing considerable morbidity and mortality, as well as economic loss. Substantial progress has been made toward the production of recombinant vaccines against cysticercosis in livestock animals. Further development of these vaccines would be aided if a reliable in vitro test were available to measure host-protective immune responses in vaccinated animals. Here, we describe in vitro oncosphere-killing assays for the quantification of host-protective serum antibodies against Taenia pisiformis, Taenia ovis, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium in rabbits, sheep, cattle, and pigs, respectively. Activated oncospheres of T. pisiformis, T. ovis, T. saginata, and T. solium were incubated in vitro in culture medium, test serum, and a source of complement, and oncosphere killing was assessed after 10 days of culture. In vitro oncosphere killing reflected the presence of specific antibody, and the oncosphere-killing assay typically indicated immunity to the homologous parasite that had been determined in vivo. This study describes the first reliable oncosphere-killing assays for T. pisiformis, T. ovis, T. saginata, and T. solium. These assays will be used for further research into the optimization of recombinant vaccines against cysticercosis. PMID:16729683

  4. Detection of Taenia solium taeniasis coproantigen is an early indicator of treatment failure for taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Javier A; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A; Moyano, Luz M; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C; Craig, Philip S; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-04-01

    Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective. PMID:22336287

  5. Detection of Taenia solium Taeniasis Coproantigen Is an Early Indicator of Treatment Failure for Taeniasis

    PubMed Central

    Bustos, Javier A.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A.; Moyano, Luz M.; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C.; Craig, Philip S.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective. PMID:22336287

  6. Ring-Screening to Control Endemic Transmission of Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    O'Neal, Seth E.; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gavidia, Cesar; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Taenia solium is a major cause of preventable epilepsy in developing nations. Screening and treatment of human intestinal stage infection (taeniasis) within high-risk foci may reduce transmission and prevent epilepsy by limiting human exposure to infective eggs. We piloted a ring-strategy that involves screening and treatment for taeniasis among households located nearby pigs heavily-infected with the larval stage (cysticercosis). These pigs mark areas of increased transmission and can be identified by tongue examination. Methodology We selected two villages in northern Peru for a controlled prospective interventional cohort pilot study. In the intervention village (1,058 residents) we examined the tongues of all pigs every 4 months for nodules characteristic of cysticercosis. We then screened all residents living within 100-meters of any tongue-positive pig using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Taenia antigens in stool. Residents with taeniasis were treated with niclosamide. In both the intervention and control (753 residents) we measured incidence of exposure by sampling the pig population every 4 months for serum antibodies against cysticercosis using enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot. Principal Findings Baseline seroincidence among pigs born during the study was 22.6 cases per 100 pigs per-month (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.0–30.0) in the intervention and 18.1 (95% CI 12.7–25.9) in the control. After one year we observed a 41% reduction in seroincidence in the intervention village compared to baseline (incidence rate ratio 0.59, 95% CI 0.41–0.87) while the seroincidence in the control village remained unchanged. At study end, the prevalence of taeniasis was nearly 4 times lower in the intervention than in the control (prevalence ratio 0.28, 95% CI 0.08–0.91). Conclusions/Significance Ring-screening reduced transmission of T. solium in this pilot study and may provide an effective and practical approach for regions where resources are limited. However, this strategy requires validation in larger populations over a greater period of time. PMID:25210748

  7. Immune responses to a recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain expressing a Taenia solium oncosphere antigen TSOL18.

    PubMed

    Ding, Juntao; Zheng, Yadong; Wang, Ying; Dou, Yongxi; Chen, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Xueliang; Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Shaohua; Liu, Zhenyong; Hou, Junling; Zhai, Junjun; Yan, Hongbin; Luo, Xuenong; Cai, Xuepeng

    2013-01-01

    A tapeworm, Taenia solium, remains a great threat to human health, particularly in developing countries. The life cycle of T. solium is thought to be terminated via vaccination of intermediate hosts. In this study, we constructed a recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium live vaccine strain ?4558 expressing a TSOL18 antigen. SDS-PAGE and Western blot confirmed the expression of the interest protein and its antigenic property. The recombinant strain stably propagated in vitro, of which the growth was not reversely influenced by TSOL18 protein expressed. It was also shown that mice survived 10(12) CFU of S. typhimurium ?4558, while all mice infected with 10(7) CFU of the wild-type died within five days. The mouse experiment indicated that vaccine strain ?4558 induced a high titer of specific antibody for a long time. In contrast to the controls, the vaccinated mice had an obvious augment of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes and the percentage of helper CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocytes was significantly increased (p<0.01). After oral administration, S. typhimurium ?4558 was first colonized mainly in the Peyer's patches and then predominantly in the mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens in the vaccinated mice. In addition, the high levels of specific anti-TSOL18 antibodies were also observed in pigs administrated with S. typhimurium ?4558. Collectively, these results demonstrate the possibility of use of an attenuated S. typhimurium strain as a vector to deliver protective antigens of T. solium. PMID:23219684

  8. Purification of Taenia solium cysticerci superoxide dismutase and myoglobin copurification.

    PubMed

    González, R; Mendoza-Hernández, G; Plancarte, A

    2002-10-01

    Superoxide dismutase from Taenia solium cysticerci ( Ts SOD) was purified by sequential ion exchange chromatography on quaternary-amino-ethyl-cellulose (QAE) followed by hydrophobic interaction on phenyl sepharose (PS) and chromatofocusing on a polybuffer exchanger 94 (PBE). Ts SOD is a 30 kDa molecular weight dimeric enzyme with 15 kDa monomers. It is partially negative, hydrophilic, with 6.3 isoelectric point and has 2,900 U/mg activity. Bovine erythrocyte SOD antibodies cross react with Ts SOD. This enzyme is 80% inhibited by 10 mM of KCN suggesting that it has a Cu/Zn active site. Furthermore, Ts SOD totally loses its activity at 100 degrees C for 4 min. The first 25 amino acids from the Ts SOD N-terminal are (M K A V X V M R G E E G V K G V V H F T Q A G D A). This sequence is 76% similar to the Schistosoma mansoni Cu/Zn SOD. By chance, myoglobin (Mb) was also found during the purification process. A 16 kDa band was recognized in immunoblotting by horse heart Mb antibodies in QAE, PS and PBE, the last-mentioned being found at pH 7.0. The first 15 amino acids from the amino terminal group (G L S D G E W Q L V L N V W G) in this 16 kDa protein are identical to several other Mbs which have been reported. PMID:12209327

  9. Human migration and pig/pork import in the European Union: What are the implications for Taenia solium infections?

    PubMed

    Gabriël, S; Johansen, M V; Pozio, E; Smit, G S A; Devleesschauwer, B; Allepuz, A; Papadopoulos, E; van der Giessen, J; Dorny, P

    2015-09-30

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a neglected zoonotic disease complex occurring primarily in developing countries. Though claimed eradicated from the European Union (EU), an increasing number of human neurocysticercosis cases is being detected. Risk factors such as human migration and movement of pigs/pork, as well as the increasing trend in pig rearing with outside access are discussed in this review. The entry of a tapeworm carrier into the EU seems a lot more plausible than the import of infected pork. The establishment of local transmission in the EU is presently very unlikely. However, considering the potential changes in risk factors, such as the increasing trend in pig farming with outdoor access, the increasing human migration from endemic areas into the EU, this situation might change, warranting the establishment of an early warning system, which should include disease notification of taeniasis/cysticercosis both in human and animal hosts. As currently human-to-human transmission is the highest risk, prevention strategies should focus on the early detection and treatment of tapeworm carriers, and should be designed in a concerted way, across the EU and across the different sectors. PMID:25837784

  10. Immune responses to viable and degenerative metacestodes of Taenia solium in naturally infected swine.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aloukick K; Prasad, Kashi N; Prasad, Amit; Tripathi, Mukesh; Gupta, Rakesh K; Husain, Nuzhat

    2013-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis, caused by the larvae of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, is the most common helminth infection of the CNS in humans worldwide. There is no existing animal model of neurocysticercosis that resembles human infection. To overcome this limitation, swine (the natural intermediate host of the parasite) may be a suitable model. The immune response associated with different stages of the parasite larva (metacestode) has not yet been explored. Therefore, we investigated the immune response to various stages of the metacestode (cyst) in the brain and muscles of naturally infected swine. Swine with neurocysticercosis (n = 10) and healthy controls (n = 10), as confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging, were included in this study. The animals were sacrificed, and the tissues containing viable or degenerative metacestods in the brain and infected muscles were collected and subjected to reverse transcriptase-PCR and ELISA to determine the expression of different cytokines (IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-4 IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10). Higher expression of IL-10 was found to be associated with viable cysts. Degenerating cysts displayed significantly increased levels of IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8, whereas calcified cysts had elevated levels of IL-4, IL-10, TNF-? and IL-6. The present study indicated a strong regulatory (IL-10) and Th1 cytokine response in viable and degenerating cysts, respectively, whereas calcified cysts had a mixed anti-inflammatory (IL-4), regulatory (IL-10) and pro-inflammatory (TNF-? and IL-6) response. Thus, Th1 and Th2 immune response operate in the vicinity of metacestodes and the type of immune response may be responsible for disease severity. PMID:24184156

  11. LONGEVITY AND VIABILITY OF Taenia solium EGGS IN THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF THE BEETLE Ammophorus rubripes

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis Antonio; Lopez-Urbina, Maria Teresa; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Gonzalez, Armando Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the capacity of Ammophorus rubripes beetles to carry Taenia solium eggs, in terms of duration and viability of eggs in their digestive system. One hundred beetles were distributed into five polyethylene boxes, and then they were infected with T. solium eggs. Gravid proglottids of T. solium were crushed and then mixed with cattle feces. One gram of this mixture was placed in each box for 24 hours, after which each group of beetles was transferred into a new clean box. Then, five beetles were dissected every three days. Time was strongly associated with viability (r=0.89; P<0.001) and the calculated time to cero viability is 36 days. The eggs in the intestinal system of each beetle were counted and tested for viability. Taenia solium eggs were present in the beetle’s digestive system for up to 39 days (13th sampling day out of 20), gradually reducing in numbers and viability, which was 0 on day 36 post-infection. Egg viability was around 40% up to day 24 post-infection, with a median number of eggs of 11 per beetle at this time. Dung beetles may potentially contribute towards dispersing T. solium eggs in endemic areas. PMID:24728368

  12. Evaluation of the protective potential of a Taenia solium cysticercus mimotope on murine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Capelli-Peixoto, Janaína; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Chaves-Moreira, Daniele; Minozzo, João Carlos; Gabardo, Juarez; Teixeira, Kádima Nayara; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Alvarenga, Larissa Magalhães; de Moura, Juliana

    2011-11-28

    An NC-1 mimotope from Taenia solium cysticerci can help identify patients with neurocysticercosis through immunoassay. After chemical synthesis, an NC-1 peptide was coupled to bovine serum albumin (NC-1/BSA) for used as an immunogen in murine Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis, which is an experimental model of cysticercosis caused by T. solium. NC-1/BSA immunisation decreased parasitaemia by inducing 74% protection compared to the 77% protection obtained with T. crassiceps crude antigen. The influence of immunisation was also observed on the size and stage of development of the parasite. Antibodies from NC-1/BSA-immunised mice recognised proteins from the tegument and from the buddings, and intense immunostaining was observed in the final stage of the metacestode. The capacity of NC-1/BSA to induce protective antibodies which are reactive to proteins from the tegument of the metacestode suggests that this mimotope is a potential candidate for a vaccine against human and animal cysticercosis. PMID:22027483

  13. Prevention and control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Robert H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Llanos-Zavalaga, Fernando; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium is endemic in most of the world, causing seizures and other neurological symptoms. Transmission is mainly maintained in rural areas by a human to pig cycle. Despite claims on its eradicability, sustainable interruption of transmission has not yet been reported. This manuscript reviews the conceptual basis for control, available diagnostic and control tools, and recent experiences on control in the field performed in Peru along the past decade PMID:23265557

  14. Prevention and control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Peru.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Robert H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Llanos-Zavalaga, Fernando; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-09-01

    Taenia solium is endemic in most of the world, causing seizures and other neurological symptoms. Transmission is mainly maintained in rural areas by a human to pig cycle. Despite claims on its eradicability, sustainable interruption of transmission has not yet been reported. This manuscript reviews the conceptual basis for control, available diagnostic and control tools, and recent experiences on control in the field performed in Peru along the past decade. PMID:23265557

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CARBOHYDRATE COMPONENTS OF Taenia solium ONCOSPHERE PROTEINS AND THEIR ROLE IN THE ANTIGENICITY

    PubMed Central

    Arana, Yanina; Verastegui, Manuela; Tuero, Iskra; Grandjean, Louis; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the carbohydrate composition of Taenia solium whole oncosphere antigens (WOAs), in order to improve the understanding of the antigenicity of the T. solium. Better knowledge of oncosphere antigens is crucial to accurately diagnose previous exposure to T. solium eggs and thus predict the development of neurocysticercosis. A set of seven lectins conjugates with wide carbohydrate specificity were used on parasite fixations and somatic extracts. Lectin fluorescence revealed that D-mannose, D-glucose, D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues were the most abundant constituents of carbohydrate chains on the surface of T. solium oncosphere. Lectin blotting showed that post-translational modification with N-glycosylation was abundant while little evidence of O-linked carbohydrates was observed. Chemical oxidation and enzymatic deglycosylation in situ were performed to investigate the immunoreactivity of the carbohydrate moieties. Linearizing or removing the carbohydrate moieties from the protein backbones did not diminish the immunoreactivity of these antigens, suggesting that a substantial part of the host immune response against T. solium oncosphere is directed against the peptide epitopes on the parasite antigens. Finally, using carbohydrate probes, we demonstrated for the first time that the presence of several lectins on the surface of the oncosphere was specific to carbohydrates found in intestinal mucus, suggesting a possible role in initial attachment of the parasite to host cells. PMID:23982308

  16. The endocrine-immune network during taeniosis by Taenia solium: The role of the pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés; Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that sex hormones play an important role during Taenia solium infection; however, to our knowledge no studies exist concerning the immune response following complete or lobe-specific removal of the pituitary gland during T. solium infection. Thus, the aim of this work was to analyze in hamsters, the effects of lack of pituitary hormones on the duodenal immune response, and their impact on T. solium establishment and development. Thus, in order to achieve this goal, we perform anterior pituitary lobectomy (AL, n = 9), neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL, n = 9) and total hypophysectomy (HYPOX, n = 8), and related to the gut establishment and growth of T. solium, hematoxylin-eosin staining of duodenal tissue and immunofluorescence of duodenal cytokine expression and compared these results to the control intact (n = 8) and control infected group (n = 8). Our results indicate that 15 days post-infection, HYPOX reduces the number and size of intestinally recovered T. solium adults. Using semiquantitative immunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of duodenal IFN-? and IL-12 Th1 cytokines was mildly expressed in the infected controls, in contrast with the high level of expression of these cytokines in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, the duodenum of HYPOX animals showed an increase in the expression of Th2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-6, when compared to control hamsters. Histological analysis of duodenal mucosa from HYPOX hamsters revealed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria and related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that lobe-specific pituitary hormones affect differentially the T. solium development and the gut immune response. PMID:26481692

  17. Taenia solium oncosphere adhesion to intestinal epithelial and Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Verastegui, Manuela; Gilman, Robert H; Arana, Yanina; Barber, Dylan; Velásquez, Jeanette; Farfán, Marilu; Chile, Nancy; Kosek, Jon C; Kosek, Margaret; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando

    2007-11-01

    The specific mechanisms underlying Taenia solium oncosphere adherence and penetration in the host have not been studied previously. We developed an in vitro adhesion model assay to evaluate the mechanisms of T. solium oncosphere adherence to the host cells. The following substrates were used: porcine intestinal mucosal scrapings (PIMS), porcine small intestinal mucosal explants (PSIME), Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO cells), epithelial cells from ileocecal colorectal adenocarcinoma (HCT-8 cells), and epithelial cells from colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cells). CHO cells were used to compare oncosphere adherence to fixed and viable cells, to determine the optimum time of oncosphere incubation, to determine the role of sera and monolayer cell maturation, and to determine the effect of temperature on oncosphere adherence. Light microscopy, scanning microscopy, and transmission microscopy were used to observe morphological characteristics of adhered oncospheres. This study showed in vitro adherence of activated T. solium oncospheres to PIMS, PSIME, monolayer CHO cells, Caco-2 cells, and HCT-8 cells. The reproducibility of T. solium oncosphere adherence was most easily measured with CHO cells. Adherence was enhanced by serum-binding medium with >5% fetal bovine serum, which resulted in a significantly greater number of oncospheres adhering than the number adhering when serum at a concentration less than 2.5% was used (P < 0.05). Oncosphere adherence decreased with incubation of cells at 4 degrees C compared with the adherence at 37 degrees C. Our studies also demonstrated that T. solium oncospheres attach to cells with elongated microvillus processes and that the oncospheres expel external secretory vesicles that have the same oncosphere processes. PMID:17698575

  18. Cloning, characterization and functional expression of Taenia solium 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Aceves-Ramos, A; de la Torre, P; Hinojosa, L; Ponce, A; García-Villegas, R; Laclette, J P; Bobes, R J; Romano, M C

    2014-07-01

    The 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17?-HSD) are key enzymes involved in the formation (reduction) and inactivation (oxidation) of sex steroids. Several types have been found in vertebrates including fish, as well as in invertebrates like Caenorhabditis elegans, Ciona intestinalis and Haliotis diversicolor supertexta. To date limited information is available about this enzyme in parasites. We showed previously that Taenia solium cysticerci are able to synthesize sex steroid hormones in vitro when precursors are provided in the culture medium. Here, we identified a T. solium 17?-HSD through in silico blast searches in the T. solium genome database. This coding sequence was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into the pcDNA 3.1(+) expression vector. The full length cDNA contains 957bp, corresponding to an open reading frame coding for 319 aa. The highest identity (84%) at the protein level was found with the Echinococcus multilocularis 17?-HSD although significant similarities were also found with other invertebrate and vertebrate 17?-HSD sequences. The T. solium Tsol-17?HSD belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) protein superfamily. HEK293T cells transiently transfected with Tsol17?-HSD induced expression of Tsol17?-HSD that transformed 3H-androstenedione into testosterone. In contrast, 3H-estrone was not significantly transformed into estradiol. In conclusion, T. solium cysticerci express a 17?-HSD that catalyzes the androgen reduction. The enzyme belongs to the short chain dehydrogenases/reductase family and shares motifs and activity with the type 3 enzyme of some other species. PMID:24698785

  19. Differential antigenic protein recovery from Taenia solium cyst tissues using several detergents.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Perea, José; Orozco-Ramírez, Rodrigo; Moguel, Bárbara; Sciutto, Edda; Bobes, Raúl J; Laclette, Juan P

    2015-07-01

    Human and porcine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of the flatworm Taenia solium (Cestoda). The protein extracts of T. solium cysts are complex mixtures including cyst's and host proteins. Little is known about the influence of using different detergents in the efficiency of solubilization-extraction of these proteins, including relevant antigens. Here, we describe the use of CHAPS, ASB-14 and Triton X-100, alone or in combination in the extraction buffers, as a strategy to notably increase the recovery of proteins that are usually left aside in insoluble fractions of cysts. Using buffer with CHAPS alone, 315 protein spots were detected through 2D-PAGE. A total of 255 and 258 spots were detected using buffers with Triton X-100 or ASB-14, respectively. More protein spots were detected when detergents were combined, i.e., 2% CHAPS, 1% Triton X-100 and 1% ASB-14 allowed detection of up to 368 spots. Our results indicated that insoluble fractions of T. solium cysts were rich in antigens, including several glycoproteins that were sensitive to metaperiodate treatment. Host proteins, a common component in protein extracts of cysts, were present in larger amounts in soluble than insoluble fractions of cysts proteins. Finally, antigens present in the insoluble fraction were more appropriate as a source of antigens for diagnostic procedures. PMID:26341468

  20. Genetic characteristics of Chinese isolates of the tapeworm Taenia pisiformis based on two mitochondrial genes.

    PubMed

    Yang, D Y; Ren, Y J; Fu, Y; Xie, Y; Nong, X; Gu, X B; Wang, S X; Peng, X R; Yang, G Y

    2015-07-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by infections with embryonated eggs of the tapeworm Taenia pisiformis. Knowledge of the genetic characteristics of T. pisiformis could be applied to study the epidemiology and transmission of this parasite. In this study, 61 isolates of intraperitoneal cysticerci from eight geographically distinct regions in Sichuan province, China, were subjected to a molecular analysis in order to determine their intra-regional genetic characteristics. Partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1, 1427 bp) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1, 738 bp) were concatenated. Five haplotypes were identified, and 89.04% of total genetic variation was found in collections of T. pisiformis isolates from a single region. According to the phylogenetic reconstruction, the T. pisiformis isolates from eight regions did not form geographical clusters. Our study highlights the genetic characteristics of T. pisiformis with the aim of accelerating the genetic research and control of cysticercosis. PMID:24690153

  1. Sequence Analysis and Molecular Characterization of Wnt4 Gene in Metacestodes of Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Junling; Luo, Xuenong; Wang, Shuai; Yin, Cai; Zhang, Shaohua; Zhu, Xueliang; Dou, Yongxi

    2014-01-01

    Wnt proteins are a family of secreted glycoproteins that are evolutionarily conserved and considered to be involved in extensive developmental processes in metazoan organisms. The characterization of wnt genes may improve understanding the parasite's development. In the present study, a wnt4 gene encoding 491amino acids was amplified from cDNA of metacestodes of Taenia solium using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Bioinformatics tools were used for sequence analysis. The conserved domain of the wnt gene family was predicted. The expression profile of Wnt4 was investigated using real-time PCR. Wnt4 expression was found to be dramatically increased in scolex evaginated cysticerci when compared to invaginated cysticerci. In situ hybridization showed that wnt4 gene was distributed in the posterior end of the worm along the primary body axis in evaginated cysticerci. These findings indicated that wnt4 may take part in the process of cysticerci evagination and play a role in scolex/bladder development of cysticerci of T. solium. PMID:24850959

  2. Immune response to Taenia solium cysticerci after anti-parasitic therapy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aloukick K; Singh, Satyendra K; Singh, Amrita; Gupta, Kamlesh K; Khatoon, Jahanarah; Prasad, Amit; Rai, Ravi P; Gupta, Rakesh K; Tripathi, Mukesh; Husain, Nuzhat; Prasad, Kashi N

    2015-10-01

    Albendazole is the drug of choice for Taenia solium infection. Concomitant administration of steroid has been advocated to avoid adverse reactions to albendazole therapy in neurocysticercosis. Some T. solium cysticerci (larvae) respond to albendazole therapy while others do not and the reasons remain unexplained. We hypothesise that the immune response differs between treatment responder and non-responder cysticerci and this may determine the outcome. Twenty swine naturally infected with T. solium were purchased from the market and the infection was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Swine were divided into two groups; swine in group 1 were treated with albendazole and those in group 2 were treated with albendazole plus steroid (prednisolone). All the animals underwent follow-up MRIs at 6 and 12weeks after start of therapy and were then sacrificed. Tissues surrounding the cysticerci were collected and studied for the expression of different cytokines by reverse transcriptase PCR and ELISA. Albendazole therapy was found to be more effective in parasite killing than albendazole plus steroid (94.11% versus 70.96%, P=0.011). Albendazole therapy provoked a pro-inflammatory, Th1 (IFN-?) and pleiotropic (IL-6) cytokine response around the dead cysticerci. Despite a heavy parasite burden in the brain, all the pigs treated with albendazole plus steroid survived. In this group of animals, a mixed pro-inflammatory Th1, Th2 (IL-4) and regulatory cytokine (IL-10) response was associated with responder cysticerci. Further, Th2 and regulatory cytokine responses were associated with non-responder cysticerci. PMID:26336013

  3. Efficacy of ivermectin and oxfendazole against Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Leifsson, Pall S; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-10-01

    Smallholder semi-confined pig production is a fast growing practice in sub-Saharan Africa with an unfortunate outcome of high prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses. The widely used anthelmintic for control of endo and ecto-parasites in pigs in the area is ivermectin at a recommended dose of 0.3mg/kg. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety in pigs after subcutaneous injection of ivermectin (IVM, 0.3mg/kg) and orally administration of oxfendazole (OFZ, 30mg/kg) in treatment of porcine cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs. A total of 61 pigs with T. solium cysticercosis (38 males and 23 females) as identified by tongue palpation with age ranging from 3 to 24 months were recruited. The pigs were stratified based on sex, age and number of cysts on the tongue and randomly allocated to IVM, OFZ and control groups. Three days before treatment and two weeks after treatment faecal samples and skin scrapings were taken to establish the burden of endo- and ectoparasites, respectively and the effect of the treatment. No adverse effect was observed in any of the treatment groups throughout the study period. Half of the pigs from each group were slaughtered at week four and the remaining half at week twelve post treatment. The IVM treatment group had no significant effect (p=0.224) on T. solium cysts viability in comparison to the control group. Significant effect on cysts viability was observed in the OFZ treated group (p<0.001) compared to IVM and control groups in all muscle tissues. Regarding to brain cysts, neither of the drugs was efficacious. Ivermectin and OFZ treatments significantly reduced (p<0.001) the faecal egg count of Ascaris suum, strongyles and Trichuris suis two weeks after treatment. At slaughter, Oesophagostomum dentatum, Ascarops strongylina and Physocephalus sexalatus were recovered from pigs in the IVM treated and in the control groups. Ivermectin was 100% effective in control of Sarcoptes scabiei. In conclusion, IVM at a single dose of 0.3mg/kg was efficacious against ectoparasites but did not effectively cure pigs from T. solium cysticercosis or nematodes. Oxfendazole, on the other hand, killed all nematodes and muscle cysts, but did not have any effect on ectoparasites. A combination of the two drugs would be a most useful treatment option for control of pig parasitoses in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:23806569

  4. Characterization of a Thioredoxin-1 Gene from Taenia solium and Its Encoding Product

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Lucía; Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; Ochoa-Sánchez, Alicia; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium thioredoxin-1 gene (TsTrx-1) has a length of 771?bp with three exons and two introns. The core promoter gene presents two putative stress transcription factor binding sites, one putative TATA box, and a transcription start site (TSS). TsTrx-1 mRNA is expressed higher in larvae than in adult. This gene encodes a protein of 107 amino acids that presents the Trx active site (CGPC), the classical secondary structure of the thioredoxin fold, and the highest degree of identity with the Echinococcus granulosus Trx. A recombinant TsTrx-1 (rTsTrx-1) was produced in Escherichia coli with redox activity. Optimal activity for rTsTrx-1 was at pH 6.5 in the range of 15 to 25°C. The enzyme conserved activity for 3?h and lost it in 24?h at 37°C. rTsTrx-1 lost 50% activity after 1?h and lost activity completely in 24?h at temperatures higher than 55°C. Best storage temperature for rTsTrx-1 was at ?70°C. It was inhibited by high concentrations of H2O2 and methylglyoxal (MG), but it was inhibited neither by NaCl nor by anti-rTsTrx-1 rabbit antibodies that strongly recognized a ~12?kDa band in extracts from several parasites. These TsTrx-1 properties open the opportunity to study its role in relationship T. solium-hosts. PMID:26090410

  5. Visualization and 3D Reconstruction of Flame Cells of Taenia solium (Cestoda)

    PubMed Central

    Valverde-Islas, Laura E.; Arrangoiz, Esteban; Vega, Elio; Robert, Lilia; Villanueva, Rafael; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Willms, Kaethe; Zepeda-Rodríguez, Armando; Fortoul, Teresa I.; Ambrosio, Javier R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Flame cells are the terminal cells of protonephridial systems, which are part of the excretory systems of invertebrates. Although the knowledge of their biological role is incomplete, there is a consensus that these cells perform excretion/secretion activities. It has been suggested that the flame cells participate in the maintenance of the osmotic environment that the cestodes require to live inside their hosts. In live Platyhelminthes, by light microscopy, the cells appear beating their flames rapidly and, at the ultrastructural, the cells have a large body enclosing a tuft of cilia. Few studies have been performed to define the localization of the cytoskeletal proteins of these cells, and it is unclear how these proteins are involved in cell function. Methodology/Principal Findings Parasites of two different developmental stages of T. solium were used: cysticerci recovered from naturally infected pigs and intestinal adults obtained from immunosuppressed and experimentally infected golden hamsters. Hamsters were fed viable cysticerci to recover adult parasites after one month of infection. In the present studies focusing on flame cells of cysticerci tissues was performed. Using several methods such as video, confocal and electron microscopy, in addition to computational analysis for reconstruction and modeling, we have provided a 3D visual rendition of the cytoskeletal architecture of Taenia solium flame cells. Conclusions/Significance We consider that visual representations of cells open a new way for understanding the role of these cells in the excretory systems of Platyhelminths. After reconstruction, the observation of high resolution 3D images allowed for virtual observation of the interior composition of cells. A combination of microscopic images, computational reconstructions and 3D modeling of cells appears to be useful for inferring the cellular dynamics of the flame cell cytoskeleton. PMID:21412407

  6. Taenia solium metacestode viability in infected pork after preparation with salt pickling or cooking methods common in Yucatán, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Canul, R; Argaez-Rodriguez, F; de, la Gala D Pacheco; Villegas-Perez, S; Fraser, A; Craig, P S; Cob-Galera, L; Dominguez-Alpizar, J L

    2002-04-01

    The cestode parasite Taenia solium is an important cause of foodborne infection throughout tropical and subtropical regions. Ingestion of pork meat infected with T. solium larvae can lead to taeniasis infection in humans. With tourism and the consumption of native food increasing, it is important to investigate potential risks of transmission associated with food preparation methods. In this study, traditional Mexican salt pickling and two methods of pork preparation (as roast pork [cochinita pibil] and in pork and beans [frijol con puerco]) were evaluated in order to determine their effects on T. solium cyst viability in infected tissue. In the control groups, all metacestodes isolated were 100% viable, and only small changes in pH (from 6.0 to 5.9) and temperature (29 to 30 degrees C) were recorded. No viable cysts were detected after 12 and 24 h of salt pickling. The pH of the meat during salting dropped from 6.0 to 5.3. Osmotic changes and dehydration from the salting, rather than a change in pH, could be considered the main cause of cyst death. Temperatures of >65 degrees C damaged T. solium metacestodes in roast pork and in pork and beans. The results of this study indicate that if traditional pork dishes are prepared properly, T. solium cysts are destroyed. The criteria used in this study to evaluate the viability of tissue cysts are discussed. PMID:11952216

  7. Purification and kinetic analysis of cytosolic and mitochondrial thioredoxin glutathione reductase extracted from Taenia solium cysticerci.

    PubMed

    Plancarte, Agustin; Nava, Gabriela

    2015-02-01

    Thioredoxin glutathione reductases (TGRs) (EC 1.8.1.9) were purified to homogeneity from the cytosolic (cTsTGR) and mitochondrial (mTsTGR) fractions of Taenia solium, the agent responsible for neurocysticercosis, one of the major central nervous system parasitic diseases in humans. TsTGRs had a relative molecular weight of 132,000, while the corresponding value per subunit obtained under denaturing conditions, was of 62,000. Specific activities for thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase substrates for both TGRs explored were in the range or lower than values obtained for other platyhelminths and mammalian TGRs. cTsTGR and mTsTGR also showed hydroperoxide reductase activity using hydroperoxide as substrate. Km(DTNB) and Kcat(DTNB) values for cTsTGR and mTsTGR (88?µM and 1.9?s(-1); 45?µM and 12.6?s(-1), respectively) and Km(GSSG) and Kcat(GSSG) values for cTsTGR and mTsTGR (6.3?µM and 0.96?s(-1); 4?µM and 1.62?s(-1), respectively) were similar to or lower than those reported for mammalian TGRs. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that 12 peptides from cTsTGR and seven from mTsTGR were a match for gi|29825896 thioredoxin glutathione reductase [Echinococcus granulosus], confirming that both enzymes are TGRs. Both T. solium TGRs were inhibited by the gold compound auranofin, a selective inhibitor of thiol-dependent flavoreductases (I???=?3.25, 2.29?nM for DTNB and GSSG substrates, respectively for cTsTGR; I???=?5.6, 25.4?nM for mTsTGR toward the same substrates in the described order). Glutathione reductase activity of cTsTGR and mTsTGR exhibited hysteretic behavior with moderate to high concentrations of GSSG; this result was not observed either with thioredoxin, DTNB or NADPH. However, the observed hysteretic kinetics was suppressed with increasing amounts of both parasitic TGRs. These data suggest the existence of an effective substitute which may account for the lack of the detoxification enzymes glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase in T. solium, as has been described for very few other platyhelminths. PMID:25541385

  8. Genetics of the pig tapeworm in Madagascar reveal a history of human dispersal and colonization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An intricate history of human dispersal and geographic colonization has strongly affected the distribution of obligate parasites circulating among people. Among these parasites, the pig tapeworm Taenia solium occurs throughout the world as the causative agent of cysticercosis, one of the most serio...

  9. Expression of Multiple Taenia Solium Immunogens in Plant Cells Through a Ribosomal Skip Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Monreal-Escalante, Elizabeth; Bañuelos-Hernández, Bernardo; Hernández, Marisela; Fragoso, Gladis; Garate, Teresa; Sciutto, Edda; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a major parasitic disease that affects the human health and the economy in underdeveloped countries. Porcine cysticercosis, an obligatory stage in the parasite life cycle, is a suitable target for vaccination. While several recombinant and synthetic antigens proved to be effective as vaccines, the cost and logistic difficulties have prevented their massive use. Taking this into account, a novel strategy for developing a multi-epitope low-cost vaccine is herein explored. The S3Pvac vaccine components (KETc1, KETc12, KETc7, and GK1 [KETc7]) and the protective HP6/TSOL18 antigen were expressed in a Helios2A polyprotein system, based on the 'ribosomal skip' mechanism mediated by the 2A sequence (LLNFDLLKLAGDVESNPG-P) derived from the Foot-and-mouth disease virus, which induces self-cleavage events at a translational level. This protein arrangement was expressed in transgenic tobacco cells. The inserted sequence and its transcript were detected in several Helios2A lines, with some lines showing recombinant protein accumulation levels up to 1.3 µg/g of fresh weight in leaf tissues. The plant-derived Helios2A vaccine was recognized by antibodies in the cerebral spinal fluid from neurocysticercosis patients and elicited specific antibodies in BALB/c immunized mice. These evidences point to the Helios2A polyprotein as a promising system for expressing multiple antigens of interest for vaccination and diagnosis in one single construction. PMID:25761936

  10. Histological and ultrastructural localization of antigen B in the metacestode of Taenia solium

    SciTech Connect

    Laclette, J.P.; Merchant, M.T.; Willms, K.

    1987-02-01

    The morphological localization of antigen B (AgB) in the tissues of the Taenia solium metacestode was studied by immunological and biochemical methods. Indirect immunofluorescence carried out on vibratome sections showed that AgB is widely distributed throughout the tissue. A more intense fluorescence was observed in the tegumentary cytons of the bladder wall and in the lumen of the spiral canal of the invaginated scolex. Ultrastructural analysis of larvae washed in PBS after dissection from meat and then incubated with rabbit antibodies against AgB, followed by peroxidase-labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG, did not exhibit electron-dense material on the external surface. Larvae fixed in glutaraldehyde immediately after dissection and exposed to the immunoperoxidase reagents did exhibit electron-dense material on microtriches, indicating that AgB is only loosely bound to the external surface. Crude extracts of surface-radioiodinated cysticerci analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) contained no labeled proteins with the molecular weight of AgB. Autoradiography of the immunoelectrophoretograms in which the crude extract was confronted with antibodies to AgB demonstrated that this antigen was not labeled, and therefore is not exposed on the tegumentary surface. The results suggest that AgB is synthesized by the tegumentary cytons of the parasite and secreted through the tegumental membrane into the host tissues and the lumen of the spiral canal.

  11. Efficacy and Safety of Anthelmintics Tested against Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-01

    Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE) in 1993, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemotherapy of infected pigs. Different drugs have been tested on porcine cysticercosis with varying efficacies. These include flubendazole, fenbendazole, albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, oxfendazole, praziquantel, and nitazoxanide. This review summarises available information on the efficacies and adverse effects shown by these drugs in pigs. Oxfendazole has shown to be effective for the control of porcine cysticercosis; however, it needs to be integrated with other control approaches. There is a need for standardised guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics against porcine cysticercosis, and more efficacy studies are needed since the conclusions so far are based on a limited number of studies using few infected pigs. PMID:23936558

  12. Lymphocyte apoptosis in the inflammatory reaction around Taenia solium metacestodes in porcine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Solano, Sandra; Cortés, Isabel M; Copitin, Natalia I; Tato, Patricia; Molinari, José L

    2006-08-31

    In the current research, we report apoptosis of lymphocytes in the inflammatory reaction around metacestodes in muscle tissue from cysticercotic pigs. Two events, high metacestode viability (100%) and high cysteine protease activity were found to be closely related to a high phosphatydilserine expression by inflammatory lymphocytes (56%). Testing the RPMI medium used for washing away inflammatory cells from metacestodes with 100% viability, with the fluorescent substrate Z-Phe-Ala-AFC for measuring cysteine protease activity, significant fluorescent values were found. In contrast, tests performed with RPMI medium used for washing away inflammatory cells from metacestodes with 90% viability or less, showed low fluorescence values. Flow cytometry analyses of inflammatory cells obtained from four naturally cysticercotic pigs, and stained with Annexin-V/PI, showed lymphocytes expressing phosphatidylserine with values of 0, 6, 41 and 56% on their outer surfaces. Electron microscopy studies of inflammatory cells from metacestodes with 100% viability, showed lymphocytes with strangled and fragmented nuclei, and heterochromatin displaced to the nuclear periphery. In addition, DNA from these cells showed fragmentation in electrophoresis assays. Apoptosis of lymphocytes in the inflammatory reaction around Taenia solium metacestodes, might have been induced by the parasite cysteine protease, and may be involved in impairing cell-mediated immune responses in human and porcine cysticercosis. PMID:16621283

  13. Efficacy and safety of anthelmintics tested against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs.

    PubMed

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-01

    Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE) in 1993, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemotherapy of infected pigs. Different drugs have been tested on porcine cysticercosis with varying efficacies. These include flubendazole, fenbendazole, albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, oxfendazole, praziquantel, and nitazoxanide. This review summarises available information on the efficacies and adverse effects shown by these drugs in pigs. Oxfendazole has shown to be effective for the control of porcine cysticercosis; however, it needs to be integrated with other control approaches. There is a need for standardised guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics against porcine cysticercosis, and more efficacy studies are needed since the conclusions so far are based on a limited number of studies using few infected pigs. PMID:23936558

  14. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Rural Pigs of Northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Jayashi, César M.; Arroyo, Gianfranco; Lightowlers, Marshall W.; García, Héctor H.; Rodríguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium is a cestode parasite that causes cysticercosis in both humans and pigs. A serological survey was undertaken to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis in the rural district of Morropon, Peru. Pigs aged between 2 and 60 months were assessed by the Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay to determine their serological status against porcine cysticercosis in a cross-sectional study. A total of 1,153 pigs were sampled. Porcine seroprevalence was 45.19% (42.31–48.06). The information about the animals and households was analyzed and risk factors associated with seroprevalence were determined by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. In the porcine population, the risk of being seropositive increased by 7% with every month of age (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.05–1.09), and by 148% for pigs living in East Morropon (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.82–3.37). Whereas, the presence of latrines in a household decreased the risk of being seropositive by 49% (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.39–0.67). Sex and rearing system did not represent either risk or protective factors associated with the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis. The findings of this study could be used for further development of control programs that might focus on similar population groups within rural communities of developing countries where cysticercosis is endemic. PMID:22816002

  15. Cytokine expression at the anchor site in experimental Taenia solium infection in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Vaughan, Gilberto; Mendlovic, Fela; Vergara-Castañeda, Arely; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Alonso, Monica; Avila, Guillermina; Flisser, Ana

    2014-03-01

    The establishment of Taenia solium adult parasite in the human intestine causes taeniosis. Importantly, the immunological mechanisms occurring at the interface between the parasite and its host are not fully known. The development of experimental animal models has facilitated the understanding of the host-parasite relationship. In this study we standardized a quantitative RT-PCR method for analyzing hamster messenger RNA for interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and interleukins (IL): IL-4 IL-10, IL-12 and IL-13. This method was then used to evaluate the local cytokine response elicited against the adult parasite at the attachment site in the intestine of infected hamsters. The results showed an intense IFN-? response, as well as an up-regulation of IL-4 as early as three days post-infection, permanence of IL-10 until the end of the experiment and down regulation of IL-12. These data are in agreement with a bias toward a Th-2 response as the infection progresses. PMID:24439768

  16. Taenia solium Human Cysticercosis: A Systematic Review of Sero-epidemiological Data from Endemic Zones around the World

    PubMed Central

    Coral-Almeida, Marco; Gabriël, Sarah; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Praet, Nicolas; Benitez, Washington; Dorny, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonotic neglected disease responsible for severe health disorders such as seizures and death. Understanding the epidemiology of human cysticercosis (HCC) in endemic regions will help to expose critical information about the transmission of the disease, which could be used to design efficient control programs. This review gathered serological data on apparent prevalence of T. solium circulating antigens and/or seroprevalence of T. solium antibodies, apparent prevalence of human taeniasis and risk factors for HCC from endemic communities in order to understand the differences in exposure to the parasite and active infections with T. solium metacestodes in endemic areas around the world. Methods Three databases were used to search sero-epidemiological data from community-based studies conducted between 1989 and 2014 in cysticercosis endemic communities worldwide. The search focused on data obtained from T. solium circulating antigen detection by monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA and/or T. solium antibody seroprevalence determined by Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot (EITB). A meta-analysis was performed per continent. Principal Findings A total of 39,271 participants from 19 countries, described in 37 articles were studied. The estimates for the prevalence of circulating T. solium antigens for Africa, Latin America and Asia were: 7.30% (95% CI [4.23–12.31]), 4.08% (95% CI [2.77–5.95]) and 3.98% (95% CI [2.81–5.61]), respectively. Seroprevalence estimates of T. solium antibodies were 17.37% (95% CI [3.33–56.20]), 13.03% (95% CI [9.95–16.88]) and 15.68% (95% CI [10.25–23.24]) respectively. Taeniasis reported prevalences ranged from 0 (95% CI [0.00–1.62]) to 17.25% (95% CI [14.55–20.23]). Significance A significant variation in the sero-epidemiological data was observed within each continent, with African countries reporting the highest apparent prevalences of active infections. Intrinsic factors in the human host such as age and immunity were main determinants for the occurrence of infections, while exposure was mostly related to environmental factors which varied from community to community. PMID:26147942

  17. The Taenia saginata homologue of the major surface antigen of Echinococcus spp. is immunogenic and 97% identical to its Taenia solium homologue.

    PubMed

    González, Luis Miguel; Ferrer, Elizabeth; Spickett, Andrea; Michael, Lynne M; Vatta, Adriano F; Gárate, Teresa; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E

    2007-11-01

    The TEG-Tsag gene of Taenia saginata is homologous to the genes expressing the two major surface antigens of Echinococcus spp. (EM10 and EG10). Surface antigens of parasites are logical candidates for vaccines, and in this paper we demonstrate that cattle vaccinated with the recombinant TEG-Tsag protein, either used singly or in conjunction with the recombinant HP6-Tsag protein, the major 18 kDa surface/secreted antigen of T. saginata oncospheres, produce excellent antibody responses to both these recombinant proteins. Thus TEG-Tsag may have utility as a vaccine and also as a diagnostic tool for bovine cysticercosis. In addition, as we now demonstrate a 97% homology between TEG-Tsag and its Taenia solium homologue, TEG-Tsol, this latter molecule may have similar potential in the control of human and porcine cysticercosis. The TEG molecule is characterized by an N-terminal FERM domain and a C-terminal ERM domain which are found in a number of cytoskeletal-associated proteins located at the interface between the plasma membrane and the cytoskeleton and in proteins that interact with lipid membranes. The FERM domain is also postulated to bind to adhesion proteins, in a PIP2-regulated fashion, providing a link between cytoskeletal signals and membrane dynamics. Thus TEG protein may play a role in tegument function and interaction with the host. PMID:17674048

  18. Optimized codon usage enhances the expression and immunogenicity of DNA vaccine encoding Taenia solium oncosphere TSOL18 gene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Chang, Xue-Lian; Tao, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Xiao-Li; Jiao, Yu-Meng; Chen, Yong; Qi, Wen-Juan; Xia, Hui; Yang, Xiao-Di; Sun, Xin; Shen, Ji-Long; Fang, Qiang

    2015-07-01

    Cysticercosis due to larval cysts of Taenia solium, is a serious public health problem affecting humans in numerous regions worldwide. The oncospheral stage-specific TSOL18 antigen is a promising candidate for an anti-cysticercosis vaccine. It has been reported that the immunogenicity of the DNA vaccine may be enhanced through codon optimization of candidate genes. The aim of the present study was to further increase the efficacy of the cysticercosis DNA vaccine; therefore, a codon optimized recombinant expression plasmid pVAX1/TSOL18 was developed in order to enhance expression and immunogenicity of TSOL18. The gene encoding TSOL18 of Taenia solium was optimized, and the resulting opt-TSOL18 gene was amplified and expressed. The results of the present study showed that the codon-optimized TSOL18 gene was successfully expressed in CHO-K1 cells, and immunized mice vaccinated with opt-TSOL18 recombinant expression plasmids demonstrated opt?TSOL18 expression in muscle fibers, as determined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the codon-optimized TSOL18 gene produced a significantly greater effect compared with that of TSOL18 and active spleen cells were markedly stimulated in vaccinated mice. 3H-thymidine incorporation was significantly greater in the opt-TSOL18 group compared with that of the TSOL18, pVAX and blank control groups (P<0.01). In conclusion, the eukaryotic expression vector containing the codon-optimized TSOL18 gene was successfully constructed and was confirmed to be expressed in vivo and in vitro. The expression and immunogenicity of the codon-optimized TSOL18 gene were markedly greater compared with that of the un-optimized gene. Therefore, these results may provide the basis for an optimized TSOL18 gene vaccine against cysticercosis. PMID:25738605

  19. Inflammation Caused by Praziquantel Treatment Depends on the Location of the Taenia solium Cysticercus in Porcine Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Cangalaya, Carla; Zimic, Mirko; Marzal, Miguel; González, Armando E.; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E.; García, Hector H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis (NCC), infection of the central nervous system by Taenia solium cysticerci, is a pleomorphic disease. Inflammation around cysticerci is the major cause of disease but is variably present. One factor modulating the inflammatory responses may be the location and characteristics of the brain tissue adjacent to cysticerci. We analyzed and compared the inflammatory responses to cysticerci located in the parenchyma to those in the meninges or cysticerci partially in contact with both the parenchyma and the meninges (corticomeningeal). Methodology/Principal Findings Histological specimens of brain cysticerci (n = 196) from 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysticerci were used. Four pigs were sacrificed after 2 days and four after 5 days of a single dose of praziquantel; 3 pigs did not receive treatment. All pigs were intravenously injected with Evans Blue to assess disruption of the blood-brain barrier. The degree of inflammation was estimated by use of a histological score (ISC) based on the extent of the inflammation in the pericystic areas as assessed in an image composed of several photomicrographs taken at 40X amplification. Parenchymal cysticerci provoked a significantly greater level of pericystic inflammation (higher ISC) after antiparasitic treatment compared to meningeal and corticomeningeal cysticerci. ISC of meningeal cysticerci was not significantly affected by treatment. In corticomeningeal cysticerci, the increase in ISC score was correlated to the extent of the cysticercus adjacent to the brain parenchyma. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier was associated with treatment only in parenchymal tissue. Significance Inflammatory response to cysticerci located in the meninges was significantly decreased compared to parenchymal cysticerci. The suboptimal inflammatory response to cysticidal drugs may be the reason subarachnoid NCC is generally refractory to treatment compared to parenchymal NCC. PMID:26658257

  20. Crystal Structure of Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase from Taenia Solium Reveals Metal-mediated Self-assembly

    SciTech Connect

    A Hernandez-Santoyo; A Landa; E Gonzalez-Mondragon; M Pedraza-Escalona; R Parra-Unda; A Rodriguez-Romero

    2011-12-31

    Taenia solium is the cestode responsible for porcine and human cysticercosis. The ability of this parasite to establish itself in the host is related to its evasion of the immune response and its antioxidant defence system. The latter includes enzymes such as cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. In this article, we describe the crystal structure of a recombinant T. solium Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, representing the first structure of a protein from this organism. This enzyme shows a different charge distribution at the entrance of the active channel when compared with human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, giving it interesting properties that may allow the design of specific inhibitors against this cestode. The overall topology is similar to other superoxide dismutase structures; however, there are several His and Glu residues on the surface of the protein that coordinate metal ions both intra- and intermolecularly. Interestingly, one of these ions, located on the {beta}2 strand, establishes a metal-mediated intermolecular {beta}-{beta} interaction, including a symmetry-related molecule. The factors responsible for the abnormal protein-protein interactions that lead to oligomerization are still unknown; however, high metal levels have been implicated in these phenomena, but exactly how they are involved remains unclear. The present results suggest that this structure could be useful as a model to explain an alternative mechanism of protein aggregation commonly observed in insoluble fibrillar deposits.

  1. A Comparative Study of Peripheral Immune Responses to Taenia solium in Individuals with Parenchymal and Subarachnoid Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Tuero, Iskra; Palma, Sandra; Cabeza, Franco; Saleemi, Sarah; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzales, Isidro; Mayta, Holger; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The ability of Taenia solium to modulate the immune system likely contributes to their longevity in the human host. We tested the hypothesis that the nature of the immune response is related to the location of parasite and clinical manifestations of infection. Methodology Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from untreated patients with neurocysticercosis (NCC), categorized as having parenchymal or subarachnoid infection by the presence of cysts exclusively within the parenchyma or in subarachnoid spaces of the brain, and from uninfected (control) individuals matched by age and gender to each patient. Using multiplex detection technology, sera from NCC patients and controls and cytokine production by PBMC after T. solium antigen (TsAg) stimulation were assayed for levels of inflammatory and regulatory cytokines. PBMC were phenotyped by flow cytometry ex vivo and following in vitro stimulation with TsAg. Principal Findings Sera from patients with parenchymal NCC demonstrated significantly higher Th1 (IFN-?/IL-12) and Th2 (IL-4/IL-13) cytokine responses and trends towards higher levels of IL-1?/IL-8/IL-5 than those obtained from patients with subarachnoid NCC. Also higher in vitro antigen-driven TNF-? secretion was detected in PBMC supernatants from parenchymal than in subarachnoid NCC. In contrast, there was a significantly higher IL-10 response to TsAg stimulation in patients with subarachnoid NCC compared to parenchymal NCC. Although no differences in regulatory T cells (Tregs) frequencies were found ex vivo, there was a trend towards greater expansion of Tregs upon TsAg stimulation in subarachnoid than in parenchymal NCC when data were normalized for the corresponding controls. Conclusions/Significance T. solium infection of the subarachnoid space is associated with an enhanced regulatory immune response compared to infection in the parenchyma. The resulting anti-inflammatory milieu may represent a parasite strategy to maintain a permissive environment in the host or diminish inflammatory damage from the host immune response in the central nervous system. PMID:26506532

  2. An ocular cysticercosis case: Caused by Asian genotype of Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Sharma, M; Beke, N; Khurana, S; Bhatti, H S; Sehgal, R; Malla, N

    2015-01-01

    An ocular cysticercosis case of a 42-year-old male, who presented with anterior uveitis is being reported. Microscopical examination of the cyst revealed presence of only one hooklet suggestive of T. solium cysticercus. Mitochondrial DNA analysis confirmed it to be T. solium cysticercus of Asian genotype. This is the first report on molecular typing of cysticercus isolate from ocular cysticercosis patient in India. The study suggests that the molecular analysis of cox1 gene may be a useful diagnostic tool in cases where microscopic examination is not confirmatory. PMID:26470970

  3. Management of a Chest-Wall Soft-Tissue Tumor Caused by an Infection with the Larval Tapeworm Pathogen Taenia crassiceps

    PubMed Central

    Roesel, Christian; Welter, Stefan; Stamatis, Georgios; Theegarten, Dirk; Tappe, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    A chest-wall lesion of an immunocompetent patient was initially suspicious for a malignant tumor. Histopathological and polymerase chain reaction examinations revealed an infection with the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia crassiceps. Curative resection of the tumorous lesion was performed. Treatment options for immunocompromised patients and patients without known immune defect are discussed, because most of the infections occur in immunocompromised individuals. PMID:24914004

  4. Species-specific immunodiagnosis of Taenia solium cysticercosis by ELISA and immunoblotting.

    PubMed

    Gottstein, B; Zini, D; Schantz, P M

    1987-12-01

    A combination of ELISA and immunoblotting was evaluated for immunodiagnosis of human T. solium cysticercosis. The sensitivity of ELISA for diagnosis of European, Latin-American, Asian and South African patients with cysticercosis was 75% for serum and 55% for cerebrospinal fluid specimen. Antigens originating from cysticerci in pigs from Mexico and South Africa were of adequate applicability. A species-specific confirmation of T. solium cysticercosis by immunoblotting (detection of antibody activity to the 26 K and 8 K bands) was achieved in 92% (serum) and 100% (CSF) of samples positive in ELISA. No antibodies from 147 patients with other helminth infections reacted with the 26 K and the 8 K band in immunoblotting, resulting in a specificity of 100%. PMID:3441736

  5. Triosephosphate isomerase of Taenia solium (TTPI): phage display and antibodies as tools for finding target regions to inhibit catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Sanabria-Ayala, Víctor; Belmont, Iaraset; Abraham, Landa

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that antibodies against triosephosphate isomerase of Taenia solium (TTPI) can alter its enzymatic catalysis. In the present study, we used antibodies produced against the NH2-terminal region of TTPI (1/3NH2TTPI) and the phage display technology to find target regions to inhibit TTPI activity. As a first step, we obtained polyclonal antibodies against non-conserved regions from the 1/3NH2TTPI, which had an inhibitory effect of about 74 % on catalytic activity. Afterward, they were used to screen a library of phage-displayed dodecapeptides; as a result, 41 phage mimotope clones were isolated and grouped according to their amino acid sequence, finding the consensus A1 (VPTXPI), A2 (VPTXXI), B (LTPGQ), and D (DPLPR). Antibodies against selected phage mimotope clones were obtained by rabbit's immunization; these ones clearly recognized TTPI by both Western blot and ELISA. However, only the mimotope PDTS16 (DSVTPTSVMAVA) clone, which belongs to the VPTXXI consensus, raised antibodies capable of inhibiting the TTPI catalytic activity in 45 %. Anti-PDTS16 antibodies were confronted to several synthetic peptides that encompass the 1/3NH2TTPI, and they only recognized three, which share the motif FDTLQK belonging to the helix-?1 in TTPI. This suggests that this motif is the main part of the epitope recognized by anti-PDTS16 antibodies and revealed its importance for TTPI catalysis. PMID:25273631

  6. Lights and shadows of the Taenia asiatica life cycle and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Galán-Puchades, Maria Teresa; Fuentes, Màrius Vicent

    2013-07-01

    Humans are definitive hosts of two well-known species of the Taenia genus, Taenia solium (the pig tapeworm) and Taenia saginata (the cattle tapeworm). In the 1990s, a third species, Taenia asiatica, was discovered, sharing features with the other two since the adult morphology is similar to that of T. saginata, but its life cycle is like that of T. solium. Human taeniasis usually is asymptomatic or displays mild symptoms, and only T. solium can cause other sometimes serious disorders when humans accidentally ingest the eggs and develop the larval stage in different organs (cysticercosis). In this review, we expose what we currently know (lights) and what we do not yet know (shadows) about the life cycle and pathogenicity of T. asiatica. Concerning its life cycle, the main uncertainty is whether humans can act as intermediate hosts of this species. We also suggest that due to its small size and location in pigs, the cysticerci probably escape veterinary inspection becoming a silent parasite. Concerning pathogenicity, it is still not known if T. asiatica can cause human liver cysticercosis, taking into account its principal hepatic tropism in pigs. To answer all these questions it would be essential to perform sensitive as well as specific diagnostic techniques for T. asiatica in humans and pigs. Currently, only molecular methods are able to determine the Taenia species, since morphology and immunology are useless, but unfortunately although largely used in research those methods are not employed in routine diagnosis. PMID:24470994

  7. Lights and shadows of the Taenia asiatica life cycle and pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Galán-Puchades, Maria Teresa; Fuentes, Màrius Vicent

    2013-01-01

    Humans are definitive hosts of two well-known species of the Taenia genus, Taenia solium (the pig tapeworm) and Taenia saginata (the cattle tapeworm). In the 1990s, a third species, Taenia asiatica, was discovered, sharing features with the other two since the adult morphology is similar to that of T. saginata, but its life cycle is like that of T. solium. Human taeniasis usually is asymptomatic or displays mild symptoms, and only T. solium can cause other sometimes serious disorders when humans accidentally ingest the eggs and develop the larval stage in different organs (cysticercosis). In this review, we expose what we currently know (lights) and what we do not yet know (shadows) about the life cycle and pathogenicity of T. asiatica. Concerning its life cycle, the main uncertainty is whether humans can act as intermediate hosts of this species. We also suggest that due to its small size and location in pigs, the cysticerci probably escape veterinary inspection becoming a silent parasite. Concerning pathogenicity, it is still not known if T. asiatica can cause human liver cysticercosis, taking into account its principal hepatic tropism in pigs. To answer all these questions it would be essential to perform sensitive as well as specific diagnostic techniques for T. asiatica in humans and pigs. Currently, only molecular methods are able to determine the Taenia species, since morphology and immunology are useless, but unfortunately although largely used in research those methods are not employed in routine diagnosis. PMID:24470994

  8. The genomes of four tapeworm species reveal adaptations to parasitism

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Flores, Alejandro; Brooks, Karen L.; Tracey, Alan; Bobes, Raúl J.; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Aslett, Martin; Beasley, Helen; Bennett, Hayley M.; Cai, Xuepeng; Camicia, Federico; Clark, Richard; Cucher, Marcela; De Silva, Nishadi; Day, Tim A; Deplazes, Peter; Estrada, Karel; Fernández, Cecilia; Holland, Peter W. H.; Hou, Junling; Hu, Songnian; Huckvale, Thomas; Hung, Stacy S.; Kamenetzky, Laura; Keane, Jacqueline A.; Kiss, Ferenc; Koziol, Uriel; Lambert, Olivia; Liu, Kan; Luo, Xuenong; Luo, Yingfeng; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Nichol, Sarah; Paps, Jordi; Parkinson, John; Pouchkina-Stantcheva, Natasha; Riddiford, Nick; Rosenzvit, Mara; Salinas, Gustavo; Wasmuth, James D.; Zamanian, Mostafa; Zheng, Yadong; Cai, Jianping; Soberón, Xavier; Olson, Peter D.; Laclette, Juan P.; Brehm, Klaus; Berriman, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Summary Tapeworms cause debilitating neglected diseases that can be deadly and often require surgery due to ineffective drugs. Here we present the first analysis of tapeworm genome sequences using the human-infective species Echinococcus multilocularis, E. granulosus, Taenia solium and the laboratory model Hymenolepis microstoma as examples. The 115-141 megabase genomes offer insights into the evolution of parasitism. Synteny is maintained with distantly related blood flukes but we find extreme losses of genes and pathways ubiquitous in other animals, including 34 homeobox families and several determinants of stem cell fate. Tapeworms have species-specific expansions of non-canonical heat shock proteins and families of known antigens; specialised detoxification pathways, and metabolism finely tuned to rely on nutrients scavenged from their hosts. We identify new potential drug targets, including those on which existing pharmaceuticals may act. The genomes provide a rich resource to underpin the development of urgently needed treatments and control. PMID:23485966

  9. Genetic variation in the Cytb gene of human cerebral Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from clinically and radiologically heterogeneous patients with neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Palafox-Fonseca, Héctor; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Bobes, Raúl José; Govezensky, Tzipe; Piñero, Daniel; Texco-Martínez, Laura; Fleury, Agnès; Proaño, Jefferson; Cárdenas, Graciela; Hernández, Marisela; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2013-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous parasitic disease caused by the establishment of larval Taenia solium in the human central nervous system. Host and/or parasite variations may be related to this observed heterogeneity. Genetic differences between pig and human-derived T. solium cysticerci have been reported previously. In this study, 28 cysticerci were surgically removed from 12 human NC patients, the mitochondrial gene that encodes cytochrome b was amplified from the cysticerci and genetic variations that may be related to NC heterogeneity were characterised. Nine different haplotypes (Ht), which were clustered in four haplogroups (Hg), were identified. Hg 3 and 4 exhibited a tendency to associate with age and gender, respectively. However, no significant associations were found between NC heterogeneity and the different T. solium cysticerci Ht or Hg. Parasite variants obtained from patients with similar NC clinical or radiological features were genetically closer than those found in groups of patients with a different NC profile when using the Mantel test. Overall, this study establishes the presence of genetic differences in the Cytb gene of T. solium isolated from human cysticerci and suggests that parasite variation could contribute to NC heterogeneity. PMID:24271046

  10. Genetics of the Pig Tapeworm in Madagascar Reveal a History of Human Dispersal and Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Yanagida, Tetsuya; Carod, Jean-François; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Hoberg, Eric P.; Ito, Akira

    2014-01-01

    An intricate history of human dispersal and geographic colonization has strongly affected the distribution of human pathogens. The pig tapeworm Taenia solium occurs throughout the world as the causative agent of cysticercosis, one of the most serious neglected tropical diseases. Discrete genetic lineages of T. solium in Asia and Africa/Latin America are geographically disjunct; only in Madagascar are they sympatric. Linguistic, archaeological and genetic evidence has indicated that the people in Madagascar have mixed ancestry from Island Southeast Asia and East Africa. Hence, anthropogenic introduction of the tapeworm from Southeast Asia and Africa had been postulated. This study shows that the major mitochondrial haplotype of T. solium in Madagascar is closely related to those from the Indian Subcontinent. Parasitological evidence presented here, and human genetics previously reported, support the hypothesis of an Indian influence on Malagasy culture coinciding with periods of early human migration onto the island. We also found evidence of nuclear-mitochondrial discordance in single tapeworms, indicating unexpected cross-fertilization between the two lineages of T. solium. Analyses of genetic and geographic populations of T. solium in Madagascar will shed light on apparently rapid evolution of this organism driven by recent (<2,000 yr) human migrations, following tens of thousands of years of geographic isolation. PMID:25329310

  11. Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis: viability of cysticerci and persistency of antibodies and cysticercal antigens after treatment with oxfendazole.

    PubMed

    Sikasunge, C S; Johansen, M V; Willingham, A L; Leifsson, P S; Phiri, I K

    2008-11-25

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of treating Taenia solium infected pigs with oxfendazole (OFZ) on viability and clearance of cysticerci and the corresponding persistence of specific antibody isotypes (IgG(total), IgG1, IgG2 and IgA) and circulating cysticercal antigen (CCA). Antibody isotypes and CCA responses were measured by antibody-ELISA (Ab-ELISA) and antigen ELISA (Ag-ELISA), respectively. Correlations were made between antibodies, CCA and the total number of cysticerci enumerated at necropsy. Forty pigs with cysticercosis were randomly allocated into two groups: Treatment group (n=20) was treated with OFZ at 30 mg/kg orally while the treatment control group (n=20) was not treated. Five uninfected pigs served as negative controls. Pigs were killed at 1, 4, 8 and 26 weeks post-treatment (wkpt). Overall, the mean total cyst count in treated pigs was 2904+/-5397 (mean+/-S.D.) while in the controls it was 6235+/-6705. Mean cyst viability was 5+/-11% (mean+/-S.D.) and 97+/-4% in treated and control pigs, respectively. Results showed that OFZ killed muscular cysticerci over a period of 4 weeks but failed to kill cerebral cysticerci. Antibodies, CCA responses and clearance of dead cysts from the meat, depended on the cyst intensity of individual pigs at time of treatment since both antibody and CCA correlated with intensity of cysticerci at necropsy (r=0.441, P=0.005; r=0.654, P<0.001), respectively. IgG1 responses were the best indicator of treatment efficacy because they were predominant in both infected treated and control pigs and disappeared early after treatment. Both Ab/Ag-ELISA failed to detect cysts in the brain. Though dead cysticerci took some time (26 wkpt) to clear from the meat, treatment of porcine cysticercosis with OFZ should, in combination with other intervention measures be considered as an important, cost-effective measure in the control of taeniosis/cysticercosis. PMID:18834668

  12. Taenia: An Uninvited Guest

    PubMed Central

    Shafaghi, Afshin; Rezayat, Kambiz Akhavan; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Maafi, Alireza Amir

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 55 Final Diagnosis: Taeniasis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • dyspepsia Medication: Omeprazole • Dicyclomine • Herb Clinical Procedure: Endoscopy Specialty: Gastroenterology Objective: Rare presentation Background: Taenia saginata and Taenia solium species are worldwide in distribution, causing bovine and porcine cysticercosis, and taeniasis in humans having the greatest economic and medical importance. Case Report: A 55-year-old woman living in a village around Rasht (northern Iran) was referred to our hospital with a history of chronic abdominal pain and recent dyspepsia and epigastric fullness. According to her clinical history, she was a candidate for an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. A large tape worm was seen in the stomach. Our efforts at extracting it from the stomach were unsuccessful. The endoscope was withdrawn and therapy with niclosamide was initiated. At the next visit, her symptoms were alleviated and she was relieved from the chronic pain. Conclusions: We believe that the retrograde migration of the tapeworm into the stomach may be due to low gastric acidity as a result of atrophic gastritis and chronic proton pump inhibitor use. PMID:26226138

  13. Expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metallo- proteinases (MMPs) in viable and degenerating stage of Taenia solium metacestode in swine neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satyendra K; Singh, Aloukick K; Prasad, Kashi N; Singh, Amrita; Singh, Avinash; Rai, Ravi P; Tripathi, Mukesh; Gupta, Rakesh K; Husain, Nuzhat

    2015-11-30

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection of central nervous system (CNS). Expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were investigated on brain tissues surrounding viable (n=15) and degenerating cysticerci (n=15) of Taenia solium in swine by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. Gelatin gel zymography was performed for MMPs activity. ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), E-selectin, MIP-1? (macrophage inflammatory protein-1?), Eotaxin-1 and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) were associated with degenerating cysticerci (cysts). However, VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1), MMP-2 and MMP-9 were associated with both viable and degenerating cysts. In conclusion, viable and degenerating cysticerci have different immune molecule profiles and role of these molecules in disease pathogenesis needs to be investigated. PMID:26412140

  14. Comparative Study of Paired Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples from Neurocysticercosis Patients for the Detection of Specific Antibody to Taenia solium Immunodiagnostic Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Sako, Yasuhito; Takayanagui, Osvaldo M; Odashima, Newton S; Ito, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important disease of the central nervous system caused by infection with Taenia solium metacestodes. In addition to the clinical findings and the imaging analysis, the results of immunological tests are informative for the diagnosis of NCC. To compare the usefulness of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples for antibody detection, paired serum and CSF samples from patients with NCC and other neurological diseases were examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with low-molecular-weight antigens purified from T. solium cyst fluid in a blinded fashion. The sensitivity of both serum and CSF samples was 25.0% in inactive NCC cases (n = 4) and 90.9% in active NCC cases (n = 33), and the specificity of serum and CSF was 100% and 95.8%, respectively. When the serum and CSF samples were combined, the sensitivity in active NCC cases became 100%. There was no difference in test performance between serum and CSF samples. Based on these results, we recommend the detection of specific antibodies in serum for the diagnosis of active NCC because of the ease of collection. When the antibody test is negative, however, CSF should be used to confirm NCC and to rule out other medical disorders of the central nervous system. Antibody detection test using only serum or CSF has a limited diagnostic value and cannot be recommended for the diagnosis of suspected inactive NCC cases. PMID:26543392

  15. Genome analysis of Excretory/Secretory proteins in Taenia solium reveals their Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR)

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Sandra; Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Palafox-Fonseca, Hector; Cantu-Robles, Vito Adrian; Soberón, Xavier; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Bobes, Raúl J.; Laclette, Juan P.; Yauner, Luis del Pozo; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Excretory/Secretory (ES) proteins play an important role in the host-parasite interactions. Experimental identification of ES proteins is time-consuming and expensive. Alternative bioinformatics approaches are cost-effective and can be used to prioritize the experimental analysis of therapeutic targets for parasitic diseases. Here we predicted and functionally annotated the ES proteins in T. solium genome using an integration of bioinformatics tools. Additionally, we developed a novel measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of T. solium secretome using sequence length and number of antigenic regions of ES proteins. This measurement was formalized as the Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR) value. AAR value for secretome showed a similar value to that obtained for a set of experimentally determined antigenic proteins and was different to the calculated value for the non-ES proteins of T. solium genome. Furthermore, we calculated the AAR values for known helminth secretomes and they were similar to that obtained for T. solium. The results reveal the utility of AAR value as a novel genomic measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of secretomes. This comprehensive analysis of T. solium secretome provides functional information for future experimental studies, including the identification of novel ES proteins of therapeutic, diagnosis and immunological interest. PMID:25989346

  16. Evans Blue Staining Reveals Vascular Leakage Associated with Focal Areas of Host-Parasite Interaction in Brains of Pigs Infected with Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Adriana; Cangalaya, Carla; Rivera, Andrea; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Garcia, Hector H.; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Cysticidal drug treatment of viable Taenia solium brain parenchymal cysts leads to an acute pericystic host inflammatory response and blood brain barrier breakdown (BBB), commonly resulting in seizures. Naturally infected pigs, untreated or treated one time with praziquantel were sacrificed at 48 hr and 120 hr following the injection of Evans blue (EB) to assess the effect of treatment on larval parasites and surrounding tissue. Examination of harvested non encapsulated muscle cysts unexpectedly revealed one or more small, focal round region(s) of Evans blue dye infiltration (REBI) on the surface of otherwise non dye-stained muscle cysts. Histopathological analysis of REBI revealed focal areas of eosinophil-rich inflammatory infiltrates that migrated from the capsule into the tegument and internal structures of the parasite. In addition some encapsulated brain cysts, in which the presence of REBI could not be directly assessed, showed histopathology identical to that of the REBI. Muscle cysts with REBI were more frequent in pigs that had received praziquantel (6.6% of 3736 cysts; n?=?6 pigs) than in those that were untreated (0.2% of 3172 cysts; n?=?2 pigs). Similar results were found in the brain, where 20.7% of 29 cysts showed histopathology identical to muscle REBI cysts in praziquantel-treated pigs compared to the 4.3% of 47 cysts in untreated pigs. Closer examination of REBI infiltrates showed that EB was taken up only by eosinophils, a major component of the cellular infiltrates, which likely explains persistence of EB in the REBI. REBI likely represent early damaging host responses to T. solium cysts and highlight the focal nature of this initial host response and the importance of eosinophils at sites of host-parasite interaction. These findings suggest new avenues for immunomodulation to reduce inflammatory side effects of anthelmintic therapy. PMID:24915533

  17. Why Latrines Are Not Used: Communities’ Perceptions and Practices Regarding Latrines in a Taenia solium Endemic Rural Area in Eastern Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E.; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M.; Phiri, Isaak K.; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities’ perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints).The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people’s approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be effective. PMID:25739017

  18. Why latrines are not used: communities' perceptions and practices regarding latrines in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    PubMed

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M; Phiri, Isaak K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints).The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be effective. PMID:25739017

  19. Molecular Cloning of a cDNA Encoding for Taenia solium TATA-Box Binding Protein 1 (TsTBP1) and Study of Its Interactions with the TATA-Box of Actin 5 and Typical 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin Genes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; García-Gutierrez, Ponciano; Jiménez, Lucía; Zarain-Herzberg, Ángel; Lazzarini, Roberto; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is an essential regulatory transcription factor for the TATA-box and TATA-box-less gene promoters. We report the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA that encodes a Taenia solium TATA-box binding protein 1 (TsTBP1). Deduced amino acid composition from its nucleotide sequence revealed that encodes a protein of 238 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 26.7 kDa, and a theoretical pI of 10.6. The NH2-terminal domain shows no conservation when compared with to pig and human TBP1s. However, it shows high conservation in size and amino acid identity with taeniids TBP1s. In contrast, the TsTBP1 COOH-terminal domain is highly conserved among organisms, and contains the amino acids involved in interactions with the TATA-box, as well as with TFIIA and TFIIB. In silico TsTBP1 modeling reveals that the COOH-terminal domain forms the classical saddle structure of the TBP family, with one ?-helix at the end, not present in pig and human. Native TsTBP1 was detected in T. solium cysticerci´s nuclear extract by western blot using rabbit antibodies generated against two synthetic peptides located in the NH2 and COOH-terminal domains of TsTBP1. These antibodies, through immunofluorescence technique, identified the TBP1 in the nucleus of cells that form the bladder wall of cysticerci of Taenia crassiceps, an organism close related to T. solium. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from T. solium cysticerci and antibodies against the NH2-terminal domain of TsTBP1 showed the interaction of native TsTBP1 with the TATA-box present in T. solium actin 5 (pAT5) and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Ts2-CysPrx) gene promoters; in contrast, when antibodies against the anti-COOH-terminal domain of TsTBP1 were used, they inhibited the binding of TsTBP1 to the TATA-box of the pAT5 promoter gene. PMID:26529408

  20. Molecular Cloning of a cDNA Encoding for Taenia solium TATA-Box Binding Protein 1 (TsTBP1) and Study of Its Interactions with the TATA-Box of Actin 5 and Typical 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; García-Gutierrez, Ponciano; Jiménez, Lucía; Zarain-Herzberg, Ángel; Lazzarini, Roberto; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is an essential regulatory transcription factor for the TATA-box and TATA-box-less gene promoters. We report the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA that encodes a Taenia solium TATA-box binding protein 1 (TsTBP1). Deduced amino acid composition from its nucleotide sequence revealed that encodes a protein of 238 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 26.7 kDa, and a theoretical pI of 10.6. The NH2-terminal domain shows no conservation when compared with to pig and human TBP1s. However, it shows high conservation in size and amino acid identity with taeniids TBP1s. In contrast, the TsTBP1 COOH-terminal domain is highly conserved among organisms, and contains the amino acids involved in interactions with the TATA-box, as well as with TFIIA and TFIIB. In silico TsTBP1 modeling reveals that the COOH-terminal domain forms the classical saddle structure of the TBP family, with one ?-helix at the end, not present in pig and human. Native TsTBP1 was detected in T. solium cysticerci´s nuclear extract by western blot using rabbit antibodies generated against two synthetic peptides located in the NH2 and COOH-terminal domains of TsTBP1. These antibodies, through immunofluorescence technique, identified the TBP1 in the nucleus of cells that form the bladder wall of cysticerci of Taenia crassiceps, an organism close related to T. solium. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from T. solium cysticerci and antibodies against the NH2-terminal domain of TsTBP1 showed the interaction of native TsTBP1 with the TATA-box present in T. solium actin 5 (pAT5) and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Ts2-CysPrx) gene promoters; in contrast, when antibodies against the anti-COOH-terminal domain of TsTBP1 were used, they inhibited the binding of TsTBP1 to the TATA-box of the pAT5 promoter gene. PMID:26529408

  1. Geographic Correlation between Tapeworm Carriers and Heavily Infected Cysticercotic Pigs

    PubMed Central

    O'Neal, Seth E.; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Diaz, Andre; Rodriguez, Silvia; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. Sustainable community-based interventions are urgently needed to control transmission of the causative parasite, Taenia solium. We examined the geospatial relationship between live pigs with visible cysticercotic cysts on their tongues and humans with adult intestinal tapeworm infection (taeniasis) in a rural village in northern Peru. The objective was to determine whether tongue-positive pigs could indicate high-risk geographic foci for taeniasis to guide targeted screening efforts. This approach could offer significant benefit compared to mass intervention. Methods We recorded geographic coordinates of all village houses, collected stool samples from all consenting villagers, and collected blood and examined tongues of all village pigs. Stool samples were processed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens indicative of active taeniasis; serum was processed by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot for antibodies against T. solium cysticercosis (EITB LLGP) and T. solium taeniasis (EITB rES33). Findings Of 548 pigs, 256 (46.7%) were positive for antibodies against cysticercosis on EITB LLGP. Of 402 fecal samples, 6 (1.5%) were positive for the presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens. The proportion of coproantigen-positive individuals differed significantly between residents living within 100-meters of a tongue-positive pig (4/79, 5.1%) and residents living >100 meters from a tongue-positive pig (2/323, 0.6%) (p?=?0.02). The prevalence of taeniasis was >8 times higher among residents living within 100 meters of a tongue-positive pig compared to residents living outside this range (adjusted PR 8.1, 95% CI 1.4–47.0). Conclusions Tongue-positive pigs in endemic communities can indicate geospatial foci in which the risk for taeniasis is increased. Targeted screening or presumptive treatment for taeniasis within these high-risk foci may be an effective and practical control intervention for rural endemic areas. PMID:23285305

  2. Molecular evidence of host influences on the evolution and spread of human tapeworms.

    PubMed

    Michelet, Lorraine; Dauga, Catherine

    2012-08-01

    The taeniasis/cysticercosis complex is included in the list of neglected zoonotic diseases by the World Health Organization due to its significant impact on public health in tropical areas. Cysticercosis is still endemic in many regions of Asia, Africa and Latin America. Long absent in Europe and in other developed countries, cysticercosis has recently re-emerged in the United States and Canada, due to immigration, travel and local transmission. This has encouraged the use of molecular data to understand better the influence of animal and human hosts on the emergence and spread of Taenia species. The increasing number of mitochondrial sequences now available from human tapeworms and recent advances in computational tools has enabled reconstruction of the biogeography and evolutionary history of these organisms. New molecular data have provided insights into the biogeography of T. solium, T. asiatica and T. saginata. A Bayesian statistical framework using variable evolutionary rates from lineage to lineage has allowed an improved timescale analysis of human tapeworms. The dates of divergence obtained were compared to the timing of evolutionary events in the history of their hosts, based on the hypothesis that Taenia spp. and their hosts share a common history. Herein, we review changes in the definitive and secondary hosts and human interactions that underlie the differentiation and evolution of tapeworms. Species diversification of Taenia seems to be closely linked with the evolution of intermediate hosts in response to climatic events during the Pleistocene. Different genotypes of T. solium emerged when European and Asian wild boar Sus spp. populations diverged. Taenia saginata emerged when wild cattle Bos primigenius evolved and when zebu Bos indicus and taurine Bos taurus ancestors separated. Humans through migrations and later with the development of farming and animal husbandry may have had a significant impact on the spread and diversification of tapeworms. Migrations of Homo erectus from Africa to Asia and later of Homo sapiens facilitated the diversification and dispersal of T. solium and T. saginata populations. The development of animal husbandry, making Sus scrofa and Bos taurus preferential intermediate hosts, led to the worldwide distribution of parasites. New molecular data combined with an innovative dating method allow us to explain the ways in which ancient human migrations promoted the emergence and spread of taeniasis and cysticercosis around the world. Another intriguing phenomenon explained better by our approach is the influence of human settlement on the spread of these parasites in recently inhabited areas. The diverse nature of T. solium currently observed in Madagascar may correspond to multiple imports of the parasite during Austronesian migrations, while in Mexico a recent influence of humans during the colonial period is more likely. Human activities, especially food preparation and husbandry methods, remain responsible for the transmission and persistence of these parasites. PMID:22321512

  3. Fish tapeworm

    MedlinePLUS

    Fish tapeworm is an infection with a parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ), is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  4. CEREBRAL CYSTICERCOSIS BY TAENIA CRASSICEPS IN A DOMESTIC CAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carnivorous domestic mammals occasionally become atypical intermediate hosts of taeniid tapeworms. In cases of intermittent relapsing neurological disease in cats, cerebral cysticercosis e. g., by Taenia crassiceps may be considered. Significantly this case represents the first record of neurocystic...

  5. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. In the Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the E...

  6. A New Parasiticidal Compound in T. solium Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Bello, Romel; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Cervantes-Rebolledo, Claudia; Dowding, Charles; Frincke, James; Reading, Chris; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The effect of 16?-bromoepiandrosterone (EpiBr), a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) analogue, was tested on the cysticerci of Taenia solium, both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro treatment of T. solium cultures with EpiBr reduced scolex evagination, growth, motility, and viability in dose- and time-dependent fashions. Administration of EpiBr prior to infection with T. solium cysticerci in hamsters reduced the number and size of developed taenias in the intestine, compared with controls. These effects were associated to an increase in splenocyte proliferation in infected hamsters. These results leave open the possibility of assessing the potential of this hormonal analogue as a possible antiparasite drug, particularly in cysticercosis and taeniosis. PMID:23509732

  7. Differentiating Taenia eggs found in human stools - Does Ziehl Neelsen staining help?

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Juan A.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Moyano, Luz M.; Castillo, Yesenia; García, Héctor H.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Introduction Unlike other tapeworms, T. solium infections carry risk for neurocysticercosis. Differential diagnosis of human tapeworm infections relies on morphology of the scolex or proglottids, frequently unavailable. DNA-based assays are poorly available in endemic areas. Ziehl Neelsen staining has been suggested but not tested in controlled designs. We validated whether Ziehl Neelsen staining could differentiate T. solium and T. saginata eggs. Methods Tapeworm proglottids (33 specimens, 23 T. solium and 10 T. saginata) and eggs (31 specimens, 13 T. solium and 10 T. saginata) were stained. Four eggs from each sample were measured and average diameters were recorded. Results T. saginata eggs stained entirely magenta in seven of 13 cases. T. solium eggs stained entirely blue/purple in 4/18 cases and entirely magenta in one. Eggs of T. saginata were slightly larger and always ovoid, while T. solium eggs were smaller and were mostly spheric. Conclusions Ziehl Neelsen staining can occasionally distinguish fully mature T. solium from T. saginata eggs. This distinction is poorly sensitive and not completely specific. Differential staining suggest differences in embryophore components between species, evident along egg maturation. In this small series, egg morphology (shape, maximal diameter) provided appropriate differentiation between T. solium and T. saginata eggs. PMID:20579318

  8. [Efficacy of praziquantel injectable solution against feline and canine tapeworms.].

    PubMed

    Tüzer, Erkut; Bilgin, Zahide; Oter, Kerem; Erçin, Süleyman; Tinar, Recep

    2010-01-01

    Praziquantel, which has been used in the treatment and control of canine and feline tapeworm infections for about 35 years, has not been tested against these parasites for a long period in Turkey. This study was performed to evaluate the current efficacy of praziquantel against dog and cat tapeworms. Praziquantel injectable solution was administered to 26 dogs (14 of them were infected with Dipylidium caninum, 8 with Taenia spp and 2 with Echinococcus granulosus, 2 with both Dipylidium caninum and Taenia spp) and 2 cats (infected with Joyeuxiella pasqualei) subcutaneously at a dose of 0.1 ml/kg (5.68 mg active ingredient/kg). After treatment, animals were put in individual cages and their feces were taken daily for examination. Feces were examined macroscopically for tapeworm segments and scolexes and microscopically for tapeworm eggs by Fülleborn's flotation and Teleman's sedimentation (for fatty stools). To confirm results of analysis the examinations after treatment were repeated until two subsequent fecal analyses were negative. The parasites disappeared from the feces of all infected animals in 2 or 3 days after the treatment and the drug was found to be 100% effective against both dog and cat tapeworms. No adverse reactions were observed in both dogs and cats treated. PMID:20340081

  9. First Case of Human Cerebral Taenia martis Cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Julie; Benoilid, Aurélien; Kremer, Stéphane; Dalvit, Constanza; Lefebvre, Nicolas; Hansmann, Yves; Chenard, Marie-Pierre; Mathieu, Bruno; Grimm, Felix; Deplazes, Peter; Pfaff, Alexander W; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Marescaux, Christian; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-08-01

    Taenia martis is a tapeworm affecting mustelids, with rodents serving as intermediate hosts. The larval stage (cysticercus) has been found before only rarely in humans or primates. We hereby describe a case of cerebral T. martis cysticercosis in a French immunocompetent patient, confirmed by DNA analyses of biopsy material. PMID:26019196

  10. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland.

    PubMed

    Lavikainen, A; Haukisalmi, V; Deksne, G; Holmala, K; Lejeune, M; Isomursu, M; Jokelainen, P; Näreaho, A; Laakkonen, J; Hoberg, E P; Sukura, A

    2013-04-01

    Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland. In total, 135 tapeworms from 72 lynx were subjected to molecular identification based on sequences of 2 mtDNA regions, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes. Available morphological characters of the rostellar hooks and strobila were compared. Two species of Taenia were found: T. laticollis (127 samples) and an unknown Taenia sp. (5 samples). The latter could not be identified to species based on mtDNA, and the rostellar hooks were short relative to those described among other Taenia spp. recorded in felids from the Holarctic region. In the phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences, T. laticollis was placed as a sister species of T. macrocystis, and the unknown Taenia sp. was closely related to T. hydatigena and T. regis. Our analyses suggest that these distinct taeniid tapeworms represent a putative new species of Taenia. The only currently recognized definitive host is L. lynx and the intermediate host is unknown. PMID:23347590

  11. Taenia saginata taeniosis: copro-antigen time-course in a voluntary self-infection.

    PubMed

    Tembo, A; Craig, P S

    2015-09-01

    Human taeniosis due to Taenia saginata is cosmopolitan where beef is consumed; however, there is little or no information on the symptomatology over the early time-course of human infection. Copro-antigen detection is very useful in community screening for human taeniosis, particularly for T. solium, but there are no data on copro-antigen detection in pre-patent infection. In order to provide insight into this, a voluntary self-infection with T. saginata was undertaken and monitored over a 6-month period using a copro-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that we developed using anti-T. saginata antibody based reagents. Tapeworm patency, defined as first proglottid appearance, occurred on day 86 post-infection (pi) and was followed by almost daily release of proglottids (range 1-8) until termination using praziquantel on day 180 pi. The first 10 weeks post-infection (wpi) were essentially asymptomatic, followed by main symptoms of involuntary proglottid discharge throughout the infection period, and abdominal discomfort peaking around 15-19 wpi. Copro-antigens could not be reliably detected until 2 weeks before proglottid patency but then remained highly elevated over the next 15 weeks until treatment. Copro-antigen levels reverted to negative 4 days post-treatment. This time-course study suggests that although copro-antigen ELISA is an excellent diagnostic tool for established patent infections of T. saginata, it may not be reliable for faecal antigen detection in the early infection phase prior to proglottid release for T. saginata and other human taenioses. PMID:24945107

  12. Molecular identification of species of Taenia causing bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hailemariam, Z; Nakao, M; Menkir, S; Lavikainen, A; Iwaki, T; Yanagida, T; Okamoto, M; Ito, A

    2014-09-01

    Bovine cysticercosis causing damage to the beef industry is closely linked to human taeniasis due to Taenia saginata. In African countries, Taenia spp. from wildlife are also involved as possible sources of infections in livestock. To identify the aetiological agents of bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia, cysticerci were collected from 41 cattle slaughtered in the eastern and central areas during 2010-2012. A single cysticercus per animal was subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, and the resultant sequence was compared with those of members of the genus Taenia. Although 38 out of 41 cysticerci (92.7%) were identified as T. saginata, three samples (7.3%) showed the hitherto unknown sequences of Taenia sp., which is distantly related to Taenia solium, Taenia arctos and Taenia ovis. Old literatures suggest it to be Taenia hyaenae, but morphological identification of species could not be completed by observing only the larval samples. PMID:23452760

  13. Epsiprantel, a new tapeworm remedy. Preliminary efficacy studies in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Manger, B R; Brewer, M D

    1989-01-01

    The anthelmintic potential of epsiprantel, 2-(cyclohexylcarbonyl)-4-oxo-1,2,3,4,6,7,8,12b-octahydropyrazin [2,1-a] [2]benzapine, was revealed using the tapeworms Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis in the cat, and Taenia pisiformis and T. hydatigena in the dog. Subsequent controlled tests in cats demonstrated oral efficacy of 100% against D. caninum with a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg. Although consistently 100% effective against T. taeniaeformis at 5 mg/kg, a single worm was found in one cat treated at 7.5 mg/kg. In experimental infections of Taenia pisiformis in dogs, 100% activity was achieved from a single oral dose of 1 mg/kg. No adverse reaction or drug-associated toxicity were observed at dose levels used. PMID:2775987

  14. Fitness impacts of tapeworm parasitism on wild gelada monkeys at Guassa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nga; Fashing, Peter J; Boyd, Derek A; Barry, Tyler S; Burke, Ryan J; Goodale, C Barret; Jones, Sorrel C Z; Kerby, Jeffrey T; Kellogg, Bryce S; Lee, Laura M; Miller, Carrie M; Nurmi, Niina O; Ramsay, Malcolm S; Reynolds, Jason D; Stewart, Kathrine M; Turner, Taylor J; Venkataraman, Vivek V; Knauf, Yvonne; Roos, Christian; Knauf, Sascha

    2015-05-01

    Parasitism is expected to impact host morbidity or mortality, although the fitness costs of parasitism have rarely been quantified for wildlife hosts. Tapeworms in the genus Taenia exploit a variety of vertebrates, including livestock, humans, and geladas (Theropithecus gelada), monkeys endemic to the alpine grasslands of Ethiopia. Despite Taenia's adverse societal and economic impacts, we know little about the prevalence of disease associated with Taenia infection in wildlife or the impacts of this disease on host health, mortality and reproduction. We monitored geladas at Guassa, Ethiopia over a continuous 6½ year period for external evidence (cysts or coenuri) of Taenia-associated disease (coenurosis) and evaluated the impact of coenurosis on host survival and reproduction. We also identified (through genetic and histological analyses) the tapeworms causing coenurosis in wild geladas at Guassa as Taenia serialis. Nearly 1/3 of adult geladas at Guassa possessed ?1 coenurus at some point in the study. Coenurosis adversely impacted gelada survival and reproduction at Guassa and this impact spanned two generations: adults with coenuri suffered higher mortality than members of their sex without coenuri and offspring of females with coenuri also suffered higher mortality. Coenurosis also negatively affected adult reproduction, lengthening interbirth intervals and reducing the likelihood that males successfully assumed reproductive control over units of females. Our study provides the first empirical evidence that coenurosis increases mortality and reduces fertility in wild nonhuman primate hosts. Our research highlights the value of longitudinal monitoring of individually recognized animals in natural populations for advancing knowledge of parasite-host evolutionary dynamics and offering clues to the etiology and control of infectious disease. PMID:25716944

  15. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  16. A digest of elasmobranch tapeworms.

    PubMed

    Caira, Janine N; Jensen, Kirsten

    2014-08-01

    This review brings together decades of work on elasmobranch tapeworms. The field has advanced significantly over the past 20 yr, with an emphasis on the discovery and description of novel taxa, and the establishment of phylogenetic frameworks for individual orders and their interrelationships. Tapeworms parasitizing elasmobranchs represent 9 orders and include 977 species and 201 genera-over 250 species and 50 genera are new within the last 2 decades. The 9 orders are treated individually, highlighting recent assessments of phylogenetic relationships informed by molecular sequence data. All but the "Tetraphyllidea" are monophyletic. Although much remains to be learned about their interrelationships, existing phylogenetic hypotheses suggest that elasmobranch tapeworms have played a key role in the evolution of the cestodes of essentially all other vertebrate groups. The apical organ is a defining feature (i.e., a synapomorphy) of a clade consisting of acetabulate taxa and Litobothriidea. Novel hook amino acid composition data support the independent origin of hooks in the various groups of hooked tapeworms. Cestode records exist for representatives of most of the major groups of elasmobranchs, however skates (Rajiformes) and catsharks ("Scyliorhinidae") are particularly neglected in terms of species sampled. The majority of tapeworm species are extremely host-specific exhibiting species-specific (i.e., oioxenous) associations with their hosts. Rapid advancements in elasmobranch taxonomy, with over 300 of the 1,200 species appearing new in the past 20 yr, signal the need for careful attention to be paid to host identifications; such identifications are best documented using a combination of specimen, photographic, and molecular data. Above the species level, many cestode taxa are restricted to host orders, families, or even genera. Documentation of these affiliations allows robust predictions to be made regarding the cestode faunas of unexplored elasmobranchs. Trypanorhynchs are the notable exceptions. Life cycles remain poorly known. Recent applications of molecular methods to larval identifications have reinvigorated this area of research. Tapeworms are more diverse in elasmobranchs of tropical and subtropical waters, but they occur globally not only at the poles and in deep waters, but also in freshwaters of South America and Southeast Asia. The cestode faunas of batoids are much more speciose and complex than those of sharks. The faunas of deeper water sharks are particularly depauperate. The tapeworms of elasmobranchs and their hosts are now among the most well documented host-parasite systems in existence. This system has not yet reached its potential as a resource for investigations of basic ecological and evolutionary principles. PMID:24845052

  17. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 ...PARTS § 311.24 Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) may be...

  18. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 ...PARTS § 311.24 Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) may be...

  19. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 ...PARTS § 311.24 Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) may be...

  20. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 ...PARTS § 311.24 Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) may be...

  1. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 ...PARTS § 311.24 Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) may be...

  2. Taenia saginata in Europe.

    PubMed

    Dorny, P; Praet, N

    2007-10-21

    In spite of the EU directives that regulate meat inspection for bovine cysticercosis, Taenia saginata is still present in Europe and causes economic losses due to condemnation, refrigeration and downgrading of infected carcasses. The main reasons for this persistence include the low sensitivity of current meat inspection protocols, the dissemination and survival of eggs in the environment and cattle husbandry systems, which allow grazing on pastures and drinking from water streams. It is assumed that water streams and surface water are potentially contaminated with T. saginata eggs. Furthermore, current wastewater management not only fails to halt, but rather contributes to the dissemination of eggs in the environment. Here, the authors discuss an integrated approach for control of this food-borne zoonosis, as well as the potential use of serological methods as a way of improving detection of bovine cysticercosis. PMID:17706360

  3. Transcriptome profiling of the cysticercus stage of the laboratory model Taenia crassiceps, strain ORF.

    PubMed

    García-Montoya, Gisela M; Mesa-Arango, Jairo A; Isaza-Agudelo, Juan P; Agudelo-Lopez, Sonia P; Cabarcas, Felipe; Barrera, Luis F; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-02-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a serious public health problem mainly in developing countries. NC caused by the cysticercus stage from cestode Taenia solium is considered by the WHO and ITFDE as a potentially eradicable disease. Definitive diagnosis of NC is challenging because of the unspecific clinical manifestations such as the non-definitive evidence presented by neuroimaging (in most cases) and the lack of definitive serological test. Taenia crassiceps (ORF strain) is a cestode closely related to T. solium and it has frequently been used as a source of antigens for immunodiagnostics. A murine model to study host immune response to infection has also been established by using T. crassiceps. Despite the extensive use of T. crassiceps for research, molecular information for this cestode is scarce in public databases. With the aim of providing more extensive information on T. crassiceps biology, an RNA-seq experiment and subsequent bioinformatic transcriptome processing of this cestode parasite mRNA in its cysticercus stage were carried out. A total of 227,082 read/ESTs were sequenced using the 454-GS FLX Titanium technology and assembled into 10,787 contigs. This transcriptome dataset represents new and valuable molecular information of the cestode T. crassiceps (ORF). This information will substantially improve public information and will help to achieve a better understanding of the biology of T. crassiceps and to identify target proteins for serodiagnosis and vaccination. PMID:26571070

  4. Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis in slaughtered pigs, goats, and sheep in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Kabululu, Mwemezi; Nørmark, Michelle Elisabeth; Nejsum, Peter; Ngowi, Helena Aminel; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have been carried out in Africa to estimate the prevalence of Taenia hydatigena. With the aim to determine the prevalence of T. hydatigena in slaughtered pigs and small ruminants (goats and sheep) in Mbeya, Tanzania, two cross-sectional surveys were carried out investigating pigs in April to May 2014 and small ruminants in September 2012. In total, 243 pigs were examined post-mortem for T. hydatigena cysts which were found in 16 (6.6 %) pigs. The majority (80 %) of cysts were found on the omentum and the rest on the liver (20 %), all on the visceral surface. Two pigs were also found infected with Taenia solium but showed no signs of other infections. A total of 392 goats and 27 sheep were examined post-mortem, and the prevalence of T. hydatigena was similar in goats and sheep with 45.7 and 51.9 %, respectively. DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) from a subsample of metacestodes from goats and sheep confirmed the T. hydatigena infection. The prevalence found in small ruminants was comparable to other studies conducted in Africa, but for pigs, it is one of the highest recorded to date. The present study also confirms the occurrence of T. hydatigena and T. solium in pigs from Mbeya. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of T. hydatigena on production under sub-Saharan conditions and the financial consequences for smallholder farmers. PMID:26210397

  5. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and dingo/domestic dog hybrids), as sylvatic hosts for Australian Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, David J.; Urwin, Nigel A.R.; Williams, Thomas M.; Mitchell, Kate L.; Lievaart, Jan J.; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Foxes (n = 499), shot during vertebrate pest control programs, were collected in various sites in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA). Wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and their hybrids with domestic dogs) (n = 52) captured also as part of vertebrate pest control programs were collected from several sites in the ACT and NSW. The intestine from each fox and wild dog was collected, and all Taenia tapeworms identified morphologically were collected and identified to species based on the DNA sequence of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rrnS) gene. Taenia species were recovered from 6.0% of the ACT/NSW foxes, 5.1% of WA foxes and 46.1% of ACT/NSW wild dogs. Taenia ovis was recovered from two foxes, 1/80 from Jugiong, NSW and 1/102 from Katanning, WA. We confirm from rrnS sequences the presence of T. ovis in cysts from hearts and diaphragms and Taeniahydatigena in cysts from livers of sheep in Australia. T.ovis was not recovered from any of the wild dogs examined but T. hydatigena were recovered from 4(8.3%) wild dogs and a single fox. With foxes identified as a definitive host for T. ovis in Australia, new control strategies to stop transmission of T. ovis to sheep need to be adopted. PMID:25161904

  6. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and dingo/domestic dog hybrids), as sylvatic hosts for Australian Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David J; Urwin, Nigel A R; Williams, Thomas M; Mitchell, Kate L; Lievaart, Jan J; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa

    2014-08-01

    Foxes (n = 499), shot during vertebrate pest control programs, were collected in various sites in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA). Wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and their hybrids with domestic dogs) (n = 52) captured also as part of vertebrate pest control programs were collected from several sites in the ACT and NSW. The intestine from each fox and wild dog was collected, and all Taenia tapeworms identified morphologically were collected and identified to species based on the DNA sequence of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rrnS) gene. Taenia species were recovered from 6.0% of the ACT/NSW foxes, 5.1% of WA foxes and 46.1% of ACT/NSW wild dogs. Taenia ovis was recovered from two foxes, 1/80 from Jugiong, NSW and 1/102 from Katanning, WA. We confirm from rrnS sequences the presence of T. ovis in cysts from hearts and diaphragms and T aenia hydatigena in cysts from livers of sheep in Australia. T. ovis was not recovered from any of the wild dogs examined but T. hydatigena were recovered from 4(8.3%) wild dogs and a single fox. With foxes identified as a definitive host for T. ovis in Australia, new control strategies to stop transmission of T. ovis to sheep need to be adopted. PMID:25161904

  7. Tapeworm May Have Spread Cancer Cells to Colombian Man

    MedlinePLUS

    ... news/fullstory_155516.html Tapeworm May Have Spread Cancer Cells to Colombian Man CDC experts say this is ... 4, 2015 WEDNESDAY, Nov. 4, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Cancer cells transmitted from a common tapeworm appear to have ...

  8. Trap-Driven Memory Simulation with Tapeworm II

    E-print Network

    Mudge, Trevor

    Trap-Driven Memory Simulation with Tapeworm II RICHARD UHLIG, DAVID NAGLE, TREVOR MUDGE, and STUART, we use a prototype trap-driven simulator, named Tapeworm II, to explore these issues. We expose both implementation of trap-driven simulation, we believe that many of our results from Tapeworm hold true for trap

  9. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  10. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  11. TrapDriven Memory Simulation with Tapeworm II

    E-print Network

    Mudge, Trevor

    Trap­Driven Memory Simulation with Tapeworm II RICHARD UHLIG, DAVID NAGLE, TREVOR MUDGE, and STUART, we use a prototype trap­driven simulator, named Tapeworm II, to explore these issues. We expose both implementation of trap­driven simulation, we believe that many of our results from Tapeworm hold true for trap

  12. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  13. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  14. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  15. Evaluation of recombinant HP6-Tsag, an 18 kDa Taenia saginata oncospheral adhesion protein, for the diagnosis of cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Elizabeth; González, Luís Miguel; Martínez-Escribano, José Angel; González-Barderas, María Eugenia; Cortéz, María Milagros; Dávila, Iris; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E; Gárate, Teresa

    2007-08-01

    With the objective of providing inexpensive and reproducible assays for the detection of antibodies indicating exposure to Taenia saginata and Taenia solium, we have evaluated the diagnostic utility of the T. saginata oncosphere adhesion protein (HP6-Tsag), expressed in baculovirus (HP6-Bac) and bacteria (HP6-GST [glutathione S-transferase]), employing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and sera from T. saginata infected cattle, T. solium infected pigs and serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from clinically defined T. solium neurocysticercosis (NCC) patients. The two recombinant proteins were antigenic in all three systems, with the signal to background ratio of the HP6-Bac ELISA slightly higher than that for the HP6-GST ELISA. Assay performance in cattle was similar to previously described peptide-based ELISA assays, although NCC sample sensitivity/specificity was marginally better. The sensitivity of the HP6-Bac and HP6-GST ELISAs was close for active human NCC (77.4 and 80.6% for serum and 76.9 and 73.1% for CSF samples, respectively). In inactive human NCC, however, the sensitivity of the HP6-Bac ELISA was almost twice that of the HP6-GST ELISA. Because peptides are relatively expensive and recombinant proteins are simple and economical to produce, the latter may provide useful reagents for antibody detection in countries with endemic cysticercosis/NCC. PMID:17351832

  16. Intraventricular Taenia solium cysts presenting with Bruns syndrome and indications for emergent neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Shahani, Lokesh; Garnes, Natalie Dailey; Mejia, Rojelio

    2015-06-01

    Bruns syndrome is an unusual phenomenon, characterized by attacks of sudden and severe headache, vomiting, and vertigo, triggered by abrupt movement of the head. The presumptive cause of Bruns syndrome is a mobile deformable intraventricular mass leading to an episodic obstructive hydrocephalus. Intraventricular tumors have been associated with Bruns syndrome; however, few cases of intraventricular neurocysticercosis have been reported to present with Bruns syndrome. We report the first series of fourth ventricular neurocysticercosis presenting with Bruns syndrome in the United States and review the other published cases where surgery was indicated. PMID:25870426

  17. Determinants of tapeworm species richness in elasmobranch fishes: untangling environmental and phylogenetic influences

    E-print Network

    Poulin, Robert

    Determinants of tapeworm species richness in elasmobranch fishes: untangling environmental, we use tapeworm parasites of elasmobranch fishes to examine the phylogenetic and environmental influences on the variation in species richness for this specific system. Tapeworms are the most diverse

  18. Cryptic diversity in hymenolepidid tapeworms infecting humans.

    PubMed

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Li, Tiaoying; Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Chen, Xingwang; Henttonen, Heikki; Ito, Akira

    2016-04-01

    An adult hymenolepidid tapeworm was recovered from a 52-year-old Tibetan woman during a routine epidemiological survey for human taeniasis/cysticercosis in Sichuan, China. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of nuclear 28S ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 showed that the human isolate is distinct from Hymenolepis diminuta and Hymenolepis nana, the common parasites causing human hymenolepiasis. Proglottids of the human isolate were unfortunately unsuitable for morphological identification. However, the resultant phylogeny demonstrated the human isolate to be a sister species to Hymenolepis hibernia from Apodemus mice in Eurasia. The present data clearly indicate that hymenolepidid tapeworms causing human infections are not restricted to only H. diminuta and H. nana. PMID:26537836

  19. Taeniasis among Refugees Living on Thailand-Myanmar Border, 2012.

    PubMed

    McCleery, Ellen J; Patchanee, Prapas; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Chailangkarn, Sasisophin; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Jongchansittoe, Papaspong; Dantrakool, Anchalee; Morakote, Nimit; Phyu, Hnin; Wilkins, Patricia P; Noh, John C; Phares, Christina; O'Neal, Seth

    2015-10-01

    We tested refugee camp residents on the Thailand-Myanmar border for Taenia solium infection. Taeniasis prevalence was consistent with that for other disease-endemic regions, but seropositivity indicating T. solium taeniasis was rare. Seropositivity indicating cysticercosis was 5.5% in humans, and 3.2% in pigs. Corralling pigs and providing latrines may control transmission of these tapeworms within this camp. PMID:26401787

  20. Taeniasis among Refugees Living on Thailand–Myanmar Border, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Patchanee, Prapas; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Chailangkarn, Sasisophin; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Jongchansittoe, Papaspong; Dantrakool, Anchalee; Morakote, Nimit; Phyu, Hnin; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Noh, John C.; Phares, Christina; O’Neal, Seth

    2015-01-01

    We tested refugee camp residents on the Thailand–Myanmar border for Taenia solium infection. Taeniasis prevalence was consistent with that for other disease-endemic regions, but seropositivity indicating T. solium taeniasis was rare. Seropositivity indicating cysticercosis was 5.5% in humans, and 3.2% in pigs. Corralling pigs and providing latrines may control transmission of these tapeworms within this camp. PMID:26401787

  1. The Influence of Socio-economic, Behavioural and Environmental Factors on Taenia spp. Transmission in Western Kenya: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Humans and Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wardrop, Nicola A.; Thomas, Lian F.; Atkinson, Peter M.; de Glanville, William A.; Cook, Elizabeth A. J.; Wamae, C. Njeri; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Harrison, Leslie J. S.; Fèvre, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Taenia spp. infections, particularly cysticercosis, cause considerable health impacts in endemic countries. Despite previous evidence of spatial clustering in cysticercosis and the role of environmental factors (e.g. temperature and humidity) in the survival of eggs, little research has explored these aspects of Taenia spp. epidemiology. In addition, there are significant gaps in our understanding of risk factors for infection in humans and pigs. This study aimed to assess the influence of socio-economic, behavioural and environmental variables on human and porcine cysticercosis. A cross-sectional survey for human taeniasis (T. solium and T. saginata), human cysticercosis (T. solium) and pig cysticercosis (T. solium) in 416 households in western Kenya was carried out. These data were linked to questionnaire responses and environmental datasets. Multi-level regression was used to examine the relationships between covariates and human and porcine cysticercosis. The HP10 Ag-ELISA sero-prevalence (suggestive of cysticercosis) was 6.6% for humans (95% CI 5.6%–7.7%), and 17.2% for pigs (95% CI 10.2%–26.4%). Human taeniasis prevalence, based on direct microscopic observation of Taenia spp. eggs (i.e. via microscopy results only) was 0.2% (95% CI 0.05%–0.5%). Presence of Taenia spp. antigen in both humans and pigs was significantly associated with a range of factors, including positive correlations with land cover. The presence of HP10 antigen in humans was correlated (non-linearly) with the proportion of land within a 1 km buffer that was flooding agricultural land and grassland (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09 and 0.998; p = 0.03 and 0.03 for the linear and quadratic terms respectively), gender (OR = 0.58 for males compared to females, p = 0.02), level of education (OR = 0.62 for primary level education versus no formal education, p = 0.09), use of well water for drinking (OR = 2.76 for those who use well water versus those who do not, p = 0.02) and precipitation (OR = 0.998, p = 0.02). Presence of Taenia spp. antigen in pigs was significantly correlated with gender and breeding status of the pig (OR = 10.35 for breeding sows compared to boars, p = 0.01), and the proportion of land within a 1 km buffer that was flooding agricultural land and grassland (OR = 1.04, p = 0.004). These results highlight the role of multiple socio-economic, behavioural and environmental factors in Taenia spp. transmission patterns. Environmental contamination with Taenia spp. eggs is a key issue, with landscape factors influencing presence of Taenia spp. antigens in both pigs and humans. PMID:26641459

  2. Taeniases and cysticercosis in Indonesia: past and present situations.

    PubMed

    Wandra, Toni; Ito, Akira; Swastika, Kadek; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro

    2013-11-01

    The main aim of this study is to overview the past and present situations of human taeniases and cysticercosis in Indonesia and including future perspectives. Through joint projects from 1996, we have confirmed the occurrence of Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) in Bali, of Taenia solium (pork tapeworm) mainly in Papua and sporadically in Bali, and of Taenia asiatica in North Sumatra. These taeniases were caused through eating uncooked pork and pig viscera for T. solium and T. asiatica, respectively, and beef for T. saginata. The distribution of these tapeworms in Indonesia is basically highly restricted by the traditional cultural and religious backgrounds in each island. T. saginata is relatively common in Bali although people consume pork 'lawar' more than beef 'lawar'. Taeniases due to T. saginata or T. asiatica and T. solium and cysticercosis due to T. solium have also been sporadically reported in some other islands. Among these species, T. solium is exceptional since humans can be infected not only by larval stages (cysticerci) in pork but also by eggs released from human tapeworm carriers. Cysticercosis has been confirmed in Indonesia in humans, pigs and even dogs. PMID:23965293

  3. Larval Tapeworm Found on a Coral Reef Fish

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The most common parasites found in the Palmyra reef fish sampled were larval tapeworms. The abundance of parasites may be an indicator of a healthy ecosystem instead of an ill one as commonly believed. ...

  4. Checklist of tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda) of vertebrates in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Haukisalmi, Voitto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of tapeworms (Cestoda) of vertebrates (fishes, birds and mammals) in Finland is presented, based on published observations, specimens deposited in the collections of the Finnish Museum of Natural History (Helsinki) and the Zoological Museum of the University of Turku, and additional specimens identified by the present author. The checklist includes 170 tapeworm species from 151 host species, comprising 447 parasite species/host species combinations. Thirty of the tapeworm species and 96 of the parasite/host species combinations have not been previously reported from Finland. The total number of tapeworm species in Finland (170 spp.) is significantly lower than the corresponding figure for the Iberian Peninsula (257 spp.), Slovakia (225 spp.) and Poland (279 spp.). The difference between Finland and the other three regions is particularly pronounced for anseriform, podicipediform, charadriiform and passeriform birds, reflecting inadequate and/or biased sampling of these birds in Finland. It is predicted that there are actually ca. 270 species of tapeworms in Finland, assuming that true number of bird tapeworms in Finland corresponds to that in other European countries with more comprehensive knowledge of the local tapeworm fauna. The other main pattern emerging from the present data is the seemingly unexplained absence in (northern) Fennoscandia of several mammalian tapeworms that otherwise have extensive distributions in the Holarctic region or in Eurasia, including the northern regions. Previously unknown type specimens, that is, the holotype of Bothrimonus nylandicus Schneider, 1902 (a junior synonym of Diplocotyle olrikii Krabbe, 1874) (MZH 127096) and the syntypes of Caryophyllaeides fennica (Schneider, 1902) (MZH 127097) were located in the collections of the Finnish Museum of Natural History. PMID:26668540

  5. 9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.23 Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle...Carcasses of cattle showing one or more tapeworm lesions of cysticercus bovis but...

  6. 9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.23 Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle...Carcasses of cattle showing one or more tapeworm lesions of cysticercus bovis but...

  7. 9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.23 Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle...Carcasses of cattle showing one or more tapeworm lesions of cysticercus bovis but...

  8. 9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.23 Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle...Carcasses of cattle showing one or more tapeworm lesions of cysticercus bovis but...

  9. 9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.23 Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle...Carcasses of cattle showing one or more tapeworm lesions of cysticercus bovis but...

  10. 9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in... PARTS § 311.23 Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of... humerus. (2) Carcasses of cattle showing one or more tapeworm lesions of cysticercus bovis but not...

  11. 9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in... PARTS § 311.23 Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of... humerus. (2) Carcasses of cattle showing one or more tapeworm lesions of cysticercus bovis but not...

  12. OIKOS 83: 152-160. Copenhagen 1998 Body size variation in tapeworms (Cestoda): adaptation to

    E-print Network

    Heino, Mikko

    OIKOS 83: 152-160. Copenhagen 1998 Body size variation in tapeworms (Cestoda): adaptation, V. 1998. Body size variation in tapeworms (Cestoda): adaptation to intestinal gradients? - Oikos 83: 152-160. We describe patterns of variation in the body size of tapeworms (Cestoda) parasitiz- ing

  13. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of the Asian Fish Tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea) in

    E-print Network

    Upchurch, Gary - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    Spatial and Temporal Distribution of the Asian Fish Tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda, USA Abstract.--Recent collections of the Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in the Rio. The objectives of this study were to determine distribution and definitive hosts of the Asian fish tapeworm

  14. Research Note Update on the Distribution of the Invasive Asian Fish Tapeworm,

    E-print Network

    Bonar, Scott A.

    Research Note Update on the Distribution of the Invasive Asian Fish Tapeworm, Bothriocephalus, U.S.A. ABSTRACT: The documented range of the invasive and potentially pathogenic Asian fish tapeworm tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, Canada, U.S.A, Wisconsin, Manitoba, fish, parasites, Cestoda

  15. Evolution of interspecific variation in size of attachment structures in the large tapeworm genus Acanthobothrium

    E-print Network

    Poulin, Robert

    Evolution of interspecific variation in size of attachment structures in the large tapeworm genus the influence of host body size and phylogeny, in addition to morphological features of these tapeworms of relationships between size of attach- ment structures and tapeworm body size. Our results indicate

  16. EFFECTS OF ASIAN TAPEWORM, MOSQUITOFISH, AND FOOD RATION ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF MOHAVE TUI CHUB

    E-print Network

    Bonar, Scott A.

    EFFECTS OF ASIAN TAPEWORM, MOSQUITOFISH, AND FOOD RATION ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF MOHAVE TUI CHUB of Minnesota) and Scott Campbell (Kansas Biological Survey) for providing Asian tapeworm eggs...................................................................................................................... 9 EFFECTS OF ASIAN TAPEWORM ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF MOHAVE TUI CHUB

  17. Usefulness of serological ELISA assay for Taenia saginata to detect naturally infected bovines.

    PubMed

    Paulan, Silvana de Cássia; Gonzáles, Rutilia Marisela Hernándes; Peralta, Laura Adalid; Vicentini-Oliveira, Josy Campanhã; Biondi, Germano Francisco; Conde, Edda Sciuto; Parkhouse, Robert Michael Evans; Nunes, Cáris Maroni

    2013-01-01

    Bovine cysticercosis, a cosmopolitan disease caused by Taenia saginata, leads to economic losses due to carcass devaluation at slaughter. Sanitary inspection at slaughterhouses, the routine diagnostic method in Brazil, lacks the necessary sensitivity to detect the mildly infected cattle that are typically encoutered in Brazil. In this study we have tested cattle sera from animals diagnosed as positive and negative by veterianry inspection for (1) anti-parasite antibodies using metacestodes antigens (T. solium vesicular fluid and T. saginata secretions) and (2) the HP10 secreted antigen of viable metacestodes. The cut-off values were calculated by ROC curve for intense and mild infections conditions, and by the classical method ( for negative samples). The sensitivity and specificity of these diagnostic tests were different depending on the assumed cut-off value and, importantly, whether the infection was mild or intense. In spite of these observations, however, such ELISA assays for serum antibodies and parasite antigens constitute an important tool for epidemiological porposes, and in establishing priorities for the control of bovine cysticercosis. PMID:23802239

  18. Validation of meat inspection results for Taenia saginata cysticercosis by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Geysen, Dirk; Kanobana, Kirezi; Victor, Bjorn; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Richar; De Borchgrave, Jean; Brandt, Jef; Dorny, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage (cysticercus) of the human tapeworm Taenia saginata. Infected cattle is an important food safety issue besides an economic concern. Humans get infected by eating raw or undercooked meat containing viable cysticerci. Visual meat inspection of bovines is the only public health measure implemented to control transmission to humans, but it lacks sensitivity and objectivity. It may underestimate the prevalence of the disease by a factor 3 to 10. Furthermore, the success of the method depends on the expertise of the meat inspector as well as on the stage of development of the cysticerci. The focus of this study was to develop and explore the usefulness of a PCR assay as an objective alternative to evaluate the meat inspector's visual inspection results. Hereto, a PCR was developed for the detection of T. saginata DNA in muscle lesions. Based on the laboratory classification of lesions, almost 97% of viable cysts were confirmed by PCR, while for dead cysts, the percentage was approximately 73%. Taken together, these data demonstrate the difficulties of visual meat inspection and their objective interpretation, emphasizing the need to improve current assays to strengthen the control of bovine cysticercosis. PMID:17265888

  19. 21 CFR 520.905b - Fenbendazole granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... stenocephala), whipworms (Trichuris vulpis), and tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis). (iii) Limitations. Mix the... (Panthera onca): Ascarid (Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina), Hookworm (Ancylostoma spp.), Tapeworm (Taenia... transfuga, Toxascaris leonina), Hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum), Tapeworm (Taenia hydatigena, T. krabbei)....

  20. 21 CFR 520.905b - Fenbendazole granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... stenocephala), whipworms (Trichuris vulpis), and tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis). (iii) Limitations. Mix the... (Panthera onca): Ascarid (Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina), Hookworm (Ancylostoma spp.), Tapeworm (Taenia... transfuga, Toxascaris leonina), Hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum), Tapeworm (Taenia hydatigena, T. krabbei)....

  1. 21 CFR 520.905b - Fenbendazole granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... stenocephala), whipworms (Trichuris vulpis), and tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis). (iii) Limitations. Mix the... (Panthera onca): Ascarid (Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina), Hookworm (Ancylostoma spp.), Tapeworm (Taenia... transfuga, Toxascaris leonina), Hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum), Tapeworm (Taenia hydatigena, T. krabbei)....

  2. 21 CFR 520.905b - Fenbendazole granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... stenocephala), whipworms (Trichuris vulpis), and tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis). (iii) Limitations. Mix the... (Panthera onca): Ascarid (Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina), Hookworm (Ancylostoma spp.), Tapeworm (Taenia... transfuga, Toxascaris leonina), Hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum), Tapeworm (Taenia hydatigena, T. krabbei)....

  3. 21 CFR 520.905b - Fenbendazole granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... stenocephala), whipworms (Trichuris vulpis), and tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis). (iii) Limitations. Mix the... (Panthera onca): Ascarid (Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina), Hookworm (Ancylostoma spp.), Tapeworm (Taenia... transfuga, Toxascaris leonina), Hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum), Tapeworm (Taenia hydatigena, T. krabbei)....

  4. 21 CFR 520.903d - Febantel-praziquantel paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ascarids (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina ), and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis ). (ii...Ancylostoma tubaeforme ), ascarids (Toxocara cati ) and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis )....

  5. 21 CFR 520.903d - Febantel-praziquantel paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ascarids (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina ), and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis ). (ii...Ancylostoma tubaeforme ), ascarids (Toxocara cati ) and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis )....

  6. 21 CFR 520.903d - Febantel-praziquantel paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ascarids (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina ), and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis ). (ii...Ancylostoma tubaeforme ), ascarids (Toxocara cati ) and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis )....

  7. Current status of human taeniasis in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Yun, Cheong-Ha; Rim, Han-Jong; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Banouvong, Virasack; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay; Eom, Keeseon S

    2013-04-01

    Human taeniasis was investigated in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) between 2000 and 2011 as part of the nation's helminthiasis survey. A total of 55,038 inhabitants, including 29,846 school children, were examined using the Kato-Katz and scotch-tape anal swab method, and morphological observation of adult worms. Molecular identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed by multiplex PCR or DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. Taenia eggs were present at a rate of 1.5% (845/55,038) in the subject population. Adult tapeworms were identified as T. solium or T. saginata by analyzing the collectable stool specimens (n=126). Three specimens identified as T. solium were found in Luang Prabang, while the remaining 123 specimens, which were T. saginata, were found in Bokeo, Bolikhamxay, Champasak, Houaphan, Khammouane, Luang Namta, Luang Prabang, Oudomxay, Phongsaly, Saysomboune, Saravane, Savannakhet, Xayaboury, Xekong, Xieng Khouang Province, and Vientiane Municipality. PMID:23710098

  8. Development and field evaluation of a new serological test for Taenia saginata cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Ogunremi, Oladele; Benjamin, Jane

    2010-04-19

    Cattle infected with the tapeworm cyst, Taenia saginata metacestode (synonym: Cysticercus bovis) are a source of human infection if affected beef is eaten raw or undercooked. Control measures targeted at individual cattle rather than all animals in a T. saginata-exposed herd should help reduce costs and alleviate current constraints associated with managing an outbreak. To that end, we have developed a reliable diagnostic test for use in live animals that would enable veterinary regulators to focus disease control strategies. The test detects bovine anti-T. saginata immunoglobulin G1 antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) which relies on the excretory-secretory antigens of T. saginata. Animals were inoculated with 10, 100 or 1000 viable T. saginata eggs in order to simulate the parasite burden of field-infected animals (parasite load=1-86; n=28). By testing sera obtained from the inoculated animals 84 days post-inoculation, test sensitivity was estimated to be 92.9% (95% confidence interval or CI=83.4-100.0%). Another 17 animals inoculated with 5000 or 10,000 viable eggs of T. saginata and shown to harbour metacestodes at post-mortem, all tested positive in the ELISA. Test specificity estimated from a herd of field animals with no historical, epidemiological, or post-mortem evidence of infection was 90.6% (95% CI=87.0-94.2%; n=256 field cattle). Using the test on samples (n=347) from a T. saginata-infected feedlot, the Bayesian approach estimate of seroprevalence was 4.6% (95% probability intervals=0.5-10.3%). The test performance characteristics of the ELISA suggest that it will be adequate for field application in bovine cysticercosis outbreaks. PMID:20083357

  9. Development of a biomolecular assay for postmortem diagnosis of Taenia saginata Cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Francesco; Dalmasso, Alessandra; Bellio, Alberto; Martinetti, Manuela; Gili, Stefano; Civera, Tiziana

    2010-10-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of the human tapeworm Taenia saginata. According to European data on meat inspection, the prevalence ranges from 0.007% to 6.8%, but the real prevalence is considered to be at least 10 times higher. Laboratory confirmation of the etiological agent is based on gross, stereomicroscopic, and histological examination of submitted specimens. False identifications may occur, possibly because of death and degeneration of cysts, or because taeniid larvae and other tissue parasites, such as Sarcocystis spp., may cause similar macroscopic morphological lesions. Therefore, tests that can warrant sure identification of taeniid lesions and calcified cysts in the muscle are needed. The focus of our study was to develop a suitable postmortem test that could be applied on putative lesions by T. saginata cysticerci, as ambiguously diagnosed after routine meat inspection. In particular, we proposed a biomolecular assay targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). For developing the polymerase chain reaction assay, viable cysts of Cysticercus bovis (n?=?10) were used as positive reference samples, and those of Echinococcus granulosus (n?=?3), Cysticercus tenuicollis (n?=?3), and Sarcocystis spp. (n?=?4) as reference negative controls. Further, to evaluate the applicability of the proposed assay, 171 samples of bovine muscular tissue, obtained from local slaughterhouses and containing lesions recognized as T. saginata cysticerci by macroscopic examination, were tested. The proposed test confirmed the diagnosis at postmortem inspection in 94.7% (162/171) of samples. In conclusion, the assay developed in this study, amplifying a short fragment from the mitochondrial gene COI, showed to be suitable for samples containing both viable and degenerating T. saginata cysticerci, yielding an unequivocal diagnosis. PMID:20618079

  10. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals and Animal... DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.25 Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm... tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus ovis, so-called sheep measles, not transmissible to man), such carcasses may...

  11. Elimination of Asian fish tapeworms from grass carp with praziquantel bath treatments: The need for 24 hour exposures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several states require that imported fish be free of the Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel has been used for several years to treat fish with Asian fish tapeworms but rates and exposure periods necessary to eliminate these tapeworms from infected fish have not been ade...

  12. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals and Animal... DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.25 Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm... tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus ovis, so-called sheep measles, not transmissible to man), such carcasses may...

  13. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals and Animal... DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.25 Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm... tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus ovis, so-called sheep measles, not transmissible to man), such carcasses may...

  14. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals and Animal... DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.25 Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm... tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus ovis, so-called sheep measles, not transmissible to man), such carcasses may...

  15. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals and Animal... DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.25 Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm... tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus ovis, so-called sheep measles, not transmissible to man), such carcasses may...

  16. A confocal microscopy-based atlas of tissue architecture in the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta.

    PubMed

    Rozario, Tania; Newmark, Phillip A

    2015-11-01

    Tapeworms are pervasive and globally distributed parasites that infect millions of humans and livestock every year, and are the causative agents of two of the 17 neglected tropical diseases prioritized by the World Health Organization. Studies of tapeworm biology and pathology are often encumbered by the complex life cycles of disease-relevant tapeworm species that infect hosts such as foxes, dogs, cattle, pigs, and humans. Thus, studies of laboratory models can help overcome the practical, ethical, and cost-related difficulties faced by tapeworm parasitologists. The rat intestinal tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta is easily reared in the laboratory and has the potential to enable modern molecular-based experiments that will greatly contribute to our understanding of multiple aspects of tapeworm biology, such as growth and reproduction. As part of our efforts to develop molecular tools for experiments on H. diminuta, we have characterized a battery of lectins, antibodies, and common stains that label different tapeworm tissues and organ structures. Using confocal microscopy, we have assembled an "atlas" of H. diminuta organ architecture that will be a useful resource for helminthologists. The methodologies we describe will facilitate characterization of loss-of-function perturbations using H. diminuta. This toolkit will enable a greater understanding of fundamental tapeworm biology that may elucidate new therapeutic targets toward the eradication of these parasites. PMID:26049090

  17. Tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Cestoda)—Neglected or Emerging Human Parasite?

    PubMed Central

    Kuchta, Roman; Brabec, Jan; Kubá?ková, Petra; Scholz, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Background A total number of 14 valid species of Diphyllobothrium tapeworms have been described in literature to be capable of causing diphyllobothriosis, with D. latum being the major causative agent of all human infections. However, recent data indicate that some of these infections, especially when diagnosed solely on the basis of morphology, have been identified with this causative agent incorrectly, confusing other Diphyllobothrium species with D. latum. Another widely distributed species, D. dendriticum, has never been considered as a frequent parasite of man, even though it is found commonly throughout arctic and subarctic regions parasitizing piscivorous birds and mammals. Recent cases of Europeans infected with this cestode called into question the actual geographic distribution of this tapeworm, largely ignored by medical parasitologists. Methodology and Results On the basis of revision of more than 900 available references and a description and revision of recent European human cases using morphological and molecular (cox1) data supplemented by newly characterized D. dendriticum sequences, we updated the current knowledge of the life-cycle, geographic distribution, epidemiological status, and molecular diagnostics of this emerging causal agent of zoonotic disease of man. Conclusions The tapeworm D. dendriticum represents an example of a previously neglected, probably underdiagnosed parasite of man with a potential to spread globally. Recent cases of diphyllobothriosis caused by D. dendriticum in Europe (Netherlands, Switzerland and Czech Republic), where the parasite has not been reported previously, point out that causative agents of diphyllobothriosis and other zoonoses can be imported throughout the world. Molecular tools should be used for specific and reliable parasite diagnostics, and also rare or non-native species should be considered. This will considerably help improve our knowledge of the distribution and epidemiology of these human parasites. PMID:24386497

  18. A rare manifestation of cysticercosis infestation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanjeev; Gupta, Sunita; Mittal, Amit; Mahendra, Aneet; Aggarwal, Anshu; Batra, Rohit; Jindal, Nidhi

    2014-01-01

    There are many causes of urticaria, which may vary from infections to malignancy. Among the infections, infestations by cysticercosis (larval stage of the tapeworm called Taenia solium) is an important cause. The present report is of forty four years old female who presented with urticaria and swelling on face. The swelling was later diagnosed as cysticercosis by noninvasive ultrasonography. The urticaria subsided after the treatment of cysticercosis. We report this case for rarity of its presentation. PMID:24760810

  19. A solitary facial nodular swelling - A case report of intramuscular cysticercosis in buccinator muscle

    PubMed Central

    Dysanoor, Sujatha; Pol, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    Taenia solium, the larvae of pork tapeworm can cause the parasitic infection known as cysticercosis. It is commonly seen in developing countries. The condition rarely involves orofacial region and represents a difficulty in clinical diagnosis. We present a case report of a healthy middle aged female patient who had a painless swelling on right side of face. The ultrasound examination revealed an intramuscular cysticercosal cyst.

  20. Photoreactivating enzyme activity in the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta

    SciTech Connect

    Woodhead, A.D.; Achey, P.M.

    1981-06-01

    There has been considerable speculation about the occurrence of photoreactivating enzyme in different organisms and about its biological purpose. We have developed a simple, sensitive assay for estimating pyrimidine dimers in DNA which is useful in making a rapid survey for the presence of the enzyme. Using this method, we have found photoreactivating enzyme activity in the tissues of the rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta. This parasite spends the majority of its life span in the bodies of its definitive or intermediate hosts, but a period is spent externally. We suggest that photoreactivating enzyme may be important in preserving the integrity of embryonic DNA during this free-living stage.

  1. Photoreactivating enzyme activity in the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta

    SciTech Connect

    Woodhead, A.D.; Achey, P.M.

    1981-01-01

    There has been considerable speculation about the occurrence of photoreactivating enzyme in different organisms and about its biologic purpose. We have developed a simple, sensitive assay for estimating pyrimidine dimers in DNA which is useful in making a rapid survey for the presence of the enzyme. Using this method, we have found photoreactivating enzyme activity in the tissues of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta. This parasite spends the majority of its life span in the bodies of its definitive or intermediate hosts, but a period is spent externally. We suggest that photoreactivating enzyme may be important in perserving the integrity of embryonic DNA during this free-living stage.

  2. An ELISA using recombinant TmHSP70 for the diagnosis of Taenia multiceps infections in goats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Nie, Huaming; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Tao; Huang, Xing; Chen, Lin; Lai, Weimin; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2015-09-15

    Infections with the tapeworm Taenia multiceps are problematic for ruminant farming worldwide. Here we develop a novel and rapid method for serodiagnosis of T. multiceps infections via an indirect ELISA (iELISA) that uses a heat shock protein, namely, TmHSP70. We extracted the total RNA of T. multiceps from the protoscoleces of cysts dissected from the brains of infected goats. Subsequently, we successfully amplified, cloned and expressed the TmHSP70 gene in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Western blot analysis showed that the recombinant protein (?34 kDa molecular weight) was recognized by the coenurosis positive serum. Given these initial, robust immunogenic properties for recombinant TmHSP protein, we assessed the ELISA-based serodiagnostic potential of this gene. The indirect ELISA was then optimized to 2.70 ?g/well dilution for antigen and 1:80 dilution for serum,while the cut-off value is 0.446. We report that our novel TmHSP ELISA detected T. multiceps sera with a sensitivity of 1:10240 and a specificity of 83.3% (5/6). In a preliminary application, this assay correctly confirmed T. multiceps infection in 30 infected goats, consistent with the clinical examination. This study has revealed that our novel iELISA, which uses the rTmHSP protein, provides a rapid test for diagnosing coenurosis. PMID:26129973

  3. Contributions to the systematics, comparative morphology, and interrelationships of selected lecanicephalidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea)

    E-print Network

    Cielocha, Joanna J.

    2013-05-31

    The Lecanicephalidea (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) are a morphologically diverse group of elasmobranch (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii) tapeworms. Currently, 95 species in 16 genera are recognized as valid. However, nine genera have previously been...

  4. Taenia saginata: production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against Taenia saginata metacestode antigens.

    PubMed

    Vicentini-Oliveira, Josy Campanhã; Golim, Marjorie A; de Cássia Paulan, Silvana; Biondi, Germano Francisco; Rossi-Ferreira, Rosana; Deffune, Elenice; Nunes, Cáris Maroni

    2010-12-01

    Cysticercosis is a major cause of economic loss in bovine production due to meat condemnation. Chemotherapy is being used in Brazilian cattle and a diagnostic test to improve the treatment program is desired. We produced monoclonal antibodies against crude (TAEB) and cyst fluid (TAEF) Taenia saginata metacestode antigens using immunized BALB/c mice. After cell fusion, 10 TAEB and nine TAEF hybrids were selected and cloned resulting in 18 IgG(1) and 32 IgM TAEB clones, and 9 IgG(1) and 9 IgM TAEF clones. Ascites was produced and Western blot testing was performed resulting in reactivity to protein fractions of low molecular weight (<18kDa), 43, 55, 66 and 100kDa. The indirect immunofluorescence test, with one monoclonal antibody against crude and one against cyst fluid antigens, recognized antigenic fractions of both the scolex and the bladder wall of metacestodes from naturally infected bovine. PMID:20542032

  5. An endemic Taenia from South America: validation of T. Talicei Dollfus, 1960 (Cestoda: Taeniidae) with characterization of metacestodes and adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Taeniid tapeworms are characteristic parasites in both domesticated and wild carnivores and life cycles are completed through predator-prey associations with rodent, lagomorph or ungulate intermediate hosts that harbor infective larvae. Globally these tapeworms contribute to morbidity and mortality ...

  6. Tapeworm Eggs in a 270 Million-Year-Old Shark Coprolite

    PubMed Central

    Dentzien-Dias, Paula C.; Poinar, George; de Figueiredo, Ana Emilia Q.; Pacheco, Ana Carolina L.; Horn, Bruno L. D.; Schultz, Cesar L.

    2013-01-01

    Remains of parasites in vertebrates are rare from the Mesozoic and Paleozoic. Once most parasites that live in – or pass through – the gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates, fossil feces (coprolites) or even intestinal contents (enterolites) can eventually preserve their remains. Here we announce the discovery of a spiral shark coprolite from the Paleozoic bearing a cluster of 93 small oval-elliptical smooth-shelled structures, interpreted as eggs of a tapeworm.The eggs were found in a thin section of an elasmobranch coprolite. Most of the eggs are filled by pyrite and some have a special polar swelling (operculum), suggesting they are non-erupted eggs. One of the eggs contains a probable developing larva. The eggs are approximately 145–155 µm in length and 88–100 µm in width and vary little in size within the cluster. The depositional and morphological features of the eggs closely resemble those of cestodes. Not only do the individual eggs have features of extant tapeworms, but their deposition all together in an elongate segment is typical to modern tapeworm eggs deposited in mature segments (proglottids). This is the earliest fossil record of tapeworm parasitism of vertebrates and establishes a timeline for the evolution of cestodes. This discovery shows that the fossil record of vertebrate intestinal parasites is much older than was hitherto known and that the interaction between tapeworms and vertebrates occurred at least since the Middle-Late Permian. PMID:23383033

  7. Tapeworm eggs in a 270 million-year-old shark coprolite.

    PubMed

    Dentzien-Dias, Paula C; Poinar, George; de Figueiredo, Ana Emilia Q; Pacheco, Ana Carolina L; Horn, Bruno L D; Schultz, Cesar L

    2013-01-01

    Remains of parasites in vertebrates are rare from the Mesozoic and Paleozoic. Once most parasites that live in - or pass through - the gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates, fossil feces (coprolites) or even intestinal contents (enterolites) can eventually preserve their remains. Here we announce the discovery of a spiral shark coprolite from the Paleozoic bearing a cluster of 93 small oval-elliptical smooth-shelled structures, interpreted as eggs of a tapeworm.The eggs were found in a thin section of an elasmobranch coprolite. Most of the eggs are filled by pyrite and some have a special polar swelling (operculum), suggesting they are non-erupted eggs. One of the eggs contains a probable developing larva. The eggs are approximately 145-155 µm in length and 88-100 µm in width and vary little in size within the cluster. The depositional and morphological features of the eggs closely resemble those of cestodes. Not only do the individual eggs have features of extant tapeworms, but their deposition all together in an elongate segment is typical to modern tapeworm eggs deposited in mature segments (proglottids). This is the earliest fossil record of tapeworm parasitism of vertebrates and establishes a timeline for the evolution of cestodes. This discovery shows that the fossil record of vertebrate intestinal parasites is much older than was hitherto known and that the interaction between tapeworms and vertebrates occurred at least since the Middle-Late Permian. PMID:23383033

  8. Effects of Asian Tapeworm on the Endangered Mohave Tui Chub Thomas P. Archdeacon, Scott A. Bonar, Jason Kline and Alison Iles

    E-print Network

    Bonar, Scott A.

    #12;Effects of Asian Tapeworm on the Endangered Mohave Tui Chub by Thomas P. Archdeacon, Scott A (Kansas Biological Survey) for supplying us with a source of viable tapeworm eggs. For assistance;4 Abstract Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, a non-native fish parasite in the United States

  9. R. Uhlig, D. Nagle, T. Mudge, and S. Sechrest, "Trap-driven simulation with Tape-worm II," 6th Int. Conf. Architectural Support for Programming Languages and

    E-print Network

    Mudge, Trevor

    -VI), Oct. 1994, pp. 132-144. #12;1 Abstract: Tapeworm II is a software-based simulation tool that evaluates the cache and TLB performance of multiple-task and operating system intensive workloads. Tapeworm resides of with address traces, as is convention- ally done. This allows Tapeworm to quickly and accurately cap- ture

  10. The invasive fish tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis (Cestoda), a parasite of carp, colonises Africa.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Tomáš; Tavakol, Sareh; Halajian, Ali; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J

    2015-09-01

    Biological invasions represent a serious threat for aquaculture because many of introduced parasites may negatively affect the health state of feral and cultured fish. In the present account, the invasive tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), which was originally described from North America and has been introduced to Europe including the British Isles with its specific host, common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), is reported from Africa for the first time. Its recent introduction to South Africa, where it was found in four localities where common carp is cultured, is another evidence of insufficient prophylactic measures and inadequate veterinary control during transfers of cultured fish, especially common carp, between continents. Together with the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, A. huronensis is another fish tapeworm with ability to spread throughout the globe as a result of man-made introductions of its fish hosts. PMID:26091762

  11. The effect of herbivore faeces on the edaphic mite community: implications for tapeworm transmission.

    PubMed

    Václav, Radovan; Kalúz, Stanislav

    2014-03-01

    Oribatid mites may be of epidemiological and medical importance because several species have been shown to serve as intermediate hosts for anoplocephalid tapeworms of wild and domestic animals. Despite their economic and conservation significance, relatively few studies examined factors influencing the effective number of oribatid mites that can serve as intermediate hosts. We examined variation in the structure of the edaphic arthropod community in functionally different territory parts of the Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota latirostris), a known definitive host of a prevalent anoplocephalid tapeworm, Ctenotaenia marmotae. We used a field experiment to test whether the abundance of oribatid mites in marmot pastures is affected by the presence of fresh herbivore faeces. We found that the abundance of soil and litter dwelling oribatid mites in marmot pastures did not change shortly after faeces addition. In contrast, numbers of other predominant soil-litter and phoretic microarthropods increased after faeces addition. The abundance of the two predominant phoretic mites colonizing the faeces was inversely related to the abundance of oribatid mites. In contrast, the abundance of a ubiquitous soil-litter mesostigmatid mite was a positive function of oribatid numbers. Although absolute numbers of oribatid mites did not change after faeces addition, our study suggests that, depending on soil quality or type, the probability of tapeworm egg ingestion by oribatid mites can be reduced due to increased interspecific prey-predatory and trophic interactions. Latrine site selection in Alpine marmots is consistent with a reduced probability of tapeworm transmission by oribatids. PMID:24114339

  12. Cysticerci of Taenia mustelae in the fox squirrel.

    PubMed

    Langham, R F; Rausch, R L; Williams, J F

    1990-04-01

    The liver of a fox squirrel (Sciurus niger rufiventer) contained many clear, spherical cysts approximately 1 mm in diameter throughout the parenchyma. On dissection, most of these exhibited a dense, white area with four muscular suckers at a single point on the bladder. Based on the size of the organisms, the characteristically tiny hooks on the scolex and the location of the cysts in this host, the parasites were identified as cysticerci of Taenia mustelae. This is the first report in this host. The parasites were surrounded by an intense inflammatory response consisting primarily of lymphocytes mixed with some eosinophils, and early deposition of fibrous connective tissue. PMID:2338737

  13. Novel praziquantel treatment regime for controlling Asian tapeworm infections in pond-reared fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iles, Alison C.; Archdeacon, Thomas P.; Bonar, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus achelognathii is an intestinal fish parasite that is nonnative to but widespread throughout the southwestern United States. Praziquantel is an anthelminthic drug commonly used to treat fish for Asian tapeworm; however, it does not kill tapeworm eggs, so the water in ponds used for fish rearing must be exchanged after treatment. Our objective was to determine whether a system containing both an intermediate copepod host and a definitive fish host for Asian tapeworm could be treated without exchanging the water by using a follow-up treatment for any tapeworms that developed from eggs released before or during the first treatment. Here, we have described a new praziquantel treatment regimen to control Asian tapeworm infections in freshwater-reared fish. To evaluate the efficacy of this regimen, we stocked 50 red shiners Cyprinella lutrensis and an intermediate copepod host, Cyclops vernalis, into each of six pond mesocosms containing artificial macrophytes, sand, and gravel to simulate natural pools and provide suitable substrate for the copepod's life history. The test fish population had been naturally infected with B. achelognathii and had an initial infection prevalence of 14% and an infection intensity of 2.14 ± 2.19 (mean ± SD) worms per fish. Three mesocosms were treated twice, each with 2.5 mg/L praziquantel; 19 d passed between treatments to allow for possible reinfection to occur. After a 2.5-month posttreatment period to allow any remaining tapeworms to reestablish themselves, we killed and dissected all of the remaining fish. No worms were found in treated fish; however, the control group had an infection prevalence of 18 ± 6% and an infection intensity of 3.45 ± 2.1 worms per fish. Based on these results, we concluded that the praziquantel treatment regime administered was efficacious and suggest testing it on a larger scale. We caution that praziquantel has not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use on fish but can be used legally in some situations.

  14. 21 CFR 520.222 - Bunamidine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... oral administration to dogs for the treatment of the tapeworms Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus, and to cats for the treatment of the tapeworms Dipylidium caninum...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... reinfection occurs, treatment may be repeated. (ii) Indications for use. For removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium... stenocephala), and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis) in dogs and puppies....

  16. 21 CFR 520.903d - Febantel-praziquantel paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...), whipworms (Trichuris vulpis), ascarids (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina), and tapeworms (Dipylidium...), ascarids (Toxocara cati) and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis). (3) Limitations....

  17. 21 CFR 520.903d - Febantel-praziquantel paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...), whipworms (Trichuris vulpis), ascarids (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina), and tapeworms (Dipylidium...), ascarids (Toxocara cati) and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis). (3) Limitations....

  18. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum... for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii) Limitations. Do...

  19. 21 CFR 520.222 - Bunamidine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... oral administration to dogs for the treatment of the tapeworms Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus, and to cats for the treatment of the tapeworms Dipylidium caninum...

  20. 21 CFR 520.903d - Febantel-praziquantel paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...), whipworms (Trichuris vulpis), ascarids (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina), and tapeworms (Dipylidium...), ascarids (Toxocara cati) and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis). (3) Limitations....

  1. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum... for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii) Limitations. Do...

  2. 21 CFR 520.222 - Bunamidine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... oral administration to dogs for the treatment of the tapeworms Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus, and to cats for the treatment of the tapeworms Dipylidium caninum...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for use. For removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis), hookworms... (Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma braziliense, and Uncinaria stenocephala), and tapeworms (Dipylidium...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... reinfection occurs, treatment may be repeated. (ii) Indications for use. For removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium... stenocephala), and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis) in dogs and puppies....

  5. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum... for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii) Limitations. Do...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum... for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii) Limitations. Do...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... reinfection occurs, treatment may be repeated. (ii) Indications for use. For removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium... stenocephala), and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis) in dogs and puppies....

  8. 21 CFR 520.903d - Febantel-praziquantel paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...), whipworms (Trichuris vulpis), ascarids (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina), and tapeworms (Dipylidium...), ascarids (Toxocara cati) and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis). (3) Limitations....

  9. 21 CFR 520.903d - Febantel-praziquantel paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...), whipworms (Trichuris vulpis), ascarids (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina), and tapeworms (Dipylidium...), ascarids (Toxocara cati) and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis). (3) Limitations....

  10. 21 CFR 520.222 - Bunamidine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... oral administration to dogs for the treatment of the tapeworms Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus, and to cats for the treatment of the tapeworms Dipylidium caninum...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum... for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii) Limitations. Do...

  12. 21 CFR 520.222 - Bunamidine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... oral administration to dogs for the treatment of the tapeworms Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus, and to cats for the treatment of the tapeworms Dipylidium caninum...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... reinfection occurs, treatment may be repeated. (ii) Indications for use. For removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium... stenocephala), and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis) in dogs and puppies....

  14. A case of Taenia saginata (tape worm) infestation of the uterus presenting with abnormal vaginal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Sadiah; Zia, Samiah Ahsan; Ahmed, Jameel

    2006-08-01

    There are many reported causes of abnormal uterine bleeding. We report an unusual case of uterine bleeding caused by tapeworm infestation, mimicking retained products of conception in a 35 year old multipara. PMID:16967792

  15. Insights using a molecular approach into the life cycle of a tapeworm infecting great white sharks.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Haseeb S

    2011-04-01

    The great white shark Carcharodon carcharias Linnaeus, 1758 is a versatile and fierce predator (and responsible for many shark attacks on humans). This apex predator feeds on a wide range of organisms including teleosts, other elasmobranchs, cephalopods, pinnipeds, and cetaceans. Although much is known about its diet, no trophic links have been empirically identified as being involved in the transmission of its tapeworm parasites. Recently, the use of molecular tools combined with phylogenetics has proven useful to identify larval and immature stages of marine tapeworms; utilization of the technique has been increasing rapidly. However, the usefulness of this approach remains limited by the availability of molecular data. Here, I employed gene sequence data from the D2 region of the large subunit of ribosomal DNA to link adults of the tapeworm Clistobothrium carcharodoni Dailey and Vogelbein, 1990 (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) to larvae for which sequence data for this gene are available. The sequences from the adult tapeworms were genetically identical (0% sequence divergence) to those available on GenBank for "SP" 'small' Scolex pleuronectis recovered from the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus). This study is the first to provide empirical evidence linking the trophic interaction between great white sharks and cetaceans as a definitive route for the successful transmission of a tetraphyllidean tapeworm. Using the intensity of infection data from this shark and from cetaceans as proxies for the extent of predation, I estimate that this individual shark would have consumed between 9 to 83 G. griseus , fresh, dead, or both, in its lifetime. PMID:21506792

  16. The prostaglandin response in guinea-pig taenia caeci and trachea smooth muscle of different ages.

    PubMed

    Vermue, N A; Den Hertog, A

    1988-03-01

    The concentration-response curves for the carbachol-induced contraction of smooth muscle cells of guinea-pig taenia caeci and trachea were not dependent on tissue age. The prostaglandin E2 and F2 alpha responses increased with age in taenia caeci in contrast with the PGE2 response evoked in trachea. The high-potassium responses evoked in taenia caeci and trachea both increased at higher tissue age. Methoxyverapamil only inhibited the age-dependent responses. The results suggest that it is mainly the voltage-dependent calcium channels that are involved in the age-dependent prostaglandin response. PMID:2452752

  17. Floriparicapitus, a new genus of lecanicephalidean tapeworm (Cestoda) from sawfishes (Pristidae) and guitarfishes (Rhinobatidae) in the Indo-West Pacific

    E-print Network

    Cielocha, Joanna J.; Jensen, Kirsten; Caira, Janine N.

    2013-01-01

    Floriparicapitus n. gen. (Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea), with F. euzeti n. gen. n. sp. as its type, is erected to house 3 new tapeworm species and 2 known species that are transferred to the new genus, all parasitizing sawfishes and guitarfishes (order...

  18. 21 CFR 520.222 - Bunamidine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...for oral administration to dogs for the treatment of the tapeworms Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus, and to cats for the treatment of the tapeworms Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis....

  19. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...repeated. (ii) Indications for use . For removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis ), hookworms...Ancylostoma braziliense , and Uncinaria stenocephala ), and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis ) in dogs...

  20. 21 CFR 520.222 - Bunamidine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...for oral administration to dogs for the treatment of the tapeworms Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus, and to cats for the treatment of the tapeworms Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis....

  1. 21 CFR 520.222 - Bunamidine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...for oral administration to dogs for the treatment of the tapeworms Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus, and to cats for the treatment of the tapeworms Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis....

  2. 21 CFR 520.222 - Bunamidine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...for oral administration to dogs for the treatment of the tapeworms Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus, and to cats for the treatment of the tapeworms Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis....

  3. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...repeated. (ii) Indications for use. For removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis ), hookworms...Ancylostoma braziliense , and Uncinaria stenocephala ), and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis ) in dogs...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...repeated. (ii) Indications for use . For removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis ), hookworms...Ancylostoma braziliense , and Uncinaria stenocephala ), and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis ) in dogs...

  5. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...repeated. (ii) Indications for use . For removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis ), hookworms...Ancylostoma braziliense , and Uncinaria stenocephala ), and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis ) in dogs...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...repeated. (ii) Indications for use . For removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis ), hookworms...Ancylostoma braziliense , and Uncinaria stenocephala ), and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis ) in dogs...

  7. First record of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in Honduras, Central America

    PubMed Central

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Matamoros, Wilfredo A.; Kreiser, Brian R.; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides the first report of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, in Honduras. The cestode was found in Profundulus portillorum (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae), which represents a new host record, and which is a member of a genus faced with a variety of conservation challenges, now potentially complicated by the presence of this pathogenic cestode. Nearly complete sequence data from the ITS-1 5.8S and ITS-2 regions corroborate the determination based on morphological characteristics. Several species of carp were introduced to Honduras for aquaculture purposes in the early 1980s and the presence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Honduras may be related to these introductions. In addition, this report documents the currently known geographical distribution of this parasite in Central America, first recorded from Panamá and now from Honduras. PMID:25654444

  8. Pacific Broad Tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus as a Causative Agent of Globally Reemerging Diphyllobothriosis

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Martínez, Marcus Enrique; Scholz, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific broad tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus (syn. Diphyllobothrium pacificum) is the causative agent of the third most common fish-borne cestodosis among humans. Although most of the nearly 1,000 cases among humans have been reported in South America (Peru, Chile, and Ecuador), cases recently imported to Europe demonstrate the potential for spread of this tapeworm throughout the world as a result of global trade of fresh or chilled marine fish and travel or migration of humans. We provide a comprehensive survey of human cases of infection with this zoonotic parasite, summarize the history of this re-emerging disease, and identify marine fish species that may serve as a source of human infection when eaten raw or undercooked. PMID:26402440

  9. Pacific Broad Tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus as a Causative Agent of Globally Reemerging Diphyllobothriosis.

    PubMed

    Kuchta, Roman; Serrano-Martínez, Marcus Enrique; Scholz, Tomas

    2015-10-01

    The Pacific broad tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus (syn. Diphyllobothrium pacificum) is the causative agent of the third most common fish-borne cestodosis among humans. Although most of the nearly 1,000 cases among humans have been reported in South America (Peru, Chile, and Ecuador), cases recently imported to Europe demonstrate the potential for spread of this tapeworm throughout the world as a result of global trade of fresh or chilled marine fish and travel or migration of humans. We provide a comprehensive survey of human cases of infection with this zoonotic parasite, summarize the history of this re-emerging disease, and identify marine fish species that may serve as a source of human infection when eaten raw or undercooked. PMID:26402440

  10. Solid lipid nanoparticle suspension enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of praziquantel against tapeworm

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shuyu; Pan, Baoliang; Shi, Baoxin; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Ming; Zhou, Wenzhong

    2011-01-01

    Hydatid disease caused by tapeworm is an increasing public health and socioeconomic concern. In order to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of praziquantel (PZQ) against tapeworm, PZQ-loaded hydrogenated castor oil solid lipid nanoparticle (PZQ-HCO-SLN) suspension was prepared by a hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. The stability of the suspension at 4°C and room temperature was evaluated by the physicochemical characteristics of the nanoparticles and in-vitro release pattern of the suspension. Pharmacokinetics was studied after subcutaneous administration of the suspension in dogs. The therapeutic effect of the novel formulation was evaluated in dogs naturally infected with Echinococcus granulosus. The results showed that the drug recovery of the suspension was 97.59% ± 7.56%. Nanoparticle diameter, polydispersivity index, and zeta potential were 263.00 ± 11.15 nm, 0.34 ± 0.06, and ?11.57 ± 1.12 mV, respectively and showed no significant changes after 4 months of storage at both 4°C and room temperature. The stored suspensions displayed similar in-vitro release patterns as that of the newly prepared one. SLNs increased the bioavailability of PZQ 5.67-fold and extended the mean residence time of the drug from 56.71 to 280.38 hours. Single subcutaneous administration of PZQ-HCO-SLN suspension obtained enhanced therapeutic efficacy against tapeworm in infected dogs. At the dose of 5 mg/kg, the stool-ova reduction and negative conversion rates and tapeworm removal rate of the suspension were 100%, while the native PZQ were 91.55%, 87.5%, and 66.7%. When the dose reduced to 0.5 mg/kg, the native drug showed no effect, but the suspension still got the same therapeutic efficacy as that of the 5 mg/kg native PZQ. These results demonstrate that the PZQ-HCO-SLN suspension is a promising formulation to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of PZQ. PMID:22072873

  11. An immunoblot for detection of Taenia saginata cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Abuseir, Sameh; Nagel-Kohl, Uschi; Wolken, Sonja; Strube, Christina

    2013-05-01

    Control measures to prevent human infections with the food-borne zoonotic helminth Taenia saginata are currently based on meat inspection, which shows rather low diagnostic sensitivity. To develop an immunoblot for detection of T. saginata-infected cattle, crude proteins of T. saginata cysts were extracted and separated with SDS-PAGE. The cyst antigens showed ten protein bands ranging from 260 to 14 kDa. T. saginata cyst proteins 260, 150, 130, 67, 60, 55, 50, and 23 kDa were immunoreactive with known positive sera of T. saginata-infected cattle but cross-reacted with sera from Echinocccus granulosus-infected ruminants. By contrast, 14- and 18-kDa cyst proteins reacted specifically with T. saginata-positive sera and thus might be potential candidates for the development of a T. saginata-specific immunoassay. Proteins of E. granulosus cysts and Taenia hydatigena cysts were also extracted and separated with SDS-PAGE. E. granulosus cysts revealed 11 protein bands ranging from 260 to 23 kDa. E. granulosus protein 60 kDa was immunoreactive with E. granulosus-positive sera only. The cyst of T. hydatigena showed 11 protein bands ranging from 290 to 14 kDa. The protein band 35 kDa showed cross-reaction with positive sera from both T. saginata- and E. granulosus-infected animals. A protein of 67 kDa was present in all three tested cestode species and was the major antigenic protein detected by sera of T. saginata- and E. granulosus-infected animals. Therefore, this protein represents a potential vaccine candidate against both cysticercosis and cystic echinococcosis in cattle. PMID:23483261

  12. Position of Larval Tapeworms, Polypocephalus sp., in the Ganglia of Shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus

    PubMed Central

    Carreon, Nadia; Faulkes, Zen

    2014-01-01

    Parasites that invade the nervous system of their hosts have perhaps the best potential to manipulate their host’s behavior, but how they manipulate the host, if they do at all, could depend on their position within the host’s nervous system. We hypothesize that parasites that live in the nervous system of their host will be randomly distributed if they exert their influence through non-specific effects (i.e., general pathology), but that their position in the nervous system will be non-random if they exert their influence by targeting specific neural circuits. We recorded the position of larval tapeworms, Polypocephalus sp., in the abdominal ganglia of white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus. Tapeworms are more common within ganglia than in the section of the nerve cord between ganglia, even though the nerve cord has a greater volume than the ganglia. The tapeworms are also more abundant in the periphery of the ganglia. Because most synaptic connections are within the central region of the ganglion, such positioning may represent a trade-off between controlling the nervous system and damaging it. PMID:24820854

  13. Lead concentrations in Hymenolepis diminuta adults and Taenia taeniaeformis larvae compared to their rat hosts (Rattus norvegicus) sampled from the city of Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Sures, B; Scheible, T; Bashtar, A R; Taraschewski, H

    2003-11-01

    Concentrations of lead, determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, were compared between the cestodes Hymenolepis diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis and its host rat (Rattus norvegicus). Rats were sampled at 2 sites, which differed in respect to lead pollution as quantified from road dust, adjacent to the city of Cairo, Egypt. Comparing lead levels among host tissues and the parasites the significantly highest accumulation was found in H. diminuta, followed by rat kidney and larvae of T. taeniaeformis. Calculation of bioconcentration factors showed that H. diminuta contained 36-, 29-, 6- and 6-fold higher lead levels than intestinal wall, liver, kidney and larvae of T. taeniaeformis, at the more polluted site. At the less contaminated site lead bioconcentration factors for H. diminuta were found to be 87, 87 and 11 referred to intestine, liver and kidney of the host. Due to a high variability of the lead concentrations in H. diminuta it was not possible to indicate differences in metal pollution between both sampling sites. This variability may be influenced by different age structures of cestode infrapopulations. It is likely that younger worms contain lower metal levels than older worms due to a shorter exposure period. Thus, it is necessary to standardize the sampling of worms which should be used for indication purposes. Due to a lack of adequate sentinel species in terrestrial habitats more studies are required to validate and standardize the use of helminths as accumulation bioindicators in order to obtain mean values with low standard deviations. The host-parasite system rat-H. diminuta appears to be a useful and promising bioindication system at least for lead in urban ecosystems as rats as well as the tapeworm are globally distributed and easily accessible. PMID:14653537

  14. Extraparenchymal (Racemose) Neurocysticercosis and Its Multitude Manifestations: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Mahale, Rohan R; Mehta, Anish; Rangasetty, Srinivasa

    2015-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an infection of the central nervous system caused by the larval form of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. In the brain it occurs in two forms: parenchymal and extraparenchymal or racemose cysts. The clinical presentation of racemose cysts is pleomorphic, and is quite different from parenchymal cysticercosis. The clinical diagnosis of racemose cysts is quite challenging, with neuroimaging being the mainstay. However, the advent of newer brain imaging modalities has made a more accurate diagnosis possible. The primary focus of this article is racemose neurocysticercosis and its multitude manifestations, and includes a discussion of the newer diagnostic modalities and treatment options. PMID:26022457

  15. Extraparenchymal (Racemose) Neurocysticercosis and Its Multitude Manifestations: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Anish; Rangasetty, Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an infection of the central nervous system caused by the larval form of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. In the brain it occurs in two forms: parenchymal and extraparenchymal or racemose cysts. The clinical presentation of racemose cysts is pleomorphic, and is quite different from parenchymal cysticercosis. The clinical diagnosis of racemose cysts is quite challenging, with neuroimaging being the mainstay. However, the advent of newer brain imaging modalities has made a more accurate diagnosis possible. The primary focus of this article is racemose neurocysticercosis and its multitude manifestations, and includes a discussion of the newer diagnostic modalities and treatment options. PMID:26022457

  16. Taenia ovis infection and its control: a Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    De Wolf, B D; Peregrine, A S; Jones-Bitton, A; Jansen, J T; Menzies, P I

    2014-01-01

    Distributed worldwide, Taenia ovis infection is responsible for the condemnation of sheep carcasses in many countries. This review highlights the programme used in New Zealand to successfully control T. ovis in sheep, and discusses how similar approaches may be modified for use in Canada, given what is currently known about the epidemiology of T. ovis. The lifecycle of the parasite is well known, involving dogs as the definitive host and sheep or goats as the intermediate host. An effective vaccine does exist, although it is not presently commercially available. In New Zealand an industry-based, non-regulatory programme was created to educate producers about T. ovis and necessary control strategies, including the need to treat farm dogs with cestocides regularly. This programme resulted in a substantial decrease in the prevalence of T. ovis infections between 1991 and 2012. Historically, T. ovis was not a concern for the Canadian sheep industry, but more recently the percentage of lamb condemnations due to T. ovis has increased from 1.5% in 2006 to 55% in 2012. It has been suggested that coyotes may be transmitting T. ovis, but this has not been confirmed. Recommendation are made for the Canadian sheep industry to adopt a control programme similar to that used in New Zealand in order to reduce the prevalence of T. ovis infection. PMID:24053136

  17. [Infection of Mice with Normal Immune Function by Taenia asiatica].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-yan; Guo, Guang-wu; Chen, Li-hong; Mo, Xing-ze; Yu, Yue-sheng

    2015-08-01

    The Taenia asiatica eggs pre-incubated with sodium hypochlorite solution for 4 min, 6 min and 8 mins were subcutaneously injected into mice with normal immune function(groups Al-A3 respectively, n=20 in each) and mice with immunosuppression (groups B1-B3, n=20 in each). All groups of mice began to show body discomfort on day 5 after infection and develop lumps on the back about on day 15. In groups Al-A3, animal death occurred during days 7-15, with a same survival rate of 95.0%(19/20) and infection rate of 89.4%(17/19), 73.6%(14/19) and 47.3%(9/19) respectively. In groups B1-B3, animal death occurred during days 7-50, with survival rate of 60%(13/20), 55%(11/20)and 55%(11/20) and infection rate of 76.9% (10/13), 54.5% (6/11) and 45.4% (5/11) respectively. After the scolex of cysticercus was evaginated with 15% pig bile, four suckers, an apparent rostellum and two distinct hook-like puncta structures were seen. These results indicate that mice with normal immune function can be used as a replacement of immunosuppressive mice to establish a T. asiatica oncosphere infection model. In addition, the T. asiatica eggs pre-incubated with sodium hypochlorite solution for 4 min have the strongest infection ability. PMID:26672229

  18. Fecundity and proglottid release of Taenia ovis and T. hydatigena.

    PubMed

    Gregory, G G

    1976-06-01

    The rate of release of proglottids was examined in 19 dogs infected with Taenia ovis and 16 infected with T. hydatigena. Faeces were examined for proglottids daily until the apparent death of the worms. Autopsies were then performed and surviving worms recovered. The number of eggs per proglottid was estimated in 12 T. ovis and 12 T. hydatigena from natural infections. In dogs infected with T ovis the time of first recovery of proglottids after infection varied from 44 days to more than 126 days. Up to 3 proglottids per worm per day might be released, each containing about 88,000 eggs. Infection can persist longer than 5 years. Dogs infected with T. hydatigena released their first proglottid from 48 to 65 days after infection. Each worm could produce 2 proglottids per day, each containing about 53,000 eggs. Although each T. ovis may produce over 250,000 and each T hydatigena over 100,000 eggs per day, it is probable that many of them hatch in the small intestine and are rendered inactive. PMID:987771

  19. Description of Hymenolepis microstoma (Nottingham strain): a classical tapeworm model for research in the genomic era

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hymenolepis microstoma (Dujardin, 1845) Blanchard, 1891, the mouse bile duct tapeworm, is a rodent/beetle-hosted laboratory model that has been used in research and teaching since its domestication in the 1950s. Recent characterization of its genome has prompted us to describe the specific strain that underpins these data, anchoring its identity and bringing the 150+ year-old original description up-to-date. Results Morphometric and ultrastructural analyses were carried out on laboratory-reared specimens of the 'Nottingham' strain of Hymenolepis microstoma used for genome characterization. A contemporary description of the species is provided including detailed illustration of adult anatomy and elucidation of its taxonomy and the history of the specific laboratory isolate. Conclusions Our work acts to anchor the specific strain from which the H. microstoma genome has been characterized and provides an anatomical reference for researchers needing to employ a model tapeworm system that enables easy access to all stages of the life cycle. We review its classification, life history and development, and briefly discuss the genome and other model systems being employed at the beginning of a genomic era in cestodology. PMID:21194465

  20. Update on the Human Broad Tapeworm (Genus Diphyllobothrium), Including Clinical Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Tomáš; Garcia, Hector H.; Kuchta, Roman; Wicht, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Tapeworms (Cestoda) continue to be an important cause of morbidity in humans worldwide. Diphyllobothriosis, a human disease caused by tapeworms of the genus Diphyllobothrium, is the most important fish-borne zoonosis caused by a cestode parasite. Up to 20 million humans are estimated to be infected worldwide. Besides humans, definitive hosts of Diphyllobothrium include piscivorous birds and mammals, which represent a significant zoonotic reservoir. The second intermediate hosts include both freshwater and marine fish, especially anadromous species such as salmonids. The zoonosis occurs most commonly in countries where the consumption of raw or marinated fish is a frequent practice. Due to the increasing popularity of dishes utilizing uncooked fish, numerous cases of human infections have appeared recently, even in the most developed countries. As many as 14 valid species of Diphyllobothrium can cause human diphyllobothriosis, with D. latum and D. nihonkaiense being the most important pathogens. In this paper, all taxa from humans reported are reviewed, with brief information on their life history and their current distribution. Data on diagnostics, epidemiology, clinical relevance, and control of the disease are also summarized. The importance of reliable identification of human-infecting species with molecular tools (sequences of mitochondrial genes) as well as the necessity of epidemiological studies aimed at determining the sources of infections are pointed out. PMID:19136438

  1. Prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in French cattle in 2010.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Céline; Morlot, Claire; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Mas, Michel; Grandmontagne, Claude; Gilli-Dunoyer, Pascale; Gay, Emilie; Callait-Cardinal, Marie-Pierre

    2014-06-16

    Bovine cysticercosis is a foodborne disease caused by the cestode Taenia saginata with cattle as the intermediate host and humans as the final host. This disease is responsible for direct financial losses for farmers. It is also economically important because human infestation through raw or undercooked meat consumption can have a negative impact on the confidence the consumer has in the food industry. This study aimed to determine the apparent and true prevalence of bovine cysticercosis in France and describe the locations of identified cysticercosis lesions. The study sample included 4,564,065 cattle slaughtered in 2010 in France, among which 6491 were detected as harbouring cysticercosis lesions using the current EU meat inspection process. The overall apparent prevalence (including both viable and degenerated cysticerci) was estimated at 0.142% [0.142-0.143]. The true overall prevalence defined as the estimation of the prevalence after taking into account the sensitivity of meat inspection (detection fraction) was 1.23% [0.83-1.93]. The true prevalence of cattle with at least one viable cysticercus was 0.113% [0.076-0.189]. Taking into account both our results and those of a previous study on the prevalence of human cysticercosis in France, we estimated that one carcass could infest an average of 8-20 individuals. The spatial distribution of viable cysticerci showed that the highest apparent prevalence was found in eastern France. This study, the largest survey ever conducted on bovine cysticercosis in France, indicated a low but spatially heterogeneous prevalence of the parasite among the cattle population. Considering French eating habits, according to which it is not uncommon to consume undercooked meat, the possibility of humans being infested even though viable cysticerci are not detected during meat inspection is high. Increasing the detection sensitivity of meat inspection through the use of a risk-based meat inspection procedure should improve prevention of human infestation. PMID:24655724

  2. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals and Animal... cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. (a) In the disposal of carcasses, edible... 315 of this subchapter, it shall be condemned. (b) In the case of sheep carcasses affected...

  3. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals and Animal... cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. (a) In the disposal of carcasses, edible... 315 of this subchapter, it shall be condemned. (b) In the case of sheep carcasses affected...

  4. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals and Animal... cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. (a) In the disposal of carcasses, edible... 315 of this subchapter, it shall be condemned. (b) In the case of sheep carcasses affected...

  5. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals and Animal... cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. (a) In the disposal of carcasses, edible... 315 of this subchapter, it shall be condemned. (b) In the case of sheep carcasses affected...

  6. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals and Animal... cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. (a) In the disposal of carcasses, edible... 315 of this subchapter, it shall be condemned. (b) In the case of sheep carcasses affected...

  7. Efficacy of 6-, 12-, and 24-h praziquantel bath treatments against Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in grass carp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Praziquantel is an effective antihelmintic that has been used in dogs and cats as a de-wormer. It has also been used successfully against tapeworms and trematodes in fish. The current study tested the efficacy of praziquantel bath treatments at various concentrations (0.187, 0.375, 0.75, 1.5, 3.0,...

  8. Taeniasis-cysticercosis in Southern Ecuador: assessment of infection status using multiple laboratory diagnostic tools.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Hidalgo, R; Benitez-Ortiz, W; Praet, N; Saa, L R; Vercruysse, J; Brandt, J; Dorny, P

    2006-11-01

    Taenia solium-taeniasis and cysticercosis were studied in the human and porcine populations of a rural community in the Southern Ecuadorian Andes. From the 1059 inhabitants, 800 serum samples and 958 stool samples could be collected. In addition, 646 from the estimated 1148 pigs were tongue inspected. Circulating antigen was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA) in 2.25% of the human population, whereas intestinal taeniasis was detected in 1.46% by the formalin-ether technique. Following treatment and recovery of tapeworm fragments these were all identified as T. solium. Porcine cysticercosis was diagnosed in 3.56% of the pigs by tongue inspection. In addition, enzyme linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) was performed on a subset group of 100 humans to confirm the results of the Ag-ELISA. One hundred serum samples from pigs were also analysed by EITB. It appeared that 43 and 74% of humans and pigs had antibodies against T. solium cysticerci, respectively. It is concluded that contrary to the high exposure of the human population to T. solium that is suggested by EITB, the number of active cysticercosis cases, diagnosed by Ag-ELISA, was low, which may indicate endemic stability. The further use of complementary diagnostic methods for a better understanding of the epidemiology of T. solium is suggested. PMID:17160287

  9. A glance at Taenia saginata infection, diagnosis, vaccine, biological control and treatment.

    PubMed

    Silva, Claudio V; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

    2010-10-01

    The Taenia saginata taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a cosmopolitan zoonosis of great medical, veterinary and economic importance where humans play an important role as the carrier of adult stage and cattle as carrier of the larval stage of the parasite. Here we reviewed aspects concerning diagnosis, vaccine development, biological control and treatment of the disease. PMID:20701576

  10. Arrhythmic Song Exposure Increases ZENK Expression in Auditory Cortical Areas and Nucleus Taeniae of the Adult

    E-print Network

    Wade, Juli

    in rhythm processing have been implicated in human disorders that affect speech and language processingArrhythmic Song Exposure Increases ZENK Expression in Auditory Cortical Areas and Nucleus Taeniae underpinnings of rhythm processing due to parallels with humans in neural structures and vocal learning patterns

  11. A SURVEY OF THE TAPEWORM FAUNA OF THE COWNOSE RAY, RHINOPTERA BONASUS, FROM THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO WITH COMMENTS ON INTERMEDIATE HOSTS

    E-print Network

    Call, Garrett

    2007-10-12

    for larval tapeworms. Examination of 915 clams collected revealed two types of larvae. These larvae were identified as Rhodobothrium paucitesticulare and D. minutum, parasitizing R. bonasus as adults, using morphology and molecular sequence data. Prevalence...

  12. Molecular Detection and Characterization of Goat Isolate of Taenia hydatigena in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Utuk, Armagan Erdem; Piskin, Fatma Cigdem

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide molecular detection and characterization of the goat isolate of Taenia hydatigena from Ankara province of Turkey. For this purpose, PCR amplification of small subunit ribosomal RNA (rrnS) and partial sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (mt-CO1) genes were performed in a one-month-old dead goat. According to rrnS-PCR results, parasites were identified as Taenia spp., and partial sequence of mt-CO1 gene was corresponding to T. hydatigena. At the end of the study, we concluded that molecular tools can be used to define species of parasites in cases where the key morphologic features cannot be detected. Nucleotide sequence data of Turkish goat isolate of T. hydatigena was submitted to GenBank for other researchers interested in this subject. By this study, molecular detection and characterization of T. hydatigena was done for the first time in Turkey. PMID:22500144

  13. The parasite's long arm: a tapeworm parasite induces behavioural changes in uninfected group members of its social host.

    PubMed

    Beros, Sara; Jongepier, Evelien; Hagemeier, Felizitas; Foitzik, Susanne

    2015-11-22

    Parasites can induce alterations in host phenotypes in order to enhance their own survival and transmission. Parasites of social insects might not only benefit from altering their individual hosts, but also from inducing changes in uninfected group members. Temnothorax nylanderi ant workers infected with the tapeworm Anomotaenia brevis are known to be chemically distinct from nest-mates and do not contribute to colony fitness, but are tolerated in their colonies and well cared for. Here, we investigated how tapeworm- infected workers affect colony aggression by manipulating their presence in ant colonies and analysing whether their absence or presence resulted in behavioural alterations in their nest-mates. We report a parasite-induced shift in colony aggression, shown by lower aggression of uninfected nest-mates from parasitized colonies towards conspecifics, potentially explaining the tolerance towards infected ants. We also demonstrate that tapeworm-infected workers showed a reduced flight response and higher survival, while their presence caused a decrease in survival of uninfected nest-mates. This anomalous behaviour of infected ants, coupled with their increased survival, could facilitate the parasites' transmission to its definitive hosts, woodpeckers. We conclude that parasites exploiting individuals that are part of a society not only induce phenotypic changes within their individual hosts, but in uninfected group members as well. PMID:26582019

  14. An insect-tapeworm model as a proxy for anthelminthic effects in the mammalian host.

    PubMed

    Woolsey, Ian David; Fredensborg, Brian L; Jensen, Per M; Kapel, Christian M O; Meyling, Nicolai V

    2015-07-01

    Invertebrate models provide several important advantages over their vertebrate counterparts including fewer legislative stipulations and faster, more cost-effective experimental procedures. Furthermore, various similarities between insect and mammalian systems have been highlighted. To obtain maximum use of invertebrate models in pharmacology, their fidelity as analogues of vertebrate systems requires verification. We utilised a flour beetle (Tenebrio molitor)-tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta) model to evaluate the efficacy of known anthelmintic compounds, praziquantel, mebendazole and levamisole against H. diminuta cysticercoid larvae in vitro. Inhibition of cysticercoid activity during the excystation procedure was used as a proxy for worm removal. The effects of the three compounds mirrored their relative efficacy in treatment against adult worms in mammalian systems; however, further study is required to determine the fidelity of this model in relation to dose administered. The model precludes comparison of consecutive daily administration of pharmaceuticals in mammals due to cysticercoids not surviving outside of the host for multiple days. Treatment of beetles in vivo, followed by excystation of cysticercoids postdissection could potentially allow for such comparisons. Further model validation will include analysis of pharmaceutical efficacy in varying H. diminuta isolates and pharmaceutical dilution in solvents other than water. Notwithstanding, our results demonstrate that this model holds promise as a method to efficiently identify promising new cestocidal candidates. PMID:25895063

  15. Molecular phylogeny of anoplocephalid tapeworms (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) infecting humans and non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Doležalová, Jana; Vallo, Peter; Petrželková, Klára J; Foitová, Ivona; Nurcahyo, Wisnu; Mudakikwa, Antoine; Hashimoto, Chie; Jirk?, Milan; Lukeš, Julius; Scholz, Tomáš; Modrý, David

    2015-09-01

    Anoplocephalid tapeworms of the genus Bertiella Stiles and Hassall, 1902 and Anoplocephala Blanchard, 1848, found in the Asian, African and American non-human primates are presumed to sporadic ape-to-man transmissions. Variable nuclear (5.8S-ITS2; 28S rRNA) and mitochondrial genes (cox1; nad1) of isolates of anoplocephalids originating from different primates (Callicebus oenanthe, Gorilla beringei, Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes and Pongo abelii) and humans from various regions (South America, Africa, South-East Asia) were sequenced. In most analyses, Bertiella formed a monophyletic group within the subfamily Anoplocephalinae, however, the 28S rRNA sequence-based analysis indicated paraphyletic relationship between Bertiella from primates and Australian marsupials and rodents, which should thus be regarded as different taxa. Moreover, isolate determined as Anoplocephala cf. gorillae from mountain gorilla clustered within the Bertiella clade from primates. This either indicates that A. gorillae deserves to be included into the genus Bertiella, or, that an unknown Bertiella species infects also mountain gorillas. The analyses allowed the genetic differentiation of the isolates, albeit with no obvious geographical or host-related patterns. The unexpected genetic diversity of the isolates studied suggests the existence of several Bertiella species in primates and human and calls for revision of the whole group, based both on molecular and morphological data. PMID:26046952

  16. A proposal to declare neurocysticercosis an international reportable disease.

    PubMed Central

    Román, G.; Sotelo, J.; Del Brutto, O.; Flisser, A.; Dumas, M.; Wadia, N.; Botero, D.; Cruz, M.; Garcia, H.; de Bittencourt, P. R.; Trelles, L.; Arriagada, C.; Lorenzana, P.; Nash, T. E.; Spina-França, A.

    2000-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an infection of the nervous system caused by Taenia solium. It is the most important human parasitic neurological disease and a common cause of epilepsy in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, representing enormous costs for anticonvulsants, medical resources and lost production. Neurocysticercosis is a human-to-human infection, acquired by the faecal-enteric route from carriers of intestinal T. solium, most often in areas with deficient sanitation. Intestinal tapeworms cause few symptoms, but adult taeniae carried by humans release large numbers of infective eggs and are extremely contagious. Ingestion of poorly cooked pig meat infested with T. solium larvae results in intestinal taeniosis but not neurocysticercosis. With a view to hastening the control of taeniosis and neurocysticercosis we propose that neurocysticercosis be declared an international reportable disease. New cases of neurocysticercosis should be reported by physicians or hospital administrators to their health ministries. An epidemiological intervention could then be launched to interrupt the chain of transmission by: (1) searching for, treating and reporting the sources of contagion, i.e. human carriers of tapeworms; (2) identifying and treating other exposed contacts; (3) providing health education on parasite transmission and improvement of hygiene and sanitary conditions; and (4) enforcing meat inspection policies and limiting the animal reservoir by treatment of pigs. We believe that the first step required to solve the problem of neurocysticercosis is to implement appropriate surveillance mechanisms under the responsibility of ministries of health. Compulsory notification also has the major advantage of providing accurate quantification of the incidence and prevalence of neurocysticercosis at regional level, thus permitting the rational use of resources in eradication campaigns. PMID:10812740

  17. First report of Taenia acinonyxi (Ortlopp, 1938) in Acinonyx jubatus venaticus from Iran.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Sh; Youssefi, Mr; Mobedi, I; Hosseini, Sm; Zaheri, Ba

    2011-12-01

    The Asian cheetah is known as Iranian panther. A four years old female cheetah was killed in a road accident by a truck in Abbas Abad (Biarjamand) County around Shahrood City in Semnan Province, central part of Iran. Two days after the accident the carcass of animal was autopsied and only five cestodes were obtained from its intestine. In inspection of other organs no other helminth was observed. Cestod samples were fixed and stained by carmine acid. Characterization of the cestodes using morphological standard key, identified the cestodes as Taenia acinonyxi. PMID:22347321

  18. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...120 2 (ii) Indications for use . For the removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus...Trichuris vulpis ) and for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii)...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...120 2 (ii) Indications for use . For the removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus...Trichuris vulpis ) and for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii)...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...120 2 (ii) Indications for use . For the removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus...Trichuris vulpis ) and for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii)...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...120 2 (ii) Indications for use. For the removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus...Trichuris vulpis ) and for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii)...

  2. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...120 2 (ii) Indications for use . For the removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus...Trichuris vulpis ) and for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii)...

  3. Public health argument to retain current UK national controls for tick and tapeworms under the Pet Travel Scheme.

    PubMed

    Gover, L; Kirkbride, H; Morgan, D

    2011-02-01

    At present, the European Council is debating whether the current national controls under the Pet Travel Scheme (PETS), which aims to prevent the introduction of rabies and tapeworms or live ticks and their associated diseases into the United Kingdom (UK), should be harmonized amongst European Union (EU) Member States. There is a strong case to support the retention of control measures on human health grounds. Although many are aware of the implications of rabies infection, few realize the risk to the UK population if current tick and tapeworm controls under PETS were to be removed. If this were to occur, there is a risk that a number of diseases of human health importance may be introduced and become established in the UK. Such diseases include alveolar echinococcosis, tick borne encephalitis, tularaemia and Mediterranean spotted fever; all of which are found in other EU Member States but do not occur in the UK. These four diseases are responsible for a significant burden of disease in Europe, and current national controls under PETS have been highly effective in so far preventing their introduction into the UK. PMID:19968855

  4. Egg positive rate of Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia spp. by cellophane tape method in primary school children in Sivas, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Celiksöz, Ali; Aciöz, Mehmet; De?erli, Serpil; Alim, Ahmet; Aygan, Cetin

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out the number of students with enterobiasis and/or taeniasis in primary schools of Sivas. Among the 2,029 students in 6 primary schools, 316 (15.6%) were positive to Enterobius vermicularis eggs and 32 (1.6%) were positive to Taenia spp. eggs by the cellophane tape method. The egg positive rates of E. vermicularis and Taenia spp. ranged from 9.4% to 27.2% and from 0.8% to 2.6% respectively among six schools. The egg positive rate of E. vermicularis was found to be significantly different among these schools (chi2 = 31.96, P < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference between the schools for Taenia spp. (chi2 = 4.37; P > 0.05). The rate (18.7%) of E. vermicularis in the urban slum regions was higher than the rate (11.5%) in the urban central regions (chi2 = 19.20; P < 0.05). Above results demonstrate that the egg positive rate of E. vermicularis and Taenia spp. was still prevalent among primary school children. PMID:15951641

  5. 21 CFR 520.1199 - Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...canis, Toxascaris leonina ), hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Ancylostoma braziliense ) and tapeworm (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis ) infections. (3) Limitations . Federal law restricts this drug to use...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1199 - Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...canis, Toxascaris leonina ), hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Ancylostoma braziliense ) and tapeworm (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis ) infections. (3) Limitations . Federal law restricts this drug to use...

  7. 21 CFR 520.580 - Dichlorophene and toluene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Toxascaris leonina ) and hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala ); and as an aid in removing tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus granulosus ) from dogs and cats. (3)...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1199 - Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...canis, Toxascaris leonina ), hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Ancylostoma braziliense ) and tapeworm (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis ) infections. (3) Limitations . Federal law restricts this drug to use...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1199 - Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...canis, Toxascaris leonina ), hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Ancylostoma braziliense ) and tapeworm (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis ) infections. (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1199 - Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...canis, Toxascaris leonina ), hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Ancylostoma braziliense ) and tapeworm (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis ) infections. (3) Limitations . Federal law restricts this drug to use...

  11. Cysticercosis: an emerging parasitic disease.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Robert

    2007-07-01

    Cysticercosis (i.e., tapeworm infection) is an increasingly common medical problem in the United States, especially in the Southwest and other areas of heavy emigration from endemic areas or in populations with significant travel to these areas. The larval stage of the pork tape-worm, Taenia solium, causes the clinical syndrome of cysticercosis, with humans as dead-end hosts after ingestion of T solium eggs. Its clinical effects vary depending on site of larval lodging, larval burden, and host reaction. These effects include seizures, headaches, focal neurologic symptoms, visual disturbances, and localized skeletal muscle nodules and pain. Cysticercosis should be considered in any patient from an endemic area presenting with these symptoms. Treatment varies with the clinical presentation. Parenchymal neurocysticercosis generally is treated with albendazole in conjunction with steroids to limit edema and with antiepileptic medications for seizure control. Ocular and extraocular muscle cysticercosis generally requires surgical intervention. Skeletal muscle cysts are surgically removed only if painful. Because cysts can lodge in multiple locations, all patients with cysticercosis should have an ophthalmologic examination to rule out ocular involvement, and all patients with extraneurologic cysticercosis should have computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain to rule out neurocysticercosis. PMID:17668846

  12. Removal of tapeworm (Moniezia spp.) did not increase growth rates of meat-breed lambs in the Northern Tablelands of NSW.

    PubMed

    Dever, M L; Kahn, L P; Doyle, E K

    2015-03-15

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that growth rates of meat-breed lambs would not be affected by infection with tapeworm (Monieza spp.). Two experiments, conducted in successive years (2012 and 2013) on a commercial sheep farm on the Northern Tablelands of NSW, assessed growth rates of meat-breed lambs, between 4 and 6 months of age, following the removal of the cestode, Monieza spp. (or commonly referred to as tapeworm). In 2012 and 2013, 93 and 85 lambs respectively were randomly allocated to two treatment groups. One group (Prazi) was treated with praziquantel, levamisole and abamectin to remove tapeworm and gastrointestinal nematode infection (GIN) while the second group (Control) was treated with levamisole and abamectin to remove only GIN. Tapeworm prevalence and egg counts of Control lambs ranged from 25 to 77% and 7 to 730 eggs per gram (epg) respectively and were significantly (p<0.005) reduced in Prazi lambs, following treatment, at all time-points in both years. Pre-treatment GIN worm egg counts ranged between 1684 and 3368 epg with Haemonchus contortus the dominant species. Post-treatment GIN worm egg counts were similar between Prazi and Control groups, expect on one occasion (Day 65, 2013) when GIN worm egg counts were expectantly higher (p<0.005) in Control lambs. No significant difference in growth rates were observed between treatment groups in either year with overall group mean daily bodyweight gains being 95 and 81 g/day (p=0.053) in 2012 and 132 and 134 g/day (p=0.784) in 2013 for the Prazi and Control groups respectively. This experiment confirmed that removal of tapeworm burdens did not increase growth rates in meat-breed lambs on a commercial sheep farm in the Northern Tablelands of NSW. PMID:25677979

  13. Seroprevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in the federal state of Lower Saxony in Germany.

    PubMed

    Abuseir, Sameh; Nagel-Kohl, Uschi; Probst, Dieter; Kühne, Michael; Epe, Christian; Doherr, Marcus G; Schnieder, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Based on ELISA results from randomly selected serum samples taken from 128 cattle from different administrative and urban districts in the federal state of Lower Saxony in Germany a seroprevalence estimate of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in this area was derived. This estimate was subsequently used to calculate the sample size required in an epidemiological study to determine the actual prevalence of this infection in the cattle population (n = 2 604 767) in this federal state. The sample size was calculated as 1518 and the samples were collected according to the distribution of cattle among the 48 administrative and urban districts in Lower Saxony. The samples were tested with an evaluated antibody ELISA. The results showed a positive antibody titre rate of 8.83% from the total tested samples. PMID:21038810

  14. Ultrastructural study of neurosecretory cells in the nervous system in the cestode (Taenia hydatigena).

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Wakuri, H; Mutoh, K; Taniguchi, K

    1996-10-01

    The neurosecretory cells in nervous system of the Taenia hydatigena was studied light- and electron-microscopically. On the basis of the cytological structure they were divided into two types: type I neurosecretory cells, which containing large dense-cored vesicles, small elongated mitochondria and a large amount of free ribosomes, were located mainly in the central and peripheral nervous system; type II neurosecretory cells were characterized by their moderate amount of free ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum which contacted with the membranes of perikarya, large ovoid mitochondria, large dense-cored vesicles and their localization in the musculature near serve profiles. The synaptic and nonsynaptic contacts i.e. omega figure and exocytosis release sites were seen in the neuropile, musculature and excretory ducts. The present findings suggest that neurosecretory cells in nervous system may play an important integrative roles of both neuronal and endocrine in the flatworm. PMID:8942196

  15. Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Luzón, Mónica; de la Fuente-López, Concepción; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Fernández-Morán, Jesús; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco

    2010-06-01

    Subcutaneous and intraperitoneal cysticercosis due to Taenia crassiceps was diagnosed in a 5-yr-old male ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) in the Madrid Zoo-Aquarium (Madrid, Spain). Under laparoscopic examination, several septated fibrous cystic structures and numerous masses of small transparent vesicles (ca. 3 mm in diameter) were observed subcutaneously and inside the peritoneal cavity. Most of the structures were extirpated but, after 2 days of postsurgical intensive care, the animal died. The loss of body weight of the animal after surgical extirpation (566 g) represented 22% of the total weight (body weight before mass removal, 2582 g). The vesicles were identified under light microscopic examination as cysticerci and by molecular diagnosis as Cysticercus longicollis, the larval form of T. crassiceps. The present report represents the first detection of T. crassiceps in the prosimian genus Lemur. PMID:20597227

  16. Calcium and the activation of the alpha 1-adrenoceptors in the guinea-pig taenia caeci.

    PubMed Central

    Rusko, J.; Bauer, V.

    1988-01-01

    1. The actions of phenylephrine (0.1-100 mumol l-1) and methoxamine (0.1-100 mumol l-1) were compared with that of adrenaline (0.01-10 mumol l-1) using the single sucrose gap method and mechanical recording in the guinea-pig taenia caeci. Drugs were applied for variable periods of time. 2. The characteristics of the inhibitory effects of alpha-adrenoceptor agonists were the same when exposure time did not exceed 5 min. When the exposure was prolonged, in contrast to the sustained effects of adrenaline (0.1-3 mumol l-1), phenylephrine and methoxamine (1-10 mumol l-1) produced a transient inhibitory action. 3. During the delayed recovery phase of phenylephrine, adrenaline preserved its ability to suppress the spontaneous electrical and mechanical activities of the taenia both when phenylephrine was replaced by adrenaline or when adrenaline was applied in addition to phenylephrine. All the above effects were found in untreated preparations, as well as during blockade of muscarinic cholinoceptors by atropine (1.4 mumol l-1), beta-adrenoceptors by propranolol (3 mumol l-1) and release of endogenous catecholamines by guanethidine (2.5 mumol l-1). 4. In the presence of phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate adrenaline ceased to be effective, while the inhibitory action of phenylephrine was converted to a contraction. 5. In calcium-free conditions in the presence of EGTA (0.4 mmol l-1) the initial hyperpolarization induced by adrenaline and phenylephrine was significantly reduced and with repeated applications of the agonists the inhibitory response disappeared. Similar results were obtained using tissues treated with nifedipine (1 and 10 mumol l-1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2840162

  17. The epidemiology of Taenia pisiformis infections in domestic dogs in Cairo.

    PubMed

    Rashed, R M; Whitfield, P J; Lewis, J W

    1991-12-01

    The epidemiology of Taenia pisiformis infections in domestic dogs in Cairo, Egypt. Over 5000 street dogs humanely killed in a culling programme organized by the Egyptian Ministry of the Interior in the winter of 1986 and the spring of 1987 have been utilized to examine the final host epidemiology of the cestode Taenia pisiformis in Cairo. In the winter months the prevalence of infection was 63.4% and the mean intensity 2.82 per dog: by the spring of 1987 these values had risen to 70.8% and 3.78 respectively. These parasite burdens probably represent the highest infection levels with T. pisiformis yet described from urban dog populations anywhere in the world. The dispersion of T. pisiformis within the street dog population was assessed and found to be significantly aggregated and well described by a negative binomial model of overdispersion (variance/mean ratio: 5.16, coefficient k = 0.795). A separate analysis was carried out of infection in each of 18 circumscribed regional areas of Cairo which revealed considerable area-to-area differences with mean intensities varying between 1.62 and 6.54 and prevalences between 43.3% and 91.2%. The size structure of the winter and spring worm samples were very similar with about 45% of worms less than 35 cm in length, about 35% between 35 and 59 cm, about 20% between 60 and 100 cm and less than 5% greater than 100 cm in length. The epidemiological factors which lead to high T. pisiformis infection levels in Cairo dogs have been considered and the consumption of discarded rabbit offal containing Cysticercus pisiformis by street dogs is regarded as a crucial mode of transmission. PMID:1765671

  18. Identification and functional characterization of alpha-enolase from Taenia pisiformis metacestode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaohua; Guo, Aijiang; Zhu, Xueliang; You, Yanan; Hou, Junling; Wang, Qiuxia; Luo, Xuenong; Cai, Xuepeng

    2015-04-01

    Enolase belongs to glycolytic enzymes with moonlighting functions. The role of enolase in Taenia species is still poorly understood. In this study, the full length of cDNA encoding for Taenia pisiformis alpha-enolase (Tpeno) was cloned from larval parasites and soluble recombinant Tpeno protein (rTpeno) was produced. Western blot indicated that both rTpeno and the native protein in excretion-secretion antigens from the larvae were recognized by anti-rTpeno monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). The primary structure of Tpeno showed the presence of a highly conserved catalytic site for substrate binding and an enolase signature motif. rTpeno enzymatic activities of catalyzing the reversible dehydration of 2-phosphoglycerate (2-PGA) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and vice versa were shown to be 30.71 ± 2.15 U/mg (2-PGA to PEP) and 11.29 ± 2.38 U/mg (PEP to 2-PGA), respectively. Far-Western blotting showed that rTpeno could bind to plasminogen, however its binding ability was inhibited by ?-aminocaproic acid (?ACA) in a competitive ELISA test. Plasminogen activation assay showed that plasminogen bound to rTpeno could be converted into active plasmin using host-derived activators. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence indicated that Tpeno was distributed in the bladder wall of the metacestode and the periphery of calcareous corpuscles. In addition, a vaccine trial showed that the enzyme could produce a 36.4% protection rate in vaccinated rabbits against experimental challenges from T. pisiformis eggs. These results suggest that Tpeno with multiple functions may play significant roles in the migration, growth, development and adaptation of T. pisiformis for survival in the host environment. PMID:25623259

  19. Successful immunization of naturally reared pigs against porcine cysticercosis with a recombinant oncosphere antigen vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Jayashi, César M.; Kyngdon, Craig T.; Gauci, Charles G.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium causes cysticercosis in pigs and taeniasis and neurocysticercosis in humans. Oncosphere antigens have proven to be effective as vaccines to protect pigs against an experimental infection with T. solium. A pair-matched vaccination trial field, using a combination of two recombinant antigens, TSOL16 and TSOL18, was undertaken in rural villages of Peru to evaluate the efficacy of this vaccine under natural conditions. Pairs of pigs (n = 137) comprising one vaccinated and one control animal, were allocated to local villagers. Animals received two vaccinations with 200 ?g of each of TSOL16 and TSOL18, plus 5 mg Quil-A. Necropsies were performed 7 months after the animals were distributed to the farmers. Vaccination reduced 99.7% and 99.9% (p < 0.01) the total number of cysts and the number of viable cysts, respectively. Immunization with the TSOL16–TSOL18 vaccines has the potential to control T. solium transmission in areas where the disease is endemic, reducing the source for tapeworm infections in humans. PMID:22541797

  20. Rare case of disseminated cysticercosis and taeniasis in a Japanese traveler after returning from India.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ken-ichiro; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Nishiguchi, Takeshi; Isoda, Kenichi; Kokubo, Yasumasa; Ando, Katsuhiko; Katurahara, Masaki; Sako, Yasuhito; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Ito, Akira; Iwabuchi, Sentaro; Ohnishi, Kenji

    2013-07-01

    We report disseminated cysticercosis concurrent with taeniasis in a 31-year-old male Japanese, who had visited India three times and stayed for 1 month each time during the previous 1 year. The patient presented increasing numbers of subcutaneous nodules and expelled proglottids, although numerous cysts were also found in the brain in imaging findings, though no neurological symptoms were observed. Histopathological and serological findings strongly indicated cysticercosis. We found taeniid eggs in his stool by microscopic examination and revealed them as the Indian haplotype of Taenia solium by mitochondrial DNA analysis. We concluded that disseminated cysticercosis was caused by the secondary autoinfection with eggs released from the tapeworm carrier himself. After confirming the absence of adult worms in the intestine by copro-polymerase chain reaction, the patient was successfully treated with albendazole at a dose of 15 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Subcutaneous and intracranial lesions had completely disappeared by the end of the treatment period. PMID:23629930

  1. Risk factors for human cysticercosis morbidity: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Cao, W; van der Ploeg, C P; Xu, J; Gao, C; Ge, L; Habbema, J D

    1997-10-01

    A population-based case-control study to determine social and behavioural risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis in humans was carried out in a rural area. Shandong province, China. Forty-eight cases with cysticercosis were ascertained through a prevalence survey conducted among 7281 persons in 1993. For each case, four controls residing in the same village and matched for age and sex were randomly selected. Information regarding demographic, social and behavioural factors was collected during house visits through interviews and direct observation. Risk factors strongly associated with human cysticercosis included poor personal hygiene, being unable to recognize cysticerci-containing meat, poor pig-raising practices and a history of passing tapeworm proglottides. The results indicate that health education in combination with chemotherapy for taeniasis is required for the control of cysticercosis in humans. PMID:9363022

  2. Interview--Hector H. Garcia. Iinterviewed by Christo Hall.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Hector H

    2012-09-01

    Prof. Garcia is a Wellcome Trust Senior International Research Fellow in Public Health and Tropical Medicine and a Coordinating Member of the Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru. Neurocysticercosis is a global health problem and is majorly responsible for the high prevalence of epilepsy in the developing world. Despite the introduction of potent cysticidal drugs, this parasitic disease continues to pose a threat to millions of people living in these areas. More recent efforts, directed to interrupt all interrelated steps in the life cycle of the causal agent, the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, will undoubtedly reduce the impact burden of the disease. In this regard, the work of Dr. Hector H. Garcia is commendable, as he is co-directing a large-scale control program for the disease complex Taeniasis-cysticercosis in Tumbes, Perú , whose final lresults we are anxiously awaiting. PMID:23265548

  3. Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    García, H.H.; Gonzalez, A.E.; Rodriguez, S.; Tsang, V.C.W.; Pretell, E.J.; Gonzales, I.; Gilman, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    A single enhancing lesion in the brain parenchyma, also called an inflammatory granuloma, is a frequent neurologic diagnosis. One of the commonest causes of this lesion is human neurocysticercosis, the infection by the larvae of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Following the demonstration that viable cysticercosis cysts survive in good conditions for several years in the human brain, single cysticercal granulomas have been consistently interpreted as representing late degeneration of a long-established parasite. On the basis of epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory evidence detailed in this article, we hypothesize that in most cases these inflammatory lesions correspond to parasites that die in the early steps of infection, likely as the natural result of the host immunity overcoming mild infections. GLOSSARY NCC = neurocysticercosis; SCG = single cysticercal granuloma. PMID:20713953

  4. 11/3/08 2:43 PMTale of the Tapeworm (Squeamish Readers Stop Here) -New York Times Page 1 of 2http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/08/health/08case.html?_r=1&pagewanted=print&oref=slogin

    E-print Network

    Davis, Richard E.

    11/3/08 2:43 PMTale of the Tapeworm (Squeamish Readers Stop Here) - New York Times Page 1 of 2http of the Tapeworm (Squeamish Readers Stop Here) By LARRY ZAROFF, M.D. This is a Jewish fish story. Or more of the Tapeworm (Squeamish Readers Stop Here) - New York Times Page 2 of 2http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/08/health

  5. Inhibition of Tapeworm Thioredoxin and Glutathione Pathways by an Oxadiazole N-Oxide Leads to Reduced Mesocestoides vogae Infection Burden in Mice.

    PubMed

    Pasquet, Vivian; Bisio, Hugo; López, Gloria V; Romanelli-Cedrez, Laura; Bonilla, Mariana; Saldaña, Jenny; Salinas, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic flatworms cause serious infectious diseases that affect humans and livestock in vast regions of the world, yet there are few effective drugs to treat them. Thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR) is an essential enzyme for redox homeostasis in flatworm parasites and a promising pharmacological target. We purified to homogeneity and characterized the TGR from the tapeworm Mesocestoides vogae (syn. M. corti). This purification revealed absence of conventional TR and GR. The glutathione reductase activity of the purified TGR exhibits a hysteretic behavior typical of flatworm TGRs. Consistently, M. vogae genome analysis revealed the presence of a selenocysteine-containing TGR and absence of conventional TR and GR. M. vogae thioredoxin and glutathione reductase activities were inhibited by 3,4-bis(phenylsulfonyl)-1,2,5-oxadiazole N2-oxide (VL16E), an oxadiazole N-oxide previously identified as an inhibitor of fluke and tapeworm TGRs. Finally, we show that mice experimentally infected with M. vogae tetrathyridia and treated with either praziquantel, the reference drug for flatworm infections, or VL16E exhibited a 28% reduction of intraperitoneal larvae numbers compared to vehicle treated mice. Our results show that oxadiazole N-oxide is a promising chemotype in vivo and highlights the convenience of M. vogae as a model for rapid assessment of tapeworm infections in vivo. PMID:26132905

  6. Ecological aspects of the occurrence of asian tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934 infection in the largemouth yellowfish, Labeobarbus kimberleyensis ( Gilchrist and Thompson, 1913) in the Vaal Dam, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retief, N.-R.; Avenant-Oldewage, A.; du Preez, H. H.

    Infection of fish by the Asian tapeworm can damage intestines and cause abnormal growth. Eighty largemouth yellowfish Labeobarbus kimberleyensis were collected in the Vaal Dam (26°52.249?S, 28°10.249?E) with the aid of gill nets during a study between April 2005 and February 2006. The fish were killed and the weight and length determined. Thereafter the intestines were removed, the length determined and the intestines opened to expose the tapeworms. The distance between the beginning of the intestine and the attachment position of the first tapeworm was measured, and thereafter all the worms were collected. The prevalence, abundance and mean intensity was calculated for all the surveys. Seasonality and intensity of tapeworms were compared to the intestine and total lengths of the fish. All the tapeworms were identified as the Asian Tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934. The position of the first tapeworm was located between 10% and 20% from the anterior end of the intestine in close proximity to the bile opening. A total of 100% prevalence was recorded for all the surveys and the highest mean intensity of 231.1 was recorded during the autumn survey. The lowest mean intensity of 73.7 was recorded during the summer survey. Although the infection rates were very high, the fish condition was good and apparently the fecundity of the fish was not negatively affected as young fish fry was collected during the summer survey. Parasite numbers are higher and differ from a study conducted in 2000 and this is attributed to water temperature and water quality. No correlation was observed between parasite intensity and total length of each fish. This indicates that intensity is not dependant on host size and that infection is not the result of a buildt of over years.

  7. Visual diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercosis during meat inspection: is it unequivocal?

    PubMed

    Abuseir, S; Epe, C; Schnieder, T; Klein, G; Kühne, M

    2006-09-01

    A total of 267 cysts were collected from March to December 2004 from two main abattoirs in northern Germany. The cysts were classified by the usual organoleptic methods during meat inspection as Cysticercus bovis. The reported prevalence of cysticercosis in the abattoirs was 0.48 and 1.08%, respectively. The cysts were examined macroscopically for description of their morphology and constituents and classified as viable or degenerating (dead). The DNA was extracted from these cysts and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for evaluation of the detection methods used and to make certain that the cysts did indeed belong to C. bovis, as indicated at the slaughterhouses. Two sets of primers were used with different sensitivity levels. The first, HDP1, was able to detect 200 fg of Taenia saginata DNA and 100 pg of C. bovis DNA. The other primer set, HDP2, was able to detect 1 pg of T. saginata DNA and 1 ng of C. bovis DNA. No more than 52.4% of the samples tested positive for C. bovis in the PCR using both primers, while 20% of the viable cysts and 49.2% of the degenerating cysts tested negative with both primers. PMID:16583204

  8. An epidemiological survey on the determination of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Iran, using a PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, S; Setayesh, A; Shekarforoush, S S; Fariman, S H

    2013-04-27

    Bovine cysticercosis caused by Taenia saginata is a zoonotic disease affirming routine inspection measures for the postmortem detection of cysticerci (cysts) in beef destined for human consumption. Detection is based on gross examination of traditional carcase predilection sites; although there is evidence to suggest that examination of other sites may offer improvements in sensitivity. In the current study, a biomolecular-based assay was employed to confirm and differentiate T saginata cysticercosis from other comparable parasitic infection in cattle carcases. Out of 7371 cattle carcases routinely inspected, 72 (0.97 per cent) were initially detected, from which 57 (79.16 per cent), 11(15.27 per cent) and 4 (5.55 per cent) were recorded in masseter muscle, heart and diaphragm, respectively. The PCR assay was also conducted to confirm different stages of the cysts, being able to detect the cyst, and to discriminate its various degenerative stages with other parasitic structures. The technique was proposed as a reliable tool to differentiate the cysticerci and, thus, could be used in further epidemiological studies as there was no difference in view of negative PCR results in lesions found by routine inspection. PMID:23571031

  9. Cloning and characterization of a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease from Taenia pisiformis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuxia; Zhang, Shaohua; Luo, Xuenong; Hou, Junling; Zhu, Xueliang; Cai, Xuepeng

    2013-05-01

    Rabbit cysticercosis, caused by the larval stage of Taenia pisiformis, is a serious parasitic disease of rabbits. It was reported that some cysteine peptidases have potential roles in the pathogenesis of various parasitic infections. To investigate the biochemical characteristics and roles in the pathogenesis/host-invasion of cysteine peptidases, a cDNA sequence encoding for a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease (TpCP) was cloned and identified from the T. pisiformis metacestodes. This sequence was 1220 bp in its length, which included a 1017 bp open reading frame encoding a 339 amino acid peptide. Multiple sequence alignments revealed a 28.9-88.5% similarity with cathepsin L-like cysteine proteases from other helminth parasites and mammals. The recombinant TpCP expressed in Escherichia coli did not show the proteolytic activity by zymography gel assay. However, the TpCP expressed in Pichia pastoris had typical biochemical activities that could hydrolyze rabbit immunoglobulin G, bovine serum albumin and fibronectin. Substrate studies indicated pronounced cleavage of Z-Phe-Arg-AMC. This activity was sensitive to cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 and immunohistochemistry results also indicated that TpCP was distributed as an intense positive reaction in the bladder wall. Our results gave us insights into future studies of TpCP's roles in the infection. PMID:23411373

  10. Oncospheral Penetration Glands and Secretory Blebs Are the Sources of Taenia ovis Vaccine Antigens? †

    PubMed Central

    Jabbar, Abdul; Crawford, Simon; Gauci, Charles G.; Walduck, Anna K.; Anderson, Garry A.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

    2010-01-01

    Taenia ovis is a cestode parasite infecting primarily sheep as intermediate hosts and dogs as definitive hosts. The first highly effective, recombinant vaccine against a parasitic organism was developed against T. ovis infection in sheep. Three separate host-protective antigens (To16, To18, and To45W) have been cloned from the oncosphere of the parasite. We localize these antigens in the oncosphere by using quantitative immunogold labeling and transmission electron microscopy. The three antigens were uniquely associated with penetration gland cells. The cytoplasm and secretory granules of both penetration gland type 1 and type 2 cells exhibited statistically significant levels of staining for each of the three antigens. The intensity of labeling of the penetration gland type 1 cell was approximately three to five times greater (P < 0.01) compared to the level of staining intensity seen in the penetration gland type 2 cell. In activated oncospheres, secretory blebs were found to contain granules with a structure similar to those observed in the penetration gland cells. The granules within the secretory blebs were shown to stain specifically for the presence of each of the three host-protective antigens. The absence of surface location of the T. ovis antigens suggests that the parasite may not be susceptible to vaccine-induced antibody- and complement-mediated attack until some postoncospheral development has occurred after infection of the intermediate host. PMID:20643854

  11. A preliminary investigation into the genetic variation and population structure of Taenia hydatigena from Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Boufana, Belgees; Scala, Antonio; Lahmar, Samia; Pointing, Steve; Craig, Philip S; Dessì, Giorgia; Zidda, Antonella; Pipia, Anna Paola; Varcasia, Antonio

    2015-11-30

    Cysticercosis caused by the metacestode stage of Taenia hydatigena is endemic in Sardinia. Information on the genetic variation of this parasite is important for epidemiological studies and implementation of control programs. Using two mitochondrial genes, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) we investigated the genetic variation and population structure of Cysticercus tenuicollis from Sardinian intermediate hosts and compared it to that from other hosts from various geographical regions. The parsimony cox1 network analysis indicated the existence of a common lineage for T. hydatigena and the overall diversity and neutrality indices indicated demographic expansion. Using the cox1 sequences, low pairwise fixation index (Fst) values were recorded for Sardinian, Iranian and Palestinian sheep C. tenuicollis which suggested the absence of genetic differentiation. Using the ND1 sequences, C. tenuicollis from Sardinian sheep appeared to be differentiated from those of goat and pig origin. In addition, goat C. tenuicollis were genetically different from adult T. hydatigena as indicated by the statistically significant Fst value. Our results are consistent with biochemical and morphological studies that suggest the existence of variants of T. hydatigena. PMID:26296591

  12. Update on the distribution of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, in the U.S. and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choudhury, A.; Charipar, E.; Nelson, P.; Hodgson, J.R.; Bonar, S.; Cole, Rebecca A.

    2006-01-01

    The documented range of the invasive and potentially pathogenic Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934 in the United States and Canada is updated based on examination of museum depositions and original field collections. Gravid specimens of B. acheilognathi were collected from the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Rafinesque in Peter Lake, at the University of Notre Dame Environmental Research Center (UNDERC) Land o' Lakes, Wisconsin. A single immature specimen of the parasite was collected from a white bass, Morone chrysops (Rafinesque) in Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. This is the first record of B. acheilognathi in Canada and extends its northern range in the interior of the continent by more than 600 miles over the last documented record. The previous record of B. acheilognathi in Canada, from the northern pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus oregonensis in British Columbia, is a misidentification of Eubothrium tulipai. Examination of selected records of intestinal cestodes from native cyprinids, in the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology (HWML, n = 9) collection and in the United States National Parasite Collection (USNPC, n = 8), provided evidence of the parasite in Nebraska and possibly in the upper Colorado River basin. Introductions into Wisconsin-Michigan were due to the stocking of golden shiners, whereas the source of the introduction in Manitoba remains unknown.

  13. Complete Sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta: Gene arrangements indicate that platyhelminths are eutrochozoans

    SciTech Connect

    von Nickisch-Rosenegk, Markus; Brown, Wesley M.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2001-01-01

    Using ''long-PCR'' we have amplified in overlapping fragments the complete mitochondrial genome of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) and determined its 13,900 nucleotide sequence. The gene content is the same as that typically found for animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) except that atp8 appears to be lacking, a condition found previously for several other animals. Despite the small size of this mtDNA, there are two large non-coding regions, one of which contains 13 repeats of a 31 nucleotide sequence and a potential stem-loop structure of 25 base pairs with an 11-member loop. Large potential secondary structures are identified also for the non-coding regions of two other cestode mtDNAs. Comparison of the mitochondrial gene arrangement of H. diminuta with those previously published supports a phylogenetic position of flatworms as members of the Eutrochozoa, rather than being basal to either a clade of protostomes or a clade of coelomates.

  14. Zoonotic foodborne parasites and their surveillance.

    PubMed

    Murrell, K D

    2013-08-01

    Humans suffer from several foodborne helminth zoonotic diseases, some of which can be deadly (e.g., trichinellosis, cerebral cysticercosis) while others are chronic and cause only mild illness (e.g., intestinal taeniosis). The route of infection is normally consumption of the parasite's natural host as a human food item (e.g., meat). The risk for infection with these parasites is highest wherever people have an inadequate knowledge of infection and hygiene, poor animal husbandry practices, and unsafe management and disposal of human and animal waste products. The design of surveillance and control strategies for the various foodborne parasite species, and the involvement of veterinary and public health agencies, vary considerably because of the different life cycles of these parasites, and epidemiological features. Trichinella spiralis, which causes most human trichinellosis, is acquired from the consumption of pork, although increasingly cases occur from eating wild game. For cysticercosis, however, the only sources for human infection are pork (Taenia solium) or beef (T. saginata). The chief risk factor for infection of humans with these parasites is the consumption of meat that has been inadequately prepared. For the pig or cow, however, the risk factors are quite different between Trichinella and Taenia. For T. spiralis the major source of infection of pigs is exposure to infected animal meat (which carries the infective larval stage), while for both Taenia species it is human faecal material contaminated with parasite eggs shed by the adult intestinal stage of the tapeworm. Consequently, the means for preventing exposure of pigs and cattle to infective stages of T. spiralis, T. solium, and T. saginata vary markedly, especially the requirements for ensuring the biosecurity of these animals at the farm. The surveillance strategies and methods required for these parasites in livestock are discussed, including the required policy-level actions and the necessary collaborations between the veterinary and medical sectors to achieve a national reporting and control programme. PMID:24547659

  15. Tribendimidine and Albendazole for Treating Soil-Transmitted Helminths, Strongyloides stercoralis and Taenia spp.: Open-Label Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Steinmann, Peter; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Du, Zun-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Xiao, Shu-Hua; Wu, Zhong-Xing; Zhou, Hui; Utzinger, Jürg

    2008-01-01

    Background Tribendimidine is an anthelminthic drug with a broad spectrum of activity. In 2004 the drug was approved by Chinese authorities for human use. The efficacy of tribendimidine against soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura) has been established, and new laboratory investigations point to activity against cestodes and Strongyloides ratti. Methodology/Principal Findings In an open-label randomized trial, the safety and efficacy of a single oral dose of albendazole or tribendimidine (both drugs administered at 200 mg for 5- to 14-year-old children, and 400 mg for individuals ?15 years) against soil-transmitted helminths, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Taenia spp. were assessed in a village in Yunnan province, People's Republic of China. The analysis was on a per-protocol basis and the trial is registered with controlled-trials.com (number ISRCTN01779485). Both albendazole and tribendimidine were highly efficacious against A. lumbricoides and, moderately, against hookworm. The efficacy against T. trichiura was low. Among 57 individuals who received tribendimidine, the prevalence of S. stercoralis was reduced from 19.3% to 8.8% (observed cure rate 54.5%, p?=?0.107), and that of Taenia spp. from 26.3% to 8.8% (observed cure rate 66.7%, p?=?0.014). Similar prevalence reductions were noted among the 66 albendazole recipients. Taking into account “new” infections discovered at treatment evaluation, which were most likely missed pre-treatment due to the lack of sensitivity of available diagnostic approaches, the difference between the drug-specific net Taenia spp. cure rates was highly significant in favor of tribendimidine (p?=?0.001). No significant adverse events of either drug were observed. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that single-dose oral tribendimidine can be employed in settings with extensive intestinal polyparasitism, and its efficacy against A. lumbricoides and hookworm was confirmed. The promising results obtained with tribendimidine against S. stercoralis and Taenia spp. warrant further investigations. In a next step, multiple-dose schedules should be evaluated. PMID:18923706

  16. Androgens Exert a Cysticidal Effect upon Taenia crassiceps by Disrupting Flame Cell Morphology and Function

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosio, Javier R.; Valverde-Islas, Laura; Nava-Castro, Karen E.; Palacios- Arreola, M. Isabel; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Escobedo, Galileo; Ruíz-Rosado, Azucena; Dominguez-Ramírez, Lenin; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The effects of testosterone (T4) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the survival of the helminth cestode parasite Taenia crassiceps, as well as their effects on actin, tubulin and myosin expression and their assembly into the excretory system of flame cells are described in this paper. In vitro evaluations on parasite viability, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, video-microscopy of live flame cells, and docking experiments of androgens interacting with actin, tubulin, and myosin were conducted. Our results show that T4 and DHT reduce T. crassiceps viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, reaching 90% of mortality at the highest dose used (40 ng/ml) and time exposed (10 days) in culture. Androgen treatment does not induce differences in the specific expression pattern of actin, tubulin, and myosin isoforms as compared with control parasites. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a strong disruption of the parasite tegument, with reduced assembly, shape, and motion of flame cells. Docking experiments show that androgens are capable of affecting parasite survival and flame cell morphology by directly interacting with actin, tubulin and myosin without altering their protein expression pattern. We show that both T4 and DHT are able to bind actin, tubulin, and myosin affecting their assembly and causing parasite intoxication due to impairment of flame cell function. Live flame cell video microscopy showing a reduced motion as well changes in the shape of flame cells are also shown. In summary, T4 and DHT directly act on T. crassiceps cysticerci through altering parasite survival as well as the assembly and function of flame cells. PMID:26076446

  17. Epidemiological updates and economic losses due to Taenia hydatigena in sheep from Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Scala, A; Pipia, A P; Dore, F; Sanna, G; Tamponi, C; Marrosu, R; Bandino, E; Carmona, C; Boufana, B; Varcasia, A

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology and transmission of Taenia hydatigena in sheep and dogs from Sardinia and the economic estimation of losses due to this metacestodosis in lambs. A total of 7781 Sarda breed lambs were examined at abattoirs for the detection of Cysticercus tenuicollis or necrotic-haemorrhagic tracks of their migration. Morphological and molecular identification of parasites was carried out. Individual faecal samples from 300 dogs were examined for copromicroscopic investigations and coproELISA assay. An overall prevalence of 14.6% for T. hydatigena cysticercosis was found in the examined lambs. In total, 10,807 parasitary tracks were found, with an abundance of 1.39 and an average intensity of 9.52. The molecular analysis of the isolates showed an overall pairwise nucleotide divergence for the CO1 and ND1 was of 0-3.1 and 0-3.3%, respectively. Low intra- and interspecific variation was recorded for C. tenuicollis isolates used in this study which suggested the absence of differentiation. Microscopic examination of dog faeces showed a total prevalence of 31.3% for endoparasites in the examined samples (94/300). Taeniid eggs were found in 8.3% of the dogs. The results of the monoclonal antibody ATH4 ELISA test showed a prevalence of 11% (33/300) for T. hydatigena coproantigens. The total economic costs related to cysticercosis amounted to almost € 330,000. The prevalence of C. tenuicollis in 14.6% of 30-40-day-old lambs highlights the high parasitic pressure by T. hydatigena in the territory of Sardinia, Italy. PMID:25968992

  18. The prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in the Matabeleland Provinces of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Sungirai, Marvelous; Masaka, Lawrence; Mbiba, Clifton

    2014-04-01

    Records were collected for Taenia saginata cysticercosis infections in cattle slaughtered at the Cold Storage Company Abattoir in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, between January 2006 and December 2007. The cattle were drawn from the two Matabeleland provinces in the dry western and southern parts of the country. A total of 86,080 cattle were slaughtered during the period. The average prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis was found to be 1.6% (n = 1 364) with Matabeleland North having a higher prevalence of 2.8% (n = 629) and Matabeleland South 1.2% (n = 735). There were no significant seasonal differences (p > 0.05) in incidences of T. saginata cysticercosis during the study although numerically, the prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis was higher in the wet season. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis in different age classes of cattle slaughtered. Of the infected carcasses, a great proportion of these had live cysts (1.4%) while few had dead cysts (0.2%). Most of the cattle condemned were below the age of 2 years and some were full adults (p < 0.05). There was a significant association between farm type (p < 0.05) and prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis with most infections being observed in the communal farming system. Though the prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis appears to be low, there is a need to conscientize the farmers to avoid losses due to carcasses condemnation at slaughter houses which will have a negative financial impact to the individual farmer. There is also a need to investigate such cases even further to reduce zoonotic consequences due to the undetected cases in communal areas. PMID:24429809

  19. Preferential infection sites of Cysticercus bovis in cattle experimentally infected with Taenia saginata eggs.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Welber D Z; Santos, Thaís R; Soares, Vando E; Nunes, Jorge L N; Mendonça, Rafael P; de Lima, Roberto C A; Sakamoto, Cláudio A M; Costa, Gustavo H N; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Oliveira, Gilson P; Costa, Alvimar J

    2011-02-01

    The preferential sites of infection of Cysticercus bovis were evaluated in the skeletal muscle and entrails of 25 cattle that were experimentally infected with Taenia saginata (2×10(4) eggs). Two other animals were not inoculated (control). Ninety days after inoculation, all the cattle were euthanized. The carcasses were deboned and dissected into 26 anatomical sections (masseter muscles, brain, tongue, esophagus, heart, diaphragm, lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen, top sirloin butt, bottom sirloin butt, outside round, top (inside) round, transversus abdominus, top sirloin cap, strip loin, full tenderloin, eye of round, knuckle, shoulder clod, foreshank, shank, chuck, back ribs, and tail muscles). The dissected tissues were sliced into 5mm sections. From the 25 cattle, 9258 C. bovis (cysticerci) were recovered; 75.02% (6946) of these were recovered from skeletal muscles and 24.98% (2312) from the entrails. A high parasitism level was found in the shoulder clod (12.55%), heart (11.02%), liver (9.48%), masseter muscles (8.51%), chuck (8.25%), strip loin and full tenderloin (7.26%), knuckle (6.63%), and back ribs (5.53%), totaling 69.23% (5738) of all of the detected cysticerci. On the other hand, there was a low C. bovis parasitism level in the brain, spleen, tail muscles, kidneys, esophagus, and diaphragm, representing just 3.9% of the total number of cysticerci. Given these results, we conclude that specific skeletal musculature regions, such as the shoulder blade, chuck, strip loin and full tenderloin, knuckle, back ribs and top round, which are not officially examined in many countries, are effective sites to efficiently screen C. bovis infection. To date, these regions have not been considered as preferential sites of C. bovis infection. Based on our work, however, these regions deserve greater attention from health inspectors because they contained a greater number of Cysticercus than the other regions of carcasses that are parasitized by T. saginata larvae. PMID:20493507

  20. Identification of neglected cestode Taenia multiceps microRNAs by illumina sequencing and bioinformatic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Worldwide, but especially in developing countries, coenurosis of sheep and other livestock is caused by Taenia multiceps larvae, and zoonotic infections occur in humans. Infections frequently lead to host death, resulting in huge socioeconomic losses. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have important roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of a large number of animal genes by imperfectly binding target mRNAs. To date, there have been no reports of miRNAs in T. multiceps. Results In this study, we obtained 12.8 million high quality raw reads from adult T. multiceps small RNA library using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 796 conserved miRNA families (containing 1,006 miRNAs) from 170,888 unique miRNAs were characterized using miRBase (Release 17.0). Here, we selected three conserved miRNA/miRNA* (antisense strand) duplexes at random and amplified their corresponding precursors using a PCR-based method. Furthermore, 20 candidate novel miRNA precursors were verified by genomic PCR. Among these, six corresponding T. multiceps miRNAs are considered specific for Taeniidae because no homologs were found in other species annotated in miRBase. In addition, 181,077 target sites within T. multiceps transcriptome were predicted for 20 candidate newly miRNAs. Conclusions Our large-scale investigation of miRNAs in adult T. multiceps provides a substantial platform for improving our understanding of the molecular regulation of T. multiceps and other cestodes development. PMID:23941076

  1. Distribution of Taenia saginata cysticerci in tissues of experimentally infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Scandrett, Brad; Parker, Sarah; Forbes, Lorry; Gajadhar, Alvin; Dekumyoy, Paron; Waikagul, Jitra; Haines, Deborah

    2009-10-14

    Bovine cysticercosis caused by Taenia saginata is a zoonotic disease warranting routine inspection measures for the postmortem detection of cysticerci (cysts) in beef destined for human consumption. Detection is based on gross examination of traditional carcass predilection sites, although there is evidence to suggest that examination of other sites may offer improvements in sensitivity. In order to evaluate the efficacy of current inspection protocols, this study determined the distribution and number of cysticerci in the tissues of experimentally infected cattle. Forty-two commercial beef cattle were divided into five groups of 5-12 animals each and inoculated with either 10,000, 5000, 1000, 100 or 10 T. saginata eggs. At time points ranging from 47 to 376 days post-inoculation (DPI), 10 animals inoculated with 5000 eggs were killed and the carcasses partitioned into 31 tissue sites. These consisted of the traditionally inspected tissue sites of heart, masseter and pterygoid muscles, tongue, oesophagus, and diaphragm (membranous and crura); as well as non-traditional sites of lung, liver and an additional 20 individual muscles or muscle groups. After performing the Canadian Food inspection Agency's (CFIA) routine inspection protocol for cysticerci on traditional tissue sites, tissues from all sites were cut into approximately 0.5 cm thick slices and the total number of parasitic cysts and cyst density (number of cysts/g of tissue) determined for each site. Traditional sites were similarly evaluated for the remaining 32 animals killed between 117 and 466 DPI. Sites were ranked based on cyst density. Infection was confirmed in 37 animals, of which only 20 were detected by routine inspection, and of which 7 harboured no cysts in traditional sites. For the animals in which additional non-traditional sites were evaluated, none yielded higher cyst densities than those traditionally inspected. When only traditional sites (for all animals) were compared, the heart ranked highest overall, although it was not significantly different from the masseter muscle, and was the most frequently affected site. The traditional site of oesophagus was one of the least rewarding of all sites for detection of cysticerci. The heart was confirmed as the preferred site for detection of bovine cysticercosis based on high cyst density and frequency of infection, and greater visibility of gross lesions due to the early inflammatory response in cardiac muscle. More extensive examination of the heart is recommended to improve detection of infected animals. PMID:19524368

  2. Calcium-induced calcium release mechanism in guinea pig taenia caeci

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Fura-2 was used to measure the amount of Ca released from the intracellular Ca store of a saponin-skinned smooth muscle fiber bundle of the guinea pig taenia caeci (width, 150-250 microns) placed in a capillary cuvette at 20-22 degrees C. The amount of Ca actively loaded into the store was assayed when released by the application of 50 mM caffeine and/or 10 microM inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) in the absence of ATP, and was found to have a biphasic dependence on the loading [Ca2+] with a peak near pCa 6. After Ca loading at pCa 6, IP3 released almost all the releasable Ca, whereas caffeine discharged Ca from only approximately 40% of the store. The maximum amount of Ca in the store was some 220 mumol/liter cell water. Ca in the caffeine- releasable store was released approximately exponentially to zero with time when Ca2+ was applied in the absence of ATP, and the rate constant of the Ca-induced Ca release (CICR) increased steeply with the concentration of Ca2+ applied. Increase in [Mg2+] (0.5-5.0 mM) or decrease in pH (7.3-6.7) shifted the relation between pCa and the rate of CICR roughly in parallel toward the lower pCa. An adenine nucleotide increased the rate of the CICR, but it did not change the range of effective [Ca2+]. 5 mM caffeine greatly enhanced the CICR mechanism, making it approximately 30 times more sensitive to [Ca2+]. However the drug had no Ca-releasing action in the absence of Ca2+. Procaine in millimolar concentrations inhibited the rate of the CICR. These properties are similar to those of the skeletal muscle CICR and ryanodine receptor channels. Rates of the CICR under a physiological ionic milieu were estimated from the results, and a [Ca2+] greater than 1 microM was expected to be necessary for the activation of the Ca release. This Ca sensitivity seems too low for the CICR mechanism to play a primary physiological role in Ca mobilization, unless assisted by other mechanisms. PMID:2794970

  3. Isolation and partial characterization of an eosinophil chemotactic factor from metacestodes of Taenia taeniaeformis (ECF-Tt).

    PubMed

    Potter, K A; Leid, R W

    1986-03-01

    Eosinophil chemotactic activity associated with protein extracts of Taenia taeniaeformis metacestodes was investigated. Chemotactic activity was associated with the nonbound protein after QAE cellulose chromatography of a 3 M KCl extract of homogenized larvae. When this material was precipitated with ammonium sulfate, activity was present in the 40 to 80% precipitate. Upon rechromatography on QAE cellulose equilibrated in a low ionic strength buffer, eosinophil chemotactic activity was retained by the gel and eluted after application of the NaCl gradient. Gel filtration of Sephacryl S-300 yielded an estimated m.w. of 91,000. Chromatofocusing revealed a broad peak of activity with a pI of 4.5 to 5.0. SDS-PAGE showed the active fraction migrated as a protein with a m.w. of 10,400. ECF-Tt had chemotactic and chemokinetic activity for equine eosinophils and murine eosinophils, but not for equine and murine neutrophils. PMID:3512706

  4. Calcium and the action of adrenaline, adenosine triphosphate and carbachol on guinea-pig taenia caeci.

    PubMed

    Den Hertog, A

    1982-04-01

    1. The action of adrenaline (in the presence of propranolol; 3 x 10(-6) M), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and carbachol on guinea-pig taenia caeci, and the interaction between these agonists, was studied by measuring changes in membrane potential using the sucrose-gap method in quiescent preparations at 22 degrees C.2. A sustained hyperpolarization was caused by addition of adrenaline (3 x 10(-6) M) and by applying adenosine triphosphate (ATP; 4 x 10(-4) M) for 5 min in Krebs solution. In calcium-free medium containing EGTA (0.4 mM) and high magnesium (6.2 mM), both the alpha-agonist and ATP caused a transient hyperpolarization which passed off within 5 min, although the agonist was still present.3. The transient hyperpolarization evoked by these agonists in the absence of calcium could be evoked only once. The response was restored after exposure to high calcium, (40 mM for 2 s, or 10 mM for 30 s). The maximum amplitudes of the hyperpolarization caused by adrenaline or ATP after exposure to high calcium (40 mM or 10 mM) were similar, while the maximum hyperpolarization after application of 2.5 mM-calcium was smaller.4. The area of the maximal response evoked by adrenaline or ATP was independent of the exposure time to calcium-free solution after removal of the extracellular calcium (20 min). The sum of the areas of a first submaximal response, obtained by applying adrenaline for less than 5 min to the calcium-free solution (20 min), and of the second response (5 min application) elicited after continuing in calcium-free medium for another 8 min, was constant.5. In the presence of the bee toxin apamin (10(-7) M), addition of ATP (4 x 10(-4) M) caused depolarization of the membrane both in the presence and absence of external calcium. These responses were not blocked in low sodium solution (22.7 mM) but were reduced by the calcium antagonist D600 (2 x 10(-5) M).6. In calcium-free conditions the alpha-response to adrenaline was decreased by a preceding addition of ATP and vice versa. Abolition of the ATP response (4 x 10(-4) M) by adrenaline (10(-5) M) was prevented by blocking the alpha-receptors with phentolamine (2 x 10(-5) M).7. Carbachol (5 x 10(-7)-5 x 10(-5) M) depolarized the muscle cells in calcium-free medium; a second addition of carbachol also caused depolarization, the amplitude being lower. The carbachol depolarization was dependent on the exposure time to calcium-free solution.8. The adrenaline response was reduced by about 25% by carbachol if applied previously, independent of the carbachol concentration (5 x 10(-7)-5 x 10(-5) M). The carbachol response, however, was not affected if preceded by the alpha-response.9. It is concluded that ATP and the alpha-agonist, after binding to their receptor sites, activate the same mechanism, which is mobilization of calcium from the same membrane compartment to open potassium channels, causing hyperpolarization of the muscle cell membrane; the hyperpolarization is transient or sustained in nature depending on the availability of external calcium to replenish the calcium compartment localized in the membrane. This adrenaline and ATP-sensitive calcium compartment is distinct from that which is sensitive to carbachol. PMID:7108782

  5. Calcium and the action of adrenaline, adenosine triphosphate and carbachol on guinea-pig taenia caeci

    PubMed Central

    den Hertog, Adriaan

    1982-01-01

    1. The action of adrenaline (in the presence of propranolol; 3 × 10-6 M), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and carbachol on guinea-pig taenia caeci, and the interaction between these agonists, was studied by measuring changes in membrane potential using the sucrose-gap method in quiescent preparations at 22 °C. 2. A sustained hyperpolarization was caused by addition of adrenaline (3 × 10-6 M) and by applying adenosine triphosphate (ATP; 4 × 10-4 M) for 5 min in Krebs solution. In calcium-free medium containing EGTA (0·4 mM) and high magnesium (6·2 mM), both the ?-agonist and ATP caused a transient hyperpolarization which passed off within 5 min, although the agonist was still present. 3. The transient hyperpolarization evoked by these agonists in the absence of calcium could be evoked only once. The response was restored after exposure to high calcium, (40 mM for 2 s, or 10 mM for 30 s). The maximum amplitudes of the hyperpolarization caused by adrenaline or ATP after exposure to high calcium (40 mM or 10 mM) were similar, while the maximum hyperpolarization after application of 2·5 mM-calcium was smaller. 4. The area of the maximal response evoked by adrenaline or ATP was independent of the exposure time to calcium-free solution after removal of the extracellular calcium (20 min). The sum of the areas of a first submaximal response, obtained by applying adrenaline for less than 5 min to the calcium-free solution (20 min), and of the second response (5 min application) elicited after continuing in calcium-free medium for another 8 min, was constant. 5. In the presence of the bee toxin apamin (10-7 M), addition of ATP (4 × 10-4 M) caused depolarization of the membrane both in the presence and absence of external calcium. These responses were not blocked in low sodium solution (22·7 mM) but were reduced by the calcium antagonist D600 (2 × 10-5 M). 6. In calcium-free conditions the ?-response to adrenaline was decreased by a preceding addition of ATP and vice versa. Abolition of the ATP response (4 × 10-4 M) by adrenaline (10-5 M) was prevented by blocking the ?-receptors with phentolamine (2 × 10-5 M). 7. Carbachol (5 × 10-7-5 × 10-5 M) depolarized the muscle cells in calcium-free medium; a second addition of carbachol also caused depolarization, the amplitude being lower. The carbachol depolarization was dependent on the exposure time to calcium-free solution. 8. The adrenaline response was reduced by about 25% by carbachol if applied previously, independent of the carbachol concentration (5 × 10-7-5 × 10-5 M). The carbachol response, however, was not affected if preceded by the ?-response. 9. It is concluded that ATP and the ?-agonist, after binding to their receptor sites, activate the same mechanism, which is mobilization of calcium from the same membrane compartment to open potassium channels, causing hyperpolarization of the muscle cell membrane; the hyperpolarization is transient or sustained in nature depending on the availability of external calcium to replenish the calcium compartment localized in the membrane. This adrenaline and ATP-sensitive calcium compartment is distinct from that which is sensitive to carbachol. PMID:7108782

  6. Platyhelminthes in tongue--a rare case and review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, D S; Goyal, Arun K; Tandon, Padam Narayan; Jurel, Sunit K; Srivastava, Shilpi; Dangi, Uday R; Singh, Sudhansu; Jain, Ravi

    2012-11-01

    Humans are the only known definitive host of the tapeworm Taenia solium and become a carrier by eating undercooked pork contaminated with "Cysticercus cellulosae" (cysticerci). Pigs act as an intermediate host and acquire cysticercosis by ingestion of eggs or proglottids from human feces, which develop into cysticerci within tissue, mostly without causing clinical symptoms in the host. Cysticercosis occurs in humans in a context of "fecal peril" by ingestion of egg-contaminated soil, water, vegetation, or auto-infestation. It has been reported in the published data that the separation of swine from humans, healthy cooking, and hygienic practices would lead to the eradication of the disease. However, cysticercosis is still a major public health problem in endemic regions, with more than 50 million infected people and is now a re-emerging disease in industrialized countries owing to human migration. It is the second most common cause of seizures in tropical countries. We report a case of oral cysticercosis in a 28-year-old woman who presented with a painless swelling in the ventral portion of the tongue. An excisional biopsy was performed, and histopathologic examination revealed a cystic cavity containing the tapeworm. PMID:22364857

  7. [Epidemiology of cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis].

    PubMed

    Bouteille, B

    2014-01-01

    Within the genus Taenia, three species are human parasites: T. solium, T. saginata and a new uncommon species, T. asiatica, described recently in Asia. T. saginata and T. solium live as adult tapeworms in human intestines, where they cause taeniasis. T. saginata is widely present worldwide, in all regions where cattle are bred. T. solium is endemic in many countries where livestock and consumption of pigs are common. Cattle and pigs become infected by ingesting eggs emitted by humans into the environment and serve as the respective intermediate hosts of these helminths and host larval forms, or metacestodes or cysticerci. Cysticerci develop into adult worms in the human intestines after a person has eaten contaminated raw or undercooked meat. In the T. solium, eggs are also human contaminants. Humans, like swine, can develop cysticercosis after ingesting eggs with water or contaminated food, or via dirty hands. The clinical manifestations of cysticercosis are highly variable both in kind and in severity. The period between initial infection and the onset of symptoms can also vary. The clinical expression of cysticercosis is generally dependent on the number, size and location of the cysts, as well as the host immune response to the parasite. The preferred locations are the muscles, subcutaneous tissues, central nervous system (CNS), and eyes. Subcutaneous and muscular forms are often asymptomatic. Severe cysticercosis is due to larvae located in human CNS - neurocysticercosis. The World Health Organization (WHO) lists neurocysticercosis as a neglected tropical disease. It estimates that about 50 million people worldwide have neurocysticercosis in the world and that it causes about 50,000 deaths each year. Its most frequent clinical manifestations are seizures, intracranial hypertension, neurological deficits, and sometimes psychiatric manifestations. It is also responsible for more than 50% of the cases of late-onset epilepsy in developing countries. The T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis complex is endemic in many developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Although T. solium had virtually disappeared in developed countries due to industrialization, improved methods of husbandry, and health checks, cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis are diagnosed anew in North America, Europe and Australia due to increased immigration from endemic areas. Cysticercosis is considered an eradicable disease. Although theoretically feasible, this concept has been replaced by projects to control and reduce the impact of cysticercosis on human health (through mass treatment of people, veterinary control of pigs, improved farming techniques, and health education). PMID:25296005

  8. Sex differences in frass production and weight change in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) infected with cysticercoids of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda).

    PubMed

    Shea, John F

    2005-01-01

    In their intermediate host, parasites alter aspects of host physiology including waste production and body weight. Further, this alteration may differ between female and male hosts. To study this, a beetle (Tenebrio molitor)-tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta) system was used. Infected and uninfected male and female beetles were individually housed in vials without food. Each beetle's weight change and frass production were measured over 24 h periods at 3, 7, 12 and 16 days post-infection. Treatment (infection) had no effect on weight change, but males lost more weight than females. Further, infected females produced more frass than control females. Males on the day of infection had a higher food intake than females. These results suggest that males will be more exposed to infection than females and could explain why males had a higher median cysticercoid infection level. PMID:17119613

  9. Sex differences in frass production and weight change in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) infected with cysticercoids of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda)

    PubMed Central

    Shea, John F.

    2005-01-01

    In their intermediate host, parasites alter aspects of host physiology including waste production and body weight. Further, this alteration may differ between female and male hosts. To study this, a beetle (Tenebrio molitor)-tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta) system was used. Infected and uninfected male and female beetles were individually housed in vials without food. Each beetle's weight change and frass production were measured over 24 h periods at 3, 7, 12 and 16 days post-infection. Treatment (infection) had no effect on weight change, but males lost more weight than females. Further, infected females produced more frass than control females. Males on the day of infection had a higher food intake than females. These results suggest that males will be more exposed to infection than females and could explain why males had a higher median cysticercoid infection level. PMID:17119613

  10. Spasmogenic effect of the aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica L. (Caesalpiniaceae) on the contractile activity of guinea-pig taenia coli.

    PubMed

    Souza, A; Aka, K J

    2007-01-01

    The effect of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica (AETI) was studied on the guinea pig taenia coli, due to its use for treatment of constipation in traditional medicines. AETI, at concentrations ranging from 10(-8) mg/ml to 10(-2) mg/ml, increased the spontaneous contractile activity of guinea pig taenia coli in a dose-dependent manner (EC50 = 4x10(-6) mg/ml). This activity was unaffected by atropine. In high K(+), Ca(2+)-free solution containing EDTA, AETI as well as acetylcholine, used as a control, induced tonic contraction. These results suggest that the plant extract exert a spasmogenic effect that would not involve cholinergic mechanism of action. However, these active principles could mobilize both extra cellular calcium and intracellular calcium from internal stores. PMID:20161887

  11. Estimating the Burden of Neurocysticercosis in Mexico 

    E-print Network

    Bhattarai, Rachana

    2012-10-19

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic disease caused by the larva of the zoonotic cestode Taenia solium. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the distribution of presenting clinical manifestations of NCC, to evaluate the socio...

  12. Porcine cysticercosis in southeast Uganda: seroprevalence in Kamuli and Kaliro districts 

    E-print Network

    Waiswa, C; Fèvre, E M; Nsadha, Z; Sikasunge, C S; Willingham III, A L

    2009-01-01

    The recent recognition of neurocysticercosis as a major cause of epilepsy in Uganda and changes in pig demography have lead to a need to better understand the basic epidemiology of Taenia solium infections in pigs and ...

  13. Phage-displayed peptides as capture antigens in an innovative assay for Taenia saginata-infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Fogaça, Rafaela L; Capelli-Peixoto, Janaína; Yamanaka, Isabel B; de Almeida, Rodrigo P M; Muzzi, João Carlos D; Borges, Mariangela; Costa, Alvimar J; Chávez-Olortegui, Carlos; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Alvarenga, Larissa M; de Moura, Juliana

    2014-11-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is detected during the routine post mortem examination of carcasses by visual inspection (knife and eye method). However, the sensitivity of this procedure is several times lower than immunoassays, even when it is performed by qualified professionals. In the present study, a new generation capture antigens were screened from a phage display peptide library using antibodies from Taenia saginata-infected animals. Eight phage clones were selected, and one, Tsag 3 (VHTSIRPRCQPRAITPR), produced similar results to the T. saginata metacestode crude antigen (TsCa) when used as a capture antigen in an ELISA. The phage-displayed peptides competed with TsCa for binding sites, reducing the reactivity by approximately 30 %. Alanine scanning indicated that proline, arginine, and serine are important residues for antibody binding. Tsag 1 (HFYQITWLPNTFPAR), the most frequent affinity-selected clone, and Tsag 6 (YRWPSTPSASRQATL) shared similarity with highly conserved proteins from the Taeniidae family with known immunogenicity. Due to their epitopic or mimotopic properties, these affinity-selected phages could contribute to the rational design of an ante mortem immunodiagnosis method for bovine cysticercosis, as well as an epitope-based vaccine to interrupt the taeniosis/cysticercosis complex. PMID:25081558

  14. Specificity of a coproantigen ELISA test for fasciolosis: lack of cross-reactivity with Paramphistomum cervi and Taenia hydatigena.

    PubMed

    Kajugu, P-E; Hanna, R E B; Edgar, H W; Forster, F I; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2012-11-17

    A commercial coproantigen ELISA test for fasciolosis, based on the use of MM3 monoclonal antibody for antigen capture, was investigated for possible cross-reactivity with Paramphistomum cervi, a trematode that commonly infects cattle and sheep grazing in fluke-infested pasture in Ireland. Histological sections of adult and immature Fasciola hepatica and P cervi were incubated with MM3 monoclonal antibody, and its binding to tissue-localised coproantigen was subsequently visualised by immunocytochemistry. In a related study, the soluble antigenic fractions derived from homogenates of P cervi adults and Taenia hydatigena metacestodes were tested for cross-reactivity with MM3 monoclonal antibody in an antigen-capture ELISA, using known F hepatica-positive and F hepatica-negative ovine faecal samples as natural controls. It was found that, while intense immunocytochemical labelling was located over the gastrodermis and gut contents of adult and immature F hepatica, sections of adult and immature P cervi were unlabelled. In the ELISA tests, the soluble fractions of F hepatica reacted strongly with MM3 monoclonal antibody, but those of P cervi and T hydatigena gave negative results. These findings support the specificity of the coproantigen ELISA test for fasciolosis in areas where paramphistomosis and cysticercosis are liable to occur singly or as coinfections with F hepatica. PMID:23077134

  15. Arrhythmic Song Exposure Increases ZENK Expression in Auditory Cortical Areas and Nucleus Taeniae of the Adult Zebra Finch

    PubMed Central

    Lampen, Jennifer; Jones, Katherine; McAuley, J. Devin; Chang, Soo-Eun; Wade, Juli

    2014-01-01

    Rhythm is important in the production of motor sequences such as speech and song. Deficits in rhythm processing have been implicated in human disorders that affect speech and language processing, including stuttering, autism, and dyslexia. Songbirds provide a tractable model for studying the neural underpinnings of rhythm processing due to parallels with humans in neural structures and vocal learning patterns. In this study, adult zebra finches were exposed to naturally rhythmic conspecific song or arrhythmic song. Immunohistochemistry for the immediate early gene ZENK was used to detect neural activation in response to these two types of stimuli. ZENK was increased in response to arrhythmic song in the auditory association cortex homologs, caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) and caudomedial mesopallium (CMM), and the avian amygdala, nucleus taeniae (Tn). CMM also had greater ZENK labeling in females than males. The increased neural activity in NCM and CMM during perception of arrhythmic stimuli parallels increased activity in the human auditory cortex following exposure to unexpected, or perturbed, auditory stimuli. These auditory areas may be detecting errors in arrhythmic song when comparing it to a stored template of how conspecific song is expected to sound. CMM may also be important for females in evaluating songs of potential mates. In the context of other research in songbirds, we suggest that the increased activity in Tn may be related to the value of song for assessing mate choice and bonding or it may be related to perception of arrhythmic song as aversive. PMID:25259620

  16. Fatal infection with Taenia martis metacestodes in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in an Italian zoological garden.

    PubMed

    De Liberato, Claudio; Berrilli, Federica; Meoli, Roberta; Friedrich, Klaus G; Di Cerbo, Pilar; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Eleni, Claudia

    2014-10-01

    A case of fatal infection caused by larval forms of Taenia martis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in the Rome zoological garden is described. The animal, living in a semi-natural pen with other 15 conspecific individuals and being fed with fresh fruit and vegetables, yoghurt and eggs, was transported to the Istituto Zooprofilattico of Rome for post-mortem examination. The anamnesis included, ten days before the death, apathy, lack of appetite, abdominal distension and diarrhoea. A severe exudative fibrinous-purulent peritonitis with numerous adhesions between the abdominal wall and the bowel loops was detected. After intestine removal, two free and viable, 4 cm long, whitish, leaf-like parasitic forms were pinpointed. Macroscopic examination of the two parasites allowed their identification as larval stages of cestodes, identified via molecular analysis as T. martis metacestodes. This report represents the first record of T. martis infection in the host species and in a zoological garden and for the pathological relevance of the infection. PMID:24928170

  17. Arrhythmic song exposure increases ZENK expression in auditory cortical areas and nucleus taeniae of the adult zebra Finch.

    PubMed

    Lampen, Jennifer; Jones, Katherine; McAuley, J Devin; Chang, Soo-Eun; Wade, Juli

    2014-01-01

    Rhythm is important in the production of motor sequences such as speech and song. Deficits in rhythm processing have been implicated in human disorders that affect speech and language processing, including stuttering, autism, and dyslexia. Songbirds provide a tractable model for studying the neural underpinnings of rhythm processing due to parallels with humans in neural structures and vocal learning patterns. In this study, adult zebra finches were exposed to naturally rhythmic conspecific song or arrhythmic song. Immunohistochemistry for the immediate early gene ZENK was used to detect neural activation in response to these two types of stimuli. ZENK was increased in response to arrhythmic song in the auditory association cortex homologs, caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) and caudomedial mesopallium (CMM), and the avian amygdala, nucleus taeniae (Tn). CMM also had greater ZENK labeling in females than males. The increased neural activity in NCM and CMM during perception of arrhythmic stimuli parallels increased activity in the human auditory cortex following exposure to unexpected, or perturbed, auditory stimuli. These auditory areas may be detecting errors in arrhythmic song when comparing it to a stored template of how conspecific song is expected to sound. CMM may also be important for females in evaluating songs of potential mates. In the context of other research in songbirds, we suggest that the increased activity in Tn may be related to the value of song for assessing mate choice and bonding or it may be related to perception of arrhythmic song as aversive. PMID:25259620

  18. Partial reverse of the TCA cycle is enhanced in Taenia crassiceps experimental neurocysticercosis after in vivo treatment with anthelminthic drugs.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Leandro, Leticia; Fraga, Carolina Miguel; de Souza Lino, Ruy; Vinaud, Marina Clare

    2014-04-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common helminthic infection and neglected disease of the central nervous system. It is the leading cause of acquired epilepsy and seizures worldwide. Therefore, to study this important neglected disease, it is important to use experimental models. There is no report in the literature on how the parasite's metabolism reacts to antihelminthic treatment when it is still within the central nervous system of the host. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the energetic metabolism of cysticerci experimentally inoculated in the encephala of BALB/c mice after treatment with low dosages (not sufficient to kill the parasite) of albendazole (ABDZ) and praziquantel (PZQ). BALB/c mice were intracranially inoculated with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci and, after 30 days, received treatment with low dosages of ABDZ and PZQ. After 24 h of treatment, the mice were euthanized, and the cysticerci were removed and analyzed through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the organic acids related to the energetic metabolism of the parasite. The partial reverse of the TCA cycle was enhanced by the ABDZ and PZQ treatments both with the higher dosage, as the organic acids of this pathway were significantly increased when compared to the control group and to the other dosages. In conclusion, it was possible to detect the increase of this pathway in the parasites that were exposed to low dosages of ABDZ and PZQ, as it is a mechanism that would amplify the energy production in a hostile environment. PMID:24481905

  19. Experimental infection of the endangered bonytail chub (Gila elegans) with the Asian fish tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi): impacts on survival, growth, and condition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, S.P.; Choudhury, A.; Heisey, D.M.; Ahumada, J.A.; Hoffnagle, T.L.; Cole, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, a tapeworm known to be pathogenic to some fish species, has become established in the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha Miller, 1964) in Grand Canyon, USA, following the tapeworm's introduction into the Colorado River system. The potential impact of this tapeworm on humpback chub was studied by exposing the closely related bonytail chub (Gila elegans Baird and Girard, 1853) to the parasite under a range of conditions that included potential stressors of humpback chub in their natal waters, such as abrupt temperature change and a limited food base. Survival of infected fish under low food rations was considerably lower than that of control fish, and mortality of infected fish began 20days earlier. Growth of infected fish was significantly reduced, and negative changes in health condition indices were found. No significant negative impacts were revealed from the synergistic effects between temperature shock and infection. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi does present a potential threat to humpback chub in Grand Canyon and should be considered, along with conventional concerns involving altered flow regimes and predation, when management decisions are made concerning conservation of this endangered species.// Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, un ver plat connu comme pathog??ne pour certaines esp??ces de poissons, s'est associ?? au A (Gila cypha Miller, 1964), une esp??ce menac??e du Grand Canyon, ??.-U., apr??s l'introduction du ver dans le r??seau hydrographique du Colorado. Nous avons ??tudi?? l'impact potentiel de ce ver plat sur le m??n?? bossu en exposant l'esp??ce proche Gila elegans Baird et Girard, 1853 au parasite sous une gamme de conditions qui incluent les facteurs potentiels de stress des m??n??s bossus dans leurs cours d'eau d'origine, tels que les changements abrupts de temp??rature et des ressources alimentaires limit??es. La survie des poissons infect??s dans des conditions de nourriture limit??e est substantiellement r??duite par comparaison aux poissons t??moins et la mortalit?? des poissons infect??s d??bute 20 jours plus t?'t. La croissance des poissons infect??s est significativement r??duite et il y a des changements n??gatifs dans les indicateurs des conditions de sant??. Il n'y a pas d'impact n??gatif significatif apparent des effets de synergie du choc thermique et de l'infection. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi est donc une menace potentielle pour le m??n?? bossu dans le Grand Canyon et il devra ??tre pris en consid??ration, au m??me titre que les pr??occupations habituelles au sujet de la modification du r??gime des eaux et de la pr??dation, lorsque des d??cisions seront prises au sujet de la conservation de cette esp??ce menac??e.

  20. 21 CFR 520.1447 - Milbemycin oxime, lufenuron, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...canis, Toxascaris leonina ), adult hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum ), adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis ), and adult tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus multilocularis, and E. granulosus ) infections in dogs and puppies 2 pounds of...

  1. 21 CFR 524.775 - Emodepside and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...adults, and fourth stage larvae), roundworm infections caused by Toxocara cati (adults and fourth stage larvae), and tapeworm infections caused by Dipylidium caninum (adults) and Taenia taeniaeformis (adults). (3) Limitations ....

  2. 21 CFR 520.581 - Dichlorophene tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...dichlorophene) for each 10 pounds of body weight. (2) Indications for use. It is used as an aid in the removal of tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis and Dipylidium caninum ). (3) Limitations. Withhold solid foods and milk for at least...

  3. 21 CFR 520.581 - Dichlorophene tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...dichlorophene) for each 10 pounds of body weight. (2) Indications for use. It is used as an aid in the removal of tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis and Dipylidium caninum ). (3) Limitations. Withhold solid foods and milk for at least...

  4. 21 CFR 524.775 - Emodepside and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...adults, and fourth stage larvae), roundworm infections caused by Toxocara cati (adults and fourth stage larvae), and tapeworm infections caused by Dipylidium caninum (adults) and Taenia taeniaeformis (adults). (3) Limitations ....

  5. 21 CFR 520.1447 - Milbemycin oxime, lufenuron, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...canis, Toxascaris leonina ), adult hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum ), adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis ), and adult tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus multilocularis, and E. granulosus ) infections in dogs and puppies 2 pounds of...

  6. 21 CFR 520.581 - Dichlorophene tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...dichlorophene) for each 10 pounds of body weight. (2) Indications for use. It is used as an aid in the removal of tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis and Dipylidium caninum ). (3) Limitations. Withhold solid foods and milk for at least...

  7. 21 CFR 520.580 - Dichlorophene and toluene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...and Toxascaris leonina ) and hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala ); and as an aid in removing tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus granulosus ) from dogs and cats. (3)...

  8. 21 CFR 524.775 - Emodepside and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...adults, and fourth stage larvae), roundworm infections caused by Toxocara cati (adults and fourth stage larvae), and tapeworm infections caused by Dipylidium caninum (adults) and Taenia taeniaeformis (adults). (3) Limitations ....

  9. 21 CFR 520.580 - Dichlorophene and toluene capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and Toxascaris leonina ) and hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala ) and as an aid in removing tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus granulosus ) from dogs and cats. (3)...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1447 - Milbemycin oxime, lufenuron, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...canis, Toxascaris leonina ), adult hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum ), adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis ), and adult tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus multilocularis, and E. granulosus ) infections in dogs and puppies 2 pounds of...

  11. 21 CFR 520.580 - Dichlorophene and toluene capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Toxascaris leonina ) and hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala ) and as an aid in removing tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus granulosus ) from dogs and cats. (3)...

  12. 21 CFR 520.581 - Dichlorophene tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...dichlorophene) for each 10 pounds of body weight. (2) Indications for use. It is used as an aid in the removal of tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis and Dipylidium caninum ). (3) Limitations. Withhold solid foods and milk for at least...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1445 - Milbemycin oxime and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...canis, Toxascaris leonina ), adult hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum ), adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis ), and adult tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus multilocularis, and E. granulosus ) infections in dogs and puppies 2 pounds of...

  14. 21 CFR 520.580 - Dichlorophene and toluene capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Toxascaris leonina ) and hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala ) and as an aid in removing tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus granulosus ) from dogs and cats. (3)...

  15. 21 CFR 524.775 - Emodepside and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...adults, and fourth stage larvae), roundworm infections caused by Toxocara cati (adults and fourth stage larvae), and tapeworm infections caused by Dipylidium caninum (adults) and Taenia taeniaeformis (adults). (3) Limitations ....

  16. 21 CFR 520.1445 - Milbemycin oxime and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...canis, Toxascaris leonina ), adult hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum ), adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis ), and adult tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus multilocularis, and E. granulosus ) infections in dogs and puppies 2 pounds of...

  17. 21 CFR 520.581 - Dichlorophene tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...dichlorophene) for each 10 pounds of body weight. (2) Indications for use. It is used as an aid in the removal of tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis and Dipylidium caninum ). (3) Limitations. Withhold solid foods and milk for at least...

  18. 21 CFR 524.775 - Emodepside and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...adults, and fourth stage larvae), roundworm infections caused by Toxocara cati (adults and fourth stage larvae), and tapeworm infections caused by Dipylidium caninum (adults) and Taenia taeniaeformis (adults). (3) Limitations....

  19. 21 CFR 520.580 - Dichlorophene and toluene capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 520.580, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... stenocephala) and as an aid in removing tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis, Dipylidium caninum, and...

  20. 21 CFR 520.580 - Dichlorophene and toluene capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 520.580, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... stenocephala) and as an aid in removing tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis, Dipylidium caninum, and...

  1. 21 CFR 520.580 - Dichlorophene and toluene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... citations affecting § 520.580, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus granulosus) from dogs and cats....

  2. 21 CFR 520.580 - Dichlorophene and toluene capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on GPO... Uncinaria stenocephala) and as an aid in removing tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis, Dipylidium caninum,...

  3. 21 CFR 520.580 - Dichlorophene and toluene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... citations affecting § 520.580, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus granulosus) from dogs and cats....

  4. Molecular characterization of the Indian poultry nodular tapeworm, Raillietina echinobothrida (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Davaineidae) based on rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 region.

    PubMed

    Ramnath; Jyrwa, D B; Dutta, A K; Das, B; Tandon, V

    2014-03-01

    The nodular tapeworm, Raillietina echinobothrida is a well studied avian gastrointestinal parasite of family Davaineidae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea). It is reported to be the largest in size and second most prevalent species infecting chicken in north-east India. In the present study, morphometrical methods coupled with the molecular analysis of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region of ribosomal DNA were employed for precise identification of the parasite. The annotated ITS2 region was found to be 446 bp long and further utilized to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships and its species-interrelationships at the molecular level. In phylogenetic analysis similar topology was observed among the trees obtained by distance-based neighbor-joining as well as character-based maximum parsimony tree building methods. The query sequence R. echinobothrida is well aligned and placed within the Davaineidae group, with all Raillietina species well separated from the other cyclophyllidean (taeniid and hymenolepid) cestodes, while Diphyllobothrium latum (Pseudophyllidea: Diphyllobothriidae) was rooted as an out-group. Sequence similarities indeed confirmed our hypothesis that Raillietina spp. are neighboring the position with other studied species of order Cyclophyllidea against the out-group order Pseudophyllidea. The present study strengthens the potential of ITS2 as a reliable marker for phylogenetic reconstructions. PMID:24505172

  5. High morphological plasticity and global geographical distribution of the Pacific broad tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus (syn. Diphyllobothrium pacificum): molecular and morphological survey.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Orts, Jesús Servando; Scholz, Tomáš; Brabec, Jan; Kuzmina, Tetiana; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-09-01

    The most important causative agent of human diphyllobothriosis in South America, Diphyllobothrium pacificum, is transferred to the original genus Adenocephalus Nybelin, 1931; revised and redescribed on the basis of the evaluation of an extensive material collected mainly from northern fur seal, Callorhinus ursinus, from St. Paul Island, Alaska. Detailed analysis of morphological and morphometrical data shows a high variability in most of the characteristics traditionally used in diagnosis of diphyllobothriid tapeworms. Phylogenetic analyses based on newly characterised sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and nuclear large subunit ribosomal RNA genes consistently reveal Adenocephalus pacificus as a sister lineage to the clade formed of the remaining Diphyllobothrium species and other genera (Digramma, Diplogonoporus, Ligula). Despite the generally similar morphology, A. pacificus can be differentiated from the closely related taxa in the presence of transverse papilla-like tegumental protuberances distributed anteriorly, separated by narrow semicircular grooves on the ventral surface of proglottids between their anterior margin and the anterior edge of the male gonopore, and relatively small eggs. A. pacificus displays a relatively low host specificity (found in 9 of 16 otariids, and in accidental hosts such as man, dog and jackal, the latter representing a new host) and a uniquely wide geographical distribution on both hemispheres. In addition, suitability of morphological criteria used in diagnostics of diphyllobothriid cestodes is discussed. PMID:26001974

  6. Distribution of Taenia saginata metacestodes: a comparison of routine meat inspection and carcase dissection results in experimentally infected calves

    PubMed Central

    SOARES, V E; DE ANDRADE BELO, M A; REZENDE, P C B; SOCCOL, V T; FUKUDA, R T; DE OLIVEIRA, G P; DA COSTA, A J

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of techniques for detecting the presence of Cysticercus bovis in bovine carcasses was made by using carcass dissection and routine beef inspection guidelines. In the study, 28 calves were used after they were tested and found to be negative for the presence of anti-C. bovis serum antibodies and were inoculated orally with aliquots containing 6×104 Taenia saginata eggs. One hundred and twenty days after inoculation, the animals were slaughtered and a post mortem evaluation was done following Brazilian Federal Beef Inspection guidelines. This routine meat inspection was able to identify 71.42% of the assessed infected carcasses as being parasitized. This result implies that 28.58% of the infected carcasses would have been released as fit for human consumption since they would have been considered as free of C. bovis infection when using this method for carcass assessment. Only 3.07% of the total 2311 metacestodes present in the carcasses were identified by the conventional procedures of sanitary inspection. The assessment of different parts of the carcasses showed high infestation rates in shoulder clod (14.37%), head (11.21%), neck+chuck roll (8.05%), heart (7.75%) and top (inside) round (7.18%) which, together, were responsible for housing 48.51% of all the cysts found in the 24 beef cuts assessed. These numbers contrasted to the low incidence of cysts found in organs such as tongue (3.12%), diaphragm (1.69%) and esophagus (1.60%) which are usually described as predilection sites for the parasite. PMID:21929881

  7. Evaluation of a serological method for the detection of Taenia saginata cysticercosis using serum and meat juice samples.

    PubMed

    Abuseir, S; Kühne, M; Schnieder, T; Klein, G; Epe, C

    2007-06-01

    Two peptides, HP6-2 and Ts45S-10, were used as antigens for the detection of antibodies against Taenia saginata cysticercosis in serum and meat juice samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positive control samples were obtained from animals experimentally infected (serum) and from animals naturally infected (meat juice). The two peptides and a pooled preparation of both peptides were evaluated, and their cut-off points with both sample categories were calculated. ELISA results from these different peptides were compared. Sensitivity and specificity of HP6-2 using serum were calculated as being 100 and 98%, respectively, showing to be higher than the values for the other antigens used. The average optical density (OD) value for negative samples was 0.646, whereas it was 1.702 for the positive control samples. This peptide was used to examine serum samples from animals with cysts and random field serum samples. For meat juice samples the pooled peptides showed the highest sensitivity and specificity, as they were 100 and 95%, respectively. The average OD values for the negative and the positive reference meat juice samples were 0.379 and 1.291, respectively. The optimal dilution of the meat juice samples for the ELISA was very low, as it was 1:20 using the pooled peptides, compared with 1:800 serum dilution using HP6-2. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a successful testing for T. saginata cysticercosis using meat juice. PMID:17216238

  8. Distribution of Taenia saginata metacestodes: a comparison of routine meat inspection and carcase dissection results in experimentally infected calves.

    PubMed

    Soares, V E; De Andrade Belo, M A; Rezende, P C B; Soccol, V T; Fukuda, R T; De Ooliveira, G P; Da Costa, A J

    2011-07-01

    A comparison of techniques for detecting the presence of Cysticercus bovis in bovine carcasses was made by using carcass dissection and routine beef inspection guidelines. In the study, 28 calves were used after they were tested and found to be negative for the presence of anti-C. bovis serum antibodies and were inoculated orally with aliquots containing 6×10(4) Taenia saginata eggs. One hundred and twenty days after inoculation, the animals were slaughtered and a post mortem evaluation was done following Brazilian Federal Beef Inspection guidelines. This routine meat inspection was able to identify 71·42% of the assessed infected carcasses as being parasitized. This result implies that 28·58% of the infected carcasses would have been released as fit for human consumption since they would have been considered as free of C. bovis infection when using this method for carcass assessment. Only 3·07% of the total 2311 metacestodes present in the carcasses were identified by the conventional procedures of sanitary inspection. The assessment of different parts of the carcasses showed high infestation rates in shoulder clod (14·37%), head (11·21%), neck+chuck roll (8·05%), heart (7·75%) and top (inside) round (7·18%) which, together, were responsible for housing 48·51% of all the cysts found in the 24 beef cuts assessed. These numbers contrasted to the low incidence of cysts found in organs such as tongue (3·12%), diaphragm (1·69%) and esophagus (1·60%) which are usually described as predilection sites for the parasite. PMID:21929881

  9. A large 28S rDNA-based phylogeny confirms the limitations of established morphological characters for classification of proteocephalidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda).

    PubMed

    de Chambrier, Alain; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Fisseha, Makda; Scholz, Tomáš; Mariaux, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Proteocephalidean tapeworms form a diverse group of parasites currently known from 315 valid species. Most of the diversity of adult proteocephalideans can be found in freshwater fishes (predominantly catfishes), a large proportion infects reptiles, but only a few infect amphibians, and a single species has been found to parasitize possums. Although they have a cosmopolitan distribution, a large proportion of taxa are exclusively found in South America. We analyzed the largest proteocephalidean cestode molecular dataset to date comprising more than 100 species (30 new), including representatives from 54 genera (80%) and all subfamilies, thus significantly improving upon previous works to develop a molecular phylogeny for the group. The Old World origin of proteocephalideans is confirmed, with their more recent expansion in South America. The earliest diverging lineages are composed of Acanthotaeniinae and Gangesiinae but most of the presently recognized subfamilies (and genera) appear not to be monophyletic; a deep systematic reorganization of the order is thus needed and the present subfamilial system should be abandoned. The main characters on which the classical systematics of the group has been built, such as scolex morphology or relative position of genital organs in relation to the longitudinal musculature, are of limited value, as demonstrated by the very weak support for morphologically-defined subfamilies. However, new characters, such as the pattern of uterus development, relative ovary size, and egg structure have been identified, which may be useful in defining phylogenetically well-supported subgroups. A strongly supported lineage infecting various snakes from a wide geographical distribution was found. Although several improvements over previous works regarding phylogenetic resolution and taxon coverage were achieved in this study, the major polytomy in our tree, composed largely of siluriform parasites from the Neotropics, remained unresolved and possibly reflects a rapid radiation. The genus Spasskyellina Freze, 1965 is resurrected for three species of Monticellia bearing spinitriches on the margins of their suckers. PMID:25987870

  10. Growth hormone-like factor produced by the tapeworm, Spirometra mansonoides, displaces human growth hormone (hGH) from its receptors on cultured human lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, D.J.; Phares, C.K.

    1986-03-01

    An analogue of hGH isolated from plerocercoids of the tapeworm Spirometra mansonoides displaces (/sup 125/I)hGH from its receptors in rabbit, rat, and hamster liver membranes. Biologically, plerocercoid growth factor (PGF) is more similar to hGH than to other mammalian GH's but has not been shown to bond human cells. Receptors specific for hGH have been described on cultured human lymphocytes (IM-9). In this study, the authors compared the binding of PGF and hGH in IM-9 cells and in rabbit hepatic membranes. IM-9 lymphocytes (12 x 10/sup 6/ cells/tube) were incubated with (/sup 125/I)hGH and increasing concentrations of hGH (ng/ml) or PGF (serial dilutions) for 90 min at 30/sup 0/ C. Specific binding (B/sub 0/ - NSB) was determined for each dose of hGH or PGF and the binding curves were analyzed by logit-log regression. The results show that PGF displaced (/sup 125/I)hGH from human cells in a dose dependent manner (r = 0.98). Based on the IM-9 assay, 1 ml of the PGF had an activity equivalent to 625 ng of the hGH standard (ngE). However, the binding activity of the PGF in the rabbit liver RRA was 1653 ngE/ml, indicating that the binding potency of PGF in IM-9 cells was only 38% of that in the rabbit liver. These results clearly demonstrate that PGF binds hGH receptors in cells of human origin, suggesting that PGF will be effective in humans.

  11. A large 28S rDNA-based phylogeny confirms the limitations of established morphological characters for classification of proteocephalidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda)

    PubMed Central

    de Chambrier, Alain; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Fisseha, Makda; Scholz, Tomáš; Mariaux, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Proteocephalidean tapeworms form a diverse group of parasites currently known from 315 valid species. Most of the diversity of adult proteocephalideans can be found in freshwater fishes (predominantly catfishes), a large proportion infects reptiles, but only a few infect amphibians, and a single species has been found to parasitize possums. Although they have a cosmopolitan distribution, a large proportion of taxa are exclusively found in South America. We analyzed the largest proteocephalidean cestode molecular dataset to date comprising more than 100 species (30 new), including representatives from 54 genera (80%) and all subfamilies, thus significantly improving upon previous works to develop a molecular phylogeny for the group. The Old World origin of proteocephalideans is confirmed, with their more recent expansion in South America. The earliest diverging lineages are composed of Acanthotaeniinae and Gangesiinae but most of the presently recognized subfamilies (and genera) appear not to be monophyletic; a deep systematic reorganization of the order is thus needed and the present subfamilial system should be abandoned. The main characters on which the classical systematics of the group has been built, such as scolex morphology or relative position of genital organs in relation to the longitudinal musculature, are of limited value, as demonstrated by the very weak support for morphologically-defined subfamilies. However, new characters, such as the pattern of uterus development, relative ovary size, and egg structure have been identified, which may be useful in defining phylogenetically well-supported subgroups. A strongly supported lineage infecting various snakes from a wide geographical distribution was found. Although several improvements over previous works regarding phylogenetic resolution and taxon coverage were achieved in this study, the major polytomy in our tree, composed largely of siluriform parasites from the Neotropics, remained unresolved and possibly reflects a rapid radiation. The genus Spasskyellina Freze, 1965 is resurrected for three species of Monticellia bearing spinitriches on the margins of their suckers. PMID:25987870

  12. Taenia crassiceps: A secretion-substance of low molecular weight leads to disruption and apoptosis of seminiferous epithelium cells in male mice.

    PubMed

    Zepeda, Nadia; Copitin, Natalia; Solano, Sandra; Fernández, Ana M; Tato, Patricia; Molinari, José L

    2011-07-01

    The present research was performed to isolate and study the effects of a low molecular weight (<1300Da) parasite-associated substance, obtained from peritoneal fluids of female mice infected with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, on seminiferous epithelium cells of male mice testis. The results showed an intense disruption of Sertoli cells and germ cells within the seminiferous tubules of experimental mice, along with the destruction of their gap junction (GJ). Significant generalized apoptosis of germ cells within seminiferous tubules was determined by TUNEL staining (P=0.0159). In addition, a significant number of infiltrating macrophages were found in the luminal space of these seminiferous tubules (P<0.0001). Finally, electron microscopy studies revealed structural and morphological abnormalities in the somatic cells (Sertoli and Leydig cells) and in the germ cells, primarily in the round and elongate spermatids. PMID:21440545

  13. EmTIP, a T-Cell Immunomodulatory Protein Secreted by the Tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis Is Important for Early Metacestode Development

    PubMed Central

    Nono, Justin Komguep; Lutz, Manfred B.; Brehm, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Background Alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by the metacestode of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, is a lethal zoonosis associated with host immunomodulation. T helper cells are instrumental to control the disease in the host. Whereas Th1 cells can restrict parasite proliferation, Th2 immune responses are associated with parasite proliferation. Although the early phase of host colonization by E. multilocularis is dominated by a potentially parasitocidal Th1 immune response, the molecular basis of this response is unknown. Principal Findings We describe EmTIP, an E. multilocularis homologue of the human T-cell immunomodulatory protein, TIP. By immunohistochemistry we show EmTIP localization to the intercellular space within parasite larvae. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot experiments revealed the presence of EmTIP in the excretory/secretory (E/S) products of parasite primary cell cultures, representing the early developing metacestode, but not in those of mature metacestode vesicles. Using an in vitro T-cell stimulation assay, we found that primary cell E/S products promoted interferon (IFN)-? release by murine CD4+ T-cells, whereas metacestode E/S products did not. IFN-? release by T-cells exposed to parasite products was abrogated by an anti-EmTIP antibody. When recombinantly expressed, EmTIP promoted IFN-? release by CD4+ T-cells in vitro. After incubation with anti-EmTIP antibody, primary cells showed an impaired ability to proliferate and to form metacestode vesicles in vitro. Conclusions We provide for the first time a possible explanation for the early Th1 response observed during E. multilocularis infections. Our data indicate that parasite primary cells release a T-cell immunomodulatory protein, EmTIP, capable of promoting IFN-? release by CD4+ T-cells, which is probably driving or supporting the onset of the early Th1 response during AE. The impairment of primary cell proliferation and the inhibition of metacestode vesicle formation by anti-EmTIP antibodies suggest that this factor fulfills an important role in early E. multilocularis development within the intermediate host. PMID:24392176

  14. Carbohydrate components of Taenia crassiceps metacestodes display Th2-adjuvant and anti-inflammatory properties when co-injected with bystander antigen.

    PubMed

    Gómez-García, Lorena; Rivera-Montoya, Irma; Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; Terrazas, Luis I

    2006-09-01

    Common helminth infections promote Th2-skewed immune responses in their hosts. We have studied the role of intact carbohydrate structures on Taenia crassiceps compounds in the induction of biased type 2 and anti-inflammatory immune responses on peptide-stimulated T cells by using DO11.10 transgenic (OVA Tg) mice. While OVA Tg mice co-injected with OVA peptide (323-339) (OVA(323-339)) plus intact Taenia soluble antigens (iTSA) displayed significantly higher titers of OVA-specific IgG1 and total IgE, low amounts of these antibodies were detectable in sera from OVA Tg mice co-injected with OVA(323-339) plus periodate-carbohydrate altered TSA (paTSA). Spleen cells from OVA Tg mice failed to efficiently produce OVA-specific IFN-gamma but displayed higher IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 production when they received OVA(323-339) plus iTSA, compared with OVA Tg mice similarly co-injected with OVA(323-339) plus paTSA. Moreover, after in vivo stimulation with OVA(323-339) plus iTSA, spleen cells did show elevated mRNA transcripts for Arginase 1, Ym1, IL-4, IL-10, TGF-beta, and Mannose Receptor (MR) genes, all them associated with Th2-type and anti-inflammatory responses. Similar results were obtained using TLR4 mutant mice. Together these findings suggest that carbohydrate components in TSA are involved in modulating immune responses to bystander antigens and that do not signal via TLR4. PMID:16598470

  15. Occurrence of porcine cysticercosis in free-ranging pigs delivered to slaughter points in Arapai, Soroti district, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Zirintunda, Gerald; Ekou, Justine

    2015-01-01

    Poverty, hunger and the need for production of pigs with meagre or zero inputs have made most farmers release their pigs to range freely, thus creating a pig-human cycle that maintains Taenia solium, the pig tapeworm and cause of porcine cysticercosis, in the ecosystem. A preliminary study was designed to establish the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis by postmortem examination of the tongue and carcass of free-range pigs from February to April 2014 in Arapai subcounty, Soroti district, eastern Uganda. The tongue of each pig was extended and examined before deep incisions were made and the cut surfaces were examined. The rest of the carcasses were examined for cysts. Out of 178 pigs examined, 32 were qualitatively positive for porcine cysticercosis, representing a prevalence of 18.0%. This high prevalence represents a marked risk to the communities in the study area of neurocysticercosis, a debilitating parasitic zoonosis. Proper human waste disposal by use of pit latrines, confinement of free-range pigs and treatment with albendazole and oxfendazole are recommended. PMID:26244682

  16. Swine immunity to selected parasites.

    PubMed

    Baker, D G; Bryant, J D; Urban, J F; Lunney, J K

    1994-10-01

    Swine parasitism exerts a significant economic impact worldwide. In the United States, the greatest losses are due directly or indirectly to the costs of zoonotic parasitisms. Three of the six most common foodborne parasitic diseases of humans in the United States are associated with pork consumption. These include toxoplasmosis, taeniasis or cysticercosis (caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium), and trichinellosis. Toxoplasmosis is of particular concern because of the fulminating disease that occurs in immunocompromised people. Generalizations and extrapolations of information derived from rodent and human studies, to swine parasitisms, are complicated by immunological differences between the hosts, and by the diverse biological characteristics of internal and external parasites studied. Swine studies thus far reported have demonstrated that protective immunity to helminth infection involves both cellular and humoral mechanisms, with antibodies and antibody-mediated responses playing important roles in preventing establishment of newly acquired larvae. Protection against protozoan parasites is primarily by cell-mediated strategies, whereas protective immunity to arthropod infestation is primarily through humoral mechanisms, principally those associated with type 1 hypersensitivity. PMID:7856043

  17. A rare case of racemose neurocysticercosis and its complications. Case report.

    PubMed

    Pamplona, Jaime; Braz, Ana; Conceição, Carla; Rios, Cristina; Reis, João

    2015-08-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a central nervous system infection caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. The disease is endemic in Central and South America, Asia and Africa. Racemose neurocysticercosis refers to cysts in the subarachnoid space and is characterized by proliferative lobulated cysts without a scolex. We report a case of a 43-year-old woman with an eight-month history of headaches, ataxia and loss of vision. CT and MRI showed an intraventricular cyst, causing entrapment of Monro foramina and hydrocephalus, smaller cysts at subarachnoid space in temporal lobes, Sylvian fissures, supra-selar and perimesencephalic cisterns, and an intra-orbital cyst. Additionally, there were acute ischemic vascular lesions on the left thalamus and corpus callosum splenium and subacute ischemic lesions of both occipital lobes. The diagnosis of racemose cysticercosis was made after biopsy and drainage of the intraventricular cyst. It is important to recognize neurocysticercosis as a differential diagnosis in intra-cranial cysts, not only intraparenchymal cysts. PMID:26416817

  18. Managing neurocysticercosis: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Fogang, Yannick Fogoum; Savadogo, Abdoul Aziz; Camara, Massaman; Toffa, Dènahin Hinnoutondji; Basse, Anna; Sow, Adjaratou Djeynabou; Ndiaye, Mouhamadou Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a major cause of neurological morbidity in the world. Variability in the neuropathology and clinical presentation of NCC often make it difficult to diagnose and manage. Diagnosis of NCC can be challenging especially in endemic and resource-limited countries where laboratory and imaging techniques are often lacking. NCC management can also be challenging as current treatment options are limited and involve symptomatic agents, antiparasitic agents, or surgery. Although antiparasitic treatment probably reduces the number of active lesions and long-term seizure frequency, its efficacy is limited and strategies to improve treatment regimens are warranted. Treatment decisions should be individualized in relation to the type of NCC. Initial measures should focus on symptomatic management, with antiparasitic therapy only to be considered later on, when appropriate. Symptomatic treatment remains the cornerstone in NCC management which should not only focuses on epilepsy, but also on other manifestations that cause considerable burden (recurrent headaches, cognitive decline). Accurate patients’ categorization, better antiparasitic regimens, and definition of new clinical outcomes for trials on NCC could improve management quality and prognosis of NCC. Prevention strategies targeting tapeworm carriers and infected pigs are yielding good results in local models. If local elimination of transmission is confirmed and replicated, this will open the door to cysticercosis eradication efforts worldwide. PMID:26527895

  19. Diagnosis and Treatment of Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Theodore E.; Garcia, Hector H.

    2012-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis, a major cause of acquired seizures and epiilepsy, is caused by infection with the larval cystic form of the tapeworm, Taenia solium. CT and MRI imaging, development of sensitive and specific diagnostic methods, and discovery of relatively effective anti-cestode drugs, revolutionized knowledge of the burden of infection and disease and led to effective treatments. Here we review the rationale of treatment, the essential role of inflammation in the genesis of disease and its exacerbation as a result of anti-parasitic treatment, and limitations in the efficacy of current anti-parasitic and anti-inflammatory treatments. The importance of “end stage” calcified granulomas as foci of seizures and epilepsy with and without perilesional edema in endemic populations has recently been recognized. New information indicates perilesional inflammation around some calcified foci is associated with seizures and perilesional edema, which suggests that anti-inflammatory treatments may play a role in controlling or preventing epilepsy in these patients. Most importantly, neurocysticercosis is one of the few diseases that can be eradicated, an accomplishment that would prevent millions of cases of epilepsy. PMID:21912406

  20. New Insights in Cysticercosis Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Arriola, Carmen S.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A.; Lopez-Urbina, Maria T.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Taenia solium infection causes severe neurological disease in humans. Even though infection and exposure to swine cysticercosis is scattered throughout endemic villages, location of the tapeworm only explains some of the nearby infections and is not related to location of seropositive pigs. Other players might be involved in cysticercosis transmission. In this study we hypothesize that pigs that carry nematodes specific to dung beetles are associated with cysticercosis infection and/or exposure. We carried out a cross-sectional study of six villages in an endemic region in northern Peru. We euthanized all pigs (326) in the villages and performed necropsies to diagnose cysticercosis. For each pig, we counted cysticerci; measured anti-cysticercus antibodies; identified intestinal nematodes; tabulated distance to nearest human tapeworm infection; and recorded age, sex, productive stage, and geographic reference. For the purpose of this paper, we defined cysticercosis infection as the presence of at least one cysticercus in pig muscles, and cysticercosis exposure as seropositivity to anti-cysticercus antibodies with the presence of 0–5 cysticerci. Compared to pigs without nematode infections, those pigs infected with the nematode Ascarops strongylina were significantly associated with the presence of cysticerci (OR: 4.30, 95%CI: 1.83–10.09). Similarly, pigs infected with the nematode Physocephalus sexalatus were more likely to have cysticercosis exposure (OR: 2.21, 95%CI: 1.50–3.28). In conclusion, our results suggest that there appears to be a strong positive association between the presence of nematodes and both cysticercosis infection and exposure in pigs. The role of dung beetles in cysticercosis dynamics should be further investigated. PMID:25329903

  1. Parasites and steroid hormones: corticosteroid and sex steroid synthesis, their role in the parasite physiology and development

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Marta C.; Jiménez, Pedro; Miranda-Brito, Carolina; Valdez, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    In many cases parasites display highly complex life cycles that include the penetration and permanence of the larva or adults within host organs, but even in those that only have one host, reciprocal, intricate interactions occur. Evidence indicates that steroid hormones have an influence on the development and course of parasitic infections. The host gender's susceptibility to infection, and the related differences in the immune response are good examples of the host-parasite interplay. However, the capacity of these organisms to synthesize their own steroidogenic hormones still has more questions than answers. It is now well-known that many parasites synthesize ecdysteroids, but limited information is available on sex steroid and corticosteroid synthesis. This review intends to summarize some of the existing information in the field. In most, but not all parasitosis the host's hormonal environment determines the susceptibility, the course, and severity of parasite infections. In most cases the infection disturbs the host environment, and activates immune responses that end up affecting the endocrine system. Furthermore, sex steroids and corticosteroids may also directly modify the parasite reproduction and molting. Available information indicates that parasites synthesize some steroid hormones, such as ecdysteroids and sex steroids, and the presence and activity of related enzymes have been demonstrated. More recently, the synthesis of corticosteroid-like compounds has been shown in Taenia solium cysticerci and tapeworms, and in Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci. In-depth knowledge of the parasite's endocrine properties will contribute to understand their reproduction and reciprocal interactions with the host, and may also help designing tools to combat the infection in some clinical situations. PMID:26175665

  2. Hymenolepis folkertsi n. sp. (Eucestoda: Hymenolepididae) in the oldfield mouse Peromyscus polionotus (Wagner) (Rodentia: Cricetidae: Neotominae) from the southeastern Nearctic with comments on tapeworm faunal diversity among deer mice.

    PubMed

    Makarikov, Arseny A; Nims, Todd N; Galbreath, Kurt E; Hoberg, Eric P

    2015-06-01

    A previously unrecognized species of hymenolepidid cestode attributable to Hymenolepis is described based on specimens in Peromyscus polionotus, oldfield mouse, from Georgia near the southeastern coast of continental North America. Specimens of Hymenolepis folkertsi n. sp. differ from those attributed to most other species in the genus by having testes arranged in a triangle and a scolex with a prominent rostrum-like protrusion. The newly recognized species is further distinguished by the relative position and length of the cirrus sac, shape of seminal receptacle, and relative size of external seminal vesicle and seminal receptacle. Hymenolepidid cestodes have sporadically been reported among the highly diverse assemblage of Peromyscus which includes 56 distinct species in the Nearctic. Although the host genus has a great temporal duration and is endemic to the Nearctic, current evidence suggests that tapeworm faunal diversity reflects relatively recent assembly through bouts of host switching among other cricetid, murid, and geomyid rodents in sympatry. PMID:25762188

  3. Receptor for catecholamines responding to catechol which potentiates voltage-dependent calcium current in single cells from guinea-pig taenia caeci.

    PubMed Central

    Muraki, K.; Bolton, T. B.; Imaizumi, Y.; Watanabe, M.

    1994-01-01

    1. Single isolated cells were obtained from the taenia of the guinea-pig's caecum by enzymic digestion and held under voltage clamp. The effects of various catecholamines, sympathomimetics and related compounds were tested for their ability to potentiate the voltage-dependent calcium current (ICa) evoked in these cells by a depolarizing step. 2. ICa was potentiated by up to 60% by isoprenaline, adrenaline, and noradrenaline which were equipotent. The EC50 for isoprenaline was about 40 nM. 3. The racemic mixtures of the optical isomers of isoprenaline, adrenaline, and noradrenaline, and (+)-isoprenaline, were equipotent with the (-)-isomers of these drugs. Dopamine, L-dopa, and catechol were equipotent with these catecholamines. 4. Removal or substitution of one or more of the hydroxy groups of the catechol moiety, as in phenylephrine, salbutamol, procaterol, methoxamine, terbutaline, BRL 37344, ICI 215001 or tyramine substantially reduced efficacy and/or potency. 5. The adrenoceptor blockers propranolol, phentolamine, dihydroergotamine, atenolol, CGP 20712A and ICI 118551, or the dopamine receptor blockers, haloperidol or flupenthixol, did not block the potentiating action of catechol or the catecholamines. 6. The receptor activated by catecholamines to increase ICa we suggest should be called a C-receptor in view of its sensitivity to catechol. It may arise by enzymic modification of a conventional adrenoceptor but its transduction also involves a novel mechanism which might indicate that it is present in the muscle cells before enzyme treatment. PMID:8032602

  4. The effect of gallamine, gallopamil and nifedipine on responses to acetylcholine and carbachol in the taenia of the guinea-pig caecum.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchelson, F.; Ziegler, A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of gallamine, gallopamil and nifedipine on isotonic contractions of the isolated taenia of the guinea-pig caecum produced by acetylcholine (ACh) or carbachol (CCh) were investigated. Gallamine (0.1 to 0.3 mM) inhibited contractions produced by CCh more than those produced by ACh. The difference was still present after pretreatment of the tissue with paraoxon (10 microM for 20 min) to inhibit cholinesterases or in experiments carried out in the presence of tetrodotoxin (0.3 microM) to exclude possible ganglionic stimulation by the agonists. Gallopamil or nifedipine selectively inhibited the tonic response to ACh in the absence or presence of paraoxon. The phasic response to ACh or the tonic response to CCh (0.1 or 1 microM) was much less affected. Reduction of the Ca2+ content of the bath medium reduced phasic and tonic responses to ACh more than the tonic response to CCh. These results suggest that there are differences in the interaction of ACh and CCh with muscarinic receptors in this muscle. PMID:6487885

  5. Anti-oxidant activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase enzymes in skeletal muscles from slaughter cattle infected with Taenia saginata.

    PubMed

    ?uszczak, Joanna; Ziaja-So?tys, Marta; Rzymowska, Jolanta

    2011-06-01

    It is known that highly reactive oxygene species produced during normal cellular metabolism represent a powerful effector mechanism against parasites. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) belong to the main defense anti-oxidants that prevent the formation of new free radical species. The aim of this study was to assess the activities of SOD and GPx in cattle tissues infected with Taenia saginata. We observed a statistically significant increase in the SOD and GPx activities (p=0.00003, 0.00008, respectively, Student's t-test) in skeletal muscles infected with T. saginata in spectrophotometric analysis. With the use of western blot technique, SOD synthesis stimulation has appeared in the host tissues containing cysticerci in contrast with the control samples. There was no statistically significant increase in the GPx band intensity observed in the studied samples in comparison to controls (Gene Tools Version 4.01 program). These results support the significance of anti-oxidant processes in host defense mechanism during parasitic infections. PMID:21272584

  6. Comparison of the effects of some muscarinic agonists on smooth muscle function and phosphatidylinositol turnover in the guinea-pig taenia caeci.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, A. L.; Choo, L. K.; Mitchelson, F.

    1988-01-01

    1. The effects of the muscarinic agonists acetylcholine (ACh), carbachol (CCh), AHR-602, and McN-A-343 on contractility and on inositol phosphate accumulation in the presence of lithium were compared in the taenia of the guinea-pig caecum. 2. Compared to CCh, ACh was a full agonist for contraction but AHR-602 and McN-A-343 were partial agonists producing 80-85% of the maximal response to CCh. Similar to previous findings with CCh, tonic contractions produced by AHR-602 and McN-A-343 were less sensitive to inhibition by nifedipine or verapamil than tonic contractions to ACh. 3. CCh and ACh produced similar increases in inositol phosphate accumulation and the effect of CCh (0.1 mM) was inhibited by atropine (IC50 8.5 nM) and pirenzepine (IC50 450 nM). The accumulation of inositol phosphates in the presence of AHR-602 or McN-A-343 was not significantly different (P greater than 0.05) from basal levels. 4. A concentration of 0.2 mM AHR-602 produced a parallel shift of the concentration-response curve to CCh on inositol phosphate accumulation. The IC50 value for inhibition of CCh (0.1 mM) was greater than 50 fold higher than the EC50 value for contraction produced by the partial agonist. McN-A-343 (20 microM) produced a flattening of the concentration-response curve to CCh for inositol phosphate accumulation. 5. The results suggest that the increase in phosphatidylinositol turnover produced by muscarinic agonists, like the contractile response, involves an M2-muscarinic receptor. AHR-602 and McN-A-343 are partial agonists for the contractile response and while producing no significant increase in phosphatidylinositol turnover inhibit the response to CCh. PMID:2456808

  7. Evidence for multiple sources of calcium for activation of the contractile mechanism of guinea-pig taenia coli on stimulation with carbachol.

    PubMed Central

    Brading, A. F.; Sneddon, P.

    1980-01-01

    1 The evidence presented suggests there are three sources of Ca available for contraction of the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig taenia coli on stimulation with carbachol; the inward Ca current of the spike, a second voltage-dependent Ca channel and an internal Ca store. 2 The initial increment of tension in response to carbachol is thought to be due to an increase in spike frequency which is probably the main source of Ca at low carbachol concentrations (< 10(-6) M). 3 The maintained tension in the continuous presence of high concentrations of carbachol seems to involve continuous influx of membrane-bound Ca by a potential-dependent mechanism which can be very quickly deactivated, resulting in rapid relaxation. This mechanism can be blocked by 2 X 10(-7) M methoxyverapamil (D600). 4 An internal Ca store can be released by high concentrations of carbachol (< 10(-6) M) and is probably responsible for the initial peak of tension, of about 5 min duration seen on continuous application of high concentrations of carbachol and for the tension increase in response to carbachol in tissues depolarized in high-K. 5 Investigation of the properties of the store indicates that it; (i) is very rapidly filled by application of high extracellular Ca; (ii) empties after a few minutes in zero-Ca EGTA Krebs solution; (iii) can be refilled in depolarized tissues in the presence of low concentrations of D600 and Mn, but does not refill during application of carbachol at concentrations greater than 10(-6) M; (iv) contains enough Ca for one near-maximal contraction and once emptied can assist relaxation by Ca re-uptake. PMID:7426833

  8. Partial protection and abomasal cytokine expression in sheep experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus and pre-treated with Taenia hydatigena vesicular concentrate.

    PubMed

    Buendía-Jiménez, J A; Muñoz-Guzmán, M A; Vega-López, M A; Cuenca-Verde, C; Martínez-Labat, J P; Cuéllar-Ordaz, J A; Alba-Hurtado, F

    2015-06-30

    The abomasal expression of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IFN? in lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus and its relationship to protection induced by a Taenia hydatigena larvae vesicular concentrate (ThLVC) were evaluated. The lambs that were only infected with H. contortus larvae showed a worm burden greater (p<0.05) than the lambs that received ThLVC prior to infection. Moreover, the lambs that received ThLVC showed a greater (p<0.05) number of blood eosinophils than the lambs that did not receive the ThLVC. In general, the lambs that received ThLVC prior to infection had a greater amount of eosinophils and mast cells and higher in situ expression of IFN?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 in the abomasal wall than the lambs that were infected with H. contortus only or that received ThLVC (p<0.05) only. A higher expression of IL-2 and IFN? in the submucosa compared to the abomasal mucosa and a higher expression of IL-4 in the abomasal mucosa compared to the submucosa was observed (p<0.05). These results suggest that there is a Th1 type response in the abomasal submucosa and a Th2 type response in in the abomasal mucosa. The amount of eosinophils and mast cells and the in situ expression of IFN?, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-6 in the abomasal walls were negatively correlated with the worm burden (p<0.05). These results suggest that ThLVC is a non-specific immune stimulator for the abomasal immune response, and it is likely that the protection observed is the result of this effect. PMID:25959643

  9. Historic of therapeutic efficacy of albendazol sulphoxide administered in different routes, dosages and treatment schemes, against Taenia saginata cysticercus in cattle experimentally infected.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Soares, Vando Edésio; Nunes, Jorge Luis N; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Buzzulini, Carolina; Pereira, João Carlos Melo; Felippelli, Gustavo; Soccol, Vanette Thomaz; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to notify the history of albendazole sulphoxide (ALB-SO) and albendazole (ALBZ) efficacy against Taenia saginata cysticercus (Cysticercus bovis) parasitizing experimentally infected bovines. A total of 11 efficacy trials were performed between the years of 2002 and 2010. In order to perform these trials, animals were individually inoculated with 2×10(4) eggs of T. saginata in each study's day zero (D0). For every trial, a positive control group (untreated infected animals) and a negative control group (animals that were neither infected nor treated) were used. ALB-SO or ALB were administered in the different dosages, in different days of treatments. In a last study with this formulation, this active principle was administered orally, mixed with the mineral supplement, on the 60th DPI, in a dosage of 30mg/kg. In all trials, on the 100th DPI, all animals were euthanized and submitted to the sequenced slicing of 26 anatomical segments (fragments of approximately five millimeters) for the survey of T. saginata cysticercus. With the obtained results it is possible to verify that in the first trials, conducted in 2002, ALB-SO reached, independently of dosage and treatment scheme, efficacies superior to 98% (arithmetic means). The trials conducted in 2005 (2.5mg/kg on the 30th, 60th, and 90th DPI) obtained values of efficacy all inferior to 60%. In 2008, the trials with 2.5 and 7.7mg/kg demonstrated efficacy values inferior to 40%, for both dosages and treatment schemes (30th/60th/90th DPI and 60th DPI). When this formulation was administered orally on the dosage of 30mg/kg on the 60th DPI, the efficacy against T. saginata cysticercus reached 88.28%. ALB administered orally showed efficacy values of 0.0%, 29.88% and 28.64% in the dosages of 5, 10 and 15mg/kg, respectively, using the treatment schemes described above for each dosage. Based on the results of these trials, conducted in an eight year period (2002-2010) using the sequenced slicing method for evaluating the efficacy of the aforementioned formulations against T. saginata cysticercus, it is possible to observe that, amongst the few molecules used in the chemotherapic treatment against T. saginata larvae, ALB-SO, administered in varied routes, dosages and treatment schemes, the studies conducted in 2008, 2009, and 2010, have a low therapeutic efficacy against C. bovis in Brazil, while ALBZ had insignificant efficacy values against T. saginata larvae parasitizing experimentally infected bovines. However, future studies using molecular biology will be necessary to assess whether the difference on the efficacy of the ALB-SO can be related to strain or another specific factor. PMID:24309372

  10. Calcified neurocysticercus, perilesional edema, and histologic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Nash, Theodore E; Bartelt, Luther A; Korpe, Poonum S; Lopes, Beatriz; Houpt, Eric R

    2014-02-01

    Abstract. Here, we present the second report of the histopathology of a Taenia solium calcification giving rise to perilesional edema. This has important implications, because if perilesional edema lesions are inflammatory in character, immunosuppressive or anti-inflammatory medications, not just antiepileptic drugs alone, may be useful to prevent or treat recurring episodes in such patients. PMID:24394477

  11. Glutathione transferases in the tapeworm Moniezia expansa.

    PubMed Central

    Brophy, P M; Southan, C; Barrett, J

    1989-01-01

    Four forms of GSH transferase were resolved from Moniezia expansa cytosol by GSH-Sepharose affinity chromatography and chromatofocusing in the range pH 6-4, and the presence of isoenzymes was further suggested by analytical isoelectric focusing. The four GSH transferase forms in the cestode showed no clear biochemical relationship to any one mammalian GSH transferase family. The N-terminal of the major GSH transferase form showed sequence homology with the Mu and Alpha family GSH transferases. The major GSH transferase appeared to bind a number of commercially available anthelmintics but did not appear to conjugate the compounds with GSH. The major GSH transferase efficiently conjugated members of the trans-alk-2-enal and trans,trans-alka-2,4-dienal series, established secondary products of lipid peroxidation. Images Fig. 3. PMID:2590177

  12. Sensitivity of partial carcass dissection for assessment of porcine cysticercosis at necropsy.

    PubMed

    Lightowlers, M W; Assana, E; Jayashi, C M; Gauci, C G; Donadeu, M

    2015-11-01

    Many interventions against Taenia solium are evaluated by assessing changes in the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis ascertained by carcass dissection. Financial and logistical difficulties often prohibit dissection of entire pig carcasses. We assessed 209 pigs from rural areas of Cameroon and Peru for the presence of T. solium cysticerci and determined the distribution of parasites within the musculature of infected animals. Considering the presence of cysts in the tongue, masticatory muscles and heart, 31 of the 38 (81%) naturally infected animals were identified as having cysts. Dissection of only the tongue, masticatory muscles and heart provides a relatively sensitive and highly specific method for diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis. PMID:26385439

  13. Sensitivity of partial carcass dissection for assessment of porcine cysticercosis at necropsy

    PubMed Central

    Lightowlers, M.W.; Assana, E.; Jayashi, C.M.; Gauci, C.G.; Donadeu, M.

    2015-01-01

    Many interventions against Taenia solium are evaluated by assessing changes in the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis ascertained by carcass dissection. Financial and logistical difficulties often prohibit dissection of entire pig carcasses. We assessed 209 pigs from rural areas of Cameroon and Peru for the presence of T. solium cysticerci and determined the distribution of parasites within the musculature of infected animals. Considering the presence of cysts in the tongue, masticatory muscles and heart, 31 of the 38 (81%) naturally infected animals were identified as having cysts. Dissection of only the tongue, masticatory muscles and heart provides a relatively sensitive and highly specific method for diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis. PMID:26385439

  14. Current Status of Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Le, Thanh Hoa; Lien, Phan Thi Huong; Eom, Keeseon S.

    2014-01-01

    Several reports on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam show that they are distributed in over 50 of 63 provinces. In some endemic areas, the prevalence of taeniasis was 0.2-12.0% and that of cysticercosis was 1.0-7.2%. The major symptoms of taeniasis included fidgeted anus, proglottids moving out of the anus, and proglottids in the feces. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis in humans included subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headach, impaired vision, and memory loss. The species identification of Taenia in Vietnam included Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium based on combined morphology and molecular methods. Only T. solium caused cysticercosis in humans. Praziquantel was chosen for treatment of taeniasis and albendazole for treatment of cysticercosis. The infection rate of cysticercus cellulosae in pigs was 0.04% at Hanoi slaughterhouses, 0.03-0.31% at provincial slaughterhouses in the north, and 0.9% in provincial slaughterhouses in the southern region of Vietnam. The infection rate of cysticercus bovis in cattle was 0.03-2.17% at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Risk factors investigated with regard to transmission of Taenia suggested that consumption of raw meat (eating raw meat 4.5-74.3%), inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some endemic areas, and use of untreated human waste as a fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam, although this remains to be validated. PMID:24850954

  15. Current status of taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van De, Nguyen; Le, Thanh Hoa; Lien, Phan Thi Huong; Eom, Keeseon S

    2014-04-01

    Several reports on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam show that they are distributed in over 50 of 63 provinces. In some endemic areas, the prevalence of taeniasis was 0.2-12.0% and that of cysticercosis was 1.0-7.2%. The major symptoms of taeniasis included fidgeted anus, proglottids moving out of the anus, and proglottids in the feces. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis in humans included subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headach, impaired vision, and memory loss. The species identification of Taenia in Vietnam included Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium based on combined morphology and molecular methods. Only T. solium caused cysticercosis in humans. Praziquantel was chosen for treatment of taeniasis and albendazole for treatment of cysticercosis. The infection rate of cysticercus cellulosae in pigs was 0.04% at Hanoi slaughterhouses, 0.03-0.31% at provincial slaughterhouses in the north, and 0.9% in provincial slaughterhouses in the southern region of Vietnam. The infection rate of cysticercus bovis in cattle was 0.03-2.17% at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Risk factors investigated with regard to transmission of Taenia suggested that consumption of raw meat (eating raw meat 4.5-74.3%), inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some endemic areas, and use of untreated human waste as a fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam, although this remains to be validated. PMID:24850954

  16. Multi-test analysis and model-based estimation of the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercus infection in naturally infected dairy cows in the absence of a 'gold standard' reference test.

    PubMed

    Eichenberger, R M; Lewis, F; Gabriël, S; Dorny, P; Torgerson, P R; Deplazes, P

    2013-09-01

    The diagnostic values of seven serological tests (ELISAs) and of the obligatory European Union-approved routine visual meat inspection for the detection of Taenia saginata cysticercosis were investigated. A total of 793 slaughtered dairy cows were selected in three European Union approved abattoirs in Switzerland, an endemic area (apparent prevalence by enhanced meat inspection up to 4.5%) with typically low parasite burdens. ELISAs based on a somatic larval antigen, isoelectric focused somatic larval antigen, larval excretory/secretory antigens, peptide HP6-2, peptide Ts45S-10, pooled peptide solution and a monoclonal antibody antigen capture assay were initially screened. As there is no perfect diagnostic 'gold standard' reference test, the obligatory meat inspection and four selected serological tests were further analysed using Bayesian inference to estimate the "true" prevalence and the diagnostic test sensitivities and specificities. The ELISA for specific antibody detection based on excretory/secretory antigens showed highest sensitivity and specificity with 81.6% (95% credible interval: 70-92) and 96.3% (95% credible interval: 94-99), respectively. The Bayesian model estimated the specificity of the ELISA, based on the synthetic peptide Ts45S-10 as 55.2% (95% credible interval: 46-65) and sensitivity as 84.7% (95% credible interval: 82-88). The sensitivity of the ELISA based on mAbs, detecting circulating antigen, was 14.3% (95% credible interval: 9-23) with a specificity of 93.7% (95% credible interval: 92-96). The diagnostic sensitivity of the obligatory standard European Union meat inspection procedure for the detection of T. saginata cysticercus infection at the abattoir was estimated to be 15.6% (95% credible interval: 10-23). Based on these data, the modelled prevalence of cysticercosis in dairy cows presented at abattoirs in Switzerland was estimated to be 16.5% (95% credible interval: 13-21). These cattle also had a high prevalence of infection with Dicrocoelium dendriticum (60.8%) and Fasciola hepatica (13.5%). PMID:23831108

  17. [Epidemiology and control of cysticercosis in Peru].

    PubMed

    Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Llanos-Zavalaga, Fernando; Tsang, Víctor C W; Gilman, Robert H

    2010-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis, the infection of the human central nervous system by the larval stage of the cestode Taenia solium, is an important cause of epilepsy and other neurological manifestations in Peru and most developing countries. Since 1987, the Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru has performed a series of epidemiological studies which led to estimate the impact and to better understand the transmission of Taenia solium. This information was later applied to the design and execution of a control program in Tumbes, in the Northern Coast of Peru. This paper reviews the main epidemiological findings, as well as the conceptual framework of the elimination program and the tools used. Advances in the control of taeniasis/cysticercosis in our country open the road towards its elimination and potential eradication. PMID:21308201

  18. Cysticercosis of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Sharma, B P; Gaunt, F; Sigdel, B

    2014-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a condition in which a human being acts as the intermediate host of Taenia solium, a pork tape worm. The oral mucosa is an uncommonly involved site. A rurally living 35 year old vegetarian female presented with a swelling over the right side of her tongue of seven months duration. Histopathology of excisional biopsy revealed it to be cysticercosis. Diagnosis of cysticercosis was clinically unsuspected. The patient was referred to the general medical clinic for further treatment. PMID:25575011

  19. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis, toxocariasis and cysticercosis in a rural settlement, São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Prestes-Carneiro, Luiz Euribel; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Ferreira, Antonio Walter; Araujo, Patricia Regina; Troiani, Charlene; Zago, Sueli Cristina; Kaiahara, Marcia; Sasso, Leticia; Iha, Alberto; Vaz, Adelaide

    2013-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Toxocara spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Taenia solium metacestode infection and determine some of the associated risk factors for people living in the Dona Carmen settlement, Pontal of Paranapanema, São Paulo, Brazil. Methods Serum samples from 194 subjects were tested and participants answered a questionnaire. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system based on Toxocara spp. excretory-secretory antigens obtained from the cultured second-stage larvae of Toxocara canis or vesicular fluid (VF) antigen from Taenia crassiceps metacestode was used to detect anti-Toxocara spp. IgG and IgE and anti-T. solium metacestode, respectively. For cysticercosis, the reactive ELISA samples were assayed by Western blotting using 18 kDa and 14 kDa proteins purified from VF. For T. gondii-specific IgG and IgM antibodies, anti-SAG-1, GRA-1, and GRA-7 epitope specificity was determined by ELISA. Results Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies were found in 102/194 individuals (52.6%) with increased infections in females (P ?=? 0.02) and those with ?US$300 monthly income (P ?=? 0.01). Positive IgM antibodies were detected in 21/194 individuals (10.8%). Antibodies specific to Toxocara spp. were found in 28/194 subjects (14.4%). All the individuals with Toxocara spp. also had T. gondii-specific IgG antibodies. Taenia solium metacestode antibodies were detected in 11 subjects (5.7%), but none were reactive based on Western blotting. Conclusion In spite of environmental, educational, and socioeconomic factors favoring parasite infection, the seropositivity rates of T. gondii, Toxocara spp., and T. solium metacestode-specific IgG antibodies are similar to the rates found in studies conducted in different populations in Brazil. PMID:23683335

  20. A new triaenophorid tapeworm from blackfish Centrolophus niger.

    PubMed

    Kuchta, Roman; Scholz, Tomás

    2008-04-01

    Milanella familiaris n. gen. and n. sp. (Bothriocephalidea: Triaenophoridae) is proposed to accommodate a new cestode from blackfish Centrolophus niger (Gmelin) (Perciformes: Centrolophidae). Milanella is characterized as follows: trapeziform, i.e., markedly craspedote proglottids with a velum-like posterior margin and horn like lateral projections; pyriform uterine sac in the first gravid proglottids; arrow-shaped scolex with well-developed apical disc and prominent posterior margins; strobila with intensively stained corpuscles, most numerous in the anterior part; deeply lobated ovary; absence of a neck; a large, pyriform, thin-walled cirrus-sac with the proximal part bent anteromedially; vagina posterior to the cirrus-sac; and cortical vitelline follicles. Milanella most closely resembles Bathycestus Kuchta and Scholz, 2004, Pistana Campbell and Gartner, 1982, and Probothriocephalus Campbell, 1979, differing mainly in the shape of proglottids and uterine sac. PMID:18564751

  1. Chemotaxonomic studies on davaineid tapeworms, based on amino acid analysis.

    PubMed

    Bhalya, A; Seth, A; Capoor, V N; Malhotra, S K

    1984-12-01

    Twelve amino acids were detected in six davaineid cestodes, Davainea hewetensis Dhawan & Capoor (1972) collected from one Gallus gallus domesticus L. at Allahabad, India. Chemotaxonomic studies within the family Davaineidae have shown the presence of cystine and hydroxyproline only in D. hewetensis, although phenylalanine and proline occur in all species examined previously. PMID:6520376

  2. Comparative Analysis of Cystatin Superfamily in Platyhelminths

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Aijiang

    2015-01-01

    The cystatin superfamily is comprised of cysteine proteinase inhibitors and encompasses at least 3 subfamilies: stefins, cystatins and kininogens. In this study, the platyhelminth cystatin superfamily was identified and grouped into stefin and cystatin subfamilies. The conserved domain of stefins (G, QxVxG) was observed in all members of platyhelminth stefins. The three characteristics of cystatins, the cystatin-like domain (G, QxVxG, PW), a signal peptide, and one or two conserved disulfide bonds, were observed in platyhelminths, with the exception of cestodes, which lacked the conserved disulfide bond. However, it is noteworthy that cestode cystatins had two tandem repeated domains, although the second tandem repeated domain did not contain a cystatin-like domain, which has not been previously reported. Tertiary structure analysis of Taenia solium cystatin, one of the cestode cystatins, demonstrated that the N-terminus of T. solium cystatin formed a five turn ?-helix, a five stranded ?-pleated sheet and a hydrophobic edge, similar to the structure of chicken cystatin. Although no conserved disulfide bond was found in T. solium cystatin, the models of T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin corresponded at the site of the first disulfide bridge of the chicken cystatin. However, the two models were not similar regarding the location of the second disulfide bridge of chicken cystatin. These results showed that T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin had similarities and differences, suggesting that the biochemistry of T. solium cystatin could be similar to chicken cystatin in its inhibitory function and that it may have further functional roles. The same results were obtained for other cestode cystatins. Phylogenetic analysis showed that cestode cystatins constituted an independent clade and implied that cestode cystatins should be considered to have formed a new clade during evolution. PMID:25853513

  3. Under seize: neurocysticercosis in an immigrant woman and review of a growing neglected disease.

    PubMed

    Bock, Meredith; Garcia, Hector H; Chin-Hong, Peter; Baxi, Sanjiv M

    2015-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a significantly neglected tropical disease and, with increasing globalisation, a notable emerging infection in the developed world. We describe a case of ventricular NCC in a 22-year-old Mexican-American woman with a history of seizures, who presented with 2?weeks of headaches and intermittent fevers progressing to altered mental status and vomiting. Initial imaging revealed a cystic mass at the posteroinferior aspect of the third ventricle superior to the aqueduct of Sylvius, calcifications scattered throughout the parenchyma, and enlargement of the lateral and third ventricles. Initial laboratories were unrevealing and serum investigations for Taenia solium antibody were negative, but T. solium antibody was subsequently returned positive from cerebrospinal fluid. This case highlights important issues regarding the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation and treatment of NCC relevant to providers not only in areas with endemic disease but, importantly, in locales with diverse immigrant populations. PMID:26682841

  4. Oral Cysticercosis- A Diagnostic Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Pavan G; Palakurthy, Pavan; Muddana, Keerthi; Nandan, Rateesh Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Cysticercosis, a helminthic disease commonly seen in India, Latin America, Eastern Europe and Southern Africa, results from extraintestinal encystation of the larval form of Taenia solium. It is a condition in which man acts as intermediate host instead of definitive host. The most frequent sites of cysticercosis are subcutaneous layers, brain, muscles, heart, liver, lungs, and peritoneum. Oral cysticercosis is considered rare and cause cystic swellings or nodules in the mouth and a precise clinical diagnosis is not usually established. Here, we report a case of oral cysticercosis in a 32-year-old female occurring in the mentalis muscle presenting as asymptomatic nodule. PMID:26266222

  5. Oral Cysticercosis- A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Palakurthy, Pavan; Muddana, Keerthi; Nandan, Rateesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Cysticercosis, a helminthic disease commonly seen in India, Latin America, Eastern Europe and Southern Africa, results from extraintestinal encystation of the larval form of Taenia solium. It is a condition in which man acts as intermediate host instead of definitive host. The most frequent sites of cysticercosis are subcutaneous layers, brain, muscles, heart, liver, lungs, and peritoneum. Oral cysticercosis is considered rare and cause cystic swellings or nodules in the mouth and a precise clinical diagnosis is not usually established. Here, we report a case of oral cysticercosis in a 32-year-old female occurring in the mentalis muscle presenting as asymptomatic nodule. PMID:26266222

  6. Multiplex real-time PCR monitoring of intestinal helminths in humans reveals widespread polyparasitism in Northern Samar, the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Catherine A; McManus, Donald P; Acosta, Luz P; Olveda, Remigio M; Williams, Gail M; Ross, Allen G; Gray, Darren J; Gobert, Geoffrey N

    2015-06-01

    The global socioeconomic importance of helminth parasitic disease is underpinned by the considerable clinical impact on millions of people. While helminth polyparasitism is considered common in the Philippines, little has been done to survey its extent in endemic communities. High morphological similarity of eggs between related species complicates conventional microscopic diagnostic methods which are known to lack sensitivity, particularly in low intensity infections. Multiplex quantitative PCR diagnostic methods can provide rapid, simultaneous identification of multiple helminth species from a single stool sample. We describe a multiplex assay for the differentiation of Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma, Taenia saginata and Taenia solium, building on our previously published findings for Schistosoma japonicum. Of 545 human faecal samples examined, 46.6% were positive for at least three different parasite species. High prevalences of S. japonicum (90.64%), A. lumbricoides (58.17%), T. saginata (42.57%) and A. duodenale (48.07%) were recorded. Neither T. solium nor N. americanus were found to be present. The utility of molecular diagnostic methods for monitoring helminth parasite prevalence provides new information on the extent of polyparasitism in the Philippines municipality of Palapag. These methods and findings have potential global implications for the monitoring of neglected tropical diseases and control measures. PMID:25858090

  7. Epidemiological Survey on Porcine Cysticercosis in Nay Pyi Taw Area, Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Khaing, Tin Aye; Bawm, Saw; Wai, Soe Soe; Htut, Ye; Htun, Lat Lat

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional surveys were conducted to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs within Nay Pyi Taw area, Myanmar. Meat inspection in three slaughterhouses, ELISA test, and questionnaire surveys were conducted in this study. Three hundred pigs were inspected in slaughterhouses and 364 pigs were randomly selected and examined from 203 households from three townships in Nay Pyi Taw area. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in meat inspection was 23.67% (71/300). Seroprevalence of T. solium cysticercosis in pigs in the study area was 15.93% (58/364). Significant associated risk factors with T. solium cysticercosis were gender (OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.7–5.4), increased age (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.2–4.2), husbandry system (OR = 5.1; 95% CI = 2.4–11.2), feed type (OR = 16.9; 95% CI = 2.3–124.3), not using anthelmintics in pigs (OR = 11.9; 95% CI = 5.0–28.5), not using anthelmintics in owner (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.4–4.4), no hand-washing before feeding (OR = 31.5; 95% CI = 4.3–230.9), and pork consumption of owner (OR = 37.4; 95% CI = 9.0–156.1) in the study area. This is the first report of porcine cysticercosis in Myanmar. PMID:26464951

  8. Eating habits of east Asian people and transmission of taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Fan, P C; Chung, W C; Soh, C T; Kosman, M L

    1992-04-01

    In order to understand the role of raw meat and viscera eating habits in the transmission of taeniasis in Asian countries, 1502 infected aborigines in ten mountainous districts/towns of six counties in Taiwan, 58 infected persons in two villages on Cheju Island, Korea, and 97 cases in Ambarita District on Samosir Island, North Sumatra, Indonesia were studied during the field surveys. All infected Taiwan aborigines had the habit of eating raw meat and viscera of wild and/or domestic animals. Among these aborigines, 73% ate wild boar, 66% flying squirrel, 65% wild goat, 56% muntjac, 49% wild rats, 46% monkey, 38% hare, 20% civet-cats, 18% weasel, 17% pheasant, 14% squirrel, 4% grouse, 1% deer, 1% snake, less than 1% bamboo partridge, less than 1% frog, less than 1% bear, less than 1% dog, and less than 1% fox. Of the 58 infected persons with Taenia on Cheju Island, Korea, 72% ate raw meat and/or viscera of pig and cattle, 19% raw pork only, and 9% raw beef only. Among 12 infected persons infected with T. saginata-like tapeworms, 7 had eaten raw pork, 2 raw beef and pork and 3 raw pork. Almost all of the 97 cases of taeniasis on Samosir Island of North Sumatra, Indonesia, had eaten only undercooked pork. Eleven of 15 cases were found to be infected with T. saginata-like tapeworms. Eating habits observed suggest an unusual way of transmission of Taenia in East Asia. PMID:1356301

  9. Molecular characterization of the parasitic tapeworm Bertiella studeri from the island of Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Taleb-Hossenkhan, Nawsheen; Bhagwant, Suress

    2012-02-01

    Specimens of Bertiella studeri (Cyclophyllidea, Anoplocephalidae) that have been preserved in ethanol or fixed permanently in formalin for >2 years were used for DNA extraction and molecular characterization. DNA was amplified via PCR from samples collected from different monkey and human hosts using eucestoda-specific primers. Phylogenetic trees were inferred from two sets of sequence data corresponding to the first and second halves of the 18S rDNA gene using two methods (distance-based NJ and maximum parsimony). We found that the second dataset was more suited for inferring phylogeny within the Cyclophyllidea. Both trees show that taxa belonging to the Anoplocephalidae, Hymenolepididae, Davaineidae, and Mesocestoididae are clearly monophyletic within their families and demonstrate sister-group relationships between the Anoplocephalidae and Mesocestoididae, contradicting previous reports of a basal placement of the Mesocestoididae within the Cyclophyllidea. The distance-based phylogeny support a taxonomical classification that groups members of the Bertiella genus, as well as other members of the Anoplocephalidae family, as being most closely related to the Hymenolepididae family and can be used to substantiate the use of uterine morphology as a valid homologous trait for taxonomical and phylogenetic classifications. On the other hand, the parsimony-based phylogeny places the Hymenolepididae closer to the outgroup and shows a closer relationship between the Mesocestoididae and the Taeniidae. This underlies the caution with which gene trees should be interpreted for inferring phylogeny and underlies the need to integrate both morphological and molecular data to represent the actual evolutionary pathway of the species involved. PMID:21750870

  10. The anthelmintic efficacy of albendazole against gastrointestinal roundworms, tapeworms, lungworms and liverflukes in sheep.

    PubMed

    van Schalkwyk, P C; Geyser, T L; Récio, M; Erasmus, F P

    1979-03-01

    Anthelmintic trials were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of albendazole against helmi of 2,5 to 3,8 mg/kg administered orally, resulted in a 98,8 to 100% reduction of adult parasites of the genera Haemonchus, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, Nematodirus, Gaigeria, Oesophagostomum, Chabertia, Marshallagia and Cooperia. Against the immature stages of these genera, except for Marshallagia and Cooperia, which were not tested, a dose level of 2,5 to 3,8 mg/kg was 83,9-100% effective. Albendazole at 2,5 mg/kg was 99,0% effective against adult stages of Dictyocaulus; its activity at a dose of 3,8 mg/kg against the immature stages of D. filaria was 89,3%. In sheep naturally infested with Moniezia, 100% elimination was obtained at a dose level of 2,5 mg/kg. Dose levels of 3,8 mg/kg and higher were more than 76% effective against adult Fasciola hepatica, while a dose of 4,8 mg/kg was 63% effective against adult Fasciola gigantica. PMID:551183

  11. How might flukes and tapeworms maintain genome integrity without a canonical piRNA pathway?

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Danielle E.; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Koziol, Uriel; Brehm, Klaus; Brindley, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance by RNA interference is central to controlling the mobilization of transposable elements (TEs). In stem cells, Piwi argonaute (Ago) proteins and associated proteins repress mobilization of TEs to maintain genome integrity. This defense mechanism targeting TEs is termed the Piwi-interacting RNA (Piwi-piRNA) pathway. In this Opinion, we draw attention to the situation that the genomes of cestodes and trematodes have lost the piwi and vasa genes that are hallmark characters of the germline multipotency program. This absence of Piwi-like Agos and Vasa helicases prompts the question: how does the germline of these flatworms withstand mobilization of TEs? Here we present an interpretation of mechanisms likely to defend the germline integrity of parasitic flatworms. PMID:24485046

  12. Bookworms Become Tapeworms: A Profile of Listeners to Books on Audiocassette.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aron, Helen

    1992-01-01

    Finds that adult listeners to tape recordings of books are highly educated people who do a great deal of professional and recreational reading and who listen to books on tape for information and enjoyment while they are engaged in activities that require little concentration. (SR)

  13. 9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus, tongue, and musculature..., including examination of, but not limited to, the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of...

  14. 9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus, tongue, and musculature..., including examination of, but not limited to, the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of...

  15. 9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus, tongue, and musculature..., including examination of, but not limited to, the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of...

  16. Hymenolepiasis

    MedlinePLUS

    Dwarf tapeworm infection; Rat tapeworm; Tapeworm - infection ... Blanton R. Adult tapeworm infections. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 19th Ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  17. Oral Cysticercosis: A Diagnostic Difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Sharanesha, Manjunatha Bhari; Jatwa, Rameshwar; Khetrapal, Shaleen

    2014-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a rare disease caused by the ingestion of the parasite Cysticercus cellulosae, a larval stage of Taenia solium. The definitive host is human who harbors the adult worm and may accidentally or incidentally become the host. The larval form of cyst is commonly seen in the brain, meninges and eyes. Cases in the maxillofacial region including oral cavity and cheek muscles are rarely reported. Cysticercosis is not commonly considered in the diagnosis of swellings of the head and neck and a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for clinicians. Hence, they are of utmost interest to the practitioner and have to be studied. We present an unusual case of cysticercosis presenting as a solitary cystic nodule in the upper left vestibule of the oral cavity in an 18 year male and the diagnosis was made on histopathological examination. PMID:25478466

  18. [Tissular cestodiasis: role of helper type 1 and 2 t-lymphocytes].

    PubMed

    López-Moreno, Héctor Samuel

    2002-01-01

    Cysticercosis and hydatidosis are parasitic diseases caused by larvae of Taenia solium and Echinococcus sp., respectively. Parasitic diseases are useful models for in vivo studies of effector functions of T helper cell subsets 1 and 2, (called Th1 and Th2 on the basis of the pattern of cytokines they produce). The polarization to Th1 or Th2 is related to protective or permissive immune responses in these diseases. The role of Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes in tissue cestodiasis (cysticercosis and hydatidosis) has been studied in experimentally infected mice and in human patients; study results suggest that in individuals with cysticercosis or hydatidosis, the cellular immune response is polarized to Th2, while individuals in whom parasites are killed or their growth is limited, have an immune cellular response that is polarized towards Th1. The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html. PMID:12058712

  19. Clinical symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E; Del Brutto, Oscar H

    2014-12-01

    The infection of the nervous system by the cystic larvae of Taenia solium (neurocysticercosis) is a frequent cause of seizure disorders. Neurocysticercosis is endemic or presumed to be endemic in many low-income countries. The lifecycle of the worm and the clinical manifestations of neurocysticercosis are well established, and CT and MRI have substantially improved knowledge of the disease course. Improvements in immunodiagnosis have further advanced comprehension of the pathophysiology of this disease. This knowledge has led to individualised treatment approaches that account for the involvement of parenchymal or extraparenchymal spaces, the number and form of parasites, and the extent of degeneration and associated inflammation. Clinical investigations are focused on development of effective treatments and reduction of side-effects induced by treatment, such as seizures, hydrocephalus, infarcts, and neuroinjury. PMID:25453460

  20. Corticosteroid use in neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Theodore E; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Garcia, Hector H

    2013-01-01

    The cystic larvae of Taenia solium commonly infect the human nervous system, resulting in neurocysticercosis, a major contributor to seizure disorders in most of the world. Inflammation around the parasites is a hallmark of neurocysticercosis pathophysiology. Although mechanisms regulating this inflammation are poorly understood, anti-inflammatory drugs, particularly corticosteroids, have been long used alone or with anthelmintics to manage disease and limit neurological complications and perhaps damage to neural tissues. Only scarce controlled data exist to determine when and what type of corticosteroids and the treatment regime to use. This article revisits the mechanisms of action, rationale, evidence of benefit, safety and problems of corticosteroids in the context of neurocysticercosis, as well as alternative anti-inflammatory strategies to limit the damage caused by inflammation in the CNS. PMID:21797658

  1. Efficacy of Diverse Antiparasitic Treatments for Cysticercosis in the Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Armando E.; Bustos, Javier A.; Jimenez, Juan A.; Rodriguez, Mary L.; Ramirez, Mercy G.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis infects pigs and humans. Because antiparasitic treatment for human cysticercosis has sub-optimal efficacy, alternative regimes are needed. Seven antiparasitic regimens were tested in 42 naturally infected pigs with cysticercosis, and compared with prednisone alone (n = 6) or no treatment (n = 6). The numbers of viable cysts in muscles and in the brain were examined after necropsy and were significantly decreased in pigs receiving combined albendazole plus praziquantel, albendazole alone, or oxfendazole. Pigs receiving praziquantel alone and nitazoxanide had numerous surviving cysts. Control (untreated) pigs and prednisone-treated pigs had many more viable cysts, suggesting no effect. Combined albendazole plus praziquantel, and oxfendazole, showed a strong cysticidal effect and provide suitable alternative treatments to be further explored for their use for treatment of human neurocysticercosis. PMID:22855760

  2. Brain Granulomas in Neurocysticercosis Patients Are Associated with a Th1 and Th2 Profile

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Blanca I.; Alvarez, Jorge I.; Castaño, Jorge A.; Arias, Luis F.; Restrepo, Margarita; Trujillo, Judith; Colegial, Carlos H.; Teale, Judy M.

    2001-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a common central nervous system (CNS) infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes. Despite the well-documented importance of the granulomatous response in the pathogenesis of this infection, there is limited information about the types of cells and cytokines involved. In fact, there has been limited characterization of human brain granulomas with any infectious agent. In the present study a detailed histological and immunohistochemical analysis of the immune response was performed on eight craniotomy specimens where a granuloma surrounded each T. solium metacestode. The results indicated that in all the specimens there was a dying parasite surrounded by a mature granuloma with associated fibrosis, angiogenesis, and an inflammatory infiltrate. The most abundant cell types were plasma cells, B and T lymphocytes, macrophages, and mast cells. Th1 cytokines were prevalent and included gamma interferon, interleukin-18 (IL-18), and the immunosuppressive, fibrosis-promoting cytokine transforming growth factor ?. The Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-13, and IL-10 were also present. These observations indicate that a chronic immune response is elicited in the CNS environment with multiple cell types that together secrete inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, both collagen type I and type III deposits were evident and could contribute to irreversible nervous tissue damage in NCC patients. PMID:11401999

  3. Parasiticidal effect of 16alpha-bromoepiandrosterone (EpiBr) in amoebiasis and cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Carrero, Julio César; Cervantes-Rebolledo, Claudia; Vargas-Villavicencio, José Antonio; Hernández-Bello, Romel; Dowding, Charles; Frincke, James; Reading, Chris; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2010-08-01

    The effect of the dehydroepiandrosterone analog 16alpha-bromoepiandrosterone (EpiBr) was tested on the tapeworm Taenia crassiceps and the protist Entamoeba histolytica, both in vivo and in vitro. Administration of EpiBr prior to infection with cysticerci in mice reduced the parasite load by 50% compared with controls. EpiBr treatment induced 20% reduction on the development of amoebic liver abscesses in hamsters. In vitro treatment of T. crassiceps and E. histolytica cultures with EpiBr, reduced reproduction, motility and viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. These results leave open the possibility of assessing the potential of this hormonal analog as a possible anti-parasite drug, including cysticercosis and amoebiasis. PMID:20403456

  4. Relevance of 3D magnetic resonance imaging sequences in diagnosing basal subarachnoid neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Carrillo Mezo, Roger; Lara García, Javier; Arroyo, Mariana; Fleury, Agnès

    2015-12-01

    Imagenological diagnosis of subarachnoid neurocysticercosis is usually difficult when classical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences are used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the advantages of 3D MRI sequences (Fast Imaging Employing Steady-state Acquisition (FIESTA) and Spoiled Gradient Recalled Echo (SPGR)) with respect to classical sequences (Fluid Attenuation Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) and T1) in visualizing Taenia solium cyst in these locations. Forty-seven T. solium cysts located in the basal cisterns of the subarachnoid space were diagnosed in eighteen Mexican patients. A pre-treatment MRI was performed on all patients, and all four sequences (FIESTA, FLAIR, T1 SPGR, and T2) were evaluated independently by two neuroradiologists. The sensitivity of each sequence to detect the parasite membrane and scolex was evaluated, along with its capacity to detect differences in signal intensity between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and cysts. FIESTA sequences allowed the visualization of cyst membrane in 87.2% of the parasites evaluated, FLAIR in 38.3%, SPGR in 23.4%, and T2 in 17.0%. The superiority of FIESTA sequences over the other three imaging methods was statistically significant (P<0.001). Scolices were detected by FIESTA twice as much as the other sequences did, although this difference was not significant (P>0.05). Differences in signal intensity between CSF and parasite cysts were significant in FIESTA (P<0.0001), SPGR (P<0.0001), and FLAIR (P=0.005) sequences. For the first time, the usefulness of 3D MRI sequences to diagnose T. solium cysts located in the basal cisterns of the subarachnoid space was demonstrated. The routine use of these sequences could favor an earlier diagnosis and greatly improve the prognosis of patients affected by this severe form of the disease. PMID:26327445

  5. Application of polymerase chain reaction on cerebrospinal fluid for diagnosis of cerebral coenurosis in small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Oryan, Ahmad; Amrabadi, Omidreza; Sharifiyazdi, Hassan; Moazeni, Mohammad; Akbari, Maryam; Ghane, Mohsen

    2015-10-01

    Sheep and goats serve as intermediate hosts for the canine tapeworm Taenia multiceps. The cysts produced by the intermediate stage of parasite are usually found in the cerebral hemispheres of small ruminants, and the resulting disease is commonly known as coenurosis. Coenurosis is clinically manifested in the form of various nervous symptoms, depending on the exact location of the cyst. The variety of neurological symptoms contributes to the complexity of clinical diagnosis and reinforces the need for a more specific and acceptable diagnostic approach. We demonstrated here, for the first time, that the T. multiceps DNA is present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the infected sheep and goats. In addition, the molecular genetic marker of the mitochondrial DNA was applied phylogenetically to show that our isolates together with other T. multiceps strains comprised a monophyletic group that is a sister to Taenia krabbei. Pairwise comparison between the cox1 sequences of our study and other T. multiceps genotypes existing in the GenBank showed similarity ranging from 98 to 100%. Accordingly, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be used for amplification of DNA of the parasite originated from the CSF and provides a valuable method for accurate identification of coenurosis cases. PMID:26122997

  6. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals...hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. (a) In the disposal...Carcasses found infested with gid bladder-worms (Coenurus cerebralis, Multiceps...

  7. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals...hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. (a) In the disposal...Carcasses found infested with gid bladder-worms (Coenurus cerebralis, Multiceps...

  8. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals...hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. (a) In the disposal...Carcasses found infested with gid bladder-worms (Coenurus cerebralis, Multiceps...

  9. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals...hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. (a) In the disposal...Carcasses found infested with gid bladder-worms (Coenurus cerebralis, Multiceps...

  10. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...bladder-worms (Coenurus cerebralis, Multiceps multiceps) may be passed for human food after condemnation of the affected organ (brain or spinal cord). (d) Organs or other parts of carcasses infested with hydatid cysts (echinococus) shall be...

  11. A new genus and species of proteocephalidean tapeworm (Cestoda) from Pangasius larnaudii (Siluriformes: Pangasiidae) in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Tomáš; de Chambrier, Alain

    2012-06-01

    A new proteocephalidean cestode is described from spot pangasius, Pangasius larnaudii (Siluriformes: Pangasiidae), from Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia and a new genus, Pangasiocestus , is proposed to accommodate it. The genus is placed in the Gangesiinae because its scolex possesses a large rostellum-like apical organ and its genital organs (testes, ovary, vitellarium, and uterus) are situated in the medulla, with some vitelline follicles paramuscular. Pangasiocestus romani n. gen. and n. sp., the type and only species of the new genus, is characterized mainly by its rosette-like scolex composed of 4 lobes bearing a small sucker in their center, and the apical part with a large, discoidal, rostellum-like apical organ devoid of hooks, by weakly developed inner longitudinal musculature formed by very few isolated muscle fibers, uneven size of testes in immature and mature proglottids, with lateral testes smaller and more dense than median ones, by very narrow lateral bands of vitelline follicles, formed usually by single follicles, and by the vagina anterior to the cirrus sac. This is the first proteocephalidean cestode from a pangasiid catfish identified to the species level (proteocephalidean cestodes from 3 Pangasius spp. reported in an unpublished account from Vietnam, misidentified as Proteocephalus osculatus (Goeze, 1782) [?=? Glanitaenia osculata ], are not considered). PMID:22257242

  12. First report of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in raccoon dogs in Estonia, and comparisons with other countries in Europe.

    PubMed

    Laurimaa, Leidi; Süld, Karmen; Moks, Epp; Valdmann, Harri; Umhang, Gérald; Knapp, Jenny; Saarma, Urmas

    2015-09-15

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is an alien species in Europe and an important vector of zoonotic diseases. However, compared to the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), less attention has been paid to the raccoon dog as a potentially important host for Echinococcus multilocularis, the infective agent of alveolar echinococcosis, which is an emerging infectious disease with a high mortality rate. We examined the small intestines of 249 Estonian raccoon dogs and found 1.6% of individuals to be infected with E. multilocularis. The relatively large difference between this prevalence and that found in sympatric red foxes (31.5%) sampled during the same time period might be due to differences in diet: red foxes consume significantly more arvicolid rodents - the main intermediate hosts of the parasite - especially during the coldest period of the year when raccoon dogs hibernate. Nonetheless, given the relatively high density of raccoon dogs, our results suggest that the species also represents an important definitive host species for E. multilocularis in Estonia. Compared with other countries in Europe where E. multilocularis-infected raccoon dogs have been recorded (Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, and Slovakia), the prevalence in Estonia is low. The longer hibernation period of raccoon dogs at higher latitudes may explain this pattern. Both mitochondrial and nuclear loci were analysed for Estonian isolates: based on EmsB microsatellite genotyping the Estonian isolates shared an identical genotype with E. multilocularis in northern Poland, suggesting a common history with this region. The data from more than a quarter of the mitochondrial genome (3558 bp) revealed two novel haplotypes specific to Estonia and placed them into the same haplogroup with isolates from other European regions. Considering that the raccoon dog is becoming increasingly widespread and is already relatively abundant in several countries in Europe, the role of the species must be taken into account when assessing the E. multilocularis related risks to public health. PMID:26165632

  13. A behavioral study of the beetle Tenebrio molitor infected with cysticercoids of the rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheiman, I. M.; Shkutin, M. F.; Terenina, N. B.; Gustafsson, M. K. S.

    2006-06-01

    The host-parasite relationship, Tenebrio molitor- Hymenolepis diminuta, was analyzed. The learning behavior of infected and uninfected (control) beetles in a T-maze was compared. The infected beetles moved much slower in the T-maze than the controls. The infected beetles reached the same level of learning as the controls. However, they needed more trials than the controls. The effect of the infection was already distinct after the first week and even higher after the second week. This indicates that the initial phase of infection caused stress in the beetles. Longer infection did not worsen their ability to learn. Thus, the parasites clearly changed the behavior of their intermediate host and probably made them more susceptible to their final host, the rat.

  14. Dogs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and those with weakened immune systems. More Dog Tapeworm ( Dipylidium caninum ) The dog tapeworm is a parasite spread to dogs, cats, and ... detected by finding rice-like segments of the tapeworm crawling near the anus or in fresh bowel ...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1198 - Ivermectin and praziquantel paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... control of: (i) Tapeworms—Anoplocephala perfoliata; Large strongyles (adults)—Strongylus vulgaris (also...) Tapeworms—Anoplocephala perfoliata; Large Strongyles (adults)—Strongylus vulgaris (also early forms in...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1198 - Ivermectin and praziquantel paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... control of: (i) Tapeworms—Anoplocephala perfoliata; Large strongyles (adults)—Strongylus vulgaris (also...) Tapeworms—Anoplocephala perfoliata; Large Strongyles (adults)—Strongylus vulgaris (also early forms in...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1198 - Ivermectin and praziquantel paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... control of: (i) Tapeworms—Anoplocephala perfoliata; Large strongyles (adults)—Strongylus vulgaris (also...) Tapeworms—Anoplocephala perfoliata; Large Strongyles (adults)—Strongylus vulgaris (also early forms in...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1198 - Ivermectin and praziquantel paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... control of: (i) Tapeworms—Anoplocephala perfoliata; Large strongyles (adults)—Strongylus vulgaris (also...) Tapeworms—Anoplocephala perfoliata; Large Strongyles (adults)—Strongylus vulgaris (also early forms in...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1198 - Ivermectin and praziquantel paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... control of: (i) Tapeworms—Anoplocephala perfoliata; Large strongyles (adults)—Strongylus vulgaris (also...) Tapeworms—Anoplocephala perfoliata; Large Strongyles (adults)—Strongylus vulgaris (also early forms in...

  20. VARIATIONS IN THE MORPHOIDGY OF FISTUUCOLA PLICATUS RUDOLPHI (1802)

    E-print Network

    1802-01-01

    variations were observed in specimens of the pseudophyllidean tapeworm, Fistulicola plicatus. The most specimens recovered had penetrated the wall of the infected organ. Occasionally the tapeworms penetrated

  1. Prevalence of Neurocysticercosis in People with Epilepsy in the Eastern Province of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mwape, Kabemba E; Blocher, Joachim; Wiefek, Jasmin; Schmidt, Kathie; Dorny, Pierre; Praet, Nicolas; Chiluba, Clarance; Schmidt, Holger; Phiri, Isaac K; Winkler, Andrea S; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    Zambia is endemic for Taenia solium taeniosis and cysticercosis. In this single-centered, cross-sectional, community-based study, the role of neurocysticercosis (NCC) as a cause of epilepsy was examined. People with epilepsy (PWE, n = 56) were identified in an endemic area using a screening questionnaire followed by in-depth interviews and neurological examination. Computed tomography (CT) was performed on 49 people with active epilepsy (PWAE) and their sera (specific antibody and antigen detection, n = 56) and stools (copro-antigen detection, n = 54) were analyzed. The CT scan findings were compared to a group of 40 CT scan controls. Of the PWE, 39.3% and 23.2% were positive for cysticercal antibodies and antigens, respectively, and 14.8% for coproantigens (taeniosis). Lesions highly suggestive of NCC were detected in 24.5% and definite NCC lesions in 4.1% of CT scans of PWAE. This compares to 2.5% and 0%, respectively, in the control CT scans. Using the Del Brutto diagnostic criteria, 51.8% of the PWAE were diagnosed with probable or definitive NCC and this rose to 57.1% when the adapted criteria, as proposed by Gabriël et al. (adding the sero-antigen ELISA test as a major criterion), were used. There was no statistically significant relationship between NCC, current age, age at first seizure and gender. This study suggests that NCC is the single most important cause of epilepsy in the study area. Additional large-scale studies, combining a community based prevalence study for epilepsy with neuroimaging and serological analysis in different areas are needed to estimate the true impact of neurocysticercosis in endemic regions and efforts should be instituted to the control of T. solium. PMID:26285031

  2. Exposure to Multiple Parasites Is Associated with the Prevalence of Active Convulsive Epilepsy in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kamuyu, Gathoni; Bottomley, Christian; Mageto, James; Lowe, Brett; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Noh, John C.; Nutman, Thomas B.; Ngugi, Anthony K.; Odhiambo, Rachael; Wagner, Ryan G.; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth; Masanja, Honorati; Osier, Faith H. A.; Odermatt, Peter; Newton, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is common in developing countries, and it is often associated with parasitic infections. We investigated the relationship between exposure to parasitic infections, particularly multiple infections and active convulsive epilepsy (ACE), in five sites across sub-Saharan Africa. Methods and Findings A case-control design that matched on age and location was used. Blood samples were collected from 986 prevalent cases and 1,313 age-matched community controls and tested for presence of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium falciparum, Taenia solium and HIV. Exposure (seropositivity) to Onchocerca volvulus (OR?=?1.98; 95%CI: 1.52–2.58, p<0.001), Toxocara canis (OR?=?1.52; 95%CI: 1.23–1.87, p<0.001), Toxoplasma gondii (OR?=?1.28; 95%CI: 1.04–1.56, p?=?0.018) and higher antibody levels (top tertile) to Toxocara canis (OR?=?1.70; 95%CI: 1.30–2.24, p<0.001) were associated with an increased prevalence of ACE. Exposure to multiple infections was common (73.8% of cases and 65.5% of controls had been exposed to two or more infections), and for T. gondii and O. volvulus co-infection, their combined effect on the prevalence of ACE, as determined by the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), was more than additive (T. gondii and O. volvulus, RERI?=?1.19). The prevalence of T. solium antibodies was low (2.8% of cases and 2.2% of controls) and was not associated with ACE in the study areas. Conclusion This study investigates how the degree of exposure to parasites and multiple parasitic infections are associated with ACE and may explain conflicting results obtained when only seropositivity is considered. The findings from this study should be further validated. PMID:24875312

  3. Prevalence of Neurocysticercosis in People with Epilepsy in the Eastern Province of Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Wiefek, Jasmin; Schmidt, Kathie; Dorny, Pierre; Praet, Nicolas; Chiluba, Clarance; Schmidt, Holger; Phiri, Isaac K.; Winkler, Andrea S.; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Zambia is endemic for Taenia solium taeniosis and cysticercosis. In this single-centered, cross-sectional, community-based study, the role of neurocysticercosis (NCC) as a cause of epilepsy was examined. People with epilepsy (PWE, n = 56) were identified in an endemic area using a screening questionnaire followed by in-depth interviews and neurological examination. Computed tomography (CT) was performed on 49 people with active epilepsy (PWAE) and their sera (specific antibody and antigen detection, n = 56) and stools (copro-antigen detection, n = 54) were analyzed. The CT scan findings were compared to a group of 40 CT scan controls. Of the PWE, 39.3% and 23.2% were positive for cysticercal antibodies and antigens, respectively, and 14.8% for coproantigens (taeniosis). Lesions highly suggestive of NCC were detected in 24.5% and definite NCC lesions in 4.1% of CT scans of PWAE. This compares to 2.5% and 0%, respectively, in the control CT scans. Using the Del Brutto diagnostic criteria, 51.8% of the PWAE were diagnosed with probable or definitive NCC and this rose to 57.1% when the adapted criteria, as proposed by Gabriël et al. (adding the sero-antigen ELISA test as a major criterion), were used. There was no statistically significant relationship between NCC, current age, age at first seizure and gender. This study suggests that NCC is the single most important cause of epilepsy in the study area. Additional large-scale studies, combining a community based prevalence study for epilepsy with neuroimaging and serological analysis in different areas are needed to estimate the true impact of neurocysticercosis in endemic regions and efforts should be instituted to the control of T. solium. PMID:26285031

  4. Productivity and parasitic infections of pigs kept under different management systems by smallholder farmers in Mbeya and Mbozi districts, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lipendele, Calvin Paul; Lekule, Faustine Paul; Mushi, Daniel Elias; Ngowi, Helena; Kimbi, Eliakunda Casmir; Mejer, Helena; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-08-01

    An on farm experiment was carried out to assess the effects of production systems on the performance of local pigs kept by smallholder farmers. Six villages from Mbeya and Mbozi districts, Tanzania were purposely selected based on the prominent pig production systems: free range, semi-confinement and total confinement. Fifteen pig keeping households were randomly selected from each village to participate in the study. A participatory rural appraisal and structured questionnaire were used for collecting information from the households on pig production and reproduction performance. In addition, a total of 180 weaner pigs, 2-3 months old, were purchased and randomly allocated to the 90 participating households. The pigs were subjected to three production systems: free range (M1), confinement with local diet (M2) and confinement with a compounded diet and anthelmintic treatment (M3). The anthelmintic treatment (piperazine citrate) was administered at 1 g per kg body weight. Faecal and blood samples were collected at month three of the experiment to assess the burden of intestinal helminths and sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis, respectively. Sows kept under free range system were reported to have smaller litter size both at farrowing and at weaning compared to those kept under confinement. The experiment showed pigs under M3 had higher (P?Taenia solium cysticercosis was 26%, with village prevalence ranging from 8 to 52%. Although pigs kept in M3 performed better than the rest, the compounded feed was too expensive for the farmers to afford. Locally available feed types combined with vitamin and mineral supplements may be a more sustainable option. PMID:25934145

  5. The spatial ecology of free-ranging domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In many parts of the developing world, pigs are kept under low-input systems where they roam freely to scavenge food. These systems allow poor farmers the opportunity to enter into livestock keeping without large capital investments. This, combined with a growing demand for pork, especially in urban areas, has led to an increase in the number of small-holder farmers keeping free range pigs as a commercial enterprise. Despite the benefits which pig production can bring to a household, keeping pigs under a free range system increases the risk of the pig acquiring diseases, either production-limiting or zoonotic in nature. This study used Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to track free range domestic pigs in rural western Kenya, in order to understand their movement patterns and interactions with elements of the peri-domestic environment. Results We found that these pigs travel an average of 4,340?m in a 12?hr period and had a mean home range of 10,343?m2 (range 2,937–32,759?m2) within which the core utilisation distribution was found to be 964?m2 (range 246–3,289?m2) with pigs spending on average 47% of their time outside their homestead of origin. Conclusion These are the first data available on the home range of domestic pigs kept under a free range system: the data show that pigs in these systems spend much of their time scavenging outside their homesteads, suggesting that these pigs may be exposed to infectious agents over a wide area. Control policies for diseases such as Taenia solium, Trypanosomiasis, Trichinellosis, Toxoplasmosis or African Swine Fever therefore require a community-wide focus and pig farmers require education on the inherent risks of keeping pigs under a free range system. The work presented here will enable future research to incorporate movement data into studies of disease transmission, for example for the understanding of transmission of African Swine Fever between individuals, or in relation to the life-cycle of parasites including Taenia solium. PMID:23497587

  6. Feedstuff and poor latrines may put pigs at risk of cysticercosis - A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Harrison, Wendy; Lekule, Faustin; Magnussen, Pascal; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-11-30

    Attempts to control Taenia solium in low-income countries have been unsuccessful or unsustainable. This could indicate a 'missing link' in our understanding of the transmission dynamics of the parasite and possibly the magnitude of environmental contamination. We aimed to identify risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis using a case-control study design, utilising known information on persistent or multiple infections of porcine cysticercosis. The study, a combination of questionnaire interviews and observational surveys, was conducted in July 2014 in the two districts Mbeya and Mbozi, Tanzania. Study households were identified based on their status regarding porcine cysticercosis prevalence and allocated into cases or controls based on previous porcine cysticercosis presence. This resulted in 43 farmers in the case group and 50 farmers in the control group, from 20 villages. Potato peels were said to be given to pigs either raw or boiled by 46% of the farmers. Based on logistic regression porcine cysticercosis could be associated with absence or a completely open latrine (p=0.035, OR 5.98, CI: 1.33-43.02) compared to an enclosed latrine. Feeding potato peels to pigs was also associated with increased risk of infection (p=0.007, OR 3.45, CI: 1.43-8.79). Logistic analysis including the pig management system indicated pigs kept in elevated pens (p=0.049, OR 5.33, CI: 1.08-32.27) and on a dirt floor (p=0.041, OR 9.87, CI: 1.29-114.55) were more likely to be infected compared to a cemented floor. Whether potato peels are contaminated with Taenia eggs before they reach the household or whether the contamination is from water or dirty hands during the process of peeling, remains to be confirmed. This study suggests that detailed assessment of a number of areas of pig management is essential for designing effective control programmes. PMID:26304509

  7. Strategies for optimal expression of vaccine antigens from Taeniid cestode parasites in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gauci, Charles; Jenkins, David; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2011-07-01

    Investigations were undertaken into optimizing the expression of Cestode parasite vaccine antigens in the bacterium, Escherichia coli to levels sufficient for mass production. A strategy to genetically engineer the antigens and improve their expression in E. coli was investigated. Plasmid constructs encoding truncated parasite antigens were prepared, leading to removal of N and C-terminal hydrophobic domains of the antigens. This approach was found to be an effective strategy for improving expression of the TSOL18 recombinant antigen of Taenia solium in E. coli. Clear demonstration that plasmid construct modification can be used to significantly improve heterologous expression in E. coli was shown for the EG95 antigen of Echinococcus granulosus. Removal of hydrophobic stretches of amino acids from the N and C termini of EG95 by genetic manipulation led to a substantial change in expression of the protein from an insoluble to a soluble form. The data demonstrate that the occurrence of hydrophobic regions in the antigens are a major feature that hindered their expression in E. coli. It was also shown that retaining a minimal protein domain (a single fibronectin type III domain) led to high level expression of functional protein that is antigenic and host protective. Two truncated antigens were combined from two species of parasite (EG95NC? from E. granulosus and Tm18N? from Taenia multiceps) and expressed as a single hybrid antigen in E. coli. The hybrid antigens were expressed at a high level and retained antigenicity of their respective components, thereby simplifying production of a multi-antigen vaccine. The findings are expected to have an impact on the preparation of recombinant Cestode vaccine antigens using E. coli, by increasing their utility and making them more amenable to large-scale production. PMID:21222242

  8. A diagnostic study of Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Learmount, J; Zimmer, I A; Conyers, C; Boughtflower, V D; Morgan, C P; Smith, G C

    2012-12-21

    Alveolar echinococcosis is caused by a parasitic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis and is a serious disease with high fatality in humans. The definitive primary host is the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) but domestic animals (dogs and to a lesser extent cats) as well as several genera of rodents can also be infected with the parasite. There is, to date, no evidence of indigenous cases of E. multilocularis in Great Britain (GB) but in most of continental Europe the parasite is considered to be endemic and/or slowly spreading. All pet dogs entering the United Kingdom (UK) under the pet travel scheme (PETS) are therefore currently treated with an anthelmintic effective against Echinococcus spp. Surveillance of red foxes is required to demonstrate disease freedom and maintain this regulation to prevent further geographical spread of the parasite to free areas within the EU. A study of 588 wild red foxes collected from across Great Britain (GB) between October 1999 and November 2000 found no Echinococcus spp. This report describes a further study of GB foxes collected predominately during 2005 and 2006. Fox faecal samples (n=384) were examined for both E. multilocularis and Echinococcus granulosus using an egg isolation procedure followed by PCR method, based on published primer sets. A non-specific primer set that amplifies Taenia spp. as well as Mesocestoides, Dipylidium and Diphyllobothrium was also included in the assay to validate the test procedure as these parasites are expected to be more common in wild fox populations. All faecal samples tested negative for both E. multilocularis and E. granulosus but results for approximately 35% of the samples indicated the presence of Taenia spp. or other closely related cestodes. This data contributes to the evidence that suggests that E. multilocularis is not present in mainland Britain and justifies the requirement for ongoing surveillance to demonstrate disease freedom. PMID:22840643

  9. Intestinal helminths of golden jackals and red foxes from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Lahmar, Samia; Boufana, Belgees; Ben Boubaker, Sarra; Landolsi, Faouzi

    2014-08-29

    Forty wild canids including 31 golden jackals (Canis aureus Linné, 1758) and 9 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linné, 1758) collected between 2008 and 2011 in the northeast, northwest and center of Tunisia were necropsied and examined for intestinal helminth parasites. All jackals and foxes were found infected with a prevalence rate of 95% for cestodes, 82.5% for nematodes and 7.5% for acanthocephalans. A total of twelve helminth species were recorded in red foxes: cestodes, Dipylidium caninum (55.6%), Diplopylidium noelleri (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes lineatus (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes litteratus (33%), Mesocestoïdes corti (22%); nematodes, Ancylostoma caninum (11%), Uncinaria stenocephala (44%), Spirura rytipleurites (11%), Trichuris vulpis (33%), Pterygodermatites affinis (67%), Oxynema linstowi (33%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (22%). The fifteen recovered helminth species in jackals were Echinococcus granulosus (9.7%), D. caninum (16%), D. noelleri (16%), M. lineatus (74%), M. litteratus (23%), M. corti (12.9%), Taenia pisiformis (3.2%), Taenia spp. (19%), Toxocara canis (16%), Toxascaris leonina (6.5%), A. caninum (9.7%), U. stenocephala (68%), P. affinis (6.5%), O. linstowi (3.2%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (3.2%). This is the first report on the presence of P. affinis, D. noelleri and O. linstowi in Tunisia. E. granulosus was found in young jackals, aged less than 4 years old, with a higher abundance in females (8.9 worms). M. lineatus presented the highest mean intensity of 231.86 and 108.8 tapeworms respectively in jackals and foxes. Canids from the northwest region had the highest prevalence (77.5%) and highest intensity (243.7) of helminth species compared to those from the northeast and central areas. U. stenocephala and O. linstowi had the highest mean intensity for nematodes in both jackals and foxes at 14.3 and 88 worms respectively. PMID:24938826

  10. Hospitalization frequency and charges for neurocysticercosis, United States, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Seth E; Flecker, Robert H

    2015-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis, brain infection with Taenia solium larval cysts, causes substantial neurologic illness around the world. To assess the effect of neurocysticercosis in the United States, we reviewed hospitalization discharge data in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 2003-2012 and found an estimated 18,584 hospitalizations for neurocysticercosis and associated hospital charges totaling >US $908 million. The risk for hospitalization was highest among Hispanics (2.5/100,000 population), a rate 35 times higher than that for the non-Hispanic white population. Nearly three-quarters of all hospitalized patients with neurocysticercosis were Hispanic. Male sex and age 20-44 years also incurred increased risk. In addition, hospitalizations and associated charges related to cysticercosis far exceeded those for malaria and were greater than for those for all other neglected tropical diseases combined. Neurocysticercosis is an increasing public health concern in the United States, especially among Hispanics, and costs the US health care system a substantial amount of money. PMID:25988221

  11. Prevalence of Endemic Pig-Associated Zoonoses in Southeast Asia: A Review of Findings from the Lao People's Democratic Republic

    PubMed Central

    Okello, Anna L.; Burniston, Stephanie; Conlan, James V.; Inthavong, Phouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Welburn, Susan C.; Gilbert, Jeffrey; Allen, John; Blacksell, Stuart D.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing intensification of pork production in southeast Asia necessitates an urgent requirement to better understand the dual impact of pig-associated zoonotic disease on both pig production and human health in the region. Sharing porous borders with five countries and representing many regional ethnicities and agricultural practices, the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) appears well placed to gauge the levels of pig-associated zoonoses circulating in the wider region. Despite this, little is known about the true impact of zoonotic pathogens such as leptospirosis, Trichinella, hepatitis E virus (HEV), Japanese encephalitis (JE), and Taenia solium on human health and livestock production in the country. A comprehensive review of the published prevalences of these five pig-associated zoonoses in Lao PDR has demonstrated that although suspicion remains high of their existence in pig reservoirs across the country, epidemiological data are scarce; only 31 epidemiological studies have been undertaken on these diseases in the past 25 years. A greater understanding of the zoonoses prevalence and subsequent risks associated with pork production in the southeast Asian region could help focus public health and food safety interventions at key points along the value chain, benefiting both livestock producers and the broader animal and human health systems in the region. PMID:25802431

  12. Somatostatin Negatively Regulates Parasite Burden and Granulomatous Responses in Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Khumbatta, Mitra; Firozgary, Bahrom; Tweardy, David John; Weinstock, Joel; Firozgary, Gohar; Bhatena, Zal

    2014-01-01

    Cysticercosis is an infection of tissues with the larval cysts of the cestode, Taenia??solium. While live parasites elicit little or no inflammation, dying parasites initiate a granulomatous reaction presenting as painful muscle nodules or seizures when cysts are located in the brain. We previously showed in the T. crassiceps murine model of cysticercosis that substance P (SP), a neuropeptide, was detected in early granulomas and was responsible for promoting granuloma formation, while somatostatin (SOM), another neuropeptide and immunomodulatory hormone, was detected in late granulomas; SOM's contribution to granuloma formation was not examined. In the current studies, we used somatostatin knockout (SOM?/?) mice to examine the hypothesis that SOM downmodulates granulomatous inflammation in cysticercosis, thereby promoting parasite growth. Our results demonstrated that parasite burden was reduced 5.9-fold in SOM?/? mice compared to WT mice (P < 0.05). This reduction in parasite burden in SOM?/? mice was accompanied by a 95% increase in size of their granulomas (P < 0.05), which contained a 1.5-fold increase in levels of IFN-? and a 26-fold decrease in levels of IL-1? (P < 0.05 for both) compared to granulomas from WT mice. Thus, SOM regulates both parasite burden and granulomatous inflammation perhaps through modulating granuloma production of IFN-? and IL-1?. PMID:25530957

  13. Evidence-based identification of the most important livestock related zoonotic diseases in Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Makita, Kohei; Fèvre, Eric M; Waiswa, Charles; Kaboyo, Winyi; Eisler, Mark C; Welburn, Susan C

    2011-08-01

    Urban and peri-urban livestock farming in developing countries plays an important role in food security in cities; however it brings with it zoonotic risks. The present study was conducted to identify the most important livestock farming-related zoonotic diseases among the human population in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala, Uganda and to assess the risks from such farming. A framework for identifying livestock farming-related significant zoonoses was developed. The process consisted of screening of medical record summaries for zoonotic diagnoses, selection of the zoonoses which are related to livestock farming, case estimation of the identified zoonoses and evidence-based reassurance of the importance of diseases. Medical records in the Mulago National Referral Hospital were used for the analysis. Leaders and residents of 75 Local Councils (LC1s: villages; 48 urban, 11 peri-urban and 16 rural) randomly selected in Kampala were interviewed for information regarding livestock farming systems, value chains and use of medical service units. Twelve zoonoses were identified in the screening and four out of them were related to livestock farming: animal sourced food-borne gastroenteritis, brucellosis, Taenia solium neuro-cysticercosis and Mycobacterium bovis tuberculosis. Livestock farming, value chain and severity of the diseases confirmed that all four diseases were important. Poor geographical correlation between animals in peri-urban and rural areas and patients in urban areas suggested that the majority of these zoonoses were caused by informally-marketed foods. PMID:21467754

  14. A Novel Terminal-Repeat Retrotransposon in Miniature (TRIM) Is Massively Expressed in Echinococcus multilocularis Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Koziol, Uriel; Radio, Santiago; Smircich, Pablo; Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Fernández, Cecilia; Brehm, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Taeniid cestodes (including the human parasites Echinococcus spp. and Taenia solium) have very few mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in their genome, despite lacking a canonical PIWI pathway. The MGEs of these parasites are virtually unexplored, and nothing is known about their expression and silencing. In this work, we report the discovery of a novel family of small nonautonomous long terminal repeat retrotransposons (also known as terminal-repeat retrotransposons in miniature, TRIMs) which we have named ta-TRIM (taeniid TRIM). ta-TRIMs are only the second family of TRIM elements discovered in animals, and are likely the result of convergent reductive evolution in different taxonomic groups. These elements originated at the base of the taeniid tree and have expanded during taeniid diversification, including after the divergence of closely related species such as Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus granulosus. They are massively expressed in larval stages, from a small proportion of full-length copies and from isolated terminal repeats that show transcriptional read-through into downstream regions, generating novel noncoding RNAs and transcriptional fusions to coding genes. In E. multilocularis, ta-TRIMs are specifically expressed in the germinative cells (the somatic stem cells) during asexual reproduction of metacestode larvae. This would provide a developmental mechanism for insertion of ta-TRIMs into cells that will eventually generate the adult germ line. Future studies of active and inactive ta-TRIM elements could give the first clues on MGE silencing mechanisms in cestodes. PMID:26133390

  15. Review of Zoonotic Parasites in Medical and Veterinary Fields in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19885329

  16. Intradural Neurocysticercosis of Lumbar Spine: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Sudhir; Acharya, Shankar; Kalra, K. L.; Chahal, Rupinder

    2014-01-01

    Study Design?Case report. Objective?Cysticercosis (parasitic infection caused by Taenia solium) is the most common parasitic infection of the nervous system. However, spinal neurocysticercosis is rare. It can present as an extraspinal or intraspinal lesion, with intramedullary being the rarest location. The symptoms can vary from vague backache and radiculopathy to cauda equine syndrome. Methods?We report a 32-year-old man who presented with neurocysticercosis in the lumbar spine and cauda equine syndrome. He had low backache for 1?month, hesitancy in micturition, and decreased perianal sensation for the previous 2 days. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural extramedullary lesion extending from L2–S1 that was hyperintense in T2- and hypointense in T1-weighted images. Results?Because the patient presented with cauda equine syndrome, urgent decompressive laminectomy was done from L2–S1, and the thin-walled cysts with clear fluid were removed. Histopathologic examination confirmed neurocysticercosis. The perianal sensation and the bladder control recovered completely. Conclusion?Neurocysticercosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with a similar picture, and urgent surgical decompression should be attempted to prevent further worsening of the neurologic symptoms. PMID:26225286

  17. Comparative selenoproteome analysis reveals a reduced utilization of selenium in parasitic platyhelminthes

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Liang; Zhu, Hua-Zhang; Xu, Yin-Zhen; Ni, Jia-Zuan

    2013-01-01

    Background. The selenocysteine(Sec)-containing proteins, selenoproteins, are an important group of proteins present in all three kingdoms of life. Although the selenoproteomes of many organisms have been analyzed, systematic studies on selenoproteins in platyhelminthes are still lacking. Moreover, comparison of selenoproteomes between free-living and parasitic animals is rarely studied. Results. In this study, three representative organisms (Schmidtea mediterranea, Schistosoma japonicum and Taenia solium) were selected for comparative analysis of selenoproteomes in Platyhelminthes. Using a SelGenAmic-based selenoprotein prediction algorithm, a total of 37 selenoprotein genes were identified in these organisms. The size of selenoproteomes and selenoprotein families were found to be associated with different lifestyles: free-living organisms have larger selenoproteome whereas parasitic lifestyle corresponds to reduced selenoproteomes. Five selenoproteins, SelT, Sel15, GPx, SPS2 and TR, were found to be present in all examined platyhelminthes as well as almost all sequenced animals, suggesting their essential role in metazoans. Finally, a new splicing form of SelW that lacked the first exon was found to be present in S. japonicum. Conclusions. Our data provide a first glance into the selenoproteomes of organisms in the phylum Platyhelminthes and may help understand function and evolutionary dynamics of selenium utilization in diversified metazoans. PMID:24255816

  18. Successful Antiparasitic Treatment for Cysticercosis is Associated with a Fast and Marked Reduction of Circulating Antigen Levels in a Naturally Infected Pig Model.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Armando E; Bustos, Javier A; Garcia, Hector H; Rodriguez, Silvia; Zimic, Mirko; Castillo, Yesenia; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah; Gilman, Robert H; Dorny, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a common parasitic infection of humans and pigs. We evaluated the posttreatment evolution of circulating parasite-specific antigen titers in 693 consecutive blood samples from 50 naturally infected cysticercotic pigs, which received different regimes of antiparasitic drugs (N = 39, 7 groups), prednisone (N = 5), or controls (N = 6). Samples were collected from baseline to week 10 after treatment, when pigs were euthanized and carefully dissected at necropsy. Antigen levels decreased proportionally to the efficacy of treatment and correlated with the remaining viable cysts at necropsy (Pearson's p = 0.67, P = 0.000). A decrease of 5 times in antigen levels (logarithmic scale) compared with baseline was found in 20/26 pigs free of cysts at necropsy, compared with 1/24 of those who had persisting viable cysts (odds ratio [OR] = 76.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.1-3308.6, P < 0.001). Antigen monitoring reflects the course of infection in the pig. If a similar correlation exists in infected humans, this assay may provide a minimally invasive and easy monitoring assay to assess disease evolution and efficacy of antiparasitic treatment in human neurocysticercosis. PMID:26392159

  19. Intranasal microemulsion for targeted nose to brain delivery in neurocysticercosis: Role of docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Rajshree L; Bharkad, Gopal P; Devarajan, Padma V

    2015-10-01

    Intranasal Microemulsions (MEs) for nose to brain delivery of a novel combination of Albendazole sulfoxide (ABZ-SO) and Curcumin (CUR) for Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a brain infection are reported. MEs prepared by simple solution exhibited a globule size <20nm, negative zeta potential and good stability. The docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ME revealed high and rapid ex vivo permeation of drugs through sheep nasal mucosa. Intranasal DHA ME resulted in high brain concentrations and 10.76 (ABZ-SO) and 3.24 (CUR) fold enhancement in brain area-under-the-curve (AUC) compared to intravenous DHA MEs at the same dose. Direct nose to brain transport (DTP) of >95% was seen for both drugs. High drug targeting efficiency (DTE) to the brain compared to Capmul ME and drug solution (P<0.05) suggested the role of DHA in aiding nose to brain delivery. Histopathology study confirmed no significant changes. High efficacy of ABZ-SO: CUR (100:10ng/mL) DHA ME in vitro on Taenia solium cysts was confirmed by complete ALP inhibition and disintegration of cysts at 96h. Considering that the brain concentration at 24h was 1400±160.1ng/g (ABZ-SO) and 120±35.2ng/g (CUR), the in vitro efficacy seen at a 10 fold lower concentration of the drugs strongly supports the assumption of clinical efficacy. The intranasal DHA ME is a promising delivery system for targeted nose to brain delivery. PMID:26318978

  20. Intradural Neurocysticercosis of Lumbar Spine: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Sudhir; Acharya, Shankar; Kalra, K L; Chahal, Rupinder

    2015-08-01

    Study Design?Case report. Objective?Cysticercosis (parasitic infection caused by Taenia solium) is the most common parasitic infection of the nervous system. However, spinal neurocysticercosis is rare. It can present as an extraspinal or intraspinal lesion, with intramedullary being the rarest location. The symptoms can vary from vague backache and radiculopathy to cauda equine syndrome. Methods?We report a 32-year-old man who presented with neurocysticercosis in the lumbar spine and cauda equine syndrome. He had low backache for 1?month, hesitancy in micturition, and decreased perianal sensation for the previous 2 days. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural extramedullary lesion extending from L2-S1 that was hyperintense in T2- and hypointense in T1-weighted images. Results?Because the patient presented with cauda equine syndrome, urgent decompressive laminectomy was done from L2-S1, and the thin-walled cysts with clear fluid were removed. Histopathologic examination confirmed neurocysticercosis. The perianal sensation and the bladder control recovered completely. Conclusion?Neurocysticercosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with a similar picture, and urgent surgical decompression should be attempted to prevent further worsening of the neurologic symptoms. PMID:26225286

  1. Identification of irradiated refrigerated pork with the DNA comet assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, M. M.; Marin-Huachaca, N. S.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincée, H.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Food irradiation can contribute to a safer and more plentiful food supply by inactivating pathogens, eradicating pests and by extending shelf-life. Particularly in the case of pork meat, this process could be a useful way to inactivate harmful parasites such as Trichinella and Taenia solium. Ionizing radiation causes damage to the DNA of the cells (e.g. strand breaks), which can be used to detect irradiated food. Microelectrophoresis of single cells (``Comet Assay'') is a simple and rapid test for DNA damage and can be used over a wide dose range and for a variety of products. Refrigerated pork meat was irradiated with a 60Co source, Gammacell 220 (A.E.C.L.) installed in IPEN (Sa~o Paulo, Brazil). The doses given were 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5kGy for refrigerated samples. Immediately after irradiation the samples were returned to the refrigerator (6°C). Samples were kept in the refrigerator after irradiation. Pork meat was analyzed 1, 8 and 10 days after irradiation using the DNA ``Comet Assay''. This method showed to be an inexpensive and rapid technique for qualitative detection of irradiation treatment.

  2. Hospitalization Frequency and Charges for Neurocysticercosis, United States, 2003–2012

    PubMed Central

    Flecker, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis, brain infection with Taenia solium larval cysts, causes substantial neurologic illness around the world. To assess the effect of neurocysticercosis in the United States, we reviewed hospitalization discharge data in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 2003–2012 and found an estimated 18,584 hospitalizations for neurocysticercosis and associated hospital charges totaling >US $908 million. The risk for hospitalization was highest among Hispanics (2.5/100,000 population), a rate 35 times higher than that for the non-Hispanic white population. Nearly three-quarters of all hospitalized patients with neurocysticercosis were Hispanic. Male sex and age 20–44 years also incurred increased risk. In addition, hospitalizations and associated charges related to cysticercosis far exceeded those for malaria and were greater than for those for all other neglected tropical diseases combined. Neurocysticercosis is an increasing public health concern in the United States, especially among Hispanics, and costs the US health care system a substantial amount of money. PMID:25988221

  3. Current Consensus Guidelines for Treatment of Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    García, Hector H.; Evans, Carlton A. W.; Nash, Theodore E.; Takayanagui, Osvaldo M.; White, A. Clinton; Botero, David; Rajshekhar, Vedantam; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Schantz, Peter M.; Allan, James C.; Flisser, Ana; Correa, Dolores; Sarti, Elsa; Friedland, Jon S.; Martinez, S. Manuel; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Del Brutto, Oscar H.

    2002-01-01

    Taenia solium neurocysticercosis is a common cause of epileptic seizures and other neurological morbidity in most developing countries. It is also an increasingly common diagnosis in industrialized countries because of immigration from areas where it is endemic. Its clinical manifestations are highly variable and depend on the number, stage, and size of the lesions and the host's immune response. In part due to this variability, major discrepancies exist in the treatment of neurocysticercosis. A panel of experts in taeniasis/cysticercosis discussed the evidence on treatment of neurocysticercosis for each clinical presentation, and we present the panel's consensus and areas of disagreement. Overall, four general recommendations were made: (i) individualize therapeutic decisions, including whether to use antiparasitic drugs, based on the number, location, and viability of the parasites within the nervous system; (ii) actively manage growing cysticerci either with antiparasitic drugs or surgical excision; (iii) prioritize the management of intracranial hypertension secondary to neurocysticercosis before considering any other form of therapy; and (iv) manage seizures as done for seizures due to other causes of secondary seizures (remote symptomatic seizures) because they are due to an organic focus that has been present for a long time. PMID:12364377

  4. Cysticercosis of the Central Nervous System - How Should It Be Managed?

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Taenia solium neurocysticercosis has been long recognized as an important cause of neurological morbidity in most of the world. Unwarranted generalization of diagnostic and treatment recommendations made it difficult to assess individual prognosis and responses for each type of NCC. Understanding of the main clinical presentations (dependent on number, location, size and stage of parasites, as well as on the immune response of the host) allows a better view of treatment options and expected outcomes. Recent findings Current treatment options are still limited and involve symptomatic agents, antiparasitic agents or surgery. The importance of adequate symptomatic management, the potential for improved antiparasitic treatment regimes, in particular combination therapy, and the increasingly important role of minimally invasive neurosurgery are also revised in this manuscript. Summary Treatment decisions in NCC should be individualized in relation to the type of NCC. Initial measures should focus on symptomatic management to later consider antiparasitic therapy when appropriate. Appropiate patient categorization, new antiparasitic regimes and minimally invasive surgery are improving the prognosis of patients with NCC. PMID:21788891

  5. An epidemiological study of asymptomatic neurocysticercosis in a pig farming community in northern India.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Kashi N; Verma, Avantika; Srivastava, Sandeep; Gupta, Rakesh K; Pandey, Chandra M; Paliwal, Vimal K

    2011-09-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most frequent parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by the larvae of Taenia solium. The prevalence of NCC is obscured due to variations in the methods used for epidemiological studies and often asymptomatic manifestation. The present study was conducted on 595 apparently healthy individuals belonging to the pig farming community of northern India to estimate the prevalence of asymptomatic NCC and to evaluate risk factors based on questionnaires. Diagnosis of NCC was based on neuroimaging, immunological and epidemiological criteria. Asymptomatic NCC was detected in 90 (15.1%) of 595 individuals. The evaluation of risk factors showed that age >15 years (P=0.001), intake of raw vegetables (P=0.025) and undercooked pork (P=0.005), lack of safe drinking water (P=0.003), inadequate drainage system (P=0.049), no separate place for pigs (P?0.001), NCC related active epilepsy in the family (P?0.001) were significantly associated with asymptomatic NCC. The present study shows high prevalence of asymptomatic NCC in pig farming community of northern India. Further, asymptomatic NCC is associated with most variables of poor socio-economic parameters. PMID:21764415

  6. A Novel Terminal-Repeat Retrotransposon in Miniature (TRIM) Is Massively Expressed in Echinococcus multilocularis Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Koziol, Uriel; Radio, Santiago; Smircich, Pablo; Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Fernández, Cecilia; Brehm, Klaus

    2015-08-01

    Taeniid cestodes (including the human parasites Echinococcus spp. and Taenia solium) have very few mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in their genome, despite lacking a canonical PIWI pathway. The MGEs of these parasites are virtually unexplored, and nothing is known about their expression and silencing. In this work, we report the discovery of a novel family of small nonautonomous long terminal repeat retrotransposons (also known as terminal-repeat retrotransposons in miniature, TRIMs) which we have named ta-TRIM (taeniid TRIM). ta-TRIMs are only the second family of TRIM elements discovered in animals, and are likely the result of convergent reductive evolution in different taxonomic groups. These elements originated at the base of the taeniid tree and have expanded during taeniid diversification, including after the divergence of closely related species such as Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus granulosus. They are massively expressed in larval stages, from a small proportion of full-length copies and from isolated terminal repeats that show transcriptional read-through into downstream regions, generating novel noncoding RNAs and transcriptional fusions to coding genes. In E. multilocularis, ta-TRIMs are specifically expressed in the germinative cells (the somatic stem cells) during asexual reproduction of metacestode larvae. This would provide a developmental mechanism for insertion of ta-TRIMs into cells that will eventually generate the adult germ line. Future studies of active and inactive ta-TRIM elements could give the first clues on MGE silencing mechanisms in cestodes. PMID:26133390

  7. Prevalence of Taenia saginata Larvae (Cysticercus bovis) in Feedlot Cattle Slaughtered in a Federal Inspection Type Abattoir in Northwest México.

    PubMed

    Cueto González, Sergio Arturo; Rodríguez Castillo, José Luis; López Valencia, Gilberto; Bermúdez Hurtado, Rosa María; Hernández Robles, Erika Selene; Monge Navarro, Francisco Javier

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was established using routine postmortem inspection of 52,322 feedlot cattle slaughtered at 1 Federal Inspection Type abattoir (TIF 301) located in the Mexicali Valley in Baja California, México. The study included 31,393 animals (60.0%) purchased and transported to Baja California from stocker operations located in 17 states of México and 20,929 animals (40.0%) native to Baja California. A total of 208 carcasses showed lesions suggestive of cysticercosis, and 109 were confirmed as positive for the parasite with a prevalence of 0.21%, equivalent to 2.1 cases/1000 carcasses inspected, 2.8 cases/1000 carcasses for cattle purchased in other states, and 1.0 cases/1000 carcasses for cattle native from Baja California. The sensitivity of the postmortem inspection, when compared to a gold standard of stereoscopic microscopy, was 52.4%. The prevalence of cysticercosis was 2.8 times higher in cattle from other states compared with those native to Baja California. Cysticerci were most frequently found in the heart, followed by liver and masseter muscles. In cattle from other states, 96.6% of cysticerci were classified as calcified and <4% as viable; in cattle native to Baja California, 29% of cysticerci were classified as calcified and 71% as viable. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis established at TIF 301 was found to be 28% lower than a previous report for Baja California. However, given the sensitivity of the postmortem inspection calculated between 10% and 50%, it is possible that an undetermined number of carcasses pass as being free of cysticerci and that the meat reached both domestic and international wholesale markets, increasing the possibility of human infection and causing substantial economic loss through condemnation of infected meat and trade restrictions for endemic regions. PMID:25803448

  8. Validation of an immunohistochemical assay for bovine cysticercosis, with comparison to a standard histological method.

    PubMed

    Scandrett, W Brad; Haines, Deborah M; Parker, Sarah E; Robinson, Yves; Forbes, Lorry B; Brandt, Jef; Geerts, Stanny; Dorny, Pierre; Gajadhar, Alvin A

    2012-05-25

    The larval stage (syn Cysticercus bovis) of the human tapeworm Taenia saginata causes cysticercosis in cattle, which has both aesthetic and food safety implications to consumers of beef. A monoclonal antibody-based immunohistochemical (IHC) assay developed to improve postmortem diagnosis of this parasite and a standard histological method were assessed to determine their fitness for intended use. Sections from 169 known-positive specimens of T. saginata from experimentally or naturally infected cattle, and from 30 known-negative specimens and lesions of various etiologies from non-infected cattle, were tested. The IHC assay identified significantly more known positive bovine cysticerci than the histological method (91.7% and 38.5%, respectively). Positive IHC staining occurred on sections from other cestode species, but should not affect the diagnostic specificity of this assay for bovine cysticercosis, due to the different host and/or tissue preferences amongst these parasites. Use of the IHC assay should improve the reliability of diagnosing lesions caused by degenerated cysticerci, facilitating more effective and efficient control of bovine cysticercosis. PMID:22169223

  9. A new genus and species of proteocephalidean tapeworm (Cestoda), first parasite found in the driftwood catfish Tocantinsia piresi (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Philippe Vieira; Chambrier, Alain de; Scholz, Tomas; Luque, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    Frezella gen. n. is proposed to accommodate Frezella vaucheri sp. n. from poorly known auchenipterid fish, Tocantinsia piresi (Miranda Ribeiro), from the Xingú River, one of the principal tributaries of the lower Amazon River in Brazil. The new genus belongs to the Proteocephalinae because of the medullary position of the testes, ovary (yet some follicles penetrate to the cortex on the dorsal side), vitelline follicles and uterus. It differs from other proteocephaline genera in the morphology of the scolex, which includes a metascolex composed of two distinct zones: anterior, strongly wrinkled part posterior to the suckers, and posterior, sparsely folded zone. Frezella can also be differentiated by having the internal longitudinal musculature hypertrophied laterally on both sides, the presence of some ovarian follicles in the cortex on the dorsal side and the presence of additional pair of tiny, thin-walled osmoregulatory canals situated slightly dorsomedian to ventral canals. Frezella vaucheri is the first helminth parasite reported from T. piresi, which occurs in the lower reaches of the Amazon and Tocantins River basins in Brazil. PMID:25960550

  10. Levels of sparganum infections and phylogenetic analysis of the tapeworm Spirometra erinaceieuropaei sparganum in wild frogs from Henan Province in central China.

    PubMed

    Wei, T; Zhang, X; Cui, J; Liu, L N; Jiang, P; Wang, Z Q

    2015-07-01

    Sparganosis is a serious food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with Spirometra spargana. The prevalence of sparganum infection in wild frogs (Rana nigromaculata, R. limmochari, R. temporaria and Bufo gargarizans) was investigated in Henan Province of central China during 2008-2012. Of 3482 caught wild frogs, 565 (16.23%) were found to be infected with plerocercoids (spargana) of the genus Spirometra. Spargana were found in 14.85% (320/2155) of R. nigromaculata, 20.82% (233/1119) of R. limmochari and 10.91% (12/110) of R. temporaria frogs. However, no sparganum was found in B. gargarizans. To investigate the phylogenetic position of collected spargana, three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions, namely cytochrome c oxidase subunits 1 and 3 (cox1 and cox3), and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (nad4), were amplified, sequenced and analysed. Sequences of cox1, cox3 and pnad4 were 417, 390 and 578 bp in length, respectively. The base composition of cox1, cox3 and pnad4 were generally AT rich with a mean of 63.5%, 68.3% and 67% AT, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the sparganum isolates in Henan Province represented Spirometra erinaceieuropaei and were a well-supported clade. These findings demonstrated clearly the usefulness of the three mtDNA sequences for molecular identification and population genetics studies of S. erinaceieuropaei spargana of human and animal health significance. PMID:26017331

  11. Effect of Intestinal Tapeworm Clestobothrium crassiceps on Concentrations of Toxic Elements and Selenium in European Hake Merluccius merluccius from the Gulf of Lion (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Torres, Jordi; Eira, Catarina; Miquel, Jordi; Ferrer-Maza, Dolors; Delgado, Eulàlia; Casadevall, Margarida

    2015-10-28

    The capacity for heavy metal bioaccumulation by some fish parasites has been demonstrated, and their contribution to decreasing metal concentrations in tissues of parasitized fish has been hypothesized. The present study evaluated the effect of the cestode Clestobothrium crassiceps on the accumulation of trace elements in 30 European hake, Merluccius merluccius, in Spain (half of them infested by C. crassiceps). Tissue samples from all M. merluccius and specimens of C. crassiceps from the infected hakes were collected and stored until element analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic, mercury, and selenium were generally present in lower levels in the cestode than in all hake tissues. The mean value of the muscular Se:Hg molar ratio in the infested subsample was higher than that in hakes without cestodes. Values indicate that the edible part of infested hakes presents a lower amount of Cd and Pb in relation to noninfested hakes. PMID:26434500

  12. Infection levels of plerocercoids of the tapeworm Triaenophorus crassus and feeding strategy in two fish species from the ultra-oligotrophic Lake Achensee, Austria.

    PubMed

    Schähle, Z; Medgyesy, N; Psenner, R

    2016-01-01

    Thus far, high burdens of Triaenophorus crassus plerocercoids have been reported only in old age groups of coregonid and salmonid fishes. Here we show heavy infection with T. crassus in young whitefish Coregonus lavaretus in the ultra-oligotrophic and regulated Achensee in Tyrol, Austria. Prevalence of T. crassus on C. lavaretus was 100% in all age groups and abundance significantly increased with fish age. The mean annual accumulation of T. crassus was 5.2 parasites in 0- to 7-year-old C. lavaretus, and 2-year-old specimens already harboured a mean of 19.4 plerocercoids. In Arctic charr Salvelinus umbla, however, the prevalence of T. crassus was less than 16% and the majority of infected fish contained only one or two plerocercoids. Triaenophorus nodulosus was present neither in C. lavaretus nor in S. umbla. We assume that the heavy T. crassus infection in C. lavaretus is largely related to their zooplankton-dominated diet and to the characteristics of Achensee, while habitat choice and feeding strategy of the S. umbla population are seen to be the main reasons for their low burdens of T. crassus. PMID:25345803

  13. Hymenolepis folkertsi n. sp. (Eucestoda: Hymenolepididae) in the oldfield mouse Peromyscus polionotus from the southeastern Nearctic with comments on tapeworm faunal diversity among deer mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previously unrecognized species of hymenolepidid cestode attributable to Hymenolepis Weinland, 1858 is described based on specimens in Peromyscus polionotus, oldfield mouse, from Georgia near the southeastern coast of continental North America. Specimens of Hymenolepis folkertsi n. sp. differ from...

  14. High Prevalence of Cysticercosis in People with Epilepsy in Southern Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Rottbeck, Ruth; Nshimiyimana, Jules Fidèle; Tugirimana, Pierrot; Düll, Uta E.; Sattler, Janko; Hategekimana, Jean-Claudien; Hitayezu, Janvier; Bruckmaier, Irmengard; Borchert, Matthias; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Dieckmann, Sebastian; Harms, Gundel

    2013-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis (NCC), the central nervous system infection by Taenia solium larvae, is a preventable and treatable cause of epilepsy. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the role of NCC in epilepsy differs geographically and, overall, is poorly defined. We aimed at contributing specific, first data for Rwanda, assessing factors associated with NCC, and evaluating a real-time PCR assay to diagnose NCC in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Methodology/Principal findings At three healthcare facilities in southern Rwanda, 215 people with epilepsy (PWE) and 51 controls were clinically examined, interviewed, and tested by immunoblot for cysticerci-specific serum antibodies. Additionally, CSF samples from PWE were tested for anticysticercal antibodies by ELISA and for parasite DNA by PCR. Cranial computer tomography (CT) scans were available for 12.1% of PWE with additional symptoms suggestive of NCC. The Del Brutto criteria were applied for NCC diagnosis. Cysticerci-specific serum antibodies were found in 21.8% of PWE and 4% of controls (odds ratio (OR), 6.69; 95% confidence interval (95%CI), 1.6–58.7). Seropositivity was associated with age and lack of safe drinking water. Fifty (23.3%) PWE were considered NCC cases (definitive, based on CT scans, 7.4%; probable, mainly based on positive immunoblots, 15.8%). In CSF samples from NCC cases, anticysticercal antibodies were detected in 10% (definitive cases, 25%) and parasite DNA in 16% (definitive cases, 44%). Immunoblot-positive PWE were older (medians, 30 vs. 22 years), more frequently had late-onset epilepsy (at age >25 years; 43.5% vs. 8.5%; OR, 8.30; 95%CI, 3.5–20.0), and suffered from significantly fewer episodes of seizures in the preceding six months than immunoblot-negative PWE. Conclusions/Significance NCC is present and contributes to epilepsy in southern Rwanda. Systematic investigations into porcine and human cysticercosis as well as health education and hygiene measures for T. solium control are needed. PCR might provide an additional, highly specific tool in NCC diagnosis. PMID:24244783

  15. Biochem. J. (2004) 382, 501510 (Printed in Great Britain) 501 Characterization of a UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine:polypeptide

    E-print Network

    2004-01-01

    (roundworms) and the Platyhelminthes (flatworms), with the latter including the classes Cestoda (tapeworms) and Trematoda (flukes). The dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus is an agent of hydatid disease, a major

  16. Albendazole

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to treat neurocysticercosis (infection caused by the pork tapeworm in the muscles, brain, and eyes that may ... cystic hydatid disease (infection caused by the dog tapeworm in the liver, lung, and lining of the ...

  17. Ascariasis (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Tapeworm Stool Test: Ova and Parasites (O&P) Salmonella ... Hands After Using the Bathroom? Pinworms Hand Washing Tapeworm Cholera Salmonellosis Contact Us Print Additional resources Send ...

  18. Echinococcus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... caused by the Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis tapeworm. The infection is also called hydatid disease. ... known to occur, health education and routinely removing tapeworms from dogs can help prevent the disease.

  19. UNCORRECTED 2 Geography and host specificity: Two forces behind the genetic

    E-print Network

    Lek, Sovan

    , with respect to geography and fish host preference, have 18 been analyzed for Ligula intestinalis, a tapeworm affecting freshwater fish. The data analyzed consisted of 109 tapeworms sampled from 19 13 fish host species

  20. COMMON PARASITES U.S. Department of the Interior

    E-print Network

    in man if the fish containing them is eaten raw. Best known in this category is the broad fish tapeworm) are infected with tapeworm cysts (Triaenophoras) \\vhichdo not infect humans but are unsightly. The annual

  1. J. Parasitol., 94(5), 2008, pp. 10981102 American Society of Parasitologists 2008

    E-print Network

    Jiménez, F. Agustín

    BOLIVIA, WITH THE DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF TAPEWORM F. Agusti´n Jime´nez, Janet K. Braun*, Mariel L., and a new species of tapeworm, Mathevotaenia sanmartini n. sp. (Cyclophyllidea: Anoplocephalidae). The new

  2. !"#$$%&$'%($)$#*%*)+%,-$./$0%12%!*-$'1#30%2#13%4"$%51)6)10$%,*'0"*#78%9#/04/1-"1#:0 ./##*4:08%'/4"%;133$)40%1)%!"$/#%%?)4$04/)$

    E-print Network

    McKenzie, Valerie

    for parasites. Three new genera and species of tetraphyllidean tapeworms belonging to the Phyllo- bothriinae., n. sp. differs from all other phyllobothriine tapeworms in its possession of bothridia that each

  3. Praziquantel

    MedlinePLUS

    ... used to treat certain other worm infestations, including tapeworm (a type of worm that may attach to ... have ocular cysticercosis (infestation with a type of tapeworm that forms cysts in the eyes)Your doctor ...

  4. Oecologia (2009) 161:759769 DOI 10.1007/s00442-009-1410-1

    E-print Network

    Poulin, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Determinants and consequences of interspeciWc body size variation in tetraphyllidean tapeworms Haseeb SajjadXuence of these variables on adult tetraphyllidean tapeworm body size. Results presented herein indicate that host body sizeWc variations in tetraphyllidean tapeworm length. In addition, a negative relationship between tetraphyllidean

  5. D. Nagle, R. Uhlig, T. Stanley, T. Mudge, S. Sechrest and R. Brown. Design Tradeoffs for Software-Managed TLBs. Proc. of the 20th Ann. Int. Symp. Com-

    E-print Network

    Mudge, Trevor

    actual systems. We have also devel- oped a novel TLB simulator called Tapeworm, which is compiled user process and OS kernel memory references. The information that Tapeworm extracts from the running. Section 3 describes our analysis tools, Monster and Tapeworm. The MIPS R2000 TLB structure and its

  6. ARIZONA COOPERATIVE FISH AND WILDLIFE RESEARCH UNIT JANUARY 2007 Factors Influencing Distribution of Introduced Asian

    E-print Network

    Bonar, Scott A.

    of Introduced Asian Tapeworm and Effects on Selected Southwestern Fishes (Yaqui Topminnow and Yaqui Chub Provided by: Heritage Project I04010 #12;Factors Influencing Distribution of Introduced Asian Tapeworm States. Asian tapeworm, (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi), a parasite known to be pathogenic or able

  7. First Record of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in the Rio Grande with Comparative Analysis of ITS2 and V4-18S rRNA

    E-print Network

    Upchurch, Gary - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    , USA Abstract.--Bothriocephalus acheilognathi is an introduced tapeworm in North America often reported as endangered, in this portion of the Rio Grande. The tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in- fects over 100 Far East (Bauer and Hoffman 1976; Pool and Chubb 1985; Pool 1987; Scholz 1997). One of the tapeworm

  8. This article was downloaded by: [University of Arizona] On: 20 September 2013, At: 05:37

    E-print Network

    Bonar, Scott A.

    ://www.tandfonline.com/loi/uahh20 Asian Fish Tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in the Desert Southwestern United States Thomas. Archdeacon , Alison Iles , Jason S. Kline & Scott A. Bonar (2010) Asian Fish Tapeworm Bothriocephalus and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms- and-conditions #12;Asian Fish Tapeworm

  9. MFR PAPER 1343 The Principal Parasitic Diseases

    E-print Network

    -inhabiting larval forms. Cestode pleurocercoids of the bass tapeworm live in visceral organs of bass and commonly- tion. Earlier attempts to rid fish hatch- eries of the bass tapeworm by disinfect- ing the ponds after restocking. Corallobothrium is a tapeworm sometimes found in great numbers in the intestine

  10. 21 CFR 520.45a - Albendazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... tapeworms (Moniezia benedeni and M. expansa); adult and 4th stage larvae of stomach worms (brown stomach... flukes (Fasciola hepatica and Fascioloides magna); heads and segments of common tapeworms (Moniezia expansa) and fringed tapeworm (Thysanosoma actinioides); adult and fourth stage larvae of stomach...

  11. This article was downloaded by: [University of Arizona] On: 21 September 2013, At: 00:00

    E-print Network

    Bonar, Scott A.

    ://www.tandfonline.com/loi/unaj20 Effects of Praziquantel on Eggs of the Asian Tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi S. Jason Kline) Effects of Praziquantel on Eggs of the Asian Tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi , North American://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms- and-conditions #12;Effects of Praziquantel on Eggs of the Asian Tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi

  12. 21 CFR 520.45a - Albendazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... tapeworms (Moniezia benedeni and M. expansa); adult and 4th stage larvae of stomach worms (brown stomach... flukes (Fasciola hepatica and Fascioloides magna); heads and segments of common tapeworms (Moniezia expansa) and fringed tapeworm (Thysanosoma actinioides); adult and fourth stage larvae of stomach...

  13. R. Uhlig, D. Nagle, T. Mudge, and S. Sechrest, ``Trapdriven simulation with Tape worm II,'' 6th Int. Conf. Architectural Support for Programming Languages and

    E-print Network

    Mudge, Trevor

    ­VI), Oct. 1994, pp. 132­144. #12; 1 Abstract: Tapeworm II is a software­based simulation tool that evaluates the cache and TLB performance of multiple­task and operating system intensive workloads. Tapeworm instead of with address traces, as is convention­ ally done. This allows Tapeworm to quickly

  14. D. Nagle, R. Uhlig, T. Mudge, and S. Sechrest. Kernel-based memory simulation. ACM SIGMETRICS Conf. Measurement and Modeling of Computer Systems, May

    E-print Network

    Mudge, Trevor

    implementation of a kernel-based simulator, called Tapeworm, uses a three-step algorithm: (1) On a miss, trap breakpoints, or memory parity traps can be set [2]. Two essential features of this approach enable Tapeworm to overcome the limitations of trace-driven simulation. First, because Tapeworm processes only the infrequent

  15. This article was downloaded by: [University of Arizona] On: 20 September 2013, At: 06:14

    E-print Network

    Bonar, Scott A.

    ://www.tandfonline.com/loi/unaj20 Novel Praziquantel Treatment Regime for Controlling Asian Tapeworm Infections in Pond-Reared Fish for Controlling Asian Tapeworm Infections in Pond-Reared Fish, North American Journal of Aquaculture, 74:1, 113 Treatment Regime for Controlling Asian Tapeworm Infections in Pond-Reared Fish Alison C. Iles1 and Thomas P

  16. 21 CFR 520.45a - Albendazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... tapeworms (Moniezia benedeni and M. expansa); adult and 4th stage larvae of stomach worms (brown stomach... flukes (Fasciola hepatica and Fascioloides magna); heads and segments of common tapeworms (Moniezia expansa) and fringed tapeworm (Thysanosoma actinioides); adult and fourth stage larvae of stomach...

  17. 21 CFR 520.45a - Albendazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... tapeworms (Moniezia benedeni and M. expansa); adult and 4th stage larvae of stomach worms (brown stomach... flukes (Fasciola hepatica and Fascioloides magna); heads and segments of common tapeworms (Moniezia expansa) and fringed tapeworm (Thysanosoma actinioides); adult and fourth stage larvae of stomach...

  18. 21 CFR 520.38a - Albendazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... tapeworms (Moniezia benedeni and M. expansa); adult and 4th stage larvae of stomach worms (brown stomach... flukes (Fasciola hepatica and Fascioloides magna); heads and segments of common tapeworms (Moniezia expansa) and fringed tapeworm (Thysanosoma actinioides); adult and fourth stage larvae of stomach...

  19. Crossing institutional boundaries: mapping the policy process for improved control of endemic and neglected zoonoses in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Okello, Anna; Welburn, Susan; Smith, James

    2015-07-01

    The recent adoption of the World Health Assembly Resolution 66.12 for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in May 2013 is an important turning point for advocacy regarding a number of endemic zoonotic infections, defined by the World Health Organization as the neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs). In addition to NTD-listed zoonoses such as rabies, echinococcosis (hydatid disease), leishmaniasis, Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) and Taenia solium cysticercosis, the NZDs also include important bacterial zoonoses such as anthrax, bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis. To date, analysis of the processes that prioritize, develop and deliver zoonoses control programmes in many low- and middle-income countries is lacking, despite its potential to highlight significant evidence gaps and institutional constraints to the intersectoral approach required for their control. Policy process analysis was conducted via a series of semi-structured interviews with key policy actors within various ministries and institutes in Uganda and Nigeria. The study concluded that despite the rhetoric around 'linear' models of health policy development promoting consultation with a wide range of national stakeholders, the decision-making process for zoonotic disease control appears instead overtly influenced by the external political economy of trending pandemic threats, often overlooking national and regional zoonoses priorities. The inclusion of political systems remains a key factor in the zoonoses analysis matrix, enhancing our understanding of the intersectoral and transdisciplinary approaches required for their control. The authors consider policy process analysis to be a fundamental first step of any attempt to holistically strengthen human and animal health systems in a development context, particularly regarding the promotion of integrated control policies for regionally important zoonoses under the growing One Health movement. PMID:25000963

  20. World Health Organization Global Estimates and Regional Comparisons of the Burden of Foodborne Disease in 2010.

    PubMed

    Havelaar, Arie H; Kirk, Martyn D; Torgerson, Paul R; Gibb, Herman J; Hald, Tine; Lake, Robin J; Praet, Nicolas; Bellinger, David C; de Silva, Nilanthi R; Gargouri, Neyla; Speybroeck, Niko; Cawthorne, Amy; Mathers, Colin; Stein, Claudia; Angulo, Frederick J; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2015-12-01

    Illness and death from diseases caused by contaminated food are a constant threat to public health and a significant impediment to socio-economic development worldwide. To measure the global and regional burden of foodborne disease (FBD), the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), which here reports their first estimates of the incidence, mortality, and disease burden due to 31 foodborne hazards. We find that the global burden of FBD is comparable to those of the major infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. The most frequent causes of foodborne illness were diarrheal disease agents, particularly norovirus and Campylobacter spp. Diarrheal disease agents, especially non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica, were also responsible for the majority of deaths due to FBD. Other major causes of FBD deaths were Salmonella Typhi, Taenia solium and hepatitis A virus. The global burden of FBD caused by the 31 hazards in 2010 was 33 million Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs); children under five years old bore 40% of this burden. The 14 subregions, defined on the basis of child and adult mortality, had considerably different burdens of FBD, with the greatest falling on the subregions in Africa, followed by the subregions in South-East Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean D subregion. Some hazards, such as non-typhoidal S. enterica, were important causes of FBD in all regions of the world, whereas others, such as certain parasitic helminths, were highly localised. Thus, the burden of FBD is borne particularly by children under five years old-although they represent only 9% of the global population-and people living in low-income regions of the world. These estimates are conservative, i.e., underestimates rather than overestimates; further studies are needed to address the data gaps and limitations of the study. Nevertheless, all stakeholders can contribute to improvements in food safety throughout the food chain by incorporating these estimates into policy development at national and international levels. PMID:26633896

  1. Experimental studies on physiological and morphological aspects of Cysticercus cellulosae in pigs.

    PubMed

    Fan, P C; Chung, W C; Guo, J X; Ma, Y X; Xu, Z J

    2001-12-01

    Three Small-Ear-Miniature, 3 Landrace-Small-Ear-Miniature, and one Douc-Yorkshire-Landrace pigs were inoculated orally with 100 000 eggs of Zhengzhou strain or 10 000 eggs of Harbin strain of Taenia solium. A total of 3739 cysticerci were recovered from 3 Small-Ear-Miniature and 3 Landrace-Small-Ear-Miniature pigs, giving an infection rate of 85.7% and a cysticercus recovery rate of 1.1%. The predilection sites of Cysticercus cellulosae in descending order were leg muscles, abdominal muscles, thoracic muscles, liver, head muscles, diaphragm, tongue, heart, trachea, and omentum/testes. Except 2 calcified cysticerci in the tongue, 2 in the heart, and 176 in the liver, the remaining cysticerci were all alive. The greatest number of cysticerci per 100 g of muscles or viscera was found in the head muscles, followed by the leg, diaphragm, heart, tongue, thoracic, abdominal, omentum, testes, and trachea. All cysticerci were evaginated in pig's bile after fluid was drawn out from cysticerci, whereas evagination occurred in only 83.2% of those without fluid drawing. In 364 evaginated cysticerci, the mean length and width of scolex, proglottid, and bladder, and diameter of rostellum and sucker were 826 x 747 microm, 5,370 x 1,734 microm, 2,885 x 3,002 microm, 155 microm, and 253 microm, respectively. In the protoscolex, the mean number of segments was 33. Each cysticercus had 2 rows of rostellar hooks on the scolex, and the mean length and width of inner and outer hooks were 151 x 18 microm and 117 x 14 microm, respectively. The number of paired hooks ranged from 10 to 18. PMID:11825004

  2. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Human Cysticercosis in 60 Villages in Three Provinces of Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Carabin, Hélène; Millogo, Athanase; Cissé, Assana; Gabriël, Sarah; Sahlu, Ida; Dorny, Pierre; Bauer, Cici; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Ganaba, Rasmané

    2015-01-01

    Background Taenia solium, a zoonotic infection transmitted between humans and pigs, is considered an emerging infection in Sub-Saharan Africa, yet individual and community-level factors associated with the human infection with the larval stages (cysticercosis) are not well understood. This study aims to estimate the magnitude of association of individual-level and village-level factors with current human cysticercosis in 60 villages located in three Provinces of Burkina Faso. Methodology/Principal Findings Baseline cross-sectional data collected between February 2011 and January 2012 from a large community randomized-control trial were used. A total of 3609 individuals provided serum samples to assess current infection with cysticercosis. The association between individual and village-level factors and the prevalence of current infection with cysticercosis was estimated using Bayesian hierarchical logistic models. Diffuse priors were used for all regression coefficients. The prevalence of current cysticercosis varied across provinces and villages ranging from 0% to 11.5%. The results obtained suggest that increased age, being male and consuming pork as well as a larger proportion of roaming pigs and percentage of sand in the soil measured at the village level were associated with higher prevalences of infection. Furthermore, consuming pork at another village market had the highest increased prevalence odds of current infection. Having access to a latrine, living in a household with higher wealth quintiles and a higher soil pH measured at the village level decreased the prevalence odds of cysticercosis. Conclusions/Significance This is the first large-scale study to examine the association between variables measured at the individual-, household-, and village-level and the prevalence odds of cysticercosis in humans. Factors linked to people, pigs, and the environment were of importance, which further supports the need for a One Health approach to control cysticercosis infection. PMID:26588468

  3. World Health Organization Global Estimates and Regional Comparisons of the Burden of Foodborne Disease in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Havelaar, Arie H.; Kirk, Martyn D.; Torgerson, Paul R.; Gibb, Herman J.; Hald, Tine; Lake, Robin J.; Praet, Nicolas; Bellinger, David C.; de Silva, Nilanthi R.; Gargouri, Neyla; Speybroeck, Niko; Cawthorne, Amy; Mathers, Colin; Stein, Claudia; Angulo, Frederick J.; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2015-01-01

    Illness and death from diseases caused by contaminated food are a constant threat to public health and a significant impediment to socio-economic development worldwide. To measure the global and regional burden of foodborne disease (FBD), the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), which here reports their first estimates of the incidence, mortality, and disease burden due to 31 foodborne hazards. We find that the global burden of FBD is comparable to those of the major infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. The most frequent causes of foodborne illness were diarrheal disease agents, particularly norovirus and Campylobacter spp. Diarrheal disease agents, especially non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica, were also responsible for the majority of deaths due to FBD. Other major causes of FBD deaths were Salmonella Typhi, Taenia solium and hepatitis A virus. The global burden of FBD caused by the 31 hazards in 2010 was 33 million Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs); children under five years old bore 40% of this burden. The 14 subregions, defined on the basis of child and adult mortality, had considerably different burdens of FBD, with the greatest falling on the subregions in Africa, followed by the subregions in South-East Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean D subregion. Some hazards, such as non-typhoidal S. enterica, were important causes of FBD in all regions of the world, whereas others, such as certain parasitic helminths, were highly localised. Thus, the burden of FBD is borne particularly by children under five years old–although they represent only 9% of the global population–and people living in low-income regions of the world. These estimates are conservative, i.e., underestimates rather than overestimates; further studies are needed to address the data gaps and limitations of the study. Nevertheless, all stakeholders can contribute to improvements in food safety throughout the food chain by incorporating these estimates into policy development at national and international levels. PMID:26633896

  4. Proposed diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Del Brutto, O.R.; Rajshekhar, V.; White, A.C.; Tsang, V.C.W.; Nash, T.E.; Takayanagui, O.M.; Schantz, P.M.; Evans, C.A.W.; Flisser, A.; Correa, D.; Botero, D.; Allan, J.C.; Sart?i, E.; Gonzalez, A.E.; Gilman, R.H.; García, H.H.

    2010-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the most common helminthic infection of the CNS but its diagnosis remains difficult. Clinical manifestations are nonspecific, most neuroimaging findings are not pathognomonic, and some serologic tests have low sensitivity and specificity. The authors provide diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis based on objective clinical, imaging, immunologic, and epidemiologic data. These include four categories of criteria stratified on the basis of their diagnostic strength, including the following: 1) absolute—histologic demonstration of the parasite from biopsy of a brain or spinal cord lesion, cystic lesions showing the scolex on CT or MRI, and direct visualization of subretinal parasites by funduscopic examination; 2) major—lesions highly suggestive of neurocysticercosis on neuroimaging studies, positive serum enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot for the detection of anticysticercal antibodies, resolution of intracranial cystic lesions after therapy with albendazole or praziquantel, and spontaneous resolution of small single enhancing lesions; 3) minor—lesions compatible with neurocysticercosis on neuroimaging studies, clinical manifestations suggestive of neurocysticercosis, positive CSF enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of anticysticercal antibodies or cysticercal antigens, and cysticercosis outside the CNS; and 4) epidemiologic—evidence of a household contact with Taenia solium infection, individuals coming from or living in an area where cysticercosis is endemic, and history of frequent travel to disease-endemic areas. Interpretation of these criteria permits two degrees of diagnostic certainty: 1) definitive diagnosis, in patients who have one absolute criterion or in those who have two major plus one minor and one epidemiologic criterion; and 2) probable diagnosis, in patients who have one major plus two minor criteria, in those who have one major plus one minor and one epidemiologic criterion, and in those who have three minor plus one epidemiologic criterion. PMID:11480424

  5. From seizures to epilepsy and its substrates: neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gagandeep; Burneo, Jorge G; Sander, Josemir W

    2013-05-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the main risk factor for late-onset seizures in many Taenia solium endemic countries and is also increasingly recognized in high income countries, where it was once thought to have been eliminated. The course and outcome of NCC-associated seizures and epilepsy are poorly understood. Substrates underlying NCC-associated seizures and epilepsy are unknown. Another unknown is if there is an association between NCC and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and if it leads to intractable epilepsy. We review evidence regarding the structural basis of seizures and epilepsy in NCC and its association with HS. There are only a limited number of prospective studies of NCC-associated seizures and epilepsy. From these, it can be inferred that the risk of seizure recurrence is high following a first seizure, even though seizures are well-controlled with antiepileptic drugs. The single most important risk factor for ongoing or recurrent seizures is the persistence of either degenerating or residual calcified cysticercus cysts in the brain parenchyma on follow-up imaging studies. Medically intractable epilepsy requiring surgical treatment appears to be rare in people with NCC. In few cases that have been operated, gliosis around the cysticerci is the principal pathologic finding. Reports of the association between NCC and HS might be categorized into those in which the calcified cysticercus is located within the hippocampus and those in which the calcified cysticercus is located remote from the hippocampus. The former are convincing cases of medically intractable epilepsy with good seizure control following hippocampal resection. In the remaining, it is unclear whether a dual pathology relationship exists between HS and the calcified cysticercus. Carefully planned, follow-up studies incorporating high-resolution and quantitative imaging are desirable in order to clarify the outcome, the structural basis of NCC-associated epilepsy, and also its association with HS. PMID:23621876

  6. The Macrophage Galactose-Type Lectin-1 (MGL1) Recognizes Taenia crassiceps Antigens, Triggers Intracellular Signaling, and Is Critical for Resistance to This Infection

    PubMed Central

    Montero-Barrera, Daniel; Valderrama-Carvajal, Héctor; Terrazas, César A.; Rojas-Hernández, Saúl; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Vera-Arias, Laura; Carrasco-Yépez, Maricela; Gómez-García, Lorena; Martínez-Saucedo, Diana; Becerra-Díaz, Mireya; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2015-01-01

    C-type lectins are multifunctional sugar-binding molecules expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages that internalize antigens for processing and presentation. Macrophage galactose-type lectin 1 (MGL1) recognizes glycoconjugates expressing Lewis X structures which contain galactose residues, and it is selectively expressed on immature DCs and macrophages. Helminth parasites contain large amounts of glycosylated components, which play a role in the immune regulation induced by such infections. Macrophages from MGL1?/? mice showed less binding ability toward parasite antigens than their wild-type (WT) counterparts. Exposure of WT macrophages to T. crassiceps antigens triggered tyrosine phosphorylation signaling activity, which was diminished in MGL1?/? macrophages. Following T. crassiceps infection, MGL1?/? mice failed to produce significant levels of inflammatory cytokines early in the infection compared to WT mice. In contrast, MGL1?/? mice developed a Th2-dominant immune response that was associated with significantly higher parasite loads, whereas WT mice were resistant. Flow cytometry and RT-PCR analyses showed overexpression of the mannose receptors, IL-4R?, PDL2, arginase-1, Ym1, and RELM-? on MGL1?/? macrophages. These studies indicate that MGL1 is involved in T. crassiceps recognition and subsequent innate immune activation and resistance. PMID:25664320

  7. Crosstalk among Taenia crassiceps (ORF Strain) Cysts Regulates Their Rates of Budding by Ways of Soluble and Contact Signals Exchanged between Them

    PubMed Central

    Marcela, Esquivel-Velázquez; Ricardo, Hernández; Carlos, Larralde; Pedro, Ostoa-Saloma

    2014-01-01

    Herein we report that in vitro experiments with different initial parasite densities (1, 5, and 10 cysts per mL of culture medium) show that cysts at densities of 10 and 5 grow faster than those at 1, and that they release into the culture medium factors which increase the budding rates of the slower lower-density ones. Close contact among the incubated cysts also favors budding, thus suggesting the participation of surface sensors of parasite crowding. Thus, contact signals, together with the release of soluble growth factors, could endow cysts with the capacity to sense and regulate their numbers inside their habitat in relation to their population density. PMID:24982903

  8. The taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis) and the red brocket deer (Mazama americana) as intermediate hosts of Taenia hydatigena in Peru, morphological and molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Pacheco, Joel; Gonzales-Viera, Omar; Lopez-Urbina, Maria T; Gonzalez, Armando E

    2015-09-15

    In the present report metacestodes were collected from the mesentery of a taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis) and from the omentum of a red brocket deer (Mazama americana) in Peru. Various metacestodes parameters, including rostellar hook characteristics, were measured. Molecular analysis was performed to amplify the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene from metacestode isolates. Metacestodes were identified as T. hydatigena by morphology and molecular methods. This constitutes the first molecular detection of T. hydatigena metacestodes in the taruca and the red brocket deer and demonstrates that these animal species are natural intermediate hosts for this parasite. PMID:26277568

  9. Potential risk of zoonotic infections in recreational areas visited by Sus scrofa and Vulpes vulpes. Case study--Wolin Island, Poland.

    PubMed

    Mizgajska-Wiktor, Hanna; Jarosz, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    The relation between intestinal parasite prevalence in wild boars and red foxes and the sanitary condition of the soil in recreational estates were determined. The analysis was made based on 36 samples of boar faeces and 22 samples of fox faeces, collected in their habitat as well as 60 samples of soil from two recreational areas. Two methods were used for faecal samples--flotation and direct faecal smear; and flotation in NaNO3 for soil samples examination. Zoonotic nematode eggs were recovered from 25.5% of boar faecal samples; they were Ascaris suum (22.2%) and Trichuris suis (5.6%). Other parasites found were: Metastrongylus sp. (69.4%), Oesophagostomum sp., Strongyloides sp. (36.6%) and Physocephalus sp. (8.6%) as well as coccidia (69.4%). In fox faeces, zoonotic nematode eggs were recovered from 31.8% of samples, and they were Toxocara canis (27.2%) and Ancylostoma caninum (18.2%). Tapeworm eggs were found in 36.4% of samples including Taenia sp. (22.7%). The presence of Uncinaria stenocephala (45.5%), Capillaria sp. (36.4%), Trichuris vulpis (4.5%) and coccidia (40.1%) was also detected. It was shown that both, flotation and faecal smear, as mutually complementary should be used for higher rate of detection of parasites in faeces. No eggs of zoonotic helminths in soil from recreational areas were found despite these areas were accessible to wild animals and pets. This could be explained by characteristics of the soil (loose sand soil) as well as by behaviour of the parasite hosts in the examined areas. PMID:21174955

  10. Modelling potential presence of metazoan endoparasites of bobcats (Lynx rufus) using verified records.

    PubMed

    Hiestand, Shelby J; Nielsen, Clayton K; Jiménez, F Agustín

    2014-10-01

    Helminth parasites of wild and domestic felines pose a direct or potential threat to human health. Since helminths depend on multiple environmental factors that make their transmission possible, it is imperative to predict the areas where these parasites may complete the transmission to potential hosts. Bobcats, Lynx rufus (Schreberer), are the most abundant and widely-distributed wild felid species in North America. The increase of population densities of bobcats raises concerns about their importance as reservoirs of pathogens and parasites that may affect wildlife, domestic animals and humans. Our objective was to predict the potential presence of the tapeworm Taenia rileyi Loewen, 1929, the fluke Alaria marcianae (La Rue, 1917) and the roundworm Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1788) in southern Illinois. The empirical presence of these parasites in localities across the region was analysed in combination with a sampling bias layer (i.e. bobcat presence) and with environmental data: layers of water, soil, land cover, human density and climate variables in MAXENT to create maps of potential presence for these three species in an area of 46436 km2. All climatic variables were low contributors (0.0-2.0% contribution to model creation) whereas land cover surfaced as an important variable for the presence of A. marcianae (7.6%) and T. cati (6.3%); human density (4.8%) was of secondary importance for T. rileyi. Variables of importance likely represent habitat requirements necessary for the completion of parasite life cycles. Larger areas of potential presence were found for the feline specialist T. rileyi (85%) while potential presence was less likely for A. marcianae (73%), a parasite that requires multiple aquatic intermediate hosts. This study provides information to wildlife biologists and health officials regarding the potential impacts of growing bobcat populations in combination with complex and changing environmental factors. PMID:25549497

  11. [Model for sanitary-helminthological supervision and search for the measures for disinfestation of soil and water in the beef tapeworm infection foci in conditions of Kabardino-Balkaria].

    PubMed

    Sarbasheva, M M; Bittirova, A A; Atabieva, Zh A; Bittirov, A M

    2014-01-01

    The soil and water runoff from the livestock facilities are potentially dangerous for the infection of animal with eggs Taeniarhynchus saginatus. The complex antihelminthic measures and the basis of sanitary and parasitological model of prevention of parasitic diseases of humans and animals in Kabardino-Balkaria allowed within 3-4 years to diminish the contamination of soil with cestode eggs in 4-4.8 times. EGAT drug concentration of 50% and exposure in the range 1-20 days in a clean slurry causes the death to 47% of the eggs T. saginatus, in soil--up to 52% sewage sludge--45% in sewage--49%, that indicates its lack of ovicidal efficacy against cestode eggs. PMID:25306696

  12. Plerocercoid growth factor (PGF), a human growth hormone (hGH) analogue produced by the tapeworm Spirometra mansonoides, has direct insulin-like action in adipose tissue of normal rats in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Salem, M.A.M.; Phares, C.K.

    1986-03-01

    The metabolic actions of GH can be divided into acute (insulin-like) and chronic (lipolytic/anti-insulin). The insulin-like actions of GH are most readily elicited in GH-deficient animals as GH induces resistance to its own insulin-like action. Like GH, PGF stimulates growth and cross-reacts with anti-hGH antibodies. Independent experiments were conducted comparing the direct actions of PGF to insulin or hGH in vitro. Insulin-like effects were determined by the ability of PGF, insulin or hGH to stimulate (U-/sup 14/C)glucose metabolism in epidydimal fat pads from normal rats and by inhibition of epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis. Direct stimulation of lipolysis was used as anti-insulin activity. To determine if PGF competes for insulin or GH receptors, adipocytes (3 x 10/sup 5/ cells/ml) were incubated with either (/sup 125/I)insulin or (/sup 125/I)hGH +/- PGF, +/- insulin or +/- hGH. PGF stimulated glucose oxidation and /sup 14/C-incorporation into lipids. Insulin, hGH and PGF inhibited lipolysis (33%, 29% and 34%, respectively). Adipose tissue was very sensitive to the lipolytic effect of hGH but PGF was neither lipolytic nor did it confer refractoriness to its insulin-like action. PGF bound to GH but not to insulin receptors. Therefore, PGF had direct insulin-like effects but did not stimulate lipolysis in tissue from normal rats in vitro.

  13. [Genetic structure of species complex of the spined loach Cobitis auc. (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae) in Severski? Donets river basin].

    PubMed

    Mezhzherin, S V; Lisetskaia, T Iu

    2004-01-01

    Biochemical, genetic, cytometric and morphological analyses of spined loaches of the middle stream of Severskiy Donetz river revealed 3 bisexual species: Cobitis taenia s.l. (68% of the sample); C. melanoleuca (11%); Sabanejewia aurata (9%) and 2 hybrid forms: triploid C. taenia(2)-sp. (9%) and diploid C. taenia-melanoleuca (3%). Distinctive features of genetic structure of polyploid hybrids C. taenia(2)-sp. as well as taxonomic identity of diploid C. taenia s.l. of Severskiy Donetz river were discussed in regard to the Dnieper population ones. PMID:15098446

  14. The lecanicephalidean fauna of three species of eagle rays of the genus Aetomylaeus (Myliobatiformes: Myliobatidae).

    E-print Network

    Koch, Kendra Rae

    2009-07-16

    in the class Cestoda of the phylum Platyhelminthes. Commonly known as tapeworms, these mainly intestinal helminths parasitize members of all classes of vertebrates, i.e., fishes, “reptiles,” amphibians, mammals, birds, and chondrichthyans (Wardle and Mc...Leod, 1952). The greatest diversity of tapeworms is found in the latter three classes; over 900 species of tapeworms are currently known from chondrichthyans (sharks, rays, and ratfishes). Within this group, by far the greatest diversity is encountered...

  15. Controlling Fleas 

    E-print Network

    Merchant, Michael E.; Robinson, James V.

    2006-12-18

    , and dispose of all pesticides safely. These steps will help you reduce the need for extra pesticide treatments. Tapeworms and fleas C at fleas sometimes carry an intestinal parasite called dog tapeworm, Diphylidium caninum. The dog tapeworm has an interesting... the main body of the tapeworm and wriggle from the anus of an infected animal. Fresh tape- worm segments are opaque white or pinkish white, flat, and somewhat rectangular. When newly emerged, they move with a stretching-out and shrinking-back motion. When...

  16. Neglected Zoonotic Diseases—The Long and Winding Road to Advocacy

    PubMed Central

    Mableson, Hayley E.; Okello, Anna; Picozzi, Kim; Welburn, Susan Christina

    2014-01-01

    Background Years of advocacy for the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have focused the world's attention on these diseases of the poor, resulting most recently in the 2012 “London Declaration” and the recent World Health Assembly Resolution WHA66.12 on NTDs in May 2013. Control of the endemic neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs) would benefit from a similar campaign, which needs the support of a global community. Methodology/Principal Findings The resolutions from all 66 World Health Assembly (WHA) meetings held between 1948 and 2013 were examined to determine how many contain a specific focus on any of the following eight NZDs as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO): anthrax, bovine tuberculosis (TB), brucellosis, Taenia solium cysticercosis, cystic echinococcosis (hydatidosis), leishmaniasis, rabies, and zoonotic human African trypanosomiasis (HAT or sleeping sickness). Twenty-one resolutions adopted in the 16 assemblies between 1948 and 2013 targeted one or more of these eight NZDs, representing 4% of the total resolutions on infectious diseases passed to date. The 2013 adoption of Resolution WHA66.12 targeting all 17 NTDs marks a change in approach by the WHA. Whereas previous resolutions have targeted the NTDs as separate entities, the new approach of the combined resolution will help increase the overall momentum to target these ancient diseases as coendemic clusters in endemic countries. However, three major NZDs remain outside this recent resolution: anthrax, brucellosis, and bovine TB. Conclusions and Significance The recent adoption of a specific resolution at the WHA in 2013 that emphasises a One Health approach for the successful control of 17 NTDs is a major development in advocacy. However, recognition of the importance of three major NZDs to public health in endemic countries—anthrax, brucellosis, and bovine tuberculosis—is still lacking despite being prioritised by the WHA as early as the 1950s. Global advocacy for control of the NZDs as a whole would similarly benefit from adoption of a One Health approach as is promoted for the NTDs under WHA66.12. PMID:24901769

  17. Post-treatment Vascular Leakage and Inflammatory Responses around Brain Cysts in Porcine Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Mahanty, Siddhartha; Orrego, Miguel Angel; Mayta, Holger; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H.; Nash, Theodore E.

    2015-01-01

    Cysticidal treatment of neurocysticercosis, an infection of humans and pig brains with Taenia solium, results in an early inflammatory response directed to cysts causing seizures and focal neurological manifestations. Treatment-induced pericystic inflammation and its association with blood brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, as determined by Evans blue (EB) extravasation, was studied in infected untreated and anthelmintic-treated pigs. We compared the magnitude and extent of the pericystic inflammation, presence of EB-stained capsules, the level of damage to the parasite, expression of genes for proinflammatory and regulatory cytokines, chemokines, and tissue remodeling by quantitative PCR assays between treated and untreated infected pigs and between EB-stained (blue) and non stained (clear) cysts. Inflammatory scores were higher in pericystic tissues from EB-stained cysts compared to clear cysts from untreated pigs and also from anthelmintic-treated pigs 48 hr and 120 hr after treatment. The degree of inflammation correlated with the severity of cyst wall damage and both increased significantly at 120 hours. Expression levels of the proinflammatory genes for IL-6, IFN-?, TNF-? were higher in EB-stained cysts compared to clear cysts and unaffected brain tissues, and were generally highest at 120 hr. Additionally, expression of some markers of immunoregulatory activity (IL-10, IL-2R?) were decreased in EB-stained capsules. An increase in other markers for regulatory T cells (CTLA4, FoxP3) was found, as well as significant increases in expression of two metalloproteases, MMP1 and MMP2 at 48 hr and 120 hr post-treatment. We conclude that the increase in severity of the inflammation caused by treatment is accompanied by both a proinflammatory and a complex regulatory response, largely limited to pericystic tissues with compromised vascular integrity. Because treatment induced inflammation occurs in porcine NCC similar to that in human cases, this model can be used to investigate mechanisms involved in host damaging inflammatory responses and agents or modalities that may control damaging post treatment inflammation. PMID:25774662

  18. Risk factors for prevalence of pig parasitoses in Mbeya Region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kabululu, Mwemezi Lutakyawa; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Kimera, Sharadhuli Iddi; Lekule, Faustin Paul; Kimbi, Eliakunda Casmir; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-09-15

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine risk factors for prevalence of common endo- and ectoparasites of pigs kept by smallholder farmers in Mbozi and Mbeya (Rural) districts of Mbeya Region, in Tanzania. A total of 482 pigs from 220 households of 16 villages, eight in each district were randomly selected and examined. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis was 11.5%, gastrointestinal nematodes 63.7% and ectoparasites 21.2% based on Ag-ELISA, McMaster technique and full body searches/ear scrapings, respectively. Nematode eggs identified were strongyles (Oesophagostomum spp. and Trichostrongylus spp.), Ascaris suum, Trichuris suis and Strongyloides ransomi with prevalence of 57.4%, 17.5%, 5.3% and 1.1%, respectively. Four groups of ectoparasites were identified, i.e. lice (Haematopinus suis), ticks (Rhipicephalus spp., Amblyomma spp., Haemaphysalis spp. and Boophilus spp.), fleas (Ctenocephalides canis) and mites (Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis and Demodex phylloides), with prevalence of 19.1%, 2.1%, 0.4%, and 1.2%, respectively. Pigs in Mbeya (Rural) District had higher odds for porcine cysticercosis (OR=2.63, 95% CI: [1.22-5.55]). Poor pen hygiene and infrequent antiparasitic treatment were identified to be risk factors for prevalence of nematode infections (OR=1.95 [1.09-3.52] and OR=1.78 [1.06-2.94], respectively). The odds for high nematode burdens increased in cases of poor pen hygiene (OR=4.20 [2.54-6.62]) and poor feed quality (OR=3.7 [1.66-8.33]). Pigs not treated with antiparasitic drugs within the last three months had higher odds for ectoparasite (OR=4.0 [1.78-9.09]) and lice infestations (OR=8.33 [1.96-14.28]) than treated pigs. This study has shown that parasitoses constitute a major burden for smallholder pigs in Mbeya Region and major risk factors included infrequent antiparasitic treatment, poor pen hygiene and poor feed quality. Cost-effective intervention strategies are needed to improve pork production, secure pig welfare and ensure safe pork for human consumption. PMID:26324243

  19. Cultural drivers and health-seeking behaviours that impact on the transmission of pig-associated zoonoses in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Burniston, Stephanie; Okello, Anna L; Khamlome, Boualam; Inthavong, Phouth; Gilbert, Jeffrey; Blacksell, Stuart D; Allen, John; Welburn, Susan C

    2015-01-01

    Pig rearing is an important income source in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), with many smallholder farmers using traditional free-range pig production systems. Despite the potentially significant health risks posed by pig production regarding pig-associated zoonoses, information on the sociocultural drivers of these zoonoses is significantly lacking. This review summarises the existing sociocultural knowledge on eight pig-associated zoonoses suspected to be endemic in Southeast Asia: brucellosis, Q fever (Coxiella burnetii), trichinellosis, hepatitis E virus, leptospirosis, Japanese encephalitis, Streptococcus suis and Taenia solium taeniasis-cysticercosis. It summarises current knowledge on these diseases grouped according to their clinical manifestations in humans to highlight the propensity for underreporting. A literature search was conducted across multiple databases for publications from 1990 to the present day related to the eight pig-associated zoonoses and the risk and impact connected with them, with Lao PDR as a case study. Many of these pig-associated zoonoses have similar presentations and are often diagnosed as clinical syndromes. Misdiagnosis and underreporting are, therefore, substantial and emphasise the need for more robust diagnostics and appropriate surveillance systems. While some reports exist in other countries in the region, information is significantly lacking in Lao PDR with existing information coming mainly from the capital, Vientiane. The disease burden imposed by these zoonoses is not only characterised by morbidity and mortality, but directly impacts on livelihoods through income reduction and production losses, and indirectly through treatment costs and lost work opportunities. Other factors crucial to understanding and controlling these diseases are the influence of ethnicity and culture on food-consumption practices, pig rearing and slaughter practices, hygiene and sanitation, health-seeking behaviours and, therefore, risk factors for disease transmission. Published information on the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of people regarding pig zoonoses and their risk factors is also extremely limited in Lao PDR and the broader Southeast Asian region. The need for more transdisciplinary research, using a One Health approach, in order to understand the underlining social determinants of health and their impacts on health-seeking behaviours, disease transmission and, ultimately, disease reporting, cannot be more emphasized. PMID:25973203

  20. First insight into CD59-like molecules of adult Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yunliang; Toet, Hayley; Rathinasamy, Vignesh; Young, Neil D; Gasser, Robin B; Beddoe, Travis; Huang, Weiyi; Spithill, Terry W

    2014-09-01

    The present study focussed on investigating CD59-like molecules of Fasciola hepatica. A cDNA encoding a CD59-like protein (termed FhCD59-1) identified previously in the membrane fraction of the F. hepatica tegument was isolated. This homologue was shown to encode a predicted open reading frame (ORF) of 122 amino acids (aa) orthologous to human CD59 with a 25 aa signal peptide, a mature protein containing 10 cysteines and a conserved CD59/Ly-6 family motif "CCXXXXCN". An analysis of cDNAs from two different adult specimens of F. hepatica revealed seven variable types of FhCD59-1 sequences, designated FhCD59-1.1 to FhCD59-1.7, which had 94.3-99.7% amino acid sequence identity upon pairwise comparison. Molecular modeling of FhCD59-1.1 with human CD59 confirmed the presence of the three-finger protein domain found in the CD59 family and predicted three disulphide bonds in the F. hepatica sequence. The interrogation of F. hepatica databases identified two additional sequences, designated FhCD59-2 and FhCD59-3, which had only 23.4-29.5% amino acid identity to FhCD59-1.1. Orthologues of the inferred CD59 protein sequences of F. hepatica were also identified in other flatworms, including Fasciola gigantica, Fascioloides magna, Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni, Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus and the free living Schmidtea mediterannea. The results revealed a considerable degree of sequence complexity in the CD59-like sequence families in F. hepatica and flatworms. Phylogenetic analysis of CD59-like aa sequences from F. hepatica and flatworms showed that FhCD59-2 clustered with the known surface-associated protein SmCD59-2 of S. mansoni. Relatively well-supported clades specific to schistosomes, fasciolids and opisthorchiids were identified. The qPCR analysis of gene transcription showed that the relative expression of these 3 FhCD59-like sequences varied by 11-47-fold during fluke maturation, from the newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) to the adult stage. These findings suggest that different FhCD59-like sequences play distinct roles during the development of F. hepatica. PMID:24955521

  1. Distribution and Potential Indicators of Hospitalized Cases of Neurocysticercosis and Epilepsy in Ecuador from 1996 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Gabriël, Sarah; Benitez-Ortiz, Washington; Saegerman, Claude; Dorny, Pierre; Berkvens, Dirk; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji

    2015-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is one of the most common signs of Neurocysticercosis (NCC). In this study, spatial and temporal variations in the incidence of hospitalized cases (IHC) of epilepsy and NCC in Ecuadorian municipalities were analyzed. Additionally, potential socio-economic and landscape indicators were evaluated in order to understand in part the macro-epidemiology of the Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis complex. Methodology Data on the number of hospitalized epilepsy and NCC cases by municipality of residence were obtained from morbidity-hospital systems in Ecuador. SatScan software was used to determine whether variations in the IHC of epilepsy and NCC in space and time. In addition, several socio-economic and landscape variables at municipality level were used to study factors intervening in the macro-epidemiology of these diseases. Negative Binomial regression models through stepwise selection and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) were used to explain the variations in the IHC of epilepsy and NCC. Principal findings Different clusters were identified through space and time. Traditional endemic zones for NCC and epilepsy, recognized in other studies were confirmed in our study. However, for both disorders more recent clusters were identified. Among municipalities, an increasing tendency for IHC of epilepsy, and a decreasing tendency for the IHC of NCC were observed over time. In contrast, within municipalities a positive linear relationship between both disorders was found. An increase in the implementation of systems for eliminating excrements would help to reduce the IHC of epilepsy by 1.00% (IC95%; 0.2%–1.8%) and by 5.12% (IC95%; 3.63%-6.59%) for the IHC of NCC. The presence of pig production was related to IHC of NCC. Conclusion/Significance Both disorders were related to the lack of an efficient system for eliminating excrements. Given the appearance of recent epilepsy clusters, these locations should be studied in depth to discriminate epilepsies due to NCC from epilepsies due to other causes. Field studies are needed to evaluate the true prevalence of cysticercosis in humans and pigs in different zones of the country in order to better implement and manage prevention and/or control campaigns. PMID:26580210

  2. Celebrating the Life of Oiva Joensuu

    E-print Network

    Miami, University of

    is hell for the dog. I am going to start a society to save the tapeworm. We must be sure it doesn't become to be reincarnated as a tapeworm in the belly of a beer drinker." OJ #12;Known for his quick wit and his wonderful

  3. DISEASE/SPECIES NUMBER OF PEOPLE INFECTED WORLDWIDE NUMBER OF YEARLYDEATHS WORLDWIDE African trypanosomes 300,000-500,000 perhaps 65,000

    E-print Network

    Allen, Judith

    Schistosomiasis 201 million perhaps 20,000 Strongyloides stercoralis 70 million unknown Taenia saginatus 77 · NEMATODE - Round worms, Filaria, Ascaris, Trichinella · TREMATODE - Flat worms, Schistosomiasis VIRUS

  4. Genetic characterization of Moniezia species in Senegal and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Diop, Gora; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Hailemariam, Zerihun; Menkir, Sissay; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Ba, Cheikh Tidiane; Ito, Akira

    2015-10-01

    Genetic diversity of Moniezia spp. from domestic ruminants in Senegal and Ethiopia was investigated based on the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA). A total of 64 adult tapeworms were collected from sheep, goat and cattle, and the tapeworms from cattle were all morphologically identified as Moniezia benedeni. On the other hand, the tapeworms obtained from sheep and goat were identified as Moniezia expansa or could not be identified because of the lack of diagnostic morphologic character, i.e. interproglottidal glands (IPGs). Phylogenetic analysis based on cox1 gene sequences revealed that the worms from sheep/goat and cattle formed distinct clades, and three mitochondrial lineages were confirmed within the sheep/goat tapeworms. The maximum pairwise divergences among the three mitochondrial linages were about 3% in cox1 and 0.1% in SSU rDNA, while that between the worms from sheep/goat and cattle reached 13% in cox1 and 2.7% in SSU rDNA. All of the three mitochondrial lineages contained tapeworms morphologically identified as M. expansa, and the tapeworms without IPGs were confirmed in one of the three lineages, indicating the tapeworms without IPGs were also M. expansa. PMID:25752566

  5. 21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Toxocara canis (roundworm), Ancylostoma caninum (hookworm), Trichuris vulpis (whipworm), and Dipylidium caninum (tapeworm), and for the prevention of heartworm disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis in adult dogs. (3) Limitations ....

  6. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...antibodies to Echinococcus spp. in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of echinococcosis, caused by parasitic tapeworms belonging to the genus Echinococcus and provides epidemiological information on this disease. Echinococcosis is...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...antibodies to Echinococcus spp. in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of echinococcosis, caused by parasitic tapeworms belonging to the genus Echinococcus and provides epidemiological information on this disease. Echinococcosis is...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...antibodies to Echinococcus spp. in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of echinococcosis, caused by parasitic tapeworms belonging to the genus Echinococcus and provides epidemiological information on this disease. Echinococcosis is...

  9. 21 CFR 520.2044 - Pyrantel pamoate paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Parascaris equorum ). (ii) 6 mg/lb body weight as single oral dose for the removal and control of mature infections of tapeworms (Anoplocephala perfoliata ). (2) Limitations. Do not use in horses intended for human consumption. [70...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Toxocara canis (roundworm), Ancylostoma caninum (hookworm), Trichuris vulpis (whipworm), and Dipylidium caninum (tapeworm), and for the prevention of heartworm disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis in adult dogs. (3) Limitations ....

  11. 21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Toxocara canis (roundworm), Ancylostoma caninum (hookworm), Trichuris vulpis (whipworm), and Dipylidium caninum (tapeworm), and for the prevention of heartworm disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis in adult dogs. (3) Limitations ....

  12. 21 CFR 520.2044 - Pyrantel pamoate paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Parascaris equorum ). (ii) 6 mg/lb body weight as single oral dose for the removal and control of mature infections of tapeworms (Anoplocephala perfoliata ). (2) Limitations . Not for use in horses intended for food. [70 FR 29447,...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Toxocara canis (roundworm), Ancylostoma caninum (hookworm), Trichuris vulpis (whipworm), and Dipylidium caninum (tapeworm), and for the prevention of heartworm disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis in adult dogs. (3) Limitations....

  14. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...antibodies to Echinococcus spp. in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of echinococcosis, caused by parasitic tapeworms belonging to the genus Echinococcus and provides epidemiological information on this disease. Echinococcosis is...

  15. 21 CFR 520.2044 - Pyrantel pamoate paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Parascaris equorum ). (ii) 6 mg/lb body weight as single oral dose for the removal and control of mature infections of tapeworms (Anoplocephala perfoliata ). (2) Limitations. Do not use in horses intended for human consumption. [70...

  16. 21 CFR 520.2044 - Pyrantel pamoate paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Parascaris equorum ). (ii) 6 mg/lb body weight as single oral dose for the removal and control of mature infections of tapeworms (Anoplocephala perfoliata ). (2) Limitations. Do not use in horses intended for human consumption. [70...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Toxocara canis (roundworm), Ancylostoma caninum (hookworm), Trichuris vulpis (whipworm), and Dipylidium caninum (tapeworm), and for the prevention of heartworm disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis in adult dogs. (3) Limitations ....

  18. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...antibodies to Echinococcus spp. in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of echinococcosis, caused by parasitic tapeworms belonging to the genus Echinococcus and provides epidemiological information on this disease. Echinococcosis is...

  19. 21 CFR 520.2044 - Pyrantel pamoate paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...dose for removal and control of infections from the following mature parasites: large strongyles (Strongylus vulgaris , S. edentatus...body weight as single oral dose for the removal and control of mature infections of tapeworms (Anoplocephala perfoliata )....

  20. A case of primary hydatid cyst in the thyroid gland

    PubMed Central

    Bart?n, Mehmet Kadir; Y?lmaz, Eyüp Murat; Arslan, Harun; Tekeli, Arzu Esen; Karata?, Semra

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a significant infestation caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. Primary hydatid disease of the head and neck without systemic involvement is quite rare in endemic regions. PMID:26170748