Sample records for tapeworm taenia solium

  1. Taenia solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroids and sex steroids in vitro.

    PubMed

    Valdez, R A; Jiménez, P; Fernández Presas, A M; Aguilar, L; Willms, K; Romano, M C

    2014-09-01

    Cysticercosis is a disease caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium cestodes that belongs to the family Taeniidae that affects a number of hosts including humans. Taeniids tapeworms are hermaphroditic organisms that have reproductive units called proglottids that gradually mature to develop testis and ovaries. Cysticerci, the larval stage of these parasites synthesize steroids. To our knowledge there is no information about the capacity of T. solium tapeworms to metabolize progesterone or other precursors to steroid hormones. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate if T. solium tapeworms were able to transform steroid precursors to corticosteroids and sex steroids. T. solium tapeworms were recovered from the intestine of golden hamsters that had been orally infected with cysticerci. The worms were cultured in the presence of tritiated progesterone or androstenedione. At the end of the experiments the culture media were analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The experiments described here showed that small amounts of testosterone were synthesized from (3)H-progesterone by complete or segmented tapeworms whereas the incubation of segmented tapeworms with (3)H-androstenedione, instead of (3)H-progesterone, improved their capacity to synthesize testosterone. In addition, the incubation of the parasites with (3)H-progesterone yielded corticosteroids, mainly deoxicorticosterone (DOC) and 11-deoxicortisol. In summary, the results described here, demonstrate that T. solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroid and sex steroid like metabolites. The capacity of T. solium tapeworms to synthesize steroid hormones may contribute to the physiological functions of the parasite and also to their interaction with the host. PMID:24793221

  2. Morphologic and genetic identification of Taenia tapeworms in Tanzania and DNA genotyping of Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Eom, Keeseon S; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Kihamia, Charles; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu

    2011-12-01

    Species identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed using morphologic observations and multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. In 2008 and 2009, a total of 1,057 fecal samples were collected from residents of Kongwa district of Dodoma region, Tanzania, and examined microscopically for helminth eggs and proglottids. Of these, 4 Taenia egg positive cases were identified, and the eggs were subjected to DNA analysis. Several proglottids of Taenia solium were recovered from 1 of the 4 cases. This established that the species were T. solium (n = 1) and T. saginata (n = 3). One further T. solium specimen was found among 128 fecal samples collected from Mbulu district in Arusha, and this had an intact strobila with the scolex. Phylegenetic analysis of the mtDNA cox1 gene sequences of these 5 isolates showed that T. saginata was basal to the T. solium clade. The mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences of 3 of these Tanzanian isolates showed 99% similarity to T. saginata, and the other 2 isolates showed 100% similarity to T. solium. The present study has shown that Taenia tapeworms are endemic in Kongwa district of Tanzania, as well as in a previously identified Mbulu district. Both T. solium isolates were found to have an "African/Latin American" genotype (cox1). PMID:22355207

  3. Effective protection against experimental Taenia solium tapeworm infection in hamsters by primo-infection and by vaccination with recombinant or synthetic heterologous antigens.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Revilla, C; Toledo, A; Rosas, G; Huerta, M; Flores-Perez, I; Peña, N; Morales, J; Cisneros-Quiñones, J; Meneses, G; Díaz-Orea, A; Anciart, N; Goldbaum, F; Aluja, A; Larralde, C; Fragoso, G; Sciutto, E

    2006-08-01

    The disease caused by Taenia solium is progressively being recognized as a growing global threat for public human health and pig husbandry that requires the development of effective control measures. A central participant in the taeniasis/cysticercosis transmission network is the human carrier of the adult tapeworm because of its great potential in spreading the infection. Herein, evidence is presented that a primary infection of golden hamsters with orally administered T. solium cysticerci improved the host's resistance against a secondary infection. Likewise, previous vaccination increased the hamster's resistance. Similar high levels of protection (> 78%) were induced by systemic or oral vaccination with the S3Pvac anticysticercosis synthetic peptide vaccine or the highly immunogenic recombinant chimera based on the protective peptide KETc1 bound to Brucella spp. lumazine synthase (BLS-KETc1). Increased resistance after primo-infection and vaccination possibly results from changes in the immune conditions prevailing in the host's intestine. The contribution to protection from the KETc1 and BLS epitopes in a chimeric vaccine is under study. Preventive vaccination of definitive hosts of T. solium against the tapeworm, the most relevant step in the taeniasis/cysticercosis transmission, may greatly impact the dynamics of endemic disease and has not been studied or tried previously. PMID:16995407

  4. Notes from the field: identification of a Taenia tapeworm carrier - Los Angeles County, 2014.

    PubMed

    Croker, Curtis; Soriano, Jan; Civen, Rachel; Larsen, Robert A; Schwartz, Benjamin

    2015-01-30

    Carriers of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, are the sole source of cysticercosis, a parasitic tissue infection. When tapeworm eggs excreted by the carrier are ingested, tapeworm larvae can form cysts. When cysts form in the brain, the condition is called neurocysticercosis and can be especially severe. In Los Angeles County an average of 136 county residents are hospitalized with neurocysticercosis each year. The prevalence of Taenia solium carriage is largely unknown because carriage is asymptomatic, making detection difficult. The identification and treatment of tapeworm carriers is an important public health measure that can prevent additional neurocysticercosis cases. PMID:25632957

  5. Eradication of Taenia solium cysticercosis: a role for vaccination of pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marshall W Lightowlers

    1999-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis due to Taenia solium is an important cause of human morbidity and mortality, particularly in Latin America and parts of Africa and Asia. The disease has been recognised as potentially eradicable. Emphasis has been placed on control of the parasite through mass chemotherapy of human populations to remove tapeworm carriers. This strategy does not control the source of tapeworm

  6. Molecular identification of Taenia tapeworms by Cox1 gene in Koh Kong, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Hong, Sung-Jong; Han, Eun-Taek; Jeong, Hoo-Gn; Chhakda, Tep; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong; Eom, Keeseon S

    2011-06-01

    We collected fecal samples from 21 individuals infected with Taenia tapeworms in Koh Kong Province, Cambodia, and performed nucleotide sequencing of the cox1 gene and multiplex PCR on the eggs for DNA differential diagnosis of human Taenia tapeworms. Genomic DNA was extracted from the eggs of a minimum number of 10 isolated from fecal samples. Using oligonucleotide primers Ta7126F, Ts7313F, Tso7466F, and Rev7915, the multiplex PCR assay proved useful for differentially diagnosing Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, and Taenia asiatica based on 706, 629, and 474 bp bands, respectively. All of the Taenia specimens from Kho Kong, Cambodia, were identified as either T. saginata (n=19) or T. solium (n=2) by cox1 sequencing and multiplex PCR. PMID:21738280

  7. Phylogenetic characterisation of Taenia tapeworms in spotted hyenas and reconsideration of the "Out of Africa" hypothesis of Taenia in humans.

    PubMed

    Terefe, Yitagele; Hailemariam, Zerihun; Menkir, Sissay; Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Iwaki, Takashi; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2014-07-01

    The African origin of hominins suggests that Taenia spp. in African carnivores are evolutionarily related to the human-infecting tapeworms Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. Nevertheless, the hypothesis has not been verified through molecular phylogenetics of Taenia. This study aimed to perform phylogenetic comparisons between Taenia spp. from African hyenas and the congeneric human parasites. During 2010-2013, 233 adult specimens of Taenia spp. were collected from 11 spotted hyenas in Ethiopia. A screening based on short DNA sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene classified the samples into four mitochondrial lineages designated as I-IV. DNA profiles of nuclear genes for DNA polymerase delta (pold) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) showed that lineages II and III can be assigned as two independent species. Common haplotypes of pold and pepck were frequently found in lineages I and IV, suggesting that they constitute a single species. Morphological observations suggested that lineage II is Taenia crocutae, but the other lineages were morphologically inconsistent with known species, suggesting the involvement of two new species. A phylogenetic tree of Taenia spp. was reconstructed by the maximum likelihood method using all protein-coding genes of their mitochondrial genomes. The tree clearly demonstrated that T. crocutae is sister to T. saginata and T. asiatica, whereas T. solium was confirmed to be sister to the brown bear tapeworm, Taenia arctos. The tree also suggested that T. solium and T. arctos are related to two species of Taenia in hyenas, corresponding to lineages I+IV and III. These results may partially support the African origin of human-infecting Taenia spp., but there remains a possibility that host switching of Taenia to hominins was not confined to Africa. Additional taxa from African carnivores are needed for further testing of the "Out of Africa" hypothesis of Taenia in humans. PMID:24815426

  8. Towards a Taenia solium Cysticercosis Vaccine: an Epitope Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Protects Mice against Experimental Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Andrea; Larralde, Carlos; Fragoso, Gladis; Gevorkian, Goar; Manoutcharian, Karen; Hernández, Marisela; Acero, Gonzalo; Rosas, Gabriela; López-Casillas, Fernando; Garfias, Carlos Kubli; Vázquez, Ricardo; Terrazas, Ignacio; Sciutto, Edda

    1999-01-01

    The Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigen KETc7 has been shown to be effective as a vaccine against experimental murine cysticercosis, a laboratory model used to test potentially promising molecules against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence of this proline-rich polypeptide, three fragments, GK-1, GK-2, and GK-3, were chemically synthesized in linear form. Of the three peptides, only GK-1 induced sterile protection against T. crassiceps cysticercosis in 40 to 70% of BALB/cAnN male mice. GK-1 is an 18-amino-acid peptide which contains at least one B-cell epitope, as demonstrated by its ability to induce an antibody response to the peptide and T. crassiceps antigen without need of a carrier protein. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that anti-GK1 antibodies strongly react with the native protein in the tegument of T. crassiceps and also with anatomical structures of T. solium eggs, oncospheres, cysticercus, and tapeworm. GK-1 also contains at least one T-cell epitope, capable of stimulating the proliferation of CD8+ and to a lower extent CD4+ T cells primed either with the free peptide or T. crassiceps total antigen. The supernatant of the stimulated cells contained high levels of gamma interferon and low levels of interleukin-4. Similar results were obtained with T cells tested for intracellular cytokine production, an indication of the peptide’s capacity to induce an inflammatory response. The remarkable protection induced by GK-1 immunization, its physicochemical properties, and its presence in all developmental stages of T. solium point to this synthetic peptide as a strong candidate in the construction of a synthetic vaccine against T. solium pig cysticercosis. PMID:10225916

  9. Immunology of Taenia solium taeniasis and human cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Garcia, H H; Rodriguez, S; Friedland, J S

    2014-08-01

    The life cycle of Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm, is continuously closed in many rural settings in developing countries when free roaming pigs ingest human stools containing T. solium eggs and develop cysticercosis, and humans ingest pork infected with cystic larvae and develop intestinal taeniasis, or may also accidentally acquire cysticercosis by faecal-oral contamination. Cysticercosis of the human nervous system, neurocysticercosis, is a major cause of seizures and other neurological morbidity in most of the world. The dynamics of exposure, infection and disease as well as the location of parasites result in a complex interaction which involves immune evasion mechanisms and involutive or progressive disease along time. Moreover, existing data are limited by the relative lack of animal models. This manuscript revises the available information on the immunology of human taeniasis and cysticercosis. PMID:24962350

  10. Development of a species-specific coproantigen ELISA for human Taenia solium taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Guezala, Maria-Claudia; Rodriguez, Silvia; Zamora, Humberto; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Tembo, Alice; Allan, James C; Craig, Philip S

    2009-09-01

    Taenia solium causes human neurocysticercosis and is endemic in underdeveloped countries where backyard pig keeping is common. Microscopic fecal diagnostic methods for human T. solium taeniasis are not very sensitive, and Taenia saginata and Taenia solium eggs are indistinguishable under the light microscope. Coproantigen (CoAg) ELISA methods are very sensitive, but currently only genus (Taenia) specific. This paper describes the development of a highly species-specific coproantigen ELISA test to detect T. solium intestinal taeniasis. Sensitivity was maintained using a capture antibody of rabbit IgG against T. solium adult whole worm somatic extract, whereas species specificity was achieved by utilization of an enzyme-conjugated rabbit IgG against T. solium adult excretory-secretory (ES) antigen. A known panel of positive and negative human fecal samples was tested with this hybrid sandwich ELISA. The ELISA test gave 100% specificity and 96.4% sensitivity for T. solium tapeworm carriers (N = 28), with a J index of 0.96. This simple ELISA incorporating anti-adult somatic and anti-adult ES antibodies provides the first potentially species-specific coproantigen test for human T. solium taeniasis. PMID:19706909

  11. State of the Art of Taenia solium as Compared to Taenia asiatica

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Three species of tapeworms infect humans in their adult stage (Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica). The 3 are flat, opaque white or yellowish, and exceptional long segmented parasites, measuring 1 to 12 m in their adult stage. In this review, the development of the knowledge regarding the first species, mainly focused on understanding how the larval stage or cysticercus is transmitted to humans, is described. The second species is a cosmopolitan parasite that only causes taeniosis and not cysticercosis; therefore, it will not be included. Information on the third species, which is presently being produced, since this species was recognized as such only at the end of the 20th century, will be discussed at the end of this review. PMID:23467388

  12. Epidemiologic study and control of Taenia solium infections with praziquantel in a rural village of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Diaz Camacho, S P; Candil Ruiz, A; Suate Peraza, V; Zazueta Ramos, M L; Felix Medina, M; Lozano, R; Willms, K

    1991-10-01

    This study reports the results of an epidemiologic survey for the detection of Taenia solium in a rural village of 559 inhabitants in Sinaloa, Mexico, as well as a large scale treatment of the population with praziquantel. The study was carried out in two stages. In stage 1, serial stool analysis of 392 persons detected a cluster of three T. solium tapeworms. A fourth T. solium tapeworm was detected through a household census, giving a 1.32% prevalence rate for this helminth. Over 70% of the population over five years of age was treated with a 10 mg/kg dose of praziquantel, and no additional tapeworms were found. Environmental studies for the detection of Taenia sp. eggs in soil, water, and and objects from the houses of tapeworm-infected individuals showed only one soil sample containing eggs compatible with Taenia sp. A total of 72 domestic pigs were examined for the presence of cysticerci under the tongue. One animal had cysts, and belonged to a household that had two T. solium tapeworm infections. Stage 2 of the study was carried out one year after large scale antihelminthic treatment (LSAT), and no infections with Taenia sp. eggs were found. No cysticercus-infected pigs were detected. Intestinal parasitosis decreased from 69.2% to 37.5%. It is concluded that LSAT with praziquantel is efficient in decreasing endemic foci of T. solium. Seropositivity to T. solium bladder fluid antigens was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and found to be 11% before LSAT and 7% one year later. In family members living with T. solium tapeworm carriers, the number of seropositive individuals was 28%. The relative risk ratio of seropositivity for persons living in the same household with a T. solium tapeworm carrier was 2.95. Positive response was significantly higher in the 30-39-year-old age group, in which 30% were seropositive in stage 1, compared with 7% one year after LSAT. High seropositivity rates were significantly associated with tapeworm clusters as well as with individuals with a clinical history of seizures. PMID:1951862

  13. Nested PCR for specific diagnosis of Taenia solium taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Mayta, Holger; Gilman, Robert H; Prendergast, Emily; Castillo, Janeth P; Tinoco, Yeny O; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Sterling, Charles R

    2008-01-01

    Taeniasis due to Taenia solium is a disease with important public health consequences, since the larval stage is not exclusive to the animal intermediate, the pig, but also infects humans, causing neurocysticercosis. Early diagnosis and treatment of T. solium tapeworm carriers is important to prevent human cysticercosis. Current diagnosis based on microscopic observation of eggs lacks both sensitivity and specificity. In the present study, a nested-PCR assay targeting the Tso31 gene was developed for the specific diagnosis of taeniasis due to T. solium. Initial specificity and sensitivity testing was performed using stored known T. solium-positive and -negative samples. The assay was further analyzed under field conditions by conducting a case-control study of pretreatment stool samples collected from a population in an area of endemicity. Using the archived samples, the assay showed 97% (31/32) sensitivity and 100% (123/123) specificity. Under field conditions, the assay had 100% sensitivity and specificity using microscopy/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay coproantigen testing as the gold standards. The Tso31 nested PCR described here might be a useful tool for the early diagnosis and prevention of taeniasis/cysticercosis. PMID:17989190

  14. Differentiating Taenia solium and Taenia saginata Infections by Simple Hematoxylin-Eosin Staining and PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. MAYTA; A. TALLEY; R. H. GILMAN; J. JIMENEZ; M. VERASTEGUI; M. RUIZ; H. H. GARCIA; A. E. GONZALEZ

    2000-01-01

    Species-specific identification of human tapeworm infections is important for public health purposes, because prompt identification of Taenia solium carriers may prevent further human cysticercosis infections (a major cause of acquired epilepsy). Two practical methods for the differentiation of cestode proglottids, (i) routine embedding, sectioning, and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and (ii) PCR with restriction enzyme analysis (PCR-REA), were tested on samples

  15. Epidemiological understanding of Taenia tapeworm infections with special reference to Taenia asiatica in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Rim, Han-Jong

    2001-01-01

    In endemic areas of Taenia tapeworms in Korea, most of the reports showed that T. saginata was dominant over T. solium, but eating pigs is the dominant habit over eating cattle. Why do they have more T. saginata despite lower consumption of beef? This problem actually has long been recognized but until recently there has been no intensive trial to give a scientific explanation on this epidemiological enigma. By summing up the data published between the years 1963 and 1999, the ratio of armed versus unarmed tapeworms in humans was estimated at approximately 1:5. The ratio of pig-eaters versus cattle-eaters, however, was approximately 5:1. This inconsistency could be explained with the recently described T. asiatica, which infects humans through the eating of pig's viscera. We re-evaluate the importance of the consumption of visceral organ of pigs, leading us to an improved epidemiological understanding of the T. asiatica infection together with co-existing T. saginata and T. solium in Korea. PMID:11775327

  16. Towards a Taenia solium Cysticercosis Vaccine: an Epitope Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Protects Mice against Experimental Cysticercosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANDREA TOLEDO; CARLOS LARRALDE; GLADIS FRAGOSO; GOAR GEVORKIAN; KAREN MANOUTCHARIAN; MARISELA HERNANDEZ; GONZALO ACERO; GABRIELA ROSAS; FERNANDO LOPEZ-CASILLAS; CARLOS KUBLI GARFIAS; RICARDO VAZQUEZ; IGNACIO TERRAZAS; EDDA SCIUTTO

    The Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigen KETc7 has been shown to be effective as a vaccine against exper- imental murine cysticercosis, a laboratory model used to test potentially promising molecules against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence of this proline-rich polypeptide, three fragments, GK-1, GK-2, and GK-3, were chemically synthesized in linear form. Of the three

  17. Sympatric distribution of three human Taenia tapeworms collected between 1935 and 2005 in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Heon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Rim, Han-Jong; Eom, Keeseon S

    2008-12-01

    Taeniasis has been known as one of the prevalent parasitic infections in Korea. Until recently, Taenia saginata had long been considered a dominant, and widely distributed species but epidemiological profiles of human Taenia species in Korea still remain unclear. In order to better understand distribution patterns of human Taenia tapeworms in Korea, partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cox1 and ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) were determined, along with morphological examinations, on 68 Taenia specimens obtained from university museum collections deposited since 1935. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-preserved specimens. Phylogenetic relationships among the genotypes (cox1 haplotype) detected in this study were inferred using the neighbor-joining method as a tree building method. Morphological and genetic analyses identified 3 specimens as T. solium, 51 specimens as T. asiatica, and 14 specimens as T. saginata. Our results indicate that all 3 Taenia tapeworms are sympatrically distributed in Korea with T. asiatica dominating over T. saginata and T. solium. PMID:19127329

  18. Redescription of Taenia solium Linnaeus, 1758 and Taenia saginata Goeze, 1782

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Verster; JEAN G. BAER

    1967-01-01

    Having redescribed the two species Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, it has been established that T. solium is not so rare as is usually supposed. The apparent scarcity is often due to a mis-identification of the proglottids of T. saginata. The apparent greater frequency of T. saginata can be explained insomuch that gravid proglottids of this species are voided spontaneously

  19. Investigating a hyper-endemic focus of Taenia solium in northern Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Taenia solium cysticercosis-taeniasis complex is a Neglected Tropical Disease of significant public health importance in many impoverished communities worldwide. The parasite is suspected to be endemic in Lao PDR as a result of widespread risk factors including open human defecation, free ranging pigs and weak systems for meat inspection and carcass condemnation. Reported prevalences of human taeniasis throughout the country have ranged from 0-14%, although few of these have definitively diagnosed T. solium, grossly indistinguishable from Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) and Taenia asiatica. This short communication details the suspicion of a hyper endemic “hotspot” of T. solium in a remote Tai Dam village in northern Lao PDR. Findings Initial antibody serosurveillance of four provinces in Lao PDR in 2011 indicated human taeniasis and cysticercosis prevalences of 46.7% and 66.7% respectively, in the village of Om Phalong in the north of the country. Subsequent copro-antigen ELISA on 92 human faecal samples from this same village, representing a total 27.9% of the target community, indicated a taeniasis prevalence of 26.1% (95% CI?=?18.2-35.9). Subsequent PCR and sequencing of samples (n?=?5) all identified as T. solium; the other human tapeworms T. saginata and T. asiatica were not detected in any of the samples genotyped. Conclusion This is potentially one of the highest documented prevalences of T. solium taeniasis to date in Lao PDR, if not the Southeast Asia region. This result raises suspicion that other “hotspots” of T. solium hyper endemicity may exist in the region, particularly in communities where the consumption of raw pork is commonplace as a result of cultural practices. PMID:24678662

  20. TAENIA TAPEWORMS: THEIR BIOLOGY, EVOLUTION AND SOCIOECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A biological context for understanding human pathogens and parasites emanates from evolutionary studies among tapeworms of the genus Taenia. Human taeniasis and cysticercosis represent archaic associations and remain significant challenges for socioeconomic development, public health and food safet...

  1. Taenia solium Infection in Peru: A Collaboration between Peace Corps Volunteers and Researchers in a Community Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Nathaniel S.; Pajuelo, Monica; Clark, Taryn; Loader, Maria-Cristina I.; Verastegui, Manuela R.; Sterling, Charles; Friedland, Jon S.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of seizures and epilepsy in most of the world, and it occurs when Taenia solium larval cysts infect the central nervous system. T. solium tapeworm infection is endemic in much of Peru, but there are scarce data on the prevalence in many rural highland communities where it is likely to be hyper-endemic. Peace Corps Volunteers live and work in these communities; however, to our knowledge, they have not been used to facilitate public health research. Materials and Methods We utilized Peace Corps Volunteers to estimate the prevalence of T. solium tapeworm infection in seven rural communities in northern Peru. A convenience non-random sampling frame was used. Peace Corps Volunteers facilitated the collection of stool samples (N?=?2,328), which were analyzed by sedimentation and microscopy. Niclosamide treatment and purgation preceded species identification, which was done by PCR-REA. Results Taenia sp. egg-positive stool samples were found in three of the seven communities we surveyed. The overall prevalence of Taenia sp. egg positivity was 2.1% (49/2,328) (95% CI?=?1.6–2.8%) with prevalence up to 4.3% (42/977) (95% CI?=?3.1–5.8%) by community. All 34 of the specimens tested by PCR-REA were T. solium. The overall prevalence of T. solium tapeworm infection was 1.5% (34/2,328) (95% CI?=?1.0–2.0%). Prevalence up to 2.9% (28/977) (95% CI?=?1.9–4.1%) by community was observed. Conclusion/Significance This study recorded high T. solium tapeworm prevalence, and identified hyper-endemic rural communities. It demonstrates that synergy between researchers and Peace Corps Volunteers can be an effective means to conducting large-scale, community-based studies in remote areas of Peru. PMID:25469506

  2. Differential Diagnosis of Taenia saginata and Taenia solium Infection by PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LUIS MIGUEL GONZALEZ; ESTRELLA MONTERO; LESLIE J. S. HARRISON; MICHAEL E. PARKHOUSE; TERESA GARATE; Ministerio de Sanidad

    2000-01-01

    We have designed species-specific oligonucleotides which permit the differential detection of two species of cestodes, Taenia saginata and Taenia solium. The oligonucleotides contain sequences established for two previously reported, noncoding DNA fragments cloned from a genomic library of T. saginata. The first, which is T. saginata specific (fragment HDP1), is a repetitive sequence with a 53-bp monomeric unit repeated 24

  3. Taenia solium and Taenia saginata: Identification of sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Karina Kerche Dias; Sérgio Moraes Aoki; José Fernando Garcia; Cáris Maroni Nunes

    2007-01-01

    Cysticercosis is one of the most important zoonosis, not only because of the effects on animal health and its economic consequences, but also due to the serious danger it poses to humans. The two main parasites involved in the taeniasis–cysticercosis complex in Brazil are Taenia saginata and Taenia solium. Differentiating between these two parasites is important both for disease control

  4. Human and porcine Taenia solium infection in rural north India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kashi N. Prasad; Sanjeev Chawla; Deepika Jain; Chandra M. Pandey; Lily Pal; Sunil Pradhan; Rakesh K. Gupta

    2002-01-01

    72 members of a pig farming community and 50 slaughtered pigs in Uttar Pradesh, India, were examined between November 2000 and June 2001 for Taenia solium infection. 27 of the human subjects (38%) had intestinal taeniasis and 7 (9·7%) had reported seizures. All 3 of the latter who were examined had neurocysticercosis. 13 of the pigs (26%) had cysticercosis. Such

  5. The Disease Burden of Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Cameroon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Praet; Niko Speybroeck; Rafael Manzanedo; Dirk Berkvens; Denis Nsame Nforninwe; André Zoli; Fabrice Quet; Pierre-Marie Preux; Hélène Carabin; Stanny Geerts

    2009-01-01

    Background: Taenia solium cysticercosis is an important zoonosis in many developing countries. Human neurocysticercosis is recognised as an important cause of epilepsy in regions where the parasite occurs. However, it is largely underreported and there is a lack of data about the disease burden. Because a body of information on human and porcine cysticercosis in Cameroon is becoming available, the

  6. Progesterone induces mucosal immunity in a rodent model of human taeniosis by Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Escobedo, Galileo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Nava-Luna, Paul; Olivos, Alfonso; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Carrero, J C; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    More than one quarter of human world's population is exposed to intestinal helminth parasites. The Taenia solium tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor in the transmission of both human neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis. Sex steroids play an important role during T. solium infection, particularly progesterone has been proposed as a key immunomodulatory hormone involved in susceptibility to human taeniosis in woman and cysticercosis in pregnant pigs. Thus, we evaluated the effect of progesterone administration upon the experimental taeniosis in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Intact female adult hamsters were randomly divided into 3 groups: progesterone-subcutaneously treated; olive oil-treated as the vehicle group; and untreated controls. Animals were treated every other day during 4 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, all hamsters were orally infected with 4 viable T. solium cysticerci. After 2 weeks post infection, progesterone-treated hamsters showed reduction in adult worm recovery by 80%, compared to both vehicle-treated and non-manipulated infected animals. In contrast to control and vehicle groups, progesterone treatment diminished tapeworm length by 75% and increased proliferation rate of leukocytes from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of infected hamsters by 5-fold. The latter exhibited high expression levels of IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-? at the duodenal mucosa, accompanied with polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration. These results support that progesterone protects hamsters from the T. solium adult tapeworm establishment by improving the intestinal mucosal immunity, suggesting a potential use of analogues of this hormone as novel inductors of the gut immune response against intestinal helminth infections and probably other bowel-related disorders. PMID:22110394

  7. Immunization of pigs against Taenia solium cysticercosis: factors related to effective protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Sciutto; A. Aluja; G. Fragoso; L. F. Rodarte; M. Hernández; M. N. Villalobos; A. Padilla; N. Keilbach; M. Baca; T. Govezensky; S. Díaz; C. Larralde

    1995-01-01

    Fifty-six (56) pigs were immunized against Taenia solium cysticercosis with antigens from Taenia crassiceps metacestodes, in a variety of protocols, and then challenged orally with Taenia solium proglottids or eggs. Results of immunization (expressed as individual parasite loads) ranged from significant reduction of parasite loads (host protection) to clear increase (parasite facilitation) in apparent relation to the immunogen dose, adjuvant

  8. HYPERENDEMIC HUMAN AND PORCINE TAENIA SOLIUM INFECTION IN PERÚ

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HÉCTOR H. GARCÍA; ROBERT H. GILMAN; ARMANDO E. GONZALEZ; MANUELA VERASTEGUI; SILVIA RODRIGUEZ; CESAR GAVIDIA; VICTOR C. W. TSANG; NESTOR FALCON; ANDRES G. LESCANO; LAWRENCE H. MOULTON; TERESA BERNAL; MARCO TOVAR

    The prevalence and characteristics of human taeniasis\\/cysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis were assessed in an endemic area of the Peruvian highlands. Individuals from 10 communities had stool examinations (N 2,951) and serologic testing for Taenia solium antibodies (N 2,583). The total porcine population present (N 703) was also examined by serology. Cysticercosis is hyperendemic in this area and is associated with

  9. A Taenia solium metacestode factor nonspecifically inhibits cytokine production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabián Arechavaleta; José Luis Molinari; Patricia Tato

    1997-01-01

    Studies of the immune response in chronic helminth infections suggest that parasites modulate the host's immune response.\\u000a Taenia solium metacestodes, in particular, produce molecules that down-regulate cell-mediated immunity. We have described a small RNA peptide\\u000a termed metacestode factor (MF) that depresses the murine immune response to Salmonella typhimurium antigens. MF inhibits mitogen-induced proliferation, humoral and cellular responses to metacestode antigens,

  10. Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases is increasing in Japan, the current situation is not clear. This is largely because taeniasis and cysticercosis are not notifiable conditions in Japan and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of T. solium infections in Japan conducted in the last 15 years. Herein, we provide an overview of the status of T. solium infection in Japan over the past 35 years and point out the potential risks to Japanese society. PMID:22248435

  11. Vaccination against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs using native and recombinant oncosphere antigens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agust??n Plancarte; Ana Flisser; Charles G Gauci; Marshall W Lightowlers

    1999-01-01

    Pigs were immunised with antigens derived from Taenia solium oncospheres or with a pool of three recombinant antigens from Taenia ovis, and subsequently challenged with T. solium eggs. The native oncosphere antigens induced 83% protection against viable, and 89% protection against the total number of cysticerci established following the challenge infection. Immunisation with the recombinant T. ovis antigens induced 93%

  12. Cytokine, Antibody and Proliferative Cellular Responses Elicited by Taenia solium Calreticulin upon Experimental Infection in Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Mendlovic, Fela; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Ávila, Guillermina; Vaughan, Gilberto; Flisser, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis. PMID:25811778

  13. Sequence variation in the cytochrome oxidase I, internal transcribed spacer 1, and Ts14 diagnostic antigen sequences of Taenia solium isolates from South and Central America, India, and Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Hancock; D. E Broughel; I. N. S Moura; A Khan; N. J Pieniazek; A. E Gonzalez; H. H Garcia; R. H Gilman; V. C. W Tsang

    2001-01-01

    We examined the genetic variability in the pig–human tapeworm, Taenia solium, by sequencing the genes for cytochrome oxidase I, internal transcribed spacer 1, and a diagnostic antigen, Ts14, from individual cysts isolated from Peru, Colombia, Mexico, India, China, and the Philippines. For these genes, the rate of nucleotide variation was minimal. Isolates from these countries can be distinguished based on

  14. Epidemiology of Taenia solium in Nepal: is it influenced by the social characteristics of the population and the presence of Taenia asiatica?

    PubMed

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aryal, Arjun; Joshi, Durga Datt; Rijal, Suman; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Duchateau, Luc; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre

    2012-08-01

    The transmission of the zoonotic pork tapeworms Taenia solium and T. asiatica depends on a combination of specific risk factors, such as open defecation, backyard pig raising and the consumption of raw or undercooked pork and viscera. A community-based survey was conducted among 289 households in south-eastern Nepal to study the heterogeneity of these risk factor frequencies as a function of the social composition of the population. The frequency of open defecation, backyard pig raising and pork consumption differed significantly (P < 0.005) among the different coexisting caste and ethnic groups. In the same survey, the taeniosis prevalence was examined among the different groups. Tapeworm carriers were identified at a high prevalence among the Dum, one of the most disadvantaged communities of Nepal. A PCR-RFLP assay revealed that all collected tapeworm specimens were T. asiatica, a species thus far not known to occur in South Asia. These results can help to understand the epidemiology of T. solium in Nepal, which appears to be more complex than thought so far. PMID:22643112

  15. [Total protein analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis in cysticerci of Taenia solium and Taenia asiatica].

    PubMed

    Fang, Wen; Xiao, Liang-Liang; Bao, Huai-En; Mu, Rong

    2011-06-01

    Two 20-day-old three-way crossed hybrid pigs were infected with 80000 Taenia solium or T. asiatica eggs, respectively. Immature cysticerci of the two species in liver were collected at 40 days after infection. The total proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and differentially expressed proteins were analyzed by Image-Master 2D Platinum 6.0 software. The results showed that there were (236 +/- 12) and (231 +/- 14) protein spots in 2D electrophoresis gel images of T. solium and T. asiatica, respectively, with 3 proteins up-regulated and 7 proteins down-regulated in T. solium cysticercus by 2-fold or more compared with those in T. asiatica cysticercus. PMID:21970107

  16. Genetic similarity between cysticerci of Taenia solium isolated from human brain and from pigs.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa-Juarez, Araceli Consuelo; Sandoval-Balanzario, Miguel; McManus, Donald Peter; Monroy-Ostria, Amalia

    2008-09-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) cox1 and ribosomal ITS1 DNA sequences from Taenia solium cysticercus isolates from pigs and cysticerci (racemose and cellulose types) from patients with neurocysticercosis were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplicons were sequenced in order to determine the genetic relationship between these types of cysticerci. Phylogenetic trees were constructed and evolutionary distances were calculated. ITS1 and mt cox1 cysticerci sequence data were compared with previously published Taenia spp. sequences. The variation in the ITS1 and cox1 sequences of samples collected from Mexico was minimal, regardless of geographical origin, size or colour of cysticerci from either pigs or human brain. These results suggest that the racemose and cellulose types represent genetically identical metacestodes of T. solium. Alignment of the mt cox1 sequences of the Mexican samples with sequences of other Taenia taxa showed that most were very similar to T. solium from Mexico and T. solium from Colombia; one T. solium Mexican isolate and Taenia hydatigena were placed in the same group close to Taenia crassiceps. The ITS1 sequences for the Mexican T. solium samples indicated the majority were in the same group as the Latin American T. solium. Two Mexican T. solium samples and T. solium from Philippines were placed together in a different group. PMID:18644469

  17. Performance of the ELISA test for swine cysticercosis using antigens of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. A. Pinto; A. J. Vaz; P. M. L. Germano; P. M. Nakamura

    2000-01-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate antigens of Taenia solium (Tso) and Taenia crassiceps (Tcra) cysticerci in the ELISA test for the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis. The samples analyzed were cysticercosis positive and negative control sera and heterologous sera. Four antigens were assayed: vesicular fluid (VF) and crude (T) Tcra and scolex (S) and crude (T) Tso. All antigens showed good

  18. A Cross-Sectional Study of Taenia solium in a Multiple Taeniid-Endemic Region Reveals Competition May be Protective

    PubMed Central

    Conlan, James V.; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Dorny, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Elliot, Aileen; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R. C. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We conducted cross-sectional surveys for taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans, pigs, and dogs in four northern provinces of Laos. Human cysticercosis and taeniasis prevalence was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4–3.0%) and 8.4% (95% CI = 6.9–9.9%), respectively. Eating uncooked beef, being male, province of residence, age, and ethnicity were significant risk factors for taeniasis and only province of residence was a significant risk factor for cystiercosis. Thirty-five human tapeworms were recovered during the survey and 33 (94.3%) and 2 (5.7%) were identified as Taenia saginata and T. solium, respectively. Maximum-likelihood adjusted prevalence of T. solium and T. hydatigena in pigs was 4.2% (95% CI = 0.5–7.9%) and 55.9% (95% CI = 47.5–64.3%), respectively, and T. hydatigena taeniasis in dogs was 4.8% (95% CI = 0.0–11.3%). Taenia hydatigena and T. saginata were the most prevalent taeniids in the respective pig and human populations and together may suppress T. solium transmission. PMID:22855759

  19. Genotoxicity induced by Taenia solium and its reduction by immunization with calreticulin in a hamster model of taeniosis.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Ana María; Mendlovic, Fela; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Chávez-Talavera, Oscar; Sordo, Monserrat; Avila, Guillermina; Flisser, Ana; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia

    2013-06-01

    Genotoxicity induced by neurocysticercosis has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo in humans. The adult stage of Taenia solium lodges in the small intestine and is the main risk factor to acquire neurocysticercosis, nevertheless its carcinogenic potential has not been evaluated. In this study, we determined the genotoxic effect of T. solium infection in the hamster model of taeniosis. In addition, we assessed the effect of oral immunization with recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) plus cholera toxin as adjuvant on micronuclei induction, as this protein has been shown to induce 33-44% protection in the hamster model of taeniosis. Blood samples were collected from the orbital venous plexus of noninfected and infected hamsters at different days postinfection, as well as from orally immunized animals, to evaluate the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes as a measure of genotoxicity induced by parasite exposure and rTsCRT vaccination. Our results indicate that infection with T. solium caused time-dependent DNA damage in vivo and that rTsCRT immunization reduced the genotoxic damage induced by the presence of the tapeworms. PMID:23704053

  20. Evaluating the efficacy of teaching methods regarding prevention of human epilepsy caused by Taenia solium neurocysticercosis in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Wohlgemut, Jared; Dewey, Cate; Levy, Mike; Mutua, Florence

    2010-04-01

    Taenia solium neurocysticercosis is a major cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. A questionnaire was administered to 282 Kenyan farmers, followed by a workshop, a second questionnaire, one-on-one training, and a third questionnaire. People who attended workshops were more likely to know how T. solium causes epilepsy in humans in the third visit than the second (P = 0.001). The likelihood that farmers would tether their pigs 100% of the time, limiting exposure to tapeworm eggs, increased after the first (P < 0.001) and second visits (P < 0.001). Farmers were more likely to have heard of Cysticercus cellulosae in the second (P = 0.001) and third visits (P = 0.007), and to know how pigs acquire infection in the second (P = 0.03) and third visits (P = 0.003). Farmers with at least a grade 8 education were more likely to know how T. solium is transmitted to humans in the second (P = 0.001) and third visits (P = 0.009), and were more likely to understand the relationship between epilepsy and T. solium in the second (P = 0.03) and third visits (P = 0.03). Grade 8 education may enhance learning from written material. Workshops followed by individual on-farm training enhanced knowledge acquisition and behavior changes. Training local government extension workers contributed to the sustainability of this project. PMID:20348512

  1. Taenia solium: A Cysteine Protease Secreted by Metacestodes Depletes Human CD4 Lymphocytes in Vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose L. Molinari; Herlinda Mejia; A. Clinton White; Esperanza Garrido; Veronica M. Borgonio; Salman Baig; Patricia Tato

    2000-01-01

    Molinari, J. L., Mejia, H., White, A. C. Jr., Garrido, E., Borgonio, V. M., Baig, S., and Tato, P., 2000. Taenia solium: A cysteine protease secreted by metacestodes depletes human CD4 Lymphocytes in Vitro. Experimental Parasitology94, 133–142. Excreted\\/secreted products from Taenia solium metacestodes cultured in vitro were analyzed for peptidase activity using peptide substrates Z-Phe-Arg-AFC, Arg-AFC, and Z-Gly-Gly-Arg-AFC and zymography

  2. Regional status, epidemiology and impact of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Western and Central Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André Zoli; Oliver Shey-Njila; Emmanuel Assana; Jean-Pierre Nguekam; Pierre Dorny; Jef Brandt; Stanny Geerts

    2003-01-01

    In West Africa, Taenia solium cysticercosis in both pigs and man has been reported in Benin, Burkina-Faso, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Senegal and Togo, and although official data are lacking, T. solium is anticipated to be present in most of the pig-raising regions of other West African countries as well. In some regions of Nigeria, the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and

  3. Multiple genotypes of Taenia solium—ramifications for diagnosis, treatment and control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Ito; Hiroshi Yamasaki; Minoru Nakao; Yasuhito Sako; Munehiro Okamoto; Marcello O. Sato; Kazuhiro Nakaya; Sri S. Margono; Takashi Ikejima; Ayub A. Kassuku; Sonia M. S. Afonso; Washington Benitez Ortiz; Agustin Plancarte; Andre Zoli; Stanny Geerts; Philip S. Craig

    2003-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences of Taenia solium have fully been analyzed. Analysis of the full length of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (1620 bp) and cytochrome b (1068 bp) genes of T. solium, isolated from Asia (China, Thailand, Indonesia and India), from Latin America (Mexico, Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru and Brazil) and from Africa (Tanzania, Mozambique and Cameroon), has revealed that the

  4. Detection of Taenia solium taeniasis coproantigen is an early indicator of treatment failure for taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Javier A; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A; Moyano, Luz M; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C; Craig, Philip S; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-04-01

    Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective. PMID:22336287

  5. Differential diagnosis of Taenia saginata and Taenia solium infections: from DNA probes to polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    González, Luis Miguel; Montero, Estrella; Sciutto, Edda; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E; Garate, Teresa

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this work was the rapid and easy differential diagnosis of Taenia saginata and T. solium. First, a T. saginata size-selected genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (gDNA) library was constructed in the vector lambda gt10 using the 2-4 kb fraction from the parasite DNA digested with EcoR1, under 'star' conditions. After differential screening of the library and hybridization analysis with DNA from T. saginata, T. solium, T. taeniaeformis, T. crassiceps, and Echinococcus granulosus (bovine, porcine, and human), 2 recombinant phages were selected. They were designated HDP1 and HDP2. HDP1 reacted specifically with T. saginata DNA, and HDP2 recognized DNA from both T. saginata and T. solium. The 2 DNA probes were then sequenced and further characterized. HDP1 was a repetitive sequence with a 53 bp monomeric unit repeated 24 times in direct tandem along the 1272 bp fragment, while the 3954 bp HDP2 was not a repetitive sequence. Using the sequencing data, oligonucleotides were designed and used in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The 2 selected oligonucleotides from probe HDP1 (PTs4F1 and PTs4R1) specifically amplified gDNA from T. saginata, but not T. solium or other related cestodes, with a sensitivity of < 10 pg of T. saginata gDNA, about the quantity of DNA in one taeniid egg. The 3 oligonucleotides selected from the HDP2 sequence (PTs7S35F1, PTs7S35F2, and PTs7S35R1) allowed the differential amplification of gDNA from T. saginata, T. solium and E. granulosus in a multiplex PCR, again with a sensitivity of < 10 pg. These diagnostic tools have immediate application in the differential diagnosis of T. solium and T. saginata in humans and in the diagnosis of dubious cysts in the slaughterhouse. We also hope to apply them to epidemiological surveys of, for example, soil and water in endemic areas. PMID:12055846

  6. Characterization of a novel Taenia solium oncosphere antigen.

    PubMed

    Mayta, Holger; Hancock, Kathy; Levine, Min Z; Gilman, Robert H; Farfán, Marilú J; Verastegui, Manuela; Lane, William S; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Tsang, Victor C W

    2007-12-01

    Infections due to Taenia solium in humans (taeniasis/cysticercosis) remain a complex health problem, particularly in developing countries. We identified two oncosphere proteins that might protect the porcine intermediate host against cysticercosis and therefore help prevent disease in humans. One of these proteins was further identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and micro-sequencing. The gene encoding this protective protein was also identified, cloned and characterized. The native 31.5 kDa protein Tso31 has four variants at the cDNA level. The longest sequence from which the others seem to derive, encodes a 253 amino acid peptide. The predicted protein has a molecular weight of 25.1 kDa, one putative N-glycosylation site, two fibronectin type III domains, and one C terminal transmembrane domain. The gene structure of the protein consists of four exons and three introns. The finding of one gene and four different cDNAs for Tso31 suggests the existence of a possible mechanism of differential splicing in this parasite. The Tso31 protein is exclusive to T. solium oncospheres with a putative protein structure of an extra-cellular receptor-like protein. The Tso31 protein was expressed as a recombinant protein fused to GST and tested in a vaccine to determine its effectiveness in protecting pigs against cysticercosis. Only two pigs out of eight vaccinated were protected and although the total median number of cyst decreased in vaccinated pigs compared to controls this decrease was not statistically significant (P = 0.09). PMID:17850901

  7. Ring-Screening to Control Endemic Transmission of Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    O'Neal, Seth E.; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gavidia, Cesar; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Taenia solium is a major cause of preventable epilepsy in developing nations. Screening and treatment of human intestinal stage infection (taeniasis) within high-risk foci may reduce transmission and prevent epilepsy by limiting human exposure to infective eggs. We piloted a ring-strategy that involves screening and treatment for taeniasis among households located nearby pigs heavily-infected with the larval stage (cysticercosis). These pigs mark areas of increased transmission and can be identified by tongue examination. Methodology We selected two villages in northern Peru for a controlled prospective interventional cohort pilot study. In the intervention village (1,058 residents) we examined the tongues of all pigs every 4 months for nodules characteristic of cysticercosis. We then screened all residents living within 100-meters of any tongue-positive pig using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Taenia antigens in stool. Residents with taeniasis were treated with niclosamide. In both the intervention and control (753 residents) we measured incidence of exposure by sampling the pig population every 4 months for serum antibodies against cysticercosis using enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot. Principal Findings Baseline seroincidence among pigs born during the study was 22.6 cases per 100 pigs per-month (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.0–30.0) in the intervention and 18.1 (95% CI 12.7–25.9) in the control. After one year we observed a 41% reduction in seroincidence in the intervention village compared to baseline (incidence rate ratio 0.59, 95% CI 0.41–0.87) while the seroincidence in the control village remained unchanged. At study end, the prevalence of taeniasis was nearly 4 times lower in the intervention than in the control (prevalence ratio 0.28, 95% CI 0.08–0.91). Conclusions/Significance Ring-screening reduced transmission of T. solium in this pilot study and may provide an effective and practical approach for regions where resources are limited. However, this strategy requires validation in larger populations over a greater period of time. PMID:25210748

  8. [Dynamic pathologic changes in pigs infected with Taenia solium].

    PubMed

    Fang, Wen; Xiao, Liang-liang; Bao, Huai-en; Mu, Rong

    2012-02-29

    Four three-way crossed hybrid pigs were infected each with 80,000 Taenia solium eggs. One pig was sacrificed respectively at 40, 80, 120, and 150 d post-infection, and tissue samples containing cysticerci were collected for pathological sections. The results showed that in 40-80 days, cysticerci in the liver were surrounded by membrane formed with the hyperplastic fibrous connective tissue and inflammatory cells. On 120th day, a large number of the cysticerci were dead or calcified. On 150th day, all cysticerci died or calcified. On 40th, day, the inflammatory cells infiltrated around the cysticerci in the tongue and skeletal muscle, and the inflammatory responses near the scolex were more serious than that near cyst wall. In the 80-150 days, the inflammatory cells showed band like distribution. The pathological response in cardiac muscle was similar to that of the skeletal muscle and the tongue, but with more inflammatory cells. On 40th day, there were a few inflammatory cells infiltrating around cysticerci in the brain, in the 80-150 days, a large number of inflammatory cells aggregated around the cysticerci. The inflammatory response in the tissues progressed with the duration of infection and the inflammation in the liver was significantly stronger than that in other tissues. PMID:22913198

  9. Cerebellar Cysticercosis Caused by Larval Taenia crassiceps Tapeworm in Immunocompetent Woman, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Ntoukas, Vasileios; Tappe, Dennis; Pfütze, Daniel; Simon, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Human cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps tapeworm larvae involves the muscles and subcutis mostly in immunocompromised patients and the eye in immunocompetent persons. We report a successfully treated cerebellar infection in an immunocompetent woman. We developed serologic tests, and the parasite was identified by histologic examination and 12s rDNA PCR and sequencing. PMID:24274258

  10. Mass chemotherapy for intestinal Taenia solium infection: effect on prevalence in humans and pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Allan; M. Velasquez-Tohom; C. Fletes; R. Torres-Alvarez; G. Lopez-Virula; P. Yurrita; H. Soto de Alfaro; A. Rivera; J. Garcia-Noval

    1997-01-01

    Mass treatment of the human population with niclosamide was carried out in 2 villages in rural Guatemala where Taenia solium was endemic, to determine how this would affect the epidemiology of the parasite. Intestinal taeniasis was diagnosed by microscopy and coproantigen testing, and porcine cysticercosis by a specific Western blot. Before mass treatment, the prevalence of human taeniasis was 3·5%;

  11. Taenia solium taeniosis\\/cysticercosis in Asia: epidemiology, impact and issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vedantam Rajshekhar; Durga Dutt Joshi; Nguyen Quoc Doanh; Nguyen van De; Zhou Xiaonong

    2003-01-01

    Several reports of patients with cysticercosis from many countries in Asia such as India, China, Indonesia, Thailand, Korea, Taiwan and Nepal are a clear indicator of the wide prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniosis in these and other Asian countries. However, epidemiological data from community based studies are sparse and available only for a few countries in Asia. Cysticercosis

  12. Limitations of current diagnostic procedures for the diagnosis of Taenia solium cysticercosis in rural pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Sciutto; J. J. Mart??nez; N. M. Villalobos; M. Hernández; M. V. José; C. Beltrán; F. Rodarte; I. Flores; J. R. Bobadilla; G. Fragoso; M. E. Parkhouse; L. J. S. Harrison; A. S. de Aluja

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate diagnostic procedures for porcine cysticercosis. Sera were obtained from 32 pigs reared in commercial farms, 47 pigs before and after experimental infection, 42 carefully necropsied rural pigs and 191 slaughtered pigs from rural communities in which the presence of the Taenia solium metacestode was assessed by tongue dissection. Sera were analyzed

  13. Field trial for reducing porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis in Mexico by systematic vaccination of pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José L. Molinari; Daniel Rodríguez; Patricia Tato; Rodolfo Soto; Fabián Arechavaleta; Sandra Solano

    1997-01-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that immunization of pigs with a crude extract of Taenia solium metacestodes can confer a high level of protection against an egg challenge. Furthermore, vaccination of infected animals also induces an immune response against the larvae, which are either destroyed or rendered non-infectious. To assess the efficacy of immunization as a strategy for reducing the

  14. Human and porcine Taenia solium infection in a village in the highlands of Cusco, Peru

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. H. Garcia; R. H. Gilman; A. E. Gonzalez; R. Pacheco; M. Verastegui; V. C. W. Tsang

    1999-01-01

    A serological survey was performed using the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (EITB) in a village in the highlands of Peru where there are three distinct but close neighborhoods, to determine if there is a direct relationship between human and porcine Taenia solium infection. One hundred and eight out of 365 individuals were sampled, and 14 were seropositive (human seroprevalence 13%).

  15. Serological Diagnosis of Human Cysticercosis by Use of Recombinant Antigens from Taenia solium Cysticerci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KERSTIN HUBERT; ABEL ANDRIANTSIMAHAVANDY; ALAIN MICHAULT; MATTHIAS FROSCH; FRITZ A. MUHLSCHLEGEL

    1999-01-01

    A Taenia solium metacestode cDNA expression library in the lambda ZAPII vector was screened with pooled sera from patients with neurocysticercosis. Sixty primary clones were identified and shown to belong to two classes. The clones NC-3 and NC-9 did not reveal any significant homologies to sequences deposited in the databases and were further characterized. Both recombinant antigens were expressed as

  16. NEW CONCEPTS IN THE DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS (TAENIA SOLIUM)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HECTOR H. GARCIA; OSCAR H. DEL BRUTTO; THEODORE E. NASH; A. CLINTON WHITE; VICTOR C. W. TSANG; ROBERT H. GILMAN

    Human neurocysticercosis, the infection of the nervous system by the larvae of Taenia solium, is a major cause of epileptic seizures and other neurologic morbidity worldwide. The diagnosis and treatment of neurocysticercosis have been considerably improved in recent years. This improvement includes identification and sequencing of specific antigens and development of new assays for laboratory diagnosis, recognition of the frequency

  17. Taenia solium cysticercosis in young pigs: age at first infection and histological characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aline S de Aluja; J. J Martinez M; A. N. M Villalobos

    1998-01-01

    In spite of the vast knowledge that exists in the fields of immunology, biochemistry, diagnosis and treatment, the basic facts about the dynamics of the transmission of Taenia solium are incomplete. The present study determines the age at which piglets become infected in a rural community of Mexico, where the climate is divided into the dry and rainy seasons. It

  18. Seroprevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs in a rural community of Honduras

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirofumi Sakai; Masaru Sone; Dina Marlen Castro; Nariaki Nonaka; Doris Quan; Maritza Canales; Inger Ljungstrom; Ana Lourdes Sanchez

    1998-01-01

    Several retrospective studies have shown that human Taenia solium cysticercosis is endemic in Honduras, but very few reports of porcine cysticercosis in rural communities have been published. To determine the local prevalence of this disease in pigs, a serological survey has been undertaken in a rural community, Salamá, in the Department of Olancho in central Honduras. Eighty-five families raising pigs

  19. KINETICS OF CIRCULATING ANTIGENS IN PIGS EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH TAENIA SOLIUM EGGS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. ZOLI; L. VONDOU; S. M. R. POUEDET; E. ASSANA; P. DORNY; J. BRANDT; B. LOSSON; S. GEERTS

    2003-01-01

    Three groups of 4 piglets were experimentally infected with different doses (103, 104 and 105) of Taenia solium eggs whereas a fourth group of 2 pigs received gravid proglottids. At autopsy 6 months post infection, the two latter pigs were heavily infected with more than 3000 living cysts per kg of muscle. Ten of the 12 other pigs harboured light

  20. Castration and pregnancy of rural pigs significantly increase the prevalence of naturally acquired Taenia solium cysticercosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Morales; T Velasco; V Tovar; G Fragoso; A Fleury; C Beltrán; N Villalobos; A Aluja; L. F Rodarte; E Sciutto; C Larralde

    2002-01-01

    Cuentepec is a rural village of central Mexico, where 1300 pigs were bred at the time of the study in conditions that favor Taenia solium transmission. The tongues of 1087 (84%) of these pigs were visually examined and 33% were found to be cysticercotic. Castration of male pigs increased prevalence from 23 to 50% (P<0.001) and pregnancy in sows also

  1. Experimental Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs: characteristics of the infection and antibody response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. de Aluja; A. N. M. Villalobos; A. Plancarte; L. F. Rodarte; M. Hernández; E. Sciutto

    1996-01-01

    Pigs were infected with taeniid eggs to study the susceptibility to infection and reinfection of the animals of mixed breeds and of different ages, the viability and death of the metacestodes in the host tissue, and the antibody response which accompanies these events. Sixteen pigs were infected with Taenia solium eggs for this purpose. At necropsy metacestodes were counted in

  2. Taenia solium metacestode glycoproteins as diagnostic antigens for solitary cysticercus granuloma in Indian patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Prabhakaran; V. Rajshekhar; K. D. Murrell; A. Oommen

    2004-01-01

    Taenia solium metacestode glycoproteins specific for lentil lectin were evaluated as diagnostic antigens for solitary cysticercus granulomas in Indian patients, using both an ELISA and immunoblotting. In 250 patients suspected to have neurocysticercosis and subjected to a computerized tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging, the proteins were diagnostic by the ELISA in 86 patients (80%) and by immunoblots in 67

  3. Immune responses to viable and degenerative metacestodes of Taenia solium in naturally infected swine.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aloukick K; Prasad, Kashi N; Prasad, Amit; Tripathi, Mukesh; Gupta, Rakesh K; Husain, Nuzhat

    2013-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis, caused by the larvae of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, is the most common helminth infection of the CNS in humans worldwide. There is no existing animal model of neurocysticercosis that resembles human infection. To overcome this limitation, swine (the natural intermediate host of the parasite) may be a suitable model. The immune response associated with different stages of the parasite larva (metacestode) has not yet been explored. Therefore, we investigated the immune response to various stages of the metacestode (cyst) in the brain and muscles of naturally infected swine. Swine with neurocysticercosis (n = 10) and healthy controls (n = 10), as confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging, were included in this study. The animals were sacrificed, and the tissues containing viable or degenerative metacestods in the brain and infected muscles were collected and subjected to reverse transcriptase-PCR and ELISA to determine the expression of different cytokines (IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-4 IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10). Higher expression of IL-10 was found to be associated with viable cysts. Degenerating cysts displayed significantly increased levels of IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8, whereas calcified cysts had elevated levels of IL-4, IL-10, TNF-? and IL-6. The present study indicated a strong regulatory (IL-10) and Th1 cytokine response in viable and degenerating cysts, respectively, whereas calcified cysts had a mixed anti-inflammatory (IL-4), regulatory (IL-10) and pro-inflammatory (TNF-? and IL-6) response. Thus, Th1 and Th2 immune response operate in the vicinity of metacestodes and the type of immune response may be responsible for disease severity. PMID:24184156

  4. Alternative splicing and sequence diversity of transcripts from the oncosphere stage of Taenia solium with homology to the 45W antigen of Taenia ovis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles G. Gauci; Marshall W. Lightowlers

    2001-01-01

    Genes and transcripts which show homology to the host-protective 45W antigen of Taenia ovis have been cloned from the human parasite Taenia solium. The T. solium genes cloned in this study (TSO45) show conserved genomic structural features which are also features of the T. ovis 45W gene family. The TSO45 genes consist of a four exon and three intron structure.

  5. Spatial distribution of Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis within a rural area of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2008-01-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is clustered or widely dispersed in a limited rural area, a spatial analysis of rural porcine cysticercosis was applied to 13 villages of the Sierra de Huautla in Central Mexico. Clustering of cases in specific households would indicate tapeworm carriers in the vicinity, whereas their dispersal would suggest that the ambulatory habits of both humans and pigs contribute to the spread of cysticercosis. A total of 562 pigs were included in this study (August-December 2003). A global positioning system was employed in order to plot the geographic distribution of both cysticercotic pigs and risk factors for infection within the villages. Prevalence of pig tongue cysticercosis varied significantly in sampled villages (p = 0.003), ranging from 0% to 33.3% and averaging 13.3%. Pigs were clustered in households, but no differences in the clustering of cysticercotic and healthy pigs were found. In contrast, the presence of pigs roaming freely and drinking stagnant water correlated significantly with porcine cysticercosis (p = 0.07), as did the absence of latrines (p = 0.0008). High prevalence of porcine cysticercosis proves that transmission is still quite common in rural Mexico. The lack of significant differentiation in the geographical clustering of healthy and cysticercotic pigs weakens the argument that focal factors (e.g., household location of putative tapeworm carriers) play an important role in increasing the risk of cysticercosis transmission in pigs. Instead, it would appear that other wide-ranging biological, physical, and cultural factors determine the geographic spread of the disease. Extensive geographic dispersal of the risk of cysticercosis makes it imperative that control measures be applied indiscriminately to all pigs and humans living in this endemic area. PMID:18846230

  6. Spatial Distribution of Taenia solium Porcine Cysticercosis within a Rural Area of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S.; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2008-01-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is clustered or widely dispersed in a limited rural area, a spatial analysis of rural porcine cysticercosis was applied to 13 villages of the Sierra de Huautla in Central Mexico. Clustering of cases in specific households would indicate tapeworm carriers in the vicinity, whereas their dispersal would suggest that the ambulatory habits of both humans and pigs contribute to the spread of cysticercosis. A total of 562 pigs were included in this study (August–December 2003). A global positioning system was employed in order to plot the geographic distribution of both cysticercotic pigs and risk factors for infection within the villages. Prevalence of pig tongue cysticercosis varied significantly in sampled villages (p?=?0.003), ranging from 0% to 33.3% and averaging 13.3%. Pigs were clustered in households, but no differences in the clustering of cysticercotic and healthy pigs were found. In contrast, the presence of pigs roaming freely and drinking stagnant water correlated significantly with porcine cysticercosis (p?=?0.07), as did the absence of latrines (p?=?0.0008). High prevalence of porcine cysticercosis proves that transmission is still quite common in rural Mexico. The lack of significant differentiation in the geographical clustering of healthy and cysticercotic pigs weakens the argument that focal factors (e.g., household location of putative tapeworm carriers) play an important role in increasing the risk of cysticercosis transmission in pigs. Instead, it would appear that other wide-ranging biological, physical, and cultural factors determine the geographic spread of the disease. Extensive geographic dispersal of the risk of cysticercosis makes it imperative that control measures be applied indiscriminately to all pigs and humans living in this endemic area. PMID:18846230

  7. Longevity and viability of Taenia solium eggs in the digestive system of the beetle Ammophorus rubripes.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis Antonio; Lopez-Urbina, Maria Teresa; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Gonzalez, Armando Emiliano

    2014-03-01

    The present study evaluated the capacity of Ammophorus rubripes beetles to carry Taenia solium eggs, in terms of duration and viability of eggs in their digestive system. One hundred beetles were distributed into five polyethylene boxes, and then they were infected with T. solium eggs. Gravid proglottids of T. solium were crushed and then mixed with cattle feces. One gram of this mixture was placed in each box for 24 hours, after which each group of beetles was transferred into a new clean box. Then, five beetles were dissected every three days. Time was strongly associated with viability (r=0.89; P<0.001) and the calculated time to cero viability is 36 days. The eggs in the intestinal system of each beetle were counted and tested for viability. Taenia solium eggs were present in the beetle's digestive system for up to 39 days (13th sampling day out of 20), gradually reducing in numbers and viability, which was 0 on day 36 post-infection. Egg viability was around 40% up to day 24 post-infection, with a median number of eggs of 11 per beetle at this time. Dung beetles may potentially contribute towards dispersing T. solium eggs in endemic areas. PMID:24728368

  8. Characterization and Protective Potential of the Immune Response to Taenia solium Paramyosin in a Murine Model of Cysticercosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Vazquez-Talavera; C. F. Solis; L. I. Terrazas; J. P. Laclette

    2001-01-01

    Paramyosin has been proposed as a vaccine candidate in schistosomiasis and filariasis. However, limited information is available about its protective potential against cysticercosis and the immune response it induces. Immunization of mice with recombinant full-length paramyosin of Taenia solium (TPmy) results in about a 52% reduction in parasite burden after a subsequent challenge by intraperitoneal inoculation of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci.

  9. Synthetic peptide vaccine against Taenia solium pig cysticercosis: successful vaccination in a controlled field trial in rural Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Huerta; A. S de Aluja; G Fragoso; A Toledo; N Villalobos; M Hernández; G Gevorkian; G Acero; A D??az; I Alvarez; R Avila; C Beltrán; G Garcia; J. J Martinez; C Larralde; E Sciutto

    2001-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis seriously affects human health when localised in the central nervous system (CNS) and causes great economic loss in pig husbandry in rural areas of endemic countries. Increasing the resistance to the parasite in the obligatory host pig may help in curbing transmission. Three synthetic peptides based on protein sequences of the murine parasite Taenia crassiceps, which had

  10. Molecular Characterization and Diagnostic Value of Taenia solium Low-Molecular-Weight Antigen Genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YASUHITO SAKO; MINORU NAKAO; TAKASHI IKEJIMA; XIAN ZHI PIAO; KAZUHIRO NAKAYA; AKIRA ITO

    2000-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by infection with the larvae of Taenia solium is an important cause of neurological disease worldwide. In order to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for this infection using recombinant proteins, we carried out molecular cloning and identified four candidates as diagnostic antigens (designated Ag1, Ag1V1, Ag2, and Ag2V1). Except for Ag2V1, these clones could encode a

  11. Characterization and cloning of T24, a Taenia solium antigen diagnostic for cysticercosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathy Hancock; Sowmya Pattabhi; Fatima W. Whitfield; Melinda L. Yushak; Hector H. Garcia; Armando E. Gonzalez; Robert H. Gilman; Victor C. W. Tsang

    2006-01-01

    The third and final diagnostic antigen of the lentil lectin purified glycoproteins (LLGP) extracted from the larval stage of Taenia solium has been characterized, cloned, and expressed. T24 is an integral membrane protein that belongs to the tetraspanin superfamily. It migrates at a position corresponding to 24-kDa and as a homodimer at 42-kDa. Antibodies from cysticercosis patients recognize secondary structure

  12. Characterization and cloning of GP50, a Taenia solium antigen diagnostic for cysticercosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathy Hancock; Sowmya Pattabhi; Ryan M. Greene; Melinda L. Yushak; Fatima Williams; Azra Khan; Jeffrey W. Priest; Min Z. Levine; Victor C. W. Tsang

    2004-01-01

    GP50, a Taenia solium protein diagnostic for cysticercosis has been cloned, sequenced, and characterized. GP50 is one diagnostic component of the lentil lectin purified glycoprotein (LLGP) antigens that have been used for antibody-based diagnosis of cysticercosis in a Western blot assay for nearly 15 years. GP50 is a glycosylated and GPI-anchored membrane protein. The native protein migrates at 50kDa, but

  13. Suppression of murine lymphocyte proliferation induced by a small RNA purified from the Taenia solium metacestode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Tato; A. M. Castro; D. Rodríguez; R. Soto; F. Arechavaleta; J. L. Molinari

    1995-01-01

    A substance fromTaenia solium metacestodes that decreases lymphocyte proliferation induced by concanavalin A was isolated. The molecular weight of this substance was estimated to be slightly more than 1,450 Da. Crude metacestode factor was fractionated through a Bio-gel P-6 column. Peak 1 showed suppressive activity. After incubation with RNase the substance lost its activity. Incubation of this material with trypsin

  14. A comparative study on egg hatching methods and oncosphere viability determination for Taenia solium eggs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. C. Wang; Y. X. Ma; C. H. Kuo; P. C. Fan

    1997-01-01

    The efficiencies of an enzyme method and the sodium hypochlorite method in hatching eggs of Taenia solium (Henan strain) were compared. The viability of the hatched oncospheres was determined by staining with trypan blue. For the former method, the hatching rate and viability percentage were 85.7% and 79.7%, respectively. The corresponding figures for the latter method were 97.9% and 86.7%,

  15. Two Epitopes Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Confer Protection against Murine T. crassiceps Cysticercosis along with a Prominent T1 Response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANDREA TOLEDO; GLADIS FRAGOSO; GABRIELA ROSAS; MARISELA HERNANDEZ; GOAR GEVORKIAN; FERNANDO LOPEZ-CASILLAS; BEATRIZ HERNANDEZ; GONZALO ACERO; MIRNA HUERTA; CARLOS LARRALDE; EDDA SCIUTTO

    2001-01-01

    Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigens KETc1 and KETc12 have been shown to induce high level of protection against experimental murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis, an experimental model successfully used to test candidate antigens for use in vaccination against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, KETc1 and KETc12 were chemically synthesized in linear form. Immunization with KETc1 induced

  16. Helminth antigens ( Taenia solium, Taenia crassiceps, Toxocara canis, Schistosoma mansoni and Echinococcus granulosus) and cross-reactivities in human infections and immunized animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. I. Ishida; G. Rubinsky-Elefant; A. W. Ferreira; S. Hoshino-Shimizu; A. J. Vaz

    2003-01-01

    Helminth antigens were investigated in the search for accessible heterologous antigens capable to discriminate different helminthiases, by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the immunoblot assay (IB). Antigens used were: Taenia solium cysticercus total saline (Tso); Taenia crassiceps cysticercus vesicular fluid (Tcra-VF); T. crassiceps cysticercus glycoproteins (Tcra-GP and Tcra-(18-14)-GP); Toxocara canis larva excretory-secretory (TES); Schistosoma mansoni adult total saline

  17. Epidemiology and Management of Cysticercosis and Taenia solium Taeniasis in Europe, Systematic Review 1990–2011

    PubMed Central

    Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartalesi, Filippo; Bruno, Elisa; Muñoz, José; Buonfrate, Dora; Nicoletti, Alessandra; García, Héctor Hugo; Pozio, Edoardo; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Background Cysticercosis is caused by the invasion of human or pig tissues by the metacestode larval stage of Taenia solium. In Europe, the disease was endemic in the past but the autochthonous natural life cycle of the parasite is currently completed very rarely. Recently, imported cases have increased in parallel to the increased number of migrations and international travels. The lack of specific surveillance systems for cysticercosis leads to underestimation of the epidemiological and clinical impacts. Objectives To review the available data on epidemiology and management of cysticercosis in Europe. Methods A review of literature on human cysticercosis and T. solium taeniasis in Europe published between 1990–2011 was conducted. Results Out of 846 cysticercosis cases described in the literature, 522 cases were autochthonous and 324 cases were imported. The majority (70.1%) of the autochthonous cases were diagnosed in Portugal from 1983 and 1994. Imported cases of which 242 (74.7%) diagnosed in migrants and 57 (17.6%) in European travellers, showed an increasing trend. Most of imported cases were acquired in Latin America (69.8% of migrants and 44.0% of travellers). The majority of imported cases were diagnosed in Spain (47.5%), France (16.7%) and Italy (8.3%). One third of neurosurgical procedures were performed because the suspected diagnosis was cerebral neoplasm. Sixty eight autochthonous and 5 imported T. solium taeniasis cases were reported. Conclusions Cysticercosis remains a challenge for European care providers, since they are often poorly aware of this infection and have little familiarity in managing this disease. Cysticercosis should be included among mandatory reportable diseases, in order to improve the accuracy of epidemiological information. European health care providers might benefit from a transfer of knowledge from colleagues working in endemic areas and the development of shared diagnostic and therapeutic processes would have impact on the quality of the European health systems. Key words: cysticercosis, neurocysticercosis, Taenia solium, taeniasis, Europe, travellers, migrants. PMID:23922733

  18. Comparative evaluation of an indirect ELISA test for diagnosis of swine cysticercosis employing antigen from Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps metacestodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cáris Maroni Nunes; Germano Francisco Biondi; Marcos Bryan Heinemann; Leonardo José Richtzenhain

    2000-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is still a serious public health problem in several countries where poverty and lack of hygiene favor transmission. Because pigs are the primary intermediate hosts, prevalence of porcine cysticercosis is a reliable indicator of active transmission zones. Serological diagnostic methods are important tools for epidemiological studies since they can be applied to living animals on a large

  19. The Vicious Worm: a computer-based Taenia solium education tool.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Maria Vang; Trevisan, Chiara; Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Ertel, Rebekka Lund; Mejer, Helena; Saarnak, Christopher F L

    2014-08-01

    Ignorance is a major obstacle for the effective control of diseases. To provide evidence-based knowledge about prevention and control of Taenia solium cysticercosis, we have developed a computer-based education tool: 'The Vicious Worm'. The tool targets policy makers, professionals, and laypeople, and comprises educational materials including illustrated short stories, videos, and scientific texts designed for the different target groups. We suggest that evidence-based health education is included as a specific control measure in any control programme. PMID:25017127

  20. Cloning, characterization and functional expression of Taenia solium 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Aceves-Ramos, A; de la Torre, P; Hinojosa, L; Ponce, A; García-Villegas, R; Laclette, J P; Bobes, R J; Romano, M C

    2014-07-01

    The 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17?-HSD) are key enzymes involved in the formation (reduction) and inactivation (oxidation) of sex steroids. Several types have been found in vertebrates including fish, as well as in invertebrates like Caenorhabditis elegans, Ciona intestinalis and Haliotis diversicolor supertexta. To date limited information is available about this enzyme in parasites. We showed previously that Taenia solium cysticerci are able to synthesize sex steroid hormones in vitro when precursors are provided in the culture medium. Here, we identified a T. solium 17?-HSD through in silico blast searches in the T. solium genome database. This coding sequence was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into the pcDNA 3.1(+) expression vector. The full length cDNA contains 957bp, corresponding to an open reading frame coding for 319 aa. The highest identity (84%) at the protein level was found with the Echinococcus multilocularis 17?-HSD although significant similarities were also found with other invertebrate and vertebrate 17?-HSD sequences. The T. solium Tsol-17?HSD belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) protein superfamily. HEK293T cells transiently transfected with Tsol17?-HSD induced expression of Tsol17?-HSD that transformed 3H-androstenedione into testosterone. In contrast, 3H-estrone was not significantly transformed into estradiol. In conclusion, T. solium cysticerci express a 17?-HSD that catalyzes the androgen reduction. The enzyme belongs to the short chain dehydrogenases/reductase family and shares motifs and activity with the type 3 enzyme of some other species. PMID:24698785

  1. Prevalence and associated risk factors of Taenia solium taeniasis in a rural pig farming community of north India.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Kashi N; Prasad, Amit; Gupta, Rakesh K; Pandey, Chandra M; Singh, Uttam

    2007-12-01

    There is a lack of information on the disease burden due to Taenia solium taeniasis and its associated risk factors in pig farming communities throughout the world. The present study was conducted in a rural pig farming community of north India to estimate the prevalence of T. solium taeniasis and associated factors. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected from 1181 subjects in 210 households in 30 villages. Stool specimens from 924 subjects were examined for eggs of Taenia and other parasites. Identification of T. solium was confirmed by morphological features of segments and species-specific DNA detection from segments and stool. The prevalence of T. solium taeniasis was 18.6% (172/924); factors associated with taeniasis on multivariate analysis were age above 15 years, history of passage of Taenia segments in stool, undercooked pork consumption and poor hand hygiene (hand-washing with clay/water after defecation). Seventy-eight subjects (6.6%) with epilepsy were identified. The study showed alarmingly high rates of epilepsy and T. solium taeniasis in the study community; it highlights the need for large-scale imaging-based surveys to identify the factors associated with epilepsy including neurocysticercosis. Health education, mass anthelminthic therapy and other preventive measures are required to control the menace of the disease. PMID:17603090

  2. Population genetic structure of Taenia solium from Madagascar and Mexico: implications for clinical profile diversity and immunological technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo Vega; Daniel Piñero; Bienvenue Ramanankandrasana; Michel Dumas; Bernard Bouteille; Agnes Fleury; Edda Sciutto; Carlos Larralde; Gladis Fragoso

    2003-01-01

    Taenia solium is a cestode parasitic of humans and pigs that strongly impacts on public health in developing countries. Its larvae (cysticercus) lodge in the brain, causing neurocysticercosis, and in other tissues, like skeletal muscle and subcutaneous space, causing extraneuronal cysticercosis. Prevalences of these two clinical manifestations vary greatly among continents. Also, neurocysticercosis may be clinically heterogeneous, ranging from asymptomatic

  3. Taenia solium cysticercosis in a village in northern Viet Nam: seroprevalence study using an ELISA for detecting circulating antigen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette Erhart; Pierre Dorny; Nguyen Van De; Ha Viet Vien; Dang Cam Thach; Nguyen Duy Toan; Le Dinh Cong; Stanny Geerts; Niko Speybroeck; Dirk Berkvens; Jef Brandt

    2002-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting circulating Taenia solium antigen was evaluated in Viet Nam; 12 of 210 people gave a positive result, including 5 persons with epilepsy. Cysticercosis was confirmed in 9 persons. Agreement between the ELISA, computerized tomography scanning and biopsy examination was high.

  4. Mapping of Taenia solium TSOL18 antigenic epitopes by phage display library.

    PubMed

    Guo, Aijiang; Cai, Xuepeng; Jia, Wanzhong; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Shaohua; Wang, Peiya; Yan, Hongbing; Luo, Xuenong

    2010-04-01

    Taenia solium is a cestode parasite that causes cysticercosis in humans and pigs. TSOL18 has been identified as a host-protective oncosphere antigen. To obtain mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against TSOL18 and to map its antigenic epitopes are potentials to develop a vaccine for the prevention of T. solium infection. In this study, mAbs were produced by the hybridoma technique using purified glycosylated TSOL18 produced in Pichia pastoris as the immunogen. mAb was used to define the B-cell epitopes of TSOL18 with phage-displayed random dodecapeptide library (Ph.D.-12), and some of the positive phage clones were sequenced and analyzed. The predominant mimotopes were ETTKLQRFQAML (L1) found in 83%, followed by DHTXF in 15% (L2: DHTLFAASHNHR, DHTLFSTGHSHG, and DHTFMQRYHTHQ). Comparison of the peptide sequences with native TSOL18 protein sequence using Clustal W software showed that they did not completely match, suggesting that the ETTKLQRFQAML and DHTXF sequences should be conformational epitopes. The sera of mice immunized with the selected phage clones obviously recognized the TSOL18 protein. Meanwhile, sera collected from TSOL18-vaccinated pigs reacted to both epitopes in enzyme-linked-immunosorbent serologic assay test. Our work demonstrated that the antigenic epitope could be mapped through screening the phage-displayed peptide libraries with mAbs and a mimotope of TSOL18, which could provide an alternative approach for the diagnosis and development of a vaccine for T. solium. PMID:20177903

  5. Multiantigen print immunoassay for comparison of diagnostic antigens for Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Handali, Sukwan; Klarman, Molly; Gaspard, Amanda N; Noh, John; Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Wilkins, Patricia P

    2010-01-01

    One of the best-characterized tests for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay, developed at the CDC, which uses lentil lectin-purified glycoproteins (LLGPs) extracted from Taenia solium cysticerci. The purification of the LLGP antigens has been difficult to standardize, and the polyacrylamide gel system used for the immunoblot assay is not easily transferable to other laboratories. In this study, we developed a multiantigen printing immunoassay (MAPIA) to compare the performance of multiple recombinant Taenia solium proteins with the potential for the detection of cysticercosis and taeniasis. We prepared MAPIA strips using six cysticercosis and two taeniasis diagnostic proteins and compared the performance of the proteins with sera collected from defined cysticercosis and taeniasis cases. Of the six cysticercosis antigens, rT24H performed well in detecting cases with two or more viable cysts in the brain (sensitivity and specificity, 97% and 99.4%, respectively); the use of a combination of cysticercosis antigens did not improve the sensitivity of the test and decreased the specificity. None of the antigens could differentiate the different clinical presentations of cysticercosis. Both of the taeniasis antigens (rES33 and rES38) had the same sensitivity of 99.4% and specificities of 93.9% and 94.5%, respectively. Some cross-reactivity against rES33 and rES38 was found, especially with sera from cases infected with Schistosoma mansoni. We conclude that MAPIA is a simple and effective tool that may be used to compare antibody responses to different cysticercosis and taeniasis antigens and, in this case, may be useful for the rapid detection of T. solium cases. PMID:19906893

  6. Genetic similarity between Taenia solium cysticerci collected from the two distant endemic areas in North and North East India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monika; Devi, Kangjam Rekha; Sehgal, Rakesh; Narain, Kanwar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Malla, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a major public health problem in developing countries. This study reports genotypic analysis of T. solium cysticerci collected from two different endemic areas of North (Chandigarh) and North East India (Dibrugarh) by the sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The variation in cox1 sequences of samples collected from these two different geographical regions located at a distance of 2585 km was minimal. Alignment of the nucleotide sequences with different species of Taenia showed the similarity with Asian genotype of T. solium. Among 50 isolates, 6 variant nucleotide positions (0.37% of total length) were detected. These results suggest that population in these geographical areas are homogenous. PMID:24380893

  7. Sequence analysis and molecular characterization of Wnt4 gene in metacestodes of Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Hou, Junling; Luo, Xuenong; Wang, Shuai; Yin, Cai; Zhang, Shaohua; Zhu, Xueliang; Dou, Yongxi; Cai, Xuepeng

    2014-04-01

    Wnt proteins are a family of secreted glycoproteins that are evolutionarily conserved and considered to be involved in extensive developmental processes in metazoan organisms. The characterization of wnt genes may improve understanding the parasite's development. In the present study, a wnt4 gene encoding 491amino acids was amplified from cDNA of metacestodes of Taenia solium using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Bioinformatics tools were used for sequence analysis. The conserved domain of the wnt gene family was predicted. The expression profile of Wnt4 was investigated using real-time PCR. Wnt4 expression was found to be dramatically increased in scolex evaginated cysticerci when compared to invaginated cysticerci. In situ hybridization showed that wnt4 gene was distributed in the posterior end of the worm along the primary body axis in evaginated cysticerci. These findings indicated that wnt4 may take part in the process of cysticerci evagination and play a role in scolex/bladder development of cysticerci of T. solium. PMID:24850959

  8. Study and ranking of determinants of Taenia solium infections by classification tree models.

    PubMed

    Mwape, Kabemba E; Phiri, Isaac K; Praet, Nicolas; Dorny, Pierre; Muma, John B; Zulu, Gideon; Speybroeck, Niko; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is an important public health problem occurring mainly in developing countries. This work aimed to study the determinants of human T. solium infections in the Eastern province of Zambia and rank them in order of importance. A household (HH)-level questionnaire was administered to 680 HHs from 53 villages in two rural districts and the taeniasis and cysticercosis status determined. A classification tree model (CART) was used to define the relative importance and interactions between different predictor variables in their effect on taeniasis and cysticercosis. The Katete study area had a significantly higher taeniasis and cysticercosis prevalence than the Petauke area. The CART analysis for Katete showed that the most important determinant for cysticercosis infections was the number of HH inhabitants (6 to 10) and for taeniasis was the number of HH inhabitants > 6. The most important determinant in Petauke for cysticercosis was the age of head of household > 32 years and for taeniasis it was age < 55 years. The CART analysis showed that the most important determinant for both taeniasis and cysticercosis infections was the number of HH inhabitants (6 to 10) in Katete district and age in Petauke. The results suggest that control measures should target HHs with a high number of inhabitants and older individuals. PMID:25404073

  9. Molecular Approaches to Taenia asiatica

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica are taeniid tapeworms that cause taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in intermediate host animals. Taeniases remain an important public health concerns in the world. Molecular diagnostic methods using PCR assays have been developed for rapid and accurate detection of human infecting taeniid tapeworms, including the use of sequence-specific DNA probes, PCR-RFLP, and multiplex PCR. More recently, DNA diagnosis using PCR based on histopathological specimens such as 10% formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and stained sections mounted on slides has been applied to cestode infections. The mitochondrial gene sequence is believed to be a very useful molecular marker for not only studying evolutionary relationships among distantly related taxa, but also for investigating the phylo-biogeography of closely related species. The complete sequence of the human Taenia tapeworms mitochondrial genomes were determined, and its organization and structure were compared to other human-tropic Taenia tapeworms for which complete mitochondrial sequence data were available. The multiplex PCR assay with the Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915 primers will be useful for differential diagnosis, molecular characterization, and epidemiological surveys of human Taenia tapeworms. PMID:23467738

  10. Two Epitopes Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Confer Protection against Murine T. crassiceps Cysticercosis along with a Prominent T1 Response

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Andrea; Fragoso, Gladis; Rosas, Gabriela; Hernández, Marisela; Gevorkian, Goar; López-Casillas, Fernando; Hernández, Beatriz; Acero, Gonzalo; Huerta, Mirna; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2001-01-01

    Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigens KETc1 and KETc12 have been shown to induce high level of protection against experimental murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis, an experimental model successfully used to test candidate antigens for use in vaccination against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, KETc1 and KETc12 were chemically synthesized in linear form. Immunization with KETc1 induced 66.7 to 100% protection against murine cysticercosis, and immunization with KETc12 induced 52.7 to 88.1% protection. The elicited immune response indicated that both peptides contain at least one B-cell epitope (as demonstrated by their ability to induce specific antibodies) and one T-cell epitope that strongly stimulated the proliferation of T cells primed with either the free peptide or total cysticercal T. crassiceps antigens. The high percentage of spleen cells expressing inflammatory cytokines points to the likelihood of a T1 response being involved in protection. The protective capacity of the peptides and their presence in all developmental stages of T. solium point to these two epitopes as strong candidates for inclusion in a polyepitopic synthetic vaccine against T. solium pig cysticercosis. PMID:11179354

  11. Taenia solium metacestode viability in infected pork after preparation with salt pickling or cooking methods common in Yucatán, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Canul, R; Argaez-Rodriguez, F; de, la Gala D Pacheco; Villegas-Perez, S; Fraser, A; Craig, P S; Cob-Galera, L; Dominguez-Alpizar, J L

    2002-04-01

    The cestode parasite Taenia solium is an important cause of foodborne infection throughout tropical and subtropical regions. Ingestion of pork meat infected with T. solium larvae can lead to taeniasis infection in humans. With tourism and the consumption of native food increasing, it is important to investigate potential risks of transmission associated with food preparation methods. In this study, traditional Mexican salt pickling and two methods of pork preparation (as roast pork [cochinita pibil] and in pork and beans [frijol con puerco]) were evaluated in order to determine their effects on T. solium cyst viability in infected tissue. In the control groups, all metacestodes isolated were 100% viable, and only small changes in pH (from 6.0 to 5.9) and temperature (29 to 30 degrees C) were recorded. No viable cysts were detected after 12 and 24 h of salt pickling. The pH of the meat during salting dropped from 6.0 to 5.3. Osmotic changes and dehydration from the salting, rather than a change in pH, could be considered the main cause of cyst death. Temperatures of >65 degrees C damaged T. solium metacestodes in roast pork and in pork and beans. The results of this study indicate that if traditional pork dishes are prepared properly, T. solium cysts are destroyed. The criteria used in this study to evaluate the viability of tissue cysts are discussed. PMID:11952216

  12. Genetics of the pig tapeworm in Madagascar reveal a history of human dispersal and colonization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An intricate history of human dispersal and geographic colonization has strongly affected the distribution of obligate parasites circulating among people. Among these parasites, the pig tapeworm Taenia solium occurs throughout the world as the causative agent of cysticercosis, one of the most serio...

  13. Purification and kinetic analysis of cytosolic and mitochondrial thioredoxin glutathione reductase extracted from Taenia solium cysticerci.

    PubMed

    Plancarte, Agustin; Nava, Gabriela

    2015-02-01

    Thioredoxin glutathione reductases (TGRs) (EC 1.8.1.9) were purified to homogeneity from the cytosolic (cTsTGR) and mitochondrial (mTsTGR) fractions of Taenia solium, the agent responsible for neurocysticercosis, one of the major central nervous system parasitic diseases in humans. TsTGRs had a relative molecular weight of 132,000, while the corresponding value per subunit obtained under denaturing conditions, was of 62,000. Specific activities for thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase substrates for both TGRs explored were in the range or lower than values obtained for other platyhelminths and mammalian TGRs. cTsTGR and mTsTGR also showed hydroperoxide reductase activity using hydroperoxide as substrate. Km(DTNB) and Kcat(DTNB) values for cTsTGR and mTsTGR (88?µM and 1.9?s(-1); 45?µM and 12.6?s(-1), respectively) and Km(GSSG) and Kcat(GSSG) values for cTsTGR and mTsTGR (6.3?µM and 0.96?s(-1); 4?µM and 1.62?s(-1), respectively) were similar to or lower than those reported for mammalian TGRs. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that 12 peptides from cTsTGR and seven from mTsTGR were a match for gi|29825896 thioredoxin glutathione reductase [Echinococcus granulosus], confirming that both enzymes are TGRs. Both T. solium TGRs were inhibited by the gold compound auranofin, a selective inhibitor of thiol-dependent flavoreductases (I???=?3.25, 2.29?nM for DTNB and GSSG substrates, respectively for cTsTGR; I???=?5.6, 25.4?nM for mTsTGR toward the same substrates in the described order). Glutathione reductase activity of cTsTGR and mTsTGR exhibited hysteretic behavior with moderate to high concentrations of GSSG; this result was not observed either with thioredoxin, DTNB or NADPH. However, the observed hysteretic kinetics was suppressed with increasing amounts of both parasitic TGRs. These data suggest the existence of an effective substitute which may account for the lack of the detoxification enzymes glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase in T. solium, as has been described for very few other platyhelminths. PMID:25541385

  14. Relationship between Serum Antibodies and Taenia solium Larvae Burden in Pigs Raised in Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gavidia, Cesar M.; Verastegui, Manuela R.; Garcia, Hector H.; Lopez-Urbina, Teresa; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Pan, William; Gilman, Robert H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Serological tests have been used for the diagnosis of Taenia solium infection in pigs. However, those serological results do not necessarily correlate with the actual infection burden after performing pig necropsy. This study aimed to evaluate the Electro Immuno Transfer Blot (EITB) seropositivity with infection burden in naturally infected pigs. Methodology/Principal Findings In an endemic area of Peru, 476 pigs were sampled. Seroprevalence was 60.5±4.5% with a statistically higher proportion of positive older pigs (>8 months) than young pigs. The logistic model showed that pigs >8 month of age were 2.5 times more likely to be EITB-positive than ?8 months. A subset of 84 seropositive pigs were necropsied, with 45.2% (38/84) positive to 1–2 bands, 46.4% (39/84) to 3 bands, and 8.3% (7/84) to 4+ bands. 41 out of 84 positive pigs were negative to necropsy (48.8%) and 43 (51%) had one or more cysts (positive predictive value). Older pigs showed more moderate and heavy infection burdens compared to younger pigs. In general, regardless of the age of the pig, the probability of having more cysts (parasite burden) increases proportionally with the number of EITB bands. Conclusions/Significance The probability of being necropsy-positive increased with the number of bands, and age. Therefore, the EITB is a measure of exposure rather than a test to determine the real prevalence of cysticercosis infection. PMID:23658848

  15. Identification and quantification of host proteins in the vesicular fluid of porcine Taenia solium cysticerci.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Perea, José; Moguel, Bárbara; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Bobes, Raúl J; Laclette, Juan P

    2014-08-01

    The host-parasite relationship in cestode infections is complex. One feature of this bidirectional molecular communication is the uptake of host proteins by the parasite. Here we describe the presence of several host proteins in the vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci dissected from the central nervous system and the skeletal muscle of naturally infected pigs. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis we compared the protein patterns of vesicular fluids of cysticerci vs. the sera of cysticercotic pigs. We found that the vesicular fluids of both groups of cysts showed 17 protein spots matching with the pig's sera spots. After mass spectrometry sequencing of these spots, five host proteins were identified: hemoglobin, albumin, serpin A3-8, haptoglobin, rho GTPase-activating protein 36-like. Three of the 17 spots corresponded to host protein fragments: hemoglobin, albumin and serpin A3-8. IgG heavy and light chains were also identified by Western blot using a specific antibody. Quantitative estimations indicated that the host proteins represented 11-13% of the protein content in the vesicular fluids. We also calculated the relative abundance of these host proteins in the vesicular fluids; all were represented in similar relative abundances as in host sera. This suggests that uptake of host proteins by cysticerci proceeds through an unspecific mechanism such as non-specific fluid pinocytosis. PMID:24768954

  16. Diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) binding fraction from Taenia solium metacestode improves the neurocysticercosis serodiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Vanessa da S; Nunes, Daniela da S; Gonzaga, Henrique T; da Cunha-Junior, Jair P; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

    2014-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC) is one of the most important diseases caused by parasites affecting the central nervous system. We fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-sepharose resin the total saline extract (S) from Taenia solium metacestodes and evaluated obtained fractions (DEAE S1 and DEAE S2) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, n?=?123) and immunoblotting (IB, n?=?22) to detect human NC in serum. Diagnostic parameters were established by ROC and TG ROC curves for ELISA tests. IB was qualitatively analyzed. S and DEAE S1 presented sensitivity of 87. 5% and DEAE S2 90%. The best specificity was observed for DEAE S2 (90.4%). In IB, using DEAE S2 samples from NC patients presented bands of 20-25, 43-45, 55-50, 60-66, 82, 89, and 140 kDa. The great diagnostic parameters reached by DEAE S2 suggest the potential applicability of this fraction in NC immunodiagnosis. PMID:24777340

  17. Cytokine expression at the anchor site in experimental Taenia solium infection in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Vaughan, Gilberto; Mendlovic, Fela; Vergara-Castañeda, Arely; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Alonso, Monica; Avila, Guillermina; Flisser, Ana

    2014-03-01

    The establishment of Taenia solium adult parasite in the human intestine causes taeniosis. Importantly, the immunological mechanisms occurring at the interface between the parasite and its host are not fully known. The development of experimental animal models has facilitated the understanding of the host-parasite relationship. In this study we standardized a quantitative RT-PCR method for analyzing hamster messenger RNA for interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and interleukins (IL): IL-4 IL-10, IL-12 and IL-13. This method was then used to evaluate the local cytokine response elicited against the adult parasite at the attachment site in the intestine of infected hamsters. The results showed an intense IFN-? response, as well as an up-regulation of IL-4 as early as three days post-infection, permanence of IL-10 until the end of the experiment and down regulation of IL-12. These data are in agreement with a bias toward a Th-2 response as the infection progresses. PMID:24439768

  18. Histological and ultrastructural localization of antigen B in the metacestode of Taenia solium

    SciTech Connect

    Laclette, J.P.; Merchant, M.T.; Willms, K.

    1987-02-01

    The morphological localization of antigen B (AgB) in the tissues of the Taenia solium metacestode was studied by immunological and biochemical methods. Indirect immunofluorescence carried out on vibratome sections showed that AgB is widely distributed throughout the tissue. A more intense fluorescence was observed in the tegumentary cytons of the bladder wall and in the lumen of the spiral canal of the invaginated scolex. Ultrastructural analysis of larvae washed in PBS after dissection from meat and then incubated with rabbit antibodies against AgB, followed by peroxidase-labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG, did not exhibit electron-dense material on the external surface. Larvae fixed in glutaraldehyde immediately after dissection and exposed to the immunoperoxidase reagents did exhibit electron-dense material on microtriches, indicating that AgB is only loosely bound to the external surface. Crude extracts of surface-radioiodinated cysticerci analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) contained no labeled proteins with the molecular weight of AgB. Autoradiography of the immunoelectrophoretograms in which the crude extract was confronted with antibodies to AgB demonstrated that this antigen was not labeled, and therefore is not exposed on the tegumentary surface. The results suggest that AgB is synthesized by the tegumentary cytons of the parasite and secreted through the tegumental membrane into the host tissues and the lumen of the spiral canal.

  19. Serodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis using antigenic components of Taenia solium metacestodes derived from the unbound fraction from jacalin affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Machado, Gleyce Alves; Oliveira, Heliana Batista de; Gennari-Cardoso, Margareth Leitão; Mineo, José Roberto; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse Taenia solium metacestode antigens that were derived from the unbound fraction of jacalin affinity chromatography and subsequent tert-octylphenoxy poly (oxyethylene) ethanol Triton X-114 (TX-114) partitioning in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis (NCC). Immunoassays were designed to detect T. solium-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA and immunoblot. Serum samples were collected from 132 individuals who were categorised as follows: 40 had NCC, 62 presented Taenia spp or other parasitic diseases and 30 were healthy individuals. The jacalin-unbound (J unbound ) fraction presented higher sensitivity and specificity rates than the jacalin-bound fraction and only this fraction was subjected to subsequent TX-114 partitioning, resulting in detergent (DJ unbound ) and aqueous (AJ unbound ) fractions. The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were 85% and 84.8% for J unbound , 92.5% and 93.5% for DJ unbound and 82.5% and 82.6% for AJ unbound . By immunoblot, the DJ unbound fraction showed 100% sensitivity and specificity and only serum samples from patients with NCC recognised the 50-70 kDa T. solium-specific components. We conclude that the DJ unbound fraction can serve as a useful tool for the differential immunodiagnosis of NCC by immunoblot. PMID:23778661

  20. Serodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis using antigenic components of Taenia solium metacestodes derived from the unbound fraction from jacalin affinity chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Gleyce Alves; de Oliveira, Heliana Batista; Gennari-Cardoso, Margareth Leitão; Mineo, José Roberto; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse Taenia solium metacestode antigens that were derived from the unbound fraction of jacalin affinity chromatography and subsequent tert-octylphenoxy poly (oxyethylene) ethanol Triton X-114 (TX-114) partitioning in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis (NCC). Immunoassays were designed to detect T. solium-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA and immunoblot. Serum samples were collected from 132 individuals who were categorised as follows: 40 had NCC, 62 presented Taenia spp or other parasitic diseases and 30 were healthy individuals. The jacalin-unbound (Junbound) fraction presented higher sensitivity and specificity rates than the jacalin-bound fraction and only this fraction was subjected to subsequent TX-114 partitioning, resulting in detergent (DJunbound) and aqueous (AJunbound) fractions. The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were 85% and 84.8% for Junbound, 92.5% and 93.5% for DJunboundand 82.5% and 82.6% for AJunbound. By immunoblot, the DJunboundfraction showed 100% sensitivity and specificity and only serum samples from patients with NCC recognised the 50-70 kDa T. solium-specific components. We conclude that the DJunboundfraction can serve as a useful tool for the differential immunodiagnosis of NCC by immunoblot. PMID:23778661

  1. Evaluation of tongue inspection and serology for diagnosis of Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine: usefulness of ELISA using purified glycoproteins and recombinant antigen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. O Sato; H Yamasaki; Y Sako; M Nakao; K Nakaya; A Plancarte; A. A Kassuku; P Dorny; S Geerts; W Benitez-Ortiz; Y Hashiguchi; A Ito

    2003-01-01

    Evaluation of serology using glycoproteins (GPs) purified by preparative isoelectric focusing (pH 8.8) and recombinant chimeric antigen (RecTs) of Taenia solium was carried out using (1) blood samples on filter papers from pigs infected with different doses of eggs of T. solium in Mexico, (2) serum samples from pigs found infected naturally in Vietnam and Ecuador and (3) serum samples

  2. [Construction and identification of the Bifidobacterium expression system pGEX-TSOL18/B. longum of Taenia solium].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bi-Ying; Liu, Mei-Chen; He, Li-Fang

    2014-06-01

    The TSOL18 gene of Taenia solium was synthesized and cloned into Escherichia coli-Bifidobacteria shuttle vector pGEX-1lambdaT. The recombinant plasmid pGEX-TSOL18 was transformed into Bifidobacterium longum with electroporation. The recombinant plasmid containing TSOL18 gene was identified by restriction endonuclease analysis, PCR and DNA sequencing. The length of synthesized TSOL18 gene was 393 bp. The results indicated that the Bifidobacteria expression system pGEX-TSOL18/B. longum was successfully constructed. PMID:25223064

  3. PCR tools for the differential diagnosis of Taenia saginata and Taenia solium taeniasis\\/cysticercosis from different geographical locations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Miguel González; Estrella Montero; Sabino Puente; Rogelio López-Velez; Marisela Hernández; Edda Sciutto; Leslie J. S Harrison; R. Michael E Parkhouse; Teresa Gárate

    2002-01-01

    The potential value of PCRs in the species-specific diagnosis of have been investigated, using samples of T. saginata and T. solium from different geographical areas. The PCRs examining inter-species differences were based on the sequence of the HDP2 DNA fragment, specific for T. saginata\\/T. solium, and the sequence of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 and spacer 2 (ITS-1 and

  4. Ultrastructure of spermatogonia and spermatocyte lobules in Taenia solium strobilae (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Taeniidae) from golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Willms, Kaethe; Caro, Jose Antonio; Robert, Lilia

    2003-08-01

    Golden hamsters ( Mesocricetus auratus) were infected with Taenia solium metacestodes dissected from infected pig meat. Adult worms were collected from hamster intestines of animals killed 5-60 days post-infection (dpi), incubated in RPMI 1640 medium with or without colchicine, fixed and processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Sections for light microscopy from 40 different blocks with scolex, immature and mature proglottids were photographed. Thin sections were cut from 25 selected blocks, examined and photographed with TEM. Metaphase mitosis figures were observed in the subtegument of the germinative tissue and interpreted as germ cell precursors. In immature proglottids (20 dpi), discrete cell clusters of three to four cells surrounded by a thin cytoplasmic envelope were identified along the inner border of the lateral excretory ducts. These were also observed in more mature proglottids (40-60 dpi) as clusters of eight cells enclosed in a cytoplasmic envelope, with nuclei of spermatogonia exhibiting the synaptolems of primary meiotic cells. In mature proglottids from 45 dpi, a large number of spermatocyte lobules were found, exhibiting different stages of spermatogenesis from primary spermatocytes to mature filiform spermatids with a single axoneme, annular nucleus and spiral cortical microtubules, similar to spermatozoa described for type III spermiogenesis of species of the family Taeniidae. All mature spermatocyte lobules were enclosed in a highly organized cellular envelope and surrounded by a basal lamina. The envelopes contained a number of distinct organelles, seen in cross-section as discrete lattices of microtubules located between two layers of plasma membrane, as well as thickened furled cytoplasm with numerous strands of rough endoplasmic reticulum and pockets of microtubules. PMID:12827507

  5. Preliminary evaluation of Community-Led Total Sanitation for the control of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Katete District of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Bulaya, Carol; Mwape, Kabemba E; Michelo, Charles; Sikasunge, Chummy S; Makungu, Chitwambi; Gabriel, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Isaac K

    2015-01-30

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. It is associated with poor sanitary practices, free-range pig husbandry and lack of disease awareness in endemic communities. A comparative research was conducted with pre and post-intervention assessments in nine villages to evaluate Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) as an intervention measure for the control of porcine cysticercosis in Katete District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. Blood samples were collected from pigs for circulating antigen detection and a questionnaire focused on the household was administered to a total of 153 respondents whose pigs were examined (64 pre-intervention, 89 post-intervention), in order to obtain information on general demographic characteristics, pig husbandry practices, sanitation practices and associated knowledge and awareness of T. solium infections. The first sampling was conducted prior to the implementation of the CLTS and second sampling eight months after triggering of CLTS in the selected villages. A total of 379 pig serum samples were examined using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA to detect T. solium cysticercosis, 104 pre-intervention and 275 post-intervention, of which 14 (13.5%) and 45 (16.4%) were positive, respectively. Wald test p-values were computed to assess significant differences in the variables of interest mentioned above for the pre and post CLTS. The research revealed that CLTS as a control measure did not significantly improve T. solium infections in pigs. The research also revealed that the sanitation practices and awareness of cysticercosis did not change. It is recommended that a longer term evaluation be undertaken when the villages have been declared open defaecation free. In addition, the research recommends that health education, mass drug treatment and pig vaccination be incorporated, as an essential component of prevention and control programmes for T. solium infections. PMID:25591408

  6. The role of N-linked carbohydrates in the antigenicity of Taenia solium metacestode glycoproteins of 12, 16 and 18 kD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrés Obregón-Henao; Dora L Gil; Diana I Gómez; Fernando Sanzón; Judy M Teale; Blanca I Restrepo

    2001-01-01

    The glycoproteins of 12–28 kD from Taenia solium metacestodes provide a high specificity and sensitivity for the serological diagnosis of the central nervous system infection, neurocysticercosis. Their widespread use as antigens for routine serological assays will require their production in large and reproducible amounts. Prior to determining the ideal strategy to produce these antigens at a large scale, it is

  7. Taenia solium disease in humans and pigs: an ancient parasitosis disease rooted in developing countries and emerging as a major health problem of global dimensions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edda Sciutto; Gladis Fragoso; Agnes Fleury; Juan Pedro Laclette; Julio Sotelo; Aline Aluja; Laura Vargas; Carlos Larralde

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews current knowledge on human and porcine cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium. It highlights the conditions favorable for its prevalence and transmission, as well as current trends in research on its natural history, epidemiology, immunopathology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Our opinions on the most urgent needs for further research are also presented.

  8. Distribution and density of cysticerci of Taenia solium by muscle groups and organs in naturally infected local finished pigs in Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Boa; A. A. Kassuku; A. L. Willingham; J. D. Keyyu; I. K. Phiri; P. Nansen

    2002-01-01

    The distribution and density of cysticerci of Taenia solium among distinct carcass sites was determined in 24 naturally infected finished pigs from Mbulu district, Tanzania. The heart, tongue, internal and external masseters, triceps brachii, lungs, liver, kidneys, psoas, diaphragm and brain of each pig as well as the muscles from the forelimb, hind limb, abdomen, head and thorax from one

  9. Phylogenetic relationships within Echinococcus and Taenia tapeworms (Cestoda: Taeniidae): an inference from nuclear protein-coding genes.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Jenny; Nakao, Minoru; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Okamoto, Munehiro; Saarma, Urmas; Lavikainen, Antti; Ito, Akira

    2011-12-01

    The family Taeniidae of tapeworms is composed of two genera, Echinococcus and Taenia, which obligately parasitize mammals including humans. Inferring phylogeny via molecular markers is the only way to trace back their evolutionary histories. However, molecular dating approaches are lacking so far. Here we established new markers from nuclear protein-coding genes for RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and DNA polymerase delta (pold). Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of the concatenated gene sequences allowed us to reconstruct phylogenetic trees for taeniid parasites. The tree topologies clearly demonstrated that Taenia is paraphyletic and that the clade of Echinococcus oligarthrus and Echinococcusvogeli is sister to all other members of Echinococcus. Both species are endemic in Central and South America, and their definitive hosts originated from carnivores that immigrated from North America after the formation of the Panamanian land bridge about 3 million years ago (Ma). A time-calibrated phylogeny was estimated by a Bayesian relaxed-clock method based on the assumption that the most recent common ancestor of E. oligarthrus and E. vogeli existed during the late Pliocene (3.0 Ma). The results suggest that a clade of Taenia including human-pathogenic species diversified primarily in the late Miocene (11.2 Ma), whereas Echinococcus started to diversify later, in the end of the Miocene (5.8 Ma). Close genetic relationships among the members of Echinococcus imply that the genus is a young group in which speciation and global radiation occurred rapidly. PMID:21907295

  10. Structural and Binding Properties of Two Paralogous Fatty Acid Binding Proteins of Taenia solium Metacestode

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hyun-Jong; Shin, Joo-Ho; Diaz-Camacho, Sylvia Paz; Nawa, Yukifumi; Kang, Insug; Kong, Yoon

    2012-01-01

    Background Fatty acid (FA) binding proteins (FABPs) of helminths are implicated in acquisition and utilization of host-derived hydrophobic substances, as well as in signaling and cellular interactions. We previously demonstrated that secretory hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs) of Taenia solium metacestode (TsM), a causative agent of neurocysticercosis (NC), shuttle FAs in the surrounding host tissues and inwardly transport the FAs across the parasite syncytial membrane. However, the protein molecules responsible for the intracellular trafficking and assimilation of FAs have remained elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings We isolated two novel TsMFABP genes (TsMFABP1 and TsMFABP2), which encoded 133- and 136-amino acid polypeptides with predicted molecular masses of 14.3 and 14.8 kDa, respectively. They shared 45% sequence identity with each other and 15–95% with other related-members. Homology modeling demonstrated a characteristic ?-barrel composed of 10 anti-parallel ?-strands and two ?-helices. TsMFABP2 harbored two additional loops between ?-strands two and three, and ?-strands six and seven, respectively. TsMFABP1 was secreted into cyst fluid and surrounding environments, whereas TsMFABP2 was intracellularly confined. Partially purified native proteins migrated to 15 kDa with different isoelectric points of 9.2 (TsMFABP1) and 8.4 (TsMFABP2). Both native and recombinant proteins bound to 11-([5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl]amino)undecannoic acid, dansyl-DL-?-amino-caprylic acid, cis-parinaric acid and retinol, which were competitively inhibited by oleic acid. TsMFABP1 exhibited high affinity toward FA analogs. TsMFABPs showed weak binding activity to retinol, but TsMFABP2 showed relatively high affinity. Isolation of two distinct genes from an individual genome strongly suggested their paralogous nature. Abundant expression of TsMFABP1 and TsMFABP2 in the canal region of worm matched well with the histological distributions of lipids and retinol. Conclusions/Significance The divergent biochemical properties, physiological roles and cellular distributions of the TsMFABPs might be one of the critical mechanisms compensating for inadequate de novo FA synthesis. These proteins might exert harmonized or independent roles on lipid assimilation and intracellular signaling. The specialized distribution of retinol in the canal region further implies that cells in this region might differentiate into diverse cell types during metamorphosis into an adult worm. Identification of bioactive systems pertinent to parasitic homeostasis may provide a valuable target for function-related drug design. PMID:23150743

  11. Disruption of the blood–brain barrier in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium, untreated and after anthelmintic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Balboa, Diana; Orrego, Miguel Ángel; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; García, Hector H.; González, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a widely prevalent disease in the tropics that causes seizures and a variety of neurological symptoms in most of the world. Experimental models are limited and do not allow assessment of the degree of inflammation around brain cysts. The vital dye Evans Blue (EB) was injected into 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysts to visually identify the extent of disruption of the blood brain barrier. A total of 369 cysts were recovered from the 11 brains and classified according to the staining of their capsules as blue or unstained. The proportion of cysts with blue capsules was significantly higher in brains from pigs that had received anthelmintic treatment 48 and 120 h before the EB infusion, indicating a greater compromise of the blood brain barrier due to treatment. The model could be useful for understanding the pathology of treatment-induced inflammation in neurocysticercosis. PMID:23684909

  12. Optimized codon usage enhances the expression and immunogenicity of DNA vaccine encoding Taenia solium oncosphere TSOL18 gene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Chang, Xue-Lian; Tao, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Xiao-Li; Jiao, Yu-Meng; Chen, Yong; Qi, Wen-Juan; Xia, Hui; Yang, Xiao-Di; Sun, Xin; Shen, Ji-Long; Fang, Qiang

    2015-07-01

    Cysticercosis due to larval cysts of Taenia solium, is a serious public health problem affecting humans in numerous regions worldwide. The oncospheral stage?specific TSOL18 antigen is a promising candidate for an anti?cysticercosis vaccine. It has been reported that the immunogenicity of the DNA vaccine may be enhanced through codon optimization of candidate genes. The aim of the present study was to further increase the efficacy of the cysticercosis DNA vaccine; therefore, a codon optimized recombinant expression plasmid pVAX1/TSOL18 was developed in order to enhance expression and immunogenicity of TSOL18. The gene encoding TSOL18 of Taenia solium was optimized, and the resulting opt?TSOL18 gene was amplified and expressed. The results of the present study showed that the codon?optimized TSOL18 gene was successfully expressed in CHO?K1 cells, and immunized mice vaccinated with opt?TSOL18 recombinant expression plasmids demonstrated opt?TSOL18 expression in muscle fibers, as determined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the codon?optimized TSOL18 gene produced a significantly greater effect compared with that of TSOL18 and active spleen cells were markedly stimulated in vaccinated mice. 3H?thymidine incorporation was significantly greater in the opt?TSOL18 group compared with that of the TSOL18, pVAX and blank control groups (P<0.01). In conclusion, the eukaryotic expression vector containing the codon?optimized TSOL18 gene was successfully constructed and was confirmed to be expressed in vivo and in vitro. The expression and immunogenicity of the codon?optimized TSOL18 gene were markedly greater compared with that of the un?optimized gene. Therefore, these results may provide the basis for an optimized TSOL18 gene vaccine against cysticercosis. PMID:25738605

  13. In vitro analysis of albendazole sulfoxide enantiomers shows that (+)-(R)-albendazole sulfoxide is the active enantiomer against Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Adriana; de Campos Lourenço, Tiago; Marzal, Miguel; Rivera, Andrea; Dorny, Pierre; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E; Cass, Quezia B

    2013-02-01

    Albendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used in the treatment of neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with Taenia solium cysts. However, drug levels of its active metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), are erratic, likely resulting in decreased efficacy and suboptimal cure rates in NCC. Racemic albendazole sulfoxide is composed of ABZSO (+)-(R)- and (-)-(S) enantiomers that have been shown to differ in pharmacokinetics and activity against other helminths. The antiparasitic activities of racemic ABZSO and its (+)-(R)- and (-)-(S) enantiomers against T. solium cysts were evaluated in vitro. Parasites were collected from naturally infected pigs, cultured, and exposed to the racemic mixture or to each enantiomer (range, 10 to 500 ng/ml) or to praziquantel as a reference drug. The activity of each compound against cysts was assayed by measuring the ability to evaginate and inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and parasite antigen release. (+)-(R)-ABZSO was significantly more active than (-)-(S)-ABZSO in suppressing the release of AP and antigen into the supernatant in a dose- and time-dependent manner, indicating that most of the activity of ABZSO resides in the (+)-(R) enantiomer. Use of this enantiomer alone may lead to increased efficacy and/or less toxicity compared to albendazole. PMID:23229490

  14. Crystal Structure of Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase from Taenia Solium Reveals Metal-mediated Self-assembly

    SciTech Connect

    A Hernandez-Santoyo; A Landa; E Gonzalez-Mondragon; M Pedraza-Escalona; R Parra-Unda; A Rodriguez-Romero

    2011-12-31

    Taenia solium is the cestode responsible for porcine and human cysticercosis. The ability of this parasite to establish itself in the host is related to its evasion of the immune response and its antioxidant defence system. The latter includes enzymes such as cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. In this article, we describe the crystal structure of a recombinant T. solium Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, representing the first structure of a protein from this organism. This enzyme shows a different charge distribution at the entrance of the active channel when compared with human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, giving it interesting properties that may allow the design of specific inhibitors against this cestode. The overall topology is similar to other superoxide dismutase structures; however, there are several His and Glu residues on the surface of the protein that coordinate metal ions both intra- and intermolecularly. Interestingly, one of these ions, located on the {beta}2 strand, establishes a metal-mediated intermolecular {beta}-{beta} interaction, including a symmetry-related molecule. The factors responsible for the abnormal protein-protein interactions that lead to oligomerization are still unknown; however, high metal levels have been implicated in these phenomena, but exactly how they are involved remains unclear. The present results suggest that this structure could be useful as a model to explain an alternative mechanism of protein aggregation commonly observed in insoluble fibrillar deposits.

  15. Crystal structure of Cu?/?Zn superoxide dismutase from Taenia solium reveals metal-mediated self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Santoyo, Alejandra; Landa, Abraham; González-Mondragón, Edith; Pedraza-Escalona, Martha; Parra-Unda, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Romero, Adela

    2011-09-01

    Taenia solium is the cestode responsible for porcine and human cysticercosis. The ability of this parasite to establish itself in the host is related to its evasion of the immune response and its antioxidant defence system. The latter includes enzymes such as cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. In this article, we describe the crystal structure of a recombinant T. solium Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, representing the first structure of a protein from this organism. This enzyme shows a different charge distribution at the entrance of the active channel when compared with human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, giving it interesting properties that may allow the design of specific inhibitors against this cestode. The overall topology is similar to other superoxide dismutase structures; however, there are several His and Glu residues on the surface of the protein that coordinate metal ions both intra- and intermolecularly. Interestingly, one of these ions, located on the ?2 strand, establishes a metal-mediated intermolecular ?-? interaction, including a symmetry-related molecule. The factors responsible for the abnormal protein-protein interactions that lead to oligomerization are still unknown; however, high metal levels have been implicated in these phenomena, but exactly how they are involved remains unclear. The present results suggest that this structure could be useful as a model to explain an alternative mechanism of protein aggregation commonly observed in insoluble fibrillar deposits. PMID:21767346

  16. Characterization of hydrophobic-ligand-binding proteins of Taenia solium that are expressed specifically in the adult stage.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M; Lee, E-G; Kim, S-H; Bae, Y-A; Wang, H; Yang, Y; Kong, Y

    2012-09-01

    Taenia solium, a causative agent of taeniasis and cysticercosis, has evolved a repertoire of lipid uptake mechanisms. Proteome analysis of T. solium excretory-secretory products (TsESP) identified 10 kDa proteins displaying significant sequence identity with cestode hydrophobic-ligand-binding-proteins (HLBPs). Two distinct 362- and 352-bp-long cDNAs encoding 264- and 258-bp-long open reading frames (87 and 85 amino acid polypeptides) were isolated by mining the T. solium expressed sequence tags and a cDNA library screening (TsHLBP1 and TsHLBP2; 94% sequence identity). They clustered into the same clade with those found in Moniezia expansa and Hymenolepis diminuta. Genomic structure analysis revealed that these genes might have originated from a common ancestor. Both the crude TsESP and bacterially expressed recombinant proteins exhibited binding activity toward 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (1,8-ANS), which was competitively inhibited by oleic acid. The proteins also bound to cis-parinaric acid (cPnA) and 16-(9-anthroyloxy) palmitic acid (16-AP), but showed no binding activity against 11-[(5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl) amino] undecanoic acid (DAUDA) and dansyl-DL-?-aminocaprylic acid (DACA). Unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) showed greater affinity than saturated FAs. The proteins were specifically expressed in adult worms throughout the strobila. The TsHLBPs might be involved in uptake and/or sequestration of hydrophobic molecules provided by their hosts, thus contributing to host-parasite interface interrelationships. PMID:22657393

  17. Taenia solium Cysticercosis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: How Does Pork Trade Affect the Transmission of the Parasite?

    PubMed Central

    Kabwe, Constantin; Maketa, Vivi; Lukanu, Philippe; Lutumba, Pascal; Polman, Katja; Matondo, Peter; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Sumbu, Julienne

    2010-01-01

    Background Taenia solium, a zoonotic parasite that is endemic in most developing countries where pork is consumed, is recognised as the main cause of acquired epilepsy in these regions. T. solium has been reported in almost all of the neighboring countries of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) but data on the current prevalence of the disease in the country itself are lacking. This study, focusing on porcine cysticercosis (CC), makes part of a first initiative to assess whether cysticercosis is indeed actually present in DRC. Methods An epidemiological study on porcine CC was conducted (1) on urban markets of Kinshasa where pork is sold and (2) in villages in Bas-Congo province where pigs are traditionally reared. Tongue inspection and ELISA for the detection of circulating antigen of the larval stage of T. solium were used to assess the prevalence of active CC in both study sites. Findings The overall prevalence of pigs with active cysticercosis did not significantly differ between the market and the village study sites (38.8 [CI95%: 34–43] versus 41.2% [CI95%: 33–49], respectively). However, tongue cysticercosis was only found in the village study site together with a significantly higher intensity of infection (detected by ELISA). Interpretation Pigs reared at village level are sold for consumption on Kinshasa markets, but it seems that highly infected animals are excluded at a certain level in the pig trade chain. Indeed, preliminary informal surveys on common practices conducted in parallel revealed that pig farmers and/or buyers select the low infected animals and exclude those who are positive by tongue inspection at village level. This study provides the only recent evidence of CC presence in DRC and gives the first estimates to fill an important gap on the African taeniasis/cysticercosis distribution map. PMID:20838646

  18. Management of a chest-wall soft-tissue tumor caused by an infection with the larval tapeworm pathogen Taenia crassiceps.

    PubMed

    Roesel, Christian; Welter, Stefan; Stamatis, Georgios; Theegarten, Dirk; Tappe, Dennis

    2014-09-01

    A chest-wall lesion of an immunocompetent patient was initially suspicious for a malignant tumor. Histopathological and polymerase chain reaction examinations revealed an infection with the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia crassiceps. Curative resection of the tumorous lesion was performed. Treatment options for immunocompromised patients and patients without known immune defect are discussed, because most of the infections occur in immunocompromised individuals. PMID:24914004

  19. Distribution and histopathological changes induced by cysts of Taenia solium in the brain of pigs from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mkupasi, E M; Ngowi, H A; Sikasunge, C S; Leifsson, P S; Johansen, M V

    2014-05-27

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium cysts is a frequent but neglected parasitic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe anatomical locations of cysts in the CNS and the corresponding inflammation. A total of 17 naturally infected pigs were used to evaluate the distribution of cysts and, of these, seven were used to evaluate the corresponding inflammation further, through histopathology. Clinical signs in the pigs included dullness, sluggishness, somnolence, apathy and loss of consciousness. Cysts were distributed in all cerebral lobes, i.e. 39.7% in the frontal lobe, 20.3% in the parietal lobe, 20.0% in the occipital lobe and 19.7% in the temporal lobe, and only 0.4% in the cerebellum. No cysts were found in the spinal cord. Cysts were localized as follows: 47.9% in the dorsal subarachnoid, 46.9% in the parenchyma, 4.4% in the subarachnoid base and 0.9% in the ventricles. The results of the histopathology revealed lesions in an early inflammatory stage, i.e. stage I, in all anatomical locations except for two, which showed more of an inflammatory reaction, stage III, in one pig. It was concluded that clinical signs in pigs were neither pathognomonic nor consistent. These signs, therefore, cannot be used as a reliable indicator of porcine NCC. Furthermore, T. solium cysts were found to be in abundance in all cerebral lobes, and only a few were found in the cerebellum. Regarding the inflammatory response, no significant differences were found in the location and total number of cysts. Thus, further studies are needed to explain the determinants of cyst distribution in the CNS and assess in detail clinical signs associated with porcine NCC. PMID:24865274

  20. Distribution and histopathological changes induced by cysts of Taenia solium in the brain of pigs from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mkupasi, E M; Ngowi, H A; Sikasunge, C S; Leifsson, P S; Johansen, M V

    2014-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium cysts is a frequent but neglected parasitic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe anatomical locations of cysts in the CNS and the corresponding inflammation. A total of 17 naturally infected pigs were used to evaluate the distribution of cysts and, of these, seven were used to evaluate the corresponding inflammation further, through histopathology. Clinical signs in the pigs included dullness, sluggishness, somnolence, apathy and loss of consciousness. Cysts were distributed in all cerebral lobes, i.e. 39.7% in the frontal lobe, 20.3% in the parietal lobe, 20.0% in the occipital lobe and 19.7% in the temporal lobe, and only 0.4% in the cerebellum. No cysts were found in the spinal cord. Cysts were localized as follows: 47.9% in the dorsal subarachnoid, 46.9% in the parenchyma, 4.4% in the subarachnoid base and 0.9% in the ventricles. The results of the histopathology revealed lesions in an early inflammatory stage, i.e. stage I, in all anatomical locations except for two, which showed more of an inflammatory reaction, stage III, in one pig. It was concluded that clinical signs in pigs were neither pathognomonic nor consistent. These signs, therefore, cannot be used as a reliable indicator of porcine NCC. Furthermore, T. solium cysts were found to be in abundance in all cerebral lobes, and only a few were found in the cerebellum. Regarding the inflammatory response, no significant differences were found in the location and total number of cysts. Thus, further studies are needed to explain the determinants of cyst distribution in the CNS and assess in detail clinical signs associated with porcine NCC. PMID:24905052

  1. Triosephosphate isomerase of Taenia solium (TTPI): phage display and antibodies as tools for finding target regions to inhibit catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Sanabria-Ayala, Víctor; Belmont, Iaraset; Abraham, Landa

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that antibodies against triosephosphate isomerase of Taenia solium (TTPI) can alter its enzymatic catalysis. In the present study, we used antibodies produced against the NH2-terminal region of TTPI (1/3NH2TTPI) and the phage display technology to find target regions to inhibit TTPI activity. As a first step, we obtained polyclonal antibodies against non-conserved regions from the 1/3NH2TTPI, which had an inhibitory effect of about 74 % on catalytic activity. Afterward, they were used to screen a library of phage-displayed dodecapeptides; as a result, 41 phage mimotope clones were isolated and grouped according to their amino acid sequence, finding the consensus A1 (VPTXPI), A2 (VPTXXI), B (LTPGQ), and D (DPLPR). Antibodies against selected phage mimotope clones were obtained by rabbit's immunization; these ones clearly recognized TTPI by both Western blot and ELISA. However, only the mimotope PDTS16 (DSVTPTSVMAVA) clone, which belongs to the VPTXXI consensus, raised antibodies capable of inhibiting the TTPI catalytic activity in 45 %. Anti-PDTS16 antibodies were confronted to several synthetic peptides that encompass the 1/3NH2TTPI, and they only recognized three, which share the motif FDTLQK belonging to the helix-?1 in TTPI. This suggests that this motif is the main part of the epitope recognized by anti-PDTS16 antibodies and revealed its importance for TTPI catalysis. PMID:25273631

  2. Evaluation of the non-catalytic binding function of Ts26GST a glutathione transferase isoform of Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Plancarte, A; Romero, J R; Nava, G; Reyes, H; Hernández, M

    2014-03-01

    Taenia solium glutathione transferase isoform of 26.5 kDa (Ts26GST) was observed to bind non-catalytically to porphyrins, trans-trans-dienals, bile acids and fatty acids, as assessed by inhibition kinetics, fluorescence spectroscopy and competitive fluorescence assays with 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS). The quenching of Ts26GST intrinsic fluorescence allowed for the determination of the dissociation constants (KD) for all ligands. Obtained data indicate that Ts26GST binds to all ligands but with different affinity. Porphyrins and lipid peroxide products inhibited Ts26GST catalytic activity up to 100% in contrast with only 20-30% inhibition observed for bile acids and two saturated fatty acids. Non-competitive type inhibition was observed for all enzyme inhibitor ligands except for trans-trans-2,4-decadienal, which exhibited uncompetitive type inhibition. The dissociation constant value KD = 0.7 ?M for the hematin ligand, determined by competitive fluorescence assays with ANS, was in good agreement with its inhibition kinetic value Ki = 0.3 ?M and its intrinsic fluorescence quenching KD = 0.7 ?M. The remaining ligands did not displace ANS from the enzyme suggesting the existence of different binding sites. In addition to the catalytic activity of Ts26GST the results obtained suggest that the enzyme exhibits a ligandin function with broad specificity towards nonsubstrate ligands. PMID:24560769

  3. The genomes of four tapeworm species reveal adaptations to parasitism

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Flores, Alejandro; Brooks, Karen L.; Tracey, Alan; Bobes, Raúl J.; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Aslett, Martin; Beasley, Helen; Bennett, Hayley M.; Cai, Xuepeng; Camicia, Federico; Clark, Richard; Cucher, Marcela; De Silva, Nishadi; Day, Tim A; Deplazes, Peter; Estrada, Karel; Fernández, Cecilia; Holland, Peter W. H.; Hou, Junling; Hu, Songnian; Huckvale, Thomas; Hung, Stacy S.; Kamenetzky, Laura; Keane, Jacqueline A.; Kiss, Ferenc; Koziol, Uriel; Lambert, Olivia; Liu, Kan; Luo, Xuenong; Luo, Yingfeng; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Nichol, Sarah; Paps, Jordi; Parkinson, John; Pouchkina-Stantcheva, Natasha; Riddiford, Nick; Rosenzvit, Mara; Salinas, Gustavo; Wasmuth, James D.; Zamanian, Mostafa; Zheng, Yadong; Cai, Jianping; Soberón, Xavier; Olson, Peter D.; Laclette, Juan P.; Brehm, Klaus; Berriman, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Summary Tapeworms cause debilitating neglected diseases that can be deadly and often require surgery due to ineffective drugs. Here we present the first analysis of tapeworm genome sequences using the human-infective species Echinococcus multilocularis, E. granulosus, Taenia solium and the laboratory model Hymenolepis microstoma as examples. The 115-141 megabase genomes offer insights into the evolution of parasitism. Synteny is maintained with distantly related blood flukes but we find extreme losses of genes and pathways ubiquitous in other animals, including 34 homeobox families and several determinants of stem cell fate. Tapeworms have species-specific expansions of non-canonical heat shock proteins and families of known antigens; specialised detoxification pathways, and metabolism finely tuned to rely on nutrients scavenged from their hosts. We identify new potential drug targets, including those on which existing pharmaceuticals may act. The genomes provide a rich resource to underpin the development of urgently needed treatments and control. PMID:23485966

  4. The genomes of four tapeworm species reveal adaptations to parasitism.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Isheng J; Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Holroyd, Nancy; Garciarrubio, Alejandro; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Brooks, Karen L; Tracey, Alan; Bobes, Raúl J; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Aslett, Martin; Beasley, Helen; Bennett, Hayley M; Cai, Jianping; Camicia, Federico; Clark, Richard; Cucher, Marcela; De Silva, Nishadi; Day, Tim A; Deplazes, Peter; Estrada, Karel; Fernández, Cecilia; Holland, Peter W H; Hou, Junling; Hu, Songnian; Huckvale, Thomas; Hung, Stacy S; Kamenetzky, Laura; Keane, Jacqueline A; Kiss, Ferenc; Koziol, Uriel; Lambert, Olivia; Liu, Kan; Luo, Xuenong; Luo, Yingfeng; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Nichol, Sarah; Paps, Jordi; Parkinson, John; Pouchkina-Stantcheva, Natasha; Riddiford, Nick; Rosenzvit, Mara; Salinas, Gustavo; Wasmuth, James D; Zamanian, Mostafa; Zheng, Yadong; Cai, Xuepeng; Soberón, Xavier; Olson, Peter D; Laclette, Juan P; Brehm, Klaus; Berriman, Matthew

    2013-04-01

    Tapeworms (Cestoda) cause neglected diseases that can be fatal and are difficult to treat, owing to inefficient drugs. Here we present an analysis of tapeworm genome sequences using the human-infective species Echinococcus multilocularis, E. granulosus, Taenia solium and the laboratory model Hymenolepis microstoma as examples. The 115- to 141-megabase genomes offer insights into the evolution of parasitism. Synteny is maintained with distantly related blood flukes but we find extreme losses of genes and pathways that are ubiquitous in other animals, including 34 homeobox families and several determinants of stem cell fate. Tapeworms have specialized detoxification pathways, metabolism that is finely tuned to rely on nutrients scavenged from their hosts, and species-specific expansions of non-canonical heat shock proteins and families of known antigens. We identify new potential drug targets, including some on which existing pharmaceuticals may act. The genomes provide a rich resource to underpin the development of urgently needed treatments and control. PMID:23485966

  5. Genetics of the Pig Tapeworm in Madagascar Reveal a History of Human Dispersal and Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Yanagida, Tetsuya; Carod, Jean-François; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Hoberg, Eric P.; Ito, Akira

    2014-01-01

    An intricate history of human dispersal and geographic colonization has strongly affected the distribution of human pathogens. The pig tapeworm Taenia solium occurs throughout the world as the causative agent of cysticercosis, one of the most serious neglected tropical diseases. Discrete genetic lineages of T. solium in Asia and Africa/Latin America are geographically disjunct; only in Madagascar are they sympatric. Linguistic, archaeological and genetic evidence has indicated that the people in Madagascar have mixed ancestry from Island Southeast Asia and East Africa. Hence, anthropogenic introduction of the tapeworm from Southeast Asia and Africa had been postulated. This study shows that the major mitochondrial haplotype of T. solium in Madagascar is closely related to those from the Indian Subcontinent. Parasitological evidence presented here, and human genetics previously reported, support the hypothesis of an Indian influence on Malagasy culture coinciding with periods of early human migration onto the island. We also found evidence of nuclear-mitochondrial discordance in single tapeworms, indicating unexpected cross-fertilization between the two lineages of T. solium. Analyses of genetic and geographic populations of T. solium in Madagascar will shed light on apparently rapid evolution of this organism driven by recent (<2,000 yr) human migrations, following tens of thousands of years of geographic isolation. PMID:25329310

  6. Genetic variation in the Cytb gene of human cerebral Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from clinically and radiologically heterogeneous patients with neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Palafox-Fonseca, Héctor; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Bobes, Raúl José; Govezensky, Tzipe; Piñero, Daniel; Texco-Martínez, Laura; Fleury, Agnès; Proaño, Jefferson; Cárdenas, Graciela; Hernández, Marisela; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2013-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous parasitic disease caused by the establishment of larval Taenia solium in the human central nervous system. Host and/or parasite variations may be related to this observed heterogeneity. Genetic differences between pig and human-derived T. solium cysticerci have been reported previously. In this study, 28 cysticerci were surgically removed from 12 human NC patients, the mitochondrial gene that encodes cytochrome b was amplified from the cysticerci and genetic variations that may be related to NC heterogeneity were characterised. Nine different haplotypes (Ht), which were clustered in four haplogroups (Hg), were identified. Hg 3 and 4 exhibited a tendency to associate with age and gender, respectively. However, no significant associations were found between NC heterogeneity and the different T. solium cysticerci Ht or Hg. Parasite variants obtained from patients with similar NC clinical or radiological features were genetically closer than those found in groups of patients with a different NC profile when using the Mantel test. Overall, this study establishes the presence of genetic differences in the Cytb gene of T. solium isolated from human cysticerci and suggests that parasite variation could contribute to NC heterogeneity. PMID:24271046

  7. Molecular and morphological characterization of the tapeworm Taenia hydatigena (Pallas, 1766) in sheep from Iran.

    PubMed

    Rostami, S; Salavati, R; Beech, R N; Babaei, Z; Sharbatkhori, M; Baneshi, M R; Hajialilo, E; Shad, H; Harandi, M F

    2015-03-01

    Although Taenia hydatigena is one of the most prevalent taeniid species of livestock, very little molecular genetic information exists for this parasite. Up to 100 sheep isolates of T. hydatigena were collected from 19 abattoirs located in the provinces of Tehran, Alborz and Kerman. A calibrated microscope was used to measure the larval rostellar hook lengths. Following DNA extraction, fragments of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) and 12S rRNA genes were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction method and the amplicons were subjected to sequencing. The mean total length of large and small hooks was 203.4 ?m and 135.9 ?m, respectively. Forty CO1 and 39 12S rRNA sequence haplotypes were obtained in the study. The levels of pairwise nucleotide variation between individual haplotypes of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes were determined to be between 0.3-3.4% and 0.2-2.1%, respectively. The overall nucleotide variation among all the CO1 haplotypes was 9.7%, and for all the 12S rRNA haplotypes it was 10.1%. A significant difference was observed between rostellar hook morphometry and both CO1 and 12S rRNA sequence variability. A significantly high level of genetic variation was observed in the present study. The results showed that the 12S rRNA gene is more variable than CO1. PMID:24103709

  8. Evaluation of excretory secretory and 10-30 kDa antigens of Taenia solium Cysticerci by EITB assay for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Atluri, S R V; Singhi, P; Khandelwal, N; Malla, N

    2009-03-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), caused by the presence of Taenia solium Cysticerci in the Central Nervous System is the most common neurological disease of parasite aetiology. The serodiagnostic methods available at present have variable sensitivity and specificity depending upon the antigen and technique used. The present study was aimed to assess the efficacy of T. solium Cysticerci excretory secretory (ES) and lower molecular mass (LMM) 10-30 kDa antigenic fractions for antibody detection in serum and urine samples by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) for the diagnosis of NCC. Serum and urine samples were collected from 125 clinically suspected and radiologically proven NCC children (111 patients with single lesion and 14 with multiple lesions) and 125 control subjects. With the use of ES and LMM antigenic fractions, the sensitivity of the EITB assay was 85.6% and 80.8% with serum and 76.8% and 50.4% with urine, respectively. The specificity was 64% and 61.6% with serum and 48% and 33.6% with urine samples, respectively. The study suggests that antibody detection to ES antigen in serum by EITB assay may serve better purpose for the serodiagnosis of human NCC. PMID:19222787

  9. Release of glycoprotein (GP1) from the tegumental surface of Taenia solium by phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens suggests a novel protein-anchor to membranes.

    PubMed

    Landa, Abraham; Willms, Kaethe; Laclette, Juan Pedro

    2010-01-01

    In order to explore how molecules are linked to the membrane surface in larval Taenia solium, whole cysticerci were incubated in the presence of phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens (PLC). Released material was collected and analyzed in polyacrylamide gels with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Two major bands with apparent molecular weights of 180 and 43 kDa were observed. Western blot of released material and localization assays in cysticerci tissue sections using antibodies against five known surface glycoproteins of T. solium cysticerci indicated that only one, previously called GP1, was released. Similar localization studies using the lectins wheat-germ-agglutinin and Concanavalin A showed that N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetylneuraminic, sialic acid, alphamethyl-D-mannoside, D-manose/glucose, and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues are abundantly present on the surface. On the other hand, we find that treatment with PLC releases molecules from the surface; they do not reveal Cross Reacting Determinant (CRD), suggesting a novel anchor to the membrane for the glycoprotein GP1. PMID:20130782

  10. Neurocysticercosis immunodiagnosis using Taenia solium cysticerci crude soluble extract, excretory secretory and lower molecular mass antigens in serum and urine samples of Indian children.

    PubMed

    Atluri, Subba Rao V; Singhi, P; Khandelwal, N; Malla, N

    2009-04-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), the most common neurological disorder of parasite etiology, results from lodgement of Taenia solium cysticerci in the central nervous system and is now increasingly being recognized in children. The confirmed diagnosis is based collectively on radiological findings and serodiagnostic techniques. The serodiagnostic techniques have variable sensitivity and specificity depending upon the technique, antigens used, location and number of cysts. Crude soluble extract (CSE), excretory secretory (ES) and lower molecular mass (LMM) (10-30 kDa) antigenic fraction of T. solium cysticerci were evaluated for antibody detection in serum and urine samples by ELISA. Serum and urine samples were collected each from 125 clinically suspected and radiologically proven NCC (111 with single Computed Tomography (CT) lesions and 14 with multiple CT lesions) and 125 control subjects (60 with neurological disorders other than NCC, 40 with other parasitic diseases and 25 apparently healthy subjects). The sensitivity of the ELISA with the use of CSE, ES and LMM antigenic fractions was 38.4%, 63.2% and 30.4% with serum (cut off dilution 400), 46.4%, 44% and 47.2% with neat urine and the specificity was 88%, 76.8% and 85.6% with serum (cut off dilution 400), 66.4%, 65.2% and 58.4% with neat urine samples, respectively. The study suggests that detection of antibody to ES antigen in serum samples may serve useful purpose for the serodiagnosis of human NCC. PMID:19161966

  11. Release of Glycoprotein (GP1) from the Tegumental Surface of Taenia solium by Phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens Suggests a Novel Protein-Anchor to Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Landa, Abraham; Willms, Kaethe; Laclette, Juan Pedro

    2010-01-01

    In order to explore how molecules are linked to the membrane surface in larval Taenia solium, whole cysticerci were incubated in the presence of phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens (PLC). Released material was collected and analyzed in polyacrylamide gels with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Two major bands with apparent molecular weights of 180 and 43?kDa were observed. Western blot of released material and localization assays in cysticerci tissue sections using antibodies against five known surface glycoproteins of T. solium cysticerci indicated that only one, previously called GP1, was released. Similar localization studies using the lectins wheat-germ-agglutinin and Concanavalin A showed that N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetylneuraminic, sialic acid, ?methyl-D-mannoside, D-manose/glucose, and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues are abundantly present on the surface. On the other hand, we find that treatment with PLC releases molecules from the surface; they do not reveal Cross Reacting Determinant (CRD), suggesting a novel anchor to the membrane for the glycoprotein GP1. PMID:20130782

  12. A School Based Cluster Randomised Health Education Intervention Trial for Improving Knowledge and Attitudes Related to Taenia solium Cysticercosis and Taeniasis in Mbulu District, Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwidunda, Sylvester A; Carabin, Hélène; Matuja, William B M; Winkler, Andrea S; Ngowi, Helena A

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children's knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary) in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention) were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention) was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers) improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and the general community and their impacts in improving behaviours facilitating disease transmission. PMID:25719902

  13. A School Based Cluster Randomised Health Education Intervention Trial for Improving Knowledge and Attitudes Related to Taenia solium Cysticercosis and Taeniasis in Mbulu District, Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mwidunda, Sylvester A.; Carabin, Hélène; Matuja, William B. M.; Winkler, Andrea S.; Ngowi, Helena A.

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children’s knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary) in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention) were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention) was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers) improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and the general community and their impacts in improving behaviours facilitating disease transmission. PMID:25719902

  14. Seroprevalence to the Antigens of Taenia solium Cysticercosis among Residents of Three Villages in Burkina Faso: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Carabin, Hélène; Millogo, Athanase; Praet, Nicolas; Hounton, Sennen; Tarnagda, Zékiba; Ganaba, Rasmané; Dorny, Pierre; Nitiéma, Pascal; Cowan, Linda D.

    2009-01-01

    Background There is limited published information on the prevalence of human cysticercosis in West Africa. The aim of this pilot study was to estimate the prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis antigens in residents of three villages in Burkina Faso. Methods/Principal Findings Three villages were selected: The village of Batondo, selected to represent villages where pigs are allowed to roam freely; the village of Pabré, selected to represent villages where pigs are usually confined; and the village of Nyonyogo, selected because of a high proportion of Muslims and limited pig farming. Clustered random sampling was used to select the participants. All participants were asked to answer an interview questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and to provide a blood sample. The sera were analysed using an AgELISA. The prevalence of “strong” seropositive results to the presence of antigens of the larval stages of T. solium was estimated as 10.3% (95%CI: 7.1%–14.3%), 1.4% (0.4%–3.5%) and 0.0% (0.0%–2.1%) in the 763 participants who provided a blood sample in Batondo, Pabré and Nyonyogo, respectively. The prevalence of “weak” seropositive test results to the presence of antigens of the larval stages of T. solium was 1.3% (0.3%–3.2%), 0.3% (0.0%–1.9%) and 4.5% (2.0%–8.8%) in Batondo, Pabré and Nyonyogo, respectively. The multivariate logistic regression, which included only Batondo and Pabré, showed that village, gender, and pork consumption history were associated with AgELISA seroprevalence. Conclusions/Significance This study illustrates two major points: 1) there can be large variation in the prevalence of human seropositivity to the presence of the larval stages of T. solium cysticercosis among rural areas of the same country, and 2) the serological level of the antigen, not just whether it is positive or negative, must be considered when assessing prevalence of human cysticercosis antigens. PMID:19936298

  15. STANDARDIZATION OF A FLUORESCENT-BASED QUANTITATIVE ADHESION ASSAY TO STUDY ATTACHMENT OF Taenia solium ONCOSPHERE TO EPITHELIAL CELLS In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chile, Nancy; Evangelista, Julio; Gilman, Robert H.; Arana, Yanina; Palma, Sandra; Sterling, Charles R; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando; Verastegui, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    To fully understand the preliminary stages of Taenia solium oncosphere attachment in the gut, adequate tools and assays are necessary to observe and quantify this event that leads to infection. A fluorescent-based quantitative adhesion assay, using biotinylated activated-oncospheres and monolayers of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) or human intestinal monolayer cells (INT-407, HCT-8 or HT-29), was developed to study initial events during the infection of target cells and to rapidly quantify the in vitro adhesion of T. solium oncospheres. Fluorescein streptavidin was used to identify biotinylated activated-oncospheres adhered to cells. This adherence was quantified using an automated fluorescence plate reader, and the results were expressed as fluorescence intensity values. A series of three assays were performed. The first was to identify the optimum number of biotinylated activated-oncospheres to be used in the adhesion assay. The goal of the second assay was to validate this novel method with the established oncosphere-binding system using the immunofluorescent-antibody assay (IFA) method to quantify oncosphere adhesion. A total of 10,000 biotinylated activated-oncospheres were utilized to assess the role of sera and laminin (LM) in oncosphere adherence to a CHO-K1 cell monolayer. The findings that sera and LM increase the adhesion of oncospheres to monolayer cells were similar to results that were previously obtained using the IFA method. The third assay compared the adherence of biotinylated activated-oncospheres to different types of human intestinal monolayer cells. In this case, the fluorescence intensity was greatest when using the INT-407 cell monolayer. We believe this new method of quantification offers the potential for rapid, large-scale screening to study and elucidate specific molecules and mechanisms involved in oncosphere-host cell attachment. PMID:22178422

  16. Why Latrines Are Not Used: Communities’ Perceptions and Practices Regarding Latrines in a Taenia solium Endemic Rural Area in Eastern Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E.; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M.; Phiri, Isaak K.; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities’ perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints).The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people’s approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be effective. PMID:25739017

  17. Evans Blue Staining Reveals Vascular Leakage Associated with Focal Areas of Host-Parasite Interaction in Brains of Pigs Infected with Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Adriana; Cangalaya, Carla; Rivera, Andrea; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Garcia, Hector H.; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Cysticidal drug treatment of viable Taenia solium brain parenchymal cysts leads to an acute pericystic host inflammatory response and blood brain barrier breakdown (BBB), commonly resulting in seizures. Naturally infected pigs, untreated or treated one time with praziquantel were sacrificed at 48 hr and 120 hr following the injection of Evans blue (EB) to assess the effect of treatment on larval parasites and surrounding tissue. Examination of harvested non encapsulated muscle cysts unexpectedly revealed one or more small, focal round region(s) of Evans blue dye infiltration (REBI) on the surface of otherwise non dye-stained muscle cysts. Histopathological analysis of REBI revealed focal areas of eosinophil-rich inflammatory infiltrates that migrated from the capsule into the tegument and internal structures of the parasite. In addition some encapsulated brain cysts, in which the presence of REBI could not be directly assessed, showed histopathology identical to that of the REBI. Muscle cysts with REBI were more frequent in pigs that had received praziquantel (6.6% of 3736 cysts; n?=?6 pigs) than in those that were untreated (0.2% of 3172 cysts; n?=?2 pigs). Similar results were found in the brain, where 20.7% of 29 cysts showed histopathology identical to muscle REBI cysts in praziquantel-treated pigs compared to the 4.3% of 47 cysts in untreated pigs. Closer examination of REBI infiltrates showed that EB was taken up only by eosinophils, a major component of the cellular infiltrates, which likely explains persistence of EB in the REBI. REBI likely represent early damaging host responses to T. solium cysts and highlight the focal nature of this initial host response and the importance of eosinophils at sites of host-parasite interaction. These findings suggest new avenues for immunomodulation to reduce inflammatory side effects of anthelmintic therapy. PMID:24915533

  18. Why Latrines Are Not Used: Communities' Perceptions and Practices Regarding Latrines in a Taenia solium Endemic Rural Area in Eastern Zambia.

    PubMed

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M; Phiri, Isaak K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints).The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be effective. PMID:25739017

  19. Evolution, molecular epidemiology and perspectives on the research of taeniid parasites with special emphasis on Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Bobes, Raúl J; Fragoso, Gladis; Fleury, Agnès; García-Varela, Martín; Sciutto, Edda; Larralde, Carlos; Laclette, Juan P

    2014-04-01

    Human cysticercosis is known since old historical times in Greece and China; however, human infections by tapeworms have accompanied human beings for more that hundred thousand years. The disease is tightly bound to poverty and lack of hygiene, and has been eradicated in developed countries, but continues being a public health problem in developing countries of Latin-American, Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, and is also remerging in a number of non endemic countries. It is considered a neglected disease. Here we revise a number of key scientific contributions on taeniid biology that open new avenues for more effective approaches to the control of cysticercosis. The evolution of flatworms and class Cestoda is analyzed, with special emphasis on the emergence of taeniid parasites and the colonization of the human species by tapeworms. The complex molecular host-parasite interplay in this relationship as result of co-evolution between two distantly related organisms. The relevant host and parasite's factors, in the prospect of identifying species-specific molecular markers useful in epidemiological studies carried out in endemic countries. The new possibilities arising with the characterization of the genomes for several species of tapeworms, including a deeper understanding of these organisms, as well as improved tools for diagnosis, vaccination and drug treatment. The need to revise the current control and management strategies for this tropical neglected disease. PMID:24560729

  20. Antibody specific to 43kDa excretory-secretory antigenic peptide of Taenia solium metacestode as a potential diagnostic marker in human neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan; Parija, Subhash Chandra; Jayachandran, Seetharaman

    2010-09-01

    Recent studies suggest excretory-secretory (ES) antigen specific antibody detection tests to be of promising utility in laboratory diagnosis of many parasitic diseases in human including neurocysticercosis (NCC). The objective of the present study was to characterize the ES antigens collected from in vitro culture of Taenia solium metacestode larvae, and to identify specific ES peptides as diagnostic markers. Three ES peptides viz., 67kDa, 43kDa and 32kDa, were found to be diagnostic for NCC based on high sensitivity and specificity of their reactivity to either serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens. More remarkably, the 43kDa ES peptide was found reactive with CSF and serum specimens from confirmed NCC patients with absolute specificity and a high sensitivity (88.23% in serum and 89.28% in CSF). This peptide was also detected by sera and CSF from clinically suspected NCC patients but with a decreased sensitivity correlating with the decreasing order of the certainty of diagnosis as per a criteria proposed earlier. The 43kDa ES peptide is suggested to be an important peptide of diagnostic utility in NCC. PMID:20399738

  1. A dot-ELISA using a partially purified cathepsin-L-like protein fraction from Taenia solium cysticerci, for the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Piña, R; Gutiérrez, A H; Gilman, R H; Rueda, D; Sifuentes, C; Flores, M; Sheen, P; Rodriguez, S; GarcÍa, H H; Zimic, M

    2011-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NCC), caused by the cestode Taenia solium, is responsible for a significant amount of neurological morbidity and epilepsy in developing countries. The disease remains highly endemic in many areas, despite several efforts and interventions to control it. A simple, cheap and fast diagnostic assay that is suitable for use in field conditions is highly desired. In immunodiagnostics based on western immunoblots or standard ELISA, a cathepsin-L-like protein purified from the cysticercus fluid has previously performed well as an antigen. In a recent study in Peru, the same 53/25-kDa antigen was therefore used in the development of a dot-ELISA that could be employed for mass screenings under field conditions. The assay was standardized and tested not only against sera from a large group of NCC cases but also against sera from patients with other common parasitic infections, so that sensitivity and specificity could be assessed. For NCC, the assay gave better sensitivity in the detection of individuals with extraparenchymal cysts (94·4%–100%) or multiple parenchymal cysts (74·6%–80·0%) than in the detection of individuals with single parenchymal cysts (29·4%–45·1%). The assay also showed a high specificity for NCC (99·0%–100%), with a very low level of cross-reactivity with other parasitic infections. The dot-ELISA developed in this study is a highly specific, simple, cheap and rapid test for NCC that could be used under field conditions, even in the low-resource settings that are common in developing countries. PMID:21871167

  2. Geographic Correlation between Tapeworm Carriers and Heavily Infected Cysticercotic Pigs

    PubMed Central

    O'Neal, Seth E.; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Diaz, Andre; Rodriguez, Silvia; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. Sustainable community-based interventions are urgently needed to control transmission of the causative parasite, Taenia solium. We examined the geospatial relationship between live pigs with visible cysticercotic cysts on their tongues and humans with adult intestinal tapeworm infection (taeniasis) in a rural village in northern Peru. The objective was to determine whether tongue-positive pigs could indicate high-risk geographic foci for taeniasis to guide targeted screening efforts. This approach could offer significant benefit compared to mass intervention. Methods We recorded geographic coordinates of all village houses, collected stool samples from all consenting villagers, and collected blood and examined tongues of all village pigs. Stool samples were processed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens indicative of active taeniasis; serum was processed by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot for antibodies against T. solium cysticercosis (EITB LLGP) and T. solium taeniasis (EITB rES33). Findings Of 548 pigs, 256 (46.7%) were positive for antibodies against cysticercosis on EITB LLGP. Of 402 fecal samples, 6 (1.5%) were positive for the presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens. The proportion of coproantigen-positive individuals differed significantly between residents living within 100-meters of a tongue-positive pig (4/79, 5.1%) and residents living >100 meters from a tongue-positive pig (2/323, 0.6%) (p?=?0.02). The prevalence of taeniasis was >8 times higher among residents living within 100 meters of a tongue-positive pig compared to residents living outside this range (adjusted PR 8.1, 95% CI 1.4–47.0). Conclusions Tongue-positive pigs in endemic communities can indicate geospatial foci in which the risk for taeniasis is increased. Targeted screening or presumptive treatment for taeniasis within these high-risk foci may be an effective and practical control intervention for rural endemic areas. PMID:23285305

  3. Fish tapeworm

    MedlinePLUS

    Fish tapeworm is an infection with a parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ), is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  4. Detailed Transcriptome Description of the Neglected Cestode Taenia multiceps

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xuhang; Fu, Yan; Yang, Deying; Zhang, Runhui; Zheng, Wanpeng; Nie, Huaming; Xie, Yue; Yan, Ning; Hao, Guiying; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2012-01-01

    Background The larval stage of Taenia multiceps, a global cestode, encysts in the central nervous system (CNS) of sheep and other livestock. This frequently leads to their death and huge socioeconomic losses, especially in developing countries. This parasite can also cause zoonotic infections in humans, but has been largely neglected due to a lack of diagnostic techniques and studies. Recent developments in next-generation sequencing provide an opportunity to explore the transcriptome of T. multiceps. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained a total of 31,282 unigenes (mean length 920 bp) using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and a new Trinity de novo assembler without a referenced genome. Individual transcription molecules were determined by sequence-based annotations and/or domain-based annotations against public databases (Nr, UniprotKB/Swiss-Prot, COG, KEGG, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, InterPro and Pfam). We identified 26,110 (83.47%) unigenes and inferred 20,896 (66.8%) coding sequences (CDS). Further comparative transcripts analysis with other cestodes (Taenia pisiformis, Taenia solium, Echincoccus granulosus and Echincoccus multilocularis) and intestinal parasites (Trichinella spiralis, Ancylostoma caninum and Ascaris suum) showed that 5,100 common genes were shared among three Taenia tapeworms, 261 conserved genes were detected among five Taeniidae cestodes, and 109 common genes were found in four zoonotic intestinal parasites. Some of the common genes were genes required for parasite survival, involved in parasite-host interactions. In addition, we amplified two full-length CDS of unigenes from the common genes using RT-PCR. Conclusions/Significance This study provides an extensive transcriptome of the adult stage of T. multiceps, and demonstrates that comparative transcriptomic investigations deserve to be further studied. This transcriptome dataset forms a substantial public information platform to achieve a fundamental understanding of the biology of T. multiceps, and helps in the identification of drug targets and parasite-host interaction studies. PMID:23049872

  5. 2D-PAGE analysis of Taenia solium metacestode 10-30 kDa antigens for the serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis in children.

    PubMed

    Atluri, Venkata Subba Rao; Singhi, Pratibha D; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Malla, Nancy

    2011-05-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by T. solium metacestode is an increasingly important health issue in Indian children. The sensitivity and specificity of available serological techniques were low in case of single cysticercus granuloma cases which is a more common feature in Indian patients who are children. Serum samples were collected from 13 clinically and radiologically suggestive NCC children and seropositive by ELISA, 25 clinically and radiologically suggestive NCC children and seronegative by ELISA and 25 control subjects. The 10-30 kDa antigens of T. solium metacestode were subjected to 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) followed by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay to detect antibody in serum. Analysis of 10-30 kDa antigenic fraction 2D-PAGE map showed 31 proteins between 10 and ?28 kDa and innumerable proteins between >28 and 30 kDa with the Isoelectric point of 3-10. All the 13 (100%) NCC seropositive and 15 (60%) out of 25 NCC seronegative samples were reactive with 2D fraction antigens. In the control group, none of the serum was reactive except 2 hydatid samples (92% specificity). The sensitivity and specificity of 2D-PAGE EITB assay were significantly higher than the ELISA which is the routine diagnostic method used in the endemic countries for the serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis. PMID:21354092

  6. Basic and applied immunology in cestode infections: from Hymenolepis to Taenia and Echinococcus.

    PubMed

    Ito, A

    1997-10-01

    In larval cestode infections, it is well established that the intermediate mammalian host infected with egg-derived metacestodes in the tissue becomes completely immune to reinfection with eggs, whereas autoinfection has been conceived to occur in Hymenolepis nana/mouse (and human) and Taenia solium/human systems when these hosts are initially infected with metacestode-derived adult tapeworms in the lumen. In this review paper, the first topic is immunobiology of H. nana/mouse system on the reinfection immunity in order to get critical information as to how the initially ingested parasite (eggs or metacestodes) can develop into adult worms and how autoinfection does or does not occur in immunocompetent mice, since H. nana can complete its whole life cycle in the mouse intestinal tissue and lumen. When mice are infected with eggs (= oncospheres) of H. nana, they become immune to challenge infections with eggs within a few days (early response) and with cysticercoids within two weeks (late response). The initially established adult worms are expelled later (worm expulsion response). When mice are infected with cysticercoids, either derived from beetles or mice, they become immune to challenge infection with cysticercoids but not with eggs. Therefore, autoinfection occurs in the intestinal tissue for the establishment of cysticercoids in the tissue but never occurs in the intestinal lumen for the establishment of adult worms in immunocompetent mice. The second topic is vaccination trial against challenge infection with eggs of Asian Taenia in pigs. Pigs vaccinated with frozen oncospheres of Asian Taenia from Taiwan or Korea or T. saginata showed very strong resistance, whereas pigs vaccinated with those of T. solium showed partial resistance only. It is suggested that Asian Taenia is much closer to T. saginata than T. solium from the immunobiological viewpoint. The third topic is immunodiagnosis of echinococcosis and cysticercosis. Immunoblot analysis has revealed that Em18 (18 kDa component of crude antigens of Echinococcus multilocularis protoscolex) and glycoproteins of T. solium cysticerci are highly specific or unique to alveolar echinococcosis and cysticercosis, respectively. The fourth topic is discussion on miscellaneous prospects including laboratory animal models for echinococcosis and cysticercosis. PMID:9394191

  7. Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ale, Anita; Victor, Bjorn; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2014-01-01

    Taenia asiatica has made a remarkable journey through the scientific literature of the past 50 years, starting with the paradoxical observation of high prevalences of T. saginata-like tapeworms in non-beef consuming populations, to the full description of its mitochondrial genome. Experimental studies conducted in the 1980s and 1990s have made it clear that the life cycle of T. asiatica is comparable to that of T. saginata, except for pigs being the preferential intermediate host and liver the preferential location of the cysts. Whether or not T. asiatica can cause human cysticercosis, as is the case for Taenia solium, remains unclear. Given the specific conditions needed to complete its life cycle, in particular the consumption of raw or poorly cooked pig liver, the transmission of T. asiatica shows an important ethno-geographical association. So far, T. asiatica has been identified in Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, south-central China, Vietnam, Japan and Nepal. Especially this last observation indicates that its distribution is not restricted to South-East-Asia, as was thought so far. Indeed, the molecular tools developed over the last 20 years have made it increasingly possible to differentiate T. asiatica from other taeniids. Such tools also indicated that T. asiatica is related more closely to T. saginata than to T. solium, feeding the debate on its taxonomic status as a separate species versus a subspecies of T. saginata. Furthermore, the genetic diversity within T. asiatica appears to be very minimal, indicating that this parasite may be on the verge of extinction. However, recent studies have identified potential hybrids between T. asiatica and T. saginata, reopening the debate on the genetic diversity of T. asiatica and its status as a separate species. PMID:24450957

  8. Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Taenia asiatica has made a remarkable journey through the scientific literature of the past 50 years, starting with the paradoxical observation of high prevalences of T. saginata-like tapeworms in non-beef consuming populations, to the full description of its mitochondrial genome. Experimental studies conducted in the 1980s and 1990s have made it clear that the life cycle of T. asiatica is comparable to that of T. saginata, except for pigs being the preferential intermediate host and liver the preferential location of the cysts. Whether or not T. asiatica can cause human cysticercosis, as is the case for Taenia solium, remains unclear. Given the specific conditions needed to complete its life cycle, in particular the consumption of raw or poorly cooked pig liver, the transmission of T. asiatica shows an important ethno-geographical association. So far, T. asiatica has been identified in Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, south-central China, Vietnam, Japan and Nepal. Especially this last observation indicates that its distribution is not restricted to South-East-Asia, as was thought so far. Indeed, the molecular tools developed over the last 20 years have made it increasingly possible to differentiate T. asiatica from other taeniids. Such tools also indicated that T. asiatica is related more closely to T. saginata than to T. solium, feeding the debate on its taxonomic status as a separate species versus a subspecies of T. saginata. Furthermore, the genetic diversity within T. asiatica appears to be very minimal, indicating that this parasite may be on the verge of extinction. However, recent studies have identified potential hybrids between T. asiatica and T. saginata, reopening the debate on the genetic diversity of T. asiatica and its status as a separate species. PMID:24450957

  9. Traveling Tapeworm

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-01-28

    In this "gross" activity (on pages 34-46), learners make a life-size model of a human digestive tract, and follow the life of a beef tapeworm as it makes its way through. In Part One, learners color, cut out, and assemble the parts of the digestive system, including full-length small and large intestines. In Part Two, learners cut out pictures of the stages of tapeworm development, and tape them within the model. A beef tapeworm life cycle diagram helps put the human host period within a larger system.

  10. CEREBRAL CYSTICERCOSIS BY TAENIA CRASSICEPS IN A DOMESTIC CAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carnivorous domestic mammals occasionally become atypical intermediate hosts of taeniid tapeworms. In cases of intermittent relapsing neurological disease in cats, cerebral cysticercosis e. g., by Taenia crassiceps may be considered. Significantly this case represents the first record of neurocystic...

  11. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. In the Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the E...

  12. Recent hybridization between Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Kanako; Suzuki, Yumi; Tachi, Eiko; Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Nakao, Minoru; Nkouawa, Agathe; Yanagida, Testuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Ito, Akira; Sato, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Munehiro

    2012-06-01

    Five Taenia tapeworms collected from humans in Tibetan Plateau, Sichuan, China, where three species of human Taenia are sympatrically endemic, were examined for the mitochondrial cox1 gene and two nuclear genes, ef1 and elp. Phylogenetic analyses of these genes revealed that two adult worms showed nuclear-mitochondrial discordance, suggesting that they originated from hybridization between Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. One of two worms had T. asiatica-type mtDNA, whereas another worm had T. saginata-type mtDNA, indicating that reciprocal hybridization between T. saginata and T. asiatica could occur. The worm having T. asiatica-type mtDNA was heterozygous at both nuclear loci with T. saginata-type alleles and T. asiatica-type alleles. In another worm, the ef1 locus was heterozygous with a T. saginata-type alleles and T. asiatica-type alleles, while the elp locus was homozygous with T. saginata-type alleles. Self-fertilization is the main reproductive method of the genus Taenia. Since self-fertilization represents a type of inbreeding, each locus in the offspring would become homozygous over generations with genetic drift. The fact that some nuclear loci are still heterozygous means that hybridization might have occurred recently. Hybridization between T. asiatica and T. saginata is probably an ongoing event in many areas in which they are sympatrically endemic. PMID:22301089

  13. Emerging Infectious Diseases Vol. 9, No. 7, July 2003 885 TsCysti was exclusively endemic (2).

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    :46­50. 4. Subahar R, Hamid A, Purba W, Wandra T, Karma C, Sako Y, et al. Taenia solium infection in Irian M, Sako Y, et al. Dogs as alterna- tive intermediate hosts of Taenia solium in Papua (Irian Jaya. A phylogenetic hypoth- esis for the distribution of two genotypes of the pig tapeworm Taenia solium world- wide

  14. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland.

    PubMed

    Lavikainen, A; Haukisalmi, V; Deksne, G; Holmala, K; Lejeune, M; Isomursu, M; Jokelainen, P; Näreaho, A; Laakkonen, J; Hoberg, E P; Sukura, A

    2013-04-01

    Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland. In total, 135 tapeworms from 72 lynx were subjected to molecular identification based on sequences of 2 mtDNA regions, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes. Available morphological characters of the rostellar hooks and strobila were compared. Two species of Taenia were found: T. laticollis (127 samples) and an unknown Taenia sp. (5 samples). The latter could not be identified to species based on mtDNA, and the rostellar hooks were short relative to those described among other Taenia spp. recorded in felids from the Holarctic region. In the phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences, T. laticollis was placed as a sister species of T. macrocystis, and the unknown Taenia sp. was closely related to T. hydatigena and T. regis. Our analyses suggest that these distinct taeniid tapeworms represent a putative new species of Taenia. The only currently recognized definitive host is L. lynx and the intermediate host is unknown. PMID:23347590

  15. Tapeworm - beef or pork

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are infected when they pass segments of the worm in their stool, especially if the segments are ... Rarely, worms can cause a blockage in the intestine. If pork tapeworm larvae move out of the intestine, they ...

  16. Taenia saginata taeniosis: copro-antigen time-course in a voluntary self-infection.

    PubMed

    Tembo, A; Craig, P S

    2014-06-19

    Human taeniosis due to Taenia saginata is cosmopolitan where beef is consumed; however, there is little or no information on the symptomatology over the early time-course of human infection. Copro-antigen detection is very useful in community screening for human taeniosis, particularly for T. solium, but there are no data on copro-antigen detection in pre-patent infection. In order to provide insight into this, a voluntary self-infection with T. saginata was undertaken and monitored over a 6-month period using a copro-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that we developed using anti-T. saginata antibody based reagents. Tapeworm patency, defined as first proglottid appearance, occurred on day 86 post-infection (pi) and was followed by almost daily release of proglottids (range 1-8) until termination using praziquantel on day 180 pi. The first 10 weeks post-infection (wpi) were essentially asymptomatic, followed by main symptoms of involuntary proglottid discharge throughout the infection period, and abdominal discomfort peaking around 15-19 wpi. Copro-antigens could not be reliably detected until 2 weeks before proglottid patency but then remained highly elevated over the next 15 weeks until treatment. Copro-antigen levels reverted to negative 4 days post-treatment. This time-course study suggests that although copro-antigen ELISA is an excellent diagnostic tool for established patent infections of T. saginata, it may not be reliable for faecal antigen detection in the early infection phase prior to proglottid release for T. saginata and other human taenioses. PMID:24945107

  17. Molecular identification of Taenia specimens after long-term preservation in formalin.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Heon; Eom, Keeseon S

    2011-06-01

    The majority of Taenia tapeworm specimens in the museum collections are usually kept in a formalin fixative for permanent preservation mainly for use in morphological examinations. This study aims to improve Taenia tapeworm identification even of one preserved in formalin for a maximum of 81 years. Taenia tapeworms were collected by the parasite collection unit of the Swiss Natural History Museum and from units in Indonesia, Japan and Korea. A small amount of formalin-fixed tissue (100 mg) was crushed in liquid nitrogen and then soaked in a Tris-EDTA buffer for 3-5h. The sample was then digested in SDS and proteinase K (20 mg/ml) for 3-5h at 56 °C. After the addition of proteinase K (20mg/ml), SDS and hexadecyl-trimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB), incubation was continued for another 3h at 65 °C. A maximum yield of genomic DNA was obtained from this additional step and the quality of genomic DNA obtained with this extraction method seemed to be independent of the duration of storage time in the formalin fixative. The molecular identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed by using PCR and DNA sequences corresponding to position 80-428 of cox1 gene. T. asiatica was detected in the isolates of Indonesia, Japan and Korea. Improvements in the genomic DNA extraction method from formalin fixed museum collections will help in the molecular identification of parasites. PMID:21163367

  18. Evidence of hybridization between Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Munehiro; Nakao, Minoru; Blair, David; Anantaphruti, Malinee T; Waikagul, Jitra; Ito, Akira

    2010-03-01

    There has long been a debate as to the specific status of the cestode Taenia asiatica, with some people regarding it as a distinct species and some preferring to recognize it as a strain of Taenia saginata. The balance of current opinion seems to be that T. asiatica is a distinct species. In this study we performed an allelic analysis to explore the possibility of gene exchange between these closely related taxa. In total, 38 taeniid tapeworms were collected from humans living in many localities including Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand where the two species are sympatric. A mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-based multiplex PCR tentatively identified those parasites as T. asiatica (n=20) and T. saginata (n=18). Phylogenetic analyses of a mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene and two nuclear loci, for elongation factor-1 alpha (ef1) and ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM)-like protein (elp), assigned all except two individual parasites to the species indicated by multiplex PCR. The two exceptional individuals, from Kanchanaburi Province, showed a discrepancy between the mtDNA and nuclear DNA phylogenies. In spite of their possession of sequences typical of the T. saginata cox1 gene, both were homozygous at the elp locus for one of the alleles found in T. asiatica. At the ef1 locus, one individual was homozygous for the allele found at high frequency in T. asiatica while the other was homozygous for the major allele in T. saginata. These findings are evidence of occasional hybridization between the two species, although the possibility of retention of ancestral polymorphism cannot be excluded. PMID:19874910

  19. Molecular identification of species of Taenia causing bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hailemariam, Z; Nakao, M; Menkir, S; Lavikainen, A; Iwaki, T; Yanagida, T; Okamoto, M; Ito, A

    2014-09-01

    Bovine cysticercosis causing damage to the beef industry is closely linked to human taeniasis due to Taenia saginata. In African countries, Taenia spp. from wildlife are also involved as possible sources of infections in livestock. To identify the aetiological agents of bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia, cysticerci were collected from 41 cattle slaughtered in the eastern and central areas during 2010-2012. A single cysticercus per animal was subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, and the resultant sequence was compared with those of members of the genus Taenia. Although 38 out of 41 cysticerci (92.7%) were identified as T. saginata, three samples (7.3%) showed the hitherto unknown sequences of Taenia sp., which is distantly related to Taenia solium, Taenia arctos and Taenia ovis. Old literatures suggest it to be Taenia hyaenae, but morphological identification of species could not be completed by observing only the larval samples. PMID:23452760

  20. Antigens from Taenia crassiceps cysticerci used in complement fixation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and western blot (immunoblot) for diagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, E; Ordoñez, G; Sotelo, J

    1995-01-01

    Antigens from Taenia solium cysticerci for the immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis are scarce and difficult to obtain. We studied the reliability of antigens from Taenia crassiceps cysticerci as a substitute for those from T. solium in three diagnostic tests: complement fixation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blot (immunoblot). Precision rates of the three tests of 93, 99, and 96%, respectively, were found. Cysticerci from T. crassiceps can be easily obtained in large quantities and can be effectively used for the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis. PMID:8586728

  1. Taenia saginata: polymerase chain reaction for taeniasis diagnosis in human fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Cáris Maroni; Lima, Luiz Gustavo Ferraz; Manoel, Camila Santos; Pereira, Rodrigo Norberto; Nakano, Mauro Massaharu; Garcia, José Fernando

    2003-01-01

    The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a zoonosis of great medical and economic importance where humans play an important role as the carrier of adult stage of Taenia solium and Taenia saginata. This paper describes PCR standardization that can be applied in human fecal samples for taeniasis diagnosis. DNA extraction was achieved with DNAzol reagent, after egg disruption with glass beads. DNA prepared from fecal specimens was first purified and PCR amplified generating fragments of 170 and 600 bp. The assay described herein provides an important tool for T. saginata identification in human fecal samples. PMID:12932762

  2. Geographical distribution of Taenia asiatica and related species.

    PubMed

    Eom, Keeseon S; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Rim, Han-Jong

    2009-10-01

    Geographical information of Taenia asiatica is reviewed together with that of T. solium and T. saginata. Current distribution of T. asiatica was found to be mostly from Asian countries: the Republic of Korea, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Thailand. Molecular genotypic techniques have found out more countries with T. asiatica from Japan, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Specimens used in this paper were collected from around the world and mostly during international collaboration projects of Korean foundations for parasite control activities (1995-2009) in developing countries. PMID:19885327

  3. The effect of micronised nitroscanate on Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia hydatigena infections in dogs.

    PubMed

    Gemmel, M A; Johnstone, P D; Oudemans, G

    1977-05-01

    Trials with micronised nitroscanate carried out on 170 dogs infected with either Echinococcus granulosus or Taenia hydatigena indicated that a single treatment at 62-5 mg/kg and 16 mg/kg respectively significantly reduced the proportion of dogs infected with tapeworms. Some evidence is presented that micronisation may give a fourfold increase in the efficiency of nitroscanate in worm removal without increasing the toxic effects to the dog. PMID:877440

  4. -Fitness impacts of tapeworm parasitism on wild gelada monkeys at Guassa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nga; Fashing, Peter J; Boyd, Derek A; Barry, Tyler S; Burke, Ryan J; Goodale, C Barret; Jones, Sorrel C Z; Kerby, Jeffrey T; Kellogg, Bryce S; Lee, Laura M; Miller, Carrie M; Nurmi, Niina O; Ramsay, Malcolm S; Reynolds, Jason D; Stewart, Kathrine M; Turner, Taylor J; Venkataraman, Vivek V; Knauf, Yvonne; Roos, Christian; Knauf, Sascha

    2015-05-01

    Parasitism is expected to impact host morbidity or mortality, although the fitness costs of parasitism have rarely been quantified for wildlife hosts. Tapeworms in the genus Taenia exploit a variety of vertebrates, including livestock, humans, and geladas (Theropithecus gelada), monkeys endemic to the alpine grasslands of Ethiopia. Despite Taenia's adverse societal and economic impacts, we know little about the prevalence of disease associated with Taenia infection in wildlife or the impacts of this disease on host health, mortality and reproduction. We monitored geladas at Guassa, Ethiopia over a continuous 6½ year period for external evidence (cysts or coenuri) of Taenia-associated disease (coenurosis) and evaluated the impact of coenurosis on host survival and reproduction. We also identified (through genetic and histological analyses) the tapeworms causing coenurosis in wild geladas at Guassa as Taenia serialis. Nearly 1/3 of adult geladas at Guassa possessed ?1 coenurus at some point in the study. Coenurosis adversely impacted gelada survival and reproduction at Guassa and this impact spanned two generations: adults with coenuri suffered higher mortality than members of their sex without coenuri and offspring of females with coenuri also suffered higher mortality. Coenurosis also negatively affected adult reproduction, lengthening interbirth intervals and reducing the likelihood that males successfully assumed reproductive control over units of females. Our study provides the first empirical evidence that coenurosis increases mortality and reduces fertility in wild nonhuman primate hosts. Our research highlights the value of longitudinal monitoring of individually recognized animals in natural populations for advancing knowledge of parasite-host evolutionary dynamics and offering clues to the etiology and control of infectious disease. Am. J. Primatol. 77:579-594, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25716944

  5. Encysted Tenia solium larva of oral cavity: Case report with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Bhuvana; Suma, Gundareddy N; Dhillon, Manu; Srivastava, Siddharth; Sharma, Manisha Lakhanpal; Malik, Sangeeta Singh

    2012-01-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by the larvae of the pig tapeworm, Tenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare event and is often a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. We report a 12-year-old girl who presented with a single, painless, nodule on the lower lip that was diagnosed as cysticercosis. Current literature on the clinical presentations, investigations, and treatment of the condition has been reviewed in this article. We have also proposed a set of criteria for the diagnosis of oral cysticercosis. PMID:23230370

  6. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  7. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in wolves (Canis lupus), brown bears (Ursus arctos) and cervids from North Europe and Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lavikainen, Antti; Laaksonen, Sauli; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Oksanen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Meri, Seppo

    2011-09-01

    Taenia tapeworms of Finnish and Swedish wolves (Canis lupus) and Finnish brown bears (Ursus arctos), and muscle cysticerci of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus), Alaskan Grant's caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) and Alaskan moose (Alces americanus) were identified on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of a 396 bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Two species were found from wolves: Taenia hydatigena and Taenia krabbei. The cysticerci of reindeer, caribou and one moose also represented T. krabbei. Most of the cysticercal specimens from Alaskan moose, however, belonged to an unknown T. krabbei-like species, which had been reported previously from Eurasian elks (Alces alces) from Finland. Strobilate stages from two bears belonged to this species as well. The present results suggest that this novel Taenia sp. has a Holarctic distribution and uses Alces spp. as intermediate and ursids as final hosts. PMID:21571090

  8. A digest of elasmobranch tapeworms.

    PubMed

    Caira, Janine N; Jensen, Kirsten

    2014-08-01

    This review brings together decades of work on elasmobranch tapeworms. The field has advanced significantly over the past 20 yr, with an emphasis on the discovery and description of novel taxa, and the establishment of phylogenetic frameworks for individual orders and their interrelationships. Tapeworms parasitizing elasmobranchs represent 9 orders and include 977 species and 201 genera-over 250 species and 50 genera are new within the last 2 decades. The 9 orders are treated individually, highlighting recent assessments of phylogenetic relationships informed by molecular sequence data. All but the "Tetraphyllidea" are monophyletic. Although much remains to be learned about their interrelationships, existing phylogenetic hypotheses suggest that elasmobranch tapeworms have played a key role in the evolution of the cestodes of essentially all other vertebrate groups. The apical organ is a defining feature (i.e., a synapomorphy) of a clade consisting of acetabulate taxa and Litobothriidea. Novel hook amino acid composition data support the independent origin of hooks in the various groups of hooked tapeworms. Cestode records exist for representatives of most of the major groups of elasmobranchs, however skates (Rajiformes) and catsharks ("Scyliorhinidae") are particularly neglected in terms of species sampled. The majority of tapeworm species are extremely host-specific exhibiting species-specific (i.e., oioxenous) associations with their hosts. Rapid advancements in elasmobranch taxonomy, with over 300 of the 1,200 species appearing new in the past 20 yr, signal the need for careful attention to be paid to host identifications; such identifications are best documented using a combination of specimen, photographic, and molecular data. Above the species level, many cestode taxa are restricted to host orders, families, or even genera. Documentation of these affiliations allows robust predictions to be made regarding the cestode faunas of unexplored elasmobranchs. Trypanorhynchs are the notable exceptions. Life cycles remain poorly known. Recent applications of molecular methods to larval identifications have reinvigorated this area of research. Tapeworms are more diverse in elasmobranchs of tropical and subtropical waters, but they occur globally not only at the poles and in deep waters, but also in freshwaters of South America and Southeast Asia. The cestode faunas of batoids are much more speciose and complex than those of sharks. The faunas of deeper water sharks are particularly depauperate. The tapeworms of elasmobranchs and their hosts are now among the most well documented host-parasite systems in existence. This system has not yet reached its potential as a resource for investigations of basic ecological and evolutionary principles. PMID:24845052

  9. Effects of high pressure processing on hatching of eggs of the zoonotic rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta.

    PubMed

    Merwad, A M A; Mitchell, S M; Zajac, A M; Flick, G J; Lindsay, D S

    2011-03-10

    High hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) is an effective non-thermal treatment to remove pathogens from a variety of food and food products. It has been extensively examined using prokaryotic organisms but has had limited study on eukaryotic organisms. Treatment using HPP has been shown to be effective in inactivating nematode larvae in food and Ascaris suum eggs. Nothing is known on the efficacy of HPP on tapeworm cysts or eggs. Eggs of important zoonotic tapeworms including Echinococcus and Taenia spp. can potentially contaminate water and food intended for human consumption. The present study examined the efficacy of HPP on the viability of Hymenolepis diminuta eggs. Efficacy of HPP treatment was measured using an egg hatch assay in two experiments. One thousand unhatched H. diminuta eggs in Hanks balanced salt solution were packaged in sealable bags and exposed to 100-600megapascals (MPa; 1MPa=10atm=147psi) for 60s in a commercial HPP unit. Positive (no HPP) and negative (No HPP but frozen/thawed) controls were examined in each experiment. None of the HPP untreated and frozen eggs (negative controls) were able to hatch or exclude trypan blue when placed in the hatching solution in experiment 1 or 2. HPP untreated and nonfrozen eggs (positive controls) hatched and excluded trypan blue; 75% were positive in experiment 1 and 80% were positive in experiment 2. No hatched eggs were observed when they were exposed to 300-600MPa for 60s. Treatment at 400MPa and above caused rupturing of the oncosphere. Results from this study indicate that HPP is a possible method to inactivate tapeworm eggs and that the susceptibility of tapeworm eggs to HPP is similar to or greater than that of nematode eggs or tissue larvae. PMID:21131130

  10. Development of the S3Pvac vaccine against murine Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Hernández, Marisela; Rosas, Gabriela; Martínez, José J; Fleury, Agnès; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Aluja, Aline; Larralde, Carlos

    2013-08-01

    Our work of the last 25 yr was concerned with the development of a vaccine aimed to prevent porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis and was based on cross-reacting Taenia crassiceps antigens that had proved protective against experimental intraperitoneal murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis (EIMTcC). In recent times the efficacy of the vaccine has been considered in need of confirmation, and the use of EIMTcC has been questioned as a valid tool in screening for vaccine candidates among the many antigens possibly involved. A review of our work divided in 2 parts is presented at this point, the first dealing with EIMTcC and the second with porcine T. solium cysticercosis (presented in this issue). Herein, we revise our results using EIMTcC as a measure of the protective capacity of T. crassiceps complex antigen mixtures, of purified native antigens, and of S3Pvac anti-cysticercosis vaccine composed by 3 protective peptides: GK-1, KETc1, and KETc12 either synthetic or recombinantly expressed and collectively or separately, by diverse delivery systems when administered at different doses and by different routes. Statistical analyses of the data lead confidently to the strong inference that S3Pvac is indeed an effective vaccine against EIMTcC via specific and non-specific mechanisms of protection. PMID:23409920

  11. First report of Taenia arctos (Cestoda: Taeniidae) from grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in North America.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Stefano; Lejeune, Manigandan; Verocai, Guilherme G; Duignan, Pádraig J

    2014-04-01

    The cestode Taenia arctos was found at necropsy in the small intestine of a grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and a black bear (Ursus americanus) from Kananaskis Country in southwestern Alberta, Canada. The autolysis of the tapeworm specimens precluded detailed morphological characterization of the parasites but molecular analysis based on mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene confirmed their identity as T. arctos. This is the first report of T. arctos from definitive hosts in North America. Its detection in Canadian grizzly and black bears further supports the Holarctic distribution of this tapeworm species and its specificity for ursids as final hosts. Previously, T. arctos was unambiguously described at its adult stage in brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos) from Finland, and as larval stages in Eurasian elk (Alces alces) from Finland and moose (Alces americanus) from Alaska, USA. Given the morphological similarity between T. arctos and other Taenia species, the present study underlines the potential for misidentification of tapeworm taxa in previous parasitological reports from bears and moose across North America. The biogeographical history of both definitive and intermediate hosts in the Holarctic suggests an ancient interaction between U. arctos, Alces spp., and T. arctos, and a relatively recent host-switching event in U. americanus. PMID:24382413

  12. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and dingo/domestic dog hybrids), as sylvatic hosts for Australian Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, David J.; Urwin, Nigel A.R.; Williams, Thomas M.; Mitchell, Kate L.; Lievaart, Jan J.; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Foxes (n = 499), shot during vertebrate pest control programs, were collected in various sites in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA). Wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and their hybrids with domestic dogs) (n = 52) captured also as part of vertebrate pest control programs were collected from several sites in the ACT and NSW. The intestine from each fox and wild dog was collected, and all Taenia tapeworms identified morphologically were collected and identified to species based on the DNA sequence of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rrnS) gene. Taenia species were recovered from 6.0% of the ACT/NSW foxes, 5.1% of WA foxes and 46.1% of ACT/NSW wild dogs. Taenia ovis was recovered from two foxes, 1/80 from Jugiong, NSW and 1/102 from Katanning, WA. We confirm from rrnS sequences the presence of T. ovis in cysts from hearts and diaphragms and Taeniahydatigena in cysts from livers of sheep in Australia. T.ovis was not recovered from any of the wild dogs examined but T. hydatigena were recovered from 4(8.3%) wild dogs and a single fox. With foxes identified as a definitive host for T. ovis in Australia, new control strategies to stop transmission of T. ovis to sheep need to be adopted. PMID:25161904

  13. Taenia spp. infections in wildlife in the Bangweulu and Kafue flood plains ecosystems of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Muma, J B; Gabriël, S; Munyeme, M; Munang'andu, H M; Victor, B; Dorny, P; Nalubamba, K S; Siamudaala, V; Mwape, K E

    2014-09-15

    Taenia spp. have an indirect life cycle, cycling between a definitive and an intermediate host with zoonotic species causing public health problems in many developing countries. During the course of 2 separate surveys in Zambia (2004 and 2009), the presence of Taenia larval stages (cysticerci) was examined in Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis), Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithermani) and other wildlife species from the Kafue and Bangweulu flood plains. Examinations involved post-mortem inspection and serum specific antigen detection. The recovered cysts from seven carcasses were characterised using PCR and DNA sequence analysis. The overall proportion of infection in wildlife on post-mortem examination was 19.0% (95% CI: 9.1-29.0%). The proportion of infected wildlife based on post-mortem examinations in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 28.6% (95% CI: 13.3-43.9%), while the seroprevalence was estimated at 25.0% (95% CI: 2.9-47.1%). The seroprevalence for cattle in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 61.5% (95% CI: 42.0-81.0%) while that of Kafue lechwe in the same ecosystem was estimated at 66.6% (95% CI: 45.6-85.7%). Infection rates were higher in Kafue lechwe than in Black lechwe suggesting differences in the exposure patterns. The sequencing results indicated that none of the recovered cysts were either Taenia solium or Taenia saginata. We therefore conclude they most likely belong to a less studied (wildlife) Taenia species that requires further characterisation. PMID:25090953

  14. [Investigation on Taenia sp. infection in Midu County of Yunnan Province].

    PubMed

    Fang, Wen; Liu, Hong-Kun; Li, Ke-Rong; Luo, Hua; Xu, Xin; Chen, Feng; Li, Rong; Liu, Ji-Bing; Huang, Ming-Hao; Li, Su-Mei

    2012-04-30

    The current status and species of Taenia sp. were investigated in Midu County by sedimentation method to examine eggs of Taenia sp. in stool, questionnairing as well as deworming by areca-pumpkin seeds in October-December, 2010. The infection rate of Taenia sp. was 15.7% (65/414). Among the positives, it was fairly high in the age groups of 40- and 50-, being 24% (21/85) and 26% (15/57), respectively. 26 cases with positive stool examination and 47 cases with a history of discharging proglottids were treated. Adult worms were collected from all 26 egg positive cases and 23 persons discharging proglottids. The highest number of adult worms expelled was 11 in a woman, 2 worms from another villager, but only one worm each from all other cases. 15 tapeworms with scolex and mature proglottids were examined and morphologically identified as T. asiatia. The high prevalence was related to the residents' dietetic habits (eg. eating raw pork and liver) , behaviour (eg. defecating in field) , and the egg-contaminated environment (eg. by untreated feces). PMID:22908811

  15. Taenia solium cysticercosis: An under-recognized but serious publica health problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. C. W. Tsang; M. Wilson

    1995-01-01

    The true impact and scope of the disease cysticercosis have been obscured by the lack of sensitive and specific diagnostic tools for the collection of reliable epidemiological data. Diagnosis has hitherto been dependent on clinical observations, radiologic imaging, and serologic assays that employ crude, non-specific antigens. These methods suffer from high cost and inaccessibility, and lack reliability. Development of the

  16. Recombinant bacteriophage-based multiepitope vaccine against Taenia solium pig cysticercosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Manoutcharian; Alicia D??az-Orea; Goar Gevorkian; Gladis Fragoso; Gonzalo Acero; Erik González; Aline de Aluja; Nelly Villalobos; Eduardo Gómez-Conde; Edda Sciutto

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the capacity of recombinant phages to deliver antigens for vaccination against porcine cysticercosis. Thus, three peptides (KETc1, KETc12, GK1) and a recombinant antigen KETc7, previously proven to induce high levels of protection against pig cysticercosis, were expressed on the surface of the M13 bacteriophage at multiple copies. The pool of these four

  17. Genetic variability of Taenia saginata inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Sima; Salavati, Reza; Beech, Robin N; Babaei, Zahra; Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2015-04-01

    Taenia saginata is an important tapeworm, infecting humans in many parts of the world. The present study was undertaken to identify inter- and intraspecific variation of T. saginata isolated from cattle in different parts of Iran using two mitochondrial CO1 and 12S rRNA genes. Up to 105 bovine specimens of T. saginata were collected from 20 slaughterhouses in three provinces of Iran. DNA were extracted from the metacestode Cysticercus bovis. After PCR amplification, sequencing of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes were carried out and two phylogenetic analyses of the sequence data were generated by Bayesian inference on CO1 and 12S rRNA sequences. Sequence analyses of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes showed 11 and 29 representative profiles respectively. The level of pairwise nucleotide variation between individual haplotypes of CO1 gene was 0.3-2.4 % while the overall nucleotide variation among all 11 haplotypes was 4.6 %. For 12S rRNA sequence data, level of pairwise nucleotide variation was 0.2-2.5 % and the overall nucleotide variation was determined as 5.8 % among 29 haplotypes of 12S rRNA gene. Considerable genetic diversity was found in both mitochondrial genes particularly in 12S rRNA gene. PMID:25687521

  18. [Cloning and sequence analysis of thioredoxin peroxidase gene from Taenia multiceps].

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-guang; Li, Wen-hui; Gai, Wen-yan; Yao, Ju-xia; Qu, Zi-gang; Jia, Wan-zhong; Radu, Blaga; Fu, Bao-quan

    2011-02-28

    Protoscoleces of Taenia multiceps were collected from the naturally infected sheep and total RNA was extracted. Specific primers were designed according to TaHe2-D11 mRNA sequence and T. multiceps thioredoxin peroxidase gene (TmTPx) was amplified by RT-PCR. PCR products were ligated into pMD18-T vector and transformed to E. coli DH5alpha. The recombinant plasmids were identified by restriction digestion and sequencing. A 614 bp cDNA was amplified. The TmTPx open reading frame (591 bp) encoded a 196-amino acid protein with Mr 21,690, pI 7.61. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that TmTPx had a typical 2-Cys Prx conserved domain. Phylogenetic tree revealed that T. multiceps had the closest relationship to T. asiatica, followed by T. solium and T. crassiceps, E. granulosus and E. multilocularis. PMID:21823330

  19. The effect of nitroscanate tablets of Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia hydatigena infections in dogs.

    PubMed

    Gemmell, M A; Johnstone, P D; Oudemans, G

    1979-09-01

    Tablets of micronised nitroscanate (nominal particle size 2--3 microns) were given to a total of 190 dogs that had been experimentally infected with either Echinococcus granulosus or Taenia hydatigena. The efficiency of the drug in tablet form in freeing dogs from tapeworms, was investigated. The dose rate at which 50 per cent of normally fed dogs can be expected to be freed from E granulosus was found to be 89 mg/kg (95 per cent confidence limits 55 mg/kg to 140 mg/kg). The 90 per cent effective dose rate was not determined within the range 32 mg/kg to 250 mg/kg. The dose rate at which 90 per cent of normally fed dogs can be expected to be freed from T hydatigena was 37 mg/kg (95 per cent confidence limits 23 mg/kg to 60 mg/kg). PMID:523820

  20. Dipstick dot ELISA for the detection of Taenia coproantigens in humans.

    PubMed

    Allan, J C; Mencos, F; Garcia-Noval, J; Sarti, E; Flisser, A; Wang, Y; Liu, D; Craig, P S

    1993-07-01

    A dipstick dot ELISA for detection of Taenia-specific coproantigens was developed. The test was based on a sandwich ELISA using antibodies raised against adult Taenia solium. Antibodies were absorbed to nitrocellulose paper previously adhered to acetate plastic to form dipsticks. Once blocked with 5% skimmed milk and dried the antibody-coated dipsticks were stable for several weeks at room temperature. Both micro and dot ELISA formats were genus specific although the dot ELISA was less sensitive than the micro ELISA based on the same antiserum. During field studies, in which the majority of samples were tested in rural villages soon after collection, 3728 samples were tested. All samples were also examined by microscopy using formol ether concentration and individuals questioned to determine whether they were aware of being infected. After the initial diagnostic work individuals were treated with taeniacidal drugs for worm recovery. Use of the coproantigen test significantly increased the number of cases diagnosed. Of the 41 cases diagnosed by the three diagnostic techniques combined 31 were detected by the dipstick assay making it the most sensitive technique employed. The specificity of the dipstick assay was 99.9% with a positive predictive value of 88.6%. The combined diagnostic approach did not, however, diagnose all cases. The coproantigen test was fast and easy to use. Further improvements may make the dipstick test suitable for wide-scale use in field studies and diagnostic laboratories. PMID:8356000

  1. Unusual clinical case: extraluminal manifestation of a tapeworm from the eviscerated midline incision in a post-surgery patient.

    PubMed

    Dural, Ahmet Cem; Celik, Muhammet Ferhat; Temizgonul, Baha; Unsal, Mustafa Gokhan; Akarsu, Cevher; Gonenc, Murat; Kalayci, Mustafa Uygar; Alis, Halil

    2015-01-01

    Taenia saginata infestation is one of the most common cestode infestations in humans, that may cause gastrointestinal tract related complications as a result of obstruction, perforation or anastomotic leakage. A 55-year-old male patient who was receiving palliative chemotherapy for stage IV gastric cancer was admitted to the emergency department for abdominal pain. A hollow viscus organ perforation was diagnosed and an emergency surgery was performed. On postoperative day 5, the patient's midline incision eviscerated and a moving taenia emerged, with abundant particulated fluid from the incision line. The patient was admitted for abdominal surgery due to suspected bowel perforation. During the abdominal exploration, a relaxed purse stitch of the feeding tube was observed and no other bowel perforations were seen. The patient underwent two planned surgery for abdominal cavity lavage after the removal of cestode. Unfortunately, the patient died sixteen days after his admission to the intensive care unit. This is the first case describing an extraluminal manifestation of a tapeworm in a midline incision from evisceration without intestinal perforation. PMID:25881535

  2. Distribution of ligulid tapeworms in China.

    PubMed

    Liao, X H; Liang, Z X

    1987-02-01

    A survey of ligulid tapeworms carried out from 1979 through 1985 covered 29 provinces and autonomous regions in China. Of the 25,800 fishes of 219 species that were dissected, fishes of 43 species were found to serve as second intermediate hosts. These tapeworms inflict heavy losses on freshwater commercial fisheries. Their distribution indicates 3 distinct major zones: the Qing Zang Gaoyuan is dominated by Ligula; the rest of China, with the exception of a crescent area in Guangdong Province bordering part of the southern coast down to Hainan Island, is dominated by Digramma; and a saddle-shaped corridor, north of 42 degrees N latitude, is characterized by a mix of both genera. Schizothoracinae are the primary hosts for Ligula, of which only Gymnocypris przewalskii przewalskii (Kessler) has economic value. Digramma is predominant in Carassius auratus auratus L. in reservoirs and lakes of 3 main water systems, Heilongjiang, Huang He (the Yellow River), and Chang Jiang (the Yangtze River), and in cultured cyprinids along the lower section of Huang He as well as in bodies of water on the Loess Plateau. Generic validity of ligulids and host specificity, their infection and periodicity, and control methods are discussed. PMID:3572664

  3. NOVEL ANTIGENS FOR NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS: SIMPLE METHOD FOR PREPARATION AND EVALUATION FOR SERODIAGNOSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AKIRA ITO; AGUSTIN PLANCARTE; LIANG MA; YOON KONG; ANA FLISSER; SEUNG-YULL CHO; YUE-HAN LIU; SHADEN KAMHAWI; MARSHALL W. LIGHTOWLERS; PETER M. SCHANTZ

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), which is caused by infection with the larval stage of the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium), is now recognized as a major cause of neurologic diseases in countries where the infection is endemic. Migration of persons from these countries is resulting in diagnosis and local transmission in nonendemic countries at increasing rates. In the present study, immunoblotting and an

  4. Larval Tapeworm Found on a Coral Reef Fish

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The most common parasites found in the Palmyra reef fish sampled were larval tapeworms. The abundance of parasites may be an indicator of a healthy ecosystem instead of an ill one as commonly believed. ...

  5. Fish tapeworm infections (diphyllobothriasis) in Canada, particularly British Columbia.

    PubMed Central

    Ching, H. L.

    1984-01-01

    Although the risk of diphyllobothriasis is generally low in Canada, fish tapeworm infections seem to have become more frequent in recent years. This increase is probably a consequence of the growing popularity of raw or inadequately cooked ethnic fish dishes or of a preference for lightly cooked fish, especially salmon. Only freshwater fish become infected with the larvae, but not everyone may realize that salmon can acquire the parasites before they leave their native lakes and rivers for the sea. If fish known to be sources of the tapeworms are to be eaten raw they should first be well frozen or salted to kill the larvae. Physicians should regard fish tapeworm infection as a notifiable disease. In Canada niclosamide, the drug of choice, is available from the manufacturer on a patient-by-patient basis. PMID:6713334

  6. Interrelationships and Evolution of the Tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter D. Olson; D. Timothy J. Littlewood; Rodney A. Bray; Jean Mariaux

    2001-01-01

    Interrelationships of the tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) were examined by use of small (SSU) and large (LSU) subunit ribosomal DNA sequences and morphological characters. Fifty new complete SSU sequences were added to 21 sequences previously determined, and 71 new LSU (D1–D3) sequences were determined for the complementary set of taxa representing each of the major lineages of cestodes as currently understood.

  7. The present situation and towards the prevention and control of neurocysticercosis on the tropical island, Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Wandra, Toni; Swastika, Kadek; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Purba, Ivan Elisabeth; Sudarmaja, I Made; Yoshida, Takahiko; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Eka Diarthini, Ni Luh Putu; Sri Laksemi, Dewa Ayu Agus; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Nakao, Minoru; Ito, Akira

    2015-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), which is caused by accidental ingestion of eggs of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, was common in Bali, Indonesia until the early 1990s. However, improved education on hygiene and sanitation, a move to keeping pigs indoors, and improvement of economic and living conditions have substantially reduced the occurrence of NCC in Bali. Since 2011, T. solium tapeworm carriers (T. solium taeniasis) and heavily infected pigs and dogs have exclusively been detected from villages in mountainous regions of northeastern Bali where NCC and ocular cysticercosis (OCC) cases have also been identified. In response to this continued area of high infection, a one-day workshop was convened to discuss how to prevent and control this potentially lethal zoonotic parasitic infection in Bali. This review presents an overview of the current status of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis in Indonesia and proposes a strategy for the prevention and control of this zoonosis in Bali. PMID:25779290

  8. The emergence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Eastern and Southern Africa as a serious agricultural problem and public health risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isaac K. Phiri; Helena Ngowi; Sonia Afonso; Elizabeth Matenga; Mathias Boa; Samson Mukaratirwa; Samuel Githigia; Margaret Saimo; Chummy Sikasunge; Ndichu Maingi; George W. Lubega; Ayub Kassuku; Lynne Michael; Seter Siziya; Rosina C. Krecek; Emilia Noormahomed; Manuela Vilhena; Pierre Dorny; A. Lee Willingham III

    2003-01-01

    Pig production has increased significantly in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region during the past decade, especially in rural, resource-poor, smallholder communities. Concurrent with the increase in smallholder pig keeping and pork consumption, there have been increasing reports of porcine cysticercosis in the ESA region. This article reviews the findings concerning the presence and impact of porcine cysticercosis in

  9. The emergence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Eastern and Southern Africa as a serious agricultural problem and public health risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isaac K. Phiri; Helena Ngowi; Sonia Afonso; Elizabeth Matenga; Mathias Boa; Samson Mukaratirwa; Samuel Githigia; Margaret Saimo; Chummy Sikasunge; Ndichu Maingi; George W. Lubega; Ayub Kassuku; Lynne Michael; Seter Siziya; Rosina C. Krecek; Emilia Noormahomed; Manuela Vilhena; A. Lee Willingham

    Pig production has increased significantly in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region during the past decade, especially in rural, resource-poor, smallholder communities. Concurrent with the increase in smallholder pig keeping and pork consumption, there have been increasing reports of porcine cysticercosis in the ESA region. This article reviews the findings concerning the presence and impact of porcine cysticercosis in

  10. Temporal fluctuations in the sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs in Mbeya Region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Braae, Uffe; Magnussen, Pascal; Lekule, Faustin; Harrison, Wendy; Johansen, Maria

    2014-12-01

    BackgroundPorcine cysticercosis is an emerging agricultural problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This has been documented primarily through cross-sectional studies, however detailed knowledge of the transmission dynamics of this disease in sub-Saharan Africa is lacking. This study aims to describe seasonal variations in sero-prevalence of antigen ELISA positive porcine cysticercosis in an endemic area.MethodsA longitudinal study composed of three cross-sectional surveys was carried out in Mbeya Region, Tanzania; the first two six months apart (March/April 2012 and October/November 2012) and the last eight months later (July/August 2013). Venous blood was collected from pigs in 22 villages and analysed using Ag-ELISA.ResultsIn each survey between 800¿1000 serum samples were collected. The first survey revealed a cysticercosis sero-prevalence of 15% (n¿=¿822, 95%CI: 13-18%). The sero-prevalence had significantly increased to 24% (p¿<¿0.001, ¿2-test, n¿=¿812, 95%CI: 21-27%) at the time of the 6 month follow up. At 14-months the sero-prevalence had dropped to 20% (p¿=¿0.053, ¿2-test, n¿=¿998, 95%CI: 18-23%). Overall, this was a reduction in sero-prevalence compared with a study conducted in 2007 in the same area, where 31% (186/600) of pigs were found positive.ConclusionConfined pigs did not have a lower sero-prevalence compared to free roaming pigs in any of the three surveys. Several factors may have contributed to the observed fluctuations such as African swine fever or seasonal variation in local crop production practices. Also, as the Ag-ELISA assay used is not species specific, variation in transmission of T. hydatigena could potentially influence the results. The observed fluctuations contradict a theoretical model which predicts a stable equilibrium, which only considers a two-compartment (pig and human) model excluding the effect of the environment. Whether the disease has an endemic equilibrium, or undergoes fluctuations dependent on extrinsic and/or socio-economic factors remains to be elucidated. PMID:25471610

  11. Isolation of polymorphic microsatellite loci from the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minoru Nakao; Yasuhito Sako; Akira Ito

    2003-01-01

    Two microsatellites were isolated from a genomic library of Echinococcus multilocularis. The microsatellites, designated EMms1 and EMms2, consist of tandem repeats of CAC-trinucleotide unit. Southern blot hybridization suggests that each of them is a single locus. Using fox-derived wild tapeworms (N=104), PCR-amplification of microsatellites was performed to assess the usefulness of these loci. We found four alleles of EMms1 and

  12. The Styx Field Trial: effect of treatment of the definitive host for tapeworms on larval forms in the intermediate host.

    PubMed

    Gemmell, M A

    1978-01-01

    A 13-year assessment has been made of the effectiveness of a monthly drug treatment programme for the control of tapeworms in dogs in order to prevent hydatidosis (Echinococcus granulosus) and cysticercosis (Taenia hydatigena and T. ovis) in sheep. The age-specific prevalence of T. hydatigena in lambs was used as the principal indicator. The trial was carried out in the Styx Valley of the Maniototo Plain in the South Island of New Zealand.Over an 8-year period dogs were treated monthly with bunamidine hydrochloride at about 25 mg/kg with little effect on the prevalence of T. hydatigena in lambs. The addition of niclosamide at 50 mg/kg for 1 year also had little effect. Eggs appeared to survive from one season to the next. Those shed prior to the lamb-rearing season gave rise to endemic-type patterns; whereas patent infections occurring during this period rapidly gave rise to an epidemic-type pattern or a "cysticercosis storm". In this 9-year period there were 16 "cysticercosis storms" and all susceptible lambs were infected. These storms did not necessarily give rise to a similar prevalence on neighbouring farms, but may have contributed to the overall infective pattern. A similar situation occurred in the first year that nitroscanate at 100 mg/kg was introduced. During this 10-year period, arecoline surveillance of the dog population was undertaken in the remainder of the county and many dogs were found to harbour tapeworms. Both resident and introduced dogs may have contributed to the infective patterns in the Styx Valley.Treatment with nitroscanate was continued monthly in the Styx Valley and niclosamide was used in the remainder of the County for a further 3 years. There was a marked reduction in the age-specific prevalence and lambs on many farms were free from T. hydatigena at slaughter. However, one "breakdown" occurred and this was almost certainly autochthonous.Comparisons with an earlier period when arecoline surveillance was used in the Styx Valley, indicate that the present evidence favours a drug-orientated treatment programme of the definitive host for the control of cysticercosis. However, "breakdowns" caused by either autochthonous or itinerant sources have profound effects, since they involve all susceptible age-cohorts including those that have never been infected and those that have lost the immunity induced by an earlier infection. PMID:308408

  13. Identification of Loci Controlling Restriction of Parasite Growth in Experimental Taenia crassiceps Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Anny; Sciutto-Conde, Edda; Fragoso-González, Gladis; Gros, Philippe; Aguilar-Delfin, Irma

    2011-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) caused by Taenia solium is a parasitic disease of the central nervous system that is endemic in many developing countries. In this study, a genetic approach using the murine intraperitoneal cysticercosis caused by the related cestode Taenia crassiceps was employed to identify host factors that regulate the establishment and proliferation of the parasite. A/J mice are permissive to T. crassiceps infection while C57BL/6J mice (B6) are comparatively restrictive, with a 10-fold difference in numbers of peritoneal cysticerci recovered 30 days after infection. The genetic basis of this inter-strain difference was explored using 34 AcB/BcA recombinant congenic strains derived from A/J and B6 progenitors, that were phenotyped for T. crassiceps replication. In agreement with their genetic background, most AcB strains (A/J-derived) were found to be permissive to infection while most BcA strains (B6-derived) were restrictive with the exception of a few discordant strains, together suggesting a possible simple genetic control. Initial haplotype association mapping using >1200 informative SNPs pointed to linkages on chromosomes 2 (proximal) and 6 as controlling parasite replication in the AcB/BcA panel. Additional linkage analysis by genome scan in informative [AcB55xDBA/2]F1 and F2 mice (derived from the discordant AcB55 strain), confirmed the effect of chromosome 2 on parasite replication, and further delineated a major locus (LOD?=?4.76, p<0.01; peak marker D2Mit295, 29.7 Mb) that we designate Tccr1 (T. crassiceps cysticercosis restrictive locus 1). Resistance alleles at Tccr1 are derived from AcB55 and are inherited in a dominant fashion. Scrutiny of the minimal genetic interval reveals overlap of Tccr1 with other host resistance loci mapped to this region, most notably the defective Hc/C5 allele which segregates both in the AcB/BcA set and in the AcB55xDBA/2 cross. These results strongly suggest that the complement component 5 (C5) plays a critical role in early protective inflammatory response to infection with T. crassiceps. PMID:22206032

  14. Elimination of Asian fish tapeworms from grass carp with praziquantel bath treatments: The need for 24 hour exposures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several states require that imported fish be free of the Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel has been used for several years to treat fish with Asian fish tapeworms but rates and exposure periods necessary to eliminate these tapeworms from infected fish have not been ade...

  15. Taenia saginata metacestode antigenic fractions without affinity to concanavalin A are an important source of specific antigens for the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Heliana B; Machado, Gleyce A; Mineo, José R; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

    2010-04-01

    Taenia saginata metacestode antigens have been constituted a useful alternative antigen for neurocysticercosis (NC) serodiagnosis, particularly due to an increasing difficulty to obtain Taenia solium homologous antigen. Cross-reactivity with Echinococcus granulosus infection occurs in homologous and heterologous antigens and could be avoided by using different purified methods. The present study evaluated antigen fractions obtained from saline extracts of T. saginata metacestodes purified by affinity chromatography with jacalin or concanavalin A (ConA) lectins to detect IgG antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot analysis to diagnose human NC. Serum samples were collected from 142 individuals: 40 of them were diagnosed with NC, 62 presented Taenia sp. and other parasites, and 40 were apparently healthy individuals. The jacalin- and ConA-unbound fractions demonstrated sensitivity and specificity higher than those of bound fractions. Among unbound fractions, ConA demonstrated statistically higher sensitivity and specificity by ELISA (90% and 93.1%, respectively). By immunoblot assay, the 64- to 68-kDa component from the ConA-unbound fraction showed 100% sensitivity and specificity, making this component suitable for use as a specific antigen for diagnosis of NC. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the relevance of using the unbound ConA fraction of T. saginata metacestodes to diagnose NC. In conclusion, the results obtained herein clearly demonstrate that antigenic fractions without affinity to ConA, obtained from T. saginata metacestodes, are an important source of specific peptides and are efficient in the diagnosis of NC when tested by immunoblot assay. PMID:20130125

  16. Current Status of Human Taeniasis in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Yun, Cheong-Ha; Rim, Han-Jong; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Banouvong, Virasack; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay

    2013-01-01

    Human taeniasis was investigated in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) between 2000 and 2011 as part of the nation's helminthiasis survey. A total of 55,038 inhabitants, including 29,846 school children, were examined using the Kato-Katz and scotch-tape anal swab method, and morphological observation of adult worms. Molecular identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed by multiplex PCR or DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. Taenia eggs were present at a rate of 1.5% (845/55,038) in the subject population. Adult tapeworms were identified as T. solium or T. saginata by analyzing the collectable stool specimens (n=126). Three specimens identified as T. solium were found in Luang Prabang, while the remaining 123 specimens, which were T. saginata, were found in Bokeo, Bolikhamxay, Champasak, Houaphan, Khammouane, Luang Namta, Luang Prabang, Oudomxay, Phongsaly, Saysomboune, Saravane, Savannakhet, Xayaboury, Xekong, Xieng Khouang Province, and Vientiane Municipality. PMID:23710098

  17. Tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Cestoda)—Neglected or Emerging Human Parasite?

    PubMed Central

    Kuchta, Roman; Brabec, Jan; Kubá?ková, Petra; Scholz, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Background A total number of 14 valid species of Diphyllobothrium tapeworms have been described in literature to be capable of causing diphyllobothriosis, with D. latum being the major causative agent of all human infections. However, recent data indicate that some of these infections, especially when diagnosed solely on the basis of morphology, have been identified with this causative agent incorrectly, confusing other Diphyllobothrium species with D. latum. Another widely distributed species, D. dendriticum, has never been considered as a frequent parasite of man, even though it is found commonly throughout arctic and subarctic regions parasitizing piscivorous birds and mammals. Recent cases of Europeans infected with this cestode called into question the actual geographic distribution of this tapeworm, largely ignored by medical parasitologists. Methodology and Results On the basis of revision of more than 900 available references and a description and revision of recent European human cases using morphological and molecular (cox1) data supplemented by newly characterized D. dendriticum sequences, we updated the current knowledge of the life-cycle, geographic distribution, epidemiological status, and molecular diagnostics of this emerging causal agent of zoonotic disease of man. Conclusions The tapeworm D. dendriticum represents an example of a previously neglected, probably underdiagnosed parasite of man with a potential to spread globally. Recent cases of diphyllobothriosis caused by D. dendriticum in Europe (Netherlands, Switzerland and Czech Republic), where the parasite has not been reported previously, point out that causative agents of diphyllobothriosis and other zoonoses can be imported throughout the world. Molecular tools should be used for specific and reliable parasite diagnostics, and also rare or non-native species should be considered. This will considerably help improve our knowledge of the distribution and epidemiology of these human parasites. PMID:24386497

  18. A solitary facial nodular swelling - A case report of intramuscular cysticercosis in buccinator muscle

    PubMed Central

    Dysanoor, Sujatha; Pol, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    Taenia solium, the larvae of pork tapeworm can cause the parasitic infection known as cysticercosis. It is commonly seen in developing countries. The condition rarely involves orofacial region and represents a difficulty in clinical diagnosis. We present a case report of a healthy middle aged female patient who had a painless swelling on right side of face. The ultrasound examination revealed an intramuscular cysticercosal cyst.

  19. Imaging in neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Dhesi, Balraj; Karia, Sumit J; Adab, Naghme; Nair, Sujit

    2015-04-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a parasitic neurological infection caused by the ingestion of larvae from the adult tapeworm Taenia solium. We describe a man who presented with generalised tonic-clonic seizures. He had been previously diagnosed with epilepsy in Malawi, where he had emigrated from 2?years before this episode. An MRI was performed to further investigate the cause of his seizures, as no previous imaging had been performed. His initial MRI showed multiple characteristic cystic lesions in keeping with neurocysticercosis. PMID:25425681

  20. EFFECTS OF ASIAN TAPEWORM, MOSQUITOFISH, AND FOOD RATION ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF MOHAVE TUI CHUB

    E-print Network

    Bonar, Scott A.

    EFFECTS OF ASIAN TAPEWORM, MOSQUITOFISH, AND FOOD RATION ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF MOHAVE TUI CHUB, for providing me with the opportunity to study desert fishes, and the rest of my committee, Bill Matter

  1. Contributions to the systematics, comparative morphology, and interrelationships of selected lecanicephalidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea)

    E-print Network

    Cielocha, Joanna J.

    2013-05-31

    The Lecanicephalidea (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) are a morphologically diverse group of elasmobranch (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii) tapeworms. Currently, 95 species in 16 genera are recognized as valid. However, nine genera have previously been...

  2. Immunoregulation by Taenia crassiceps and Its Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Peón, Alberto N.; Espinoza-Jiménez, Arlett; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2013-01-01

    Taenia crassiceps is a cestode parasite of rodents (in its larval stage) and canids (in its adult stage) that can also parasitize immunocompromised humans. We have studied the immune response elicited by this helminth and its antigens in mice and human cells, and have discovered that they have a strong capacity to induce chronic Th2-type responses that are primarily characterized by high levels of Th2 cytokines, low proliferative responses in lymphocytes, an immature and LPS-tolerogenic profile in dendritic cells, the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and, specially, alternatively activated macrophages. We also have utilized the immunoregulatory capabilities of this helminth to successfully modulate autoimmune responses and the outcome of other infectious diseases. In the present paper, we review the work of others and ourselves with regard to the immune response induced by T. crassiceps and its antigens, and we compare the advances in our understanding of this parasitic infection model with the knowledge that has been obtained from other selected models. PMID:23484125

  3. An endemic Taenia from South America: validation of T. Talicei Dollfus, 1960 (Cestoda: Taeniidae) with characterization of metacestodes and adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Taeniid tapeworms are characteristic parasites in both domesticated and wild carnivores and life cycles are completed through predator-prey associations with rodent, lagomorph or ungulate intermediate hosts that harbor infective larvae. Globally these tapeworms contribute to morbidity and mortality ...

  4. Tapeworm Eggs in a 270 Million-Year-Old Shark Coprolite

    PubMed Central

    Dentzien-Dias, Paula C.; Poinar, George; de Figueiredo, Ana Emilia Q.; Pacheco, Ana Carolina L.; Horn, Bruno L. D.; Schultz, Cesar L.

    2013-01-01

    Remains of parasites in vertebrates are rare from the Mesozoic and Paleozoic. Once most parasites that live in – or pass through – the gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates, fossil feces (coprolites) or even intestinal contents (enterolites) can eventually preserve their remains. Here we announce the discovery of a spiral shark coprolite from the Paleozoic bearing a cluster of 93 small oval-elliptical smooth-shelled structures, interpreted as eggs of a tapeworm.The eggs were found in a thin section of an elasmobranch coprolite. Most of the eggs are filled by pyrite and some have a special polar swelling (operculum), suggesting they are non-erupted eggs. One of the eggs contains a probable developing larva. The eggs are approximately 145–155 µm in length and 88–100 µm in width and vary little in size within the cluster. The depositional and morphological features of the eggs closely resemble those of cestodes. Not only do the individual eggs have features of extant tapeworms, but their deposition all together in an elongate segment is typical to modern tapeworm eggs deposited in mature segments (proglottids). This is the earliest fossil record of tapeworm parasitism of vertebrates and establishes a timeline for the evolution of cestodes. This discovery shows that the fossil record of vertebrate intestinal parasites is much older than was hitherto known and that the interaction between tapeworms and vertebrates occurred at least since the Middle-Late Permian. PMID:23383033

  5. Preparation and sequence analysis of Taenia crassiceps metacestode recombinant antigens with potential for specific immunodiagnosis of human cerebral cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Fischer, C; Nosratian, R; Habtemichael, N; Tolle, R; Riemenschneider, V; Geyer, E

    1994-12-01

    A Taenia crassiceps metacestode cDNA expression library in lambda gt 11 was screened with rabbit antisera to metacestodal T. solium and T. saginata crude extract. Primary clones (121) were identified, and after rescreening and lysogenization in Escherichia coli Y 1089, were tested in Western blot for reactivity with the same antisera. In addition, analyses were performed with rabbit antisera directed towards T. crassiceps and Echinococcus granulosus metacestode crude extract, sera from humans with neurocysticercosis (Mexico) and other important helminth diseases, mice and calves with experimental T. crassiceps and T. saginata infections and normal sera. Of those tested, 22 clones expressing beta-galactosidase fusion proteins (approximately 118-132 kDa) were reactive with IgG antibodies of cysticercotic patients and T. crassiceps infected mice. Of these clones, 11 were also sero-positive with calf-IgG antibodies against T. saginata larvae. None of the 22 clones reacted with IgG antibodies due to human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis, intestinal/hepatic or urinary schistosomiasis, African onchocerciasis or with sera from uninfected controls (man, rabbit, calf and mouse). Of these 22 clones, 15 have been subcloned into the plasmid vectors pGEX-2T (modified) and pT7T3 alpha 19. Expressed glutathione-S-transferase fusion proteins were again tested for sensitivity and specificity by Western blot, and concentrated by affinity chromatography. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA inserts of 9 clones has been determined in pT7T3 alpha 19 and revealed identity in 4 and 5 clones, respectively. PMID:7716396

  6. Interaction of bass tapeworm, Proteocephalus ambloplitis, and Neoechinorhynchus sp. (Acanthocephala) in largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides.

    PubMed

    Durborow, R M; Rogers, W A; Klesius, P H

    1988-12-01

    The number of plerocercoids of the bass tapeworm, Proteocephalus ambloplitis, in wild largemouth bass was negatively correlated (r = -0.94) with the number of Neoechinorhynchus sp. Competitive inhibition between the 2 parasites appeared to exist. Similarly, the numbers of Neoechinorhynchus sp. in wild bass decreased when adult bass tapeworms were present in the intestine. Proteocephalus ambloplitis plerocercoids used to challenge bass vaccinated with either P. ambloplitis adult or Neoechinorhynchus sp. antigens were smaller (P less than 0.05) when recovered than those used to challenge control bass. Based on preliminary results, both antigens might have enabled the bass to limit growth and/or development of the invading bass tapeworm, plerocercoids. Cross-protective immunity may be the reason for this occurrence, in which case, it could offer an explanation for competitive inhibition existing between P. ambloplitis and Neoechinorhynchus sp. PMID:3193328

  7. Effect of heat treatment on viability of Taenia hydatigena eggs.

    PubMed

    Buttar, Birpal S; Nelson, Mark L; Busboom, Jan R; Hancock, Dale D; Walsh, Douglas B; Jasmer, Douglas P

    2013-04-01

    Effects of heat treatments on activation and infectivity of Taenia hydatigena eggs were assessed. Eggs containing oncospheres were used for in vitro and in vivo studies to determine the response to 5min of heat treatment, ranging from room temperature (22°C) to 60°C. The study demonstrated 99.47% and 100% reduction in oncosphere activation or infectivity after 5min of heat treatment at 60°C and 57.38°C under in vitro and in vivo conditions, respectively. Similar results between the two approaches indicted the appropriateness of the in vitro methods to identify oncosphericidal treatments of practical significance. Similar heat treatments may also be effective against Taenia saginata and help to reduce occurrence of beef cysticercosis. PMID:23333617

  8. Generalized Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis in a chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera).

    PubMed

    Basso, Walter; Rütten, Maja; Deplazes, Peter; Grimm, Felix

    2014-01-17

    Taenia crassiceps is a cestode parasite that uses carnivores as definitive hosts and rodents and rabbits as main intermediate hosts, but other animal species and humans may also get infected. One adult male chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) from an animal shelter in Switzerland presented widespread subcutaneous fluctuant swellings extended over the forehead, nose, face and thoracic regions with a progressive growth over 3 months. The thoracic swelling was surgically resected, and it consisted of numerous 3-4mm small transparent vesicles, mainly confined to the subcutaneous tissue, which were morphologically identified as cysticerci of T. crassiceps. The diagnosis was confirmed by PCR and DNA sequence analysis of fragments of the mitochondrial small subunit rRNA and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes. After 1.5 months, due to enlargement of the swollen areas and deterioration of the general health condition, the chinchilla was euthanized and a necropsy was performed. Thousands of small cysticerci were observed widespread in the subcutis, involving underlying musculature of the whole body, in the thoracic cavity, larynx, pharynx and in the retropharyngeal region. Additionally, three larger metacestodes were detected in the liver and morphologically and molecularly identified as Taenia taeniaeformis strobilocerci. The present case represents an indicator of the environmental contamination with Taenia eggs, highlighting the risk of infection for susceptible animals and humans. Besides the clinical relevance for pets, T. crassiceps is a zoonotic parasite and can be also cause of severe cysticercosis in humans. PMID:24126089

  9. The effect of herbivore faeces on the edaphic mite community: implications for tapeworm transmission.

    PubMed

    Václav, Radovan; Kalúz, Stanislav

    2014-03-01

    Oribatid mites may be of epidemiological and medical importance because several species have been shown to serve as intermediate hosts for anoplocephalid tapeworms of wild and domestic animals. Despite their economic and conservation significance, relatively few studies examined factors influencing the effective number of oribatid mites that can serve as intermediate hosts. We examined variation in the structure of the edaphic arthropod community in functionally different territory parts of the Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota latirostris), a known definitive host of a prevalent anoplocephalid tapeworm, Ctenotaenia marmotae. We used a field experiment to test whether the abundance of oribatid mites in marmot pastures is affected by the presence of fresh herbivore faeces. We found that the abundance of soil and litter dwelling oribatid mites in marmot pastures did not change shortly after faeces addition. In contrast, numbers of other predominant soil-litter and phoretic microarthropods increased after faeces addition. The abundance of the two predominant phoretic mites colonizing the faeces was inversely related to the abundance of oribatid mites. In contrast, the abundance of a ubiquitous soil-litter mesostigmatid mite was a positive function of oribatid numbers. Although absolute numbers of oribatid mites did not change after faeces addition, our study suggests that, depending on soil quality or type, the probability of tapeworm egg ingestion by oribatid mites can be reduced due to increased interspecific prey-predatory and trophic interactions. Latrine site selection in Alpine marmots is consistent with a reduced probability of tapeworm transmission by oribatids. PMID:24114339

  10. New multiplex PCR method for the simultaneous diagnosis of the three known species of equine tapeworm.

    PubMed

    Bohórquez, G Alejandro; Luzón, Mónica; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Meana, Aránzazu

    2015-01-15

    Although several techniques exist for the detection of equine tapeworms in serum and feces, the differential diagnosis of tapeworm infection is usually based on postmortem findings and the morphological identification of eggs in feces. In this study, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for the simultaneuos detection of Anoplocephala magna, Anoplocephala perfoliata and Anoplocephaloides mamillana has been developed and validated. The method simultaneously amplifies hypervariable SSUrRNA gene regions in the three tapeworm species in a single reaction using three pairs of primers, which exclusively amplify the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) in each target gene. The method was tested on three types of sample: (a) 1/10, 1/100, 1/500, 1/1000, 1/2000 and 1/5000 dilutions of 70 ng of genomic DNA of the three tapeworm species, (b) DNA extracted from negative aliquots of sediments of negative control fecal samples spiked with 500, 200, 100, 50 and 10 eggs (only for A. magna and A. perfoliata; no A. mamillana eggs available) and (c) DNA extracted from 80, 50, 40, 30, 10 and 1 egg per 2 ?l of PCR reaction mix (only for A. magna and A. perfoliata; no A. mamillana eggs available). No amplification was observed against the DNA of Gasterophilus intestinalis, Parascaris equorum and Strongylus vulgaris. The multiplex PCR method emerged as specific for the three tapeworms and was able to identify as few as 50 eggs per fecal sample and as little as 0.7 ng of control genomic DNA obtained from the three species. The method proposed is able to differentiate infections caused by the two most frequent species A. magna or A. perfoliata when the eggs are present in feces and is also able to detect mixed infections by the three cestode species. PMID:25498328

  11. Insights using a molecular approach into the life cycle of a tapeworm infecting great white sharks.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Haseeb S

    2011-04-01

    The great white shark Carcharodon carcharias Linnaeus, 1758 is a versatile and fierce predator (and responsible for many shark attacks on humans). This apex predator feeds on a wide range of organisms including teleosts, other elasmobranchs, cephalopods, pinnipeds, and cetaceans. Although much is known about its diet, no trophic links have been empirically identified as being involved in the transmission of its tapeworm parasites. Recently, the use of molecular tools combined with phylogenetics has proven useful to identify larval and immature stages of marine tapeworms; utilization of the technique has been increasing rapidly. However, the usefulness of this approach remains limited by the availability of molecular data. Here, I employed gene sequence data from the D2 region of the large subunit of ribosomal DNA to link adults of the tapeworm Clistobothrium carcharodoni Dailey and Vogelbein, 1990 (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) to larvae for which sequence data for this gene are available. The sequences from the adult tapeworms were genetically identical (0% sequence divergence) to those available on GenBank for "SP" 'small' Scolex pleuronectis recovered from the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus). This study is the first to provide empirical evidence linking the trophic interaction between great white sharks and cetaceans as a definitive route for the successful transmission of a tetraphyllidean tapeworm. Using the intensity of infection data from this shark and from cetaceans as proxies for the extent of predation, I estimate that this individual shark would have consumed between 9 to 83 G. griseus , fresh, dead, or both, in its lifetime. PMID:21506792

  12. Characterization of GP39-42 and GP24 antigens from Taenia solium cysticerci and of their antigenic GP10 subunit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Plancarte; C. Hirota; J. Martínez-Ocaña; G. Mendoza-Hernández; E. Zenteno; A. Flisser

    1999-01-01

    Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is performed by Western blotting with an enriched fraction of glycoproteins (LLGP). GP39-42\\u000a and GP24 are immunodominant antigens. These antigens were electroeluted and characterized by biochemical methods. When GP39-42\\u000a or GP24 were reduced, a band of 10?kDa (named GP10) appeared; this band was also analyzed. The most abundant amino acids in\\u000a the three GPs were lysine, phenylalanine,

  13. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...subchapter, it shall be condemned. (b) In the case of sheep carcasses affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus ovis, so-called sheep measles, not transmissible to man), such carcasses may be passed for human food after the removal and...

  14. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus ovis, so-called sheep measles, not transmissible to man), such carcasses may be passed...final inspection of sheep carcasses retained on account of measles, the total number of cysts found embedded in muscular...

  15. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus ovis, so-called sheep measles, not transmissible to man), such carcasses may be passed...final inspection of sheep carcasses retained on account of measles, the total number of cysts found embedded in muscular...

  16. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus ovis, so-called sheep measles, not transmissible to man), such carcasses may be passed...final inspection of sheep carcasses retained on account of measles, the total number of cysts found embedded in muscular...

  17. Actes du colloque, 27-31 mai 2002, Garoua, Cameroun Jamin J.Y., Seiny Boukar L., Floret C. (diteurs scientifiques),

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -professionnelles, mais toujours de façon extensive. L'infestation par les cysticerques de Taenia solium est souvent way. The infestation by Taenia solium is always observed. Some exports of carcasses were recorded

  18. cGMP secreted from the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta is a signal molecule to the host intestine.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Noah P; Brownfield, Mark S; DeVente, Jan; Bass, Paul; Oaks, John A

    2008-08-01

    3',5'-Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), a well-known intracellular second messenger, is released to the intestinal lumen by the tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis of tapeworm conditioned media shows that cGMP is released at a constant rate. Multidrug resistant (MDR) proteins are efflux transporters for cyclic nucleotides. Two MDR inhibitors, niflumic acid and zaprinast, inhibit cGMP secretion by tapeworms and change the cGMP localization within the tapeworm tegument, as assessed by immunochemistry. cGMP, normally present throughout the tapeworm tegumental cytoplasm, is absent from the outer cytoplasmic band upon treatment with inhibitors. Inhibition of cGMP secretion by colchicine indicates that cGMP secretion is cytoskeleton dependent. Binding studies of [3H]cGMP to ileal segments of intestine demonstrate 2 saturable, reversible, and high-affinity binding sites. These studies demonstrate that cGMP is secreted from the cestode via a cytoskeleton-dependent mechanism and MDR efflux transporters. In addition, cGMP reaching the intestinal lumen can bind to the mucosa via receptors for cGMP. These data, combined with earlier observations of cGMP altering intestinal motility and slowing lumenal transit, indicate that tapeworms alter the physiology of the host digestive process via the secretion and binding of extracellular cGMP to lumenal receptors in the host intestine. PMID:18576774

  19. Cysticerci of Taenia mustelae in the fox squirrel.

    PubMed

    Langham, R F; Rausch, R L; Williams, J F

    1990-04-01

    The liver of a fox squirrel (Sciurus niger rufiventer) contained many clear, spherical cysts approximately 1 mm in diameter throughout the parenchyma. On dissection, most of these exhibited a dense, white area with four muscular suckers at a single point on the bladder. Based on the size of the organisms, the characteristically tiny hooks on the scolex and the location of the cysts in this host, the parasites were identified as cysticerci of Taenia mustelae. This is the first report in this host. The parasites were surrounded by an intense inflammatory response consisting primarily of lymphocytes mixed with some eosinophils, and early deposition of fibrous connective tissue. PMID:2338737

  20. First record of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in Honduras, Central America

    PubMed Central

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Matamoros, Wilfredo A.; Kreiser, Brian R.; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides the first report of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, in Honduras. The cestode was found in Profundulus portillorum (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae), which represents a new host record, and which is a member of a genus faced with a variety of conservation challenges, now potentially complicated by the presence of this pathogenic cestode. Nearly complete sequence data from the ITS-1 5.8S and ITS-2 regions corroborate the determination based on morphological characteristics. Several species of carp were introduced to Honduras for aquaculture purposes in the early 1980s and the presence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Honduras may be related to these introductions. In addition, this report documents the currently known geographical distribution of this parasite in Central America, first recorded from Panamá and now from Honduras. PMID:25654444

  1. Is the tapeworm able to affect tissue Pb-concentrations in white rat?

    PubMed

    ?adková, Zuzana; Miholová, Daniela; Száková, Ji?ina; Válek, Petr; Jankovská, Ivana; Langrová, Iva

    2014-05-01

    The effect of gastrointestinal helminths on Pb accumulation in the host body is ambiguous. A laboratory experiment with Rattus norvegicus/Hymenolepis diminuta model was conducted to determine Pb toxicokinetics in a terrestrial host-parasite system. The ET-AAS or ICP-OES techniques were used to determine Pb concentrations (CPb) in both tapeworms and host tissues (kidney, liver, bone, testes, muscle and intestinal wall). Concerning the entire host-parasite system, the highest CPb were detected in H. diminuta. Rat kidneys and bone were the only two tissues whose mean Pb levels were lower in parasitized animals than they were in non-infected subjects after both levels of exposure. At low Pb exposure, parasitization slightly changed the Pb toxicokinetics in the host body. However, with respect to tissue at the same exposure level, no significant differences were detected between the parasitized and non-parasitized animals and no significant correlations were found between CPb in tapeworms and those of host tissues. The results of this study indicate that H. diminuta does not protect rat from elevated Pb exposure even if tapeworm accumulates a higher portion of ingested Pb dose compared with that of the most Pb-loaded host soft tissue. The portion of Pb dose accumulated in H. diminuta correlates positively with parasite biomass. PMID:24709293

  2. Position of Larval Tapeworms, Polypocephalus sp., in the Ganglia of Shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus

    PubMed Central

    Carreon, Nadia; Faulkes, Zen

    2014-01-01

    Parasites that invade the nervous system of their hosts have perhaps the best potential to manipulate their host’s behavior, but how they manipulate the host, if they do at all, could depend on their position within the host’s nervous system. We hypothesize that parasites that live in the nervous system of their host will be randomly distributed if they exert their influence through non-specific effects (i.e., general pathology), but that their position in the nervous system will be non-random if they exert their influence by targeting specific neural circuits. We recorded the position of larval tapeworms, Polypocephalus sp., in the abdominal ganglia of white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus. Tapeworms are more common within ganglia than in the section of the nerve cord between ganglia, even though the nerve cord has a greater volume than the ganglia. The tapeworms are also more abundant in the periphery of the ganglia. Because most synaptic connections are within the central region of the ganglion, such positioning may represent a trade-off between controlling the nervous system and damaging it. PMID:24820854

  3. Genetic Variation and Population Genetics of Taenia saginata in North and Northeast Thailand in relation to Taenia asiatica

    PubMed Central

    Anantaphruti, Malinee; Thaenkham, Urusa; Kusolsuk, Teera; Maipanich, Wanna; Saguankiat, Surapol; Pubampen, Somjit; Phuphisut, Orawan

    2013-01-01

    Taenia saginata is the most common human Taenia in Thailand. By cox1 sequences, 73 isolates from four localities in north and northeast were differentiated into 14 haplotypes, 11 variation sites and haplotype diversity of 0.683. Among 14 haplotypes, haplotype A was the major (52.1%), followed by haplotype B (21.9%). Clustering diagram of Thai and GenBank sequences indicated mixed phylogeny among localities. By MJ analysis, haplotype clustering relationships showed paired-stars-like network, having two main cores surrounded by minor haplotypes. Tajima's D values were significantly negative in T. saginata world population, suggesting population expansion. Significant Fu's Fs values in Thai, as well as world population, also indicate that population is expanding and may be hitchhiking as part of selective sweep. Haplotype B and its dispersion were only found in populations from Thailand. Haplotype B may evolve and ultimately become an ancestor of future populations in Thailand. Haplotype A seems to be dispersion haplotype, not just in Thailand, but worldwide. High genetic T. saginata intraspecies divergence was found, in contrast to its sister species, T. asiatica; among 30 samples from seven countries, its haplotype diversity was 0.067, while only 2 haplotypes were revealed. This extremely low intraspecific variation suggests that T. asiatica could be an endangered species. PMID:23864933

  4. DISSEMINATED CYSTICERCOSIS WITH HUGE MUSCLE HYPERTROPHY

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Sen, Sumit

    2009-01-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by cysticercus cellulose, which is the larva of Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm. The larvae are carried in the blood stream after penetrating the walls of the alimentary tract and they lodge in different tissues like the skin, skeletal muscles, brain, fundus and heart, to cause disseminated cysticercosis. Cases of disseminated cysticercosis have rarely been reported in the literature. They may inhabit the muscles and cause muscular hypertrophy, which, at times, may assume gross proportions. Morbidity is usually caused by the involvement of the central nervous system or the eyes. PMID:20049270

  5. Lacrimal Sac Cysticercosis: A Rare Site for Manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Raoot, Amita

    2014-01-01

    Cysticercosis, a parasitic tissue infestation caused by larval cysts (cysticercus cellulosae) of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, most commonly affects the central nervous system, subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle, heart muscle, and the eye. Ocular adnexal infestation in cysticercosis can involve various sites within the eye like vitreous humor, subretinal tissue, extraocular muscle, and lacrimal gland. In this case report, a lump slightly below and medial to inner corner of eye, surgically removed from a 21-year-old male patient, was diagnosed as case of lacrimal sac cysticercosis on histopathological examination. To our knowledge, this is the one of rare sites for manifestation of cysticercus cellulosae. PMID:25478267

  6. Cysticercosis of deltoid muscle.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a disease caused by tapeworm Taenia solium. It is commonly found in developing countries, but reports of its frequent occurrences even in developed countries due to immigrants from infected areas are widely reported. When cysticercosis affects the brain, the condition is commonly called neurocysticercosis however, sporadic cases of solitary intramuscular cysticercosis have been reported in the literature. We present a case of solitary cysticercosis in the right deltoid muscle in a 25-year-old woman who presented with a painful swelling on the right shoulder. The diagnosis was established by MRI and targetedultrasonography. Surgical removal of a cyst followed by 2?weeks of albendazole treatment resolved the symptoms. PMID:25312891

  7. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of the Asian Fish Tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea) in the Rio Grande (Río Bravo del Norte)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan G. Bean; Timothy H. Bonner

    2010-01-01

    Recent collections of the Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in the Rio Grande have raised concern about the potential impacts on Rio Grande endemic and imperiled fishes. The objectives of this study were to determine distribution and definitive hosts of the Asian fish tapeworm within the Rio Grande drainage and to quantify occurrences and abundances. In total, 1,992 fish spanning

  8. Control of the taeniosis/cysticercosis complex: future developments.

    PubMed

    Flisser, Ana; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2006-07-31

    Cysticercosis is due to the establishment of the larval stage of the zoonotic cestode parasite Taenia solium. The infection causes substantial human morbidity and mortality, particularly in several Latin American countries and parts of Africa and Asia, as well as economic losses in pig husban dry due to condemnation of infected pork meat. The life cycle of T. solium includes human beings as definitive hosts and pigs as intermediate hosts. Cysticercosis is acquired by the ingestion of eggs released by human tapeworm carriers, who become infected after ingesting pork meat contaminated with cysticerci. Taenia solium transmission has been associated with poverty, lack of sanitary services and practices of rearing backyard pigs with free access to the areas that villagers use as toilets, as well as cultural behaviour. Nonetheless, due to the recent increase of migration and tourism, industrial countries are also reporting cases of human cysticercosis. There are many epidemiological studies that have been conducted mainly in Latin American countries that have evaluated intervention measures for control of cysticercosis including the development and testing of vaccines. Furthermore, the involvement of international agencies and institutions, such as the World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization and the International Livestock Research Institute, as well as the commitment of policymakers, scientists and field workers, are key means for the sustainable control and, hopefully, eradication of T. solium infections. PMID:16730125

  9. Validity of the bear tapeworm Diphyllobothrium ursi (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidae) based on morphological and molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Muto, Maki; Yamada, Minoru; Arizono, Naoki; Rausch, Robert L

    2012-12-01

    The bear tapeworm Diphyllobothrium ursi is described based upon the morphology of adult tapeworms recovered from the brown bear (Ursus arctos middendorffi) and larval plerocercoids found in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) from Kodiak Island in Alaska in 1952. However, in 1987 D. ursi was synonymized with Diphyllobothrium dendriticum, and the taxonomic relationship between both species has not subsequently been revised. In this study mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) sequences of holotype and paratype D. ursi specimens that had been preserved in a formalin-acetic acid-alcohol solution since the time the species was initially described approximately 60 yr ago were analyzed. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the cox1 sequences revealed that D. ursi is more closely related to D. dendriticum than it is to Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense and Diphyllobothrium latum. In addition to molecular evidence, differences in the life cycle and ecology of the larval plerocercoids between D. ursi and D. dendriticum also suggest that D. ursi is a distinct species, separate from D. dendriticum and D. nihonkaiense, and also possibly from D. latum . PMID:22663179

  10. Asian fish tapeworm, Khawia japonensis (Yamaguti, 1934), has expanded its European invasive range.

    PubMed

    Oros, Mikuláš; Bar?ák, Daniel; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Hanzelová, Vladimíra

    2015-05-01

    The invasive fish tapeworm, Khawia japonensis (Yamaguti, 1934) originally described in Japan, is reported for the first time in Slovakia. The tapeworm was found in farmed common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from East-Slovakian breeding fish pond. This finding is registered 4 years after the first announcement of this parasite in Europe (Po River Basin in Italy) in 2010 and increases its distribution area within this continent. Morphological characterization of K. japonensis supplemented with DNA sequences of cox1 and ribosomal lsrDNA genes is provided. Specimens from Slovakia phenotypically corresponded with those from feral and farmed carps from China, Vietnam, and Italy. Moreover, 100 and 98.7 % identity of partial ribosomal lsrDNA gene and mitochondrial cox1 genes, respectively, were detected with K. japonensis from Japan. The invasive and pathogenic potential of K. japonensis in commercial breeding fisheries and its possible further spread in natural habitats is difficult to estimate for now. As yet, K. japonensis appears to be without a major impact on commercial breeding fisheries, but calls for more attention to the problem of biological invasions. PMID:25843570

  11. Biotransformation of anthelmintics and the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes in the tapeworm Moniezia expansa.

    PubMed

    Prchal, Lukáš; Bártíková, Hana; Be?anová, Aneta; Jirásko, Robert; Vok?ál, Ivan; Stuchlíková, Lucie; Skálová, Lenka; Kubí?ek, Vladimír; Lamka, Ji?í; Trejtnar, František; Szotáková, Barbora

    2014-11-01

    SUMMARY The sheep tapeworm Moniezia expansa is very common parasite, which affects ruminants such as sheep, goats as well as other species. The benzimidazole anthelmintics albendazole (ABZ), flubendazole (FLU) and mebendazole (MBZ) are often used to treat the infection. The drug-metabolizing enzymes of helminths may alter the potency of anthelmintic treatment. The aim of our study was to assess the activity of the main drug-metabolizing enzymes and evaluate the metabolism of selected anthelmintics (ABZ, MBZ and FLU) in M. expansa. Activities of biotransformation enzymes were determined in subcellular fractions. Metabolites of the anthelmintics were detected and identified using high performance liquid chromatography/ultra-violet/VIS/fluorescence or ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Reduction of MBZ, FLU and oxidation of ABZ were proved as well as activities of various metabolizing enzymes. Despite the fact that the conjugation enzymes glutathione S-transferase, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase and UDP-glucosyl transferase were active in vitro, no conjugated metabolites of anthelmintics were identified either ex vivo or in vitro. The obtained results indicate that sheep tapeworm is able to deactivate the administered anthelmintics, and thus protects itself against their action. PMID:25373326

  12. Update on the Human Broad Tapeworm (Genus Diphyllobothrium), Including Clinical Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Tomáš; Garcia, Hector H.; Kuchta, Roman; Wicht, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Tapeworms (Cestoda) continue to be an important cause of morbidity in humans worldwide. Diphyllobothriosis, a human disease caused by tapeworms of the genus Diphyllobothrium, is the most important fish-borne zoonosis caused by a cestode parasite. Up to 20 million humans are estimated to be infected worldwide. Besides humans, definitive hosts of Diphyllobothrium include piscivorous birds and mammals, which represent a significant zoonotic reservoir. The second intermediate hosts include both freshwater and marine fish, especially anadromous species such as salmonids. The zoonosis occurs most commonly in countries where the consumption of raw or marinated fish is a frequent practice. Due to the increasing popularity of dishes utilizing uncooked fish, numerous cases of human infections have appeared recently, even in the most developed countries. As many as 14 valid species of Diphyllobothrium can cause human diphyllobothriosis, with D. latum and D. nihonkaiense being the most important pathogens. In this paper, all taxa from humans reported are reviewed, with brief information on their life history and their current distribution. Data on diagnostics, epidemiology, clinical relevance, and control of the disease are also summarized. The importance of reliable identification of human-infecting species with molecular tools (sequences of mitochondrial genes) as well as the necessity of epidemiological studies aimed at determining the sources of infections are pointed out. PMID:19136438

  13. Efficacy of 6-, 12-, and 24-h praziquantel bath treatments against Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in grass carp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Praziquantel is an effective antihelmintic that has been used in dogs and cats as a de-wormer. It has also been used successfully against tapeworms and trematodes in fish. The current study tested the efficacy of praziquantel bath treatments at various concentrations (0.187, 0.375, 0.75, 1.5, 3.0,...

  14. Update on the Distribution of the Invasive Asian Fish Tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, in the U.S. and Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anindo Choudhury; Elizabeth Charipar; Patrick Nelson; James R. Hodgson; Scott Bonar; Rebecca A. Cole

    2006-01-01

    The documented range of the invasive and potentiallypathogenicAsianfish tapeworm,Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934 in the United States and Canada is updated based on examination of museum depo- sitions and original field collections. Gravid specimens of B. acheilognathi were collected from the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Rafinesque in Peter Lake, at the University of Notre Dame Environmental Research Center (UNDERC) Land o'

  15. Suppression of the tapeworm order Pseudophyllidea (Platyhelminthes: Eucestoda) and the proposal of two new orders, Bothriocephalidea and Diphyllobothriidea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Kuchta; T. Scholz; J. Brabec; R. A. Bray

    2008-01-01

    Pseudophyllidea van Beneden in Carus, 1863, a well recognised order of tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Eucestoda), is suppressed because it is composed of two phylogenetically unrelated groups, for which the new names Bothriocephalidea and Diphyllobothriidea are proposed. The new orders differ from each other in the following characters: (i) position of the genital pore: on the dorsal, dorso-lateral or lateral aspects and

  16. Ultrastructural reconstruction of Taenia ovis oncospheres from serial sections.

    PubMed

    Jabbar, Abdul; Crawford, Simon; M?ocicki, Daniel; Swiderski, Zdzis?aw P; Conn, David B; Jones, Malcolm K; Beveridge, Ian; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2010-10-01

    The cellular organisation of Taenia ovis oncospheres is interpreted from ultrathin serial sections and transmission electron microscopy following high pressure freezing and freeze-substitution. The surface of a hatched, non-activated T. ovis oncosphere is covered by an oncospheral membrane below which is the tegument bearing microvilli. The basal lamina of the tegument is underlain by broad bands of peripheral somatic musculature. Three pairs of hooks and associated muscles are present in the somatophoric third of the oncosphere. Approximately 19 cells of seven different types were identified which include: (i) a quadri-nucleated syncytium of penetration gland type 1 containing two lateral pairs of cell bodies interconnected by narrow cytoplasmic bridges (PG1); (ii) a quadri-nucleated syncytium of penetration gland type 2 (PG2); (iii) a single-nucleated median mesophoric gland cell; (iv) 10 somatic cells; (v) two germinative cells; (vi) two nerve cells; and (vii) a pair of median somatophoric cells. This study provides a clear understanding of the morphology of T. ovis oncospheres and forms the basis for further investigations into the biology of taeniid oncospheres. PMID:20478311

  17. Investigation of an outbreak of Taenia saginata cysts (cysticercus bovis) in dairy cattle from two farms.

    PubMed

    McFadden, A M J; Heath, D D; Morley, C M; Dorny, P

    2011-03-10

    The paper describes the epidemiological investigation carried out on two dairy farms with cattle infected with Taenia saginata cysts. On the first affected farm it was estimated using Bayesian techniques that approximately 65% of 1400 mixed-age cattle were infected with Taenia saginata cysts. The investigation aimed to determine potential exposure pathways of cattle to Taenia saginata with a view to finding the human source of infection and to describe the epidemiology of the outbreak on the affected farms. In order to determine potential exposure pathways, investigation was centred on how feed or water could have been contaminated with eggs. The plausibility of pathways was determined by examining the spatial and temporal association between factors related to the pathway and the prevalence of infection in cattle strata. We describe the investigation carried out on affected farms. PMID:21130574

  18. [Original procreation or generational change? The investigation of cysticercus and tapeworms].

    PubMed

    Geus, A

    2007-01-01

    The doctrine of the abiogenesis postulated the origin of human and animal intestinal worms from "not complete digested ingesta". Indeed Peter Simon Pallas (1741-1811) defined already 1760 in his dissertation that endoparasitic worms reproduce themselves by eggs. But he characterised the nature of cysticercus as "pathologically degenerated tail bladder". In 1856 Rudolf Leuckart (1822-1898) paraphrased the alternation of generation with "marvellous metamorphoses and peculiar form of development". The Dane Johannes Japetus Smith Steenstrup (1813-1897) recognised finally the principle of the alternation of generation and Gottlob Friedrich Heinrich Küchenmeister (1821-1890), a physician at the Saxon city Zittau realised the special correlation between the alternate and end host of tapeworms. Both, Leuckart and Küchenmeister proved their insights by animal and human experimentations. PMID:17243446

  19. Prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in French cattle in 2010.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Céline; Morlot, Claire; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Mas, Michel; Grandmontagne, Claude; Gilli-Dunoyer, Pascale; Gay, Emilie; Callait-Cardinal, Marie-Pierre

    2014-06-16

    Bovine cysticercosis is a foodborne disease caused by the cestode Taenia saginata with cattle as the intermediate host and humans as the final host. This disease is responsible for direct financial losses for farmers. It is also economically important because human infestation through raw or undercooked meat consumption can have a negative impact on the confidence the consumer has in the food industry. This study aimed to determine the apparent and true prevalence of bovine cysticercosis in France and describe the locations of identified cysticercosis lesions. The study sample included 4,564,065 cattle slaughtered in 2010 in France, among which 6491 were detected as harbouring cysticercosis lesions using the current EU meat inspection process. The overall apparent prevalence (including both viable and degenerated cysticerci) was estimated at 0.142% [0.142-0.143]. The true overall prevalence defined as the estimation of the prevalence after taking into account the sensitivity of meat inspection (detection fraction) was 1.23% [0.83-1.93]. The true prevalence of cattle with at least one viable cysticercus was 0.113% [0.076-0.189]. Taking into account both our results and those of a previous study on the prevalence of human cysticercosis in France, we estimated that one carcass could infest an average of 8-20 individuals. The spatial distribution of viable cysticerci showed that the highest apparent prevalence was found in eastern France. This study, the largest survey ever conducted on bovine cysticercosis in France, indicated a low but spatially heterogeneous prevalence of the parasite among the cattle population. Considering French eating habits, according to which it is not uncommon to consume undercooked meat, the possibility of humans being infested even though viable cysticerci are not detected during meat inspection is high. Increasing the detection sensitivity of meat inspection through the use of a risk-based meat inspection procedure should improve prevention of human infestation. PMID:24655724

  20. The inability of tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta and fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum to metabolize praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Vok?ál, Ivan; Jirásko, Robert; Jedli?ková, Veronika; Bártíková, Hana; Skálová, Lenka; Lamka, Ji?í; Hol?apek, Michal; Szotáková, Barbora

    2012-04-30

    Biotransformation enzymes can, to a certain extent, protect parasitic worms against the toxic effects of anthelmintics and can contribute to drug-resistance development. The objective of our work was (1) to find and identify phase I and II metabolites of the anthelmintic praziquantel (PZQ) formed by the lancet fluke (Dicrocoelium dendriticum) and the rat tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta) and (2) to compare PZQ metabolites in helminths with PZQ biotransformation in rat as host species. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS) was used for this purpose. During in vitro incubations, mitochondria-like and microsomes-like fractions (prepared from homogenates of adult worms or from rat liver homogenate) were incubated with 10 and 100 ?M PZQ. Liquid/liquid extraction was used for samples during in vitro experiments. In the ex vivo study, living D. dendriticum and H. diminuta adults were incubated in RPMI-1640 medium in the presence of 50 nM or 100 nM PZQ for 24h. After incubation, the worms were removed from the medium and homogenized. Homogenates of worms, medium from the incubation of worms or rat hepatocytes and rat urine (collected during 24h after oral PZQ administration) were separately extracted using solid-phase extraction. The results showed that both D. dendriticum and H. diminuta enzymatic systems are not able to metabolize PZQ. On the other hand, thirty one different phase I and four phase II PZQ metabolites were detected in rat samples using UHPLC/MS/MS analyses. These results show that our experimental helminths, as the members of tapeworm and fluke groups of parasites, are not able to deactivate PZQ, and that the biotransformation enzymes of the studied helminths do not contribute to PZQ-resistance. PMID:21996005

  1. Neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H

    2014-10-01

    Neurocysticercosis, the most common helminthic infection of the nervous system, is a major cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The disease occurs when humans become intermediate hosts of the tapeworm Taenia solium after ingesting its eggs by contagion from an asymptomatic Taenia carrier. Within the nervous system, parasites may locate in brain parenchyma, subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or spinal cord, causing several pathological changes that are responsible for the clinical pleomorphism of the disease. Seizures are the most common clinical manifestation, but a sizable proportion of patients develop focal deficits, intracranial hypertension, or cognitive decline. Preoperative diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is possible after proper integration of data from neuroimaging studies and immunological tests. Cysticidal drugs (albendazole and praziquantel) have changed the prognosis of most patients with neurocysticercosis. The use of these drugs has shown to reduce the parasite load within the central nervous system and to improve the clinical prognosis of the disease in many cases. Future studies should focus on disease eradication through the implementation of control programs against all the interrelated steps in the life cycle of T solium, including human carriers of the adult tapeworm, infected pigs, and eggs in the environment. PMID:25360206

  2. Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis, the most common helminthic infection of the nervous system, is a major cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The disease occurs when humans become intermediate hosts of the tapeworm Taenia solium after ingesting its eggs by contagion from an asymptomatic Taenia carrier. Within the nervous system, parasites may locate in brain parenchyma, subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or spinal cord, causing several pathological changes that are responsible for the clinical pleomorphism of the disease. Seizures are the most common clinical manifestation, but a sizable proportion of patients develop focal deficits, intracranial hypertension, or cognitive decline. Preoperative diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is possible after proper integration of data from neuroimaging studies and immunological tests. Cysticidal drugs (albendazole and praziquantel) have changed the prognosis of most patients with neurocysticercosis. The use of these drugs has shown to reduce the parasite load within the central nervous system and to improve the clinical prognosis of the disease in many cases. Future studies should focus on disease eradication through the implementation of control programs against all the interrelated steps in the life cycle of T solium, including human carriers of the adult tapeworm, infected pigs, and eggs in the environment. PMID:25360206

  3. PAIR BONDING IN THE FEMALE ZEBRA FINCH: A POTENTIAL ROLE FOR THE NUCLEUS TAENIAE

    E-print Network

    Wade, Juli

    PAIR BONDING IN THE FEMALE ZEBRA FINCH: A POTENTIAL ROLE FOR THE NUCLEUS TAENIAE L. A. SVEC,a * K--Male and female zebra finches are highly social and form pair bonds typically associated with reproduction). Zebra finches form strong pair bonds prior to reproduction. They are formed in 2­14 days, can

  4. Four Cases of Taenia saginata Infection with an Analysis of COX1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jaeeun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lim, Hyemi; Kim, Min-Jae; Yooyen, Thanapon; Lee, Dongmin; Eom, Keeseon S.; Shin, Eun-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Human taeniases had been not uncommon in the Republic of Korea (=Korea) until the 1980s. The prevalence decreased and a national survey in 2004 revealed no Taenia egg positive cases. However, a subsequent national survey in 2012 showed 0.04% (10 cases) prevalence of Taenia spp. eggs suggesting its resurgence in Korea. We recently encountered 4 cases of Taenia saginata infection who had symptoms of taeniasis that included discharge of proglottids. We obtained several proglottids from each case. Because the morphological features of T. saginata are almost indistinguishable from those of Taenia asiatica, molecular analyses using the PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) were performed to identify the species. The PCR-RFLP patterns of all of the 4 specimens were consistent with T. saginata, and the cox1 gene sequence showed 99.8-100% identity with that of T. saginata reported previously from Korea, Japan, China, and Cambodia. All of the 4 patients had the history of travel abroad but its relation with contracting taeniasis was unclear. Our findings may suggest resurgence of T. saginata infection among people in Korea. PMID:24623887

  5. Active and passive Ca 2+ fluxes across cell membranes of the guinea-pig taenia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Casteels; C. van Breemen

    1975-01-01

    The exchange of Ca between the extracellular fluid and the cellular compartment has been investigated in smooth muscle cells of taenia coli. It was found that during the initial phase of metabolic depletion by DNP+IAA, the net inwards flux of Ca amounts to 0.02 pmol cm-2·sec-1. This increase might be proportional to the physiological calcium leak.

  6. [Morpho-functional changes of cloacal bursa of the herring gull in experimental infection with gull tapeworm].

    PubMed

    Fomina, A S; Pronina, S V

    2012-01-01

    Using the methods of light microscopy, the quantitative changes in the cells of the cloacal bursa of herring gull (Larus argentatus mongolicus) chicks were studied during experimental infection with gull-tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum. The area of the follicles within the bursa and the number of eosinophils in the infected chicks were found to increase. In the follicles the number of blast cells and large lymphocytes was elevated. The reduction of small lymphocytes and plasma cells numbers in the infected gulls may be due to a slower cell cycle or cell migration into the inflammatory focus. Overall, the changes in the bursa indicate the suppression of the B-link of the host immune system in tapeworm invasion. PMID:22724332

  7. Identification of the copepod intermediate host of the introduced broad fish tapeworm, Diphyllobothrium latum, in Southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Torres, P; Villalobos, L; Woelfl, S; Puga, S

    2004-10-01

    The broad fish tapeworm, Diphyllobothrium latum, is an exotic species in both Chile and Argentina, and until now, its copepod host has remained unknown in South American waters. The objective of this study was to identify calanoid copepod species that may be intermediate hosts for D. latum in Lake Panguipulli, Chile. In this lake, the highest levels of infection by this tapeworm occur in the introduced rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Of the 2 calanoid copepods found in Lake Panguipulli, Diaptomus diabolicus and Boeckella gracilipes, only D. diabolicus became infected on experimental exposure to coracidia. Prevalence (mean intensity) of experimental infection in adult copepods was 73.2% (2.8 procercoids per host). Diaptomus diabolicus has been demonstrated to be a new intermediate host; this is the first record of a copepod host for D. latum in South America. PMID:15562630

  8. The activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes and the biotransformation of selected anthelmintics in the model tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta.

    PubMed

    Bártíková, Hana; Vok?ál, Ivan; Skálová, Lenka; Kubí?ek, Vladimír; Firbasová, Jana; Briestenský, David; Lamka, Ji?í; Szotáková, Barbora

    2012-05-01

    The drug-metabolizing enzymes of some helminths can deactivate anthelmintics and therefore partially protect helminths against these drugs' toxic effect. The aim of our study was to assess the activity of the main drug-metabolizing enzymes and evaluate the metabolism of selected anthelmintics (albendazole, flubendazole, mebendazole) in the rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta, a species often used as a model tapeworm. In vitro and ex vivo experiments were performed. Metabolites of the anthelmintics were detected and identified by HPLC with spectrofluorometric or mass-spectrometric detection. The enzymes of H. diminuta are able to reduce the carbonyl group of flubendazole, mebendazole and several other xenobiotics. Although the activity of a number of oxidation enzymes was determined, no oxidative metabolites of albendazole were detected. Regarding conjugation enzymes, a high activity of glutathione S-transferase was observed. A methyl derivative of reduced flubendazole was the only conjugation metabolite identified in ex vivo incubations of H. diminuta with anthelmintics. The results revealed that H. diminuta metabolized flubendazole and mebendazole, but not albendazole. The biotransformation pathways found in H. diminuta differ from those described in Moniezia expanza and suggest the interspecies differences in drug metabolism not only among classes of helminths, but even among tapeworms. PMID:22309895

  9. Review article The use of urban sewage sludge on pastures

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    pastures in temperate ar- eas. The situation is different in Africa (Taenia solium and T. saginata are both tempérées. La situation est différente en Afrique (Taenia solium et T. saginata sont tous les deux très of the present review was to consider which pathological risk is major. Cysticercosis due to Taenia saginata

  10. Orders out of chaos--molecular phylogenetics reveals the complexity of shark and stingray tapeworm relationships.

    PubMed

    Caira, Janine N; Jensen, Kirsten; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Olson, Peter D; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Novel molecular data are presented to resolve the long-standing issue of the non-monophyly of the elasmobranch-hosted tapeworm order Tetraphyllidea relative to the other acetabulate eucestode orders. Bayesian inference analyses of various combinations of full ssrDNA, and full or partial lsrDNA (D1-D3), sequence data, which included 134 species representing 97 genera across the 15 eucestode orders, were conducted. New ssrDNA data were generated for 82 species, partial lsrDNA data for 53 species, and full lsrDNA data for 29 species. The monophyly of each of the elasmobranch-hosted orders Cathetocephalidea, Litobothriidea, Lecanicephalidea and Rhinebothriidea was confirmed, as was the non-monophyly of the Tetraphyllidea. Two relatively stable groups of tetraphyllidean taxa emerged and are hereby designated as new orders. The Onchoproteocephalidea n. ord. is established to recognise the integrated nature of one undescribed and 10 described genera of hook-bearing tetraphyllideans, previously placed in the family Onchobothriidae, with the members of the order Proteocephalidea. The Phyllobothriidea n. ord. is established for a subset of 12 non-hooked genera characterised by scoleces bearing four bothridia each with an anterior accessory sucker; most parasitise sharks and have been assigned to the Phyllobothriidae at one time or another. Tentative ordinal placements are suggested for eight additional genera; placements for the remaining tetraphyllidean genera have not yet emerged. We propose that these 17 genera remain in the "Tetraphyllidea". Among these, particularly labile across analyses were Anthobothrium, Megalonchos, Carpobothrium, Calliobothrium and Caulobothrium. The unique association of Chimaerocestus with holocephalans, rather than with elasmobranchs, appears to represent a host-switching event. Both of the non-elasmobranch hosted clades of acetabulate cestodes (i.e. Proteocephalidea and Cyclophyllidea and their kin) appear to have had their origins with elasmobranch cestodes. Across analyses, the sister group to the clade of "terrestrial" cestode orders was found to be an elasmobranch-hosted genus, as was the sister to the freshwater fish- and tetrapod-hosted Proteocephalidea. Whilst further data are required to resolve outstanding nomenclatural and phylogenetic issues, the present analyses contribute significantly to an understanding of the evolutionary radiation of the entire Cestoda. Clearly, elasmobranch tapeworms comprise the backbone of cestode phylogeny. PMID:24275646

  11. The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa was held in Asahikawa Medical University, Japan on 15 and 16 Feb 2011. This meeting was fully supported by the Asian Science and Technology Strategic Cooperation Promotion Programs sponsored by the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education Japan (MEXT) for 3 years from 2010 to Akira Ito. A total of 24 researchers from 9 countries joined together and discussed the present situation and problems towards the control of cestode zoonoses. As the meeting was simultaneously for the establishment of joint international, either bilateral or multilateral collaboration projects, the main purposes were directed to 1) how to detect taeniasis/cysticercosis infected patients, 2) how to differentiate Taenia solium from two other human Taenia species, T. saginata and T. asiatica, 3) how to evaluate T. asiatica based on the evidence of hybrid and hybrid-derived adult tapeworms from Thailand and China, 4) how to evaluate T. solium and T. hyaenae and other Taenia species from the wild animals in Ethiopia, and 5) how to detect echinococcosis patients and 6) how to differentiate Echinococcus species worldwide. Such important topics are summarized in this meeting report. PMID:21693001

  12. Human infection by a "fish tapeworm", Diphyllobothrium latum, in a non-endemic country.

    PubMed

    Esteban, J G; Muñoz-Antoli, C; Borras, M; Colomina, J; Toledo, R

    2014-02-01

    We document a case of locally acquired "broad- or fish-tapeworm" infection caused by Diphyllobothrium latum in a 27-year-old Spanish man, confirmed by molecular analysis (COI gene). The patient had naturally expelled a worm of 110 cm in length, but the physical examination did not yield any remarkable findings, and the patient did not suffer from any particular symptoms. Laboratory test results were normal except for a remarkable increase in the red blood cell count, and an evident decrease in the mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Vitamin B12 and folic acid values were in the normal range without signs of anemia. It was suggested that these anomalies in erythrocyte formation might not be related to the parasite, and analysis of the patient's anamnestic data revealed that the infection could only have been caused by the ingestion of imported fish, although no light could be shed on the specific source of infection. From a public health viewpoint, this human case of fish-borne zoonosis is exemplary, suggesting that not only is control of fish and fish product quality essential, but also increased awareness of the general population with regard to changes in culinary habits. PMID:23765513

  13. Growth of a Japanese isolate of Taenia crassiceps in intermediate and definitive hosts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Miyaji; Y. Oku; M. Kamiya; M. Okamoto; M. Ohbayashi; A. Uchida; R. L. Rausch

    1990-01-01

    Higher infection rates were observed in gerbils and voles than in ICR mice after oral inoculation with eggs of a Japanese isolate ofTaenia crassiceps. Asexual reproduction ofT. crassiceps cysticerci was observed in all gerbils and voles infected i.p. with the cysticerci. However, ICR mice and Wistar rats were not suitable for the asexual proliferation ofT. crassiceps. The hooks of cysticerci

  14. The effect of nitroscanate on Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia hydatigena infections in dogs.

    PubMed

    Gemmell, M A; Oudemans, G

    1975-09-01

    Trials with nitroscanate carried out on 186 dogs infected with either Echinococcus granulosus or Taenia hydatigena indicated that a single treatment at a dose rate of 1000 mg/kg or two treatments at 250 mg/kg eliminated the former, but a single treatment at 64 mg/kg was sufficient to eliminate the latter. At this dosing schedule, vomiting and diarrhoea occurred, as well as a transient 'tranquillising' effect on some dogs. PMID:1172624

  15. Basic and applied problems in developmental biology and immunobiology of cestode infections: Hymenolepis, Taenia and Echinococcus.

    PubMed

    Ito, A

    2015-02-01

    Differentiation and development of parasites, including longevity in host animals, are thought to be governed by host-parasite interactions. In this review, several topics on the developmental biology of cestode infections are discussed from immunobiological perspective with a focus on Hymenolepis, Taenia and Echinococcus infections. The basic premise of this review is that 'differentiation and development of cestodes' are somehow affected by host immune responses with an evolutionary history. PMID:25521516

  16. Murine autoimmune arthritis is exaggerated by infection with the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta.

    PubMed

    Graepel, Rabea; Leung, Gabriella; Wang, Arthur; Villemaire, Michelle; Jirik, Frank R; Sharkey, Keith A; McDougall, Jason J; McKay, Derek M

    2013-06-01

    Infection with helminth parasites triggers strong and stereotypic immune responses in humans and mice, which can protect against specific experimentally-induced autoimmune diseases. We have shown that infection with the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, confers a protective effect on FCA-induced joint inflammation. Here, we investigated the effect of a prophylactic infection with H. diminuta on the K/BxN-serum model of polyarthritis in BALB/c mice. Mice were infected with 10 cysticercoids of H. diminuta by oral gavage and 8 days later arthritis was induced by i.p. injection of K/BxN arthritogenic serum. Joint swelling and pain measurements were recorded throughout a 13 day time course. At necropsy, joints and blood serum were collected. K/BxN-treated mice developed joint inflammation in the front paws, hind paws and knees as shown by increased swelling, mechanical allodynia and myeloperoxidase activity. Mice infected with H. diminuta had more severe disease, with increased eosinophil peroxidase activity in their paws and greater inflammatory infiltrate and synovitis in the knee joints. Hymenolepis diminuta-infected mice displayed significant increases in serum levels of C5a and mast cell protease-1 compared with K/BxN-serum only treatment, the latter being indicative of mast cell activation. In contrast to the protective effect of infection with H. diminuta in FCA-induced monoarthritis, infection with this helminth exacerbated K/BxN serum-induced polyarthritis in BALB/c mice. This correlated with increases in C5a and mast cell activation: factors critical in the development of K/BxN-induced arthritis. Thus, while data accumulate from animal models showing that infection with helminth parasites may be beneficial for a variety of auto-inflammatory diseases, our findings demonstrate the potential for helminths to exacerbate disease. Hence care is needed when helminth therapy is translated into a clinical setting. PMID:23583716

  17. Conflict between morphology and molecular data: a case of the genus Caryophyllaeus (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), monozoic tapeworms of cyprinid fishes.

    PubMed

    Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Brabec, Jan; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Oros, Mikulás; Scholz, Tomás

    2014-08-01

    Molecular analysis of an extensive specimen collection of morphologically distinct tapeworms of the genus Caryophyllaeus Gmelin, 1790 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of cyprinid fishes in the Palaearctic Region, brought evidence of host-related plasticity in critical morphological characters widely used for species circumscription and classification of these tapeworms. The results obtained here do not support the traditionally used morphological concept of species-defining characters of the order Caryophyllidea Carus, 1863, especially due to high morphological plasticity of the scolex and the anterior end of the body. Several morphotypes within both Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) and Caryophyllaeus brachycollis Janiszewska, 1953 generally corresponding to different hosts and geographical regions, were recognised likely suggesting host- and geography-related intraspecific morphological variability. Genetic data confirmed euryxenous host specificity of both species, most profoundly C. laticeps, but did not support the existence of cryptic species. In fact, some of the fish hosts may harbour both of the congeneric species including several of their respective morphotypes. The pattern of morphological and genetic divergence observed in both cestode species studied indicates a scenario of possible host range extensions and subsequent parasite diversification. If molecular sequence variability and host-related morphological polymorphism are confirmed in other groups of monozoic cestodes, it may complicate species identification and straightforward classification of these parasites. PMID:25185405

  18. Increased glial-derived neurotrophic factor in the small intestine of rats infected with the tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta.

    PubMed

    Starke-Buzetti, Wilma Aparecida; Oaks, John A

    2008-12-01

    The neurotrophin, glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), is essential for the development of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in both the embryo and neonate and may be important for maintenance and plasticity of ENS. The tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, altered the number of cells containing GNDF in the host's jejunum and ileum. Numbers and locations of GDNF-containing cells were determined by applying monoclonal anti-GDNF antibody to intestinal segments collected from infected and uninfected age-matched rats during the initial 34 days post-infection (dpi). Most cells staining positive for GDNF were present in the lamina propria of the jejunum and ileum from both infected and uninfected rats. The co-localization of staining by the antibodies, anti-GDNF and anti-ED2 (a nuclear specific antibody for resident macrophages) indicated that at least 74% of the cells staining for GDNF were macrophages. Mast cells did not stain with the anti-GDNF antibody. The increased number of GDNF+ cells in the infected rat intestine suggests that this neurotrophin may play a role in the neural and mucosal responses to lumenal tapeworm infection. PMID:19134055

  19. Molecular Characterization of Taenia multiceps Isolates from Gansu Province, China by Sequencing of Mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit 1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen Hui; Jia, Wan Zhong; Qu, Zi Gang; Xie, Zhi Zhou; Luo, Jian Xun; Yin, Hong; Sun, Xiao Lin; Blaga, Radu

    2013-01-01

    A total of 16 Taenia multiceps isolates collected from naturally infected sheep or goats in Gansu Province, China were characterized by sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The complete cox1 gene was amplified for individual T. multiceps isolates by PCR, ligated to pMD18T vector, and sequenced. Sequence analysis indicated that out of 16 T. multiceps isolates 10 unique cox1 gene sequences of 1,623 bp were obtained with sequence variation of 0.12-0.68%. The results showed that the cox1 gene sequences were highly conserved among the examined T. multiceps isolates. However, they were quite different from those of the other Taenia species. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete cox1 gene sequences revealed that T. multiceps isolates were composed of 3 genotypes and distinguished from the other Taenia species. PMID:23710087

  20. Molecular characterization of Taenia multiceps isolates from Gansu Province, China by sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen Hui; Jia, Wan Zhong; Qu, Zi Gang; Xie, Zhi Zhou; Luo, Jian Xun; Yin, Hong; Sun, Xiao Lin; Blaga, Radu; Fu, Bao Quan

    2013-04-01

    A total of 16 Taenia multiceps isolates collected from naturally infected sheep or goats in Gansu Province, China were characterized by sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The complete cox1 gene was amplified for individual T. multiceps isolates by PCR, ligated to pMD18T vector, and sequenced. Sequence analysis indicated that out of 16 T. multiceps isolates 10 unique cox1 gene sequences of 1,623 bp were obtained with sequence variation of 0.12-0.68%. The results showed that the cox1 gene sequences were highly conserved among the examined T. multiceps isolates. However, they were quite different from those of the other Taenia species. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete cox1 gene sequences revealed that T. multiceps isolates were composed of 3 genotypes and distinguished from the other Taenia species. PMID:23710087

  1. Spatial and temporal distribution of the Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea) in the Rio Grande (Río Bravo del Norte).

    PubMed

    Bean, Megan G; Bonner, Timothy H

    2010-09-01

    Recent collections of the Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in the Rio Grande have raised concern about the potential impacts on Rio Grande endemic and imperiled fishes. The objectives of this study were to determine distribution and definitive hosts of the Asian fish tapeworm within the Rio Grande drainage and to quantify occurrences and abundances. In total, 1,992 fish spanning 11 families were collected and examined for Asian fish tapeworms in the Rio Grande and the Pecos and Devils rivers. The parasite was collected from red shiners Cyprinella lutrensis, Tamaulipas shiners Notropis braytoni, sand shiners N. stramineus, river carpsuckers Carpiodes carpio, plains killifish Fundulus zebrinus, western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis, blue suckers Cycleptus elongatus, blacktail shiners Cyprinella venusta, proserpine shiners Cyprinella proserpina, and Manantial roundnose minnow Dionda argentosa, with the latter four species being new host records. Monthly collections of red shiners from Big Bend National Park exhibited prevalence levels above 15% in January-March and December and below 10% during April-June and October. With over 50% of the Rio Grande icthyofauna in Texas considered imperiled, the occurrence and pathological effects of the Asian fish tapeworm in combination with reduced water quantity and quality and increased habitat fragmentation are of concern for these taxa. PMID:21192548

  2. Observations on the Plerocercoid Stage of the Tapeworm Ligula in Three Species of Fish from the Lower Crooked River of Central Oregon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristy L. Groves; Barbara A. Shields

    2001-01-01

    Tapeworms in the genus Ligula are cosmopolitan parasites whose plerocercoid stages are found worldwide in fishes of the families Cyprinidae and Catostomidae. Examination of chiselmouth Acrocheilus alutaceus, northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis, and bridgelip sucker Catostomus columbianus revealed the presence of Ligula in the lower Crooked River system of central Oregon. This represents the first report of Ligula intestinalis in two

  3. Removal of tapeworm (Moniezia spp.) did not increase growth rates of meat-breed lambs in the Northern Tablelands of NSW.

    PubMed

    Dever, M L; Kahn, L P; Doyle, E K

    2015-03-15

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that growth rates of meat-breed lambs would not be affected by infection with tapeworm (Monieza spp.). Two experiments, conducted in successive years (2012 and 2013) on a commercial sheep farm on the Northern Tablelands of NSW, assessed growth rates of meat-breed lambs, between 4 and 6 months of age, following the removal of the cestode, Monieza spp. (or commonly referred to as tapeworm). In 2012 and 2013, 93 and 85 lambs respectively were randomly allocated to two treatment groups. One group (Prazi) was treated with praziquantel, levamisole and abamectin to remove tapeworm and gastrointestinal nematode infection (GIN) while the second group (Control) was treated with levamisole and abamectin to remove only GIN. Tapeworm prevalence and egg counts of Control lambs ranged from 25 to 77% and 7 to 730 eggs per gram (epg) respectively and were significantly (p<0.005) reduced in Prazi lambs, following treatment, at all time-points in both years. Pre-treatment GIN worm egg counts ranged between 1684 and 3368epg with Haemonchus contortus the dominant species. Post-treatment GIN worm egg counts were similar between Prazi and Control groups, expect on one occasion (Day 65, 2013) when GIN worm egg counts were expectantly higher (p<0.005) in Control lambs. No significant difference in growth rates were observed between treatment groups in either year with overall group mean daily bodyweight gains being 95 and 81g/day (p=0.053) in 2012 and 132 and 134g/day (p=0.784) in 2013 for the Prazi and Control groups respectively. This experiment confirmed that removal of tapeworm burdens did not increase growth rates in meat-breed lambs on a commercial sheep farm in the Northern Tablelands of NSW. PMID:25677979

  4. [The reaction of the bursa and thymus eosinophils in the herring gull after the experimental infection with gull-tapeworm].

    PubMed

    Fomina, A S; Pronina, S V

    2010-01-01

    Using the methods of light microscopy, eosinophil topography, quantitative and qualitative changes (degranulation level of and a cationic protein content) were studied in the thymus and bursa of 36 herring gull nestlings Larus argentatus mongolicus (Suskin, 1925) 2 weeks after experimental infestation with gull-tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Nitsch, 1824). Eosinophils in the thymus were located in trabecules, mainly close to the blood vessels, thymic (Hassall's) corpuscles and also directly inside them, while in the bursa they were found within the internodular space. As compared with the control bird counts, relative eosinophil count in the birds with an average invasion intensity was increased 3.8 times in the thymus and 2.5 times in the bursa. In birds with high invasion intensity, these counts were increased 4 times in the thymus and 1.2 times in the bursa. PMID:21500430

  5. Egg positive rate of Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia spp. by cellophane tape method in primary school children in Sivas, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Aciöz, Mehmet; De?erli, Serpil; Alim, Ahmet; Aygan, Çetin

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out the number of students with enterobiasis and/or taeniasis in primary schools of Sivas. Among the 2,029 students in 6 primary schools, 316 (15.6%) were positive to Enterobius vermicularis eggs and 32 (1.6%) were positive to Taenia spp. eggs by the cellophane tape method. The egg positive rates of E. vermicularis and Taenia spp. ranged from 9.4% to 27.2% and from 0.8% to 2.6% respectively among six schools. The egg positive rate of E. vermicularis was found to be significantly different among these schools (?2 = 31.96, P < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference between the schools for Taenia spp. (?2 = 4.37; P > 0.05). The rate (18.7%) of E. vermicularis in the urban slum regions was higher than the rate (11.5%) in the urban central regions (?2 = 19.20; P < 0.05). Above results demonstrate that the egg positive rate of E. vermicularis and Taenia spp. was still prevalent among primary school children. PMID:15951641

  6. Sex hormone changes induced by the parasite lead to feminization of the male host in murine Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Larralde; J. Morales; I. Terrazas; T. Govezensky; M. C. Romano

    1995-01-01

    Female mice are more susceptible to Taenia crassiceps (TC) infection than males. However, after a month parasite load increases massively in both genders reaching thousands of parasites per host. The possibility of hormonal changes in the infected mice was envisaged. Sex hormones levels were assayed after different periods of infection, the parasites present in the peritoneal cavity were collected and

  7. Successful immunization of naturally reared pigs against porcine cysticercosis with a recombinant oncosphere antigen vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Jayashi, César M.; Kyngdon, Craig T.; Gauci, Charles G.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium causes cysticercosis in pigs and taeniasis and neurocysticercosis in humans. Oncosphere antigens have proven to be effective as vaccines to protect pigs against an experimental infection with T. solium. A pair-matched vaccination trial field, using a combination of two recombinant antigens, TSOL16 and TSOL18, was undertaken in rural villages of Peru to evaluate the efficacy of this vaccine under natural conditions. Pairs of pigs (n = 137) comprising one vaccinated and one control animal, were allocated to local villagers. Animals received two vaccinations with 200 ?g of each of TSOL16 and TSOL18, plus 5 mg Quil-A. Necropsies were performed 7 months after the animals were distributed to the farmers. Vaccination reduced 99.7% and 99.9% (p < 0.01) the total number of cysts and the number of viable cysts, respectively. Immunization with the TSOL16–TSOL18 vaccines has the potential to control T. solium transmission in areas where the disease is endemic, reducing the source for tapeworm infections in humans. PMID:22541797

  8. Isolated cysticercosis of tongue: a case report.

    PubMed

    Khare, Pratima; Chauhan, Nidhi; Dogra, Rajeev; Kala, Pooja; Chand, Priyanka

    2014-08-01

    Cysticercosis of the tongue is a rare disease caused by infestation with the larval stage of the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) in which man acts as a secondary host rather than a primary host. Most of these lesions are asymptomatic. The patient usually reports to the physician with the complaint of swelling. The solitary swelling in the tongue of this young 12-year-old girl was not suspected clinically for cysticercosis. Fine needle aspiration cytology, used for pre-operative diagnosis, suggested the possibility of cysticercosis. Detailed medical evaluation was carried out which ruled out neural cysticercosis and other extraneural lesions. The complete removal of the lesion was achieved by simple excision. The histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of lingual cysticercosis. PMID:24610792

  9. Seroprevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in the federal state of Lower Saxony in Germany.

    PubMed

    Abuseir, Sameh; Nagel-Kohl, Uschi; Probst, Dieter; Kühne, Michael; Epe, Christian; Doherr, Marcus G; Schnieder, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Based on ELISA results from randomly selected serum samples taken from 128 cattle from different administrative and urban districts in the federal state of Lower Saxony in Germany a seroprevalence estimate of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in this area was derived. This estimate was subsequently used to calculate the sample size required in an epidemiological study to determine the actual prevalence of this infection in the cattle population (n = 2 604 767) in this federal state. The sample size was calculated as 1518 and the samples were collected according to the distribution of cattle among the 48 administrative and urban districts in Lower Saxony. The samples were tested with an evaluated antibody ELISA. The results showed a positive antibody titre rate of 8.83% from the total tested samples. PMID:21038810

  10. A mouse air pouch model for evaluating the immune response to Taenia crassiceps infection.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Emanuelle B; Sakai, Yuriko I; Gaspari, Elizabeth De

    2014-02-01

    The experimental system of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci infection in BALB/c mice is considered to be the most representative model of cysticercosis. In our work, mice were sacrificed 7 and 30days after infection, and pouch fluid was collected to determine the number of accumulated cells and the concentrations of IFN?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and nitric oxide. The injection of 50 nonbudding cysticerci into normal mouse dorsal air pouches induced a high level of IFN? and nitric oxide production relative to the parasite load. The air pouch provides a convenient cavity that allows studying the cellular immunological aspects of the T. crassiceps parasite. The nonbudding cysticerci recovered from the air pouches contained cells that can reconstitute complete cysts in the peritoneal cavity of mice. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the air pouch model is an alternative tool for the evaluation of the immune characteristics of T. crassiceps infection. PMID:24378477

  11. [The influence of Taenia taeniaeformis larval infection on morphometrical parameters of muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus)].

    PubMed

    Kowal, Jerzy; Nosa?, Pawe?; Adamczyk, Ireneusz; Korna?, S?awomir; Wajdzik, Marek; Tomek, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    An investigation aimed to check the influence of Taenia taeniaeformis larvae on morphometrical parameters of muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) was carried. A total of 30 animals were hunted down in upper Vistula river basin in south Poland, then measured, weighed and dissected. Statistical comparison were done using U Mann-Whitney test. T. taeniaeformis larvae--cysticercus fasciolaris was found in the liver of 24 muskrats (80%). Significant differences between infected and non infected animals are reported, as regards their body mass, total length, abdomen circumference (p < 0.01) and also in body length (total minus tail length), head length, or chest and neck circumference (p < 0.05). The effect of infection on both muskrat condition and the presence of adult cestodes in definitive hosts are discussed. PMID:20707301

  12. Scanning electron microscopic observations of Cysticercus fasciolaris (=Taenia taeniaeformis) after treatment of mice with mebendazole.

    PubMed

    Verheyen, A; Vanparijs, O; Borgers, M; Thienpont, D

    1978-06-01

    The time-related topographical changes in mature cysticerci of Taenia taeniaformis induced after medication of infected mice with 250 ppm of mebendazole are described. The changes included the gradual disappearance of microtriches and progressive degeneration of the tegment resulting in an irregular surface with grooves, holes, and craterlike structures. Host cells adhered to the altered areas and the number of these cells increased when more severe changes became apparent. Finally the necrotized cysticerci, which lost their tegument completely, were almost entirely covered with adhesive host cells. A difference in the time sequence of the reported changes occurred between the scolex, the pseudoproglottids, and the bladder. This difference in susceptibility towards the drug between the three parts of the parasite in relation to the morphology of their microtrichous covering is discussed. PMID:660379

  13. Taenia multiceps brain cyst removal in two wild Nubian ibex (Capra nubianas).

    PubMed

    Merbl, Yael; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael; Chai, Orit; Chamisha, Yael; Anglister, Nili; King, Roni; Horowitz, Igal; Aizenberg, Zahi; Shamir, Merav H

    2014-03-01

    Two wild adult Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana) were captured and admitted to the Hebrew University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with various neurologic signs, including alerted mentation, head tilt, and pathologic nystagmus. The lesion in the central nervous system was localized to the forebrain in one ibex and to the cerebellum of the other. Both ibex's were diagnosed with brain cyst using computed tomography (CT). Craniectomy was performed to remove the cysts, and both animals returned to their natural environment after a rehabilitation period. Parasitologic examination revealed cysts of Taenia multiceps coenurus. This is the first report to describe the neurologic signs, CT findings, surgical procedure, and follow-up postsurgery information in wild Capra nubiana. PMID:24712185

  14. Evaluation of an antigenic fraction of Taenia hydatigena metacestode cyst fluid for immunodiagnosis of bovine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Kamanga-Sollo, E I; Rhoads, M L; Murrell, K D

    1987-08-01

    An antigenic fraction (ThFAS) isolated from Taenia hydatigena metacestode cyst fluid was used in an ELISA to detect antibodies to T saginata in experimentally and naturally infected cattle. In 10 calves given 1,000 to 100,000 T saginata eggs (20% to 60% viability), IgG and IgM antibodies were detected in all the calves by post-inoculation week 3. Immunoglobulin G antibody values remained increased until calves were slaughtered at post-inoculation weeks 13 to 26. Six naturally infected calves (determined by postmortem examination) were considered positive, using the ELISA. Shared antigens were demonstrated between ThFAS and T saginata and T crassiceps; there were no shared antigens between ThFAS and Haemonchus contortus or Fasciola hepatica. Specific lectin binding to ThFAS indicated the presence of glycoconjugates. Immunoblot analysis indicated that a low molecular weight polypeptide (10,000 Mr) bears the immunodiagnostic antigen. PMID:3631707

  15. Identification and functional characterization of alpha-enolase from Taenia pisiformis metacestode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaohua; Guo, Aijiang; Zhu, Xueliang; You, Yanan; Hou, Junling; Wang, Qiuxia; Luo, Xuenong; Cai, Xuepeng

    2015-04-01

    Enolase belongs to glycolytic enzymes with moonlighting functions. The role of enolase in Taenia species is still poorly understood. In this study, the full length of cDNA encoding for Taenia pisiformis alpha-enolase (Tpeno) was cloned from larval parasites and soluble recombinant Tpeno protein (rTpeno) was produced. Western blot indicated that both rTpeno and the native protein in excretion-secretion antigens from the larvae were recognized by anti-rTpeno monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). The primary structure of Tpeno showed the presence of a highly conserved catalytic site for substrate binding and an enolase signature motif. rTpeno enzymatic activities of catalyzing the reversible dehydration of 2-phosphoglycerate (2-PGA) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and vice versa were shown to be 30.71±2.15U/mg (2-PGA to PEP) and 11.29±2.38U/mg (PEP to 2-PGA), respectively. Far-Western blotting showed that rTpeno could bind to plasminogen, however its binding ability was inhibited by ?-aminocaproic acid (?ACA) in a competitive ELISA test. Plasminogen activation assay showed that plasminogen bound to rTpeno could be converted into active plasmin using host-derived activators. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence indicated that Tpeno was distributed in the bladder wall of the metacestode and the periphery of calcareous corpuscles. In addition, a vaccine trial showed that the enzyme could produce a 36.4% protection rate in vaccinated rabbits against experimental challenges from T. pisiformis eggs. These results suggest that Tpeno with multiple functions may play significant roles in the migration, growth, development and adaptation of T. pisiformis for survival in the host environment. PMID:25623259

  16. Development of microsatellite markers in Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), monozoic fish tapeworm, using next-generation sequencing approach.

    PubMed

    Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Minárik, Gabriel; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Mikulí?ek, Peter; Oravcová, Alexandra; Pálková, Lenka; Hanzelová, Vladimíra

    2015-02-01

    Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas 1781) (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) is a monozoic tapeworm of cyprinid fishes with a distribution area that includes Europe, most of the Palaearctic Asia and northern Africa. Broad geographic distribution, wide range of definitive fish hosts and recently revealed high morphological plasticity of the parasite, which is not in an agreement with molecular findings, make this species to be an interesting model for population biology studies. Microsatellites (short tandem repeat (STR) markers), as predominant markers for population genetics, were designed for C. laticeps using a next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach. Out of 165 marker candidates, 61 yielded PCR products of the expected size and in 25 of the candidates a declared repetitive motif was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. After the fragment analysis, six loci were proved to be polymorphic and tested for heterozygosity, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the presence of null alleles on 59 individuals coming from three geographically widely separated populations (Slovakia, Russia and UK). The number of alleles in particular loci and populations ranged from two to five. Significant deficit of heterozygotes and the presence of null alleles were found in one locus in all three populations. Other loci showed deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the presence of null alleles only in some populations. In spite of relatively low polymorphism and the potential presence of null alleles, newly developed microsatellites may be applied as suitable markers in population genetic studies of C. laticeps. PMID:25482859

  17. Characterization of S3Pvac Anti-Cysticercosis Vaccine Components: Implications for the Development of an Anti-Cestodiasis Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Rassy, Dunia; Bobes, Raúl J.; Rosas, Gabriela; Anaya, Victor H.; Brehm, Klaus; Hernández, Beatriz; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Pedraza, Saúl; Morales, Julio; Villalobos, Nelly; de Aluja, Aline S.; Laclette, Juan P.; Nunes, Caris M.; Biondi, Germano F.; Fragoso, Gladis; Hernández, Marisela; Sciutto, Edda

    2010-01-01

    Background Cysticercosis and hydatidosis seriously affect human health and are responsible for considerable economic loss in animal husbandry in non-developed and developed countries. S3Pvac and EG95 are the only field trial-tested vaccine candidates against cysticercosis and hydatidosis, respectively. S3Pvac is composed of three peptides (KETc1, GK1 and KETc12), originally identified in a Taenia crassiceps cDNA library. S3Pvac synthetically and recombinantly expressed is effective against experimentally and naturally acquired cysticercosis. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, the homologous sequences of two of the S3Pvac peptides, GK1 and KETc1, were identified and further characterized in Taenia crassiceps WFU, Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis. Comparisons of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences coding for KETc1 and GK1 revealed significant homologies in these species. The predicted secondary structure of GK1 is almost identical between the species, while some differences were observed in the C terminal region of KETc1 according to 3D modeling. A KETc1 variant with a deletion of three C-terminal amino acids protected to the same extent against experimental murine cysticercosis as the entire peptide. On the contrary, immunization with the truncated GK1 failed to induce protection. Immunolocalization studies revealed the non stage-specificity of the two S3Pvac epitopes and their persistence in the larval tegument of all species and in Taenia adult tapeworms. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that GK1 and KETc1 may be considered candidates to be included in the formulation of a multivalent and multistage vaccine against these cestodiases because of their enhancing effects on other available vaccine candidates. PMID:20585656

  18. Excitatory purinergic neurotransmission in smooth muscle of guniea-pig taenia caeci

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Paterson, William G

    2005-01-01

    Non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) inhibitory neurotransmission has been an area of intense interest in gut motor physiology, whereas excitatory NANC neurotransmission has received less attention. In order to further explore excitatory NANC neurotransmission, we performed conventional intracellular recordings from guinea-pig taenia caeci smooth muscle. Tissue was perfused with oxygenated Krebs solution at 35°C and nerve responses evoked by either oral or aboral nerve stimulation (NS) (4 square wave pulses, 0.3 ms duration, 20 Hz). Electrical activity was characterized by slow waves upon which one to three action potentials were superimposed. Oral NS evoked an inhibitory junction potential (IJP) at either the valley or peak of the slow wave. Application of nifedipine (1 ?m) abolished slow waves and action potentials, but membrane potential flunctuations (1–3 mV) and IJPs remained unaffected. Concomitant application of apamin (300 nm), a small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel blocker, converted the IJP to an EJP that was followed by slow IJP. Further administration of NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, 200 ?m), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, abolished the slow IJP without affecting the EJP, implying that the slow IJP is due to nitrergic innervation. The EJP was abolished by tetrodotoxin (1 ?m), but was not significantly affected by atropine (3 ?m) and guanethidine (3 ?m) or hexamethonium (500 ?m). Substance P (SP, 1 ?m) desensitization caused slight attenuation of the EJP, but the EJP was abolished by desensitization with ?,?-methylene ATP (50 ?m), a P2 purinoceptor agonist that is more potent than ATP at the P2X receptor subtype, suramin (100 ?m), a non-selective P2 purinoceptor antagonist, and pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2?,4?-disulphonic acid (PPADS, 100 ?m), a selective P2X purinoceptor antagonist. In contrast, the EJP was unaffected by MRS-2179 (2 ?m), a selective P2Y1 receptor antagonist. Aboral NS evoked an apamin- and l-NAME-sensitive IJP, but virtually no NANC EJP. These data suggest the presence of polarized excitatory purinergic neurotransmission in guinea-pig taenia caeci, which appears to be mediated by P2X purinoceptors, most likely the P2X1 subtype. PMID:15677692

  19. Genetic variation of Taenia pisiformis collected from Sichuan, China, based on the mitochondrial cytochrome B gene.

    PubMed

    Yang, Deying; Ren, Yongjun; Fu, Yan; Xie, Yue; Nie, Huaming; Nong, Xiang; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2013-08-01

    Taenia pisiformis is one of the most important parasites of canines and rabbits. T. pisiformis cysticercus (the larval stage) causes severe damage to rabbit breeding, which results in huge economic losses. In this study, the genetic variation of T. pisiformis was determined in Sichuan Province, China. Fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) (922 bp) gene were amplified in 53 isolates from 8 regions of T. pisiformis. Overall, 12 haplotypes were found in these 53 cytb sequences. Molecular genetic variations showed 98.4% genetic variation derived from intra-region. FST and Nm values suggested that 53 isolates were not genetically differentiated and had low levels of genetic diversity. Neutrality indices of the cytb sequences showed the evolution of T. pisiformis followed a neutral mode. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no correlation between phylogeny and geographic distribution. These findings indicate that 53 isolates of T. pisiformis keep a low genetic variation, which provide useful knowledge for monitoring changes in parasite populations for future control strategies. PMID:24039288

  20. Taenia crassiceps infection disrupts estrous cycle and reproductive behavior in BALB/c female mice.

    PubMed

    Arteaga-Silva, Marcela; Vargas-Villavicencio, José Antonio; Vigueras-Villaseñor, Rosa María; Rodríguez-Dorantes, Mauricio; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2009-02-01

    Previously, it has been shown that parasitic infections are able to alter the normal mammal physiology, at several extents. Thus, we investigated the effects on estrous cycle and sexual behavior induced by intraperitoneal infection with Taenia crassiceps in female host mice. Along the weeks of infection, parasites were collected from the peritoneal cavity of female mice, showing the maximum parasite load at 16 weeks. No parasites were found outside peritoneal cavity. Vaginal estrous cycle was monitored daily for 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of infection, and results compared against age-matched female mice. Female sexual behavior (FSB) tests were performed, one test per week. Immediately after the last behavioral test, blood was collected by cardiac puncture for steroid determinations. First of all, there was a strong tissular damage in the female reproductive tract in all infected females. The phases of the estrous cycle were interrupted at 12 and 16 weeks, with increased leukocytes and the presence of a few cornified epithelial cells and nucleated epithelial cells. The FSB decreased starting 6 weeks post infection. On the 16th week, all infected female mice ceased to exhibit sexual responses, and estradiol levels showed a significant decrease. Control mice continued showing FSB and the different phases of the estrous cycle throughout the observation period. Our results strength the notion that parasites may be considered as an evolutionary force in the reproductive ability of mammals. PMID:19041292

  1. Molecular identification of Taenia mustelae cysts in subterranean rodent plateau zokors (Eospalax baileyi).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang; Ma, Jun-Ying; Cai, Hui-Xia; Su, Jian-Ping; Hou, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Tong-Zuo; Lin, Gong-Hua

    2014-07-01

    Cestode larvae spend one phase of their two-phase life cycle in the viscera of rodents, but cases of cestodes infecting subterranean rodents have only been rarely observed. To experimentally gain some insight into this phenomenon, we captured approximately 300 plateau zokors (Eospalax baileyi), a typical subterranean rodent inhabiting the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and examined their livers for the presence of cysts. Totally, we collected five cysts, and using a mitochondrial gene (cox1) and two nuclear genes (pepck and pold) as genetic markers, we were able to analyze the taxonomy of the cysts. Both the maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods showed that the cysts share a monophyly with Taenia mustelae, while Kimura 2-parameter distances and number of different sites between our sequences and T. mustelae were far less than those found between the examined sequences and other Taeniidae species. These results, alongside supporting paraffin section histology, imply that the cysts found in plateau zokors can be regarded as larvae of T. mustelae, illustrating that zokors are a newly discovered intermediate host record of this parasite. PMID:25017751

  2. Genetic Variation of Taenia Pisiformis Collected from Sichuan, China, Based on the Mitochondrial Cytochrome b gene

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Deying; Ren, Yongjun; Fu, Yan; Xie, Yue; Nie, Huaming; Nong, Xiang; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong

    2013-01-01

    Taenia pisiformis is one of the most important parasites of canines and rabbits. T. pisiformis cysticercus (the larval stage) causes severe damage to rabbit breeding, which results in huge economic losses. In this study, the genetic variation of T. pisiformis was determined in Sichuan Province, China. Fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) (922 bp) gene were amplified in 53 isolates from 8 regions of T. pisiformis. Overall, 12 haplotypes were found in these 53 cytb sequences. Molecular genetic variations showed 98.4% genetic variation derived from intra-region. FST and Nm values suggested that 53 isolates were not genetically differentiated and had low levels of genetic diversity. Neutrality indices of the cytb sequences showed the evolution of T. pisiformis followed a neutral mode. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no correlation between phylogeny and geographic distribution. These findings indicate that 53 isolates of T. pisiformis keep a low genetic variation, which provide useful knowledge for monitoring changes in parasite populations for future control strategies. PMID:24039288

  3. Changes in cyst's nuclear chromatin resulting after experimental manipulation of Taenia crassiceps mice infections: biological implications.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Gladis; Bobes, Raul J; Espinoza, Bertha; Martínez, María Luisa; Pérez-Morales, Deyanira; Rosas, Gabriela; Sciutto, Edda; Laclette, Juan Pedro

    2012-04-01

    During some estimations of the nuclear DNA content, based on determinations propidium iodide (PI) binding through fluorocytometry for Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, significant variation in the results were found. This initial observation led to a series of experiments designed to explain the variation. These changes could be induced by the diameter of the needles in the syringes used for the mouse to mouse transfer of the cysts. Nuclei from cysts transferred through 27-gauge needles showed 30% less PI staining than those transferred through 21 gauge needles, after 2 months infections. Reduction in PI capture induced by 27-gauge needle was reversible when the cysts were maintained in their mice hosts during 5 months. Moreover, variation in PI binding to cysticercal DNA was also found when comparing parasites grown in male versus female mice. The use of agents that homogenize the chromatin structure during PI staining, allowed demonstrating that variation were entirely due to differences in the chromatin relaxation/compaction. Additional experiments demonstrated that the higher compaction is accompanied by a reduced ability of cysts to grow in the peritoneal cavity of BALB/cAnN mice. Furthermore, proteomic analysis also showed that these changes in chromatin relaxation/compaction resulted in different levels and patterns of protein expression. Our results strongly suggest that chromatin is involved in several well characterized phenomena of the T. crassiceps murine model, and open new avenues for a detailed approach to understand such a complex host-parasite relationship. PMID:22343043

  4. Increased Resistance to Taenia crassiceps Murine Cysticercosis in Qa-2 Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fragoso, Gladis; Lamoyi, Edmundo; Mellor, Andrew; Lomelí, Ciro; Hernández, Marisela; Sciutto, Edda

    1998-01-01

    We previously reported important differences in resistance to Taenia crassiceps murine cysticercosis between BALB/c substrains. It was suggested that resistance might correlate with expression of the nonclassic class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Qa-2 antigen; BALB/cAnN is Qa-2 negative and highly susceptible to T. crassiceps, whereas BALB/cJ expresses Qa-2 and is highly resistant. In this study, we investigated the role of Qa-2 in mediating resistance to cysticercosis by linkage analysis and infection of Qa-2 transgenic mice. In BALB/cAnN × (C57BL/6J × BALB/cAnN)F1 and BALB/cAnN × (BALB/cJ × BALB/cAnN)F1 backcrosses, the expression of Qa-2 antigen correlated with resistance to cysticercosis. Significantly fewer parasites were recovered from infected Qa-2 transgenic male and female mice than from nontransgenic mice of similar genetic background. These results clearly demonstrate that the Qa-2 MHC antigen is involved in resistance to T. crassiceps cysticercosis. PMID:9453638

  5. Depressed T-cell proliferation associated with susceptibility to experimental Taenia crassiceps infection.

    PubMed Central

    Sciutto, E; Fragoso, G; Baca, M; De la Cruz, V; Lemus, L; Lamoyi, E

    1995-01-01

    Peritoneal infection with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci of naturally resistant (C57BL/10J and C57BL/6J) and susceptible (BALB/cAnN) mice induces a cellular immune depression. T-cell proliferation in response to concanavalin A (ConA) or anti-CD3 was significantly depressed in infected mice of all strains tested. However, in resistant mice, the diminished response to ConA was transient and animals recovered normal responsiveness at day 40, whereas susceptible mice remained suppressed throughout the 40 days of the experiment. In contrast, the proliferative response to anti-CD3 was lower in infected mice than in noninfected controls regardless of differences in natural susceptibility of the strains. Intraperitoneal injection of mice with a parasite extract also induced a depression of the response to ConA, although not as strong as that produced by the parasite itself. This depression is not due to direct effects by parasite antigens over host lymphocytes, as proliferation is not affected by the presence of cysticercal antigens added in vitro. Diminished interleukin-2 production during the parasitosis accounts at least in part for the diminished responses to ConA. A primary infection favors parasite establishment after a second challenge, pointing to the relevance of the immunodepression in generating a host environment favorable to the parasite. PMID:7768609

  6. Taenia crassiceps Infection Does Not Influence the Development of Experimental Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Flores, Aaxin M.; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Calleja, Elsa A.; Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; Juárez, Imelda; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2013-01-01

    It was previously reported by our group that infection with Taenia crassiceps reduces incidence and severity of inflammatory and autoimmune experimental diseases like type 1 diabetes and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In this research, we set out to study whether infection with T. crassiceps would affect the development of experimental rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We found that mice infected with the parasite and induced with experimental RA showed similar clinical scores as the noninfected experimental RA group; systemic cytokines were not affected while anti-CII Abs were higher in the infected group. Histological evaluation showed damage in both infected and noninfected experimental RA-induced groups and although some surface molecules such as PDL-2 and MR which are associated with immunomodulatory mechanisms were upregulated in the infected and RA-induced group as compared to the noninfected RA group, they did not exert any changes in the outcome of experimental RA. Thus, we determined that infection with T. crassiceps does not influence the outcome of experimental RA. PMID:23509709

  7. Effects of nitroscanate on adult Taenia pisiformis in dogs with experimentally induced infections.

    PubMed

    Bowman, D D; Lin, D S; Johnson, R C; Lynn, R C; Hepler, D I; Stansfield, D G

    1991-09-01

    Twenty-four specific-pathogen-free Beagles were each given 50 cysticerci of Taenia pisiformis that had been harvested from experimentally infected rabbits. Quantitative fecal egg counts and fecal screening for recovery of passed segments were performed on postinoculation days 56 through 70. Twenty-three of 24 dogs fed cysticerci developed patent infections. The 23 dogs with patent infections were assigned to 1 of 2 groups and treated with nitroscanate or a placebo 60 days after inoculation. Egg counts in the treated dogs had markedly decreased by the second day after treatment, and by the sixth day after treatment, segments were not found in the feces of any of the treated animals. The control dogs continued to pass eggs and segments in their feces throughout the 9 days after treatment. The dogs were euthanatized and necropsied 70 days after being inoculated. At necropsy, the mean number of scolices recovered from control dogs was 24.6, the mean number of scolices recovered from treated dogs was 0.25. Worms recovered from the control dogs were intact, gravid cestodes. Efficacy of treatment with nitroscanate at a mean dosage of 56 mg/kg of body weight was 98.9%. PMID:1835326

  8. Floriparicapitus, a new genus of lecanicephalidean tapeworm (Cestoda) from sawfishes (Pristidae) and guitarfishes (Rhinobatidae) in the Indo-West Pacific.

    PubMed

    Cielocha, Joanna J; Jensen, Kirsten; Caira, Janine N

    2014-08-01

    Floriparicapitus n. gen. (Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea), with Floriparicapitus euzeti n. gen., n. sp. as its type, is erected to house 3 new tapeworm species and 2 known species that are transferred to the new genus, all parasitizing sawfishes and guitarfishes (order Rhinopristiformes) in Indo-Pacific waters. The new genus differs from the 21 valid lecanicephalidean genera in its possession of a large scolex bearing a laterally expanded apical organ in the form of a rugose sheet in combination with a cirrus conspicuously armed with spinitriches and 3 pairs of excretory vessels. It most closely resembles Lecanicephalum, but differs conspicuously in its possession of 3, rather than 1, pair of excretory vessels. Two new species are described from sawfishes: Floriparicapitus euzeti n. sp., from Pristis clavata and Floriparicapitus juliani n. sp. from Pristis pristis, both from Australia. Floriparicapitus plicatilis n. sp. is described from the guitarfish Glaucostegus typus in Australia and the guitarfish Glaucostegus thouin in Malaysian Borneo. Two species formerly assigned to Cephalobothrium are transferred to the new genus; Floriparicapitus variabilis ( Southwell, 1911 ) n. comb. from the sawfish Anoxypristis cuspidata in Sri Lanka and Floriparicapitus rhinobatidis ( Subhapradha, 1955 ) n. comb. from the guitarfish Glaucostegus granulatus in India. The species from guitarfish differ conspicuously from those parasitizing sawfish in their possession of only 4 ( F. plicatilis n. sp.) or 5 (F. rhinobatidis n. comb.) testes per proglottid versus 9 or more in the 3 sawfish-parasitizing species. The latter 3 species differ from one another in scolex width, acetabular size, number of proglottids, and cirrus sac size. As it stands, the new genus appears to be restricted to a subclade of the Rhinopristiformes consisting of the sawfishes and species of Glaucostegus. PMID:24842294

  9. Multiple isotope analyses of the pike tapeworm Triaenophorus nodulosus reveal peculiarities in consumer-diet discrimination patterns.

    PubMed

    Behrmann-Godel, J; Yohannes, E

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies of dietary isotope discrimination have led to the general expectation that a consumer will exhibit enriched stable isotope levels relative to its diet. Parasite-host systems are specific consumer-diet pairs in which the consumer (parasite) feeds exclusively on one dietary source: host tissue. However, the small numbers of studies previously carried out on isotopic discrimination in parasite-host (?XP-HT) systems have yielded controversial results, showing some parasites to be isotopically depleted relative to their food source, while others are enriched or in equilibrium with their hosts. Although the mechanism for these deviations from expectations remains to be understood, possible influences of specific feeding niche or selection for only a few nutritional components by the parasite are discussed. ?XP-HT for multiple isotopes (?13C, ?15N, ?34S) were measured in the pike tapeworm Triaenophorus nodulosus and two of its life-cycle fish hosts, perch Perca fluviatilis and pike Esox lucius, within which T. nodulosus occupies different feeding locations. Variability in the value of ?XP-HT calculated for the parasite and its different hosts indicates an influence of feeding location on isotopic discrimination. In perch liver ?XP-HT was relatively more negative for all three stable isotopes. In pike gut ?XP-HT was more positive for ?13C, as expected in conventional consumer-diet systems. For parasites feeding on pike gut, however, the ?15N and ?34S isotope values were comparable with those of the host. We discuss potential causes of these deviations from expectations, including the effect of specific parasite feeding niches, and conclude that ?XP-HT should be critically evaluated for trophic interactions between parasite and host before general patterns are assumed. PMID:24451479

  10. Early intrauterine embryonic development in Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 (Cestoda, Caryophyllidea, Lytocestidae), an invasive tapeworm of carp (Cyprinus carpio): an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Bru?anská, Magdaléna; Mackiewicz, John S; M?ocicki, Daniel; Swiderski, Zdzis?aw; Nebesá?ová, Jana

    2012-02-01

    Intrauterine embryonic development in the caryophyllidean tapeworm Khawia sinensis has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy and cytochemical staining with periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate for glycogen. Contrary to previous light microscopy findings that reported the release of non-embryonated eggs of K. sinenesis to the external environment, the present study documents various stages of embryonation (ovoviviparity) within the intrauterine eggs of this cestode. At the initial stage of embryonic development, each fertilised oocyte is accompanied by several vitellocytes that become enclosed within the operculate, electrondense shell. Cleavage divisions result in formation of blastomeres (up to about 24 cells) of various sizes. Mitotic divisions and apparent rosette arrangment of the blastomeres, the latter atypical within the Eucestoda, are observed for the first time in the intrauterine eggs of K. sinenesis. The early embryo enclosed within the electrondense shell is surrounded by a thin membraneous layer which in some enlarged regions shows presence of nuclei. Simultaneously to multiplication and differentiation, some of the blastomeres undergo deterioration. A progressive degeneration of the vitellocytes within eggs provides nutritive reserves, including lipids, for the developing embryo. The possible significance of this atypical timing of the intrauterine embryonic development to (1) the ecology of K. sinensis and that of a recent introduction of another invasive tapeworm, the caryophyllidean Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 to Europe; and (2) the affiliation of caryophyllideans with other lower cestodes, are discussed. PMID:21894510

  11. The calcium content of the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig taenia coli

    PubMed Central

    Goodford, P. J.

    1967-01-01

    1. The in vitro calcium content of the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig taenia coli was 3·0 m-mole Ca/kg wet wt. when phosphate was omitted from the bathing medium, and was almost independent of pH changes in the range 6·7-7·6. 2. The calcium content was not changed when 1 mM phosphate was included in the medium, if the pH was 6·7 or 7·0. However, when the pH was 7·6, the calcium content increased by 1·5 m-mole Ca/kg wet wt. in the presence of phosphate. 3. The calcium content rose by 1·1 m-mole Ca/kg wet wt. when NaCl in the bathing medium was replaced by isotonic sucrose, and rose by 0·7 m-mole Ca/kg wet wt. when MgCl2 in the bathing medium was replaced. These increases may reflect a competition between Ca2+ and other cations for fixed negative sites in the tissue. 4. The initial rapid phase of 42K exchange corresponded to an `extra-cellular 42K-space' of 470 ml./kg fresh wt. in normal solution, rising to 560 ml./kg. fresh wt. in low-sodium solution and to 760 ml./kg fresh wt. in calcium-free low-sodium solution. In this last medium the extra-cellular [14C]sorbitol space was only 390 ml./kg fresh wt., so that there was a large excess of rapidly-exchanging potassium which may have been competing at fixed negative sites. PMID:6051800

  12. Taenia crassiceps: host treatment alters glycolisis and tricarboxilic acid cycle in cysticerci.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Carolina Miguel; Costa, Tatiane Luiza; Bezerra, José Clecildo Barreto; de Souza Lino, Ruy; Vinaud, Marina Clare

    2012-02-01

    Human cysticercosis by Taenia crassiceps is rare although it is considered of zoonotic risk, especially to immunocompromised individuals. Albendazole and praziquantel are widely used and effective in its treatment. Their active forms inhibit the glucose uptake by the parasite and induce muscle contractions that alter its glycogen levels interfering in the energetic metabolism of the parasite and leading to its death. The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glucose concentrations caused by low dosage treatments of the hosts with albendazole and praziquantel. Therefore, T. crassiceps intraperitoneally infected mice were treated by gavage feeding with 5.75 or 11.5 mg/kg of albendazole and 3.83 or 7.67 mg/kg of praziquantel. The treated mice were euthanized after 24 h and the cysticerci collected were morphologically classified into initial, larval or final phases. Concentrations of the organic acid produced and glucose were evaluated to detect alterations into the glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle pathways through chromatography and spectrophotometry. The low dosage treatment caused a partial blockage of the glucose uptake by the cysticerci in spite of the non significant difference between its concentrations. An activation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle was noted in the cysticerci that received the treatment due to an increase in the production of citrate, malate and ?-ketoglutarate and the consumption of oxaloacetate, succinate and fumarate. The detection of ?-ketoglutarate indicates that the cysticerci which were exposed to the drugs after host treatment present different metabolic pathways than the ones previously described after in vitro treatment. PMID:22127328

  13. The prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in the Matabeleland Provinces of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Sungirai, Marvelous; Masaka, Lawrence; Mbiba, Clifton

    2014-04-01

    Records were collected for Taenia saginata cysticercosis infections in cattle slaughtered at the Cold Storage Company Abattoir in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, between January 2006 and December 2007. The cattle were drawn from the two Matabeleland provinces in the dry western and southern parts of the country. A total of 86,080 cattle were slaughtered during the period. The average prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis was found to be 1.6% (n = 1 364) with Matabeleland North having a higher prevalence of 2.8% (n = 629) and Matabeleland South 1.2% (n = 735). There were no significant seasonal differences (p > 0.05) in incidences of T. saginata cysticercosis during the study although numerically, the prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis was higher in the wet season. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis in different age classes of cattle slaughtered. Of the infected carcasses, a great proportion of these had live cysts (1.4%) while few had dead cysts (0.2%). Most of the cattle condemned were below the age of 2 years and some were full adults (p < 0.05). There was a significant association between farm type (p < 0.05) and prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis with most infections being observed in the communal farming system. Though the prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis appears to be low, there is a need to conscientize the farmers to avoid losses due to carcasses condemnation at slaughter houses which will have a negative financial impact to the individual farmer. There is also a need to investigate such cases even further to reduce zoonotic consequences due to the undetected cases in communal areas. PMID:24429809

  14. Preferential infection sites of Cysticercus bovis in cattle experimentally infected with Taenia saginata eggs.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Welber D Z; Santos, Thaís R; Soares, Vando E; Nunes, Jorge L N; Mendonça, Rafael P; de Lima, Roberto C A; Sakamoto, Cláudio A M; Costa, Gustavo H N; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Oliveira, Gilson P; Costa, Alvimar J

    2011-02-01

    The preferential sites of infection of Cysticercus bovis were evaluated in the skeletal muscle and entrails of 25 cattle that were experimentally infected with Taenia saginata (2×10(4) eggs). Two other animals were not inoculated (control). Ninety days after inoculation, all the cattle were euthanized. The carcasses were deboned and dissected into 26 anatomical sections (masseter muscles, brain, tongue, esophagus, heart, diaphragm, lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen, top sirloin butt, bottom sirloin butt, outside round, top (inside) round, transversus abdominus, top sirloin cap, strip loin, full tenderloin, eye of round, knuckle, shoulder clod, foreshank, shank, chuck, back ribs, and tail muscles). The dissected tissues were sliced into 5mm sections. From the 25 cattle, 9258 C. bovis (cysticerci) were recovered; 75.02% (6946) of these were recovered from skeletal muscles and 24.98% (2312) from the entrails. A high parasitism level was found in the shoulder clod (12.55%), heart (11.02%), liver (9.48%), masseter muscles (8.51%), chuck (8.25%), strip loin and full tenderloin (7.26%), knuckle (6.63%), and back ribs (5.53%), totaling 69.23% (5738) of all of the detected cysticerci. On the other hand, there was a low C. bovis parasitism level in the brain, spleen, tail muscles, kidneys, esophagus, and diaphragm, representing just 3.9% of the total number of cysticerci. Given these results, we conclude that specific skeletal musculature regions, such as the shoulder blade, chuck, strip loin and full tenderloin, knuckle, back ribs and top round, which are not officially examined in many countries, are effective sites to efficiently screen C. bovis infection. To date, these regions have not been considered as preferential sites of C. bovis infection. Based on our work, however, these regions deserve greater attention from health inspectors because they contained a greater number of Cysticercus than the other regions of carcasses that are parasitized by T. saginata larvae. PMID:20493507

  15. Identification of neglected cestode Taenia multiceps microRNAs by illumina sequencing and bioinformatic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Worldwide, but especially in developing countries, coenurosis of sheep and other livestock is caused by Taenia multiceps larvae, and zoonotic infections occur in humans. Infections frequently lead to host death, resulting in huge socioeconomic losses. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have important roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of a large number of animal genes by imperfectly binding target mRNAs. To date, there have been no reports of miRNAs in T. multiceps. Results In this study, we obtained 12.8 million high quality raw reads from adult T. multiceps small RNA library using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 796 conserved miRNA families (containing 1,006 miRNAs) from 170,888 unique miRNAs were characterized using miRBase (Release 17.0). Here, we selected three conserved miRNA/miRNA* (antisense strand) duplexes at random and amplified their corresponding precursors using a PCR-based method. Furthermore, 20 candidate novel miRNA precursors were verified by genomic PCR. Among these, six corresponding T. multiceps miRNAs are considered specific for Taeniidae because no homologs were found in other species annotated in miRBase. In addition, 181,077 target sites within T. multiceps transcriptome were predicted for 20 candidate newly miRNAs. Conclusions Our large-scale investigation of miRNAs in adult T. multiceps provides a substantial platform for improving our understanding of the molecular regulation of T. multiceps and other cestodes development. PMID:23941076

  16. Balb/Cj male mice do not feminize after infection with larval Taenia crassiceps.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Jerry R; Jennette, Mary A; Kuhn, R E

    2007-02-01

    Balb/cJ mice fail to mount an immune response capable of clearing infection with larval Taenia crassiceps. Additionally, male Balb/cJ mice display a lag in larval growth of approximately 3 wk as compared to growth in female mice. It has been reported that male Balb/ cAnN mice generate a protective immune response early in infection, and become permissive to larval growth after they feminize (200-fold increase in serum estradiol and 90% decrease in serum testosterone). To determine if a different strain of Balb/c mice (Balb/cJ) also feminize, serum was collected from infected male mice for 16 wk and levels of 17-beta-estradiol and testosterone were measured via ELISA. In addition, the mounting responses of 12- and 16-wk infected male mice, as well as uninfected control mice, were determined after isolation with a female mouse. The results of these experiments show that male Balb/cJ mice do not feminize during infection with larval T. crassiceps. There was no significant change in serum levels of either 17-beta-estradiol or testosterone during the course of infection (> 16 wk). Moreover, there was no significant decrease in the number of times infected male mice mounted the female mouse as compared to uninfected controls. These results suggest that there may be variances between the substrains of Balb/c mice that lead to the phenotypic differences reported for male Balb/cJ and Balb/cAnN mice. PMID:17436962

  17. Decrease in establishment of Haemonchus contortus caused by inoculation of a Taenia hydatigena larvae vesicular concentrate.

    PubMed

    Cuenca-Verde, C; Buendía-Jiménez, J A; Valdivia-Anda, G; Cuéllar-Ordaz, J A; Muñoz-Guzmán, M A; Alba-Hurtado, F

    2011-05-11

    The effect of Taenia hydatigena larvae vesicular concentrate (ThLVC) on the establishment of an experimental infection by Haemonchus contortus was evaluated. The lambs that received ThLVC showed a greater (P<0.05) average of blood eosinophils (BE) than the lambs that did not receive ThLVC. Lambs that were only infected with H. contortus larvae showed a fecal egg count (FEC) and an adult phase (AP) number greater (P<0.05) than lambs that received ThLVC prior to infection. No effect was observed in size and prolificacy of AP after the administration of ThLVC. The infection with H. contortus caused an increase (P<0.05) in CD4+ lymphocytes in abomasal lymph node (ALN) and the combination of ThLVC plus the infection with H. contortus caused an increase (P<0.05) in CD4+ lymphocytes in the abomasal wall (AW). In addition, a positive correlation between gamma-delta lymphocytes of ALN (r=0.73, P<0.05) with the presence of AP in the abomasum was observed. The quantity of plasma cells in ALN and AW was not affected by the administration of ThLVC nor related to the resistance observed. The results shown in this work leave no doubt that ThLVC administration prior to inoculation produces eosinophilia and partially protects against the establishment of H. contortus. However, this protection is not only attributable to the role of eosinophils, since ThLVC can function stimulating other immune response cells, such as T lymphocytes, both contributing to prevent the presence of worms. PMID:21216105

  18. The identity, life-cycle and isoenzyme characteristics of Taenia madoquae (Pellegrini, 1950) n. comb. from silver-backed jackal ( Canis mesomelas Schreber, 1775) in East Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Jones; B. A. Allsopp; C. N. L. Macpherson; M. T. E. P. Allsopp

    1988-01-01

    Morphological characters, analysis of glucose phosphate isomerase, hexokinase and lactate dehydrogenase by isoelectric focusing in agarose gels, and experimental completion of the life-cycle in dogs have been used to demonstrate that adult Taenia from Canis mesomelas in Northern Kenya are conspecific with cysticerci from the skeletal muscle of Madoqua guentheri in the same area. The cysticerci are thought to be

  19. The action of lanthanum and D600 on the calcium exchange in the smooth muscle cells of the guinea-pig taenia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Mayer; C. van Breemen; R. Casteels

    1972-01-01

    The calcium distribution in smooth muscle cells of the taenia coli has been studied with a method based on the action of lanthanum ions. La3+-ions make it possible to separate the extracellular calcium from the cellular calcium by their high affinity for extracellular calcium binding sites and by their blocking action on the transmembrane calcium movements. Using this method the

  20. Immunological methods for diagnosing neurocysticercosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, R.E.; Estrada, J.J.; Grogl, M.

    1989-01-31

    A method is described for diagnosing active human neurocysticercosis by detecting the presence of at least one Taenia solium larval antigen in cerebrospinal fluid, which comprises: contacting cerebrospinal fluid from a human to be diagnosed with a solid support, wherein the support binds with a Taenia solium larval antigen if present, contacting the support with a first antibody, wherein the first antibody binds with a larval Taenia solium antigen if present in the cerebrospinal fluid, contacting the solid support with a detectable second antibody which will bind with the first antibody, and detecting the second antibody bound to the support.

  1. [Epidemiology of cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis].

    PubMed

    Bouteille, B

    2014-01-01

    Within the genus Taenia, three species are human parasites: T. solium, T. saginata and a new uncommon species, T. asiatica, described recently in Asia. T. saginata and T. solium live as adult tapeworms in human intestines, where they cause taeniasis. T. saginata is widely present worldwide, in all regions where cattle are bred. T. solium is endemic in many countries where livestock and consumption of pigs are common. Cattle and pigs become infected by ingesting eggs emitted by humans into the environment and serve as the respective intermediate hosts of these helminths and host larval forms, or metacestodes or cysticerci. Cysticerci develop into adult worms in the human intestines after a person has eaten contaminated raw or undercooked meat. In the T. solium, eggs are also human contaminants. Humans, like swine, can develop cysticercosis after ingesting eggs with water or contaminated food, or via dirty hands. The clinical manifestations of cysticercosis are highly variable both in kind and in severity. The period between initial infection and the onset of symptoms can also vary. The clinical expression of cysticercosis is generally dependent on the number, size and location of the cysts, as well as the host immune response to the parasite. The preferred locations are the muscles, subcutaneous tissues, central nervous system (CNS), and eyes. Subcutaneous and muscular forms are often asymptomatic. Severe cysticercosis is due to larvae located in human CNS - neurocysticercosis. The World Health Organization (WHO) lists neurocysticercosis as a neglected tropical disease. It estimates that about 50 million people worldwide have neurocysticercosis in the world and that it causes about 50,000 deaths each year. Its most frequent clinical manifestations are seizures, intracranial hypertension, neurological deficits, and sometimes psychiatric manifestations. It is also responsible for more than 50% of the cases of late-onset epilepsy in developing countries. The T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis complex is endemic in many developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Although T. solium had virtually disappeared in developed countries due to industrialization, improved methods of husbandry, and health checks, cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis are diagnosed anew in North America, Europe and Australia due to increased immigration from endemic areas. Cysticercosis is considered an eradicable disease. Although theoretically feasible, this concept has been replaced by projects to control and reduce the impact of cysticercosis on human health (through mass treatment of people, veterinary control of pigs, improved farming techniques, and health education). PMID:25296005

  2. Competitive, uncompetitive, and mixed inhibitors of the alkaline phosphatase activity associated with the isolated brush border membrane of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta.

    PubMed

    Pappas, P W; Leiby, D A

    1989-06-01

    Several compounds were tested as inhibitors of the alkaline phosphatase (AlkPase) activity associated with the isolated brush border membrane of the tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta. Molybdate, arsenate, arsenite and beta-glycerophosphate (BGP) were competitive inhibitors of the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate, while levamisole and clorsulon were uncompetitive and mixed inhibitors, respectively. Molybdate was also a competitive inhibitor of the hydrolysis of BGP and 5'-adenosine monophosphate, and levamisole was an uncompetitive inhibitor of BGP hydrolysis. The apparent inhibitor constants (Ki') for molybdate and levamisole were virtually identical regardless of the substrate, and these data support the hypothesis that the AlkPase activity is represented by a single membrane-bound enzyme with low substrate specificity. Quinacrine, Hg2+, and ethylenediaminetetraacetate were also potent inhibitors of the AlkPase activity, but the mechanisms by which these latter three inhibitors function were not clear. PMID:2768348

  3. Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis: variations in its parasite growth permissiveness that encounter with local immune features in BALB/c substrains.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Gabriela; Berzunza, Miriam; Becker, Ingeborg; Bobes, Raúl J; Rosas, Gabriela; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2009-12-01

    This study describes the first days of Taenia crassiceps infection in BALB/c substrains, BALB/cAnN and BALB/cJ, using two stocks of the same strains which were kept in different animal facilities, conventional and pathogen-free conditions, respectively. This study shows that parasite growth restriction shown by conventional BALB/cJ mice changed to parasite growth permissiveness when pathogen-free BALB/cJ mice were used. In addition, the higher number of macrophages, NK cells and intraperitoneal level of IFN-gamma found in the conventional restrictive BALB/cJ substrain vanished when the permissiveness to the parasite growth increased. No differences were found in DNA sequences of parasites collected before and after the change in the permissiveness to parasite growth which favors the possibility that the observed modifications could be due to changes in the murine strains and/or their maintenance conditions. PMID:19735657

  4. Porcine cysticercosis in southeast Uganda: seroprevalence in Kamuli and Kaliro districts 

    E-print Network

    Waiswa, C; Fèvre, E M; Nsadha, Z; Sikasunge, C S; Willingham III, A L

    2009-01-01

    The recent recognition of neurocysticercosis as a major cause of epilepsy in Uganda and changes in pig demography have lead to a need to better understand the basic epidemiology of Taenia solium infections in pigs and ...

  5. Pharmacological effects of isopolar phosphonate analogues of ATP on P2-purinoceptors in guinea-pig taenia coli and urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Cusack, N. J.; Hourani, S. M.; Loizou, G. D.; Welford, L. A.

    1987-01-01

    Isopolar methylene phosphonate analogues of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were synthesized and tested on the guinea-pig isolated taenia coli (where ATP causes relaxation) and urinary bladder (where ATP causes contraction), to see if restoration of the electronegativity of the methylene linkage would enhance pharmacological potency. The compounds used were the dichloromethylene and difluoromethylene analogues of adenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-methylene)triphosphonate (AMP-PCP), L-adenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-methylene)triphosphonate (L-AMP-PCP) and 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-methylene)-triphosphonate (2-methylthio-AMP-PCP). The order of potency of the analogues depended on the tissue, and was independent of the nature of the purine or ribose moieties. None of the analogues was degraded by ectonucleotidases on either tissue. In the taenia coli the order of potency for relaxation was difluoromethylene greater than or equal to dichloromethylene greater than methylene, and this reflected the order of electronegativity of the analogues. The isopolar analogues of L-AMP-PCP were inactive in the taenia coli. In the bladder the order of potency for contraction was difluoromethylene greater than or equal to methylene greater than dichloromethylene, suggesting that electronegativity is of lesser importance here. The isopolar analogues of L-AMP-PCP were active in this tissue. The differences between the two tissues in the order of potency for these non-degradable analogues supports suggestions that P2-purinoceptors in the taenia coli (P2Y) are different from those in the bladder (P2X). The isopolar analogues of L-AMP-PCP, like L-AMP-PCP itself, were selective agonists at the P2X-purinoceptor. PMID:3580709

  6. Experimental infection of the endangered bonytail chub (Gila elegans) with the Asian fish tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi): impacts on survival, growth, and condition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, S.P.; Choudhury, A.; Heisey, D.M.; Ahumada, J.A.; Hoffnagle, T.L.; Cole, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, a tapeworm known to be pathogenic to some fish species, has become established in the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha Miller, 1964) in Grand Canyon, USA, following the tapeworm's introduction into the Colorado River system. The potential impact of this tapeworm on humpback chub was studied by exposing the closely related bonytail chub (Gila elegans Baird and Girard, 1853) to the parasite under a range of conditions that included potential stressors of humpback chub in their natal waters, such as abrupt temperature change and a limited food base. Survival of infected fish under low food rations was considerably lower than that of control fish, and mortality of infected fish began 20days earlier. Growth of infected fish was significantly reduced, and negative changes in health condition indices were found. No significant negative impacts were revealed from the synergistic effects between temperature shock and infection. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi does present a potential threat to humpback chub in Grand Canyon and should be considered, along with conventional concerns involving altered flow regimes and predation, when management decisions are made concerning conservation of this endangered species.// Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, un ver plat connu comme pathog??ne pour certaines esp??ces de poissons, s'est associ?? au A (Gila cypha Miller, 1964), une esp??ce menac??e du Grand Canyon, ??.-U., apr??s l'introduction du ver dans le r??seau hydrographique du Colorado. Nous avons ??tudi?? l'impact potentiel de ce ver plat sur le m??n?? bossu en exposant l'esp??ce proche Gila elegans Baird et Girard, 1853 au parasite sous une gamme de conditions qui incluent les facteurs potentiels de stress des m??n??s bossus dans leurs cours d'eau d'origine, tels que les changements abrupts de temp??rature et des ressources alimentaires limit??es. La survie des poissons infect??s dans des conditions de nourriture limit??e est substantiellement r??duite par comparaison aux poissons t??moins et la mortalit?? des poissons infect??s d??bute 20 jours plus t?'t. La croissance des poissons infect??s est significativement r??duite et il y a des changements n??gatifs dans les indicateurs des conditions de sant??. Il n'y a pas d'impact n??gatif significatif apparent des effets de synergie du choc thermique et de l'infection. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi est donc une menace potentielle pour le m??n?? bossu dans le Grand Canyon et il devra ??tre pris en consid??ration, au m??me titre que les pr??occupations habituelles au sujet de la modification du r??gime des eaux et de la pr??dation, lorsque des d??cisions seront prises au sujet de la conservation de cette esp??ce menac??e.

  7. Molecular characterization of the Indian poultry nodular tapeworm, Raillietina echinobothrida (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Davaineidae) based on rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 region.

    PubMed

    Ramnath; Jyrwa, D B; Dutta, A K; Das, B; Tandon, V

    2014-03-01

    The nodular tapeworm, Raillietina echinobothrida is a well studied avian gastrointestinal parasite of family Davaineidae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea). It is reported to be the largest in size and second most prevalent species infecting chicken in north-east India. In the present study, morphometrical methods coupled with the molecular analysis of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region of ribosomal DNA were employed for precise identification of the parasite. The annotated ITS2 region was found to be 446 bp long and further utilized to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships and its species-interrelationships at the molecular level. In phylogenetic analysis similar topology was observed among the trees obtained by distance-based neighbor-joining as well as character-based maximum parsimony tree building methods. The query sequence R. echinobothrida is well aligned and placed within the Davaineidae group, with all Raillietina species well separated from the other cyclophyllidean (taeniid and hymenolepid) cestodes, while Diphyllobothrium latum (Pseudophyllidea: Diphyllobothriidae) was rooted as an out-group. Sequence similarities indeed confirmed our hypothesis that Raillietina spp. are neighboring the position with other studied species of order Cyclophyllidea against the out-group order Pseudophyllidea. The present study strengthens the potential of ITS2 as a reliable marker for phylogenetic reconstructions. PMID:24505172

  8. 21 CFR 520.1445 - Milbemycin oxime and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Ancylostoma caninum ), adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis ), and adult tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus multilocularis, and E. granulosus ) infections in dogs and puppies 2 pounds of body weight or greater and 6 weeks...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1445 - Milbemycin oxime and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Ancylostoma caninum ), adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis ), and adult tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus multilocularis, and E. granulosus ) infections in dogs and puppies 2 pounds of body weight or greater and 6 weeks...

  10. Expression and immunolocalisation of TpFABP as a candidate antigen for the serodiagnosis of rabbit Taenia pisiformis cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Deying; Chen, Lin; Xie, Yue; Wu, Xuhang; Nong, Xiang; Peng, Xi; Lai, Weimin; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2013-01-01

    The larval stage of Taenia pisiformis, also known as Cysticercus pisiformis, is the causative agent of cysticercosis and the cause of severe health problems in rabbits that negatively impacts on husbandry production. To date, there is no fast detection method to identify early infections in rabbits. In the present study, a new dot-ELISA-based on an endogenous antigen fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) was developed for the detection of cysticercosis, and its potential was then evaluated using test serum samples. Immunolocalisation showed that T. pisiformis FABP (TpFABP) localised to the parenchyma of the bladder wall of the cysticercus and perinuclear cytoplasm of parenchyma of the adult parasite. After cloning and expression, recombinant TpFABP (rTpFABP) protein was used for serodiagnosis of T. pisiformis infection in rabbits by dot-ELISA. The antibody was detected 14 days post-infection in rabbits experimentally infected with T. pisiformis. Based on the necropsy results, the sensitivity and specificity of 169 serum samples tested by rTpFABP dot-ELISA were found to be 98.2% (54/55) and 92.1% (105/114), respectively. These data suggest that the dot-ELISA developed in this study has potential for detection of T. pisiformis infection in rabbits. PMID:24325873

  11. Phage-displayed peptides as capture antigens in an innovative assay for Taenia saginata-infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Fogaça, Rafaela L; Capelli-Peixoto, Janaína; Yamanaka, Isabel B; de Almeida, Rodrigo P M; Muzzi, João Carlos D; Borges, Mariangela; Costa, Alvimar J; Chávez-Olortegui, Carlos; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Alvarenga, Larissa M; de Moura, Juliana

    2014-11-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is detected during the routine post mortem examination of carcasses by visual inspection (knife and eye method). However, the sensitivity of this procedure is several times lower than immunoassays, even when it is performed by qualified professionals. In the present study, a new generation capture antigens were screened from a phage display peptide library using antibodies from Taenia saginata-infected animals. Eight phage clones were selected, and one, Tsag 3 (VHTSIRPRCQPRAITPR), produced similar results to the T. saginata metacestode crude antigen (TsCa) when used as a capture antigen in an ELISA. The phage-displayed peptides competed with TsCa for binding sites, reducing the reactivity by approximately 30 %. Alanine scanning indicated that proline, arginine, and serine are important residues for antibody binding. Tsag 1 (HFYQITWLPNTFPAR), the most frequent affinity-selected clone, and Tsag 6 (YRWPSTPSASRQATL) shared similarity with highly conserved proteins from the Taeniidae family with known immunogenicity. Due to their epitopic or mimotopic properties, these affinity-selected phages could contribute to the rational design of an ante mortem immunodiagnosis method for bovine cysticercosis, as well as an epitope-based vaccine to interrupt the taeniosis/cysticercosis complex. PMID:25081558

  12. Fatal infection with Taenia martis metacestodes in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in an Italian zoological garden.

    PubMed

    De Liberato, Claudio; Berrilli, Federica; Meoli, Roberta; Friedrich, Klaus G; Di Cerbo, Pilar; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Eleni, Claudia

    2014-10-01

    A case of fatal infection caused by larval forms of Taenia martis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in the Rome zoological garden is described. The animal, living in a semi-natural pen with other 15 conspecific individuals and being fed with fresh fruit and vegetables, yoghurt and eggs, was transported to the Istituto Zooprofilattico of Rome for post-mortem examination. The anamnesis included, ten days before the death, apathy, lack of appetite, abdominal distension and diarrhoea. A severe exudative fibrinous-purulent peritonitis with numerous adhesions between the abdominal wall and the bowel loops was detected. After intestine removal, two free and viable, 4 cm long, whitish, leaf-like parasitic forms were pinpointed. Macroscopic examination of the two parasites allowed their identification as larval stages of cestodes, identified via molecular analysis as T. martis metacestodes. This report represents the first record of T. martis infection in the host species and in a zoological garden and for the pathological relevance of the infection. PMID:24928170

  13. Arrhythmic Song Exposure Increases ZENK Expression in Auditory Cortical Areas and Nucleus Taeniae of the Adult Zebra Finch

    PubMed Central

    Lampen, Jennifer; Jones, Katherine; McAuley, J. Devin; Chang, Soo-Eun; Wade, Juli

    2014-01-01

    Rhythm is important in the production of motor sequences such as speech and song. Deficits in rhythm processing have been implicated in human disorders that affect speech and language processing, including stuttering, autism, and dyslexia. Songbirds provide a tractable model for studying the neural underpinnings of rhythm processing due to parallels with humans in neural structures and vocal learning patterns. In this study, adult zebra finches were exposed to naturally rhythmic conspecific song or arrhythmic song. Immunohistochemistry for the immediate early gene ZENK was used to detect neural activation in response to these two types of stimuli. ZENK was increased in response to arrhythmic song in the auditory association cortex homologs, caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) and caudomedial mesopallium (CMM), and the avian amygdala, nucleus taeniae (Tn). CMM also had greater ZENK labeling in females than males. The increased neural activity in NCM and CMM during perception of arrhythmic stimuli parallels increased activity in the human auditory cortex following exposure to unexpected, or perturbed, auditory stimuli. These auditory areas may be detecting errors in arrhythmic song when comparing it to a stored template of how conspecific song is expected to sound. CMM may also be important for females in evaluating songs of potential mates. In the context of other research in songbirds, we suggest that the increased activity in Tn may be related to the value of song for assessing mate choice and bonding or it may be related to perception of arrhythmic song as aversive. PMID:25259620

  14. Heterologous Prime-Boost Oral Immunization with GK-1 Peptide from Taenia crassiceps Cysticerci Induces Protective Immunity?

    PubMed Central

    Fragoso, Gladis; Esquivel-Guadarrama, Fernando; Santana, M. Angélica; Bobes, Raul J.; Hernández, Beatriz; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Segura, René; Goldbaum, Fernando A.; Sciutto, Edda; Rosas, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Oral immunization is a goal in vaccine development, particularly for pathogens that enter the host through the mucosal system. This study was designed to explore the immunogenic properties of the Taenia crassiceps protective peptide GK-1 administered orally. Mice were orally immunized with the synthetic GK-1 peptide in its linear form with or without the Brucella lumazine synthase (BLS) protein adjuvant or as a chimera recombinantly bound to BLS (BLS-GK-1). Mice were boosted twice with GK-1 only at 15-day intervals. A significant rate of protection of 64.7% was achieved in GK-1-immunized mice, and that rate significantly increased to 91.8 and 96% when mice were primed with GK-1 coadministered with BLS as an adjuvant and BLS as a carrier, respectively. Specific antibodies and T cell activation and proliferation accompanied the protection induced, revealing the potent immunogenicity of GK-1. Through immunohistochemical studies, GK-1 was detected in T and B cell zones of the Peyer's patches (PP) and mesenteric lymph nodes. In the latter, abundant proliferating cells were detected by 5?-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine incorporation. No proliferation was detected in PP. Altogether, these results portray the potent immunogenic properties of GK-1 administered orally and reinforce the usefulness of BLS as an adjuvant and adequate vaccine delivery system for oral vaccines. PMID:21593234

  15. Prevalence and morphological characterisation of Cysticercus tenuicollis (Taenia hydatigena cysts) in sheep and goat from north India.

    PubMed

    Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S; Sharma, J K

    2015-03-01

    Taenia hydatigena is an adult parasite of dogs with the metacestode (Cysticercus tenuicollis) stage residing in ruminants and pigs. Documentation and surveillance data concerning to the prevalence and risk factors associated with the disease in India is largely lacking. In this experiment, 3,199 carcasses, including 760 sheep and 2,439 goat were examined for the presence of C. tenuicollis (T. hydatigena cysts) on post-mortem inspection at different slaughter houses/shops in northern India. Morphological analysis was also conducted on five samples from each species. Out of 3199 carcasses examined, 135 were found containing cysts of T. hydatigena indicating a prevalence of 4.22 %. Most of the cysts were present in abdominal cavity, except few which were embedded in the liver. The high prevalence of 4.83 was recorded in goats as compared to 2.23 % in sheep. Principal component analysis was applied for statistical analysis. The results of morphological analysis indicated its usefulness as a valid criterion for differentiation of T. hydatigena cysts and that there might be possibility of two different strains infecting sheep and goat. PMID:25698866

  16. Purification and characterization of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci thioredoxin: insight into thioredoxin-glutathione-reductase (TGR) substrate recognition.

    PubMed

    Martínez-González, J J; Guevara-Flores, A; Rendón, J L; Sosa-Peinado, A; Del Arenal Mena, I P

    2015-04-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is an oxidoreductase central to redox homeostasis in cells and is involved in the regulation of protein activity through thiol/disulfide exchanges. Based on these facts, our goal was to purify and characterize cytosolic thioredoxin from Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, as well as to study its behavior as a substrate of thioredoxin-glutathione reductase (TGR). The enzyme was purified >133-fold with a total yield of 9.7%. A molecular mass of 11.7kDa and a pI of 4.84 were measured. Native electrophoresis was used to identify the oxidized and reduced forms of the monomer as well as the presence of a homodimer. In addition to the catalytic site cysteines, cysticerci thioredoxin contains Cys28 and Cys65 residues conserved in previously sequenced cestode thioredoxins. The following kinetic parameters were obtained for the substrate of TGR: a Km of 3.1?M, a kcat of 10s(-1) and a catalytic efficiency of 3.2×10(6)M(-1)s(-1). The negative patch around the ?3-helix of Trx is involved in the interaction with TGR and suggests variable specificity and catalytic efficiency of the reductase toward thioredoxins of different origins. PMID:25523293

  17. Ploidy-dependent survival of progeny arising from crosses between natural allotriploid Cobitis females and diploid C. taenia males (Pisces, Cobitidae).

    PubMed

    Juchno, Dorota; Jab?o?ska, Olga; Boro?, Alicja; Kujawa, Roman; Leska, Anna; Grabowska, Anna; Nynca, Anna; Swigo?ska, Sylwia; Król, Magdalena; Spóz, Aneta; Laskowska, Natalia; Lao, Mi?osz

    2014-08-01

    Crosses between 21 triploid hybrid Cobitis females and 19 C. taenia (2n = 48) males led to viable progeny; whereas no embryonic development was observed in crosses with tetraploid males (4n = 98). The ploidy status of 491 progenies randomly selected with flow cytometry (316) or chromosome analysis (175) revealed an average of 55.2 % triploids and 44.8 % tetraploids, but the ratio of 3n versus 4n fish did change during development. In the first 2 days after hatching, approximately 65.1 % of tetraploid larvae were observed. Their number decreased significantly to 30.8 and 6.2 % on average during 2-5 and 10-15 months of life, respectively. The karyotype of tetraploid progeny (4n = 98) included 3n = 74 chromosomes of the parental female and n = 24 of C. taenia male. The number of tetraploid progeny indicated indirectly that about 66 % of eggs from 3n females were fertilized with C. taenia. The rest of the eggs developed clonally via gynogenesis or hemiclonally via hybridogenesis into triploids of the same karyotype structure as parental females. We have documented for the first time that (at least under experimental conditions) tetraploids are commonly formed, but are less viable than triploids, and a ratio similar to what is found under natural conditions is finally attained. The current explanation concerning the ploidy and karyotype structure of the progeny confirms that the eggs of 3n Cobitis females are not only capable of maintaining all chromosomes but are also capable of incorporating the sperm genome, thus creating the potential to produce tetraploids. PMID:25055887

  18. Distribution of Taenia saginata metacestodes: a comparison of routine meat inspection and carcase dissection results in experimentally infected calves

    PubMed Central

    SOARES, V E; DE ANDRADE BELO, M A; REZENDE, P C B; SOCCOL, V T; FUKUDA, R T; DE OLIVEIRA, G P; DA COSTA, A J

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of techniques for detecting the presence of Cysticercus bovis in bovine carcasses was made by using carcass dissection and routine beef inspection guidelines. In the study, 28 calves were used after they were tested and found to be negative for the presence of anti-C. bovis serum antibodies and were inoculated orally with aliquots containing 6×104 Taenia saginata eggs. One hundred and twenty days after inoculation, the animals were slaughtered and a post mortem evaluation was done following Brazilian Federal Beef Inspection guidelines. This routine meat inspection was able to identify 71.42% of the assessed infected carcasses as being parasitized. This result implies that 28.58% of the infected carcasses would have been released as fit for human consumption since they would have been considered as free of C. bovis infection when using this method for carcass assessment. Only 3.07% of the total 2311 metacestodes present in the carcasses were identified by the conventional procedures of sanitary inspection. The assessment of different parts of the carcasses showed high infestation rates in shoulder clod (14.37%), head (11.21%), neck+chuck roll (8.05%), heart (7.75%) and top (inside) round (7.18%) which, together, were responsible for housing 48.51% of all the cysts found in the 24 beef cuts assessed. These numbers contrasted to the low incidence of cysts found in organs such as tongue (3.12%), diaphragm (1.69%) and esophagus (1.60%) which are usually described as predilection sites for the parasite. PMID:21929881

  19. Morphological polymorphism in tapeworms: redescription of Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) and characterisation of its morphotypes from different fish hosts.

    PubMed

    Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Oros, Mikuláš; Bar?ák, Daniel; Miklisová, Dana; Kirin, Diana; Scholz, Tomáš

    2015-02-01

    Recent morphological and molecular data have shown that one of the most common parasites of freshwater fish in the Palaearctic Region, the cestode Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (Eucestoda: Caryophyllidea), is highly polymorphic. Five distinct morphotypes of C. laticeps, largely corresponding to different fish hosts and representing separate, yet closely related genetic lineages, have been recognised and they are characterised in the present paper. Morphotype 1 from breams, Abramis brama (L.) (type-host) and Ballerus spp., corresponds to the original Taenia laticeps Pallas, 1781 and its neotype (paragenophore ex A. brama in Russia) is designated. This morphotype is characterised by a slender body and flabellate scolex. Morphotype 2 was found in the Macedonian vimba Vimba melanops (Heckel) and the vimba bream V. vimba (L.); it is typified by a more robust body, with most anterior extent of the vitelline follicles near the scolex and the cirrus-sac situated more anteriorly than in other morphotypes. Morphotype 3 is represented by worms from the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. that possess a cuneicrispitate scolex (having the form of a wedge with shallow indentations on anterior margin). Morphotype 4 from the common nase Chondrostoma nasus (L.) has a large, robust body and a wide scolex with numerous superficial grooves (wrinkles) in its anterior part. Morphotype 5 is represented by worms from the white-eye bream Ballerus sapa (Pallas); its typical characteristics are a festoon-like anterior margin of the scolex, the absence of vitelline follicles posterior to the cirrus-sac and the absence of a well-developed internal seminal vesicle. Discriminant analysis of 15 morphometric variables readily separated Morphotypes 3, 4 and 5 and confirmed the key discriminating power of traits related to the reproductive system, especially the terminal reproductive organs. Morphological polymorphism and the genetic divergence of different morphotypes of C. laticeps correspond to its wide spectrum of fish definitive hosts and a large distribution area that includes Europe, most of Palaearctic Asia and northern Africa. PMID:25655116

  20. EmTIP, a T-Cell Immunomodulatory Protein Secreted by the Tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis Is Important for Early Metacestode Development

    PubMed Central

    Nono, Justin Komguep; Lutz, Manfred B.; Brehm, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Background Alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by the metacestode of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, is a lethal zoonosis associated with host immunomodulation. T helper cells are instrumental to control the disease in the host. Whereas Th1 cells can restrict parasite proliferation, Th2 immune responses are associated with parasite proliferation. Although the early phase of host colonization by E. multilocularis is dominated by a potentially parasitocidal Th1 immune response, the molecular basis of this response is unknown. Principal Findings We describe EmTIP, an E. multilocularis homologue of the human T-cell immunomodulatory protein, TIP. By immunohistochemistry we show EmTIP localization to the intercellular space within parasite larvae. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot experiments revealed the presence of EmTIP in the excretory/secretory (E/S) products of parasite primary cell cultures, representing the early developing metacestode, but not in those of mature metacestode vesicles. Using an in vitro T-cell stimulation assay, we found that primary cell E/S products promoted interferon (IFN)-? release by murine CD4+ T-cells, whereas metacestode E/S products did not. IFN-? release by T-cells exposed to parasite products was abrogated by an anti-EmTIP antibody. When recombinantly expressed, EmTIP promoted IFN-? release by CD4+ T-cells in vitro. After incubation with anti-EmTIP antibody, primary cells showed an impaired ability to proliferate and to form metacestode vesicles in vitro. Conclusions We provide for the first time a possible explanation for the early Th1 response observed during E. multilocularis infections. Our data indicate that parasite primary cells release a T-cell immunomodulatory protein, EmTIP, capable of promoting IFN-? release by CD4+ T-cells, which is probably driving or supporting the onset of the early Th1 response during AE. The impairment of primary cell proliferation and the inhibition of metacestode vesicle formation by anti-EmTIP antibodies suggest that this factor fulfills an important role in early E. multilocularis development within the intermediate host. PMID:24392176

  1. 11/3/08 2:43 PMTale of the Tapeworm (Squeamish Readers Stop Here) -New York Times Page 1 of 2http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/08/health/08case.html?_r=1&pagewanted=print&oref=slogin

    E-print Network

    Davis, Richard E.

    concoction of freshwater fish, spices, eggs, salt and matzo meal. My mother never became sick from tasting of the Tapeworm (Squeamish Readers Stop Here) By LARRY ZAROFF, M.D. This is a Jewish fish story. Or more comes through. It's a safe technique with latkes or kreplach but not always with gefilte fish, a ground

  2. Activation of P1- and P2Y-purinoceptors by ADP-ribose in the guinea-pig taenia coli, but not of P2X-purinoceptors in the vas deferens.

    PubMed Central

    Hoyle, C. H.; Edwards, G. A.

    1992-01-01

    1. The activity of adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose (ADP-ribose), a ribosylated purine nucleotide, was investigated on the carbachol-contracted taenia coli, a tissue possessing P1- (A2) and P2Y-purinoceptors and on the guinea-pig vas deferens which possesses P2X-purinoceptors. 2. In the vas deferens, where ATP (1 microM-1 mM) produced concentration-dependent contractions, ADP-ribose was without effect at concentrations up to 1 mM. 3. In the taenia coli, ADP-ribose (0.1 microM-1 mM) produced concentration-dependent relaxations with a potency similar to that of adenosine, but less than that of ATP. The pD2 values for ADP-ribose, adenosine and ATP were 4.5 +/- 0.07 (27), 4.4 +/- 0.10 (9) and 5.5 +/- 0.14 (21), respectively. The time-course of the relaxations elicited by ADP-ribose was found to be significantly longer than that for ATP and significantly shorter than that for adenosine. 4. The P1-purinoceptor antagonist, 8-phenyltheophylline (5 microM), produced parallel rightward shifts in the concentration-response curves of the relaxations of the taenia coli elicited by ADP-ribose and adenosine but not ATP. 5. Dipyridamole (0.3 microM), a purine nucleoside uptake inhibitor, potentiated the responses to adenosine and ADP-ribose in the taenia coli. These potentiations were sensitive to 8-phenyltheophylline (5 microM). 6. Reactive blue 2, a P2Y-purinoceptor antagonist, antagonized the inhibitory responses of ADP-ribose and ATP in the taenia coli, without significantly altering the inhibitory responses of either adenosine or noradrenaline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1422586

  3. Old focus of cysticercosis in a senegalese village revisited after half a century.

    PubMed

    Secka, Arss; Grimm, Felix; Marcotty, Tanguy; Geysen, Dirk; Niang, Alassane M; Ngale, Victoire; Boutche, Laurent; Van Marck, Eric; Geerts, Stanny

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this epidemiological study was to determine whether cysticercosis and especially neurocysticercosis is endemic in Soutou village about half a century after the 1962 outbreak. This study was carried out from September 2009 to February 2010. It involved a questionnaire administration, serology, treatment, coproscopy and neuro-imaging. Four hundred and three serum samples were collected from the village people, which covered 94% of the village population. By using a parallel combination of the antigen-detection ELISA and the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) a cysticercosis seroprevalence of 11.9% (95% CI: 8.9-15.4%) was found. Cerebral CT-scans showed that 23.3% (10/43) of the seropositives were affected by neurocysticercosis. Four out of these 43 (9.3%) were tapeworm carriers. Seropositivity was significantly associated to older age groups (41-60 years old; p=0.001 and 61-91 years old; p=0.028) and absence of a household toilet (p=0.001). It can be concluded that Soutou village is an active focus of Taenia solium cysticercosis about 50 years after the first reported epidemic outbreak. PMID:21605539

  4. New insights in cysticercosis transmission.

    PubMed

    Arriola, Carmen S; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Lopez-Urbina, Maria T; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H

    2014-10-01

    Taenia solium infection causes severe neurological disease in humans. Even though infection and exposure to swine cysticercosis is scattered throughout endemic villages, location of the tapeworm only explains some of the nearby infections and is not related to location of seropositive pigs. Other players might be involved in cysticercosis transmission. In this study we hypothesize that pigs that carry nematodes specific to dung beetles are associated with cysticercosis infection and/or exposure. We carried out a cross-sectional study of six villages in an endemic region in northern Peru. We euthanized all pigs (326) in the villages and performed necropsies to diagnose cysticercosis. For each pig, we counted cysticerci; measured anti-cysticercus antibodies; identified intestinal nematodes; tabulated distance to nearest human tapeworm infection; and recorded age, sex, productive stage, and geographic reference. For the purpose of this paper, we defined cysticercosis infection as the presence of at least one cysticercus in pig muscles, and cysticercosis exposure as seropositivity to anti-cysticercus antibodies with the presence of 0-5 cysticerci. Compared to pigs without nematode infections, those pigs infected with the nematode Ascarops strongylina were significantly associated with the presence of cysticerci (OR: 4.30, 95%CI: 1.83-10.09). Similarly, pigs infected with the nematode Physocephalus sexalatus were more likely to have cysticercosis exposure (OR: 2.21, 95%CI: 1.50-3.28). In conclusion, our results suggest that there appears to be a strong positive association between the presence of nematodes and both cysticercosis infection and exposure in pigs. The role of dung beetles in cysticercosis dynamics should be further investigated. PMID:25329903

  5. New Insights in Cysticercosis Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Arriola, Carmen S.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A.; Lopez-Urbina, Maria T.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Taenia solium infection causes severe neurological disease in humans. Even though infection and exposure to swine cysticercosis is scattered throughout endemic villages, location of the tapeworm only explains some of the nearby infections and is not related to location of seropositive pigs. Other players might be involved in cysticercosis transmission. In this study we hypothesize that pigs that carry nematodes specific to dung beetles are associated with cysticercosis infection and/or exposure. We carried out a cross-sectional study of six villages in an endemic region in northern Peru. We euthanized all pigs (326) in the villages and performed necropsies to diagnose cysticercosis. For each pig, we counted cysticerci; measured anti-cysticercus antibodies; identified intestinal nematodes; tabulated distance to nearest human tapeworm infection; and recorded age, sex, productive stage, and geographic reference. For the purpose of this paper, we defined cysticercosis infection as the presence of at least one cysticercus in pig muscles, and cysticercosis exposure as seropositivity to anti-cysticercus antibodies with the presence of 0–5 cysticerci. Compared to pigs without nematode infections, those pigs infected with the nematode Ascarops strongylina were significantly associated with the presence of cysticerci (OR: 4.30, 95%CI: 1.83–10.09). Similarly, pigs infected with the nematode Physocephalus sexalatus were more likely to have cysticercosis exposure (OR: 2.21, 95%CI: 1.50–3.28). In conclusion, our results suggest that there appears to be a strong positive association between the presence of nematodes and both cysticercosis infection and exposure in pigs. The role of dung beetles in cysticercosis dynamics should be further investigated. PMID:25329903

  6. Biphasic Ca2+ dependence of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced Ca release in smooth muscle cells of the guinea pig taenia caeci

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Ca2+ dependence of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-induced Ca release was studied in saponin-skinned smooth muscle fiber bundles of the guinea pig taenia caeci at 20-22 degrees C. Ca release from the skinned fiber bundles was monitored by microfluorometry of fura-2. Fiber bundles were first treated with 30 microM ryanodine for 120 s in the presence of 45 mM caffeine to lock open the Ca-induced Ca release channels which are present in approximately 40% of the Ca store of the smooth muscle cells of the taenia. The Ca store with the Ca-induced Ca release mechanism was functionally removed by this treatment, but the rest of the store, which was devoid of the ryanodine-sensitive Ca release mechanism, remained intact. The Ca2+ dependence of the IP3- induced Ca release mechanism was, therefore, studied independently of the Ca-induced Ca release. The rate of IP3-induced Ca release was enhanced by Ca2+ between 0 and 300 nM, but further increase in the Ca2+ concentration also exerted an inhibitory effect. Thus, the rate of IP3- induced Ca release was about the same in the absence of Ca2+ and at 3 microM Ca2+, and was about six times faster at 300 nM Ca2+. Hydrolysis of IP3 within the skinned fiber bundles was not responsible for these effects, because essentially the same effects were observed with or without Mg2+, an absolute requirement of the IP3 phosphatase activity. Ca2+, therefore, is likely to affect the gating mechanism and/or affinity for the ligand of the IP3-induced Ca release mechanism. The biphasic effect of Ca2+ on the IP3-induced Ca release is expected to form a positive feedback loop in the IP3-induced Ca mobilization below 300 nM Ca2+, and a negative feedback loop above 300 nM Ca2+. PMID:2373998

  7. Receptor for catecholamines responding to catechol which potentiates voltage-dependent calcium current in single cells from guinea-pig taenia caeci.

    PubMed Central

    Muraki, K.; Bolton, T. B.; Imaizumi, Y.; Watanabe, M.

    1994-01-01

    1. Single isolated cells were obtained from the taenia of the guinea-pig's caecum by enzymic digestion and held under voltage clamp. The effects of various catecholamines, sympathomimetics and related compounds were tested for their ability to potentiate the voltage-dependent calcium current (ICa) evoked in these cells by a depolarizing step. 2. ICa was potentiated by up to 60% by isoprenaline, adrenaline, and noradrenaline which were equipotent. The EC50 for isoprenaline was about 40 nM. 3. The racemic mixtures of the optical isomers of isoprenaline, adrenaline, and noradrenaline, and (+)-isoprenaline, were equipotent with the (-)-isomers of these drugs. Dopamine, L-dopa, and catechol were equipotent with these catecholamines. 4. Removal or substitution of one or more of the hydroxy groups of the catechol moiety, as in phenylephrine, salbutamol, procaterol, methoxamine, terbutaline, BRL 37344, ICI 215001 or tyramine substantially reduced efficacy and/or potency. 5. The adrenoceptor blockers propranolol, phentolamine, dihydroergotamine, atenolol, CGP 20712A and ICI 118551, or the dopamine receptor blockers, haloperidol or flupenthixol, did not block the potentiating action of catechol or the catecholamines. 6. The receptor activated by catecholamines to increase ICa we suggest should be called a C-receptor in view of its sensitivity to catechol. It may arise by enzymic modification of a conventional adrenoceptor but its transduction also involves a novel mechanism which might indicate that it is present in the muscle cells before enzyme treatment. PMID:8032602

  8. Differential roles of ryanodine- and thapsigargin-sensitive intracellular CA2+ stores in excitation-contraction coupling in smooth muscle of guinea-pig taenia caeci.

    PubMed

    Hishinuma, Shigeru; Saito, Masaki

    2006-12-01

    1. To explore roles of intracellular Ca(2+) stores in excitation-contraction coupling in smooth muscle, we examined the effects of ryanodine, a fixer of ryanodine receptor-Ca(2+) channels to an open state, and thapsigargin, a selective inhibitor of the Ca(2+) pump in the intracellular stores, on smooth muscle contraction in the presence and absence of extracellular Ca(2+) in guinea-pig taenia caeci. 2. In Ca(2+) -free solution, contractions induced by 0.1 mmol/L carbachol and 0.1 mmol/L histamine were reduced to approximately 65% of control by either 1 micro mol/L thapsigargin or 10 micro mol/L ryanodine. In contrast, caffeine-induced contraction was reduced to approximately 40% of control by ryanodine, but was not affected by thapsigargin. 3. In the presence of extracellular Ca(2+), thapsigargin slowly induced a large and sustained contraction. In contrast, ryanodine did not induce an apparent contraction, but increased the sensitivity of contractile responses to receptor agonists (carbachol, AHR-602 and histamine) or depolarizing high K(+) with no changes in the maximal contraction. 4. These results suggest that there are pharmacological and physiological differences between ryanodine- and thapsigargin-sensitive intracellular Ca(2+) stores in excitation-contraction coupling in smooth muscle, which may be responsible for their differential effects on the Ca(2+) -influx pathway. PMID:17184492

  9. Arginase activity is associated with fibrosis in experimental infection with Taenia crassiceps, but does not play a major role in resistance to infection.

    PubMed

    Moura, Vania B L; Silva, Mayara M; Batista, Lucas F; Gomes, Clayson M; Leenen, Pieter J M; Lino, Ruy S; Oliveira, Milton A P

    2013-11-01

    Murine infection with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci is used as an experimental model for human and animal cysticercosis. In this infection parasites can be found associated with an inflammatory infiltrate enriched with macrophages. Experimental evidence exists supporting a role for either NO-producing classically activated (CAM?) or arginase- and CD301-expressing alternatively activated macrophages (AAM?) in T. crassiceps resistance. In both cell types, arginine is utilized as an important mediator in macrophage effector functions. To investigate whether there is an association between arginine availability, susceptibility to T. crassiceps and other parameters such as fibrosis, BALB/c mice were infected intraperitoneally with cysticerci and treated daily with the arginase inhibitor nor-NOHA or supplemented with l-arginine and followed for eight weeks. The numbers and developmental stages of parasites were evaluated as well as the presence of CD301+ AAM?, arginase activity and collagen deposition in the peritoneal membrane. Treatment with the arginase inhibitor or supplementation with l-arginine did not change the parasitic load or profile of the infection. However, the arginase inhibitor significantly decreased the deposition of collagen. These results suggest that arginase activity does not interfere with parasite control during experimental infection with T. crassiceps, but it is important for fibrosis in cysticercosis. PMID:24090570

  10. Taenia taeniaeformis in Rat Favors Protracted Skin Lesions Caused by Sporothrix schenckii Infection: Dectin-1 and IL-17 Are Dispensable for Clearance of This Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huaiqiu; Xue, Ruzeng; Hu, Xuchu; Li, Meirong; Zhong, Yi; Yuan, Liyan

    2012-01-01

    We occasionally found that cestode Taenia taeniaeformis in rats favored Sporothrix schenckii infection and survival, causing protracted cutaneous lesions. In this study, we compared the pathology and cytokines profile of rats co-infected with the two pathogens and infected with S. schenckii alone to explore underlying mechanisms. In the co-infection group, there was high expression of ?-glucan receptor Dectin-1 in the cutaneous lesions and no multinucleated giant cells, but in the S. schenckii infection group the opposite was observed. Cytokines profiles demonstrated an expected finding that IL-4, commonly expressed in helminth and fungus infection, is undetectable in the two infection groups. In the single fungal infection group, cytokines IFN-?, IL-10 and IL-17 kept increasing in the first few weeks of infection to a peak which was followed by gradual decrease. This study showed that Dectin-1 and IL-17, which were believed to be the major anti-fungus mechanisms, are Th2 independent and dispensable for clearance of S. schenckii infection, suggesting that S. schenckii has a different molecular recognition pattern and evokes anti-infection mechanisms other than Dectin-1 and IL-17. PMID:23285072

  11. Induction of protection against porcine cysticercosis in growing pigs by DNA vaccination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aijiang Guo; Zhizhong Jin; Yadong Zheng; Gang Hai; Gailing Yuan; Hailong Li; Xuepeng Cai

    2007-01-01

    A DNA vaccine, pcDNA3-B, was developed by using the nucleotide sequence of Taenia solium B antigen and cloning into pcDNA3.1 plasmid. The growing pigs were vaccinated by one intramuscular infection of 200 or 1000?g pcDNA3-B. The immunization with 1000?g of pcDNA3-B showed 92.6% protection when the pigs were challenged by T. solium eggs and four of the five pigs vaccinated

  12. Induction of Protection against Porcine Cysticercosis by Vaccination with Recombinant Oncosphere Antigens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Flisser; Charles G. Gauci; A. Zoli; J. Martinez-Ocana; A. Garza-Rodriguez; J. L. Dominguez-Alpizar; P. Maravilla; R. Rodriguez-Canul; G. Avila; L. Aguilar-Vega; C. Kyngdon; S. Geerts; M. W. Lightowlers

    2004-01-01

    Two recombinant Taenia solium oncosphere antigens, designated TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A, were investigated as vaccines to prevent transmission of the zoonotic disease cysticercosis through pigs. Both antigens were effective in inducing very high levels of protection (up to 100%) in three independent vaccine trials in pigs against experimental challenge infection with T. solium eggs, which were undertaken in Mexico and Cameroon.

  13. [Evaluation of epidemiological situation of cestode infections in Poland in the years 1997-2006 on the basis of data from san-epid stations].

    PubMed

    Waloch, Maria; Sobolewska, Alicja; Dzbe?ski, Tadeusz H

    2010-01-01

    Between 1997-2006, 3,523 intestinal cestode infections were registered in Poland. Among them 2,748 were caused by Taenia saginata, 41 by T. solium, 533 by Taenia species, 20 by Hymenolepis nana, 5 by Hymenolepis diminuta, 11 by Diphyllobothrium latum, 3 by Dipylidium caninum. Moreover, 350 cases of cystic echinococcosis and 8 cases of cysticercosis were also registered. The obtained results confirmed decreasing frequency of intestinal cestodoses in Poland. PMID:21473070

  14. Nitric oxide and thiol reagent modulation of Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channels in myocytes of the guinea-pig taenia caeci

    PubMed Central

    Lang, R J; Harvey, J R; McPhee, G J; Klemm, M F

    2000-01-01

    The modulation of large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channels by the nitric oxide (NO) donors S-nitroso-L-cysteine (NOCys) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and agents which oxidize or reduce reactive thiol groups were compared in excised inside-out membrane patches of the guinea-pig taenia caeci. When the cytosolic side of excised patches was bathed in a physiological salt solution (PSS) containing 130 mm K+ and 15 nm Ca2+, few BKCa channel openings were recorded at potentials negative to 0 mV. However, the current amplitude and open probability (NPo) of these BKCa channels increased with patch depolarization. A plot of ln(NPo) against the membrane potential (V) fitted with a straight line revealed a voltage at half-maximal activation (V0.5) of 9.4 mV and a slope (K) indicating an e-fold increase in NPo with 12.9 mV depolarization. As the cytosolic Ca2+ was raised to 150 nm, V0.5 shifted 11.5 mV in the negative direction, with little change in K (13.1 mV). NOCys (10 ?m) and SNP (100 ?m) transiently increased NPo 16- and 3.7-fold, respectively, after a delay of 2–5 min. This increase in NPo was associated with an increase in the number of BKCa channel openings evoked at positive potentials by ramped depolarizations (between ?60 and +60 mV). Moreover, this NOCys-induced increase in NPo was still evident in the presence of 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 10 ?m), the specific blocker of soluble guanylyl cyclase. The sulfhydryl reducing agents dithiothreitol (DTT; 10 and 100 ?m) and reduced glutathione (GSH; 1 mm) also significantly increased NPo (at 0 mV) 7- to 9-fold, as well as increasing the number of BKCa channel openings evoked during ramped depolarizations. Sulfhydryl oxidizing agents thimerosal (10 ?m) and 4,4?-dithiodipyridine (4,4DTDP; 10 ?m) and the thiol-specific alkylating agent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM; 1 mm) significantly decreased NPo (at 0 mV) to 40–50 % of control values after 5–10 min. Ramped depolarizations to +100 mV evoked relatively few BKCa channel openings. The effects of thimerosal on NPo were readily reversed by DTT, while the effects of NOCys were prevented by NEM. It was concluded that both redox modulation and nitrothiosylation of cysteine groups on the cytosolic surface of the ? subunit of the BKCa channel protein can alter channel gating. PMID:10835040

  15. Calcified neurocysticercus, perilesional edema, and histologic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Nash, Theodore E; Bartelt, Luther A; Korpe, Poonum S; Lopes, Beatriz; Houpt, Eric R

    2014-02-01

    Abstract. Here, we present the second report of the histopathology of a Taenia solium calcification giving rise to perilesional edema. This has important implications, because if perilesional edema lesions are inflammatory in character, immunosuppressive or anti-inflammatory medications, not just antiepileptic drugs alone, may be useful to prevent or treat recurring episodes in such patients. PMID:24394477

  16. Neurocysticercosis in a 23-year-old Chinese man

    PubMed Central

    Vecchio, Rosa Fontana Del; Pinzone, Marilia Rita; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Cacopardo, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 23 Final Diagnosis: Neurocysticerosis Symptoms: Diplopia • fever • headache • insomnia • neck stiffness • vomiting Medication: Albendazole Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Neurology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: Neurocysticercosis is a brain infection caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia (T.) solium. It is the most important parasitic disease of the human central nervous system and represents the most common cause of acquired epilepsy in developing countries. Case Report: Here, we report the case of a 23-year-old Chinese man who presented to the emergency department with a 7-day history of helmet headache radiating to the nuchal region and associated with vomiting, confusion, and fever. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was clear, with increased pressure, lymphocytic pleocytosis, decreased glucose, and increased protein levels. Bacterial antigen detection test on CSF was negative, as were CSF bacterial and fungal cultures. Despite broad-spectrum antibiotic and antiviral therapy, the patient still complained of insomnia, diplopia, headache, neck stiffness, and pain in the sacral region. A second LP was performed and CSF had the same characteristics as the first LP. A brain and spinal cord MRI revealed widespread arachnoiditis and small septated cysts with CSF-like signal in the cisterna magna, within the fourth ventricle, and at the level of L3–L4. Cysticercus-specific immunoglobin G antibodies were detected by ELISA in the CSF. The patient received albendazole (15 mg/kg/day) and dexamethasone (5 mg/day) for 4 weeks, with progressive resolution of neurological symptoms. Conclusions: This case shows that, even if rare, neurocysticercosis may be responsible for meningeal symptoms and should be included in the differential diagnosis, especially in patients from endemic countries. PMID:24459541

  17. Current Status of Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Le, Thanh Hoa; Lien, Phan Thi Huong; Eom, Keeseon S.

    2014-01-01

    Several reports on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam show that they are distributed in over 50 of 63 provinces. In some endemic areas, the prevalence of taeniasis was 0.2-12.0% and that of cysticercosis was 1.0-7.2%. The major symptoms of taeniasis included fidgeted anus, proglottids moving out of the anus, and proglottids in the feces. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis in humans included subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headach, impaired vision, and memory loss. The species identification of Taenia in Vietnam included Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium based on combined morphology and molecular methods. Only T. solium caused cysticercosis in humans. Praziquantel was chosen for treatment of taeniasis and albendazole for treatment of cysticercosis. The infection rate of cysticercus cellulosae in pigs was 0.04% at Hanoi slaughterhouses, 0.03-0.31% at provincial slaughterhouses in the north, and 0.9% in provincial slaughterhouses in the southern region of Vietnam. The infection rate of cysticercus bovis in cattle was 0.03-2.17% at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Risk factors investigated with regard to transmission of Taenia suggested that consumption of raw meat (eating raw meat 4.5-74.3%), inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some endemic areas, and use of untreated human waste as a fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam, although this remains to be validated. PMID:24850954

  18. Current status of taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van De, Nguyen; Le, Thanh Hoa; Lien, Phan Thi Huong; Eom, Keeseon S

    2014-04-01

    Several reports on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam show that they are distributed in over 50 of 63 provinces. In some endemic areas, the prevalence of taeniasis was 0.2-12.0% and that of cysticercosis was 1.0-7.2%. The major symptoms of taeniasis included fidgeted anus, proglottids moving out of the anus, and proglottids in the feces. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis in humans included subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headach, impaired vision, and memory loss. The species identification of Taenia in Vietnam included Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium based on combined morphology and molecular methods. Only T. solium caused cysticercosis in humans. Praziquantel was chosen for treatment of taeniasis and albendazole for treatment of cysticercosis. The infection rate of cysticercus cellulosae in pigs was 0.04% at Hanoi slaughterhouses, 0.03-0.31% at provincial slaughterhouses in the north, and 0.9% in provincial slaughterhouses in the southern region of Vietnam. The infection rate of cysticercus bovis in cattle was 0.03-2.17% at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Risk factors investigated with regard to transmission of Taenia suggested that consumption of raw meat (eating raw meat 4.5-74.3%), inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some endemic areas, and use of untreated human waste as a fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam, although this remains to be validated. PMID:24850954

  19. Neurocysticercosis (NCC) with Hydrocephalus, Optic Atrophy and Vision Loss: A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Mahato, Shyam Kumar; Khan, Salamat; Pathak, Santosh; Bhatia, B.D

    2015-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is one of the most common parasitic infestations (Taenia solium) of central nervous system (CNS) in children. Seizures are the common presenting symptoms. Hydrocephalus and optic atrophy are rare complications which may require neurosurgical interventions. We report a case of NCC with hydrocephalus and bilateral optic atrophy associated with vision loss in a Nepalese patient who improved with anti-parasitic therapy followed by ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunting. PMID:25859496

  20. A new triaenophorid tapeworm from blackfish Centrolophus niger.

    PubMed

    Kuchta, Roman; Scholz, Tomás

    2008-04-01

    Milanella familiaris n. gen. and n. sp. (Bothriocephalidea: Triaenophoridae) is proposed to accommodate a new cestode from blackfish Centrolophus niger (Gmelin) (Perciformes: Centrolophidae). Milanella is characterized as follows: trapeziform, i.e., markedly craspedote proglottids with a velum-like posterior margin and horn like lateral projections; pyriform uterine sac in the first gravid proglottids; arrow-shaped scolex with well-developed apical disc and prominent posterior margins; strobila with intensively stained corpuscles, most numerous in the anterior part; deeply lobated ovary; absence of a neck; a large, pyriform, thin-walled cirrus-sac with the proximal part bent anteromedially; vagina posterior to the cirrus-sac; and cortical vitelline follicles. Milanella most closely resembles Bathycestus Kuchta and Scholz, 2004, Pistana Campbell and Gartner, 1982, and Probothriocephalus Campbell, 1979, differing mainly in the shape of proglottids and uterine sac. PMID:18564751

  1. Comparative Analysis of Cystatin Superfamily in Platyhelminths

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Aijiang

    2015-01-01

    The cystatin superfamily is comprised of cysteine proteinase inhibitors and encompasses at least 3 subfamilies: stefins, cystatins and kininogens. In this study, the platyhelminth cystatin superfamily was identified and grouped into stefin and cystatin subfamilies. The conserved domain of stefins (G, QxVxG) was observed in all members of platyhelminth stefins. The three characteristics of cystatins, the cystatin-like domain (G, QxVxG, PW), a signal peptide, and one or two conserved disulfide bonds, were observed in platyhelminths, with the exception of cestodes, which lacked the conserved disulfide bond. However, it is noteworthy that cestode cystatins had two tandem repeated domains, although the second tandem repeated domain did not contain a cystatin-like domain, which has not been previously reported. Tertiary structure analysis of Taenia solium cystatin, one of the cestode cystatins, demonstrated that the N-terminus of T. solium cystatin formed a five turn ?-helix, a five stranded ?-pleated sheet and a hydrophobic edge, similar to the structure of chicken cystatin. Although no conserved disulfide bond was found in T. solium cystatin, the models of T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin corresponded at the site of the first disulfide bridge of the chicken cystatin. However, the two models were not similar regarding the location of the second disulfide bridge of chicken cystatin. These results showed that T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin had similarities and differences, suggesting that the biochemistry of T. solium cystatin could be similar to chicken cystatin in its inhibitory function and that it may have further functional roles. The same results were obtained for other cestode cystatins. Phylogenetic analysis showed that cestode cystatins constituted an independent clade and implied that cestode cystatins should be considered to have formed a new clade during evolution. PMID:25853513

  2. Evidence of human neurocysticercosis in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Šoba, Barbara; Beovi?, Bojana; Lužnik, Zala; Skvar?, Miha; Logar, Jernej

    2014-04-01

    To assess the prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in patients with neurological disorders in Slovenia, serum/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 348 suspected patients were collected between the beginning of January 2001 and the end of December 2012 and analysed serologically for the presence of anti-T. solium IgG antibodies. Of 20 patients whose samples tested positive or equivocal by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), samples of 7 patients were confirmed positive by Western blot (WB). The overall seroprevalence rate of T. solium infection in patients with neurological disorders included in the study was 2.0%. Serological results of positive patients corresponded to clinical and/or imaging findings concerning their brain cysts. Based on their personal data, it was ascertained that neurocysticercosis (NCC) positive patients had immigrated or came to Slovenia from the former Yugoslav republics. Since the disease is believed not to be endemic in Slovenia we assume that all of the NCC-positive patients had acquired the infection before immigration to Slovenia or visiting or being visited by their relatives infected with an adult T. solium parasite. The present results represent the first insight into the prevalence of NCC in patients with neurological disorders in Slovenia. PMID:24476600

  3. Isolated intramedullary spinal cysticercosis in a 10-year-old female showing dramatic response with albendazole

    PubMed Central

    Azfar, Shah F.; Kirmani, Sanna; Badar, Farheen; Ahmad, Ibne

    2011-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by larvae of Taenia solium. Spinal cysticercosis is an uncommon site of cysticercal infection, and isolated intramedullary involvement is even rarer. We present a case of 10-year-old girl who presented with gradual onset paraparesis with sensory loss and bowel and bladder incontinence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spine revealed a cystic lesion with mural nodule (scolex) which was diagnostic for cysticercosis. Patient was treated with antihelminthic, which led to marked clinico-radiological improvement. PMID:21977090

  4. Isolated intramedullary spinal cysticercosis in a 10-year-old female showing dramatic response with albendazole.

    PubMed

    Azfar, Shah F; Kirmani, Sanna; Badar, Farheen; Ahmad, Ibne

    2011-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by larvae of Taenia solium. Spinal cysticercosis is an uncommon site of cysticercal infection, and isolated intramedullary involvement is even rarer. We present a case of 10-year-old girl who presented with gradual onset paraparesis with sensory loss and bowel and bladder incontinence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spine revealed a cystic lesion with mural nodule (scolex) which was diagnostic for cysticercosis. Patient was treated with antihelminthic, which led to marked clinico-radiological improvement. PMID:21977090

  5. Intramedullary spinal neurocysticercosis treated successfully with medical therapy.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shameem; Paul, Siba Prosad

    2014-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis caused by Taenia solium and is a common parasitic disease of the cental nervous system. It usually presents with seizures, headaches, progressively worsening focal neurologic symptoms, visual disturbances, loss of bladder control, etc. However, acute onset symptoms may also be seen. MRI scans can accurately diagnose spinal or cerebral lesions and is also helpful in monitoring progress while on treatment. Albendazole is currently the drug of choice along with steroids for medical management of neurocysticercosis. The case of intramedullary spinal neurocysticercosis was treated with praziquantel. PMID:25643507

  6. Association of ICAM-1 K469E polymorphism with neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amrita; Singh, Aloukick K; Singh, Satyendra K; Paliwal, Vimal K; Gupta, Rakesh K; Prasad, Kashi N

    2014-11-15

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a central nervous system (CNS) disease is caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium. The disease is heterogeneous in clinical presentation; some infected individuals develop symptoms and others may remain symptom free. Impaired blood brain barrier allows recruitment of immune cells in the CNS during infection and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) plays an important role in the recruitment of immune cells. We studied ICAM-1 K469E polymorphism among symptomatic and asymptomatic NCC patients. The study revealed that individuals with variant (EE) genotype were more susceptible to symptomatic NCC and also had an elevated level of sICAM-1. PMID:25128351

  7. Antigen-specific suppression of cultured lymphocytes from patients with neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, E C; Vaz, A J; Machado, L R; Livramento, J A; Ávila, S L M; Ferreira, A W

    2001-01-01

    The biological parasite–host interactions involved in neurocysticercosis (NC) are of a complex nature. A lymphoproliferation assay was performed using mononuclear cells from 11 patients with NC, who were classified according to the alterations obtained by imaging examinations. Antigen extracts from the membrane and/or scolex of Taenia solium and from the vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps were used. Mononuclear cells from patients with NC showed antigen-specific suppression when compared with a control group. The patients presenting calcified cysts showed higher suppression when compared with patients in the active phase of disease. The antigen in the vesicular fluid of T. crassiceps seems to play a suppressor role in vitro, completely inhibiting cell proliferation induced by the mitogens phytohaemagglutinin, concanavalin A and pokeweed mitogen. PMID:11703375

  8. The location of Taenia pisiformis, Taenia ovis and Taenia hydatigena in the gut of the dog and its effect on net environmental contamination with ova

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian J. Coman; Michael D. Rickard

    1975-01-01

    Autopsy of dogs 56 days after infection with either T. pisiformis, T. ovis or T. hydatigena showed that these worms could be found attached at any point along the length of the small intestine, but were most commonly in the anterior half. The mean relaxed lengths of T. pisiformis, T. ovis and T. hydatigena were 107 cm, 156 cm and

  9. Anthelmintic usage of extracts of Embelia schimperi from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Bøgh, H O; Andreassen, J; Lemmich, J

    1996-01-01

    Embelia schimperi Vatke, belonging to the family Myrsinaceae, is used among the traditional Masai people of Tanzania and Kenya since it is believed to eliminate adult Taenia saginata, the beef tapeworm. In the present study, the anthelmintic effect of an extract of the dried fruits of Embelia schimperi was studied in experimental parasite/rodent models. In two experiments, rats with 10 adult tapeworms of Hymenolepis diminuta were treated with a diammonium salt of embelin (DE), isolated from the fruits. Significant lower numbers and total worm biomass of Hymenolepis diminuta were observed in rats treated with 100 mg DE/kg. Furthermore, clear indications of the occurrence of destrobilation was observed in faeces after treatment and in 16% of the worms found at autopsy. The killing effect shown in vivo was corroborated by in vitro studies, which showed that all adult Hymenolepis diminuta were killed when incubated in a culture medium containing as little as 0.08 mg DE/ml. No significant in vivo effect of DE was observed against Hymenolepis microstoma, the trematode Echinostoma caproni and the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus in mice, although the worms could be killed in vitro. These results indicate that the crushed seeds of Embelia schimperi taken orally by the Masai people indeed have an anthelmintic effect against human intestinal tapeworms. PMID:8778505

  10. 9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...inspection sites, namely the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus, tongue, and musculature exposed...but not limited to, the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus, tongue, and musculature...

  11. 9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...inspection sites, namely the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus, tongue, and musculature exposed...but not limited to, the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus, tongue, and musculature...

  12. 9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...inspection sites, namely the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus, tongue, and musculature exposed...but not limited to, the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus, tongue, and musculature...

  13. 9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...lesions in at least two of the usual inspection sites, namely the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus...examination, including examination of, but not limited to, the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication,...

  14. The anthelmintic efficacy of albendazole against gastrointestinal roundworms, tapeworms, lungworms and liverflukes in sheep.

    PubMed

    van Schalkwyk, P C; Geyser, T L; Récio, M; Erasmus, F P

    1979-03-01

    Anthelmintic trials were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of albendazole against helmi of 2,5 to 3,8 mg/kg administered orally, resulted in a 98,8 to 100% reduction of adult parasites of the genera Haemonchus, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, Nematodirus, Gaigeria, Oesophagostomum, Chabertia, Marshallagia and Cooperia. Against the immature stages of these genera, except for Marshallagia and Cooperia, which were not tested, a dose level of 2,5 to 3,8 mg/kg was 83,9-100% effective. Albendazole at 2,5 mg/kg was 99,0% effective against adult stages of Dictyocaulus; its activity at a dose of 3,8 mg/kg against the immature stages of D. filaria was 89,3%. In sheep naturally infested with Moniezia, 100% elimination was obtained at a dose level of 2,5 mg/kg. Dose levels of 3,8 mg/kg and higher were more than 76% effective against adult Fasciola hepatica, while a dose of 4,8 mg/kg was 63% effective against adult Fasciola gigantica. PMID:551183

  15. Screening of cesticidal compounds on a tapeworm hymenolepis nana in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sen, A. B.; Hawking, F.

    1960-01-01

    A simple and convenient in vitro technique is described for the screening of compounds for action against Hymenolepis nana and probably many other intestinal worms. The results obtained from this test are in broad agreement with the findings of clinical experience and of a small series of in vivo tests. Among the substances tested, the most active ones were oil of chenopodium, dichlorophen, extract of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale), antimony potassium tartrate, and BIQ 20 [eicosamethylenebis(isoquinolinium iodide)]. PMID:13750047

  16. Molecular characterization of the parasitic tapeworm Bertiella studeri from the island of Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Taleb-Hossenkhan, Nawsheen; Bhagwant, Suress

    2012-02-01

    Specimens of Bertiella studeri (Cyclophyllidea, Anoplocephalidae) that have been preserved in ethanol or fixed permanently in formalin for >2 years were used for DNA extraction and molecular characterization. DNA was amplified via PCR from samples collected from different monkey and human hosts using eucestoda-specific primers. Phylogenetic trees were inferred from two sets of sequence data corresponding to the first and second halves of the 18S rDNA gene using two methods (distance-based NJ and maximum parsimony). We found that the second dataset was more suited for inferring phylogeny within the Cyclophyllidea. Both trees show that taxa belonging to the Anoplocephalidae, Hymenolepididae, Davaineidae, and Mesocestoididae are clearly monophyletic within their families and demonstrate sister-group relationships between the Anoplocephalidae and Mesocestoididae, contradicting previous reports of a basal placement of the Mesocestoididae within the Cyclophyllidea. The distance-based phylogeny support a taxonomical classification that groups members of the Bertiella genus, as well as other members of the Anoplocephalidae family, as being most closely related to the Hymenolepididae family and can be used to substantiate the use of uterine morphology as a valid homologous trait for taxonomical and phylogenetic classifications. On the other hand, the parsimony-based phylogeny places the Hymenolepididae closer to the outgroup and shows a closer relationship between the Mesocestoididae and the Taeniidae. This underlies the caution with which gene trees should be interpreted for inferring phylogeny and underlies the need to integrate both morphological and molecular data to represent the actual evolutionary pathway of the species involved. PMID:21750870

  17. 9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...lesions in at least two of the usual inspection sites, namely the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus...examination, including examination of, but not limited to, the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication,...

  18. The Efficacy of Extracts from Plants – Especially from Coconut and Onion – Against Tapeworms, Trematodes, and Nematodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heinz Mehlhorn; Gülendem Aksu; Katja Fischer; Bianca Strassen; Fathy Abdel Ghaffar; Khaled A. S. Al-Rasheid; Sven Klimpel

    \\u000a Nematodes and cestodes are present in almost all animals and humans. These parasites spread to a considerable degree among\\u000a animals that are continuously grazing because in the case of nematodes, the eggs or larvae excreted in the feces leas to and\\u000a immediate subsequent infection when they are ingested orally with food. Infections also occur very simply in the case of

  19. Host parasite relationships of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and tapeworms of the genera Cittotaenia and Raillietina

    E-print Network

    Gentner, Harry William

    1968-01-01

    . , 1960). Kirshenblat (1938) examined numerous specimens of rodents in Trans- caucasia and found that the number of helminth species parasitic in rodents increases with the age of the host except in liicrotus which harbored fewer worms i. n old age... than in middle age. Sosnina's (1957) work also corroborated Kirshenblat's. Sosnina found that the number of species of helminths rose with the age of the rodents, this being par- ticularly true of species developing wi. th intermediate hosts...

  20. Monohexosylceramides of larval and adult forms of the tapeworm, spirometra erinacei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasushi Kawakami; Hisako Kojima; Kazuo Nakamura; Minoru Suzuki; Akihiko Uchida; Yoshihiko Murata; Yoichi Tamai

    1995-01-01

    The occurrence of glycosphingolipids with unique carbohydrate structures in different species of cestode, Platyhelminth, which\\u000a had been shown, previously, prompted us to study the molecular species of the monohexosylceramides (cerebrosides) in the pseudophyllidean\\u000a cestode,Spirometra erinacei. The purpose of the study was to obtain a basis for future investigations of the physiological role of glycolipids in parasitism.\\u000a Cerebrosides were isolated froms.

  1. Taxonomic status of Woodland's enigmatic tapeworms (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea) from Amazonian catfishes: back to museum collections.

    PubMed

    de Chambrier, Alain; Scholz, Tomáš; Kuchta, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Poorly known proteocephalidean cestodes of peculiar morphology, described by Woodland (1934) from pimelodid catfishes in Amazonia, Brazil, were studied. Re-examination of their type-specimens and evaluation of newly-collected material from Brazil and Peru made it possible to clarify their taxonomic status. Brayela karuatayi (Woodland, 1934), the type-species of the monotypic Brayela Rego, 1984, which has never been recorded since its original description, is redescribed and its scolex morphology, which has been misinterpreted in the original description, was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The actual definitive host of B. karuatayi is not a species of Glanidium Lütken (Auchenipteridae), but coroatá, Platynematichthys notatus (Jardine) (Pimelodidae). Peru is a new geographical record for B. karuatayi. The definitive host of other two proteocephalidean cestodes, Megathylacus jandia Woodland, 1934 and Proteocephalus jandia Woodland, 1934, is not a species of Rhamdia Bleeker (family Heptapteridae), but the pimelodid Zungaro zungaro (Humboldt) [syn. Paulicea luetkeni (Steindachner)]. Proteocephalus jandia is in fact conspecific with Travassiella avitellina Rego & Pavanelli, 1987, type-species of Travassiella Rego & Pavanelli, 1987. As a result, a new combination, Travassiella jandia (Woodland, 1934), is proposed. Megathylacus jandia Woodland, 1934 is considered conspecific with M. brooksi Rego & Pavanelli, 1985 described from the congeneric host [Zungaro jahu (Ihering)] from the Paraná River in Brazil; the latter species becomes its new junior synonym. The validity of M. travassosi Pavanelli & Rego, 1992, a parasite of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix & Agassiz) in the Paraná River basin in Brazil, is confirmed by a study of its type- and voucher specimens. The present account provides strong arguments to always study museum specimens in taxonomic studies; it also represents an evidence of the importance of depositing types and vouchers in internationally recognised collections. Based on the new information provided in this study, the generic diagnoses of Brayela and Megathylacus Woodland, 1934 are amended. PMID:24395572

  2. The Asian Fish Tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi : a Potential Threat to Native Freshwater Fish Species in Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillermo Salgado-Maldonado; Raúl F. Pineda-López

    2003-01-01

    Introduction of the parasite Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934 with the herbivorous carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus, and other cyprinids, has been documented in almost every continent, except Antarctica. This study presents the current geographical distribution of this cestode in the freshwater fish of Mexico, highlighting infections in autochthonous and endemic species. It compiles existing information and presents original data. B. acheilognathi is

  3. Innate immune defence mechanisms of tench, Tinca tinca (L.), naturally infected with the tapeworm Monobothrium wageneri.

    PubMed

    Dezfuli, B S; Lui, A; Giari, L; Castaldelli, G; Shinn, A P; Lorenzoni, M

    2012-11-01

    A histochemical and ultrastructural investigation of the cellular inflammatory response within the intestines of tench Tinca tinca L. naturally infected with the caryophyllidean cestode Monobothrium wageneri was conducted and the data obtained compared to those in uninfected counterparts. Cestode infections within the intestines were evident through the appearance of raised inflammatory swellings induced by the deep penetration of their scolices into the intestinal wall. Cestodes typically attached in tight clusters, inducing a massive hyperplastic granulocyte response of mast cells and neutrophils, which were significantly more numerous (P < 0·01) in the intestines of infected (n = 14) than of uninfected (n = 9) tench. Neutrophils were more abundant than mast cells (P < 0·01) in host tissues in close proximity to the parasite tegument. In transmission electron microscopy sections, mast cells and neutrophils were frequently observed in contact with or inside capillaries, and in close proximity to the cestode. Degranulation of both cell types was seen in the submucosa and lamina muscularis, notably in the immediate tissues surrounding the scolex of M. wageneri. No tegumental secretions were seen at the host-parasite interface. Occasional rodlet cells were encountered in the submucosa of infected fish. PMID:22709447

  4. Fine structure of the uterus in tapeworm Tetrabothrius erostris (Cestoda: Tetrabothriidea).

    PubMed

    Korneva, Janetta V; Jones, Malcolm K; Kuklin, Vadim V

    2014-12-01

    The uterine organization in Tetrabothrius erostris (Tetrabothriidea) was investigated by the methods of transmission and scanning electron microscopy. In sexually mature proglottids, the uterine wall consists of a syncytial epithelium (1.4-2.5 ?m thick, except in regions containing nuclei). The ribosomes, mitochondria and numerous cisternae of granular endoplasmic reticulum with concentric or parallel profiles with electron lucent material are observed in the epithelium. The uterine wall is characterized by the abundance of lipid droplets that are localized inside the long protrusions of the uterine epithelium (called fungiform papillae) up to 15-17 ?m and in the surrounding medullary parenchyma. The protrusions with lipid droplets in the proximal ends of the uterus are located closely to each other. A basal matrix (up to 0.6 ?m thick) supports the uterine epithelium. The musculature consisting of 1-2 muscle layers is well developed; large myocytons are connected with the myofibrils and have a nucleus that reaches 4 ?m in size. In gravid proglottids, the epithelium without nuclei is reduced to 0.2-1.6 ?m thick. The number of protrusions of the uterine epithelium and lipid droplets in the epithelial layer decreases. Sparse small muscle bundles underlay the uterine wall at this stage; the basal matrix is feebly marked. The matrotrophy or the support by nutrition from the parent organism to embryos is discussed for T. erostris which belongs to oligolecital cestodes and possesses numerous lipid droplets in the uterine wall during the development of embryos. PMID:25316580

  5. Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States: Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Cantey, Paul T.; Coyle, Christina M.; Sorvillo, Frank J.; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Starr, Michelle C.; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal and preventable neglected parasitic infection caused by the larval form of Taenia solium. Patients with symptomatic disease usually have signs and symptoms of neurocysticercosis, which commonly manifest as seizures or increased intracranial pressure. Although there are many persons living in the United States who emigrated from highly disease-endemic countries and there are foci of autochthonous transmission of the parasite in the United States, little is known about burden and epidemiology of the disease in this country. In addition, despite advances in the diagnosis and management of neurocysticercosis, there remain many unanswered questions. Improving our understanding and management of neurocysticercosis in the United States will require improved surveillance or focused prospective studies in appropriate areas and allocation of resources towards answering some of the key questions discussed in this report. PMID:24808248

  6. Cysticercosis Involving Muscle of Mastication: A Review and Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sarbjeet; Sreenivasan, V.; Garg, Kanika; Wazir, Nikhel Dev; Rajput, Jaspal Singh; Sandhu Virk, Pawandeep

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic infection caused by the larval stages of the parasitic cestode, Taenia solium. It is a common disease in developing countries where it is also endemic. The central nervous system (CNS) is the most important primary site of infection and the disease can present with solitary or multiple space occupying lesions. Cases of cysticercosis presenting as isolated muscle mass (pseudotumours) without involvement of the CNS have also been recently described in the literature. We present two cases who presented to us with pain, swelling, and tenderness involving the temporalis muscle along with trismus. Ultrasonography and MRI findings were suggestive of cysticercosis involving the temporalis muscle which resolved after the albendazole therapy. PMID:24396612

  7. Importance of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis of cysticercosis of temporalis muscle mimicking temporal space infection.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Sameer; Arora, Pallak; Devi, Parvathi; Wazir, Sartaj Singh; Kapoor, Shalini

    2013-10-01

    Cysticercosis cellulosae, caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium is a common parasitic infection in Indian subcontinent. Although cysticercosis is common in other parts of the human body, its involvement with temporalis muscle is an extremely rare entity and demands documentation. This paper reports a case of cysticercosis cellulosae in a 35-year-old male patient within the temporalis muscle mimicking temporal space infection; due to the presence of concomitant dental infection, which was diagnosed with the help of high resolution ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging and managed conservatively using oral antiparasitic medication. Here, in this case report, we are emphasizing the importance of imaging modalities in diagnosing space infection and cysticercosis. PMID:24403797

  8. Importance of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis of cysticercosis of temporalis muscle mimicking temporal space infection

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Sameer; Arora, Pallak; Devi, Parvathi; Wazir, Sartaj Singh; Kapoor, Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis cellulosae, caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium is a common parasitic infection in Indian subcontinent. Although cysticercosis is common in other parts of the human body, its involvement with temporalis muscle is an extremely rare entity and demands documentation. This paper reports a case of cysticercosis cellulosae in a 35-year-old male patient within the temporalis muscle mimicking temporal space infection; due to the presence of concomitant dental infection, which was diagnosed with the help of high resolution ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging and managed conservatively using oral antiparasitic medication. Here, in this case report, we are emphasizing the importance of imaging modalities in diagnosing space infection and cysticercosis. PMID:24403797

  9. Cysticercosis involving muscle of mastication: a review and report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sarbjeet; Sreenivasan, V; Garg, Kanika; Wazir, Nikhel Dev; Rajput, Jaspal Singh; Sandhu Virk, Pawandeep

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic infection caused by the larval stages of the parasitic cestode, Taenia solium. It is a common disease in developing countries where it is also endemic. The central nervous system (CNS) is the most important primary site of infection and the disease can present with solitary or multiple space occupying lesions. Cases of cysticercosis presenting as isolated muscle mass (pseudotumours) without involvement of the CNS have also been recently described in the literature. We present two cases who presented to us with pain, swelling, and tenderness involving the temporalis muscle along with trismus. Ultrasonography and MRI findings were suggestive of cysticercosis involving the temporalis muscle which resolved after the albendazole therapy. PMID:24396612

  10. Oral cysticercosis: a diagnostic difficulty.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Jaya; Sharanesha, Manjunatha Bhari; Jatwa, Rameshwar; Khetrapal, Shaleen

    2014-10-01

    Cysticercosis is a rare disease caused by the ingestion of the parasite Cysticercus cellulosae, a larval stage of Taenia solium. The definitive host is human who harbors the adult worm and may accidentally or incidentally become the host. The larval form of cyst is commonly seen in the brain, meninges and eyes. Cases in the maxillofacial region including oral cavity and cheek muscles are rarely reported. Cysticercosis is not commonly considered in the diagnosis of swellings of the head and neck and a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for clinicians. Hence, they are of utmost interest to the practitioner and have to be studied. We present an unusual case of cysticercosis presenting as a solitary cystic nodule in the upper left vestibule of the oral cavity in an 18 year male and the diagnosis was made on histopathological examination. PMID:25478466

  11. Neglected parasitic infections in the United States: cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Cantey, Paul T; Coyle, Christina M; Sorvillo, Frank J; Wilkins, Patricia P; Starr, Michelle C; Nash, Theodore E

    2014-05-01

    Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal and preventable neglected parasitic infection caused by the larval form of Taenia solium. Patients with symptomatic disease usually have signs and symptoms of neurocysticercosis, which commonly manifest as seizures or increased intracranial pressure. Although there are many persons living in the United States who emigrated from highly disease-endemic countries and there are foci of autochthonous transmission of the parasite in the United States, little is known about burden and epidemiology of the disease in this country. In addition, despite advances in the diagnosis and management of neurocysticercosis, there remain many unanswered questions. Improving our understanding and management of neurocysticercosis in the United States will require improved surveillance or focused prospective studies in appropriate areas and allocation of resources towards answering some of the key questions discussed in this report. PMID:24808248

  12. Neurocysticercosis presenting as focal hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Malik, Azharuddin Mohammed; Shamim, Md Dilawez; Ahmad, Mehtab; Abdali, Nasar

    2014-01-01

    A 40-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of headache, nausea and vomiting, with generalised seizures for the past 15?days. On examination he had bilateral papilloedema, visual acuity was 6/6 in both eyes but perimetry showed right homonymous inferior quadrantanopia. His MRI showed numerous small cystic lesions with eccentric nodules, diffusely distributed in bilateral cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres. There was also focal hydrocephalus involving occipital and temporal horns of the left lateral ventricle leading to its selective dilation. Stool examination showed ova of Taenia solium. He was treated with albendazole, prednisone and sustained release sodium valproate for 1?month. His headache resolved and he is free of seizures. Repeat perimetry at 1?month also showed resolution of visual field defect. PMID:24962486

  13. The relationship between neurocysticercosis and epilepsy: an endless debate.

    PubMed

    Carpio, Arturo; Romo, Matthew L

    2014-05-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC), or cerebral infection with Taenia solium, is an important public health problem worldwide. Among the neurological sequelae of NC, seizures have been described as the most common symptom. Acute symptomatic seizures often result from degeneration of a viable cyst; however, not all of these patients with acute or provoked seizures will develop epilepsy (i.e., recurrent unprovoked seizures). Because of the high prevalence of epilepsy and NC, a causal, as well as incidental relationship between the two may exist. The epileptogenicity of calcified cysts as well as the potential association between NC and hippocampal sclerosis necessitates future research. Antihelminthic treatment of NC results in disappearance of viable cysts in about one-third of patients with parenchymal disease, but a reduction in seizure recurrence has not been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials. Prevention is critical to reduce the burden of seizure and epilepsy related to NC. PMID:24863516

  14. Cysticercotic encephalitis: a life threatening form of neurocysicercosis.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rajendra Singh; Handa, Rahul; Vyas, Arvind; Prakash, Swayam; Nagpal, Kadam; Bhana, Indu; Sisodiya, Mahendra S; Gupta, Pankaj Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the most frequent neuroparasitosis and is caused by Taenia solium larvae (cysticerci). Its most common presenting feature is seizure, although it may present as headache,focal deficits, hydrocephalous, or as features of raised intracranial pressure. We herein report a case of 40-year-old male who presented with features of acute encephalitis and raised intracranial pressure with magnetic resonance imaging suggestive of multiple neurocysticerci with diffuse cerebral edema. A diagnosis of cysticercotic encephalitis was made, which is a syndrome of encephalitis with clinical and radiologic evidences of diffuse cerebral edema caused by parenchymal cysticercosis. It is important for the clinicians to be aware of this medical emergency requiring urgent attention as delay may lead to fatal outcome. PMID:24908443

  15. Myoparasitism mimicking parotid swelling: a rare presentation of cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Sandeep; Singh, Saumya; Jaiswal, Vaibhav; Mishra, Anand Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Muscular infestation with larval stage of Taenia solium is a well-recognised entity but cysticercosis of the head and neck region is a rarity. We present a case of 35-year-old young man with diffuse swelling of 3.5×4?cm in the parotid region on the right side of the face with signs of inflammation. Diagnosis was established on high-resolution ultrasonography which revealed it to be of parasitic origin. The patient was managed with antihelminthic pharmacotherapy and improved within a month. Thus cysticercosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous swellings of the head and neck region, especially in endemic zones and it must be investigated well with appropriate imaging modalities so that inadvertent surgery can be avoided. PMID:24842360

  16. [Assessment of dot blot tests and latex agglutination for cysticercosis diagnostic in Peru].

    PubMed

    Miranda-Ulloa, Eduardo; Sandoval-Ahumada, Roxana; Ayala, Eduardo; Vásquez-Ampuero, Juan

    2014-04-01

    In order to evaluate dot blot tests and latex agglutination for the detection of human cysticercosis with liquid antigen of Taenia solium cysticerci, 125 human sera were used, of which 60 were from people with cysticercosis confirmed by Western Blot, 45 with other parasitic diseases and 20 apparently healthy. The optimal concentration of antigen to impregnate dot blot strips was 0.01 ug/uL, and to impregnate the latex particles was 0.092 ug/uL. For the dot blot test, a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 87.7% was found. For latex agglutination, a sensitivity of 93.3% and specificity of 89.2% was found. Both tests may be useful and feasible to implement alternatives of serological diagnosis in laboratories in endemic areas of Peru. PMID:25123870

  17. Oral Cysticercosis: A Diagnostic Difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Sharanesha, Manjunatha Bhari; Jatwa, Rameshwar; Khetrapal, Shaleen

    2014-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a rare disease caused by the ingestion of the parasite Cysticercus cellulosae, a larval stage of Taenia solium. The definitive host is human who harbors the adult worm and may accidentally or incidentally become the host. The larval form of cyst is commonly seen in the brain, meninges and eyes. Cases in the maxillofacial region including oral cavity and cheek muscles are rarely reported. Cysticercosis is not commonly considered in the diagnosis of swellings of the head and neck and a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for clinicians. Hence, they are of utmost interest to the practitioner and have to be studied. We present an unusual case of cysticercosis presenting as a solitary cystic nodule in the upper left vestibule of the oral cavity in an 18 year male and the diagnosis was made on histopathological examination. PMID:25478466

  18. Herniated Lumbar Disc Combined with Spinal Intradural Extramedullary Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyeong Bo; Choi, Won Gyu; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Spinal cysticercosis is a very uncommon manifestation of neurocysticercosis which is caused by the larvae of Taenia solium. However, it can develop as a primary infection through blood stream or direct larval migration. It can result in high recurrence and severe neurologic morbidity if not treated appropriately. We report the case of a 43-year-old woman who presented with severe lower back pain and left leg radiating pain in recent 2 weeks. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) of lumbar spine demonstrated extruded disc at the L5-S1 level combined with intradural extramedullary cystic lesion. We performed the open lumbar microdiscectomy (OLM) at L5-S1 on the left with total excision of cystic mass. After surgery, the patient showed an improvement of previous symptoms. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination as intradural extramedullary cysticercosis. We discuss clinical features, diagnostic screening, and treatment options of spinal cysticercosis. PMID:21430986

  19. Hydrocephalus and Neurocysticercosis: Cases Illustrative of Three Distinct Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Faillot, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Background Cysticercosis is the most frequent parasitic infection of the nervous system. Most lesions are intracranial, and spinal involvement is rare. We describe here in two cases of neurocysticercosis (NCC) in the brain and one in the spinal cord that illustrate three distinct mechanisms leading to symptomatic acute hydrocephalus. Case Report Hydrocephalus was related to intracranial NCC in two of them. In the first case the hydrocephalus was due to an extensive arachnoiditis to the craniocervical junction, while in the second it was caused by obstruction of Magendie's foramen in the fourth ventricle by the scolex of Taenia solium. For the third patient, hydrocephalus revealed cysticercosis of the cauda equina due to the scolex. Conclusions NCC should be considered as a possible diagnosis for patients suffering from hydrocephalus when they originate from or have traveled in endemic areas, MRI of the spine is mandatory to search for intraspinal lesions. PMID:25324888

  20. Immunological and molecular diagnosis of cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Silvia; Wilkins, Patricia; Dorny, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Cysticercosis, the infection with the larval stage of Taenia solium, is a cause of neurological symptoms including seizures, affecting the quality of life of patients and their families. Diagnosis focuses on brain imaging and serological tests are mostly used as confirmatory tools. Most cases, however, occur in poor endemic areas, where both kinds of diagnostic tools are poorly available. Development of point of care diagnostic tests is one of the most important priorities for cysticercosis researches today. The ideal point of care test would require detection of viable cysticercosis and hopefully identify cases with severe or progressive forms of neurocysticercosis, leading to referral of the patient for specialized medical attention. This manuscript describes the evolution of the serological diagnosis of cysticercosis over time, and the characteristics of the most common currently available tools, their advantages and disadvantages, and their potential use in future diagnostic tests. PMID:23265553

  1. Clinical symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E; Del Brutto, Oscar H

    2014-12-01

    The infection of the nervous system by the cystic larvae of Taenia solium (neurocysticercosis) is a frequent cause of seizure disorders. Neurocysticercosis is endemic or presumed to be endemic in many low-income countries. The lifecycle of the worm and the clinical manifestations of neurocysticercosis are well established, and CT and MRI have substantially improved knowledge of the disease course. Improvements in immunodiagnosis have further advanced comprehension of the pathophysiology of this disease. This knowledge has led to individualised treatment approaches that account for the involvement of parenchymal or extraparenchymal spaces, the number and form of parasites, and the extent of degeneration and associated inflammation. Clinical investigations are focused on development of effective treatments and reduction of side-effects induced by treatment, such as seizures, hydrocephalus, infarcts, and neuroinjury. PMID:25453460

  2. Controlling parasites, understanding practices: the biosocial complexity of a One Health intervention for neglected zoonotic helminths in northern Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Bardosh, Kevin; Inthavong, Phouth; Xayaheuang, Sivilai; Okello, Anna L

    2014-11-01

    A parasitological survey in northern Lao PDR showed a remote ethnic minority village to be hyper-endemic for Taenia solium, a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) that impacts human and pig health. An intervention combining human Mass Drug Administration (MDA) with porcine vaccination and antihelmintic treatment was then implemented, targeting both T. solium and other soil-transmitted helminths. To understand the biosocial complexity of this integrated One Health intervention, we conducted a rapid ethnographic study exploring the transmission dynamics of T. solium and locally acceptable long-term control options. Informed by two years of project work in the village, this included six focus group discussions, 35 semi-structured interviews, a latrine survey, a school-based education meeting, participant observation and many unstructured interviews conducted over two weeks in October 2013. We found that risk behaviours were mediated by various social determinants including limited market access, interrelationships between alcohol, ancestral sacrifices and the consumption of raw pork, seasonal variations and poor latrine coverage. Only sixteen percent of households had latrines, attributed to the unacceptability of dry latrines, lack of water access, poor building techniques and poverty. Whilst women could explain T. solium transmission, most men and children could not, revealing that distributed posters/leaflets relied too heavily on text and ambiguous images. Compliance with MDA was high due to trust between project staff and village leaders. However understandings of pharmacology, minor side effects, human migration and children's fear of worms may lead to resistance in future programmes. Our research highlights the complexities of controlling T. solium and other soil-transmitted helminths in a remote ethnic minority village and the need to integrate biomedical and participatory approaches. Although we showcase the heuristic value of using rapid ethnography to inform intervention strategies as part of a One Health/NTD agenda, we also identify several possible paradoxes and conundrums in embedding locally-grounded biosocial analysis into NTD programmes. These need to be acknowledged and negotiated by multidisciplinary teams. PMID:25261615

  3. Primary axillary hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Mercu?, D; Andri?oiu, A; Tra?c?, Et; Silo?i, C; Resceanu, A; Mercu?, R

    2014-01-01

    Echinococcosis (hydatid disease) is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus (or Taenia echinococcus). The adult form of the parasite lives in the gut of the dog, while the intermediate hosts, where the tapeworm develops to larval stage are cats, cattle, pigs and humans(considered to be accidental intermediate hosts). The parasite has a worldwide distribution, but the endemic areas are Canada and Alaska, Australia, New Zealand, South America and the Mediterranean region. Hydatid cyst can grow many years before the symptoms and clinical signs appear. The liver and the lungs are the most affected organs, but primary location of the hydatid disease in the axilla is extremely rare. In our country we did not find any records of axillary hydatid disease, while the literature contains only 12 cases of axillary location. We present the case of a woman, 60 years old, with a primary axillary location of hydatid cyst, who underwent a total cystectomy. PMID:25149625

  4. The effects of different plant extracts on intestinal cestodes and on trematodes.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Semmler, Margit; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Strassen, Bianca; Fischer, Katja; Aksu, Gülendem; Klimpel, Sven; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2011-04-01

    In the present study, chloroform, aqueous, (polyethylene glycol/propylene carbonate) PEG/PC extracts were made from coconut, onion, garlic, fig, date tree, chicory, ananas, and cistrose. These extracts were tested in vivo and in vitro on their anthelmintic activity against cestodes (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. microstoma, Taenia taeniaeformis) and trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, Echinostoma caproni). In all in vitro tests, the target parasites died. It turned out that the treatment of mice and rats with a combination of onion and coconut extracts (with PEG/PC) eliminated all cestodes from their final hosts. In addition, the same composition was effective against the intestinal fluke E. caproni, but not against the liver fluke F. hepatica in the final host, while both worms were killed in vitro. Inoculation of fluids of coconut eliminated T. taeniaeformis tapeworms from naturally infected cats. This goal was not reached with oil of cistrose. PMID:21107861

  5. Pig-farming systems and porcine cysticercosis in the north of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Assana, E; Amadou, F; Thys, E; Lightowlers, M W; Zoli, A P; Dorny, P; Geerts, S

    2010-12-01

    A survey was conducted in 150 households owning 1756 pigs in the rural areas of Mayo-Danay division in the north of Cameroon. A questionnaire survey was carried out to collect information on the pig-farming system and to identify potential risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis infection in pigs. Blood samples were collected from 398 pigs with the aim of estimating the seroprevalence of T. solium cysticercosis. The results showed that 90.7% of the pigs are free roaming during the dry season and that 42.7% of households keeping pigs in the rural areas have no latrine facility. Seventy-six per cent of the interviewed pig owners confirmed that members of the household used open-field defecation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antigen and antibody detection showed an apparent prevalence of cysticercosis of 24.6% and 32.2%, respectively. A Bayesian approach, using the conditional dependence between the two diagnostic tests, indicated that the true seroprevalence of cysticercosis in Mayo-Danay was 26.6%. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that a lack of knowledge of the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex and the absence of a pig pen in the household were associated with pig cysticercosis. PMID:20334716

  6. Pig-farming systems and porcine cysticercosis in the north of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Assana, E.; Amadou, F.; Thys, E.; Lightowlers, M.W.; Zoli, A.P.; Dorny, P.; Geerts, S.

    2010-01-01

    A survey was conducted in 150 households owning 1756 pigs in the rural areas of Mayo-Danay division in the north of Cameroon. A questionnaire survey was carried out to collect information on the pig-farming system and to identify potential risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis infection in pigs. Blood samples were collected from 398 pigs with the aim of estimating the seroprevalence of T. solium cysticercosis. The results showed that 90.7% of the pigs are free roaming during the dry season and that 42.7% of households keeping pigs in the rural areas have no latrine facility. Seventy-six per cent of the interviewed pig owners confirmed that members of the household used open-field defecation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antigen and antibody detection showed an apparent prevalence of cysticercosis of 24.6% and 32.2%, respectively. A Bayesian approach, using the conditional dependence between the two diagnostic tests, indicated that the true seroprevalence of cysticercosis in Mayo-Danay was 26.6%. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that a lack of knowledge of the taeniasis–cysticercosis complex and the absence of a pig pen in the household were associated with pig cysticercosis. PMID:20334716

  7. Incidence of porcine cysticercosis in Angónia District, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Pondja, Alberto; Neves, Luís; Mlangwa, James; Afonso, Sónia; Fafetine, José; Willingham, Arve Lee; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-03-01

    A total of 108 pigs from an endemic area in Mozambique were selected and followed for 8 months to estimate the prevalence and incidence of Taenia solium cysticercosis as indicators of ongoing transmission of the disease. The pigs were sampled and tested repeatedly for cysticercosis by Ag-ELISA at 4, 9 and 12 months of age. Porcine cysticercosis was diagnosed in 5.6% (95% CI: 2.1-11.7%), 33.3% (95% CI: 23.7-44.1%) and 66.7% (95% CI: 55.5-76.9%) of the animals, for the first, second and third sampling rounds, respectively, and varied by village. The mean incidence rate of the disease increased significantly from 6.2 cases per 100 pig-months between 4 and 9 months of age, to 21.2 cases per 100 pig-months between 9 and 12 months of age (incidence rate difference=15.0; 95% CI: 6.8-23.3). Risk factors for the disease are present in the study area, thus control and educational programmes for the community should be initiated to build awareness of the transmission and impact of T. solium infections. PMID:25623971

  8. Rapid Molecular Identification of Human Taeniid Cestodes by Pyrosequencing Approach

    PubMed Central

    Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Intapan, Pewpan M.; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Tourtip, Somjintana; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2014-01-01

    Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica are causative agents of taeniasis in humans. The difficulty of morphological identification of human taeniids can lead to misdiagnosis or confusion. To overcome this problem, several molecular methods have been developed, but use of these tends to be time-consuming. Here, a rapid and high-throughput pyrosequencing approach was developed for the identification of three human taeniids originating from various countries. Primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of the three Taenia species were designed. Variations in a 26-nucleotide target region were used for identification. The reproducibility and accuracy of the pyrosequencing technology was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. This technique will be a valuable tool to distinguish between sympatric human taeniids that occur in Thailand, Asia and Pacific countries. This method could potentially be used for the molecular identification of the taeniid species that might be associated with suspicious cysts and lesions, or cyst residues in humans or livestock at the slaughterhouse. PMID:24945530

  9. The Fringed Tapeworm (Thysanosoma actinioides) as a Parasite of the Rocky Mountain Elk in Yellowstone National Park

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RICHARD H. JACOBSON; DAVID E. WORLEY; KENNETH R. GREER

    Post-mortem examination of 181 elk (Cervus canadensis nelsoni) from the northern Yellowstone Park herd in 1967-68 revealed that 41% were infected with Thysanosoma actinioides. Infections occurred in all age classes of animals from seven areas in the Yellowstone, Gardner and Lamar drainages in the northern section of the Park. Prevalence of the parasite was higher in calves and yearlings than

  10. Sequential and concurrent exposure of flour beetles ( Tribolium confusum ) to tapeworms ( Hymenolepis diminuta ) and pesticide (diatomaceous earth).

    PubMed

    Shostak, Allen W

    2012-06-01

    The response of Tribolium confusum to sublethal levels of 2 environmental stressors was studied, i.e., parasitic infection represented by the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta , and a physical stressor represented by the natural pesticide diatomaceous earth (DE). These were applied sequentially (DE, then infection) to detect indirect or carryover effects of DE, and concurrently (DE applied immediately after exposure to parasites and DE presence maintained throughout the infection) to detect direct effects of DE. DE alone, but not parasitism alone, produced significant host mortality, and concurrent treatment with DE and parasitism did not increase mortality over DE alone. Parasite abundance was significantly higher following sequential, but not concurrent, DE exposure. Parasite abundance in mated hosts was significantly higher than in virgin hosts. Parasitic infection resulted in significantly fewer eggs retained in the oviduct of beetles, but there was no difference in the number of eggs that accumulated in the culture medium and no difference in the surface-seeking behavior of beetles. Mating status of beetles in all treatments, and DE exposure in concurrent treatments significantly increased their surface-seeking behavior. Concurrent exposure to DE also resulted in a 4- to 6-fold increase in host egg numbers that accumulated in the culture medium. Although DE exposure increased parasite numbers in the beetles, these 2 stressors otherwise appeared to act independently. PMID:22263651

  11. Extracts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, suppress macrophage activation in vitro and alleviate chemically induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Johnston, M J G; Wang, A; Catarino, M E D; Ball, L; Phan, V C; MacDonald, J A; McKay, D M

    2010-03-01

    Analysis of parasite-host interactions can reveal the intricacies of immunity and identify ways to modulate immunopathological reactions. We assessed the ability of a phosphate-buffered saline-soluble extract of adult Hymenolepis diminuta to suppress macrophage (human THP-1 cell line, murine peritoneal macrophages) activity in vitro and the impact of treating mice with this extract on colitis induced by dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS). A high-molecular-mass fraction of adult H. diminuta (HdHMW) or excretory/secretory products reduced macrophage activation: lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and poly(I:C)-induced TNF-alpha and IL-6 were suppressed by HdHMW. The active component in the HdHMW extract was minimally sensitive to boiling and trypsin digestion, whereas the use of sodium metaperiodate, as a general deglycosylation strategy, indicated that the immunosuppressive effect of HdHMW was at least partially dependent on a glycan: treating the HdHMW with neuraminidase and alpha-mannosidase failed to inhibit its blockade of LPS-induced TNF-alpha production by THP-1 macrophages. Mice treated with DNBS developed colitis, as typified by wasting, shortening of the colon, macroscopic and microscopic tissue damage, and an inflammatory infiltrate. Mice cotreated with HdHMW (three intraperitoneal injections) displayed significantly less inflammatory disease, and this was accompanied by reduced TNF-alpha production and increased IL-10 and IL-4 production by mitogen-stimulated spleen cells. However, cotreatment of mice with neutralizing anti-IL-10 antibodies had only a minor impact on the anticolitic effect of the HdHMW. We speculate that purification of the immunosuppressive factor(s) from H. diminuta has the potential to lead to the development of novel immunomodulatory drugs to treat inflammatory disease. PMID:20028812

  12. A behavioral study of the beetle Tenebrio molitor infected with cysticercoids of the rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheiman, I. M.; Shkutin, M. F.; Terenina, N. B.; Gustafsson, M. K. S.

    2006-06-01

    The host-parasite relationship, Tenebrio molitor- Hymenolepis diminuta, was analyzed. The learning behavior of infected and uninfected (control) beetles in a T-maze was compared. The infected beetles moved much slower in the T-maze than the controls. The infected beetles reached the same level of learning as the controls. However, they needed more trials than the controls. The effect of the infection was already distinct after the first week and even higher after the second week. This indicates that the initial phase of infection caused stress in the beetles. Longer infection did not worsen their ability to learn. Thus, the parasites clearly changed the behavior of their intermediate host and probably made them more susceptible to their final host, the rat.

  13. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    If parasites are found to be distributed in a carcass in such a manner or to be of such character that their removal and the removal of the lesions caused by them is impracticable, no part of the carcass shall be passed for human...

  14. Added resolution among ordinal level relationships of tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) with complete small and large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Waeschenbach; Bonnie L. Webster; Rodney A. Bray; D. T. J. Littlewood

    2007-01-01

    The addition of large subunit ribosomal DNA (lsrDNA) to small subunit ribosomal DNA (ssrDNA) has been shown to add resolution to phylogenies at various taxonomic levels for a diversity of phyla. We added nearly complete lsrDNA (4057–4593bp) sequences to ssrDNA (1940–2228bp) for 26 ingroup and 3 outgroup taxa in an attempt to provide an improved ordinal phylogeny for the Cestoda.

  15. THE CONTROL OF FISH PARASITES AND THE ERADICATION OF ASIAN TAPEWORM INFECTIONS IN GRASS CARP USING PRAZIQUANTEL BATH TREATMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are few studies on the control of fish parasites and even fewer effective or accepted methods for the direct or indirect control of these parasites. When parasite eradication from fish stocks is the goal, the probability for success is very low. Condition of host, life cycle of parasite, wate...

  16. Arrhythmic Song Exposure Increases ZENK Expression in Auditory Cortical Areas and Nucleus Taeniae of the Adult

    E-print Network

    Wade, Juli

    , including stuttering, autism, and dyslexia. Songbirds provide a tractable model for studying the neural by the GRAMMY Foundation, Michigan State University's program for Research in Autism, Intellectual is positively correlated with language and literacy skill [1]. Moreover, children with specific language

  17. Risk factors of porcine cysticercosis in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Krecek, Rosina Claudia; Mohammed, Hamish; Michael, Lynne Margaret; Schantz, Peter Mullineaux; Ntanjana, Lulama; Morey, Liesl; Werre, Stephen Rakem; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2012-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis in humans and pigs in the Eastern Cape Province (ECP) of South Africa. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors of porcine cysticercosis in select districts of the ECP. Data were collected in 2003 by interviewing 217 pig producers from the area. Blood samples were collected from 261 of their pigs, which were tested using two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for the presence of antibodies to cysticercosis. Frequencies of both owner- and pig-level characteristics were determined. For pig-level analysis, all bivariable and multivariable associations were determined using the surveylogistic procedure of the SAS/STAT® software to accommodate for the intraclass correlation that exists for clusters of pigs within one owner and for clusters of owners within a district. All tests for significance were performed at the ??=?0.05 level, and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were determined. Among the respondents, 48% of their households lacked a latrine, 98% slaughtered pigs at home, and 99% indicated that meat inspection services were not available. On bivariable analysis, there was a significant association between porcine infection and district (p?=?0.003), breed (p?=?0.041) and the absence of a latrine (p?=?0.006). On multivariable analysis, the absence of a latrine was the only variable significantly associated with porcine infection (aOR?=?1.89; 95% CI?=?1.07, 3.35) (p?=?0.028). The increased odds of porcine infection with households lacking a latrine contributes to our understanding of the transmission of this parasite in the ECP. Determining and addressing the risk factors for T. solium infection can potentially lower the very high prevalence in humans and pigs in this endemic area. PMID:22655065

  18. Exposure to Multiple Parasites Is Associated with the Prevalence of Active Convulsive Epilepsy in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kamuyu, Gathoni; Bottomley, Christian; Mageto, James; Lowe, Brett; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Noh, John C.; Nutman, Thomas B.; Ngugi, Anthony K.; Odhiambo, Rachael; Wagner, Ryan G.; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth; Masanja, Honorati; Osier, Faith H. A.; Odermatt, Peter; Newton, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is common in developing countries, and it is often associated with parasitic infections. We investigated the relationship between exposure to parasitic infections, particularly multiple infections and active convulsive epilepsy (ACE), in five sites across sub-Saharan Africa. Methods and Findings A case-control design that matched on age and location was used. Blood samples were collected from 986 prevalent cases and 1,313 age-matched community controls and tested for presence of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium falciparum, Taenia solium and HIV. Exposure (seropositivity) to Onchocerca volvulus (OR?=?1.98; 95%CI: 1.52–2.58, p<0.001), Toxocara canis (OR?=?1.52; 95%CI: 1.23–1.87, p<0.001), Toxoplasma gondii (OR?=?1.28; 95%CI: 1.04–1.56, p?=?0.018) and higher antibody levels (top tertile) to Toxocara canis (OR?=?1.70; 95%CI: 1.30–2.24, p<0.001) were associated with an increased prevalence of ACE. Exposure to multiple infections was common (73.8% of cases and 65.5% of controls had been exposed to two or more infections), and for T. gondii and O. volvulus co-infection, their combined effect on the prevalence of ACE, as determined by the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), was more than additive (T. gondii and O. volvulus, RERI?=?1.19). The prevalence of T. solium antibodies was low (2.8% of cases and 2.2% of controls) and was not associated with ACE in the study areas. Conclusion This study investigates how the degree of exposure to parasites and multiple parasitic infections are associated with ACE and may explain conflicting results obtained when only seropositivity is considered. The findings from this study should be further validated. PMID:24875312

  19. The spatial ecology of free-ranging domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In many parts of the developing world, pigs are kept under low-input systems where they roam freely to scavenge food. These systems allow poor farmers the opportunity to enter into livestock keeping without large capital investments. This, combined with a growing demand for pork, especially in urban areas, has led to an increase in the number of small-holder farmers keeping free range pigs as a commercial enterprise. Despite the benefits which pig production can bring to a household, keeping pigs under a free range system increases the risk of the pig acquiring diseases, either production-limiting or zoonotic in nature. This study used Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to track free range domestic pigs in rural western Kenya, in order to understand their movement patterns and interactions with elements of the peri-domestic environment. Results We found that these pigs travel an average of 4,340?m in a 12?hr period and had a mean home range of 10,343?m2 (range 2,937–32,759?m2) within which the core utilisation distribution was found to be 964?m2 (range 246–3,289?m2) with pigs spending on average 47% of their time outside their homestead of origin. Conclusion These are the first data available on the home range of domestic pigs kept under a free range system: the data show that pigs in these systems spend much of their time scavenging outside their homesteads, suggesting that these pigs may be exposed to infectious agents over a wide area. Control policies for diseases such as Taenia solium, Trypanosomiasis, Trichinellosis, Toxoplasmosis or African Swine Fever therefore require a community-wide focus and pig farmers require education on the inherent risks of keeping pigs under a free range system. The work presented here will enable future research to incorporate movement data into studies of disease transmission, for example for the understanding of transmission of African Swine Fever between individuals, or in relation to the life-cycle of parasites including Taenia solium. PMID:23497587

  20. Use of oxfendazole to control porcine cysticercosis in a high-endemic area of Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Pondja, Alberto; Neves, Luís; Mlangwa, James; Afonso, Sónia; Fafetine, José; Willingham, Arve Lee; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2012-01-01

    A randomized controlled field trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a single oral dose of 30 mg/kg of oxfendazole (OFZ) treatment for control of porcine cysticercosis was conducted in 4 rural villages of Angónia district, north-western Mozambique. Two hundred and sixteen piglets aged 4 months were selected and assigned randomly to OFZ treatment or control groups. Fifty-four piglets were treated at 4 months of age (T1), while another 54 piglets were treated at 9 months of age (T2) and these were matched with 108 control pigs from the same litters and raised under the same conditions. Baseline data were collected on the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis using antigen ELISA (Ag-ELISA), as well as knowledge and practices related to Taenia solium transmission based on questionnaire interviews and observations. All animals were followed and re-tested for porcine cysticercosis by Ag-ELISA at 9 and 12 months of age when the study was terminated. Overall prevalence at baseline was 5.1% with no significant difference between groups. At the end of the study, 66.7% of the controls were found positive, whereas 21.4% of the T1 and 9.1% of the T2 pigs were positive, respectively. Incidence rates of porcine cysticercosis were lower in treated pigs as compared to controls. Necropsy of 30 randomly selected animals revealed that viable cysts were present in none (0/8) of T2 pigs, 12.5% (1/8) of T1 pigs and 42.8% (6/14) of control pigs. There was a significant reduction in the risk of T. solium cysticercosis if pigs were treated with OFZ either at 4 months (OR?=?0.14; 95% CI: 0.05-0.36) or at 9 months of age (OR?=?0.05; 95% CI: 0.02-0.16). Strategic treatment of pigs in endemic areas should be further explored as a means to control T. solium cysticercosis/taeniosis. PMID:22666509

  1. Use of Oxfendazole to Control Porcine Cysticercosis in a High-Endemic Area of Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Pondja, Alberto; Neves, Luís; Mlangwa, James; Afonso, Sónia; Fafetine, José; Willingham, Arve Lee; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2012-01-01

    A randomized controlled field trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a single oral dose of 30 mg/kg of oxfendazole (OFZ) treatment for control of porcine cysticercosis was conducted in 4 rural villages of Angónia district, north-western Mozambique. Two hundred and sixteen piglets aged 4 months were selected and assigned randomly to OFZ treatment or control groups. Fifty-four piglets were treated at 4 months of age (T1), while another 54 piglets were treated at 9 months of age (T2) and these were matched with 108 control pigs from the same litters and raised under the same conditions. Baseline data were collected on the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis using antigen ELISA (Ag-ELISA), as well as knowledge and practices related to Taenia solium transmission based on questionnaire interviews and observations. All animals were followed and re-tested for porcine cysticercosis by Ag-ELISA at 9 and 12 months of age when the study was terminated. Overall prevalence at baseline was 5.1% with no significant difference between groups. At the end of the study, 66.7% of the controls were found positive, whereas 21.4% of the T1 and 9.1% of the T2 pigs were positive, respectively. Incidence rates of porcine cysticercosis were lower in treated pigs as compared to controls. Necropsy of 30 randomly selected animals revealed that viable cysts were present in none (0/8) of T2 pigs, 12.5% (1/8) of T1 pigs and 42.8% (6/14) of control pigs. There was a significant reduction in the risk of T. solium cysticercosis if pigs were treated with OFZ either at 4 months (OR?=?0.14; 95% CI: 0.05–0.36) or at 9 months of age (OR?=?0.05; 95% CI: 0.02–0.16). Strategic treatment of pigs in endemic areas should be further explored as a means to control T. solium cysticercosis/taeniosis. PMID:22666509

  2. Gastrointestinal helminths of dogs in Western Pomerania, Poland.

    PubMed

    Tylkowska, Agnieszka; Pilarczyk, Bogumi?a; Gregorczyk, Aneta; Templin, Ewelina

    2010-01-01

    A total of 763 fecal samples were collected from dogs in Western Pomerania during 2006-2007 to determine the gastrointestinal parasite fauna of dogs in this region. In the city of Szczecin, 648 fecal samples were collected every month in the annual cycle from nine city areas and analysed. Six fecal samples were taken at each collection time from each site. A total of 115 fecal samples from rural areas were investigated. Each fecal sample was dissected with a needle, checked for tapeworm segments and adult forms of nematodes, and examined for parasite eggs using Willis-Schlaff flotation method. The mean prevalence of gastrointestinal parasite infection among dogs in Western Pomerania was 34.84%. The greatest number of samples containing parasites came from the Chociwel commune (46.67%), and the smallest number from the city of Szczecin (23.92%). The greatest number of samples containing parasites from the city of Szczecin originated from the S?oneczne estate (34.72%), and the smallest number from the Kasprowicz Park (13.89%). Dogs' feces were found to contain segments of Dipylidium caninum (4.07%) and Taenia sp. (3.45%) tapeworms and eggs of five species of gastrointestinal nematodes: Uncinaria stenocephala (11%), Toxocara canis (20.62%), Toxascaris leonina (2.91%), Ancylostoma sp. (4.61%), and Trichuris vulpis (0.27%). The highest prevalence of endoparasite infection among dogs was found in July (42.60%) and the lowest in February (5.56%). Both single- and multi-species infections were observed. In the area of Szczecin, single-species infections were the most common (18.83%). PMID:21174956

  3. Prevalence and seasonal incidence of larval and adult cestode infections of sheep and goats in eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sissay, Menkir M; Uggla, Arvid; Waller, Peter J

    2008-08-01

    A study on the prevalence and seasonal incidence of cestode parasite infections of sheep and goats was carried out in eastern Ethiopia for 2 years (May 2003-April 2005). During this period, viscera including liver, lungs, heart, kidneys and the gastro-intestinal tract were collected from 655 sheep and 632 goats slaughtered at four abattoirs located in the towns of Haramaya, Harar, Dire Dawa and Jijiga. At the abattoirs the abdominal, thoracic and pelvic cavities as well as the muscle surfaces of all animals were visually examined for the presence of larval (cystic) stages of cestode parasites. The viscera were transported within 24 h to the parasitology laboratory of Haramaya University and were examined for larval and adult cestodes following standard procedures. The most prevalent metacestodes (larval cestodes) were Cysticercus ovis (Taenia ovis), Cysticercus tenuicollis (T. hydatigena) and hydatid cysts (Echinococcus granulosus). In sheep, the overall prevalence was 26% for C. ovis, 79% for C. tenuicollis, and 68% for hydatid cysts. Similarly, for goats, the corresponding prevalence was 22%, 53% and 65%, respectively. The difference between sheep and goats in prevalence of C. tenuicollis was significant. The high prevalence of hydatid cysts in both sheep and goats indicates that cystic echinococcosis/hydatidosis is a public health problem in these regions which requires implementation of control measures, including public health education, strict meat inspection and control of stray dogs. The results of the survey also implies that infections of small ruminants with these metacestodes are responsible for condemnation of substantial quantities of affected organs and muscles and therefore of direct economic importance. Intestinal infections with adult tapeworms of Moniezia expansa, Avitellina centripunctata and Stilesia globipunctata, and bile duct infections with Stilesia hepatica were also common in both sheep and goats. In sheep, the overall prevalence of these tapeworms were 61%, 20%, 24% and 39%, respectively. Similarly, the overall prevalence of these parasites in goats was 53%, 21%, 27% and 36%, respectively. PMID:18575964

  4. A diagnostic study of Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Learmount, J; Zimmer, I A; Conyers, C; Boughtflower, V D; Morgan, C P; Smith, G C

    2012-12-21

    Alveolar echinococcosis is caused by a parasitic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis and is a serious disease with high fatality in humans. The definitive primary host is the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) but domestic animals (dogs and to a lesser extent cats) as well as several genera of rodents can also be infected with the parasite. There is, to date, no evidence of indigenous cases of E. multilocularis in Great Britain (GB) but in most of continental Europe the parasite is considered to be endemic and/or slowly spreading. All pet dogs entering the United Kingdom (UK) under the pet travel scheme (PETS) are therefore currently treated with an anthelmintic effective against Echinococcus spp. Surveillance of red foxes is required to demonstrate disease freedom and maintain this regulation to prevent further geographical spread of the parasite to free areas within the EU. A study of 588 wild red foxes collected from across Great Britain (GB) between October 1999 and November 2000 found no Echinococcus spp. This report describes a further study of GB foxes collected predominately during 2005 and 2006. Fox faecal samples (n=384) were examined for both E. multilocularis and Echinococcus granulosus using an egg isolation procedure followed by PCR method, based on published primer sets. A non-specific primer set that amplifies Taenia spp. as well as Mesocestoides, Dipylidium and Diphyllobothrium was also included in the assay to validate the test procedure as these parasites are expected to be more common in wild fox populations. All faecal samples tested negative for both E. multilocularis and E. granulosus but results for approximately 35% of the samples indicated the presence of Taenia spp. or other closely related cestodes. This data contributes to the evidence that suggests that E. multilocularis is not present in mainland Britain and justifies the requirement for ongoing surveillance to demonstrate disease freedom. PMID:22840643

  5. Cysticercosis of the Central Nervous System - How Should It Be Managed?

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Taenia solium neurocysticercosis has been long recognized as an important cause of neurological morbidity in most of the world. Unwarranted generalization of diagnostic and treatment recommendations made it difficult to assess individual prognosis and responses for each type of NCC. Understanding of the main clinical presentations (dependent on number, location, size and stage of parasites, as well as on the immune response of the host) allows a better view of treatment options and expected outcomes. Recent findings Current treatment options are still limited and involve symptomatic agents, antiparasitic agents or surgery. The importance of adequate symptomatic management, the potential for improved antiparasitic treatment regimes, in particular combination therapy, and the increasingly important role of minimally invasive neurosurgery are also revised in this manuscript. Summary Treatment decisions in NCC should be individualized in relation to the type of NCC. Initial measures should focus on symptomatic management to later consider antiparasitic therapy when appropriate. Appropiate patient categorization, new antiparasitic regimes and minimally invasive surgery are improving the prognosis of patients with NCC. PMID:21788891

  6. Neurocysticercosis: A disease of neglect

    PubMed Central

    Mewara, Abhishek; Goyal, Kapil; Sehgal, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a neglected tropical disease caused by larval forms of the parasite Taenia solium lodging in central nervous system (CNS). There is a huge morbidity and debilitation due to CNS manifestations of NCC in developing and underdeveloped regions of the globe, mainly Asian, African and Latin American countries. It is the cause of epilepsy in about 1% of the population of endemic countries and is the underlying etiology in about 15-50% persons with epilepsy, depending upon the geographical region. There is no perfect diagnostic method and the diagnosis relies on a combination of clinical, radio-imaging, immunologic and epidemiologic data. Treatment includes anti-parasitic treatment by cysticidal drugs and management of associated symptoms and complications. The disease is eradicable and control depends on an integrated and coordinated involvement of international bodies like the World Health Organization along with scientific institutions and political and administrative strata of the endemic countries to provide the essential tools such as adequate sanitation, live-stock management, health education and improved socio-economic conditions. PMID:24470993

  7. [Role of infectious agents in the emergence of malignant tumors].

    PubMed

    Kutikhin, A G; Yuzhalin, A E; Brusina, E B; Briko, N I

    2012-01-01

    According to the data of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), at least 6 virus species (HPV, EBV, HHV-8/KSHV, HTLV-1, HBV, HCV), 4 helminthes species (Schistosoma haematobium and japonicum, Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis) and I bacterium species (Helicobacter pylori) have been proved to be capable of causing the development of cancer. The analysis of the data available shows that Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), John Cunningham polyomavirus (JCV), monkey virus 40 (SV40), cytomegalovirus (CMV), xenotropic murine leukemia virus (XMRV), Helicobacter bilis and hepaticus, Campylobacter jejuni, Fusobacterium varium, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides vulgatus, Prevotella spp., Streptococcus bovis and anginosus, Treponema denticola, Salmonella typhi, paratyphi and typhimurium, Borrelia burgdorferi, Bartonella spp., Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, trachomatis and psittaci, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Propionibacterium acnes, Tropheryma whippelii, Schistosoma mansoni, Opistorchis felineus, Strongyloides stercoralis, Taenia solium, Candida spp., Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Histoplasma capsulatum and Trichomonas vaginalis can also be potential etiological agents of cancer. Apparently, detection of new associations between infectious agents and risk of the development of cancer will facilitate progress in elaboration of prophylaxis measures, early diagnostic methods and, probably, methods of treatment of malignant tumors. PMID:23163048

  8. Further characterization of Tsol-p27 as a diagnostic antigen in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nhancupe, Noémia; Salazar-Anton, Fernando; Noormahomed, Emília Virginia; Afonso, Sónia; Lindh, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Commercial antigens used to diagnose human neurocysticercosis are obtained from either a soluble parasite extract or a parasite-derived glycoprotein fraction. The aim of the present study was to identify antigenic proteins as potential diagnostic candidates in Mozambique. Soluble proteins from Taenia solium cysticerci were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and blotted onto nitrocellulose membranes. Subtracted hybridization was performed with serum samples obtained from patients with neurocysticercosis (NCC) and from a NCC-negative control group. Six antigenic proteins were identified and sequenced by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among these we found Tsol-p27, which was previously identified as a diagnostic candidate in a study conducted in Nicaragua, Central America. Here, we evaluated Tsol-p27 and the antigen cC1 as potential recombinant diagnostic reagents, and also investigated the localization and partial function of Tsol-p27. Immunoblotting demonstrated that Tsol-p27 was recognized by all 10 serum samples from NCC-positive individuals, whereas cC1 was identified by only five of the 10 positive sera. None of the antigens were recognized by negative control sera. Despite the limited number of serum samples evaluated in this study, the results suggest that Tsol-p27 can be a suitable candidate for diagnosis of human NCC, not only in Central America but also in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24042013

  9. Recombinant Protein- and Synthetic Peptide-Based Immunoblot Test for Diagnosis of Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Silvia; Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Handali, Sukwan; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Garcia, Hector H.; Wilkins, Patricia P.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most well-characterized tests for diagnosing neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay developed at the CDC, which uses lentil lectin-bound glycoproteins (LLGP) extracted from Taenia solium cysticerci. Although the test is very reliable, the purification process for the LLGP antigens has been difficult to transfer to other laboratories because of the need for expensive equipment and technical expertise. To develop a simpler assay, we previously purified and cloned the diagnostic glycoproteins in the LLGP fraction. In this study, we evaluated three representative recombinant or synthetic antigens from the LLGP fraction, individually and in different combinations, using an immunoblot assay (recombinant EITB). Using a panel of 249 confirmed NCC-positive and 401 negative blood serum samples, the sensitivity of the recombinant EITB assay was determined to be 99% and the specificity was 99% for diagnosing NCC. We also tested a panel of 239 confirmed NCC-positive serum samples in Lima, Peru, and found similar results. Overall, our data show that the performance characteristics of the recombinant EITB assay are comparable to those of the LLGP-EITB assay. This new recombinant- and synthetic antigen-based assay is sustainable and can be easily transferred to other laboratories in the United States and throughout the world. PMID:24554747

  10. Comparison of ELISA and PCR assays for the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Ramahefarisoa, Rondro Mamitiana; Rakotondrazaka, Mahenintsoa; Jambou, Ronan; Carod, Jean-François

    2010-10-29

    Cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease due to Taenia solium, which involves porcines as intermediate host. It is endemic in Madagascar, however minimal data has been reported concerning porcine cysticercosis prevalence. Lack of ante-mortem diagnostic tools renders the evaluation of its prevalence difficult. Tongue palpation is specific but has poor sensitivity. Serological tests detecting antigens or antibodies are sensitive to human cysticercosis and apt for diagnosis but are not yet considered as a gold standard in porcine ante-mortem examination. PCR are widely used to detect pathogens but also poorly evaluated in regards to the diagnosis of cysticercosis. We compare the performance of PCR and ELISA assays on 67 pig serums: 22 from cysticercosis positive pigs (meat inspection) and 45 from cysticercosis negative animals (originating from a non-endemic country or grown in industrial and well isolated pigsties). Among the negative samples 19 were collected from pigs with trichinellosis and 4 from pigs with toxoplasmosis. Results indicate that ELISA assay showed high sensitivity and good specificity while the PCR assays showed high specificity but a low sensitivity. PMID:20542639

  11. Soft Tissue Cysticercosis: Study of 21 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the clinico – pathological profile of patients with cysticercosis cellulosae. Materials and Methods The clinico – pathological data of patients with cysticercosis cellulosae who were reviewed during the last 5 years, were retrospectively analysed. Results Of the total 6805 biopsies analysed , 21 cases of cysticercosis in the soft tissues were observed. Excisional biopsy was performed to diagnose the lesion. The pattern of distribution was striated muscles in 11(52.4%), eye in 6 (28.6%), subcutaneous tissues in 2(9.5%), tongue in 1(4.8%) and breast in 1(4.8%) patient. Anterior abdominal wall was the most involved site. Conclusion Cysticercosis, a parasitic infestation caused by Taenia solium is a major health problem in the developing countries. It is a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for the clinicians. Steps towards control and possible eradication of the disease are needed, as the disease causes not only chronic morbidity, but also contributes to economic losses in an already impoverished population. PMID:23373024

  12. Human Neurocysticercosis: Comparison of Different Diagnostic Tests Using Cerebrospinal Fluid ?

    PubMed Central

    Michelet, Lorraine; Fleury, Agnès; Sciutto, Edda; Kendjo, Eric; Fragoso, Gladis; Paris, Luc; Bouteille, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC), caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, is one of the most common parasitic diseases of the central nervous system. The diagnosis of NC is mostly based on costly brain neuroimaging (computed tomography and/or nuclear magnetic resonance), which is rarely accessible in most affected areas. The most sensitive and specific tools for NC diagnosis are imagery techniques. The identification of specific antibodies and antigens is currently used only to support NC diagnosis due to their limited specificity and sensitivity. This study was performed to compare immunodiagnostic assays (antibody detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] and enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blotting [EITB] and HP10 antigen detection by ELISA) with the detection of parasite DNA by PCR amplification of a repetitive element of the parasite genome in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 121 radiologically and clinically characterized NC patients. Patients were divided into six groups according to the stage of the parasites and their localization. The CSF cellularity of each patient was also recorded. When all patients were considered, PCR exhibited the highest sensitivity (95.9%) and variable specificity (80% or 100%) depending on the controls used. The sensitivities of antibody detection by ELISA and EITB were not significantly different, and ELISA identified HP10 antigen mostly when vesicular cysticerci were located in the subarachnoideal basal cisterns. These results can help in the selection of different individual assays or combinations of assays to be used in NC diagnosis according to different requirements. PMID:21068283

  13. Cysticerci Drive Dendritic Cells to Promote In Vitro and In Vivo Tregs Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Arce-Sillas, Asiel; Fragoso, Gladis; Cárdenas, Graciela; Rosetti, Marcos; Casanova-Hernández, Didier; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Fleury, Agnes; Sciutto, Edda

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a crucial role in immune homeostasis. Treg induction is a strategy that parasites have evolved to modulate the host's inflammatory environment, facilitating their establishment and permanence. In human Taenia solium neurocysticercosis (NC), the concurrence of increased peripheral and central Treg levels and their capacity to inhibit T cell activation and proliferation support their role in controlling neuroinflammation. This study is aimed at identifing possible mechanisms of Treg induction in human NC. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) from healthy human donors, cocultivated with autologous CD4+ naïve cells either in the presence or absence of cysticerci, promoted CD25highFoxp3+ Treg differentiation. An increased Treg induction was observed when cysticerci were present. Moreover, an augmentation of suppressive-related molecules (SLAMF1, B7-H1, and CD205) was found in parasite-induced DC differentiation. Increased Tregs and a higher in vivo DC expression of the regulatory molecules SLAMF1 and CD205 in NC patients were also found. SLAMF1 gene was downregulated in NC patients with extraparenchymal cysticerci, exhibiting higher inflammation levels than patients with parenchymal parasites. Our findings suggest that cysticerci may modulate DC to favor a suppressive environment, which may help parasite establishment, minimizing the excessive inflammation, which may lead to tissue damage. PMID:23762101

  14. Somatostatin Negatively Regulates Parasite Burden and Granulomatous Responses in Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Khumbatta, Mitra; Firozgary, Bahrom; Tweardy, David John; Weinstock, Joel; Firozgary, Gohar; Bhatena, Zal

    2014-01-01

    Cysticercosis is an infection of tissues with the larval cysts of the cestode, Taenia??solium. While live parasites elicit little or no inflammation, dying parasites initiate a granulomatous reaction presenting as painful muscle nodules or seizures when cysts are located in the brain. We previously showed in the T. crassiceps murine model of cysticercosis that substance P (SP), a neuropeptide, was detected in early granulomas and was responsible for promoting granuloma formation, while somatostatin (SOM), another neuropeptide and immunomodulatory hormone, was detected in late granulomas; SOM's contribution to granuloma formation was not examined. In the current studies, we used somatostatin knockout (SOM?/?) mice to examine the hypothesis that SOM downmodulates granulomatous inflammation in cysticercosis, thereby promoting parasite growth. Our results demonstrated that parasite burden was reduced 5.9-fold in SOM?/? mice compared to WT mice (P < 0.05). This reduction in parasite burden in SOM?/? mice was accompanied by a 95% increase in size of their granulomas (P < 0.05), which contained a 1.5-fold increase in levels of IFN-? and a 26-fold decrease in levels of IL-1? (P < 0.05 for both) compared to granulomas from WT mice. Thus, SOM regulates both parasite burden and granulomatous inflammation perhaps through modulating granuloma production of IFN-? and IL-1?. PMID:25530957

  15. Comparative profile of circulating antigenic peptides in CSF, serum & urine from patients with neurocysticercosis diagnosed by immunoblotting.

    PubMed

    Sahu, P S; Parija, S; Kumar, D; Jayachandran, S; Narayan, S

    2014-10-01

    Traditionally serum and/or CSF specimens have been used for detection of either specific antibodies or antigens as a supportive diagnosis of NCC. However, in recent days, much interest has been shown employing noninvasive specimens such as urine. In our study, we identified and compared a profile of circulating antigenic peptides of parasite origin in three different body fluids (CSF, serum and urine) obtained from confirmed NCC cases and control subjects. The circulating antigenic peptides were resolved by SDS-PAGE and subjected to immunoblotting. For confirmation of their origin as parasite somatic or excretory secretory (ES) material, immunoreactivity was tested employing affinity purified polyclonal Taenia solium metacestode anti-somatic or ES antibodies, respectively. Only lower molecular weight antigenic peptides were found circulating in urine in contrast to serum and CSF specimens. Few somatic peptides were identified to be 100% specific for NCC (19·5 kDa in all three specimens; 131, 70 kDa in CSF and serum only; 128 kDa in CSF only). Similarly, the specific ES peptides detected were 32 kDa (in all three specimens), 16·5 kDa (in serum and CSF only), and 15 kDa (urine only). A test format detecting either one or more of these specific peptides would enhance the sensitivity in diagnosis of NCC. PMID:24965663

  16. Routine drug and food interactions during antihelminthic treatment of neurocysticercosis: a reason for the variable efficacy of albendazole and praziquantel?

    PubMed

    Romo, Matthew L; Carpio, Arturo; Kelvin, Elizabeth A

    2014-04-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC) or infection of the central nervous system with Taenia solium larvae is a leading cause of preventable seizures and epilepsy in endemic regions across the globe. Albendazole and praziquantel are commonly used antihelminthic agents to treat NC; however, viable cysts persist in the majority of patients, putting them at risk for future seizures and other neurological complications. Because of their pharmacokinetic profiles, albendazole and praziquantel have the potential to interact with many different drugs. During antihelminthic treatment, antiepileptic drugs and corticosteroids are commonly co-administered to manage seizures and cerebral edema; however, the most commonly used agents from these drug classes are known to significantly alter plasma concentrations of albendazole and praziquantel. The overarching issue with drug interactions during the treatment of NC is whether or not they have clinical relevance, as the plasma concentrations of albendazole and praziquantel have not been directly linked with eradication of viable cysts. Future studies should attempt to evaluate the validity of a causal relationship between antihelminthic plasma concentrations and outcomes so that drug interactions can be better understood and managed and so that treatment can be optimized. PMID:24443292

  17. Crystallization of the Membrane-Associated Annexin B1: Roles of Additive Screen, Dynamic Light Scattering, and Bioactivity Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, F.; Xu, Y; Azzi, A; Zhu, D; Rehse, D; Chen, C; Sun, S; Lin, S

    2010-01-01

    Annexin B1 (AnxB1) is a calcium-dependent phospholipid binding protein from Taenia solium cysticercus and has been reported to possess anticoagulant activity, to inhibit phospholipase A{sub 2}, and to regulate membrane transport. Native AnxB1 and its selenomethionyl derivative have been overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified. The results of dynamic light scattering analysis showed that Hepes buffer combined with low concentration salts (NaCl or CaCl{sub 2}) was beneficial for preventing aggregation and for AnxB1 stabilization in the storage. After the additive screen, crystals have been yielded in the presence of guanidine hydrochloride (Gn-HCl). We determined that a low concentration of Gn-HCl significantly delayed clotting time and increased anticoagulant activity. Analysis of the crystal showed that in the presence of Gn-HCl, AnxB1 crystallizes in orthorhombic space group, which is modified from the cubic space group for crystals grown in the absence of Gn-HCl. A high quality data set (at 1.9 {angstrom}) has been collected successfully for crystals of L-selenomethionine labeled protein in the presence of Gn-HCl, to solve the structure with the single anomalous dispersion method (SAD). The unit cell parameters are a = 102.35 {angstrom}, b = 103.59 {angstrom}, c = 114.60 {angstrom}, {alpha} = {beta} = {gamma} = 90.00{sup o}.

  18. Recombinant protein- and synthetic peptide-based immunoblot test for diagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Noh, John; Rodriguez, Silvia; Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Handali, Sukwan; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H; Wilkins, Patricia P

    2014-05-01

    One of the most well-characterized tests for diagnosing neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay developed at the CDC, which uses lentil lectin-bound glycoproteins (LLGP) extracted from Taenia solium cysticerci. Although the test is very reliable, the purification process for the LLGP antigens has been difficult to transfer to other laboratories because of the need for expensive equipment and technical expertise. To develop a simpler assay, we previously purified and cloned the diagnostic glycoproteins in the LLGP fraction. In this study, we evaluated three representative recombinant or synthetic antigens from the LLGP fraction, individually and in different combinations, using an immunoblot assay (recombinant EITB). Using a panel of 249 confirmed NCC-positive and 401 negative blood serum samples, the sensitivity of the recombinant EITB assay was determined to be 99% and the specificity was 99% for diagnosing NCC. We also tested a panel of 239 confirmed NCC-positive serum samples in Lima, Peru, and found similar results. Overall, our data show that the performance characteristics of the recombinant EITB assay are comparable to those of the LLGP-EITB assay. This new recombinant- and synthetic antigen-based assay is sustainable and can be easily transferred to other laboratories in the United States and throughout the world. PMID:24554747

  19. Seizure and radiological outcomes in children with solitary cysticercous granulomas with and without albendazole therapy: a retrospective case record analysis.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Sheffali; Jain, Puneet; Sachan, Deepak; Chakrabarty, Biswaroop; Kumar, Atin; Pandey, R M; Gupta, Arun K

    2014-09-01

    Neurocysticercosis, parasitic infestation of the central nervous system by the Taenia solium larvae, is a major public health problem, primarily in the developing countries. Seizures are the primary clinical manifestation which could be acute (secondary to active lesions) or remote symptomatic (due to calcified lesions). Cysticidal therapy is the standard of care for solitary parenchymal active neurocysticerci. However treatment related side effects and tendency to spontaneous resolution raises concern from time to time whether cysticidal therapy is actually required. This is a retrospective case record analysis of two groups of patients with solitary parenchymal neurocysticerci (group A; 171 patients between 2000 and 2004 who did not receive cysticidal therapy, group B; 512 patients between 2008 and 2013 who received cysticidal therapy). Group B had significantly more radiological resolution of lesions whereas group A reported significantly more seizure recurrences on antiepileptics. There was no significant difference in occurrence of calcification in the two groups. Overall patients with calcified lesions had significantly more breakthrough seizures. Well designed prospective studies should be planned in future to understand the mechanism underlying the epileptogenicity of calcified lesions and how they are linked to host and environment factors. PMID:24908563

  20. Banding pattern indicative of echinococcosis in a commercial cysticercosis western blot

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective A commercial cysticercosis Western blot was evaluated for serological cross-reactivity of sera from patients with alveolar (AE) and cystic echinococcosis (CE). Methods A total of 161 sera were examined, including 31 sera from AE-patients, 11 sera from CE-patients, 9 sera from patients with other parasitic diseases and 109 sera from patients with unrelated medical conditions. All AE-and CE-sera were also examined by the echinococcosis Western blot. Results More sera from patients with AE than with CE showed cross-reactivity in the form of ladder-like patterns ("Mikado aspect") and untypical bands at 6-8 kDa (71% and 77.4% versus 27.3% and 45.5%, respectively). In contrast, triplets of bands in the area above 50 kDa and between 24 and 39-42 kDa were more frequent in CE than in AE sera. The fuzzy band at 50-55 kDa typical for cysticercosis was absent in all AE and CE sera. Conclusions Atypical banding patterns in the cysticercosis Western blot should raise the suspicion of a metacestode infection different from Taenia solium, i.e. Echinococcus multilocularis or E. granulosus, especially when the Mikado aspect and an altered 6-8 kDa band is visible in the absence of a fuzzy 50-55 kDa band. PMID:19748853

  1. Evidence-based identification of the most important livestock related zoonotic diseases in Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Makita, Kohei; Fèvre, Eric M; Waiswa, Charles; Kaboyo, Winyi; Eisler, Mark C; Welburn, Susan C

    2011-08-01

    Urban and peri-urban livestock farming in developing countries plays an important role in food security in cities; however it brings with it zoonotic risks. The present study was conducted to identify the most important livestock farming-related zoonotic diseases among the human population in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala, Uganda and to assess the risks from such farming. A framework for identifying livestock farming-related significant zoonoses was developed. The process consisted of screening of medical record summaries for zoonotic diagnoses, selection of the zoonoses which are related to livestock farming, case estimation of the identified zoonoses and evidence-based reassurance of the importance of diseases. Medical records in the Mulago National Referral Hospital were used for the analysis. Leaders and residents of 75 Local Councils (LC1s: villages; 48 urban, 11 peri-urban and 16 rural) randomly selected in Kampala were interviewed for information regarding livestock farming systems, value chains and use of medical service units. Twelve zoonoses were identified in the screening and four out of them were related to livestock farming: animal sourced food-borne gastroenteritis, brucellosis, Taenia solium neuro-cysticercosis and Mycobacterium bovis tuberculosis. Livestock farming, value chain and severity of the diseases confirmed that all four diseases were important. Poor geographical correlation between animals in peri-urban and rural areas and patients in urban areas suggested that the majority of these zoonoses were caused by informally-marketed foods. PMID:21467754

  2. Genome mining offers a new starting point for parasitology research.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao; Zhang, Limei; Ji, Pengyu; Cai, Yifeng; Luo, Shiqi; Wang, Hongxi; Li, Hao

    2015-02-01

    Parasites including helminthes, protozoa, and medical arthropod vectors are a major cause of global infectious diseases, affecting one-sixth of the world's population, which are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality important and remain impediments to economic development especially in tropical countries. Prevalent drug resistance, lack of highly effective and practical vaccines, as well as specific and sensitive diagnostic markers are proving to be challenging problems in parasitic disease control in most parts of the world. The impressive progress recently made in genome-wide analysis of parasites of medical importance, including trematodes of Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni; nematodes of Brugia malayi, Loa loa, Necator americanus, Trichinella spiralis, and Trichuris suis; cestodes of Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, and Taenia solium; protozoa of Babesia bovis, B. microti, Cryptosporidium hominis, Eimeria falciformis, E. histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Leishmania braziliensis, L. donovani, L. major, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, Trichomonas vaginalis, Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi; and medical arthropod vectors of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles darlingi, A. sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, have been systematically covered in this review for a comprehensive understanding of the genetic information contained in nuclear, mitochondrial, kinetoplast, plastid, or endosymbiotic bacterial genomes of parasites, further valuable insight into parasite-host interactions and development of promising novel drug and vaccine candidates and preferable diagnostic tools, thereby underpinning the prevention and control of parasitic diseases. PMID:25563615

  3. Intestinal parasitic infection in Bhil tribe of Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Choubisa, S L; Jaroli, V J; Choubisa, Pallavi; Mogra, N

    2012-10-01

    A total of 224 Bhil tribal individuals (115 males and 109 females) of different age groups inhabiting tribal rural areas of Udaipur district of Rajasthan, India were investigated for the prevalence of intestinal parasitic (protozoan and helminths) infections. Fresh stool samples of these tribal subjects were examined microscopically by direct wet smear with saline and 1 % Lugol's iodine and formaline ether concentration. Of these 116 (51.78 %) were found to be infected with diverse species of intestinal parasites. Male individuals showed relatively higher (56.52 %) prevalence of infection as compared to their counterparts (46.78 %). Out of 116 infected tribal subjects, 53 (23.66 %), 33 (14.73 %) and 30 (13.39 %) were infected with protozoan, helminths and mixed (protozoan + helminths) parasitic infections, respectively. Maximum number of parasitic infections occurred in the age group of 6-10 years (69.23 %) in both sexes. Among the intestinal parasites, Entamoeba histolytica was the commonest (14.73 %) followed by Entamoeba coli (8.92 %), Taenia solium (5.35 %), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.46 %), Hymenolepis nana (2.23 %), Ancylostoma duodenale (0.89 %), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.89 %), Trichuris trichiura (0.44 %) and Hymenolepis diminuta (0.44 %). Data pertaining to distribution of parasite species in different age groups, and variation in prevalence of their infection in relation to age and sex were also analysed statistically and found to be significant. Possible causes for variation in prevalence of protozoan and helminthic infection are discussed. PMID:24082517

  4. Comparative selenoproteome analysis reveals a reduced utilization of selenium in parasitic platyhelminthes

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Liang; Zhu, Hua-Zhang; Xu, Yin-Zhen; Ni, Jia-Zuan

    2013-01-01

    Background. The selenocysteine(Sec)-containing proteins, selenoproteins, are an important group of proteins present in all three kingdoms of life. Although the selenoproteomes of many organisms have been analyzed, systematic studies on selenoproteins in platyhelminthes are still lacking. Moreover, comparison of selenoproteomes between free-living and parasitic animals is rarely studied. Results. In this study, three representative organisms (Schmidtea mediterranea, Schistosoma japonicum and Taenia solium) were selected for comparative analysis of selenoproteomes in Platyhelminthes. Using a SelGenAmic-based selenoprotein prediction algorithm, a total of 37 selenoprotein genes were identified in these organisms. The size of selenoproteomes and selenoprotein families were found to be associated with different lifestyles: free-living organisms have larger selenoproteome whereas parasitic lifestyle corresponds to reduced selenoproteomes. Five selenoproteins, SelT, Sel15, GPx, SPS2 and TR, were found to be present in all examined platyhelminthes as well as almost all sequenced animals, suggesting their essential role in metazoans. Finally, a new splicing form of SelW that lacked the first exon was found to be present in S. japonicum. Conclusions. Our data provide a first glance into the selenoproteomes of organisms in the phylum Platyhelminthes and may help understand function and evolutionary dynamics of selenium utilization in diversified metazoans. PMID:24255816

  5. Parasitic diseases of the nervous system in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Vejjajiva, A

    1978-01-01

    In Thailand there are 3 parasites that commonly cause neurological diseases in man. 1) In gnathostomiasis man becomes an accidental host by eating infected under-cooked fresh water fish. The tissue nematode involved, Gnathostoma spinigerum, because of its high motility, may cause widespread damage in the spinal cord and brain stem. The common presenting neurological symptoms are severe nerve root pain, paralysis of limbs and urinary retention. Less frequently seen are cranial nerve palsies and symptoms of subarachnoid haemorrhage. The disease has significant morbidity and mortality. 2) Eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the lungworm of rats, has a more benign, self limiting course. It occurs in Thai people of lower socio-economic groups who acquire the parasite by eating infected raw Pila snails. 3) Cysticercus cellulosae, caused by Taenia solium, commonly results in epilepsy, and sometimes increased intracranial pressure from intraventricular obstruction or from basal arachnoiditis. Spinal cord and cauda equina involvement occurs much less frequently. Cysticercus complement fixation tests on the CSF and computerised axial tomography have been found to be of great diagnostic value. PMID:756025

  6. Doxycycline Treatment Decreases Morbidity and Mortality of Murine Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Jorge I.; Krishnamurthy, Janani; Teale, Judy M.

    2009-01-01

    Murine neurocysticercosis is a parasitic infection transmitted through the direct ingestion of Taenia solium eggs, which differentially disrupts the barriers that protect the microenvironment of the central nervous system. Among the host factors that are involved in this response, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been recently described as important players. Doxycycline is a commonly prescribed antimicrobial drug that acts as an anti-inflammatory agent with broad inhibitory properties against MMPs. In this study, we examined the effects of doxycycline treatment in a murine model of neurocysticercosis. Animals treated with doxycycline exhibited reduced morbidity and mortality throughout the course of infection. Although similar levels of leukocyte infiltration were observed with both treatment regimens, doxycycline appeared to provide improved conditions for host survival, as reduced levels of apoptosis were detected among infiltrates as well as in neurons. As an established MMP blocker, doxycycline reduced the degradation of junctional complex proteins in parenchymal vessels. In addition, doxycycline treatment was associated with an overall reduction in the expression and activity of MMPs, particularly in areas of leukocyte infiltration. These results indicate that a broad-range inhibitor of MMPs promotes host survival and suggest the potential of doxycycline as a therapeutic agent for the control of inflammatory responses associated with neurocysticercosis. PMID:19574432

  7. Helminth Induced Suppression of Macrophage Activation Is Correlated with Inhibition of Calcium Channel Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Arun; Sun, Yuyang; Pani, Biswaranjan; Quenumzangbe, Fredice; Sharma, Jyotika; Singh, Brij B.; Mishra, Bibhuti B.

    2014-01-01

    Helminth parasites cause persistent infections in humans and yet many infected individuals are asymptomatic. Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by the cestode Taenia solium, has a long asymptomatic phase correlated with an absence of brain inflammation. However, the mechanisms of immune suppression remain poorly understood. Here we report that murine NCC displays a lack of cell surface maturation markers in infiltrating myeloid cells. Furthermore, soluble parasite ligands (PL) failed to induce maturation of macrophages, and inhibited TLR-induced inflammatory cytokine production. Importantly, PL treatment abolished both LPS and thapsigargin-induced store operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Moreover, electrophysiological recordings demonstrated PL-mediated inhibition of LPS or Tg-induced currents that were TRPC1-dependent. Concomitantly STIM1-TRPC1 complex was also impaired that was essential for SOCE and sustained Ca2+ entry. Likewise loss of SOCE due to PL further inhibited NFkB activation. Overall, our results indicate that the negative regulation of agonist induced Ca2+ signaling pathway by parasite ligands may be a novel immune suppressive mechanism to block the initiation of the inflammatory response associated with helminth infections. PMID:25013939

  8. Parasitoses of the human central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, J; Auer, H

    2013-09-01

    Cerebral involvement in parasitoses is an important clinical manifestation of most of the human parasitoses. Parasites that have been described to affect the central nervous system (CNS), either as the dominant or as a collateral feature, include cestodes (Taenia solium (neurocysticerciasis), Echinococcus granulosus (cerebral cystic echinococcosis), E. multilocularis (cerebral alveolar echinococcosis), Spirometra mansoni (neurosparganosis)), nematodes (Toxocara canis and T. cati (neurotoxocariasis), Trichinella spiralis (neurotrichinelliasis), Angiostrongylus cantonensis and A. costaricensis (neuroangiostrongyliasis), Gnathostoma spinigerum (gnathostomiasis)), trematodes (Schistosoma mansoni (cerebral bilharziosis), Paragonimus westermani (neuroparagonimiasis)), or protozoa (Toxoplasma gondii (neurotoxoplasmosis), Acanthamoeba spp. or Balamuthia mandrillaris (granulomatous amoebic encephalitis), Naegleria (primary amoebic meningo-encephalitis), Entamoeba histolytica (brain abscess), Plasmodium falciparum (cerebral malaria), Trypanosoma brucei gambiense/rhodesiense (sleeping sickness) or Trypanosoma cruzi (cerebral Chagas disease)). Adults or larvae of helminths or protozoa enter the CNS and cause meningitis, encephalitis, ventriculitis, myelitis, ischaemic stroke, bleeding, venous thrombosis or cerebral abscess, clinically manifesting as headache, epilepsy, weakness, cognitive decline, impaired consciousness, confusion, coma or focal neurological deficits. Diagnosis of cerebral parasitoses is dependent on the causative agent. Available diagnostic tools include clinical presentation, blood tests (eosinophilia, plasmodia in blood smear, antibodies against the parasite), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) investigations, imaging findings and occasionally cerebral biopsy. Treatment relies on drugs and sometimes surgery. Outcome of cerebral parasitoses is highly variable, depending on the effect of drugs, whether they are self-limiting (e.g. Angiostrongylus costaricensis) or whether they remain undetected or asymptomatic, like 25% of neurocysticerciasis cases. PMID:23046708

  9. Identification of irradiated refrigerated pork with the DNA comet assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, M. M.; Marin-Huachaca, N. S.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincée, H.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Food irradiation can contribute to a safer and more plentiful food supply by inactivating pathogens, eradicating pests and by extending shelf-life. Particularly in the case of pork meat, this process could be a useful way to inactivate harmful parasites such as Trichinella and Taenia solium. Ionizing radiation causes damage to the DNA of the cells (e.g. strand breaks), which can be used to detect irradiated food. Microelectrophoresis of single cells (``Comet Assay'') is a simple and rapid test for DNA damage and can be used over a wide dose range and for a variety of products. Refrigerated pork meat was irradiated with a 60Co source, Gammacell 220 (A.E.C.L.) installed in IPEN (Sa~o Paulo, Brazil). The doses given were 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5kGy for refrigerated samples. Immediately after irradiation the samples were returned to the refrigerator (6°C). Samples were kept in the refrigerator after irradiation. Pork meat was analyzed 1, 8 and 10 days after irradiation using the DNA ``Comet Assay''. This method showed to be an inexpensive and rapid technique for qualitative detection of irradiation treatment.

  10. Murine cysticercosis model: influence of the infection time and the time of treatment on the cysticidal efficacy of albendazole and praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Palomares-Alonso, Francisca; Palencia Hernández, Guadalupe; Rojas-Tomé, Irma Susana; Jung-Cook, Helgi; Pinzón-Estrada, Enrique

    2015-02-01

    In the search of new alternatives for neurocysticercosis treatment, Taenia crassiceps ORF strain cysticerci have been used instead of T.?solium for in vitro studies. Up to date, the main criteria for the use of the murine cysticercosis model for drug efficacy evaluation have not been assessed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of two of the main variables related to the in vivo efficacy: the length of drug treatment and the starting time of treatment after experimental infection, using albendazole (ABZ) and praziquantel (PZQ) as test drugs. Additionally, the relationship between the number of cysts and the parasite weight was assessed. For the study, female BALB/c mice were experimentally infected with T.?crassiceps cysts. Three different post-infection periods (10, 20 and 30 days) and three different lengths of treatment with ABZ or PZQ (10, 20 and 30 days) were selected. The efficacy of each treatment was evaluated by comparison with a control group. Our results show that for in vivo efficacy studies, the best time to start the drug treatment is 10 days post-infection and that a minimum of 20 days of treatment is required when ABZ or PZQ are used as positive control. Moreover, in this model the parasite weight can be used as a rapid tool to measure the in vivo drug activity. PMID:25500213

  11. L'Oktkaidekaton Un des couvents de la bande littorale (taenia) sparant, l'ouest d'Alexandrie,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    'Alexandrie (V. Pierre Ib. [Raabe], 64-65 ; V. Théod. [Wessely], 27). Son site n'est pas localisé, mais la vie de. [Raabe], 64-65). Sous le règne de Zénon (474-91), l'Oktôkaidekaton est le cadre de la vie édifiante de

  12. Distribution of, and risk factors associated with, sheep carcass condemnations due to Cysticercus ovis infection on Canadian sheep farms.

    PubMed

    DeWolf, Bradley D; Peregrine, Andrew S; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Jansen, Jocelyn T; Mactavish, Jennifer; Menzies, Paula I

    2012-12-21

    Cysticercus ovis, the intermediate stage of a canine tapeworm, Taenia ovis, produces cystic lesions in the skeletal and cardiac muscle of sheep which, if numerous, will result in the condemnation of an entire carcass. In 2007 and 2008, the number of carcass condemnations due to C. ovis rose dramatically across Canada, suggesting that the prevalence of this infection on sheep farms was increasing. Trace-back of 237 carcasses condemned at Ontario provincially inspected abattoirs, between March 2009 and March 2011, revealed they originated from 133 farms across Canada. A case-control study was performed (n=40 cases, 56 controls) to identify farm-level risk factors associated with carcass condemnations due to C. ovis. Participating farms, located in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Ontario, were asked to answer a short questionnaire which collected information about each farm's geographic location and management practices. A multivariable logistic regression model revealed that farm dogs scavenging deadstock (OR=4.04; 95% CI: 1.16-14.04) and failing to dispose of deadstock (OR=11.78; 95% CI: 2.93-47.40) were significantly associated with condemnations (p ? 0.05). PMID:22877826

  13. Effects of wastewater irrigation of pastures on the health of farm animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Shuval, H I

    1991-09-01

    Wastewater recycling and reuse through agricultural irrigation can provide an economical means of preventing pollution of surface water sources, while conserving water resources and valuable nutrients for increased crop production and grazing pastures. With proper methods of wastewater treatment, health risks to farmers and farm animals as well as to the public who consume agricultural produce can be prevented. The possibility of transmission of the beef tapeworm Taenia saginata, Salmonella sp. and Mycobacteria sp. to farm animals grazing on wastewater-irrigated pasture is evaluated. While such transmission is possible when raw, untreated wastewater is used for irrigation, the risk is greatly reduced and essentially eliminated with effluent treated to meet the new World Health Organisation (WHO) recommended microbial guidelines for effluent. These guidelines call for one or less helminth eggs per litre and a mean of 1,000 faecal coliform bacteria per 100 ml. In warm climates and where land is available, one of the most economical methods of achieving this standard is the use of multi-cell stabilisation ponds designed for a 25-day detention period. In colder climates and where land is a limiting factor of wastewater treatment, conventional secondary biological treatment followed by disinfection can also be applied to meet this standard. PMID:1782432

  14. Diagnosis and treatment of coenurosis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Scott, P R

    2012-09-30

    Coenurosis is a disease of the central nervous system in sheep, caused by Coenurus cerebralis, the larval stage of Taenia multiceps, a tapeworm, which infests the small intestine of carnivores. In 80-90% of cases, the cyst is located in one cerebral hemisphere, whilst in 5-10% of cases, it is localised in the cerebellum; rarely it involves two sites in the brain of the affected animal. Listeriosis, louping-ill, sarcocystosis and polioencephalomalacia and brain abscessation should be considered when formulating a diagnosis of acute coenurosis. In all cases, it is essential to carefully examine the animal and not simply rely on results of ancillary tests (mainly of cerebrospinal fluid examination), as disorders other than coenurosis can be responsible for changes in the results of these tests. Treatment is based on surgical removal of the coenurus cyst after general anaesthesia of the animal; the approach has a very good success rate, especially after accurate localisation of the lesion. Despite that, many farmers may choose to slaughter those sheep fit for marketing for economic reasons and euthanise those in poor condition. PMID:22503036

  15. Identification, molecular characterization and expression of the gene encoding the epidermal growth factor receptor orthologue from the fox-tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Spiliotis; Antje Kroner; Klaus Brehm

    2003-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are crucially involved in the development of metazoan organisms and possible mediators of cell–cell communication that occurs between eukaryotic parasites and hosts. We have now cloned and characterized the complete complementary DNA (cDNA) molecule encoding a novel receptor tyrosine kinase, EmER, of the human parasite Echinococcus multilocularis. EmER shared significant amino acid sequence homologies with members

  16. A SURVEY OF THE TAPEWORM FAUNA OF THE COWNOSE RAY, RHINOPTERA BONASUS, FROM THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO WITH COMMENTS ON INTERMEDIATE HOSTS

    E-print Network

    Call, Garrett

    2007-10-12

    forming schools numbering in the thousands (Blaylock, 1989; Neer and Thompson, 2005; Schwartz, 1990). These schools reportedly migrate south from Chesapeake Bay to North Carolina or as far south as northern South America during the winter (in the northern...). These numbers represent underestimates of the actual diversity, because the cestode fauna has yet to be examined for many vertebrates. About 800 described species from five orders are known from the sharks and rays (Elasmobranchii), and, as for most vertebrates...

  17. The majority of parasitic worms belong to either the Platyhelminthes (flatworms/flukes and tape-worms) or Nematoda (roundworms/nematodes).

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    have an indirect life cycle that requires an invertebrate intermediate host. The rat lungworm, which The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus (=Parastrongylus) cantonensis belongs to a group of parasitic worms host of rat lungworm. Definitive host: adult worms are slender up to 1" in length and found in rodents

  18. Seussapex, a new genus of lecanicephalidean tapeworm (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) from the stingray genus Himantura (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae) in the Indo-West Pacific with investigation of mode of attachment.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kirsten; Russell, Shelbi L

    2014-06-01

    A new lecanicephalidean genus, Seussapex gen. n., is erected for specimens collected from stingrays from the Indo-West Pacific resembling the little known species Tenia [sic] narinari MacCallum, 1917 from the spotted eagle ray, Aetobatus narinari (Euphrasen). Members of this new genus are unique in their possession of a multi-tiered apical structure comprising a bipartite apical modification of the scolex proper, and an externally bipartite apical organ with anterior and posterior glandular compartments internally. The appearance of the scolex varies dramatically depending on state of protrusion and/or evagination of these different parts which appear to be able to function independently. Seussapex karybares sp. n. parasitizing Himantura uarnak 2 (sensu Naylor et al., 2012) in northern Australia is described as the type species and Tenia [sic] narinari is transferred to the new genus. The two species differ in scolex length and width of the posterior dome-shaped portion of the apical organ. Histological sections of scoleces stained using the periodic acid-Schiff(PAS) reaction showed the surface of the anterior part of the apical organ and the anterior glandular compartment to stain PAS positive, suggesting a chemical mode of attachment to the host's intestinal mucosal surface. Extensive collecting efforts of stingrays in the Indo-West Pacific shows Seussapex gen. n. to be restricted to species of Himantura Miller et Henle and suggests additional diversity in this group of hosts. In addition, the host identity of Seussapex narinari (MacCallum, 1917) comb. n. is called into question. PMID:25065129

  19. Microhabitat Analysis of Bass Tapeworm, Proteocephalus ambloplitis (Eucestoda: Proteocephalidae), in Smallmouth Bass, Micropterus dolomieu, and Largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides, from Gull Lake, Michigan, U.S.A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Merritt G. Gillilland; Patrick M. Muzzall

    2004-01-01

    A total of 142 bass (54 Micropterus dolomieu and 88 Micropterus salmoides) were collected April through September 2000 and April through July 2001 from 5 locations in Gull Lake, Michigan, U.S.A., and examined for Proteocephalus ambloplitis. Proteocephalus ambloplitis was 100% prevalent in both smallmouth and largemouth bass. The numbers of P. ambloplitis from each microhabitat (gonads, liver, spleen, mesentery, pyloric

  20. High Prevalence of Cysticercosis in People with Epilepsy in Southern Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Rottbeck, Ruth; Nshimiyimana, Jules Fidèle; Tugirimana, Pierrot; Düll, Uta E.; Sattler, Janko; Hategekimana, Jean-Claudien; Hitayezu, Janvier; Bruckmaier, Irmengard; Borchert, Matthias; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Dieckmann, Sebastian; Harms, Gundel

    2013-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis (NCC), the central nervous system infection by Taenia solium larvae, is a preventable and treatable cause of epilepsy. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the role of NCC in epilepsy differs geographically and, overall, is poorly defined. We aimed at contributing specific, first data for Rwanda, assessing factors associated with NCC, and evaluating a real-time PCR assay to diagnose NCC in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Methodology/Principal findings At three healthcare facilities in southern Rwanda, 215 people with epilepsy (PWE) and 51 controls were clinically examined, interviewed, and tested by immunoblot for cysticerci-specific serum antibodies. Additionally, CSF samples from PWE were tested for anticysticercal antibodies by ELISA and for parasite DNA by PCR. Cranial computer tomography (CT) scans were available for 12.1% of PWE with additional symptoms suggestive of NCC. The Del Brutto criteria were applied for NCC diagnosis. Cysticerci-specific serum antibodies were found in 21.8% of PWE and 4% of controls (odds ratio (OR), 6.69; 95% confidence interval (95%CI), 1.6–58.7). Seropositivity was associated with age and lack of safe drinking water. Fifty (23.3%) PWE were considered NCC cases (definitive, based on CT scans, 7.4%; probable, mainly based on positive immunoblots, 15.8%). In CSF samples from NCC cases, anticysticercal antibodies were detected in 10% (definitive cases, 25%) and parasite DNA in 16% (definitive cases, 44%). Immunoblot-positive PWE were older (medians, 30 vs. 22 years), more frequently had late-onset epilepsy (at age >25 years; 43.5% vs. 8.5%; OR, 8.30; 95%CI, 3.5–20.0), and suffered from significantly fewer episodes of seizures in the preceding six months than immunoblot-negative PWE. Conclusions/Significance NCC is present and contributes to epilepsy in southern Rwanda. Systematic investigations into porcine and human cysticercosis as well as health education and hygiene measures for T. solium control are needed. PCR might provide an additional, highly specific tool in NCC diagnosis. PMID:24244783

  1. Development of Em18-immunoblot and Em18-ELISA for specific diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akira; Sako, Yasuhito; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Mamuti, Wulamu; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Nakao, Minoru; Ishikawa, Yuji

    2003-02-01

    Extensive experience has documented that Em2(plus)-ELISA, Em10-ELISA and Em18-immunoblot and Em18-ELISA are reliable serologic methods for detection of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by the metacestodes of Echinococcus multilocularis. Among these, tests based on detection of antibodies to the specific Em18 antigen, either immunoblot or ELISA, appears to be the most specific for AE. Between 90 and 97% of AE cases with characteristic hepatic lesions detectable by image analysis have been positive in Em18-serology. In contrast Antigen B (8 kDa)-immunoblot is the most sensitive for all forms of echinococcosis, although it can not differentiate AE from cystic echinococcosis (CE). Primary serologic screening for echinococcosis, especially for CE using hydatid cyst fluid of Echinococcus granulosus appears to be highly sensitive in endemic areas. Glycoproteins (GPs) purified from cyst fluid of Taenia solium are highly specific for diagnosis of T. solium neuorcysticercosis (NCC). Using currently available antigens it is not difficult to differentiate these three larval cestodiases serologically. We recommend that (1) primary screening of CE in endemic areas should be carried out using hydatid cyst fluid of E. granulosus prepared from cysts in either sheep, human or mouse for immunoblot and from sheep or mouse for ELISA, (2) both primary screening and confirmation of AE in endemic areas should be carried out using Em18-ELISA, Em18-immunoblot or Em2(plus)-ELISA. Serodiagnosis in areas where both AE and CE are endemic, such as in China, should be carried out as a combination of (1) and (2), and (3) serology of NCC should be carried out using GP-ELISA or GP-immunoblot. All samples showing antibody to Em18 are exclusively from echinococcosis cases. There have been no false positive test reactions with sera from other diseases. Strongest Em18 responders are all from patients with AE but some weaker responses may be found in sera of persons with advanced complex lesions of CE. These highly reliable serodiagnostic methods using native, recombinant and synthetic antigens are briefly summarized and experiences with these methods in Japan is reviewed. We believe that use of these specific antigens in screening and confirmation programs for AE in Japan will improve specificity and reduce the confusion, anxiety and expense in persons whose sera give false positive reactions with crude echinococcal antigens. PMID:12606094

  2. Tape worm

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N/A N/A (None; )

    2006-05-11

    The tapeworm is ingested by humans through raw or undercooked meat. The tapeworm comes to rest in the small intestines of the human and absorbs nutrients from food that its host ingests. It matures in the small intestine.

  3. Cellular immune response of patients with neurocysticercosis (inflammatory and non-inflammatory phases).

    PubMed

    Bueno, Ednéia Casagranda; dos Ramos Machado, Luís; Livramento, José Antônio; Vaz, Adelaide José

    2004-07-01

    The cellular immune response in neurocysticercosis (NC) was studied in 22 patients, 11 (50%) of them in the inflammatory phase of the disease, by means of immunophenotyping of cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood (PB), lymphoproliferation assay with Taenia solium total saline extract (Tso) and Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid (Tcra) as stimuli, and by determining the cytokine production profile in the cell culture supernatant. A higher mean percentage of CD19+ and CD56+ cells was observed in the CSF samples from inflammatory (16.8 and 11.3%) and non-inflammatory NC-patients (14.1 and 8.4%) when compared with the control group (CG, 7.6 and 5.4%). The CSF samples from inflammatory NC-patients also showed a higher percentage of HCAM (19.1%) and ICAM (44.9%) adhesion molecules when compared to CG (3.1 and 4.8%). The inflammatory phase showed predominance of CD8+ cells (CSF 26.6% and PB 36.2%) when compared with non-inflammatory phase (CSF 21.5% and PB 29.0%). All cell populations identified in the CSF from NC-patients showed cell activation (CD69+). The cell populations identified in PB showed higher expression of CD69 during the inflammatory phase, while only CD4+ cells presented no cell activation during the non-inflammatory phase. The antigen-specific lymphoproliferation assay showed mean positive results (stimulation index, SI > or = 2.5) only for cells from inflammatory NC-patients (Tcra 3.2 and Tso 5.4), but less intense than the CG (Tcra 5.7 and Tso 8.9). The cytokine production profile when using Tso antigen as stimuli showed differences between NC-patients with inflammatory (production of IL-4/IL-12/TNF-alpha/ICAM/VCAM) and non-inflammatory phase (production of IL-6/IL-10/IL-12/TNF-alpha/ICAM/VCAM). A prevalence of Th2 profile was observed in nine (69%) of the 13 (62% of total) NC-patients presenting positive SI. Cells from inflammatory NC-patients showed a predominance of a Th1 response upon in vitro stimulation, while those from non-inflammatory NC-patients showed a mixed Th1/Th2 pattern. PMID:15234670

  4. The Styx Field Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gemmell, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    A 13-year assessment has been made of the effectiveness of a monthly drug treatment programme for the control of tapeworms in dogs in order to prevent hydatidosis (Echinococcus granulosus) and cysticercosis (Taenia hydatigena and T. ovis) in sheep. The age-specific prevalence of T. hydatigena in lambs was used as the principal indicator. The trial was carried out in the Styx Valley of the Maniototo Plain in the South Island of New Zealand. Over an 8-year period dogs were treated monthly with bunamidine hydrochloride at about 25 mg/kg with little effect on the prevalence of T. hydatigena in lambs. The addition of niclosamide at 50 mg/kg for 1 year also had little effect. Eggs appeared to survive from one season to the next. Those shed prior to the lamb-rearing season gave rise to endemic-type patterns; whereas patent infections occurring during this period rapidly gave rise to an epidemic-type pattern or a ”cysticercosis storm”. In this 9-year period there were 16 ”cysticercosis storms” and all susceptible lambs were infected. These storms did not necessarily give rise to a similar prevalence on neighbouring farms, but may have contributed to the overall infective pattern. A similar situation occurred in the first year that nitroscanate at 100 mg/kg was introduced. During this 10-year period, arecoline surveillance of the dog population was undertaken in the remainder of the county and many dogs were found to harbour tapeworms. Both resident and introduced dogs may have contributed to the infective patterns in the Styx Valley. Treatment with nitroscanate was continued monthly in the Styx Valley and niclosamide was used in the remainder of the County for a further 3 years. There was a marked reduction in the age-specific prevalence and lambs on many farms were free from T. hydatigena at slaughter. However, one ”breakdown” occurred and this was almost certainly autochthonous. Comparisons with an earlier period when arecoline surveillance was used in the Styx Valley, indicate that the present evidence favours a drug-orientated treatment programme of the definitive host for the control of cysticercosis. However, ”breakdowns” caused by either autochthonous or itinerant sources have profound effects, since they involve all susceptible age-cohorts including those that have never been infected and those that have lost the immunity induced by an earlier infection. PMID:308408

  5. Ecology 2007 21, 552560

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    for parasite life-cycle dynamics: the case of urban foxes and Echinococcus multilocularis tapeworm D. HEGGLIN. The zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart is transmitted to foxes (Vulpes vulpes L parasites such as cestodes. For example, the small fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart

  6. Epilepsy surgery in context of neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gagandeep; Chowdhary, Ashwani Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The association between neurocysticercosis (NCC) and epilepsy is well known and NCC is an important risk factor for epileptic seizures in many Taenia solium-endemic regions of the world. However, while the relationship between NCC and epilepsy is well known, the association between NCC and medically refractory (or surgically remediable epilepsy) has received little attention in the past. Our experience and review of the sparse literature available suggests that NCC is causally related to surgically remediable epilepsy albeit uncommonly so and that association derives its underpinnings from several different scenarios: (1) Medically refractory lesional epilepsy, in which seizures arise from the vicinity of the calcified neurocysticercus lesion (CNL), (2) Medically refractory epilepsy with dual pathology type of relationship between the hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and CNL in which both have been unequivocally demonstrated to give rise to independent seizures and (3) Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy due to HS with a distantly-located CNL, which is in itself not epileptogenic. A major point of controversy revolves around whether or not there exists a causal association between the CNL and HS. We believe that an association exists between NCC and HS and the most important factor influencing this association is the location of the CNL. Furthermore, NCC is a risk factor for medically-refractory epilepsy and that this might account for a considerable proportion of the intractable epilepsy population in endemic regions; the association has been largely ignored owing to the lack of availability of presurgical work-up facilities in these regions. Finally, from a clinical standpoint of presurgical evaluation, patients with CNL and HS should be evaluated on a case by case basis owing to disparate settings underlying the association. PMID:24791092

  7. Increased Accumulation of Regulatory Granulocytic Myeloid Cells in Mannose Receptor C Type 1-Deficient Mice Correlates with Protection in a Mouse Model of Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Pramod Kumar; Morris, Elizabeth G.; Garcia, Jenny A.; Cardona, Astrid E.

    2013-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a central nervous system (CNS) infection caused by the metacestode stage of the parasite Taenia solium. During NCC, the parasites release immunodominant glycan antigens in the CNS environment, invoking immune responses. The majority of the associated pathogenesis is attributed to the immune response against the parasites. Glycans from a number of pathogens, including helminths, act as pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules (PAMPs), which are recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) known as C-type lectin receptors (CLRs). Using a mouse model of NCC by infection with the related parasite Mesocestoides corti, we have investigated the role of mannose receptor C type 1 (MRC1), a CLR which recognizes high-mannose-containing glycan antigens. Here we show that MRC1?/? mice exhibit increased survival times after infection compared with their wild-type (WT) counterparts. The decreased disease severity correlates with reduced levels of expression of markers implicated in NCC pathology, such as interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-6, CCL5, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), in addition to induction of an important repair marker, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). Furthermore, the immune cell subsets that infiltrate the brain of MRC1?/? mice are dramatically altered and characterized by reduced numbers of T cells and the accumulation of granulocytic cells with an immune phenotype resembling granulocytic myeloid-dependent suppressor cells (gMDSCs). The results suggest that MRC1 plays a critical role in myeloid plasticity, which in turn affects the adaptive immune response and immunopathogenesis during murine NCC. PMID:23319563

  8. A health-education intervention trial to reduce porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ngowi, H A; Carabin, H; Kassuku, A A; Mlozi, M R S; Mlangwa, J E D; Willingham, A L

    2008-06-15

    We conducted a randomised community controlled trial to estimate the effectiveness of health and pig-management education intervention in reducing the incidence rate of porcine cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium in Mbulu District, northern Tanzania, between April 2002 and July 2004. We included a random sample of 827 pig-keeping households from 42 randomly selected villages in our 27-month study. We collected baseline data on the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis based on lingual examination of live pigs, and pig-management and sanitation knowledge and practices based on questionnaire interviews and observations. We allocated 21 of the villages to the health-education intervention, developed with community participation; we used stratified randomisation to balance the village-level baseline prevalence of porcine cysticercosis. From July 2003 to March 2004 following the intervention, we gave each participant household a sentinel piglet to raise (the timing was balanced between the intervention groups). Knowledge about the transmission and prevention of porcine cysticercosis was improved >42% in both groups when measured 10-12 months post-intervention. There was no improvement in observed practices in either group throughout the study period. However, the intervention had a significant reduction in the reported cases of household consumption of infected pork (a reduction by 20%). The intervention was associated with a considerable decrease in the incidence rate of porcine cysticercosis (incidence rate ratio 0.57) as measured by antigen-ELISA in sentinel pigs. Public education could lead to a reduction of the risk of infection in humans. PMID:18243375

  9. The association of host age and gender with inflammation around neurocysticercosis cysts.

    PubMed

    Kelvin, E A; Carpio, A; Bagiella, E; Leslie, D; Leon, P; Andrews, H; Hauser, W A

    2009-09-01

    The results of previous investigations indicate that age and gender may influence the strength of the human host's immune response to infection of the central nervous system with the larvae of Taenia solium. Most of the relevant research on such neurocysticercosis (NCC) has, however, been conducted on hospital-based samples in developing countries, where differential access to healthcare may bias the study results. Using data from 171 NCC patients participating in a treatment trial, the associations of patient age and gender with the presence of inflammation around NCC cysts (i.e. cysts in the transitional phase) have recently been explored, after controlling for measures of economic and geographical access to healthcare. Data on cysts were collected from computed-tomography or magnetic-resonance images taken at four time-points, from baseline to 12-months post-treatment. The odds of having transitional cysts were evaluated by logistic regression whereas Poisson regression was used to explore the numbers of transitional cysts, with generalised estimating equations (GEE) used to account for the multiple observations over time. After controlling for healthcare access, the odds of having transitional cysts were found to be 1.5-fold higher for the female patients than for the male, although this association was not statistically significant (P = 0.136). In the Poisson model, however, the number of transitional cysts was found to be 1.8-fold higher in the female patients than in the male, and this gender effect was not only statistically significant (P = 0.002) but also constant over time. The association of host age with transitional cysts was more complicated, with significant interaction between age and time. It therefore appears that there are significant gender and age differences in the local immune response to NCC, even after adjusting for differences in healthcare access. PMID:19695154

  10. Proposed diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Del Brutto, O.R.; Rajshekhar, V.; White, A.C.; Tsang, V.C.W.; Nash, T.E.; Takayanagui, O.M.; Schantz, P.M.; Evans, C.A.W.; Flisser, A.; Correa, D.; Botero, D.; Allan, J.C.; Sart?i, E.; Gonzalez, A.E.; Gilman, R.H.; García, H.H.

    2010-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the most common helminthic infection of the CNS but its diagnosis remains difficult. Clinical manifestations are nonspecific, most neuroimaging findings are not pathognomonic, and some serologic tests have low sensitivity and specificity. The authors provide diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis based on objective clinical, imaging, immunologic, and epidemiologic data. These include four categories of criteria stratified on the basis of their diagnostic strength, including the following: 1) absolute—histologic demonstration of the parasite from biopsy of a brain or spinal cord lesion, cystic lesions showing the scolex on CT or MRI, and direct visualization of subretinal parasites by funduscopic examination; 2) major—lesions highly suggestive of neurocysticercosis on neuroimaging studies, positive serum enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot for the detection of anticysticercal antibodies, resolution of intracranial cystic lesions after therapy with albendazole or praziquantel, and spontaneous resolution of small single enhancing lesions; 3) minor—lesions compatible with neurocysticercosis on neuroimaging studies, clinical manifestations suggestive of neurocysticercosis, positive CSF enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of anticysticercal antibodies or cysticercal antigens, and cysticercosis outside the CNS; and 4) epidemiologic—evidence of a household contact with Taenia solium infection, individuals coming from or living in an area where cysticercosis is endemic, and history of frequent travel to disease-endemic areas. Interpretation of these criteria permits two degrees of diagnostic certainty: 1) definitive diagnosis, in patients who have one absolute criterion or in those who have two major plus one minor and one epidemiologic criterion; and 2) probable diagnosis, in patients who have one major plus two minor criteria, in those who have one major plus one minor and one epidemiologic criterion, and in those who have three minor plus one epidemiologic criterion. PMID:11480424

  11. Accuracy of Serological Testing for the Diagnosis of Prevalent Neurocysticercosis in Outpatients with Epilepsy, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Foyaca-Sibat, Humberto; Cowan, Linda D.; Carabin, Hélène; Targonska, Irene; Anwary, Mushtaq A.; Serrano-Ocaña, Gilberto; Krecek, Rosina C.; Willingham, A. Lee

    2009-01-01

    Background Few studies have estimated prevalence of neurocysticercosis (NCC) among persons with epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa. While the limitations of serological testing in identification of NCC are well known, the characteristics of persons who are misdiagnosed based on serology have not been explored. The first objective of this pilot study was to estimate the prevalence of NCC in epilepsy outpatients from an area of South Africa endemic for cysticercosis. The second objective was to estimate the accuracy of serological testing in detecting NCC in these outpatients and characterize sources of disagreement between serology and neuroimaging. Methodology/Principal Findings All out-patients aged 5 or older attending the epilepsy clinic of St. Elizabeth's Hospital in Lusikisiki, Eastern Cape Province, between July 2004 and April 2005 were invited to participate. Epidemiological data were collected by local study staff using a standardized questionnaire. Blood samples were tested by ELISA for antibody and antigen for Taenia solium. Four randomly chosen, consenting participants were transported each week to Mthatha for brain CT scan. The proportion of persons with epilepsy attending St. Elizabeth clinic with CT-confirmed NCC was 37% (95% CI: 27%–48%). Using CT as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of antibody testing for identifying NCC were 54.5% (36.4%–71.9%) and 69.2% (52.4%–83.0%), respectively. Sensitivity improved to 78.6% (49.2%–95.3%) for those with active lesions. Sensitivity and specificity of antigen testing were considerably poorer. Compared to false negatives, true positives more often had active lesions. False positives were more likely to keep pigs and to have seizure onset within the past year than were true negatives. Conclusions/Significance The prevalence of NCC in South African outpatients with epilepsy is similar to that observed in other countries where cysticercosis is prevalent. Errors in classification of NCC using serology alone may reflect the natural history of NCC. PMID:19997629

  12. Validity of the Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot (EITB) for naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Jayashi, César M; Gonzalez, Armando E; Castillo Neyra, Ricardo; Rodríguez, Silvia; García, Hector H; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2014-01-17

    The Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot (EITB) has been used widely as a screening test for Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine. However, the relation between seropositivity and infection in pig populations from endemic areas has not been well defined. The aim of this study is to relate EITB seropositivity with infection and infection burden, analyse the trade-off between sensitivity and specificity with various cut-off points for the EITB assay, and finally describe the serology changes in a cohort of rural pigs raised under natural conditions. A group of 107 pigs that were used as controls during a vaccination field trial in Peru was our study population. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis determined by necropsy examination was 16.82% (18/107) in these animals. Using EITB reactivity to ? 1 band as a cut-off point for the assay, the sensitivity was 88.89% (65.29-98.62, 95% CI) and the specificity was 48.31% (37.59-59.16, 95% CI). Comparing other cut-off points, involving up to as many as 7 reactive bands, a reactivity of ? 3 bands provided the best trade-offs in sensitivity and specificity. Using this cut-off point for the assay, the sensitivity was 77.77% (52.36-93.59, 95% CI) and the specificity was 76.40% (66.22-84.76, 95% CI). A significant association was found between cyst counts over 100 cysts and reactivity to ? 3 bands in the EITB assay (Fisher's exact test, p<0.05). The results of this study suggest that the use of the EITB assay to study porcine cysticercosis may require setting different cut-offs under field and experimental conditions, and depending upon the objective of the screening process. PMID:24183647

  13. Epilepsy surgery in context of neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gagandeep; Chowdhary, Ashwani Kumar

    2014-03-01

    The association between neurocysticercosis (NCC) and epilepsy is well known and NCC is an important risk factor for epileptic seizures in many Taenia solium-endemic regions of the world. However, while the relationship between NCC and epilepsy is well known, the association between NCC and medically refractory (or surgically remediable epilepsy) has received little attention in the past. Our experience and review of the sparse literature available suggests that NCC is causally related to surgically remediable epilepsy albeit uncommonly so and that association derives its underpinnings from several different scenarios: (1) Medically refractory lesional epilepsy, in which seizures arise from the vicinity of the calcified neurocysticercus lesion (CNL), (2) Medically refractory epilepsy with dual pathology type of relationship between the hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and CNL in which both have been unequivocally demonstrated to give rise to independent seizures and (3) Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy due to HS with a distantly-located CNL, which is in itself not epileptogenic. A major point of controversy revolves around whether or not there exists a causal association between the CNL and HS. We believe that an association exists between NCC and HS and the most important factor influencing this association is the location of the CNL. Furthermore, NCC is a risk factor for medically-refractory epilepsy and that this might account for a considerable proportion of the intractable epilepsy population in endemic regions; the association has been largely ignored owing to the lack of availability of presurgical work-up facilities in these regions. Finally, from a clinical standpoint of presurgical evaluation, patients with CNL and HS should be evaluated on a case by case basis owing to disparate settings underlying the association. PMID:24791092

  14. False positive reactivity of recombinant, diagnostic, glycoproteins produced in High Five insect cells: effect of glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Kathy; Narang, Someet; Pattabhi, Sowmya; Yushak, Melinda L; Khan, Azra; Lin, Seh-Ching; Plemons, Robert; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Tsang, Victor C W

    2008-01-31

    Baculovirus-mediated expression of recombinant proteins for use in diagnostic assays is commonplace. We expressed a diagnostic antigen for cysticercosis, GP50, caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, in both High Five and Sf9 insect cells. Upon evaluation of the specificity of recombinant GP50 (rGP50) in a western blot assay, we observed that 12.5% (21/168) of the serum samples from persons with a variety of parasitic infections other than cysticercosis reacted positive when rGP50 was produced in High Five cells. The same samples reacted negative when rGP50 was produced in Sf9 cells. The false positive reactivities of these other parasitic infection sera were abolished when rGP50, expressed in High Five cells, was deglycosylated. In addition, the same sera that reacted with rGP50 from High Five cells also reacted with recombinant human transferrin (rhTf) when expressed in High Five cells, but not Sf9 cells. High Five cells, but not Sf9 cells, modify many glycoproteins with a core alpha(1,3)-fucose. This same modification is found in the glycoproteins of several parasitic worms and is known to be immunogenic. Since the distribution of these worms is widespread and millions of people are infected, the use of recombinant proteins with N-linked glycosylation produced in High Five cells for diagnostic antigens is likely to result in a number of false positive reactions and a decrease in assay specificity. PMID:17868684

  15. Fine-needle aspiration cytology as a diagnostic modality for cysticercosis: A clinicocytological study of 137 cases

    PubMed Central

    Kala, Pooja; Khare, Pratima

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cysticercosis, a parasitic tissue infection caused by the larva of Taenia solium, is quite a common disease in our part of the world, but its incidence is often underestimated. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) plays an important role in early detection of this disease, especially when the lesion is located in anatomically approachable superficial locations. Aims: The aim was to study role of FNAC in the diagnosis of cysticercosis. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, the data of 137 patients with palpable nodules, who were diagnosed as having or suspicious of cysticercosis on FNAC, were retrieved and analyzed. Results: In 129 (94.2%) cases, a definitive diagnosis of cysticercosis was obtained in the form of parts of parasite tegument, hooklets, parenchymatous portion and calcareous corpuscles. In the background, giant cells, mixed inflammatory cells, and epithelioid cells were present. In remaining 8 (5.8%) cases, larval fragments could not be identified on the aspirates, and the diagnosis of parasitic inflammation was suggested on the basis of other cytological findings such as clear fluid aspirate, presence of eosinophils, histiocytes, foreign body giant cells, a typical granular dirty background, etc. Follow-up biopsy in these 8 cases confirmed the diagnosis of cysticercosis in 7 (87.5%) while in 1 (12.5%) case, histopathology was suggestive of parasitic cyst. Conclusion: Fine-needle aspiration cytology in cysticercosis is a low-cost outpatient procedure. The cytological diagnosis is quite straightforward in cases where the actual parasite structures are identified in the smears. In other cases, a cytological diagnosis of suspicious of cysticercosis can be given if the cytological findings suggest the same. PMID:25210232

  16. [Introduction of ongoing research projects on echinococcosis at Asahikawa Medical College and some comments on the surveillance, prevention and control of alveolar echinococcosis in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ito, A

    2001-01-01

    All researchers working at Department of Parasitology, Asahikawa Medical College (AMC) have been involved in either basic or applied research on echinococcosis (alveolar echinococcosis; AE, cystic echinococcosis; CE) and neurocysticercosis (NCC). As these parasitic diseases are 1) most serious helminthic infections threatening human life, 2) caused by the larval stage of very closely related taeniid cestodes and 3) recognized as global emerging parasitic diseases, we have to establish research reference center for differentiation of these diseases, since the recommendations for the treatment of these three diseases differ critically. We at AMC have already established highly reliable differential serodiagnosis for these all using native antigens and recombinant antigens for AE and NCC. Based on such scientific contribution, we have been involved in many international collaboration projects on AE, CE and NCC in Asia, Europe, Africa and America. Basic research from mitochondrial DNA analysis of Echinococcus multilocularis (causative agent of AE) and Taenia solium (NCC) has revealed and/or implied the origin of the polymorphism of these parasites in the world and diversity of pathogenicity. Epidemiological surveillance of AE in China has strongly suggested that the risk factor is dog carer but not dog feces, dog owned, wild herbs or fox hunting. As the ongoing serology in Hokkaido carried out by the Hokkaido Institute of Public Health is for the primary screening of AE, it is impossible to identify AE patients. It is, therefore, recommended that serology for identification of AE without surgical confirmation is the key to be introduced for differentiation of AE patients, either asymptomatic or symptomatic, in order to recognize the incidence of AE in Hokkaido. Without the true incidence of AE, it is impossible to establish any reliable systems for the surveillance, prevention and control of AE in Hokkaido, Japan. PMID:11235210

  17. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 12S ribosomal RNA characterization of Coenurus cerebralis from sheep in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Sima; Salavati, Reza; Beech, Robin N; Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Babaei, Zahra; Saedi, Sadegh; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2013-10-18

    Taenia multiceps is a widely distributed zoonotic tapeworm of canids. The larval stage of the parasite (Coenurus) occurs in sheep, goat and cattle and has been rarely reported from humans. This study investigated genetic variability of two mitochondrial genes in 102 isolates of T. multiceps. Metacestodes were collected from brains and hearts of sheep in Tehran and Qom provinces of Iran. DNA of each isolate was extracted and used for PCR amplification of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (CO1) and 12S ribosomal DNA (12S rRNA) genes. All amplicons were sequenced and the sequence data were analyzed using NCBI Blast and BioEdit. Phylogenetic trees and pairwise calculations were obtained by using Mega5 software. In total 7 and 25 representative haplotypes were differentiated for CO1 and 12S rRNA genes, respectively. For CO1 sequences 11 segregation sites within 7 haplotypes were observed. For 12S rRNA sequences a total of 32 segregation sites were observed in 25 haplotypes. CO1 gene displayed lower diversity than 12S rRNA gene with an overall nucleotide variation of 3.0% for CO1 vs. 7.2% for 12S rRNA. Pairwise comparisons among 7 haplotypes in CO1 and 12S rRNA genes showed the level of nucleotide differences 0.3-2.5% and 0.2-4.0%, respectively. A high degree of genetic variation was found in the isolates of T. multiceps in Iran. Additional molecular studies are required on the parasite from other intermediate hosts. PMID:23890823

  18. Potential risk of zoonotic infections in recreational areas visited by Sus scrofa and Vulpes vulpes. Case study--Wolin Island, Poland.

    PubMed

    Mizgajska-Wiktor, Hanna; Jarosz, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    The relation between intestinal parasite prevalence in wild boars and red foxes and the sanitary condition of the soil in recreational estates were determined. The analysis was made based on 36 samples of boar faeces and 22 samples of fox faeces, collected in their habitat as well as 60 samples of soil from two recreational areas. Two methods were used for faecal samples--flotation and direct faecal smear; and flotation in NaNO3 for soil samples examination. Zoonotic nematode eggs were recovered from 25.5% of boar faecal samples; they were Ascaris suum (22.2%) and Trichuris suis (5.6%). Other parasites found were: Metastrongylus sp. (69.4%), Oesophagostomum sp., Strongyloides sp. (36.6%) and Physocephalus sp. (8.6%) as well as coccidia (69.4%). In fox faeces, zoonotic nematode eggs were recovered from 31.8% of samples, and they were Toxocara canis (27.2%) and Ancylostoma caninum (18.2%). Tapeworm eggs were found in 36.4% of samples including Taenia sp. (22.7%). The presence of Uncinaria stenocephala (45.5%), Capillaria sp. (36.4%), Trichuris vulpis (4.5%) and coccidia (40.1%) was also detected. It was shown that both, flotation and faecal smear, as mutually complementary should be used for higher rate of detection of parasites in faeces. No eggs of zoonotic helminths in soil from recreational areas were found despite these areas were accessible to wild animals and pets. This could be explained by characteristics of the soil (loose sand soil) as well as by behaviour of the parasite hosts in the examined areas. PMID:21174955

  19. Modelling potential presence of metazoan endoparasites of bobcats (Lynx rufus) using verified records.

    PubMed

    Hiestand, Shelby J; Nielsen, Clayton K; Jiménez, F Agustín

    2014-10-01

    Helminth parasites of wild and domestic felines pose a direct or potential threat to human health. Since helminths depend on multiple environmental factors that make their transmission possible, it is imperative to predict the areas where these parasites may complete the transmission to potential hosts. Bobcats, Lynx rufus (Schreberer), are the most abundant and widely-distributed wild felid species in North America. The increase of population densities of bobcats raises concerns about their importance as reservoirs of pathogens and parasites that may affect wildlife, domestic animals and humans. Our objective was to predict the potential presence of the tapeworm Taenia rileyi Loewen, 1929, the fluke Alaria marcianae (La Rue, 1917) and the roundworm Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1788) in southern Illinois. The empirical presence of these parasites in localities across the region was analysed in combination with a sampling bias layer (i.e. bobcat presence) and with environmental data: layers of water, soil, land cover, human density and climate variables in MAXENT to create maps of potential presence for these three species in an area of 46436 km2. All climatic variables were low contributors (0.0-2.0% contribution to model creation) whereas land cover surfaced as an important variable for the presence of A. marcianae (7.6%) and T. cati (6.3%); human density (4.8%) was of secondary importance for T. rileyi. Variables of importance likely represent habitat requirements necessary for the completion of parasite life cycles. Larger areas of potential presence were found for the feline specialist T. rileyi (85%) while potential presence was less likely for A. marcianae (73%), a parasite that requires multiple aquatic intermediate hosts. This study provides information to wildlife biologists and health officials regarding the potential impacts of growing bobcat populations in combination with complex and changing environmental factors. PMID:25549497

  20. Diethylstilbestrol Exposure in Neonatal Mice Induces Changes in the Adulthood in the Immune Response to Taenia crassiceps without Modifications of Parasite Loads

    PubMed Central

    Nava-Castro, Karen E.; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Ortega-Hernando, Alejandra; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Industrial growth has increased the exposition to endocrine disruptor compounds (EDC's), which are exogenous agents with agonist or antagonist action of endogenous steroid hormones that may affect the course of parasite infections. We wanted to determine if the exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), an estrogen agonist, to both male and female mice affected the immune response and their susceptibility to T. crassiceps cysticercosis. In all infected groups, females showed higher parasite loads than males, and neonatal DES administration did not modify this pattern. In the spleen, noninfected mice showed sex-related differences in the percentage of the CD8+ subpopulation, but DES decreased the percentage of CD3+, CD19+, and CD8+ subpopulations in infected mice. In the mesenteric lymphatic node (MNL), DES showed a dimorphic effect in the percentage of CD19+ cells. Regarding estrogen receptor alpha (ER-?) expression, DES treatment induced a reduction in the expression of this receptor in both noninfected female and male mice in the spleen, which was decreased only in males in CD3+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in MNL cell subpopulations. Our study is the first one to demonstrate that DES neonatal treatment in male and female mice affects the immune cell percentage, without effect on the susceptibility to T. crassiceps cysticercosis. PMID:25243144

  1. The Macrophage Galactose-Type Lectin-1 (MGL1) Recognizes Taenia crassiceps Antigens, Triggers Intracellular Signaling, and Is Critical for Resistance to This Infection.

    PubMed

    Montero-Barrera, Daniel; Valderrama-Carvajal, Héctor; Terrazas, César A; Rojas-Hernández, Saúl; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Vera-Arias, Laura; Carrasco-Yépez, Maricela; Gómez-García, Lorena; Martínez-Saucedo, Diana; Becerra-Díaz, Mireya; Terrazas, Luis I

    2015-01-01

    C-type lectins are multifunctional sugar-binding molecules expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages that internalize antigens for processing and presentation. Macrophage galactose-type lectin 1 (MGL1) recognizes glycoconjugates expressing Lewis X structures which contain galactose residues, and it is selectively expressed on immature DCs and macrophages. Helminth parasites contain large amounts of glycosylated components, which play a role in the immune regulation induced by such infections. Macrophages from MGL1(-/-) mice showed less binding ability toward parasite antigens than their wild-type (WT) counterparts. Exposure of WT macrophages to T. crassiceps antigens triggered tyrosine phosphorylation signaling activity, which was diminished in MGL1(-/-) macrophages. Following T. crassiceps infection, MGL1(-/-) mice failed to produce significant levels of inflammatory cytokines early in the infection compared to WT mice. In contrast, MGL1(-/-) mice developed a Th2-dominant immune response that was associated with significantly higher parasite loads, whereas WT mice were resistant. Flow cytometry and RT-PCR analyses showed overexpression of the mannose receptors, IL-4R?, PDL2, arginase-1, Ym1, and RELM-? on MGL1(-/-) macrophages. These studies indicate that MGL1 is involved in T. crassiceps recognition and subsequent innate immune activation and resistance. PMID:25664320

  2. Crosstalk among Taenia crassiceps (ORF Strain) Cysts Regulates Their Rates of Budding by Ways of Soluble and Contact Signals Exchanged between Them

    PubMed Central

    Marcela, Esquivel-Velázquez; Ricardo, Hernández; Carlos, Larralde; Pedro, Ostoa-Saloma

    2014-01-01

    Herein we report that in vitro experiments with different initial parasite densities (1, 5, and 10 cysts per mL of culture medium) show that cysts at densities of 10 and 5 grow faster than those at 1, and that they release into the culture medium factors which increase the budding rates of the slower lower-density ones. Close contact among the incubated cysts also favors budding, thus suggesting the participation of surface sensors of parasite crowding. Thus, contact signals, together with the release of soluble growth factors, could endow cysts with the capacity to sense and regulate their numbers inside their habitat in relation to their population density. PMID:24982903

  3. The Macrophage Galactose-Type Lectin-1 (MGL1) Recognizes Taenia crassiceps Antigens, Triggers Intracellular Signaling, and Is Critical for Resistance to This Infection

    PubMed Central

    Montero-Barrera, Daniel; Valderrama-Carvajal, Héctor; Terrazas, César A.; Rojas-Hernández, Saúl; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Vera-Arias, Laura; Carrasco-Yépez, Maricela; Gómez-García, Lorena; Martínez-Saucedo, Diana; Becerra-Díaz, Mireya; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2015-01-01

    C-type lectins are multifunctional sugar-binding molecules expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages that internalize antigens for processing and presentation. Macrophage galactose-type lectin 1 (MGL1) recognizes glycoconjugates expressing Lewis X structures which contain galactose residues, and it is selectively expressed on immature DCs and macrophages. Helminth parasites contain large amounts of glycosylated components, which play a role in the immune regulation induced by such infections. Macrophages from MGL1?/? mice showed less binding ability toward parasite antigens than their wild-type (WT) counterparts. Exposure of WT macrophages to T. crassiceps antigens triggered tyrosine phosphorylation signaling activity, which was diminished in MGL1?/? macrophages. Following T. crassiceps infection, MGL1?/? mice failed to produce significant levels of inflammatory cytokines early in the infection compared to WT mice. In contrast, MGL1?/? mice developed a Th2-dominant immune response that was associated with significantly higher parasite loads, whereas WT mice were resistant. Flow cytometry and RT-PCR analyses showed overexpression of the mannose receptors, IL-4R?, PDL2, arginase-1, Ym1, and RELM-? on MGL1?/? macrophages. These studies indicate that MGL1 is involved in T. crassiceps recognition and subsequent innate immune activation and resistance. PMID:25664320

  4. Prevalence of active convulsive epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa and associated risk factors: cross-sectional and case-control studies

    PubMed Central

    Ngugi, Anthony K; Bottomley, Christian; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Wagner, Ryan G; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Masanja, Honorati; Kamuyu, Gathoni; Odhiambo, Rachael; Chengo, Eddie; Sander, Josemir W; Newton, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background The prevalence of epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa seems to be higher than in other parts of the world, but estimates vary substantially for unknown reasons. We assessed the prevalence and risk factors of active convulsive epilepsy across five centres in this region. Methods We did large population-based cross-sectional and case-control studies in five Health and Demographic Surveillance System centres: Kilifi, Kenya (Dec 3, 2007–July 31, 2008); Agincourt, South Africa (Aug 4, 2008–Feb 27, 2009); Iganga-Mayuge, Uganda (Feb 2, 2009–Oct 30, 2009); Ifakara, Tanzania (May 4, 2009–Dec 31, 2009); and Kintampo, Ghana (Aug 2, 2010–April 29, 2011). We used a three-stage screening process to identify people with active convulsive epilepsy. Prevalence was estimated as the ratio of confirmed cases to the population screened and was adjusted for sensitivity and attrition between stages. For each case, an age-matched control individual was randomly selected from the relevant centre's census database. Fieldworkers masked to the status of the person they were interviewing administered questionnaires to individuals with active convulsive epilepsy and control individuals to assess sociodemographic variables and historical risk factors (perinatal events, head injuries, and diet). Blood samples were taken from a randomly selected subgroup of 300 participants with epilepsy and 300 control individuals from each centre and were screened for antibodies to Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Onchocerca volvulus, Plasmodium falciparum, Taenia solium, and HIV. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) with logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, education, employment, and marital status. Results 586?607 residents in the study areas were screened in stage one, of whom 1711 were diagnosed as having active convulsive epilepsy. Prevalence adjusted for attrition and sensitivity varied between sites: 7·8 per 1000 people (95% CI 7·5–8·2) in Kilifi, 7·0 (6·2–7·4) in Agincourt, 10·3 (9·5–11·1) in Iganga-Mayuge, 14·8 (13·8–15·4) in Ifakara, and 10·1 (9·5–10·7) in Kintampo. The 1711 individuals with the disorder and 2032 control individuals were given questionnaires. In children (aged <18 years), the greatest relative increases in prevalence were associated with difficulties feeding, crying, or breathing after birth (OR 10·23, 95% CI 5·85–17·88; p<0·0001); abnormal antenatal periods (2·15, 1·53–3·02; p<0·0001); and head injury (1·97, 1·28–3·03; p=0·002). In adults (aged ?18 years), the disorder was significantly associated with admission to hospital with malaria or fever (2·28, 1·06–4·92; p=0·036), exposure to T canis (1·74, 1·27–2·40; p=0·0006), exposure to T gondii (1·39, 1·05–1·84; p=0·021), and exposure to O volvulus (2·23, 1·56–3·19; p<0·0001). Hypertension (2·13, 1·08–4·20; p=0·029) and exposure to T solium (7·03, 2·06–24·00; p=0·002) were risk factors for adult-onset disease. Interpretation The prevalence of active convulsive epilepsy varies in sub-Saharan Africa and that the variation is probably a result of differences in risk factors. Programmes to control parasitic diseases and interventions to improve antenatal and perinatal care could substantially reduce the prevalence of epilepsy in this region. Funding Wellcome Trust, University of the Witwatersrand, and South African Medical Research Council. PMID:23375964

  5. Neglected Zoonotic Diseases—The Long and Winding Road to Advocacy

    PubMed Central

    Mableson, Hayley E.; Okello, Anna; Picozzi, Kim; Welburn, Susan Christina

    2014-01-01

    Background Years of advocacy for the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have focused the world's attention on these diseases of the poor, resulting most recently in the 2012 “London Declaration” and the recent World Health Assembly Resolution WHA66.12 on NTDs in May 2013. Control of the endemic neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs) would benefit from a similar campaign, which needs the support of a global community. Methodology/Principal Findings The resolutions from all 66 World Health Assembly (WHA) meetings held between 1948 and 2013 were examined to determine how many contain a specific focus on any of the following eight NZDs as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO): anthrax, bovine tuberculosis (TB), brucellosis, Taenia solium cysticercosis, cystic echinococcosis (hydatidosis), leishmaniasis, rabies, and zoonotic human African trypanosomiasis (HAT or sleeping sickness). Twenty-one resolutions adopted in the 16 assemblies between 1948 and 2013 targeted one or more of these eight NZDs, representing 4% of the total resolutions on infectious diseases passed to date. The 2013 adoption of Resolution WHA66.12 targeting all 17 NTDs marks a change in approach by the WHA. Whereas previous resolutions have targeted the NTDs as separate entities, the new approach of the combined resolution will help increase the overall momentum to target these ancient diseases as coendemic clusters in endemic countries. However, three major NZDs remain outside this recent resolution: anthrax, brucellosis, and bovine TB. Conclusions and Significance The recent adoption of a specific resolution at the WHA in 2013 that emphasises a One Health approach for the successful control of 17 NTDs is a major development in advocacy. However, recognition of the importance of three major NZDs to public health in endemic countries—anthrax, brucellosis, and bovine tuberculosis—is still lacking despite being prioritised by the WHA as early as the 1950s. Global advocacy for control of the NZDs as a whole would similarly benefit from adoption of a One Health approach as is promoted for the NTDs under WHA66.12. PMID:24901769

  6. Post-treatment Vascular Leakage and Inflammatory Responses around Brain Cysts in Porcine Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Mahanty, Siddhartha; Orrego, Miguel Angel; Mayta, Holger; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H.; Nash, Theodore E.

    2015-01-01

    Cysticidal treatment of neurocysticercosis, an infection of humans and pig brains with Taenia solium, results in an early inflammatory response directed to cysts causing seizures and focal neurological manifestations. Treatment-induced pericystic inflammation and its association with blood brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, as determined by Evans blue (EB) extravasation, was studied in infected untreated and anthelmintic-treated pigs. We compared the magnitude and extent of the pericystic inflammation, presence of EB-stained capsules, the level of damage to the parasite, expression of genes for proinflammatory and regulatory cytokines, chemokines, and tissue remodeling by quantitative PCR assays between treated and untreated infected pigs and between EB-stained (blue) and non stained (clear) cysts. Inflammatory scores were higher in pericystic tissues from EB-stained cysts compared to clear cysts from untreated pigs and also from anthelmintic-treated pigs 48 hr and 120 hr after treatment. The degree of inflammation correlated with the severity of cyst wall damage and both increased significantly at 120 hours. Expression levels of the proinflammatory genes for IL-6, IFN-?, TNF-? were higher in EB-stained cysts compared to clear cysts and unaffected brain tissues, and were generally highest at 120 hr. Additionally, expression of some markers of immunoregulatory activity (IL-10, IL-2R?) were decreased in EB-stained capsules. An increase in other markers for regulatory T cells (CTLA4, FoxP3) was found, as well as significant increases in expression of two metalloproteases, MMP1 and MMP2 at 48 hr and 120 hr post-treatment. We conclude that the increase in severity of the inflammation caused by treatment is accompanied by both a proinflammatory and a complex regulatory response, largely limited to pericystic tissues with compromised vascular integrity. Because treatment induced inflammation occurs in porcine NCC similar to that in human cases, this model can be used to investigate mechanisms involved in host damaging inflammatory responses and agents or modalities that may control damaging post treatment inflammation. PMID:25774662

  7. Large Cerebral Intraventricular Neurocysticercosal Tumor in an Asymptomatic Patient: A Treatment Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Wongjittraporn, Suwarat; Tongma, Chawat; Chung, Heath

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a growing health problem in the United States and worldwide due to an increasing number of immigrants. Cysticercosis is caused by ingestion of the larval form of Taenia solium. The intraventricular form, NCC is seen in 7%–45% of the cases. We present a case of a young Chinese man who presented with headache and finding of an impressive intraventricular cyst related to NCC. Our case emphasizes the importance of recognition of NCC, especially in immigrant populations. Case Report: A 37 year-old male Chinese immigrant with no significant past medical history presented to our facility after sustaining a head injury from a car accident. He lost consciousness briefly during the incident and had transient headache. He was admitted to the hospital for further evaluation. On physical exam, he had no neurological deficits. Non-contrast Head Computed tomography (CT) was obtained to rule out intracranial hemorrhage and found a large cystic lesion measuring 5x6x7cm in the right lateral ventricle, with partially calcification. Gadolinium- enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was obtained and revealed a large solitary, right lateral ventricular cystic lesion containing a partially calcified mural nodule. No surrounding edema or inflammation was observed. The findings were highly suggestive of intraventricular NCC. He was born and raised in China, moved to Mexico and then to Hawai‘i three years ago. He denied previous history of headache, weakness, seizure, or visual impairment. The MRI result prompted neurosurgical evaluation. As the patient was asymptomatic and had no hydrocephalus, no surgical intervention was pursued and close outpatient follow-up was recommended. After 6 months of follow up, the patient has remained asymptomatic. Follow-up MRI after admission showed no changes in size of the cystic lesion or evidence of surrounding inflammation. Discussion: Treatment for NCC should be tailored individually. In our patient who was asymptomatic, the large intraventricular cyst was an incidental finding on neuroimaging. The decision whether or not to perform endoscopic neurosurgery is very complicated; endoscopic surgery is an invasive procedure with multiple possible complications. Removal of the large cyst may decrease the risk of mechanical obstruction but may increase the risk of secondary hydrocephalus due to inflammatory damage. We present an atypically-large intraventricular NCC managed by close observation in an asymptomatic patient. The conservative approach in a seemingly complicated patient implies and emphasizes the importance of managing NCC on an individual basis.

  8. Post-treatment Vascular Leakage and Inflammatory Responses around Brain Cysts in Porcine Neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Mahanty, Siddhartha; Orrego, Miguel Angel; Mayta, Holger; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; Gonzalez, Armando E; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E

    2015-03-01

    Cysticidal treatment of neurocysticercosis, an infection of humans and pig brains with Taenia solium, results in an early inflammatory response directed to cysts causing seizures and focal neurological manifestations. Treatment-induced pericystic inflammation and its association with blood brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, as determined by Evans blue (EB) extravasation, was studied in infected untreated and anthelmintic-treated pigs. We compared the magnitude and extent of the pericystic inflammation, presence of EB-stained capsules, the level of damage to the parasite, expression of genes for proinflammatory and regulatory cytokines, chemokines, and tissue remodeling by quantitative PCR assays between treated and untreated infected pigs and between EB-stained (blue) and non stained (clear) cysts. Inflammatory scores were higher in pericystic tissues from EB-stained cysts compared to clear cysts from untreated pigs and also from anthelmintic-treated pigs 48 hr and 120 hr after treatment. The degree of inflammation correlated with the severity of cyst wall damage and both increased significantly at 120 hours. Expression levels of the proinflammatory genes for IL-6, IFN-?, TNF-? were higher in EB-stained cysts compared to clear cysts and unaffected brain tissues, and were generally highest at 120 hr. Additionally, expression of some markers of immunoregulatory activity (IL-10, IL-2R?) were decreased in EB-stained capsules. An increase in other markers for regulatory T cells (CTLA4, FoxP3) was found, as well as significant increases in expression of two metalloproteases, MMP1 and MMP2 at 48 hr and 120 hr post-treatment. We conclude that the increase in severity of the inflammation caused by treatment is accompanied by both a proinflammatory and a complex regulatory response, largely limited to pericystic tissues with compromised vascular integrity. Because treatment induced inflammation occurs in porcine NCC similar to that in human cases, this model can be used to investigate mechanisms involved in host damaging inflammatory responses and agents or modalities that may control damaging post treatment inflammation. PMID:25774662

  9. Advances with the Chinese anthelminthic drug tribendimidine in clinical trials and laboratory investigations.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shu-Hua; Utzinger, Jürg; Tanner, Marcel; Keiser, Jennifer; Xue, Jian

    2013-05-01

    The anthelminthic drug tribendimidine has been approved by Chinese authorities for human use in 2004, and a first comprehensive review was published in Acta Tropica in 2005. Here, we summarise further advances made through additional clinical trials and laboratory investigations. Two phase IV trials have been conducted in the People's Republic of China, the first one enrolling 1292 adolescents and adults aged 15-70 years and the second one conducted with 899 children aged 4-14 years who were infected with one or multiple species of soil-transmitted helminths. Oral tribendimidine (single 400mg enteric-coated tablet given to adolescents/adults and 200mg to children) showed high cure rates against Ascaris lumbricoides (90.1-95.0%) and moderate-to-high cure rates against hookworm (82.0-88.4%). Another trial done in school-aged children using a rigorous diagnostic approach found a cure rate against hookworm of 76.5%. A single oral dose of tribendimidine showed only low cure rates against Trichuris trichiura (23.9-36.8%) confirming previous results. Tribendimidine administered to children infected with Enterobius vermicularis (two doses of 200mg each on consecutive days) resulted in a high cure rate (97.1%). Importantly, a series of randomised, exploratory trials revealed that tribendimidine shows interesting activity against the liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis, the tapeworm Taenia spp. and the threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis with respective cure rates of 70.0%, 40.0%, 53.3% and 36.4%. Pharmacokinetic studies in healthy Chinese volunteers indicated that after oral administration of tribendimidine, no parent drug was detected in plasma, but its primary metabolite, p-(1-dimethylamino ethylimino) aniline (aminoamidine, deacylated amidantel) (dADT), was found in plasma. dADT is then further metabolised to acetylated dADT (AdADT). dADT exhibits activity against several species of hookworm and C. sinensis in experimental studies, similar to that of tribendimidine. First studies elucidating the mechanism of action suggested that tribendimidine is an L-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist. Additional experimental studies revealed that the anti-parasite spectrum of tribendimidine is very broad. Indeed, to date, activity has been documented against 20 different nematode, trematode and cestode species. Taken together, tribendimidine warrants further scientific inquiry, including more comprehensive toxicity appraisals, mechanism of action studies and clinical investigation as it holds promise as a broad spectrum anthelminthics. PMID:23352956

  10. Echinococcus multilocularis (Cestoda, Taeniidae) in Red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes) in northern Belgium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Vervaeke; P. Dorny; F. Vercammen; S. Geerts; J. Brandt; K. Van Den Bergec; R. Verhagen

    2003-01-01

    The first record of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis (Cestoda, Taeniidae) in Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in northern Belgium is described. Between 1996 and 1999, 237 dead foxes were examined for the presence of this tapeworm using the intestinal scraping technique. Four foxes (1.7%) were found to be infected with E. multilocularis and showed medium to very high parasitic burdens. Three

  11. Helminths of sympatric black-tailed jack rabbits (Lepus californicus) and desert cottontails (Sylvilagus audubonii) from the high plains of eastern New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pfaffenberger, G S; Valencia, V B

    1988-04-01

    Thirty-five desert cottontails (Sylvilagus audubonii) and 35 black-tailed jack rabbits (Lepus californicus), occurring sympatrically near the Clovis-Portales area of eastern New Mexico were infected with four species of Eucestoda (adults of Raillietina salmoni and Raillietina selfi, larvae of Taenia pisiformis and Taenia serialis). Raillietina salmoni and T. pisiformis more commonly infected S. audubonii. Raillietina selfi was found in near equal prevalence in both host species. Taenia serialis was recovered only from L. californicus. Thus, three of the four helminth species were shared by both lagomorphs (Jaccard's coefficient = 75). Female hosts were most heavily infected with R. selfi and Taenia serialis. PMID:3373649

  12. 21 CFR 522.1870 - Praziquantel injectable solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...removal of canine cestodes Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus, and removal and control of canine cestode Echinococcus multilocularis . (iii) Limitations. For subcutaneous or intramuscular...

  13. 21 CFR 522.1870 - Praziquantel injectable solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...removal of canine cestodes Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus, and removal and control of canine cestode Echinococcus multilocularis . (iii) Limitations. For subcutaneous or intramuscular...

  14. 21 CFR 522.1870 - Praziquantel injectable solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...removal of canine cestodes Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus, and removal and control of canine cestode Echinococcus multilocularis . (iii) Limitations. For subcutaneous or intramuscular...

  15. Ecological analyses of the intestinal helminth communities of the wolf, Canis lupus, in Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan-Matías Segovia; Ricardo Guerrero; Jordi Torres; Jordi Miquel; Carlos Feliu

    2003-01-01

    This work describes the ecological characteristics of the intestinal helminth communities of 50 wolves (Canis lupus L.) from Spain. The species found were classified into three groups according to prevalence, intensity and intestinal distribution. Taenia hydatigena Pallas, 1766 and Uncinaria stenocephala (Railliet, 1884) are the core species of the community. Taenia multiceps (Leske, 1780) is a secondary species. The rest

  16. DNA Differential Diagnosis of Taeniasis and Cysticercosis by Multiplex PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Yamasaki; James C. Allan; Marcello Otake Sato; Minoru Nakao; Yasuhito Sako; Kazuhiro Nakaya; Dongchuan Qiu; Wulamu Mamuti; Philip S. Craig; Akira Ito

    2004-01-01

    Received 11 August 2003\\/Returned for modification 19 September 2003\\/Accepted 26 November 2003 Multiplex PCR was established for differential diagnosis of taeniasis and cysticercosis, including their caus- ative agents. For identification of the parasites, multiplex PCR with cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene yield- ed evident differential products unique for Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica and for American\\/African and Asian genotypes

  17. [Cestode infections in Poland in 2009].

    PubMed

    Waloch, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In the year 2009, 26 intestinal cestode infections were registered in Poland. Among them 20 were caused by Taenia saginata, 4 by Taenia sp., 1 by Diphyllobothrium latum, 1 by Hymenolepis diminuta. Moreover, 23 cases of cystic echinococcosis were reported. PMID:21913477

  18. 21 CFR 520.45b - Albendazole paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...body weight (10 milligrams per kilogram). (2) Indications for use. For removal and control of the following internal parasites of cattle: adult liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica ); heads and segments of tapeworms (Moniezia benedeni, M....

  19. 21 CFR 520.45b - Albendazole paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...body weight (10 milligrams per kilogram). (2) Indications for use. For removal and control of the following internal parasites of cattle: adult liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica ); heads and segments of tapeworms (Moniezia benedeni, M....

  20. 21 CFR 520.45b - Albendazole paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...body weight (10 milligrams per kilogram). (2) Indications for use. For removal and control of the following internal parasites of cattle: adult liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica ); heads and segments of tapeworms (Moniezia benedeni, M....

  1. 21 CFR 520.38b - Albendazole paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...body weight (10 milligrams per kilogram). (2) Indications for use. For removal and control of the following internal parasites of cattle: adult liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica ); heads and segments of tapeworms (Moniezia benedeni, M....

  2. 21 CFR 520.45b - Albendazole paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...body weight (10 milligrams per kilogram). (2) Indications for use. For removal and control of the following internal parasites of cattle: adult liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica ); heads and segments of tapeworms (Moniezia benedeni, M....

  3. Anemia - B12 deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vitamin B12. They include: Chronic alcoholism Crohn disease, celiac disease, infection with the fish tapeworm, or other problems ... may no longer be needed after Crohn disease, celiac disease, or alcoholism is properly treated. Your doctor or ...

  4. Multiple species of Phoreiobothrium from the blacktip shark, Carcharhinus limbatus, in the Gulf of Mexico

    E-print Network

    Owens, Hannah L.

    2008-01-01

    During a survey of the adult tapeworm fauna of sharks from the Gulf of Mexico, the blacktip shark, Carcharhinus limbatus (Müller and Henle, 1839), was found to host cestodes in the genus Phoreiobothrium. Carcharhinus limbatus inhabits the world...

  5. 21 CFR 524.775 - Emodepside and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...use . For the treatment and control of hookworm infections caused by Ancylostoma tubaeforme...stage larvae), roundworm infections caused by Toxocara cati ...stage larvae), and tapeworm infections caused by Dipylidium...

  6. Echinococcosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and common livestock, especially sheep. Although infection in humans is rare, it can be serious. After the tapeworm egg is eaten, it settles in the organs (such as the lungs, brain and liver) and ...

  7. 77 FR 32943 - Application(s) for Duty-Free Entry of Scientific Instruments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ...Manufacturer: FEI Company, Czech Republic. Intended Use: The instrument will be used to examine tapeworms of sharks and stingrays, microbial mats, mosses, lichens, algae, diatoms, and other samples. The experiments aim to explore the...

  8. The lecanicephalidean fauna of three species of eagle rays of the genus Aetomylaeus (Myliobatiformes: Myliobatidae).

    E-print Network

    Koch, Kendra Rae

    2009-07-16

    in the class Cestoda of the phylum Platyhelminthes. Commonly known as tapeworms, these mainly intestinal helminths parasitize members of all classes of vertebrates, i.e., fishes, “reptiles,” amphibians, mammals, birds, and chondrichthyans (Wardle and Mc...

  9. Travel/Travelers and Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Taenia infection fascioliasis Vector-borne Transmission More Common malaria leishmaniasis Less Common Chagas disease lymphatic filariasis African ... source: Global Health - Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria Notice: Linking to a non-federal site does ...

  10. 21 CFR 522.1870 - Praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...removal of canine cestodes Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus, and removal and control of canine cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. (iii) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use...

  11. 21 CFR 522.1870 - Praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...removal of canine cestodes Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus, and removal and control of canine cestode Echinococcus multilocularis . (iii) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use...

  12. Supplement 20, Part 6, Parasite-Subject Catalogue: Subject Headings And Treatment

    E-print Network

    Edwards, Shirley J.; Shaw, Judith H.; Rayburn, Jane D.; Hood, Martha W.

    1975-01-01

    duodenale in- fection Absorption Barger, I. ?., 1973 a mineral absorption, sheep with trichostrongylosis Absorption B?guin, F., 1966 a Caryophyllaeus laticeps, Caryophyllaeides fennica; An omo - taenia constricta, cuticle Absorption Bogitsh, B. J...

  13. A real-time multiplex-nested PCR system for coprological diagnosis of Echinococcus multilocularis and host species.

    PubMed

    Dinkel, Anke; Kern, Selina; Brinker, Anja; Oehme, Rainer; Vaniscotte, Amélie; Giraudoux, Patrick; Mackenstedt, Ute; Romig, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    A hybridization probe-based real-time multiplex-nested PCR system was developed for the simultaneous detection of Echinococcus multilocularis and host species directly from faecal samples. Species identification was determined by melting curve analysis. Specificity was assessed by using DNA extracted from various cestodes (E. multilocularis, Echinococcus granulosus (G1), Echinococcus ortleppi, Echinococcus canadensis (G6, G7), Taenia crassiceps, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia mustelae, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia serialis, Taenia taeniaeformis, Mesocestoides leptothylacus), carnivores (Vulpes vulpes, Vulpes corsac, Vulpes ferrilata, Canis familiaris, Felis catus, Martes foina), Microtus arvalis and Arvicola terrestris. The analytical sensitivity was 10 fg, evaluated with serially diluted DNA of E. multilocularis to 10 ?l total DNA solution from E. multilocularis-negative canid faeces. Based on a comparison of 47 dog samples from China, the proportion of the E. multilocularis-positive-tested samples by the real-time multiplex-nested PCR was moderately higher (38% vs. 30%) as when tested with a previously evaluated nested PCR with a sensitivity of 70-100%, depending on the number and gravidity status of worms present in the intestine (Dinkel et al., J Clin Microbiol 36:1871-1876, 1998). To assess the epidemiological applicability of this method, 227 canid faecal samples collected in the field were analysed. This newly developed real-time multiplex-nested PCR system is a specific, sensitive and reliable method for the detection of E. multilocularis and host species in faecal samples for epidemiological purposes. PMID:21327991

  14. Extracorporeal Worm Extraction of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense with Amidotrizoic Acid in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hye Kyung; Roh, Joo-Hyung; Oh, Jae-Won; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Chung, Dong-Il

    2014-01-01

    Infection cases of diphyllobothriid tapeworms are not much in the below teen-age group. We report a case of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense infection in a 13-year-old boy. He presented with severe fatigue, occasional abdominal pain at night time. He also had several episodes of tapeworm segment discharge in his stools. By his past history, he had frequently eaten raw fish including salmon and trout with his families. Numerous eggs of diphyllobothriid tapeworm were detected in the fecal examination. We introduced amidotrizoic acid as a cathartic agent through nasogastroduodenal tube and let nearly whole length (4.75 m) of D. nihonkaiense be excreted through his anus. After a single dose of praziquantel, the child's stool showed no further eggs, and his symptoms disappeared. The evacuated worm was identified as D. nihonkaiense by mitochondrial cox1 gene analysis. Here we report a successful extracorporeal worm extraction from an infection case of D. nihonkaiense by the injection of amidotrizoic acid. PMID:25548421

  15. Evidence of experimental postcyclic transmission of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in bonytail chub (Gila elegans)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, S.P.; Choudhury, A.; Cole, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the role that predation of infected conspecific fish and postcyclic transmission might play in the life cycle of the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) Yamaguti, 1934. Young-of-the-year (YOY) bonytail chub (Gila elegans) were exposed to copepods infected with B. acheilognathi and subsequently fed to subadult bonytail chub. Within 1 wk after consumption of the YOY chub, subadults were necropsied and found infected with gravid and nongravid tapeworms. This study provides evidence that postcyclic transfer of B. acheilognathi can occur. Postcyclic transmission may be an important life history trait of B. acheilognathi that merits consideration when studying the impact and distribution of this invasive and potentially pathogenic tapeworm. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2007.

  16. Diphyllobothriasis associated with eating raw pacific salmon.

    PubMed

    Arizono, Naoki; Yamada, Minoru; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Ohnishi, Kenji

    2009-06-01

    The incidence of human infection with the broad tapeworm Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense has been increasing in urban areas of Japan and in European countries. D. nihonkaiense is morphologically similar to but genetically distinct from D. latum and exploits anadromous wild Pacific salmon as its second intermediate host. Clinical signs in humans include diarrhea and discharge of the strobila, which can be as long as 12 m. The natural life history and the geographic range of the tapeworm remain to be elucidated, but recent studies have indicated that the brown bear in the northern territories of the Pacific coast region is its natural final host. A recent surge of clinical cases highlights a change in the epidemiologic trend of this tapeworm disease from one of rural populations to a disease of urban populations worldwide who eat seafood as part of a healthy diet. PMID:19523283

  17. Hymenolepis diminuta: experimental studies on the antioxidant system with short and long term infection periods in the rats.

    PubMed

    Skrzycki, Micha?; Majewska, Monika; Podsiad, Ma?gorzata; Czeczot, Hanna; Salamatin, Rus?an; Twarowska, Joanna; Grytner-Zi?cina, Barbara

    2011-10-01

    Many helminths cause long-lasting infections, living for several years in mammalian hosts reflecting a well balanced coexistence between host and parasite. There are many possible explanations as to how they can survive for lengthy periods. One possibility is their antioxidant systems, which can serve as defence mechanisms against host-generated oxygen radicals. Therefore, the aim of this experimental study was to examine the antioxidant system in Hymenolepisdiminuta during short (1.5 months young tapeworms) and long (1.5 years old tapeworms) term infection in the rat small intestine. The strobilae of H. diminuta tapeworms (14 young and three old) were divided into three pieces: the anterior part, containing the genital primordiae in the immature segments; the medial part, containing the early uterus in the mature, hermaphroditic proglottids and the terminal part with the mature gravid uterus in the gravid segments. Supernatants of these fragments were used for determination of markers of oxidative stress: concentration of thiobarbiturate reactive substances (TBARS) and of reduced glutathione (GSH), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD1 and SOD2), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidases (GSHPxs), glutathione transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GSHR). The results indicated changes in levels of oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzyme activity in both the young and old forms of H. diminuta. Relatively high activity of SOD (particularly in the anterior part of young tapeworms) was observed, as was increased activity of total GSHPx and a relatively high concentration of GSH in all parts of the tapeworms. These are caused by exposure to increased amount of ROS, which are produced during the inflammatory state. Due to the high activity of antioxidant enzymes, the anterior section of young and old tapeworms is equipped with a very effective antioxidant system. Old organisms also effectively resist oxidative stress due to reduced levels of lipid peroxidation and the high activity of GST, all of which suggest good adaptation to the hostile environment in the host's intestine. PMID:21782814

  18. Monsters of the sea serpent: parasites of an oarfish, Regalecus russellii.

    PubMed

    Kuris, Armand M; Jaramillo, Alejandra G; McLaughlin, John P; Weinstein, Sara B; Garcia-Vedrenne, Ana E; Poinar, George O; Pickering, Maria; Steinauer, Michelle L; Espinoza, Magaly; Ashford, Jacob E; Dunn, Gabriela L P

    2015-02-01

    Examination of a small portion of the viscera of an oarfish ( Regalecus russellii ) recovered from Santa Catalina Island, southern California, revealed numerous tetraphyllidean tapeworm plerocercoids, Clistobothrium cf. montaukensis; 2 juvenile nematodes, Contracaecum sp.; and a fragment of an adult acanthocephalan, family Arhythmacanthidae. This suggests that the fish was relatively heavily parasitized. The presence of larval and juvenile worms suggests that oarfish are preyed upon by deep-swimming predators such as the shortfin mako shark, Isurus oxyrinchus , known to be a definitive host for the adult tapeworm, and also by diving mammals such as sperm whales, Physeter catodon L., hosts of Contracaecum spp. nematodes. PMID:25220829

  19. A serological study of cysticercosis in patients with HIV.

    PubMed

    Parija, Subhash Chandra; Gireesh, A R

    2009-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) has attained the importance of one of the most common cause of focal brain lesions in patients infected with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). Adequate data regarding the rate of this co-infection is lacking. Therefore, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of cysticercosis among HIV patients residing in Puducherry or its neighboring districts of Tamil Nadu State, India. A total of one hundred blood samples were collected from HIV seropositive cases visiting JIPMER hospital, Puducherry, between June 2007 and May 2008. Enzyme immunotransfer blot (EITB) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to demonstrate anti- T. solium larval stage antibodies and Co-agglutination (Co-A) test was used to detect T. solium larval stage antigens in sera. Two HIV seropositive cases were found positive for anti-T. solium larval stage antibody by EITB and four were positive by ELISA. Only one sample was positive by both EITB and ELISA. No serum sample was found positive for T. solium larval stage antigen by Co-A test. The overall seropositivity detected by all the methods was 5% in this study group. The accurate clinical diagnosis of NCC in HIV is difficult due to deranged immunological parameters in the HIV infected patients. The results of this study provides important data on the prevalence of cysticercosis in HIV positive patients in Puducherry and neighboring areas which was previously unknown. This study will also increase awareness among physicians and public health agencies about T. solium cysticercosis in the selected group. PMID:19738997

  20. Human Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense Infection in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ferric C; Billman, Zachary P; Wallis, Carolyn K; Abbott, April N; Olson, John C; Dhanireddy, Shireesha; Murphy, Sean C

    2015-04-01

    A patient in Washington State harbored a fish tapeworm most likely acquired from eating raw salmon. Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense was identified by cox1 sequence analysis. Although this is the first documented human D. nihonkaiense infection in the United States, the parasite may have been present earlier but misidentified as Diphyllobothrium latum. PMID:25609724