Sample records for tapeworm taenia solium

  1. Morphologic and Genetic Identification of Taenia Tapeworms in Tanzania and DNA Genotyping of Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Keeseon S.; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Kihamia, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Species identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed using morphologic observations and multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. In 2008 and 2009, a total of 1,057 fecal samples were collected from residents of Kongwa district of Dodoma region, Tanzania, and examined microscopically for helminth eggs and proglottids. Of these, 4 Taenia egg positive cases were identified, and the eggs were subjected to DNA analysis. Several proglottids of Taenia solium were recovered from 1 of the 4 cases. This established that the species were T. solium (n=1) and T. saginata (n=3). One further T. solium specimen was found among 128 fecal samples collected from Mbulu district in Arusha, and this had an intact strobila with the scolex. Phylegenetic analysis of the mtDNA cox1 gene sequences of these 5 isolates showed that T. saginata was basal to the T. solium clade. The mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences of 3 of these Tanzanian isolates showed 99% similarity to T. saginata, and the other 2 isolates showed 100% similarity to T. solium. The present study has shown that Taenia tapeworms are endemic in Kongwa district of Tanzania, as well as in a previously identified Mbulu district. Both T. solium isolates were found to have an "African/Latin American" genotype (cox1). PMID:22355207

  2. Taenia solium cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    García, Héctor H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Evans, Carlton A W; Gilman, Robert H

    2003-08-16

    The larval stage of the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) infects the human nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis. This disease is one of the main causes of epileptic seizures in many less developed countries and is also increasingly seen in more developed countries because of immigration from endemic areas. Little information is available on the natural evolution of taeniasis or cysticercosis. Available therapeutic measures include steroids, treatments for symptoms, surgery, and, more controversially, antiparasitic drugs to kill brain parasites. Efforts to control and eliminate this disease are underway through antiparasitic treatment of endemic populations, development of pig vaccines, and other measures. PMID:12932389

  3. Nested PCR for Specific Diagnosis of Taenia solium Taeniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holger Mayta; Robert H. Gilman; Emily Prendergast; Janeth P. Castillo

    Taeniasis due to Taenia solium is a disease with important public health consequences, since the larval stage is not exclusive to the animal intermediate, the pig, but also infects humans, causing neurocysticercosis. Early diagnosis and treatment of T. solium tapeworm carriers is important to prevent human cysticercosis. Current diagnosis based on microscopic observation of eggs lacks both sensitivity and specificity.

  4. Phylogenetic characterisation of Taenia tapeworms in spotted hyenas and reconsideration of the "Out of Africa" hypothesis of Taenia in humans.

    PubMed

    Terefe, Yitagele; Hailemariam, Zerihun; Menkir, Sissay; Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Iwaki, Takashi; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2014-07-01

    The African origin of hominins suggests that Taenia spp. in African carnivores are evolutionarily related to the human-infecting tapeworms Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. Nevertheless, the hypothesis has not been verified through molecular phylogenetics of Taenia. This study aimed to perform phylogenetic comparisons between Taenia spp. from African hyenas and the congeneric human parasites. During 2010-2013, 233 adult specimens of Taenia spp. were collected from 11 spotted hyenas in Ethiopia. A screening based on short DNA sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene classified the samples into four mitochondrial lineages designated as I-IV. DNA profiles of nuclear genes for DNA polymerase delta (pold) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) showed that lineages II and III can be assigned as two independent species. Common haplotypes of pold and pepck were frequently found in lineages I and IV, suggesting that they constitute a single species. Morphological observations suggested that lineage II is Taenia crocutae, but the other lineages were morphologically inconsistent with known species, suggesting the involvement of two new species. A phylogenetic tree of Taenia spp. was reconstructed by the maximum likelihood method using all protein-coding genes of their mitochondrial genomes. The tree clearly demonstrated that T. crocutae is sister to T. saginata and T. asiatica, whereas T. solium was confirmed to be sister to the brown bear tapeworm, Taenia arctos. The tree also suggested that T. solium and T. arctos are related to two species of Taenia in hyenas, corresponding to lineages I+IV and III. These results may partially support the African origin of human-infecting Taenia spp., but there remains a possibility that host switching of Taenia to hominins was not confined to Africa. Additional taxa from African carnivores are needed for further testing of the "Out of Africa" hypothesis of Taenia in humans. PMID:24815426

  5. Chinchilla laniger can be used as an experimental model for Taenia solium taeniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Maravilla; Adriana Garza-Rodriguez; Benjamin Gomez-Diaz; Diego Emiliano Jimenez-Gonzalez; Elizabeth Toral-Bastida; Joel Martinez-Ocaña; Brett West; Nadia Molina; Ramon Garcia-Cortes; Simon Kawa-Karasik; Mirza Romero-Valdovinos; Guillermina Avila-Ramirez; Ana Flisser

    Chinchilla laniger has been reported as an experimental definitive host for Taenia solium; however no information about its suitability and yield of gravid tapeworm proglottids containing viable and infective eggs has been published. In total 55 outbred female chinchillas were infected with 4 cysticerci each; hosts were immunodeppressed with 6 or 8mg of methyl-prednisolone acetate every 14days starting the day

  6. Immunology of Taenia solium taeniasis and human cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Garcia, H H; Rodriguez, S; Friedland, J S

    2014-08-01

    The life cycle of Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm, is continuously closed in many rural settings in developing countries when free roaming pigs ingest human stools containing T. solium eggs and develop cysticercosis, and humans ingest pork infected with cystic larvae and develop intestinal taeniasis, or may also accidentally acquire cysticercosis by faecal-oral contamination. Cysticercosis of the human nervous system, neurocysticercosis, is a major cause of seizures and other neurological morbidity in most of the world. The dynamics of exposure, infection and disease as well as the location of parasites result in a complex interaction which involves immune evasion mechanisms and involutive or progressive disease along time. Moreover, existing data are limited by the relative lack of animal models. This manuscript revises the available information on the immunology of human taeniasis and cysticercosis. PMID:24962350

  7. Development of a species-specific coproantigen ELISA for human Taenia solium taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Guezala, Maria-Claudia; Rodriguez, Silvia; Zamora, Humberto; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Tembo, Alice; Allan, James C; Craig, Philip S

    2009-09-01

    Taenia solium causes human neurocysticercosis and is endemic in underdeveloped countries where backyard pig keeping is common. Microscopic fecal diagnostic methods for human T. solium taeniasis are not very sensitive, and Taenia saginata and Taenia solium eggs are indistinguishable under the light microscope. Coproantigen (CoAg) ELISA methods are very sensitive, but currently only genus (Taenia) specific. This paper describes the development of a highly species-specific coproantigen ELISA test to detect T. solium intestinal taeniasis. Sensitivity was maintained using a capture antibody of rabbit IgG against T. solium adult whole worm somatic extract, whereas species specificity was achieved by utilization of an enzyme-conjugated rabbit IgG against T. solium adult excretory-secretory (ES) antigen. A known panel of positive and negative human fecal samples was tested with this hybrid sandwich ELISA. The ELISA test gave 100% specificity and 96.4% sensitivity for T. solium tapeworm carriers (N = 28), with a J index of 0.96. This simple ELISA incorporating anti-adult somatic and anti-adult ES antibodies provides the first potentially species-specific coproantigen test for human T. solium taeniasis. PMID:19706909

  8. Nested PCR for specific diagnosis of Taenia solium taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Mayta, Holger; Gilman, Robert H; Prendergast, Emily; Castillo, Janeth P; Tinoco, Yeny O; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Sterling, Charles R

    2008-01-01

    Taeniasis due to Taenia solium is a disease with important public health consequences, since the larval stage is not exclusive to the animal intermediate, the pig, but also infects humans, causing neurocysticercosis. Early diagnosis and treatment of T. solium tapeworm carriers is important to prevent human cysticercosis. Current diagnosis based on microscopic observation of eggs lacks both sensitivity and specificity. In the present study, a nested-PCR assay targeting the Tso31 gene was developed for the specific diagnosis of taeniasis due to T. solium. Initial specificity and sensitivity testing was performed using stored known T. solium-positive and -negative samples. The assay was further analyzed under field conditions by conducting a case-control study of pretreatment stool samples collected from a population in an area of endemicity. Using the archived samples, the assay showed 97% (31/32) sensitivity and 100% (123/123) specificity. Under field conditions, the assay had 100% sensitivity and specificity using microscopy/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay coproantigen testing as the gold standards. The Tso31 nested PCR described here might be a useful tool for the early diagnosis and prevention of taeniasis/cysticercosis. PMID:17989190

  9. Isolation and characterization of species-specific DNA probes from Taenia solium and Taenia saginata and their use in an egg detection assay.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, A; Vallejo, V; Mossie, K G; Ortiz, D; Agabian, N; Flisser, A

    1995-01-01

    Cysticercosis results from ingestion of the eggs of the tapeworm Taenia solium. Reduction of the incidence of human and swine cysticercosis requires identification and treatment of individuals who carry the adult tapeworm. T. solium and Taenia saginata eggs cannot be differentiated on the basis of morphology; thus, in order to improve existing methods for the diagnosis of taeniasis, we have developed highly sensitive, species-specific DNA probes which differentiate T. solium and T. saginata. Recombinant clones containing repetitive DNA sequences which hybridize specifically with genomic DNAs from either species were isolated and characterized. T. solium-specific DNA sequences contained complete and truncated forms of a tandemly repeated 158-bp DNA sequence. An unrelated T. saginata DNA sequence was also characterized and shown to encode a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene. T. solium- and T. saginata-specific DNA probes did not hybridize in dot blot assays either with genomic DNA from the platyhelminths Taenia hydatigena, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia taeniaeformis, Echinococcus granulosus, and Schistosoma mansoni or with genomic DNA from other eukaryotes, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, Cryptosporidium parvum, Entamoeba histolytica, Trypanosoma gambiense, Trypanosoma brucei, and Giardia lamblia, Caenorhabditis elegans, and human DNA. By using these T. solium and T. saginata DNA probes, a rapid, highly sensitive and specific dot blot assay for the detection of T. solium eggs was developed. PMID:7615742

  10. Differentiating Taenia solium and Taenia saginata Infections by Simple Hematoxylin-Eosin Staining and PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mayta, H.; Talley, A.; Gilman, R. H.; Jimenez, J.; Verastegui, M.; Ruiz, M.; Garcia, H. H.; Gonzalez, A. E.

    2000-01-01

    Species-specific identification of human tapeworm infections is important for public health purposes, because prompt identification of Taenia solium carriers may prevent further human cysticercosis infections (a major cause of acquired epilepsy). Two practical methods for the differentiation of cestode proglottids, (i) routine embedding, sectioning, and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and (ii) PCR with restriction enzyme analysis (PCR-REA), were tested on samples from 40 individuals infected with T. solium (n = 34) or Taenia saginata (n = 6). Microscopic examination of HE staining of sections from 24 cases, in which conserved proglottids were recovered, clearly revealed differences in the number of uterine branches. Distinct restriction patterns for T. solium and T. saginata were observed when the PCR products containing the ribosomal 5.8S gene plus internal transcribed spacer regions were digested with either AluI, DdeI, or MboI. Both HE histology and PCR-REA are useful techniques for differentiating T. solium from T. saginata. Importantly, both techniques can be used in zones of endemicity. HE histology is inexpensive and is currently available in most regions of endemicity, and PCR-REA can be performed in most hospital centers already performing PCR without additional equipment or the use of radioactive material. PMID:10618076

  11. Kinetics of Taenia solium antibodies and antigens in experimental taeniosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillermina Avila; Marcela Benitez; Laura Aguilar-Vega; Ana Flisser

    2003-01-01

    Two groups of hamsters were infected with Taenia solium cysticerci, one of which was suppressed with methyl-prednisolone acetate on the day of infection and every 14 days thereafter. The other did not receive steroid treatment. Faecal and serum samples were taken prior to infection and then at weekly intervals. Parasite circulating- and coproantigens were detected by a capture ELISA with

  12. Progesterone Induces Mucosal Immunity in a Rodent Model of Human Taeniosis by Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Escobedo, Galileo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Nava-Luna, Paul; Olivos, Alfonso; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Carrero, J.C.; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    More than one quarter of human world's population is exposed to intestinal helminth parasites. The Taenia solium tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor in the transmission of both human neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis. Sex steroids play an important role during T. solium infection, particularly progesterone has been proposed as a key immunomodulatory hormone involved in susceptibility to human taeniosis in woman and cysticercosis in pregnant pigs. Thus, we evaluated the effect of progesterone administration upon the experimental taeniosis in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Intact female adult hamsters were randomly divided into 3 groups: progesterone-subcutaneously treated; olive oil-treated as the vehicle group; and untreated controls. Animals were treated every other day during 4 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, all hamsters were orally infected with 4 viable T. solium cysticerci. After 2 weeks post infection, progesterone-treated hamsters showed reduction in adult worm recovery by 80%, compared to both vehicle-treated and non-manipulated infected animals. In contrast to control and vehicle groups, progesterone treatment diminished tapeworm length by 75% and increased proliferation rate of leukocytes from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of infected hamsters by 5-fold. The latter exhibited high expression levels of IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-? at the duodenal mucosa, accompanied with polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration. These results support that progesterone protects hamsters from the T. solium adult tapeworm establishment by improving the intestinal mucosal immunity, suggesting a potential use of analogues of this hormone as novel inductors of the gut immune response against intestinal helminth infections and probably other bowel-related disorders. PMID:22110394

  13. Chinchilla laniger can be used as an experimental model for Taenia solium taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Maravilla, Pablo; Garza-Rodriguez, Adriana; Gomez-Diaz, Benjamin; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Diego Emiliano; Toral-Bastida, Elizabeth; Martinez-Ocaña, Joel; West, Brett; Molina, Nadia; Garcia-Cortes, Ramon; Kawa-Karasik, Simon; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Avila-Ramirez, Guillermina; Flisser, Ana

    2011-12-01

    Chinchilla laniger has been reported as an experimental definitive host for Taenia solium; however no information about its suitability and yield of gravid tapeworm proglottids containing viable and infective eggs has been published. In total 55 outbred female chinchillas were infected with 4 cysticerci each; hosts were immunodeppressed with 6 or 8 mg of methyl-prednisolone acetate every 14 days starting the day of infection and their discomfort was followed. Kinetics of coproantigen ELISA or expelled proglottids was used to define the infection status. Efficiency of tapeworm establishment was 21% and of parasite gravidity was 8%; chinchillas showed some degree of suffering along the infection. Viability of eggs obtained from gravid proglottids was tested comparing methods previously published, our results showed 62% viability with propidium iodide, 54% with trypan blue, 34% with neutral red, 30% by oncosphere activation and 7% with bromide 3-(4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-il)-2,5-difenil-tetrazolio (MTT) reduction; no statistical differences were obtained between most techniques, except activation. Four piglets were infected with 50,000 eggs each, necropsy was performed 3 months later and, after counting the number of cysticerci recovered, the percentage of infection was similar to data obtained with T. solium eggs recovered from humans. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of T. solium taeniasis in C. laniger is a good alternative for providing eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments; optimization of the model probably depends on the use of inbred hosts and on the reduction of infected animals' suffering. PMID:21723412

  14. Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases is increasing in Japan, the current situation is not clear. This is largely because taeniasis and cysticercosis are not notifiable conditions in Japan and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of T. solium infections in Japan conducted in the last 15 years. Herein, we provide an overview of the status of T. solium infection in Japan over the past 35 years and point out the potential risks to Japanese society. PMID:22248435

  15. From stillness to motion: 80 years after the first description of Taenia solium oncosphere hatching

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a considered public health problem in many underdeveloped and developing countries. Because of the enormous increase in international tourism and migration, NCC nowadays is also found in some developed countries. Our group was the first to demonstrate that tapeworm carriers in the household are the main risk factor for acquiring cysticercosis in humans and pigs, since the disease results from the ingestion of microscopic tapeworm eggs. Findings We had the opportunity to film the liberation of the embryo from the oncospheral membrane after the hatching of the egg, which is the activation process required for intestinal wall invasion by the onchosphere. Yoshino (J Formosa Med Ass 32:139-142, 1933) described with great detail in diagrams and photographs this process eighty years ago after he infected himself with three living cysticerci in order to study the life cycle of Taenia solium. Other authors further described this process. Nevertheless it has never been filmed before. The purpose of this paper is to shift from stillness to motion since we can now show for the first time a movie of an activated oncosphere and its release from the oncospheral membrane. Conclusion Oncospheral activation is the requisite for T. solium embryos to invade the intestinal mucosa and develop into cysticerci. This process has been amply described but here it is shown for the first time in motion; thus it may be of interest for readers of the journal and useful for educational purposes towards the control of NCC. PMID:24433262

  16. Corticosteroid Withdrawal Precipitates Perilesional Edema around Calcified Taenia solium Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Rojelio; Nash, Theodore E.

    2013-01-01

    Calcified Taenia solium granulomas are the focus of repeated episodes of perilesional edema and seizures in 50% of persons with calcifications, history of seizures, and a positive serology for cysticercosis. The pathophysiology is unclear but recent studies suggest the edema is caused by inflammation. We report two new cases and four other published cases where cessation of corticosteroids appeared to result in recurrence or new appearance of perilesional edema around calcifications. This suggests that perilesional edema is an immune-mediated phenomenon. PMID:24002482

  17. A Cross-Sectional Study of Taenia solium in a Multiple Taeniid-Endemic Region Reveals Competition May be Protective

    PubMed Central

    Conlan, James V.; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Dorny, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Elliot, Aileen; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R. C. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We conducted cross-sectional surveys for taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans, pigs, and dogs in four northern provinces of Laos. Human cysticercosis and taeniasis prevalence was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4–3.0%) and 8.4% (95% CI = 6.9–9.9%), respectively. Eating uncooked beef, being male, province of residence, age, and ethnicity were significant risk factors for taeniasis and only province of residence was a significant risk factor for cystiercosis. Thirty-five human tapeworms were recovered during the survey and 33 (94.3%) and 2 (5.7%) were identified as Taenia saginata and T. solium, respectively. Maximum-likelihood adjusted prevalence of T. solium and T. hydatigena in pigs was 4.2% (95% CI = 0.5–7.9%) and 55.9% (95% CI = 47.5–64.3%), respectively, and T. hydatigena taeniasis in dogs was 4.8% (95% CI = 0.0–11.3%). Taenia hydatigena and T. saginata were the most prevalent taeniids in the respective pig and human populations and together may suppress T. solium transmission. PMID:22855759

  18. The Disease Burden of Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Manzanedo, Rafael; Berkvens, Dirk; Nsame Nforninwe, Denis; Zoli, André; Quet, Fabrice; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Carabin, Hélène; Geerts, Stanny

    2009-01-01

    Background Taenia solium cysticercosis is an important zoonosis in many developing countries. Human neurocysticercosis is recognised as an important cause of epilepsy in regions where the parasite occurs. However, it is largely underreported and there is a lack of data about the disease burden. Because a body of information on human and porcine cysticercosis in Cameroon is becoming available, the present study was undertaken to calculate the impact of this neglected zoonosis. Methods Both the cost and Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) estimations were applied. All necessary parameters were collected and imported in R software. Different distributions were used according to the type of information available for each of the parameters. Findings Based on a prevalence of epilepsy of 3.6%, the number of people with neurocysticercosis-associated epilepsy was estimated at 50,326 (95% CR 37,299–65,924), representing 1.0% of the local population, whereas the number of pigs diagnosed with cysticercosis was estimated at 15,961 (95% CR 12,320–20,044), which corresponds to 5.6% of the local pig population. The total annual costs due to T. solium cysticercosis in West Cameroon were estimated at 10,255,202 Euro (95% CR 6,889,048–14,754,044), of which 4.7% were due to losses in pig husbandry and 95.3% to direct and indirect losses caused by human cysticercosis. The monetary burden per case of cysticercosis amounts to 194 Euro (95% CR 147–253). The average number of DALYs lost was 9.0 per thousand persons per year (95% CR 2.8–20.4). Interpretation This study provides an estimation of the costs due to T. solium cysticercosis using country-specific parameters and including the human as well as the animal burden of the zoonotic disease. A comparison with a study in South Africa indicates that the cost of inactivity, influenced by salaries, plays a predominant role in the monetary burden of T. solium cysticercosis. Therefore, knowing the salary levels and the prevalence of the disease might allow a rapid indication of the total cost of T. solium cysticercosis in a country. Ascertaining this finding with additional studies in cysticercosis-endemic countries could eventually allow the estimation of the global disease burden of cysticercosis. The estimated number of DALYs lost due to the disease was higher than estimates already available for some other neglected tropical diseases. The total estimated cost and number of DALYs lost probably underestimate the real values because the estimations have been based on epilepsy as the only symptom of cysticercosis. PMID:19333365

  19. Evaluating the Efficacy of Teaching Methods Regarding Prevention of Human Epilepsy Caused by Taenia solium Neurocysticercosis in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Wohlgemut, Jared; Dewey, Cate; Levy, Mike; Mutua, Florence

    2010-01-01

    Taenia solium neurocysticercosis is a major cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. A questionnaire was administered to 282 Kenyan farmers, followed by a workshop, a second questionnaire, one-on-one training, and a third questionnaire. People who attended workshops were more likely to know how T. solium causes epilepsy in humans in the third visit than the second (P = 0.001). The likelihood that farmers would tether their pigs 100% of the time, limiting exposure to tapeworm eggs, increased after the first (P < 0.001) and second visits (P < 0.001). Farmers were more likely to have heard of Cysticercus cellulosae in the second (P = 0.001) and third visits (P = 0.007), and to know how pigs acquire infection in the second (P = 0.03) and third visits (P = 0.003). Farmers with at least a grade 8 education were more likely to know how T. solium is transmitted to humans in the second (P = 0.001) and third visits (P = 0.009), and were more likely to understand the relationship between epilepsy and T. solium in the second (P = 0.03) and third visits (P = 0.03). Grade 8 education may enhance learning from written material. Workshops followed by individual on-farm training enhanced knowledge acquisition and behavior changes. Training local government extension workers contributed to the sustainability of this project. PMID:20348512

  20. Regional status, epidemiology and impact of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Western and Central Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André Zoli; Oliver Shey-Njila; Emmanuel Assana; Jean-Pierre Nguekam; Pierre Dorny; Jef Brandt; Stanny Geerts

    2003-01-01

    In West Africa, Taenia solium cysticercosis in both pigs and man has been reported in Benin, Burkina-Faso, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Senegal and Togo, and although official data are lacking, T. solium is anticipated to be present in most of the pig-raising regions of other West African countries as well. In some regions of Nigeria, the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and

  1. Development and Evaluation of a Magnetic Immunochromatographic Test To Detect Taenia solium, Which Causes Taeniasis and Neurocysticercosis in Humans?

    PubMed Central

    Handali, Sukwan; Klarman, Molly; Gaspard, Amanda N.; Dong, X. Fan; LaBorde, Ronald; Noh, John; Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Wilkins, Patricia P.

    2010-01-01

    Taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a frequent parasitic infection of the human brain in most of the world. Rapid and simple screening tools to identify taeniasis and cysticercosis cases are needed for control programs, mostly to identify tapeworm carriers which are the source of infection and need to be treated, or as tools for point-of-care case detection or confirmation. These screening assays should be affordable, reliable, rapid, and easy to perform. Immunochromatographic tests meet these criteria. To demonstrate proof of principle, we developed and evaluated two magnetic immunochromatographic tests (MICTs) for detection of human Taenia solium taeniasis antibodies (ES33-MICT) and neurocysticercosis antibodies (T24-MICT). These assays detected stage-specific antibodies by using two recombinant proteins, rES33 for detection of taeniasis antibodies and rT24H for detection of cysticercosis antibodies. The sensitivity and specificity of the ES33-MICT to detect taeniasis infections were 94.5% and 96%, respectively, and those of the T24-MICT to detect cases of human cysticercosis with two or more viable brain cysts were 93.9% and 98.9%, respectively. These data provide proof of principle that the ES33- and T24-MICTs provide rapid and suitable methods to identify individuals with taeniasis and cysticercosis. PMID:20181766

  2. Ring-Screening to Control Endemic Transmission of Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    O'Neal, Seth E.; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gavidia, Cesar; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Taenia solium is a major cause of preventable epilepsy in developing nations. Screening and treatment of human intestinal stage infection (taeniasis) within high-risk foci may reduce transmission and prevent epilepsy by limiting human exposure to infective eggs. We piloted a ring-strategy that involves screening and treatment for taeniasis among households located nearby pigs heavily-infected with the larval stage (cysticercosis). These pigs mark areas of increased transmission and can be identified by tongue examination. Methodology We selected two villages in northern Peru for a controlled prospective interventional cohort pilot study. In the intervention village (1,058 residents) we examined the tongues of all pigs every 4 months for nodules characteristic of cysticercosis. We then screened all residents living within 100-meters of any tongue-positive pig using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Taenia antigens in stool. Residents with taeniasis were treated with niclosamide. In both the intervention and control (753 residents) we measured incidence of exposure by sampling the pig population every 4 months for serum antibodies against cysticercosis using enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot. Principal Findings Baseline seroincidence among pigs born during the study was 22.6 cases per 100 pigs per-month (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.0–30.0) in the intervention and 18.1 (95% CI 12.7–25.9) in the control. After one year we observed a 41% reduction in seroincidence in the intervention village compared to baseline (incidence rate ratio 0.59, 95% CI 0.41–0.87) while the seroincidence in the control village remained unchanged. At study end, the prevalence of taeniasis was nearly 4 times lower in the intervention than in the control (prevalence ratio 0.28, 95% CI 0.08–0.91). Conclusions/Significance Ring-screening reduced transmission of T. solium in this pilot study and may provide an effective and practical approach for regions where resources are limited. However, this strategy requires validation in larger populations over a greater period of time. PMID:25210748

  3. Detection of Taenia solium Taeniasis Coproantigen Is an Early Indicator of Treatment Failure for Taeniasis

    PubMed Central

    Bustos, Javier A.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A.; Moyano, Luz M.; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C.; Craig, Philip S.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective. PMID:22336287

  4. Detection of Taenia solium taeniasis coproantigen is an early indicator of treatment failure for taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Javier A; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A; Moyano, Luz M; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C; Craig, Philip S; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-04-01

    Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective. PMID:22336287

  5. Transcriptome analysis of Taenia solium cysticerci using Open Reading Frame ESTs (ORESTES)

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Carolina R; Stoco, Patricia H; Wagner, Glauber; Sincero, Thaís CM; Rotava, Gianinna; Bayer-Santos, Ethel; Rodrigues, Juliana B; Sperandio, Maísa M; Maia, Antônio AM; Ojopi, Elida PB; Zaha, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Henrique B; Tyler, Kevin M; Dávila, Alberto MR; Grisard, Edmundo C; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Background Human infection by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium affects more than 50 million people worldwide, particularly in underdeveloped and developing countries. Cysticercosis which arises from larval encystation can be life threatening and difficult to treat. Here, we investigate for the first time the transcriptome of the clinically relevant cysticerci larval form. Results Using Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) produced by the ORESTES method, a total of 1,520 high quality ESTs were generated from 20 ORESTES cDNA mini-libraries and its analysis revealed fragments of genes with promising applications including 51 ESTs matching antigens previously described in other species, as well as 113 sequences representing proteins with potential extracellular localization, with obvious applications for immune-diagnosis or vaccine development. Conclusion The set of sequences described here will contribute to deciphering the expression profile of this important parasite and will be informative for the genome assembly and annotation, as well as for studies of intra- and inter-specific sequence variability. Genes of interest for developing new diagnostic and therapeutic tools are described and discussed. PMID:19646239

  6. Taenia solium Infections in a Rural Area of Eastern Zambia-A Community Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mwape, Kabemba E.; Phiri, Isaac K.; Praet, Nicolas; Muma, John B.; Zulu, Gideon; de Deken, Reginald; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Background Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a parasitic infection occurring in many developing countries. Data on the status of human infections in Zambia is largely lacking. We conducted a community-based study in Eastern Zambia to determine the prevalence of human taeniosis and cysticercosis in a rural community. Methods and Findings Stool and serum samples were collected from willing participants. Geographical references of the participants' households were determined and household questionnaires administered. Taeniosis was diagnosed in stool samples by coprology and by the polyclonal antibody-based copro-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (copro-Ag ELISA), while cysticercosis was diagnosed in serum by the B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based antigen ELISA (sero-Ag ELISA). Identification of the collected tapeworm after niclosamide treatment and purgation was done using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). A total of 255 households from 20 villages participated in the study, 718 stool and 708 serum samples were collected and examined. Forty-five faecal samples (6.3%) were found positive for taeniosis on copro-Ag ELISA while circulating cysticercus antigen was detected in 5.8% (41/708) individuals. The tapeworm recovered from one of the cases was confirmed to be T. solium on PCR-RFLP. Seropositivity (cysticercosis) was significantly positively related to age (p?=?0.00) and to copro-Ag positivity (taeniosis) (p?=?0.03) but not to gender. Change point analysis revealed that the frequency of cysticercus antigens increased significantly in individuals above the age of 30. Copro-Ag positivity was not related to age or gender. The following risk factors were noted to be present in the study community: free-range pig husbandry system and poor sanitation with 47.8% of the households visited lacking latrines. Conclusions This study has recorded high taeniosis and cysticercosis prevalences and identified the need for further studies on transmission dynamics and impact of the disease on the local people. PMID:22479664

  7. Mapping of Taenia solium TSOL18 antigenic epitopes by phage display library

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aijiang Guo; Xuepeng Cai; Wanzhong Jia; Bing Liu; Shaohua Zhang; Peiya Wang; Hongbing Yan; Xuenong Luo

    2010-01-01

    Taenia solium is a cestode parasite that causes cysticercosis in humans and pigs. TSOL18 has been identified as a host-protective oncosphere\\u000a antigen. To obtain mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against TSOL18 and to map its antigenic epitopes are potentials to develop\\u000a a vaccine for the prevention of T. solium infection. In this study, mAbs were produced by the hybridoma technique using

  8. Complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Taenia saginata: Comparison with T. solium and T. asiatica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyeong-Kyu Jeon; Kyu-Heon Kim; Keeseon S. Eom

    2007-01-01

    The complete sequence of the Taenia saginata mitochondrial genome was determined, and its organization and structure were compared to other human-tropic Taenia tapeworms for which complete mitochondrial sequence data were available. The mitochondrial genome was 13,670 bp long, contained 12 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs, a small and a large subunit), and 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs). It did not encode

  9. Longevity and viability of Taenia solium eggs in the digestive system of the beetle Ammophorus rubripes.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis Antonio; Lopez-Urbina, Maria Teresa; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Gonzalez, Armando Emiliano

    2014-03-01

    The present study evaluated the capacity of Ammophorus rubripes beetles to carry Taenia solium eggs, in terms of duration and viability of eggs in their digestive system. One hundred beetles were distributed into five polyethylene boxes, and then they were infected with T. solium eggs. Gravid proglottids of T. solium were crushed and then mixed with cattle feces. One gram of this mixture was placed in each box for 24 hours, after which each group of beetles was transferred into a new clean box. Then, five beetles were dissected every three days. Time was strongly associated with viability (r=0.89; P<0.001) and the calculated time to cero viability is 36 days. The eggs in the intestinal system of each beetle were counted and tested for viability. Taenia solium eggs were present in the beetle's digestive system for up to 39 days (13th sampling day out of 20), gradually reducing in numbers and viability, which was 0 on day 36 post-infection. Egg viability was around 40% up to day 24 post-infection, with a median number of eggs of 11 per beetle at this time. Dung beetles may potentially contribute towards dispersing T. solium eggs in endemic areas. PMID:24728368

  10. Prevention and control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Robert H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Llanos-Zavalaga, Fernando; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium is endemic in most of the world, causing seizures and other neurological symptoms. Transmission is mainly maintained in rural areas by a human to pig cycle. Despite claims on its eradicability, sustainable interruption of transmission has not yet been reported. This manuscript reviews the conceptual basis for control, available diagnostic and control tools, and recent experiences on control in the field performed in Peru along the past decade PMID:23265557

  11. Human Neurocysticercosis Case and an Endemic Focus of Taenia solium in Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth

    2013-01-01

    A male patient with neurocysticercosis was identified in Montai Village, Xay District, Oudomxay Province, Lao PDR in February 2004. He had a history of diagnosis for neurocysticercosis by a CT scan in Thailand after an onset of epileptic seizure in 1993. A pig in the same district was found to contain Taenia solium metacestodes (=cysticerci); the slaughtered pig body contained more than 2,000 cysticerci. In addition to morphological identification, molecular identification was also performed on the cysticerci by DNA sequencing analysis of the mitochondrial cox1 gene; they were confirmed as T. solium metacestodes. The patient is regarded as an indigenous case of neurocysticercosis infected in an endemic focus of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Oudomxay Province, Lao PDR. PMID:24327790

  12. Evidence for high seroprevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in individuals from three rural communities in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Elizabeth; Cabrera, Zully; Rojas, Glenda; Lares, Maria; Vera, Andez; de Noya, Belkis Alarcon; Fernandez, Iris; Romero, Haidee Urdaneta; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E; Cortez, Milagros M

    2003-01-01

    A serological study was undertaken in 1998 to evaluate levels of Taenia solium cysticercosis in 3 rural Venezuelan communities. Infection with viable metacestodes was diagnosed with a trapping enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects a secreted product of viable parasites. Anti-metacestode antibodies were assayed by ELISA using T. solium vesicular fluid as antigen. A total of 1254 sera was collected from 3 communities (Canoabo, Sanare, and Rio Tocuyo) where previous studies had suggested the presence of T. solium. Our results demonstrate an unusually high seroprevalence of cysticercosis, indicating an attendant risk of transmitting the disease to other areas. The seroprevalence of infection with viable cysts, as indicated by detection of circulating parasite antigen, was 9.1% in Canoabo, 6.1% in Sanare, and 5.7% in Rio Tocuyo. The corresponding frequency of antibodies to T. solium cyst antigens was 36.5% in Canoabo, 36.5% in Sanare, and 4% in Rio Tocuyo. As these communities are probably representative of many others in Venezuela, T. solium cysticercosis may be a significant public health problem and more work is certainly indicated. An important finding was that local knowledge of the disease and its transmission do not necessarily guarantee diminished disease prevalence, indicating a lack of appropriate vigilance towards disease control. PMID:15307416

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CARBOHYDRATE COMPONENTS OF Taenia solium ONCOSPHERE PROTEINS AND THEIR ROLE IN THE ANTIGENICITY

    PubMed Central

    Arana, Yanina; Verastegui, Manuela; Tuero, Iskra; Grandjean, Louis; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the carbohydrate composition of Taenia solium whole oncosphere antigens (WOAs), in order to improve the understanding of the antigenicity of the T. solium. Better knowledge of oncosphere antigens is crucial to accurately diagnose previous exposure to T. solium eggs and thus predict the development of neurocysticercosis. A set of seven lectins conjugates with wide carbohydrate specificity were used on parasite fixations and somatic extracts. Lectin fluorescence revealed that D-mannose, D-glucose, D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues were the most abundant constituents of carbohydrate chains on the surface of T. solium oncosphere. Lectin blotting showed that post-translational modification with N-glycosylation was abundant while little evidence of O-linked carbohydrates was observed. Chemical oxidation and enzymatic deglycosylation in situ were performed to investigate the immunoreactivity of the carbohydrate moieties. Linearizing or removing the carbohydrate moieties from the protein backbones did not diminish the immunoreactivity of these antigens, suggesting that a substantial part of the host immune response against T. solium oncosphere is directed against the peptide epitopes on the parasite antigens. Finally, using carbohydrate probes, we demonstrated for the first time that the presence of several lectins on the surface of the oncosphere was specific to carbohydrates found in intestinal mucus, suggesting a possible role in initial attachment of the parasite to host cells. PMID:23982308

  14. Helminth antigens ( Taenia solium, Taenia crassiceps, Toxocara canis, Schistosoma mansoni and Echinococcus granulosus) and cross-reactivities in human infections and immunized animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. I. Ishida; G. Rubinsky-Elefant; A. W. Ferreira; S. Hoshino-Shimizu; A. J. Vaz

    2003-01-01

    Helminth antigens were investigated in the search for accessible heterologous antigens capable to discriminate different helminthiases, by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the immunoblot assay (IB). Antigens used were: Taenia solium cysticercus total saline (Tso); Taenia crassiceps cysticercus vesicular fluid (Tcra-VF); T. crassiceps cysticercus glycoproteins (Tcra-GP and Tcra-(18-14)-GP); Toxocara canis larva excretory-secretory (TES); Schistosoma mansoni adult total saline

  15. Protection of pigs against Taenia solium cysticercosis by immunization with novel recombinant antigens.

    PubMed

    Gauci, Charles G; Jayashi, César M; Gonzalez, Armando E; Lackenby, Julia; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2012-06-01

    Recombinant antigens from the oncosphere stage of the parasite Taenia solium were expressed in Escherichia coli. The TSOL16, TSOL45-1A and TSOL45-1B recombinant antigens, each consisting of fibronectin type III (FnIII) domain S, were produced as fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and maltose binding protein (MBP). Groups of pigs were immunized twice with the GST fusions of the antigens and boosted a third time with the MBP fusions prior to receiving a challenge infection with T. solium eggs. The TSOL16 antigen was found to be capable of inducing high levels of immunity in pigs against a challenge infection with T. solium. Immunological investigations identified differences in immune responses in the pigs vaccinated with the various antigens. The results demonstrate that the TSOL16 antigen could be a valuable adjunct to current porcine vaccination approaches and may allow the further development of new vaccination strategies against T. solium cysticercosis. PMID:22521850

  16. Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis in Africa: risk factors, epidemiology and prospects for control using vaccination.

    PubMed

    Assana, Emmanuel; Lightowlers, Marshall W; Zoli, André P; Geerts, Stanny

    2013-07-01

    Poor sanitary conditions, free-roaming of domestic pigs and lack of awareness of the disease play an important role in the perpetuation of the Taenia solium taeniosis and cysticercosis in Africa. Traditional pig production systems known as the source of T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis complex are predominant in the continent, representing 60-90% of pig production in rural areas. It has been reported that T. solium cysticercosis is the main cause of acquired epilepsy in human population and results in considerable public health problems and economic costs to the endemic countries. Although the socioeconomic impact and public health burden of cysticercosis have been demonstrated, up to now no large-scale control programme has been undertaken in Africa. Most disease control trials reported in the literature have been located in Latin America and Asia. This review discusses the risk factors and epidemiology of T. solium cysticercosis in Africa and critically analyzes the options available for implementing control of this zoonotic disease in the continent. PMID:23312868

  17. The Vicious Worm: a computer-based Taenia solium education tool.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Maria Vang; Trevisan, Chiara; Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Ertel, Rebekka Lund; Mejer, Helena; Saarnak, Christopher F L

    2014-08-01

    Ignorance is a major obstacle for the effective control of diseases. To provide evidence-based knowledge about prevention and control of Taenia solium cysticercosis, we have developed a computer-based education tool: 'The Vicious Worm'. The tool targets policy makers, professionals, and laypeople, and comprises educational materials including illustrated short stories, videos, and scientific texts designed for the different target groups. We suggest that evidence-based health education is included as a specific control measure in any control programme. PMID:25017127

  18. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Human Taenia Solium Infections in Mbozi District, Mbeya Region, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mwanjali, Gloria; Kihamia, Charles; Kakoko, Deodatus Vitalis Conatus; Lekule, Faustin; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2013-01-01

    Background Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis is emerging as a serious public health and economic problem in many developing countries. This study was conducted to determine prevalence and risk factors of human T. solium infections in Mbeya Region, Tanzania. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 13 villages of Mbozi district in 2009. Sera of 830 people (mean 37.9±11.3 years (SD); 43% females) were tested for circulating cysticerci antigen (Ag-ELISA) and antibody (Ab-ELISA). A subset of persons found seropositive by Ag-ELISA underwent computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain for evidence of neurocysticercosis. Stool samples from 820 of the same participants were tested for taeniosis by copro-antigens (copro-Ag-ELISA) and formol-ether concentration technique. Cases of T. solium taeniosis were confirmed serologically by EITB assay (rES38). A questionnaire was used for identification of risk factors. Active cysticercosis by positive Ag-ELISA was found in 139 (16.7%) persons while anti-cysticercal antibodies were detected in 376 (45.3%) persons by Ab-ELISA. Among 55 persons positive for Ag-ELISA undergoing CT scan, 30 (54.6%) were found to have structures in the brain suggestive of neurocysticercosis. Using faecal analysis, 43 (5.2%) stool samples tested positive for taeniosis by copro-Ag-ELISA while Taenia eggs were detected in 9 (1.1%) stool samples by routine coprology. Antibodies specifically against adult T. solium were detected in 34 copro-Ag-ELISA positive participants by EITB (rES38) indicating T. solium taeniosis prevalence of 4.1%. Increasing age and hand washing by dipping in contrast to using running water, were found associated with Ag-ELISA seropositivity by logistic regression. Gender (higher risk in females) and water source were risk factors associated with Ab-ELISA seropositivity. Reported symptoms of chronic severe headaches and history of epileptic seizures were found associated with positive Ag-ELISA (p?0.05). Conclusion The present study indicates T. solium infection in humans is highly endemic in the southern highlands of Tanzania. PMID:23516650

  19. Taenia solium Oncosphere Adhesion to Intestinal Epithelial and Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells In Vitro?

    PubMed Central

    Verastegui, Manuela; Gilman, Robert H.; Arana, Yanina; Barber, Dylan; Velásquez, Jeanette; Farfán, Marilu; Chile, Nancy; Kosek, Jon C.; Kosek, Margaret; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando

    2007-01-01

    The specific mechanisms underlying Taenia solium oncosphere adherence and penetration in the host have not been studied previously. We developed an in vitro adhesion model assay to evaluate the mechanisms of T. solium oncosphere adherence to the host cells. The following substrates were used: porcine intestinal mucosal scrapings (PIMS), porcine small intestinal mucosal explants (PSIME), Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO cells), epithelial cells from ileocecal colorectal adenocarcinoma (HCT-8 cells), and epithelial cells from colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cells). CHO cells were used to compare oncosphere adherence to fixed and viable cells, to determine the optimum time of oncosphere incubation, to determine the role of sera and monolayer cell maturation, and to determine the effect of temperature on oncosphere adherence. Light microscopy, scanning microscopy, and transmission microscopy were used to observe morphological characteristics of adhered oncospheres. This study showed in vitro adherence of activated T. solium oncospheres to PIMS, PSIME, monolayer CHO cells, Caco-2 cells, and HCT-8 cells. The reproducibility of T. solium oncosphere adherence was most easily measured with CHO cells. Adherence was enhanced by serum-binding medium with >5% fetal bovine serum, which resulted in a significantly greater number of oncospheres adhering than the number adhering when serum at a concentration less than 2.5% was used (P < 0.05). Oncosphere adherence decreased with incubation of cells at 4°C compared with the adherence at 37°C. Our studies also demonstrated that T. solium oncospheres attach to cells with elongated microvillus processes and that the oncospheres expel external secretory vesicles that have the same oncosphere processes. PMID:17698575

  20. Cloning, characterization and functional expression of Taenia solium 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Aceves-Ramos, A; de la Torre, P; Hinojosa, L; Ponce, A; García-Villegas, R; Laclette, J P; Bobes, R J; Romano, M C

    2014-07-01

    The 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17?-HSD) are key enzymes involved in the formation (reduction) and inactivation (oxidation) of sex steroids. Several types have been found in vertebrates including fish, as well as in invertebrates like Caenorhabditis elegans, Ciona intestinalis and Haliotis diversicolor supertexta. To date limited information is available about this enzyme in parasites. We showed previously that Taenia solium cysticerci are able to synthesize sex steroid hormones in vitro when precursors are provided in the culture medium. Here, we identified a T. solium 17?-HSD through in silico blast searches in the T. solium genome database. This coding sequence was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into the pcDNA 3.1(+) expression vector. The full length cDNA contains 957bp, corresponding to an open reading frame coding for 319 aa. The highest identity (84%) at the protein level was found with the Echinococcus multilocularis 17?-HSD although significant similarities were also found with other invertebrate and vertebrate 17?-HSD sequences. The T. solium Tsol-17?HSD belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) protein superfamily. HEK293T cells transiently transfected with Tsol17?-HSD induced expression of Tsol17?-HSD that transformed 3H-androstenedione into testosterone. In contrast, 3H-estrone was not significantly transformed into estradiol. In conclusion, T. solium cysticerci express a 17?-HSD that catalyzes the androgen reduction. The enzyme belongs to the short chain dehydrogenases/reductase family and shares motifs and activity with the type 3 enzyme of some other species. PMID:24698785

  1. Taenia solium metacestode antigens which are protective for pigs induce Th1\\/Th2 mixed responses in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel Cortes; Jose Luis Molinari; Sandra Solano; Lilian Hernandez-Mendoza; Antonio Ramirez; Patricia Tato

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses induced by Taenia solium metacestode antigens in mice and correlate them with the immune responses elicited in vivo. To assess this aim, mice were inoculated with metacestode antigens. RNA was obtained from spleen cells of immunized or control mice incubated with metacestode antigens and used to

  2. Phylogenetic relationships within Echinococcus and Taenia tapeworms (Cestoda: Taeniidae): An inference from nuclear protein-coding genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenny Knapp; Minoru Nakao; Tetsuya Yanagida; Munehiro Okamoto; Urmas Saarma; Antti Lavikainen; Akira Ito

    2011-01-01

    The family Taeniidae of tapeworms is composed of two genera, Echinococcus and Taenia, which obligately parasitize mammals including humans. Inferring phylogeny via molecular markers is the only way to trace back their evolutionary histories. However, molecular dating approaches are lacking so far. Here we established new markers from nuclear protein-coding genes for RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), phosphoenolpyruvate

  3. Characterization of a Thioredoxin-1 Gene from Taenia solium and Its Encoding Product

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Lucía; Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; Ochoa-Sánchez, Alicia; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium thioredoxin-1 gene (TsTrx-1) has a length of 771?bp with three exons and two introns. The core promoter gene presents two putative stress transcription factor binding sites, one putative TATA box, and a transcription start site (TSS). TsTrx-1 mRNA is expressed higher in larvae than in adult. This gene encodes a protein of 107 amino acids that presents the Trx active site (CGPC), the classical secondary structure of the thioredoxin fold, and the highest degree of identity with the Echinococcus granulosus Trx. A recombinant TsTrx-1 (rTsTrx-1) was produced in Escherichia coli with redox activity. Optimal activity for rTsTrx-1 was at pH 6.5 in the range of 15 to 25°C. The enzyme conserved activity for 3?h and lost it in 24?h at 37°C. rTsTrx-1 lost 50% activity after 1?h and lost activity completely in 24?h at temperatures higher than 55°C. Best storage temperature for rTsTrx-1 was at ?70°C. It was inhibited by high concentrations of H2O2 and methylglyoxal (MG), but it was inhibited neither by NaCl nor by anti-rTsTrx-1 rabbit antibodies that strongly recognized a ~12?kDa band in extracts from several parasites. These TsTrx-1 properties open the opportunity to study its role in relationship T. solium-hosts.

  4. Genetic characteristics of Chinese isolates of the tapeworm Taenia pisiformis based on two mitochondrial genes.

    PubMed

    Yang, D Y; Ren, Y J; Fu, Y; Xie, Y; Nong, X; Gu, X B; Wang, S X; Peng, X R; Yang, G Y

    2015-07-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by infections with embryonated eggs of the tapeworm Taenia pisiformis. Knowledge of the genetic characteristics of T. pisiformis could be applied to study the epidemiology and transmission of this parasite. In this study, 61 isolates of intraperitoneal cysticerci from eight geographically distinct regions in Sichuan province, China, were subjected to a molecular analysis in order to determine their intra-regional genetic characteristics. Partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1, 1427 bp) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1, 738 bp) were concatenated. Five haplotypes were identified, and 89.04% of total genetic variation was found in collections of T. pisiformis isolates from a single region. According to the phylogenetic reconstruction, the T. pisiformis isolates from eight regions did not form geographical clusters. Our study highlights the genetic characteristics of T. pisiformis with the aim of accelerating the genetic research and control of cysticercosis. PMID:24690153

  5. The implantation of Taenia solium metacestodes in mice induces down-modulation of T-cell proliferation and cytokine production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lilian Hernández-Mendoza; José Luis Molinari; Esperanza Garrido; Isabel Cortés; Sandra Solano; Enrique Miranda; Patricia Tato

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the implantation of Taenia solium metacestodes and the treatment with suppressive metacestode factor (F1) on the ability of spleen cells from Balb\\/c mice to produce cytokines. Cytokine production was estimated 12 days following the implantation or 4 days after the last dose of F1 (five doses) by RT-PCR and flow cytometry

  6. Complete mitochondrial genomes of Taenia multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis: additional molecular markers for a tapeworm genus of human and animal health significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wan-Zhong Jia; Hong-Bin Yan; Ai-Jiang Guo; Xing-Quan Zhu; Yu-Chao Wang; Wan-Gui Shi; Hao-Tai Chen; Fang Zhan; Shao-Hua Zhang; Bao-Quan Fu; D Timothy J Littlewood; Xue-Peng Cai

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial genomes provide a rich source of molecular variation of proven and widespread utility in molecular ecology, population genetics and evolutionary biology. The tapeworm genus Taenia includes a diversity of tapeworm parasites of significant human and veterinary importance. Here we add complete sequences of the mt genomes of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis, to a data set

  7. Molecular Approaches to Taenia asiatica

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica are taeniid tapeworms that cause taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in intermediate host animals. Taeniases remain an important public health concerns in the world. Molecular diagnostic methods using PCR assays have been developed for rapid and accurate detection of human infecting taeniid tapeworms, including the use of sequence-specific DNA probes, PCR-RFLP, and multiplex PCR. More recently, DNA diagnosis using PCR based on histopathological specimens such as 10% formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and stained sections mounted on slides has been applied to cestode infections. The mitochondrial gene sequence is believed to be a very useful molecular marker for not only studying evolutionary relationships among distantly related taxa, but also for investigating the phylo-biogeography of closely related species. The complete sequence of the human Taenia tapeworms mitochondrial genomes were determined, and its organization and structure were compared to other human-tropic Taenia tapeworms for which complete mitochondrial sequence data were available. The multiplex PCR assay with the Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915 primers will be useful for differential diagnosis, molecular characterization, and epidemiological surveys of human Taenia tapeworms. PMID:23467738

  8. Characterization of a Thioredoxin-1 Gene from Taenia solium and Its Encoding Product.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Lucía; Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; Ochoa-Sánchez, Alicia; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium thioredoxin-1 gene (TsTrx-1) has a length of 771?bp with three exons and two introns. The core promoter gene presents two putative stress transcription factor binding sites, one putative TATA box, and a transcription start site (TSS). TsTrx-1 mRNA is expressed higher in larvae than in adult. This gene encodes a protein of 107 amino acids that presents the Trx active site (CGPC), the classical secondary structure of the thioredoxin fold, and the highest degree of identity with the Echinococcus granulosus Trx. A recombinant TsTrx-1 (rTsTrx-1) was produced in Escherichia coli with redox activity. Optimal activity for rTsTrx-1 was at pH 6.5 in the range of 15 to 25°C. The enzyme conserved activity for 3?h and lost it in 24?h at 37°C. rTsTrx-1 lost 50% activity after 1?h and lost activity completely in 24?h at temperatures higher than 55°C. Best storage temperature for rTsTrx-1 was at -70°C. It was inhibited by high concentrations of H2O2 and methylglyoxal (MG), but it was inhibited neither by NaCl nor by anti-rTsTrx-1 rabbit antibodies that strongly recognized a ~12?kDa band in extracts from several parasites. These TsTrx-1 properties open the opportunity to study its role in relationship T. solium-hosts. PMID:26090410

  9. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine from a community-based study in 21 villages of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Krecek, R C; Michael, L M; Schantz, P M; Ntanjana, L; Smith, M F; Dorny, P; Harrison, L J S; Grimm, F; Praet, N; Willingham, A L

    2008-06-14

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causative organism of porcine cysticercosis and human neurocysticercosis is known to occur in areas of South Africa including Eastern Cape Province but, despite increasing reports of its occurrence throughout the subregion, the prevalence is yet to be clearly established. The parasite presents a potentially serious agricultural problem and public health risk in endemic areas. The human populations considered to be at highest risk of infection with this zoonotic helminth are people living in rural areas most of whom earn their livelihood wholly or partially through livestock rearing. Here we report on initial results of a community-based study of pigs owned by resource-poor, emerging pig producers from 21 villages in the Eastern Cape Province. Lingual examination (tongue palpation) in live pigs, two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), which detect parasite antigen (B158/B60 Ag-ELISA and HP10 Ag-ELISA) and an enzyme immunotransfer blot (EITB) assay, which detects antiparasite antibody, were used to verify endemicity and estimate apparent prevalence. In the absence of a gold standard true prevalence was obtained, using a Bayesian approach, with a model that uses both available data and prior information. Results indicate that the parasite is indeed present in the study villages and that true prevalence was 64.6%. The apparent prevalences as measured by each of the four tests were: 11.9% for lingual examination, 54.8% for B158/B60 Ag-ELISA, 40.6% for HP10 Ag-ELISA and 33.3% for EITB. This base-line knowledge of the prevalence of T. solium in pigs provides information essential to the design and monitoring of sustainable and appropriate interventions for cysticercosis prevention and control. PMID:18440704

  10. Expression of Multiple Taenia Solium Immunogens in Plant Cells Through a Ribosomal Skip Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Monreal-Escalante, Elizabeth; Bañuelos-Hernández, Bernardo; Hernández, Marisela; Fragoso, Gladis; Garate, Teresa; Sciutto, Edda; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a major parasitic disease that affects the human health and the economy in underdeveloped countries. Porcine cysticercosis, an obligatory stage in the parasite life cycle, is a suitable target for vaccination. While several recombinant and synthetic antigens proved to be effective as vaccines, the cost and logistic difficulties have prevented their massive use. Taking this into account, a novel strategy for developing a multi-epitope low-cost vaccine is herein explored. The S3Pvac vaccine components (KETc1, KETc12, KETc7, and GK1 [KETc7]) and the protective HP6/TSOL18 antigen were expressed in a Helios2A polyprotein system, based on the 'ribosomal skip' mechanism mediated by the 2A sequence (LLNFDLLKLAGDVESNPG-P) derived from the Foot-and-mouth disease virus, which induces self-cleavage events at a translational level. This protein arrangement was expressed in transgenic tobacco cells. The inserted sequence and its transcript were detected in several Helios2A lines, with some lines showing recombinant protein accumulation levels up to 1.3 µg/g of fresh weight in leaf tissues. The plant-derived Helios2A vaccine was recognized by antibodies in the cerebral spinal fluid from neurocysticercosis patients and elicited specific antibodies in BALB/c immunized mice. These evidences point to the Helios2A polyprotein as a promising system for expressing multiple antigens of interest for vaccination and diagnosis in one single construction. PMID:25761936

  11. Efficacy and safety of anthelmintics tested against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs.

    PubMed

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-01

    Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE) in 1993, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemotherapy of infected pigs. Different drugs have been tested on porcine cysticercosis with varying efficacies. These include flubendazole, fenbendazole, albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, oxfendazole, praziquantel, and nitazoxanide. This review summarises available information on the efficacies and adverse effects shown by these drugs in pigs. Oxfendazole has shown to be effective for the control of porcine cysticercosis; however, it needs to be integrated with other control approaches. There is a need for standardised guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics against porcine cysticercosis, and more efficacy studies are needed since the conclusions so far are based on a limited number of studies using few infected pigs. PMID:23936558

  12. Identification and quantification of host proteins in the vesicular fluid of porcine Taenia solium cysticerci.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Perea, José; Moguel, Bárbara; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Bobes, Raúl J; Laclette, Juan P

    2014-08-01

    The host-parasite relationship in cestode infections is complex. One feature of this bidirectional molecular communication is the uptake of host proteins by the parasite. Here we describe the presence of several host proteins in the vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci dissected from the central nervous system and the skeletal muscle of naturally infected pigs. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis we compared the protein patterns of vesicular fluids of cysticerci vs. the sera of cysticercotic pigs. We found that the vesicular fluids of both groups of cysts showed 17 protein spots matching with the pig's sera spots. After mass spectrometry sequencing of these spots, five host proteins were identified: hemoglobin, albumin, serpin A3-8, haptoglobin, rho GTPase-activating protein 36-like. Three of the 17 spots corresponded to host protein fragments: hemoglobin, albumin and serpin A3-8. IgG heavy and light chains were also identified by Western blot using a specific antibody. Quantitative estimations indicated that the host proteins represented 11-13% of the protein content in the vesicular fluids. We also calculated the relative abundance of these host proteins in the vesicular fluids; all were represented in similar relative abundances as in host sera. This suggests that uptake of host proteins by cysticerci proceeds through an unspecific mechanism such as non-specific fluid pinocytosis. PMID:24768954

  13. [Construction and identification of the Bifidobacterium expression system pGEX-TSOL18/B. longum of Taenia solium].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bi-Ying; Liu, Mei-Chen; He, Li-Fang

    2014-06-01

    The TSOL18 gene of Taenia solium was synthesized and cloned into Escherichia coli-Bifidobacteria shuttle vector pGEX-1lambdaT. The recombinant plasmid pGEX-TSOL18 was transformed into Bifidobacterium longum with electroporation. The recombinant plasmid containing TSOL18 gene was identified by restriction endonuclease analysis, PCR and DNA sequencing. The length of synthesized TSOL18 gene was 393 bp. The results indicated that the Bifidobacteria expression system pGEX-TSOL18/B. longum was successfully constructed. PMID:25223064

  14. Taenia solium Human Cysticercosis: A Systematic Review of Sero-epidemiological Data from Endemic Zones around the World

    PubMed Central

    Coral-Almeida, Marco; Gabriël, Sarah; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Praet, Nicolas; Benitez, Washington; Dorny, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonotic neglected disease responsible for severe health disorders such as seizures and death. Understanding the epidemiology of human cysticercosis (HCC) in endemic regions will help to expose critical information about the transmission of the disease, which could be used to design efficient control programs. This review gathered serological data on apparent prevalence of T. solium circulating antigens and/or seroprevalence of T. solium antibodies, apparent prevalence of human taeniasis and risk factors for HCC from endemic communities in order to understand the differences in exposure to the parasite and active infections with T. solium metacestodes in endemic areas around the world. Methods Three databases were used to search sero-epidemiological data from community-based studies conducted between 1989 and 2014 in cysticercosis endemic communities worldwide. The search focused on data obtained from T. solium circulating antigen detection by monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA and/or T. solium antibody seroprevalence determined by Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot (EITB). A meta-analysis was performed per continent. Principal Findings A total of 39,271 participants from 19 countries, described in 37 articles were studied. The estimates for the prevalence of circulating T. solium antigens for Africa, Latin America and Asia were: 7.30% (95% CI [4.23–12.31]), 4.08% (95% CI [2.77–5.95]) and 3.98% (95% CI [2.81–5.61]), respectively. Seroprevalence estimates of T. solium antibodies were 17.37% (95% CI [3.33–56.20]), 13.03% (95% CI [9.95–16.88]) and 15.68% (95% CI [10.25–23.24]) respectively. Taeniasis reported prevalences ranged from 0 (95% CI [0.00–1.62]) to 17.25% (95% CI [14.55–20.23]). Significance A significant variation in the sero-epidemiological data was observed within each continent, with African countries reporting the highest apparent prevalences of active infections. Intrinsic factors in the human host such as age and immunity were main determinants for the occurrence of infections, while exposure was mostly related to environmental factors which varied from community to community. PMID:26147942

  15. Incidence of Human Taenia solium Larval Infections in an Ecuadorian Endemic Area: Implications for Disease Burden Assessment and Control

    PubMed Central

    Coral-Almeida, Marco; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Richar; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; García, Héctor Hugo; Rodríguez, Silvia; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Benítez-Ortiz, Washington; Dorny, Pierre; Praet, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Background Human cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease causing severe health disorders and even death. While prevalence data become available worldwide, incidence rate and cumulative incidence figures are lacking, which limits the understanding of the Taenia solium epidemiology. Methodology/Principal findings A seroepidemiological cohort study was conducted in a south-Ecuadorian community to estimate the incidence rate of infection with and the incidence rate of exposure to T. solium based on antigen and antibody detections, respectively. The incidence rate of infection was 333.6 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: [8.4–1,858] per 100,000 person-years) contrasting with a higher incidence rate of exposure 13,370 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: [8,730–19,591] per 100,000 person-years). The proportion of infected individuals remained low and stable during the whole study year while more than 25% of the population showed at least one antibody seroconversion/seroreversion during the same time period. Conclusions/Significance Understanding the transmission of T. solium is essential to develop ad hoc cost-effective prevention and control programs. The estimates generated here may now be incorporated in epidemiological models to simulate the temporal transmission of the parasite and the effects of control interventions on its life cycle. These estimates are also of high importance to assess the disease burden since incidence data are needed to make regional and global projections of morbidity and mortality related to cysticercosis. PMID:24852050

  16. Crystal Structure of Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase from Taenia Solium Reveals Metal-mediated Self-assembly

    SciTech Connect

    A Hernandez-Santoyo; A Landa; E Gonzalez-Mondragon; M Pedraza-Escalona; R Parra-Unda; A Rodriguez-Romero

    2011-12-31

    Taenia solium is the cestode responsible for porcine and human cysticercosis. The ability of this parasite to establish itself in the host is related to its evasion of the immune response and its antioxidant defence system. The latter includes enzymes such as cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. In this article, we describe the crystal structure of a recombinant T. solium Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, representing the first structure of a protein from this organism. This enzyme shows a different charge distribution at the entrance of the active channel when compared with human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, giving it interesting properties that may allow the design of specific inhibitors against this cestode. The overall topology is similar to other superoxide dismutase structures; however, there are several His and Glu residues on the surface of the protein that coordinate metal ions both intra- and intermolecularly. Interestingly, one of these ions, located on the {beta}2 strand, establishes a metal-mediated intermolecular {beta}-{beta} interaction, including a symmetry-related molecule. The factors responsible for the abnormal protein-protein interactions that lead to oligomerization are still unknown; however, high metal levels have been implicated in these phenomena, but exactly how they are involved remains unclear. The present results suggest that this structure could be useful as a model to explain an alternative mechanism of protein aggregation commonly observed in insoluble fibrillar deposits.

  17. In vitro analysis of albendazole sulfoxide enantiomers shows that (+)-(R)-albendazole sulfoxide is the active enantiomer against Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Adriana; de Campos Lourenço, Tiago; Marzal, Miguel; Rivera, Andrea; Dorny, Pierre; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E; Cass, Quezia B

    2013-02-01

    Albendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used in the treatment of neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with Taenia solium cysts. However, drug levels of its active metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), are erratic, likely resulting in decreased efficacy and suboptimal cure rates in NCC. Racemic albendazole sulfoxide is composed of ABZSO (+)-(R)- and (-)-(S) enantiomers that have been shown to differ in pharmacokinetics and activity against other helminths. The antiparasitic activities of racemic ABZSO and its (+)-(R)- and (-)-(S) enantiomers against T. solium cysts were evaluated in vitro. Parasites were collected from naturally infected pigs, cultured, and exposed to the racemic mixture or to each enantiomer (range, 10 to 500 ng/ml) or to praziquantel as a reference drug. The activity of each compound against cysts was assayed by measuring the ability to evaginate and inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and parasite antigen release. (+)-(R)-ABZSO was significantly more active than (-)-(S)-ABZSO in suppressing the release of AP and antigen into the supernatant in a dose- and time-dependent manner, indicating that most of the activity of ABZSO resides in the (+)-(R) enantiomer. Use of this enantiomer alone may lead to increased efficacy and/or less toxicity compared to albendazole. PMID:23229490

  18. Taenia solium Cysticercosis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: How Does Pork Trade Affect the Transmission of the Parasite?

    PubMed Central

    Kabwe, Constantin; Maketa, Vivi; Lukanu, Philippe; Lutumba, Pascal; Polman, Katja; Matondo, Peter; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Sumbu, Julienne

    2010-01-01

    Background Taenia solium, a zoonotic parasite that is endemic in most developing countries where pork is consumed, is recognised as the main cause of acquired epilepsy in these regions. T. solium has been reported in almost all of the neighboring countries of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) but data on the current prevalence of the disease in the country itself are lacking. This study, focusing on porcine cysticercosis (CC), makes part of a first initiative to assess whether cysticercosis is indeed actually present in DRC. Methods An epidemiological study on porcine CC was conducted (1) on urban markets of Kinshasa where pork is sold and (2) in villages in Bas-Congo province where pigs are traditionally reared. Tongue inspection and ELISA for the detection of circulating antigen of the larval stage of T. solium were used to assess the prevalence of active CC in both study sites. Findings The overall prevalence of pigs with active cysticercosis did not significantly differ between the market and the village study sites (38.8 [CI95%: 34–43] versus 41.2% [CI95%: 33–49], respectively). However, tongue cysticercosis was only found in the village study site together with a significantly higher intensity of infection (detected by ELISA). Interpretation Pigs reared at village level are sold for consumption on Kinshasa markets, but it seems that highly infected animals are excluded at a certain level in the pig trade chain. Indeed, preliminary informal surveys on common practices conducted in parallel revealed that pig farmers and/or buyers select the low infected animals and exclude those who are positive by tongue inspection at village level. This study provides the only recent evidence of CC presence in DRC and gives the first estimates to fill an important gap on the African taeniasis/cysticercosis distribution map. PMID:20838646

  19. Isolation of a 14 kDa antigen from Taenia solium cyst fluid by HPLC and its evaluation in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Assana; K. Kanobana; C. B. Tume; P. A. Zoli; Nguekam; S. Geerts; D. Berkvens; P. Dorny

    2007-01-01

    A fraction with a major band of 14kDa was obtained from crude cyst fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci by 2-step chromatography. A first fraction isolated by gel filtration (Sephacryl S-300 high resolution) was purified using an anion exchange column (Mono Q HR 5\\/5) on high performance liquid chromatography. Evaluation of the analytic sensitivity of this fraction (F3) was carried out

  20. Distribution and histopathological changes induced by cysts of Taenia solium in the brain of pigs from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mkupasi, E M; Ngowi, H A; Sikasunge, C S; Leifsson, P S; Johansen, M V

    2014-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium cysts is a frequent but neglected parasitic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe anatomical locations of cysts in the CNS and the corresponding inflammation. A total of 17 naturally infected pigs were used to evaluate the distribution of cysts and, of these, seven were used to evaluate the corresponding inflammation further, through histopathology. Clinical signs in the pigs included dullness, sluggishness, somnolence, apathy and loss of consciousness. Cysts were distributed in all cerebral lobes, i.e. 39.7% in the frontal lobe, 20.3% in the parietal lobe, 20.0% in the occipital lobe and 19.7% in the temporal lobe, and only 0.4% in the cerebellum. No cysts were found in the spinal cord. Cysts were localized as follows: 47.9% in the dorsal subarachnoid, 46.9% in the parenchyma, 4.4% in the subarachnoid base and 0.9% in the ventricles. The results of the histopathology revealed lesions in an early inflammatory stage, i.e. stage I, in all anatomical locations except for two, which showed more of an inflammatory reaction, stage III, in one pig. It was concluded that clinical signs in pigs were neither pathognomonic nor consistent. These signs, therefore, cannot be used as a reliable indicator of porcine NCC. Furthermore, T. solium cysts were found to be in abundance in all cerebral lobes, and only a few were found in the cerebellum. Regarding the inflammatory response, no significant differences were found in the location and total number of cysts. Thus, further studies are needed to explain the determinants of cyst distribution in the CNS and assess in detail clinical signs associated with porcine NCC. PMID:24905052

  1. Distribution and histopathological changes induced by cysts of Taenia solium in the brain of pigs from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mkupasi, E M; Ngowi, H A; Sikasunge, C S; Leifsson, P S; Johansen, M V

    2014-05-27

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium cysts is a frequent but neglected parasitic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe anatomical locations of cysts in the CNS and the corresponding inflammation. A total of 17 naturally infected pigs were used to evaluate the distribution of cysts and, of these, seven were used to evaluate the corresponding inflammation further, through histopathology. Clinical signs in the pigs included dullness, sluggishness, somnolence, apathy and loss of consciousness. Cysts were distributed in all cerebral lobes, i.e. 39.7% in the frontal lobe, 20.3% in the parietal lobe, 20.0% in the occipital lobe and 19.7% in the temporal lobe, and only 0.4% in the cerebellum. No cysts were found in the spinal cord. Cysts were localized as follows: 47.9% in the dorsal subarachnoid, 46.9% in the parenchyma, 4.4% in the subarachnoid base and 0.9% in the ventricles. The results of the histopathology revealed lesions in an early inflammatory stage, i.e. stage I, in all anatomical locations except for two, which showed more of an inflammatory reaction, stage III, in one pig. It was concluded that clinical signs in pigs were neither pathognomonic nor consistent. These signs, therefore, cannot be used as a reliable indicator of porcine NCC. Furthermore, T. solium cysts were found to be in abundance in all cerebral lobes, and only a few were found in the cerebellum. Regarding the inflammatory response, no significant differences were found in the location and total number of cysts. Thus, further studies are needed to explain the determinants of cyst distribution in the CNS and assess in detail clinical signs associated with porcine NCC. PMID:24865274

  2. Triosephosphate isomerase of Taenia solium (TTPI): phage display and antibodies as tools for finding target regions to inhibit catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Sanabria-Ayala, Víctor; Belmont, Iaraset; Abraham, Landa

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that antibodies against triosephosphate isomerase of Taenia solium (TTPI) can alter its enzymatic catalysis. In the present study, we used antibodies produced against the NH2-terminal region of TTPI (1/3NH2TTPI) and the phage display technology to find target regions to inhibit TTPI activity. As a first step, we obtained polyclonal antibodies against non-conserved regions from the 1/3NH2TTPI, which had an inhibitory effect of about 74 % on catalytic activity. Afterward, they were used to screen a library of phage-displayed dodecapeptides; as a result, 41 phage mimotope clones were isolated and grouped according to their amino acid sequence, finding the consensus A1 (VPTXPI), A2 (VPTXXI), B (LTPGQ), and D (DPLPR). Antibodies against selected phage mimotope clones were obtained by rabbit's immunization; these ones clearly recognized TTPI by both Western blot and ELISA. However, only the mimotope PDTS16 (DSVTPTSVMAVA) clone, which belongs to the VPTXXI consensus, raised antibodies capable of inhibiting the TTPI catalytic activity in 45 %. Anti-PDTS16 antibodies were confronted to several synthetic peptides that encompass the 1/3NH2TTPI, and they only recognized three, which share the motif FDTLQK belonging to the helix-?1 in TTPI. This suggests that this motif is the main part of the epitope recognized by anti-PDTS16 antibodies and revealed its importance for TTPI catalysis. PMID:25273631

  3. Genetic variation in the Cytb gene of human cerebral Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from clinically and radiologically heterogeneous patients with neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Palafox-Fonseca, Héctor; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Bobes, Raúl José; Govezensky, Tzipe; Piñero, Daniel; Texco-Martínez, Laura; Fleury, Agnès; Proaño, Jefferson; Cárdenas, Graciela; Hernández, Marisela; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2013-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous parasitic disease caused by the establishment of larval Taenia solium in the human central nervous system. Host and/or parasite variations may be related to this observed heterogeneity. Genetic differences between pig and human-derived T. solium cysticerci have been reported previously. In this study, 28 cysticerci were surgically removed from 12 human NC patients, the mitochondrial gene that encodes cytochrome b was amplified from the cysticerci and genetic variations that may be related to NC heterogeneity were characterised. Nine different haplotypes (Ht), which were clustered in four haplogroups (Hg), were identified. Hg 3 and 4 exhibited a tendency to associate with age and gender, respectively. However, no significant associations were found between NC heterogeneity and the different T. solium cysticerci Ht or Hg. Parasite variants obtained from patients with similar NC clinical or radiological features were genetically closer than those found in groups of patients with a different NC profile when using the Mantel test. Overall, this study establishes the presence of genetic differences in the Cytb gene of T. solium isolated from human cysticerci and suggests that parasite variation could contribute to NC heterogeneity. PMID:24271046

  4. The highly antigenic 53/25 kDa Taenia solium protein fraction with cathepsin-L like activity is present in the oncosphere/cysticercus and induces non-protective IgG antibodies in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zimic, Mirko; Pajuelo, Mónica; Gilman, Robert H.; Gutiérrez, Andrés H.; Rueda, Luis D.; Flores, Myra; Chile, Nancy; Verástegui, Manuela; Gonzalez, Armando; García, Héctor H.; Sheen, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Cathepsin L-like proteases are secreted by several parasites including Taenia solium. The mechanism used by T. solium oncospheres to degrade and penetrate the intestine and infect the host is incompletely understood. It is assumed that intestinal degradation is driven by the proteolytic activity of enzymes secreted by the oncosphere. Blocking the proteolytic activity by an antibody response would prevent the oncosphere penetration and further infection. Serine and cysteine proteases including chymotrypsin, trypsin, elastase, and cathepsin L, are secreted by T. solium and Taenia saginata oncospheres when cultured in vitro, being potential vaccine candidates. However, the purification of a sufficient quantity of proteases secreted by oncospheres to conduct a vaccine trial is costly and lengthy. A 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like fraction partially purified from T. solium cyst fluid was described previously as an important antigen for immunodiagnostics. In this study we found that this antigen is present in the T. solium oncosphere and is also secreted by the cysticercus. This protein fraction was tested for its ability to protect pigs against an oral challenge with T. solium oncospheres in a vaccine trial. IgG antibodies against the 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like protein fraction were elicited in the vaccinated animals but did not confer protection. PMID:22119017

  5. Utility of a Protein Fraction with Cathepsin L-Like Activity Purified from Cysticercus Fluid of Taenia solium in the Diagnosis of Human Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Zimic, Mirko; Pajuelo, Mónica; Rueda, Daniel; López, César; Arana, Yanina; Castillo, Yesenia; Calderón, Maritza; Rodriguez, Silvia; Sheen, Patricia; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Gonzales, Armando; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis, an endemic parasitic disease in most developing countries, is caused by Taenia solium and compromises the human central nervous system. Cathepsin L-like proteases are secreted by several parasites including T. solium and constitute important antigens for immunodiagnostics. A protein fraction with cathepsin L-like activity was purified from the cysticercus fluid by size exclusion and ion exchange chromatography. Cathepsin L-like activity was measured fluorometrically by detecting the hydrolysis of the fluorogenic substrate Z-Phe-Arg-AMC. The purified protein fraction included antigens of 53 and 25 kD that were tested in a Western immunoblot and in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of human cysticercosis. The sensitivity of the Western immunoblot was 96% for patients infected with multiple cysts and 78% for patients with a single cyst. Specificity was 98%. The sensitivity of the ELISA was 98% in patients with multiple cysts and 84% in patients with a single cyst. Specificity was 92.7%. PMID:19478259

  6. Genome analysis of Excretory/Secretory proteins in Taenia solium reveals their Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR)

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Sandra; Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Palafox-Fonseca, Hector; Cantu-Robles, Vito Adrian; Soberón, Xavier; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Bobes, Raúl J.; Laclette, Juan P.; Yauner, Luis del Pozo; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Excretory/Secretory (ES) proteins play an important role in the host-parasite interactions. Experimental identification of ES proteins is time-consuming and expensive. Alternative bioinformatics approaches are cost-effective and can be used to prioritize the experimental analysis of therapeutic targets for parasitic diseases. Here we predicted and functionally annotated the ES proteins in T. solium genome using an integration of bioinformatics tools. Additionally, we developed a novel measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of T. solium secretome using sequence length and number of antigenic regions of ES proteins. This measurement was formalized as the Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR) value. AAR value for secretome showed a similar value to that obtained for a set of experimentally determined antigenic proteins and was different to the calculated value for the non-ES proteins of T. solium genome. Furthermore, we calculated the AAR values for known helminth secretomes and they were similar to that obtained for T. solium. The results reveal the utility of AAR value as a novel genomic measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of secretomes. This comprehensive analysis of T. solium secretome provides functional information for future experimental studies, including the identification of novel ES proteins of therapeutic, diagnosis and immunological interest. PMID:25989346

  7. Why Latrines Are Not Used: Communities’ Perceptions and Practices Regarding Latrines in a Taenia solium Endemic Rural Area in Eastern Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E.; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M.; Phiri, Isaak K.; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities’ perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints).The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people’s approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be effective. PMID:25739017

  8. STANDARDIZATION OF A FLUORESCENT-BASED QUANTITATIVE ADHESION ASSAY TO STUDY ATTACHMENT OF Taenia solium ONCOSPHERE TO EPITHELIAL CELLS In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chile, Nancy; Evangelista, Julio; Gilman, Robert H.; Arana, Yanina; Palma, Sandra; Sterling, Charles R; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando; Verastegui, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    To fully understand the preliminary stages of Taenia solium oncosphere attachment in the gut, adequate tools and assays are necessary to observe and quantify this event that leads to infection. A fluorescent-based quantitative adhesion assay, using biotinylated activated-oncospheres and monolayers of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) or human intestinal monolayer cells (INT-407, HCT-8 or HT-29), was developed to study initial events during the infection of target cells and to rapidly quantify the in vitro adhesion of T. solium oncospheres. Fluorescein streptavidin was used to identify biotinylated activated-oncospheres adhered to cells. This adherence was quantified using an automated fluorescence plate reader, and the results were expressed as fluorescence intensity values. A series of three assays were performed. The first was to identify the optimum number of biotinylated activated-oncospheres to be used in the adhesion assay. The goal of the second assay was to validate this novel method with the established oncosphere-binding system using the immunofluorescent-antibody assay (IFA) method to quantify oncosphere adhesion. A total of 10,000 biotinylated activated-oncospheres were utilized to assess the role of sera and laminin (LM) in oncosphere adherence to a CHO-K1 cell monolayer. The findings that sera and LM increase the adhesion of oncospheres to monolayer cells were similar to results that were previously obtained using the IFA method. The third assay compared the adherence of biotinylated activated-oncospheres to different types of human intestinal monolayer cells. In this case, the fluorescence intensity was greatest when using the INT-407 cell monolayer. We believe this new method of quantification offers the potential for rapid, large-scale screening to study and elucidate specific molecules and mechanisms involved in oncosphere-host cell attachment. PMID:22178422

  9. Evans Blue Staining Reveals Vascular Leakage Associated with Focal Areas of Host-Parasite Interaction in Brains of Pigs Infected with Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Adriana; Cangalaya, Carla; Rivera, Andrea; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Garcia, Hector H.; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Cysticidal drug treatment of viable Taenia solium brain parenchymal cysts leads to an acute pericystic host inflammatory response and blood brain barrier breakdown (BBB), commonly resulting in seizures. Naturally infected pigs, untreated or treated one time with praziquantel were sacrificed at 48 hr and 120 hr following the injection of Evans blue (EB) to assess the effect of treatment on larval parasites and surrounding tissue. Examination of harvested non encapsulated muscle cysts unexpectedly revealed one or more small, focal round region(s) of Evans blue dye infiltration (REBI) on the surface of otherwise non dye-stained muscle cysts. Histopathological analysis of REBI revealed focal areas of eosinophil-rich inflammatory infiltrates that migrated from the capsule into the tegument and internal structures of the parasite. In addition some encapsulated brain cysts, in which the presence of REBI could not be directly assessed, showed histopathology identical to that of the REBI. Muscle cysts with REBI were more frequent in pigs that had received praziquantel (6.6% of 3736 cysts; n?=?6 pigs) than in those that were untreated (0.2% of 3172 cysts; n?=?2 pigs). Similar results were found in the brain, where 20.7% of 29 cysts showed histopathology identical to muscle REBI cysts in praziquantel-treated pigs compared to the 4.3% of 47 cysts in untreated pigs. Closer examination of REBI infiltrates showed that EB was taken up only by eosinophils, a major component of the cellular infiltrates, which likely explains persistence of EB in the REBI. REBI likely represent early damaging host responses to T. solium cysts and highlight the focal nature of this initial host response and the importance of eosinophils at sites of host-parasite interaction. These findings suggest new avenues for immunomodulation to reduce inflammatory side effects of anthelmintic therapy. PMID:24915533

  10. A dot-ELISA using a partially purified cathepsin-L-like protein fraction from Taenia solium cysticerci, for the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Piña, R; Gutiérrez, A H; Gilman, R H; Rueda, D; Sifuentes, C; Flores, M; Sheen, P; Rodriguez, S; GarcÍa, H H; Zimic, M

    2011-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NCC), caused by the cestode Taenia solium, is responsible for a significant amount of neurological morbidity and epilepsy in developing countries. The disease remains highly endemic in many areas, despite several efforts and interventions to control it. A simple, cheap and fast diagnostic assay that is suitable for use in field conditions is highly desired. In immunodiagnostics based on western immunoblots or standard ELISA, a cathepsin-L-like protein purified from the cysticercus fluid has previously performed well as an antigen. In a recent study in Peru, the same 53/25-kDa antigen was therefore used in the development of a dot-ELISA that could be employed for mass screenings under field conditions. The assay was standardized and tested not only against sera from a large group of NCC cases but also against sera from patients with other common parasitic infections, so that sensitivity and specificity could be assessed. For NCC, the assay gave better sensitivity in the detection of individuals with extraparenchymal cysts (94·4%–100%) or multiple parenchymal cysts (74·6%–80·0%) than in the detection of individuals with single parenchymal cysts (29·4%–45·1%). The assay also showed a high specificity for NCC (99·0%–100%), with a very low level of cross-reactivity with other parasitic infections. The dot-ELISA developed in this study is a highly specific, simple, cheap and rapid test for NCC that could be used under field conditions, even in the low-resource settings that are common in developing countries. PMID:21871167

  11. Geographic Correlation between Tapeworm Carriers and Heavily Infected Cysticercotic Pigs

    PubMed Central

    O'Neal, Seth E.; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Diaz, Andre; Rodriguez, Silvia; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. Sustainable community-based interventions are urgently needed to control transmission of the causative parasite, Taenia solium. We examined the geospatial relationship between live pigs with visible cysticercotic cysts on their tongues and humans with adult intestinal tapeworm infection (taeniasis) in a rural village in northern Peru. The objective was to determine whether tongue-positive pigs could indicate high-risk geographic foci for taeniasis to guide targeted screening efforts. This approach could offer significant benefit compared to mass intervention. Methods We recorded geographic coordinates of all village houses, collected stool samples from all consenting villagers, and collected blood and examined tongues of all village pigs. Stool samples were processed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens indicative of active taeniasis; serum was processed by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot for antibodies against T. solium cysticercosis (EITB LLGP) and T. solium taeniasis (EITB rES33). Findings Of 548 pigs, 256 (46.7%) were positive for antibodies against cysticercosis on EITB LLGP. Of 402 fecal samples, 6 (1.5%) were positive for the presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens. The proportion of coproantigen-positive individuals differed significantly between residents living within 100-meters of a tongue-positive pig (4/79, 5.1%) and residents living >100 meters from a tongue-positive pig (2/323, 0.6%) (p?=?0.02). The prevalence of taeniasis was >8 times higher among residents living within 100 meters of a tongue-positive pig compared to residents living outside this range (adjusted PR 8.1, 95% CI 1.4–47.0). Conclusions Tongue-positive pigs in endemic communities can indicate geospatial foci in which the risk for taeniasis is increased. Targeted screening or presumptive treatment for taeniasis within these high-risk foci may be an effective and practical control intervention for rural endemic areas. PMID:23285305

  12. Quantitative screening for anticestode drugs based on changes in baseline enzyme secretion by Taenia crassiceps.

    PubMed

    Mahanty, Siddhartha; Madrid, Elise M; Nash, Theodore E

    2013-02-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with the larval stage of the Taenia solium tapeworm, is responsible for an estimated one-third of adult-onset epilepsy cases in regions of the world where it is endemic. Currently, anthelmintic drugs used for treatment of NCC are only partially effective, and there is, therefore, a pressing need for new therapeutic agents. Discovery of new anthelmintics with activity against T. solium has been limited by the lack of suitable sensitive assays that allow high-throughput screening. Using an in vitro culture system with Taenia crassiceps metacestodes, we demonstrate that changes in secretion of parasite-associated alkaline phosphatase (AP) and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) can be used to detect and quantify anthelmintic effects of praziquantel (PZQ), a drug with activity against T. solium. We applied two enzyme release assays to screen for anti-T. crassiceps activity in nonconventional antiparasitic drugs and demonstrate that nitazoxanide and artesunate induced release of both AP and PGI in differing time- and dose-related patterns. Furthermore, imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor previously reported to have parasiticidal activity against Schistosoma mansoni, also induced release of both AP and PGI in a dose-dependent manner, similar in pattern to that observed with the other anthelmintics. We also evaluated release of ATP into cyst supernatants as an indicator of drug effects but did not see any differences between treated and untreated cysts. These data provide the basis for rapid and quantitative screening assays for testing for anthelmintic activity in candidate anticestode agents. PMID:23229489

  13. Taenia asiatica: the Most Neglected Human Taenia and the Possibility of Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Not only Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, but also Taenia asiatica infects humans. The last species is not included in the evaluation of the specificity of the immunodiagnostic techniques for taeniasis/cysticercosis. There is currently no specific immunodiagnostic method for T. asiatica available. Therefore, due to the fact that molecular techniques (the only tool to distinguish the 3 Taenia species) are normally not employed in routine diagnostic methods, the 2 questions concerning T. asiatica (its definite geographic distribution and its ability to cause human cysticercosis), remain open, turning T. asiatica into the most neglected agent of human taeniasis-cysticercosis. PMID:23467406

  14. A New Parasiticidal Compound in T. solium Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Bello, Romel; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Cervantes-Rebolledo, Claudia; Dowding, Charles; Frincke, James; Reading, Chris; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The effect of 16?-bromoepiandrosterone (EpiBr), a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) analogue, was tested on the cysticerci of Taenia solium, both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro treatment of T. solium cultures with EpiBr reduced scolex evagination, growth, motility, and viability in dose- and time-dependent fashions. Administration of EpiBr prior to infection with T. solium cysticerci in hamsters reduced the number and size of developed taenias in the intestine, compared with controls. These effects were associated to an increase in splenocyte proliferation in infected hamsters. These results leave open the possibility of assessing the potential of this hormonal analogue as a possible antiparasite drug, particularly in cysticercosis and taeniosis. PMID:23509732

  15. Differentiating Taenia eggs found in human stools - Does Ziehl Neelsen staining help?

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Juan A.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Moyano, Luz M.; Castillo, Yesenia; García, Héctor H.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Introduction Unlike other tapeworms, T. solium infections carry risk for neurocysticercosis. Differential diagnosis of human tapeworm infections relies on morphology of the scolex or proglottids, frequently unavailable. DNA-based assays are poorly available in endemic areas. Ziehl Neelsen staining has been suggested but not tested in controlled designs. We validated whether Ziehl Neelsen staining could differentiate T. solium and T. saginata eggs. Methods Tapeworm proglottids (33 specimens, 23 T. solium and 10 T. saginata) and eggs (31 specimens, 13 T. solium and 10 T. saginata) were stained. Four eggs from each sample were measured and average diameters were recorded. Results T. saginata eggs stained entirely magenta in seven of 13 cases. T. solium eggs stained entirely blue/purple in 4/18 cases and entirely magenta in one. Eggs of T. saginata were slightly larger and always ovoid, while T. solium eggs were smaller and were mostly spheric. Conclusions Ziehl Neelsen staining can occasionally distinguish fully mature T. solium from T. saginata eggs. This distinction is poorly sensitive and not completely specific. Differential staining suggest differences in embryophore components between species, evident along egg maturation. In this small series, egg morphology (shape, maximal diameter) provided appropriate differentiation between T. solium and T. saginata eggs. PMID:20579318

  16. Laboratory diagnosis of Taenia asiatica in humans and animals

    PubMed Central

    Parija, Subhash Chandra; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol

    2013-01-01

    Taenia asiatica is a recently described species known to cause intestinal teniasis in humans and cysticercosis in animals. This species has close morphological resemblance to Taenia saginata and has a life cycle resembling Taenia solium, hence has been posing diagnostic dilemma and had been the reason for its comparatively late discovery. Recent diagnostic tools such as serological and molecular techniques have thrown light on its exact prevalence in the endemic countries. Hence introduction of utilization of these techniques in addition to the routine morphological analysis would be helpful in diagnosis of T. asiatica infections and early implementation of preventive measures. PMID:24470995

  17. First Case of Human Cerebral Taenia martis Cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Julie; Benoilid, Aurélien; Kremer, Stéphane; Dalvit, Constanza; Lefebvre, Nicolas; Hansmann, Yves; Chenard, Marie-Pierre; Mathieu, Bruno; Grimm, Felix; Deplazes, Peter; Pfaff, Alexander W; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Marescaux, Christian; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-08-01

    Taenia martis is a tapeworm affecting mustelids, with rodents serving as intermediate hosts. The larval stage (cysticercus) has been found before only rarely in humans or primates. We hereby describe a case of cerebral T. martis cysticercosis in a French immunocompetent patient, confirmed by DNA analyses of biopsy material. PMID:26019196

  18. Taenia saginata taeniosis: copro-antigen time-course in a voluntary self-infection.

    PubMed

    Tembo, A; Craig, P S

    2014-06-19

    Human taeniosis due to Taenia saginata is cosmopolitan where beef is consumed; however, there is little or no information on the symptomatology over the early time-course of human infection. Copro-antigen detection is very useful in community screening for human taeniosis, particularly for T. solium, but there are no data on copro-antigen detection in pre-patent infection. In order to provide insight into this, a voluntary self-infection with T. saginata was undertaken and monitored over a 6-month period using a copro-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that we developed using anti-T. saginata antibody based reagents. Tapeworm patency, defined as first proglottid appearance, occurred on day 86 post-infection (pi) and was followed by almost daily release of proglottids (range 1-8) until termination using praziquantel on day 180 pi. The first 10 weeks post-infection (wpi) were essentially asymptomatic, followed by main symptoms of involuntary proglottid discharge throughout the infection period, and abdominal discomfort peaking around 15-19 wpi. Copro-antigens could not be reliably detected until 2 weeks before proglottid patency but then remained highly elevated over the next 15 weeks until treatment. Copro-antigen levels reverted to negative 4 days post-treatment. This time-course study suggests that although copro-antigen ELISA is an excellent diagnostic tool for established patent infections of T. saginata, it may not be reliable for faecal antigen detection in the early infection phase prior to proglottid release for T. saginata and other human taenioses. PMID:24945107

  19. Tapeworm - beef or pork

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are infected when they pass segments of the worm in their stool, especially if the segments are ... Rarely, worms can cause a blockage in the intestine. If pork tapeworm larvae move out of the intestine, they ...

  20. Molecular identification of species of Taenia causing bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hailemariam, Z; Nakao, M; Menkir, S; Lavikainen, A; Iwaki, T; Yanagida, T; Okamoto, M; Ito, A

    2014-09-01

    Bovine cysticercosis causing damage to the beef industry is closely linked to human taeniasis due to Taenia saginata. In African countries, Taenia spp. from wildlife are also involved as possible sources of infections in livestock. To identify the aetiological agents of bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia, cysticerci were collected from 41 cattle slaughtered in the eastern and central areas during 2010-2012. A single cysticercus per animal was subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, and the resultant sequence was compared with those of members of the genus Taenia. Although 38 out of 41 cysticerci (92.7%) were identified as T. saginata, three samples (7.3%) showed the hitherto unknown sequences of Taenia sp., which is distantly related to Taenia solium, Taenia arctos and Taenia ovis. Old literatures suggest it to be Taenia hyaenae, but morphological identification of species could not be completed by observing only the larval samples. PMID:23452760

  1. Antigens from Taenia crassiceps cysticerci used in complement fixation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and western blot (immunoblot) for diagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, E; Ordoñez, G; Sotelo, J

    1995-01-01

    Antigens from Taenia solium cysticerci for the immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis are scarce and difficult to obtain. We studied the reliability of antigens from Taenia crassiceps cysticerci as a substitute for those from T. solium in three diagnostic tests: complement fixation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blot (immunoblot). Precision rates of the three tests of 93, 99, and 96%, respectively, were found. Cysticerci from T. crassiceps can be easily obtained in large quantities and can be effectively used for the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis. PMID:8586728

  2. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  3. Taenia eggs in a stabilization pond system with poor hydraulics: concern for human cysticercosis?

    PubMed

    Verbyla, Matthew E; Oakley, Stewart M; Lizima, Louis A; Zhang, Jie; Iriarte, Mercedes; Tejada-Martinez, Andres E; Mihelcic, James R

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the removal of Taenia eggs to the removal of Ascaris eggs in a wastewater stabilization pond system consisting of three ponds in series, where the hydraulic residence time distribution has been characterized via a tracer study supported by computational fluid dynamics modeling. Despite a theoretical hydraulic retention time of 30 days, the peak dye concentration was measured in the effluent of the first pond after only 26 hours. The smaller-sized Taenia eggs were detected in higher concentrations than Ascaris eggs in the raw wastewater. Ascaris eggs were not detected in the pond system effluent, but 45 Taenia eggs/L were detected in the system effluent. If some of these eggs were of the species Taenia solium, and if the treated wastewater were used for the irrigation of crops for human consumption, farmers and consumers could potentially be at risk for neurocysticercosis. Thus, limits for Taenia eggs in irrigation water should be established, and precautions should be taken in regions where pig taeniasis is endemic. The results of this study indicate that the theoretical hydraulic retention time (volume/flow) of a pond is not always a good surrogate for helminth egg removal. PMID:24355860

  4. Characterization of the Taenia spp HDP2 sequence and development of a novel PCR-based assay for discrimination of Taenia saginata from Taenia asiatica

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A previously described Taenia saginata HDP2 DNA sequence, a 4-kb polymorphic fragment, was previously used as the basis for developing PCR diagnostic protocols for the species-specific discrimination of T. saginata from T. solium and for the differentiation of T. saginata from T. asiatica. The latter was shown subsequently to lack the required specificity, so we undertook genetic studies of the HDP2 sequence from T. saginata and T. asiatica to determine why, and to develop a novel HDP2-PCR protocol for the simultaneous unambiguous identification of human taeniids. Sequencing and further analysis of the HDP2 DNA fragments of 19 Asiatic isolates of T. saginata and T. asiatica indicated that the HDP2 sequences of both species exhibited clear genomic variability, due to polymorphic variable fragments, that could correspond to the non-transcribed region of ribosomal DNA. This newly observed polymorphism allowed us to develop a novel, reproducible and reliable HDP2-PCR protocol which permitted the simultaneous discrimination of all T. saginata and T. asiatica isolates examined. This species-specific identification was based on, and facilitated by, the clear size difference in amplicon profiles generated: fragments of 1300 bp, 600 bp and 300 bp were produced for T. asiatica, amplicons of 1300 bp and 300 bp being obtained for T. saginata. Control T. solium samples produced one amplicon of 600 bp with the HDP2-PCR protocol. The assay has the potential to prove useful as a diagnostic tool in areas such as South East Asia where T. saginata, T. asiatica and T. solium coexist. PMID:20540755

  5. Relative seroprevalence of cysticercus antigens and antibodies and antibodies to Taenia ova in a population sample in south India suggests immunity against neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, T; Prabhakaran, V; Babu, P; Raghava, M Venkata; Rajshekhar, V; Dorny, P; Muliyil, J; Oommen, A

    2011-03-01

    We evaluated the exposure of a community in Vellore district of south India to Taenia solium infection and its relationship to the prevalence of neurocysticercosis (NCC) causing active epilepsy. Seroprevalence of Taenia cysticercus antigens and antibodies were determined in 1064 randomly chosen asymptomatic individuals, antibodies to T. solium ova in 197 selected sera, and prevalence of taeniasis by a coproantigen test in 729 stool samples. The prevalence of NCC causing active epilepsy in Vellore district was determined in a population of 50 617. Coproantigens were detected in 0.8% (6 samples), Taenia cysticercus antigens in 4.5% (48 sera) and cysticercus IgG antibodies in 15.9% (169 sera) of the population. Cysticercus antibodies were directed against relatively low molecular weight cyst glycoprotein antigens in 14.9% (158 sera) of the population. IgG antibodies to Taenia ova were found in 81 (41.1%) of the selected samples. Prevalence of NCC causing active epilepsy was 1.3 per 1000 population. These results show high exposure of the population to the parasite and a relatively high prevalence of active infections (4.5% antigen positives) but a low prevalence of NCC causing active epilepsy (0.13%). These findings may indicate that the population is protected against developing neurocysticercosis. IgG antibodies directed against Taenia ova and low molecular weight cyst antigens may contribute to protection. PMID:21216417

  6. First report of Taenia arctos (Cestoda: Taeniidae) from grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in North America.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Stefano; Lejeune, Manigandan; Verocai, Guilherme G; Duignan, Pádraig J

    2014-04-01

    The cestode Taenia arctos was found at necropsy in the small intestine of a grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and a black bear (Ursus americanus) from Kananaskis Country in southwestern Alberta, Canada. The autolysis of the tapeworm specimens precluded detailed morphological characterization of the parasites but molecular analysis based on mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene confirmed their identity as T. arctos. This is the first report of T. arctos from definitive hosts in North America. Its detection in Canadian grizzly and black bears further supports the Holarctic distribution of this tapeworm species and its specificity for ursids as final hosts. Previously, T. arctos was unambiguously described at its adult stage in brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos) from Finland, and as larval stages in Eurasian elk (Alces alces) from Finland and moose (Alces americanus) from Alaska, USA. Given the morphological similarity between T. arctos and other Taenia species, the present study underlines the potential for misidentification of tapeworm taxa in previous parasitological reports from bears and moose across North America. The biogeographical history of both definitive and intermediate hosts in the Holarctic suggests an ancient interaction between U. arctos, Alces spp., and T. arctos, and a relatively recent host-switching event in U. americanus. PMID:24382413

  7. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and dingo/domestic dog hybrids), as sylvatic hosts for Australian Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, David J.; Urwin, Nigel A.R.; Williams, Thomas M.; Mitchell, Kate L.; Lievaart, Jan J.; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Foxes (n = 499), shot during vertebrate pest control programs, were collected in various sites in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA). Wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and their hybrids with domestic dogs) (n = 52) captured also as part of vertebrate pest control programs were collected from several sites in the ACT and NSW. The intestine from each fox and wild dog was collected, and all Taenia tapeworms identified morphologically were collected and identified to species based on the DNA sequence of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rrnS) gene. Taenia species were recovered from 6.0% of the ACT/NSW foxes, 5.1% of WA foxes and 46.1% of ACT/NSW wild dogs. Taenia ovis was recovered from two foxes, 1/80 from Jugiong, NSW and 1/102 from Katanning, WA. We confirm from rrnS sequences the presence of T. ovis in cysts from hearts and diaphragms and Taeniahydatigena in cysts from livers of sheep in Australia. T.ovis was not recovered from any of the wild dogs examined but T. hydatigena were recovered from 4(8.3%) wild dogs and a single fox. With foxes identified as a definitive host for T. ovis in Australia, new control strategies to stop transmission of T. ovis to sheep need to be adopted. PMID:25161904

  8. Intraventricular Taenia solium Cysts Presenting with Bruns Syndrome and Indications for Emergent Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Shahani, Lokesh; Garnes, Natalie Dailey; Mejia, Rojelio

    2015-06-01

    Bruns syndrome is an unusual phenomenon, characterized by attacks of sudden and severe headache, vomiting, and vertigo, triggered by abrupt movement of the head. The presumptive cause of Bruns syndrome is a mobile deformable intraventricular mass leading to an episodic obstructive hydrocephalus. Intraventricular tumors have been associated with Bruns syndrome; however, few cases of intraventricular neurocysticercosis have been reported to present with Bruns syndrome. We report the first series of fourth ventricular neurocysticercosis presenting with Bruns syndrome in the United States and review the other published cases where surgery was indicated. PMID:25870426

  9. Cysticercosis: Recent advances in diagnosis and management of neurocysticercosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda S. Yancey; Pedro J. Diaz-Marchan; A. Clinton White

    2005-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis, caused by infection with the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, is increasingly recognized as a cause of neurologic\\u000a disease worldwide. Because the clinical presentation is nonspecific, diagnosis has been difficult. Advances in imaging studies\\u000a and serodiagnostic techniques are facilitating the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis and tapeworm carriers. Neurocysticercosis\\u000a represents a spectrum of disease. Seizures are the main clinical manifestation in parenchymal

  10. Transmission dynamics of Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis in sheep in uruguay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Cabrera; G. Haran; U. Benavidez; S. Valledor; G. Perera; S. Lloyd; M. A. Gemmell; M. Baraibar; A. Morana; J. Maissonave; M. Carballo

    1995-01-01

    A base-line survey was carried out on the transmission dynamics of Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis in sheep in the Department of Florida, Uruguay. Mean life expectancy at birth of the sheep population in this Department was estimated at 3.5 and 4.8 years for male and female sheep, respectively. Both intensity and prevalence of E. granulosus infection increased

  11. Determinants of tapeworm species richness in elasmobranch fishes: untangling environmental and phylogenetic influences

    E-print Network

    Poulin, Robert

    Determinants of tapeworm species richness in elasmobranch fishes: untangling environmental, we use tapeworm parasites of elasmobranch fishes to examine the phylogenetic and environmental group of helminths to infect elasmobranchs. Elasmobranchs are cosmopolitan in distribution

  12. The emergence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Eastern and Southern Africa as a serious agricultural problem and public health risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isaac K. Phiri; Helena Ngowi; Sonia Afonso; Elizabeth Matenga; Mathias Boa; Samson Mukaratirwa; Samuel Githigia; Margaret Saimo; Chummy Sikasunge; Ndichu Maingi; George W. Lubega; Ayub Kassuku; Lynne Michael; Seter Siziya; Rosina C. Krecek; Emilia Noormahomed; Manuela Vilhena; Pierre Dorny; A. Lee Willingham III

    2003-01-01

    Pig production has increased significantly in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region during the past decade, especially in rural, resource-poor, smallholder communities. Concurrent with the increase in smallholder pig keeping and pork consumption, there have been increasing reports of porcine cysticercosis in the ESA region. This article reviews the findings concerning the presence and impact of porcine cysticercosis in

  13. Isolation of polymorphic microsatellite loci from the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minoru Nakao; Yasuhito Sako; Akira Ito

    2003-01-01

    Two microsatellites were isolated from a genomic library of Echinococcus multilocularis. The microsatellites, designated EMms1 and EMms2, consist of tandem repeats of CAC-trinucleotide unit. Southern blot hybridization suggests that each of them is a single locus. Using fox-derived wild tapeworms (N=104), PCR-amplification of microsatellites was performed to assess the usefulness of these loci. We found four alleles of EMms1 and

  14. Developmental inflexibility of larval tapeworms in response to resource variation.

    PubMed

    Benesh, Daniel P

    2010-03-15

    The timing of habitat switching in organisms with complex life cycles is an important life history characteristic that is often influenced by the larval growth environment. Under starvation, longer developmental times are frequently observed, probably as a consequence of developmental thresholds, but prolonged ontogeny sometimes also occurs under good conditions, as organisms may take advantage of the large potential gains in body size. I investigated whether variation in growth conditions affects the larval development time of a complex life cycle tapeworm (Schistocephalus solidus) in its copepod first host. Moreover, I reviewed patterns of developmental plasticity in larval tapeworms to assess the generality of my findings. Copepod starvation weakly retarded parasite growth but did not affect development. Worms grew bigger in larger copepods, but they developed at a similar rate in large and small hosts. Thus, S. solidus does not delay ontogeny under good conditions nor does it fail to reach a developmental threshold under poor conditions. Although unusual in comparison to free-living organisms, such inflexibility is common in tapeworms. Plasticity, namely prolonged ontogeny, has been mainly observed at high infection intensities. For S. solidus, there were large cross-environment genetic correlations for development, suggesting there may be genetic constraints on the evolution of developmental plasticity. PMID:19853609

  15. A solitary facial nodular swelling - A case report of intramuscular cysticercosis in buccinator muscle

    PubMed Central

    Dysanoor, Sujatha; Pol, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    Taenia solium, the larvae of pork tapeworm can cause the parasitic infection known as cysticercosis. It is commonly seen in developing countries. The condition rarely involves orofacial region and represents a difficulty in clinical diagnosis. We present a case report of a healthy middle aged female patient who had a painless swelling on right side of face. The ultrasound examination revealed an intramuscular cysticercosal cyst.

  16. Imaging in neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Dhesi, Balraj; Karia, Sumit J; Adab, Naghme; Nair, Sujit

    2015-04-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a parasitic neurological infection caused by the ingestion of larvae from the adult tapeworm Taenia solium. We describe a man who presented with generalised tonic-clonic seizures. He had been previously diagnosed with epilepsy in Malawi, where he had emigrated from 2 years before this episode. An MRI was performed to further investigate the cause of his seizures, as no previous imaging had been performed. His initial MRI showed multiple characteristic cystic lesions in keeping with neurocysticercosis. PMID:25425681

  17. Removal and Quantification of Asian Tapeworm from Bonytail Chub Using Praziquantel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Ward

    2007-01-01

    The spread of the Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi has been identified as a potential threat to endangered cyprinid fishes, such as bonytail Gila elegans and humpback chub G. cypha. Praziquantel is often used to remove Asian tapeworms from these species, but little information is available on the effectiveness or side effects of these treatments. I performed laboratory experiments using bonytails

  18. Tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Cestoda)—Neglected or Emerging Human Parasite?

    PubMed Central

    Kuchta, Roman; Brabec, Jan; Kubá?ková, Petra; Scholz, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Background A total number of 14 valid species of Diphyllobothrium tapeworms have been described in literature to be capable of causing diphyllobothriosis, with D. latum being the major causative agent of all human infections. However, recent data indicate that some of these infections, especially when diagnosed solely on the basis of morphology, have been identified with this causative agent incorrectly, confusing other Diphyllobothrium species with D. latum. Another widely distributed species, D. dendriticum, has never been considered as a frequent parasite of man, even though it is found commonly throughout arctic and subarctic regions parasitizing piscivorous birds and mammals. Recent cases of Europeans infected with this cestode called into question the actual geographic distribution of this tapeworm, largely ignored by medical parasitologists. Methodology and Results On the basis of revision of more than 900 available references and a description and revision of recent European human cases using morphological and molecular (cox1) data supplemented by newly characterized D. dendriticum sequences, we updated the current knowledge of the life-cycle, geographic distribution, epidemiological status, and molecular diagnostics of this emerging causal agent of zoonotic disease of man. Conclusions The tapeworm D. dendriticum represents an example of a previously neglected, probably underdiagnosed parasite of man with a potential to spread globally. Recent cases of diphyllobothriosis caused by D. dendriticum in Europe (Netherlands, Switzerland and Czech Republic), where the parasite has not been reported previously, point out that causative agents of diphyllobothriosis and other zoonoses can be imported throughout the world. Molecular tools should be used for specific and reliable parasite diagnostics, and also rare or non-native species should be considered. This will considerably help improve our knowledge of the distribution and epidemiology of these human parasites. PMID:24386497

  19. Ground beetle, Opatroides frater (Coleoptera) as natural intermediate host for the poultry tapeworm, Raillietina cesticillus.

    PubMed

    Velusamy, R; Abdul Basith, S; Harikrishnan, T J; Ponnudurai, G; Anna, T; Ramakrishnan, S

    2014-03-01

    Poultry farms in and around Namakkal with a history of tapeworm infection were surveyed for the presence of beetles which could act as intermediate host for the tapeworms. Beetles collected from different poultry farms with suspected tapeworm infection were examined for the presence of metacestode stage of the parasite. A total of 1,880 beetles were collected from 12 poultry farms with suspected tapeworm infection to study the vector potentiality. Out of these, 205 beetles (10.9 %) from nine farms were found to harbour cysticercoids. The percentage of cysticercoid infection in beetles was 8.24, 10.34 and 16.66 % respectively in three different surveys. The beetles harbouring the cysticercoids were identified as Opatroides frater, which may be a natural intermediate host for Raillietina cesticillus. Infection free young chicks (4 weeks old) were experimentally infected with specific number of cysticercoids and prepatent period of tapeworms was found to be between 12 and 13 days. Gravid segments were expelled between 3 and 4 p.m. consistently. The results of this study would help to formulate suitable control measures against the above tapeworm infection. PMID:24505191

  20. Tapeworm eggs in a 270 million-year-old shark coprolite.

    PubMed

    Dentzien-Dias, Paula C; Poinar, George; de Figueiredo, Ana Emilia Q; Pacheco, Ana Carolina L; Horn, Bruno L D; Schultz, Cesar L

    2013-01-01

    Remains of parasites in vertebrates are rare from the Mesozoic and Paleozoic. Once most parasites that live in - or pass through - the gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates, fossil feces (coprolites) or even intestinal contents (enterolites) can eventually preserve their remains. Here we announce the discovery of a spiral shark coprolite from the Paleozoic bearing a cluster of 93 small oval-elliptical smooth-shelled structures, interpreted as eggs of a tapeworm.The eggs were found in a thin section of an elasmobranch coprolite. Most of the eggs are filled by pyrite and some have a special polar swelling (operculum), suggesting they are non-erupted eggs. One of the eggs contains a probable developing larva. The eggs are approximately 145-155 µm in length and 88-100 µm in width and vary little in size within the cluster. The depositional and morphological features of the eggs closely resemble those of cestodes. Not only do the individual eggs have features of extant tapeworms, but their deposition all together in an elongate segment is typical to modern tapeworm eggs deposited in mature segments (proglottids). This is the earliest fossil record of tapeworm parasitism of vertebrates and establishes a timeline for the evolution of cestodes. This discovery shows that the fossil record of vertebrate intestinal parasites is much older than was hitherto known and that the interaction between tapeworms and vertebrates occurred at least since the Middle-Late Permian. PMID:23383033

  1. Schistocephalus solidus: establishment of tapeworms in sticklebacks--fast food or fast lane?

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, Katrin; Kurtz, Joachim

    2007-06-01

    The penetration of the intestinal mucosal wall is supposed to be critical for helminth parasite infestation, but has rarely been analyzed in detail. We here studied the establishment process of Schistocephalus solidus tapeworms in their second intermediate host, the three-spined stickleback, from oral uptake after experimental exposure, to passage through the gastro-intestinal tract and arrival in the fish body cavity. Using histological techniques, we found tapeworms to penetrate the intestine within 14-24 h, spending most of the time in the stomach lumen and only a very short period in the intestine. Unexpectedly, tapeworms lost their outer layer, together with the cercomer, in the intestine lumen rather than later during intestine wall penetration. Once exposed, the underlying tegument with microtriches might serve to facilitate migration of the parasite into the body cavity. PMID:17296178

  2. Genetic Variation and Population Genetics of Taenia saginata in North and Northeast Thailand in relation to Taenia asiatica

    PubMed Central

    Anantaphruti, Malinee; Thaenkham, Urusa; Kusolsuk, Teera; Maipanich, Wanna; Saguankiat, Surapol; Pubampen, Somjit; Phuphisut, Orawan

    2013-01-01

    Taenia saginata is the most common human Taenia in Thailand. By cox1 sequences, 73 isolates from four localities in north and northeast were differentiated into 14 haplotypes, 11 variation sites and haplotype diversity of 0.683. Among 14 haplotypes, haplotype A was the major (52.1%), followed by haplotype B (21.9%). Clustering diagram of Thai and GenBank sequences indicated mixed phylogeny among localities. By MJ analysis, haplotype clustering relationships showed paired-stars-like network, having two main cores surrounded by minor haplotypes. Tajima's D values were significantly negative in T. saginata world population, suggesting population expansion. Significant Fu's Fs values in Thai, as well as world population, also indicate that population is expanding and may be hitchhiking as part of selective sweep. Haplotype B and its dispersion were only found in populations from Thailand. Haplotype B may evolve and ultimately become an ancestor of future populations in Thailand. Haplotype A seems to be dispersion haplotype, not just in Thailand, but worldwide. High genetic T. saginata intraspecies divergence was found, in contrast to its sister species, T. asiatica; among 30 samples from seven countries, its haplotype diversity was 0.067, while only 2 haplotypes were revealed. This extremely low intraspecific variation suggests that T. asiatica could be an endangered species. PMID:23864933

  3. The effect of herbivore faeces on the edaphic mite community: implications for tapeworm transmission.

    PubMed

    Václav, Radovan; Kalúz, Stanislav

    2014-03-01

    Oribatid mites may be of epidemiological and medical importance because several species have been shown to serve as intermediate hosts for anoplocephalid tapeworms of wild and domestic animals. Despite their economic and conservation significance, relatively few studies examined factors influencing the effective number of oribatid mites that can serve as intermediate hosts. We examined variation in the structure of the edaphic arthropod community in functionally different territory parts of the Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota latirostris), a known definitive host of a prevalent anoplocephalid tapeworm, Ctenotaenia marmotae. We used a field experiment to test whether the abundance of oribatid mites in marmot pastures is affected by the presence of fresh herbivore faeces. We found that the abundance of soil and litter dwelling oribatid mites in marmot pastures did not change shortly after faeces addition. In contrast, numbers of other predominant soil-litter and phoretic microarthropods increased after faeces addition. The abundance of the two predominant phoretic mites colonizing the faeces was inversely related to the abundance of oribatid mites. In contrast, the abundance of a ubiquitous soil-litter mesostigmatid mite was a positive function of oribatid numbers. Although absolute numbers of oribatid mites did not change after faeces addition, our study suggests that, depending on soil quality or type, the probability of tapeworm egg ingestion by oribatid mites can be reduced due to increased interspecific prey-predatory and trophic interactions. Latrine site selection in Alpine marmots is consistent with a reduced probability of tapeworm transmission by oribatids. PMID:24114339

  4. An investigation of the co-evolutionary relationships between onchobothriid tapeworms and their elasmobranch hosts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. N Caira; K Jensen

    2001-01-01

    There is general consensus that the living elasmobranchs comprise a monophyletic taxon. There is evidence that, among tetraphyllidean tapeworms, the ?201 hooked species (Onchobothriidae) may also comprise a monophyletic group. Determinations of host specificity are contingent upon correct specific identifications. Since 1960, over 200 new elasmobranch species and over 100 new onchobothriid species have been described. Some confidence can be

  5. Resistance against heterogeneous sequential infections: experimental studies with a tapeworm and its copepod host.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, J; Hammerschmidt, K

    2006-06-01

    Parasite heterogeneity is thought to be an important factor influencing the likelihood and the dynamics of infection. Previous studies have demonstrated that simultaneous exposure of hosts to a heterogeneous mixture of parasites might increase infection success. Here this view is extended towards the effect of parasite heterogeneity on subsequent infections. Using a system of the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus and its copepod intermediate host, heterogeneity of the tapeworm surface carbohydrates is investigated, i.e. structures that are potentially recognized by the invertebrate host's immune system. With lectin labelling, a significant proportion of variation in surface carbohydrates is related to differences in worm sibships (i.e. families). Tapeworm sibships were used for experimental exposure of copepods to either homogeneous combinations of tapeworm larvae, i.e. worms derived from the same sibship or heterogeneous mixtures of larvae, and copepods were subsequently challenged with an unrelated larva to study re-infection. Contrary to expectation, neither an effect of parasite heterogeneity on the current infection, nor on re-infection were found. The effect of parasitic heterogeneity on host immunity is therefore complex, potentially involving increased cross-protection on the one hand, with higher costs of raising a more heterogeneous immune response on the other. PMID:16768863

  6. Disseminated cutaneous cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis: A rare occurrence.

    PubMed

    Sacchidanand, S; Namitha, P; Mallikarjuna, M; Nataraj, H V

    2012-05-01

    Disseminated cysticercosis is a parasitic infestation of pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. A 19-year-old female presented with multiple nodules all over her body since 12 months. Histopathology showed features suggestive of parasitic granuloma with multinucleated giant cells and plenty of eosinophils admixed with necrosis. Ultrasonography of these lesions showed multiple well-defined cystic lesions of varying size with a few specks of calcification. Cranial computed tomography scan showed bilateral, multiple, small hyperdense lesions in the supratentorial compartment. She was treated with oral albendazole and oral corticosteroids. This case is being reported because of its rare, disseminated nature with cutaneous, neural and ocular involvement. PMID:23130290

  7. Isolated intramuscular cysticercosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kanhere, Sujata; Bhagat, Manish; Phadke, Varsha; George, Riya

    2015-01-01

    Human cysticercosis is caused by Cysticercus cellulosae, larvae of a tapeworm, Taenia solium. Cysticercosis can involve any tissue in the body; the most common affected sites are central nervous system, subcutaneous tissue, eyes, and muscles. A few cases of isolated intramuscular cysticercosis without any other tissue involvement have been reported in pediatric population. Here, we report a case of intramuscular cysticercosis diagnosed by ultrasonography in a 5.5 year-old boy who presented with the swellings over the calf and the scapular region, without any associated neurological or ocular involvement. The patient responded well to the course of steroids and Albendazole with complete resolution of both the swellings. PMID:26023298

  8. First record of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in Honduras, Central America

    PubMed Central

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Matamoros, Wilfredo A.; Kreiser, Brian R.; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides the first report of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, in Honduras. The cestode was found in Profundulus portillorum (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae), which represents a new host record, and which is a member of a genus faced with a variety of conservation challenges, now potentially complicated by the presence of this pathogenic cestode. Nearly complete sequence data from the ITS-1 5.8S and ITS-2 regions corroborate the determination based on morphological characteristics. Several species of carp were introduced to Honduras for aquaculture purposes in the early 1980s and the presence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Honduras may be related to these introductions. In addition, this report documents the currently known geographical distribution of this parasite in Central America, first recorded from Panamá and now from Honduras. PMID:25654444

  9. Solid lipid nanoparticle suspension enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of praziquantel against tapeworm

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shuyu; Pan, Baoliang; Shi, Baoxin; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Ming; Zhou, Wenzhong

    2011-01-01

    Hydatid disease caused by tapeworm is an increasing public health and socioeconomic concern. In order to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of praziquantel (PZQ) against tapeworm, PZQ-loaded hydrogenated castor oil solid lipid nanoparticle (PZQ-HCO-SLN) suspension was prepared by a hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. The stability of the suspension at 4°C and room temperature was evaluated by the physicochemical characteristics of the nanoparticles and in-vitro release pattern of the suspension. Pharmacokinetics was studied after subcutaneous administration of the suspension in dogs. The therapeutic effect of the novel formulation was evaluated in dogs naturally infected with Echinococcus granulosus. The results showed that the drug recovery of the suspension was 97.59% ± 7.56%. Nanoparticle diameter, polydispersivity index, and zeta potential were 263.00 ± 11.15 nm, 0.34 ± 0.06, and ?11.57 ± 1.12 mV, respectively and showed no significant changes after 4 months of storage at both 4°C and room temperature. The stored suspensions displayed similar in-vitro release patterns as that of the newly prepared one. SLNs increased the bioavailability of PZQ 5.67-fold and extended the mean residence time of the drug from 56.71 to 280.38 hours. Single subcutaneous administration of PZQ-HCO-SLN suspension obtained enhanced therapeutic efficacy against tapeworm in infected dogs. At the dose of 5 mg/kg, the stool-ova reduction and negative conversion rates and tapeworm removal rate of the suspension were 100%, while the native PZQ were 91.55%, 87.5%, and 66.7%. When the dose reduced to 0.5 mg/kg, the native drug showed no effect, but the suspension still got the same therapeutic efficacy as that of the 5 mg/kg native PZQ. These results demonstrate that the PZQ-HCO-SLN suspension is a promising formulation to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of PZQ. PMID:22072873

  10. Position of Larval Tapeworms, Polypocephalus sp., in the Ganglia of Shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus

    PubMed Central

    Carreon, Nadia; Faulkes, Zen

    2014-01-01

    Parasites that invade the nervous system of their hosts have perhaps the best potential to manipulate their host’s behavior, but how they manipulate the host, if they do at all, could depend on their position within the host’s nervous system. We hypothesize that parasites that live in the nervous system of their host will be randomly distributed if they exert their influence through non-specific effects (i.e., general pathology), but that their position in the nervous system will be non-random if they exert their influence by targeting specific neural circuits. We recorded the position of larval tapeworms, Polypocephalus sp., in the abdominal ganglia of white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus. Tapeworms are more common within ganglia than in the section of the nerve cord between ganglia, even though the nerve cord has a greater volume than the ganglia. The tapeworms are also more abundant in the periphery of the ganglia. Because most synaptic connections are within the central region of the ganglion, such positioning may represent a trade-off between controlling the nervous system and damaging it. PMID:24820854

  11. Position of larval tapeworms, Polypocephalus sp., in the ganglia of shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus.

    PubMed

    Carreon, Nadia; Faulkes, Zen

    2014-07-01

    Parasites that invade the nervous system of their hosts have perhaps the best potential to manipulate their host's behavior, but how they manipulate the host, if they do at all, could depend on their position within the host's nervous system. We hypothesize that parasites that live in the nervous system of their host will be randomly distributed if they exert their influence through non-specific effects (i.e., general pathology), but that their position in the nervous system will be non-random if they exert their influence by targeting specific neural circuits. We recorded the position of larval tapeworms, Polypocephalus sp., in the abdominal ganglia of white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus. Tapeworms are more common within ganglia than in the section of the nerve cord between ganglia, even though the nerve cord has a greater volume than the ganglia. The tapeworms are also more abundant in the periphery of the ganglia. Because most synaptic connections are within the central region of the ganglion, such positioning may represent a trade-off between controlling the nervous system and damaging it. PMID:24820854

  12. An unusual migration of Taenia hydatigena larvae in a lamb.

    PubMed

    Nourani, H; Pirali Kheirabadi, K H; Rajabi, H; Banitalebi, A

    2010-12-01

    The liver and lungs of an four month old, female dead lamb was referred to Veterinary clinic of Shahrekord, Iran by a sheepherder due to outbreak of an unknown disease that caused four deaths in the livestock over a period of one week. Post-mortem examination of the liver showed a massive infection of Taenia hydatigena larvae. Diffuse, spiral and haemorrhagic tracts made by migrating larvae were seen throughout the liver. Large brown to red areas of haemorrhages also appeared on the liver cut surfaces. All the recovered T. hydatigena larvae from migratory canals and hepatic surfaces were all immatures. There was no mature cyst formation. No evidence of pulmonary involvement was found. Histopathological examinations of the liver revealed numerous sections of migratory tracts filled with red blood cells, fibrin and tissue debris. Sections of T. hydatigena larvae were observed at the ends of migratory canals. Hepatocellular degeneration, necrosis, fatty change and infiltration of mixed inflammatory cells, including lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages were associated with these tracts. This article reports outbreak of an unusual and severe hepatitis cysticercosa with striking hepatic lesions that caused mortality in a livestock. PMID:21399607

  13. An up-date of Verster's (1969) `Taxonomic revision of the genus Taenia Linnaeus' (Cestoda) in table format

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brigitte Loos-Frank

    2000-01-01

    The paper `A taxonomic revision of the genus Taenia Linnaeus, 1758 s. str.' (Verster, 1969) gives concise characterisations, together with drawings of rostellar hooks and the terminal genital organs, of the 32 Taenia species and three subspecies which this author found to be valid. Yet, it is hardly possible to quickly identify a questionable species or to readily access information on their

  14. Bovine cysticercosis: Preliminary observations on the immunohistochemical detection of Taenia saginata antigens in lymph nodes of an experimentally infected calf

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A newly developed immunohistochemical test was used for the first time to demonstrate the presence of Taenia saginata (Cysticercus bovis) antigens in the lymph nodes of a heifer calf experimentally inoculated with Taenia saginata eggs. The new test should aid in the differential diagnosis of eosinophilic lymphadenitis in cattle. PMID:15532887

  15. Control of the taeniosis/cysticercosis complex: future developments.

    PubMed

    Flisser, Ana; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2006-07-31

    Cysticercosis is due to the establishment of the larval stage of the zoonotic cestode parasite Taenia solium. The infection causes substantial human morbidity and mortality, particularly in several Latin American countries and parts of Africa and Asia, as well as economic losses in pig husban dry due to condemnation of infected pork meat. The life cycle of T. solium includes human beings as definitive hosts and pigs as intermediate hosts. Cysticercosis is acquired by the ingestion of eggs released by human tapeworm carriers, who become infected after ingesting pork meat contaminated with cysticerci. Taenia solium transmission has been associated with poverty, lack of sanitary services and practices of rearing backyard pigs with free access to the areas that villagers use as toilets, as well as cultural behaviour. Nonetheless, due to the recent increase of migration and tourism, industrial countries are also reporting cases of human cysticercosis. There are many epidemiological studies that have been conducted mainly in Latin American countries that have evaluated intervention measures for control of cysticercosis including the development and testing of vaccines. Furthermore, the involvement of international agencies and institutions, such as the World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization and the International Livestock Research Institute, as well as the commitment of policymakers, scientists and field workers, are key means for the sustainable control and, hopefully, eradication of T. solium infections. PMID:16730125

  16. Prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in French cattle in 2010.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Céline; Morlot, Claire; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Mas, Michel; Grandmontagne, Claude; Gilli-Dunoyer, Pascale; Gay, Emilie; Callait-Cardinal, Marie-Pierre

    2014-06-16

    Bovine cysticercosis is a foodborne disease caused by the cestode Taenia saginata with cattle as the intermediate host and humans as the final host. This disease is responsible for direct financial losses for farmers. It is also economically important because human infestation through raw or undercooked meat consumption can have a negative impact on the confidence the consumer has in the food industry. This study aimed to determine the apparent and true prevalence of bovine cysticercosis in France and describe the locations of identified cysticercosis lesions. The study sample included 4,564,065 cattle slaughtered in 2010 in France, among which 6491 were detected as harbouring cysticercosis lesions using the current EU meat inspection process. The overall apparent prevalence (including both viable and degenerated cysticerci) was estimated at 0.142% [0.142-0.143]. The true overall prevalence defined as the estimation of the prevalence after taking into account the sensitivity of meat inspection (detection fraction) was 1.23% [0.83-1.93]. The true prevalence of cattle with at least one viable cysticercus was 0.113% [0.076-0.189]. Taking into account both our results and those of a previous study on the prevalence of human cysticercosis in France, we estimated that one carcass could infest an average of 8-20 individuals. The spatial distribution of viable cysticerci showed that the highest apparent prevalence was found in eastern France. This study, the largest survey ever conducted on bovine cysticercosis in France, indicated a low but spatially heterogeneous prevalence of the parasite among the cattle population. Considering French eating habits, according to which it is not uncommon to consume undercooked meat, the possibility of humans being infested even though viable cysticerci are not detected during meat inspection is high. Increasing the detection sensitivity of meat inspection through the use of a risk-based meat inspection procedure should improve prevention of human infestation. PMID:24655724

  17. Immune Destruction of Larval Taenia crassiceps in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, K. A.; Spolski, R. J.; See, E. J.; Kuhn, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    Immune destruction of larval Taenia crassiceps was examined by first injecting BALB/cJ mice subcutaneously with larval buds and 30 to 60 days later challenging the mice with larvae injected into the peritoneal cavity. The larvae injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) secondarily are killed by host cells that completely encase the larvae in a thick sheath. The peritoneal exudate cells and the cytokines they produced were characterized by flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). No changes in percentage of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B1 cells, or macrophages were detected in the peritoneal cavities of mice that were killing larvae compared to mice with a primary 7-day infection i.p. Both RT-PCR and ELISA demonstrated a decrease in cytokines including gamma interferon (IFN-?), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and IL-10 in mice that were killing the larvae compared to control mice infected for 30 to 60 days i.p. alone, although there was little difference compared to mice infected for 7 days i.p. alone. Serum cytokine levels in mice that were killing the larvae showed a decrease in IFN-? and IL-4, an increase in IL-10 when compared to mice infected for 30 to 60 days i.p. alone, and increases in all cytokines compared to mice infected for 7 days i.p. alone. Inhibition of nitric oxide production did not significantly affect the number or the viability of larvae in the peritoneal cavity of mice that were killing larvae during secondary infection. PMID:10768922

  18. Preliminary field trial of a vaccine against coenurosis caused by Taenia multiceps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Varcasia; G. Tosciri; G. N. Sanna Coccone; A. P. Pipia; G. Garippa; A. Scala; V. Damien; G. Vural; C. G. Gauci; M. W. Lightowlers

    2009-01-01

    Taenia multiceps is a taeniid cestode that in its adult stage lives in the small intestine of dogs and other canids. In the intermediate hosts, the larval stage of T. multiceps causes coenurosis, a common disease in the CNS of ruminants, which typically leads to the death of the infected animals. Recent research into new methods for control of coenurosis

  19. First record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in muskoxen from Greenland.

    PubMed

    Raundrup, Katrine; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2012-03-23

    A first record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) from the Kangerlussuaq population in West Greenland suggests that introduced muskoxen now contributes to the transmission of this parasite in addition to previous observations from caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Muskoxen and caribou are the only wild ungulates in Greenland. PMID:21955737

  20. Cysticercosis Control: Bringing Advances to the Field

    PubMed Central

    O’Neal, SE; Winthrop, KL; Gonzalez, AE

    2011-01-01

    Progress towards Taenia solium control is evident in the development of new technologies and in increasing regional coordination, yet disease eradication remains unlikely in the near future. In the meantime, translation of research advances into functioning control programs is necessary to address the ongoing disease burden in endemic areas. Multiple screening assays, effective treatments for both human and porcine infection, and vaccines blocking transmission to pigs are currently available. Strategies based on identification and treatment of T. solium adult tapeworms, as well as interventions that block cysticercosis acquisition in pigs have temporarily reduced transmission. Building on these successes with controlled community trials in varying endemic scenarios will drive progress towards regional elimination. PMID:21731303

  1. Surface carbohydrate composition of a tapeworm in its consecutive intermediate hosts: individual variation and fitness consequences.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, Katrin; Kurtz, Joachim

    2005-12-01

    Carbohydrates on parasite surfaces have been shown to play an important role in host-parasite coevolution, mediating host non-self recognition and parasite camouflage. Parasites that switch hosts can change their surface molecules to remain undetected by the diverse immune systems of their different hosts. However, the question of individual variation in surface sugar composition and its relation to infectivity, virulence, immune evasion and growth of a parasite in its different hosts is as yet largely unexplored. We studied such fitness consequences of variation in surface sugars in a sympatric host-parasite system consisting of the cestode Schistocephalus solidus and its intermediate hosts, a copepod and the three-spined stickleback. Using lectins to analyse the sugar composition, we show that the tapeworm changes its surface according to the invertebrate or vertebrate host. Importantly, sugar composition seems to be genetically variable, as shown by differences among tapeworm sibships. These differences are related to variation in parasite fitness in its second intermediate host, i.e. infectivity and growth. Surface sugar composition may thus be a proximate correlate of the evolutionarily relevant variability in infectivity and virulence of parasites in different hosts. PMID:16198355

  2. Altered host behaviour: manipulation or energy depletion in tapeworm-infected copepods?

    PubMed

    Franz, K; Kurtz, J

    2002-08-01

    Parasites are able to influence intermediate hosts in a way that optimizes their growth and transmission to the next host. Macrocyclops albidus (Copepoda) suffer from a reduced escaping ability and an increased level of general activity, when infected with Schistocephalus solidus (Cestoda). This facilitates predation by the subsequent host, the three-spined stickleback. However, instead of adaptive host manipulation by the tapeworm, the altered copepod behaviour might be explained more simply as a constraint of the infection. Energy depletion could lead to decreased muscle performance and increased food searching activity. Furthermore, resource allocation among host tissues might change after infection. We therefore analysed the amount of storage lipids and muscle tissue before and after experimental infection. To determine the amount of muscles, we developed a new polarization-microscopic technique. Irrespective of infection, lipids and muscles were predictors of copepod survival. However, we found no effect of the parasite infection on muscles or lipids, and no indication of a change in resource allocation between these tissues. Our study suggests that behavioural changes in infected copepods are mediated by a mechanism different from energy depletion or a re-allocation of resources between muscles and lipids. We rather propose that the tapeworms directly manipulate copepod behaviour. PMID:12211611

  3. Validity of the bear tapeworm Diphyllobothrium ursi (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidae) based on morphological and molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Muto, Maki; Yamada, Minoru; Arizono, Naoki; Rausch, Robert L

    2012-12-01

    The bear tapeworm Diphyllobothrium ursi is described based upon the morphology of adult tapeworms recovered from the brown bear (Ursus arctos middendorffi) and larval plerocercoids found in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) from Kodiak Island in Alaska in 1952. However, in 1987 D. ursi was synonymized with Diphyllobothrium dendriticum, and the taxonomic relationship between both species has not subsequently been revised. In this study mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) sequences of holotype and paratype D. ursi specimens that had been preserved in a formalin-acetic acid-alcohol solution since the time the species was initially described approximately 60 yr ago were analyzed. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the cox1 sequences revealed that D. ursi is more closely related to D. dendriticum than it is to Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense and Diphyllobothrium latum. In addition to molecular evidence, differences in the life cycle and ecology of the larval plerocercoids between D. ursi and D. dendriticum also suggest that D. ursi is a distinct species, separate from D. dendriticum and D. nihonkaiense, and also possibly from D. latum . PMID:22663179

  4. Molecular Detection and Characterization of Goat Isolate of Taenia hydatigena in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Utuk, Armagan Erdem; Piskin, Fatma Cigdem

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide molecular detection and characterization of the goat isolate of Taenia hydatigena from Ankara province of Turkey. For this purpose, PCR amplification of small subunit ribosomal RNA (rrnS) and partial sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (mt-CO1) genes were performed in a one-month-old dead goat. According to rrnS-PCR results, parasites were identified as Taenia spp., and partial sequence of mt-CO1 gene was corresponding to T. hydatigena. At the end of the study, we concluded that molecular tools can be used to define species of parasites in cases where the key morphologic features cannot be detected. Nucleotide sequence data of Turkish goat isolate of T. hydatigena was submitted to GenBank for other researchers interested in this subject. By this study, molecular detection and characterization of T. hydatigena was done for the first time in Turkey. PMID:22500144

  5. Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis: immune response in susceptible and resistant BALB\\/c mouse substrains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio López-Briones; Edmundo Lamoyi; Gladis Fragoso; Mark J. Soloski; Edda Sciutto

    2003-01-01

    Taenia crassiceps can naturally and experimentally infect rodents in which they reproduce by budding. Differences in the susceptibility to T. crassiceps cysticercosis were found between two BALB\\/c substrains: BALB\\/cAnN (susceptible) and BALB\\/cJ (resistant). In chimeric mice, resistance was transferred to susceptible mice with bone marrow cells from the resistant mice, which argues in favor of an immune mediation of the

  6. Ecological immunology of a tapeworms' interaction with its two consecutive hosts.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, Katrin; Kurtz, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Host-parasite interactions in parasites with complex life cycles have recently gained much interest. Here, we take an evolutionary ecologist's perspective and analyse the immunological interaction of such a parasite, the model tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus, with its two intermediate hosts, a cyclopoid copepod and the three-spined stickleback. We will be focussing especially on the parallel links between the different phases during an infection in the different hosts; the immunological interactions between host(s) and parasite; and their impact on parasite establishment, growth, host manipulation and parasite virulence in the next host in the cycle. We propose to extend the 'extended phenotype' concept and not only include the ultimate but also the proximate, physiological causes. In particular, parasite-induced host manipulation is suggested to be caused by the interactions of the parasite with the hosts' immune systems. PMID:19289192

  7. A proposal to declare neurocysticercosis an international reportable disease.

    PubMed Central

    Román, G.; Sotelo, J.; Del Brutto, O.; Flisser, A.; Dumas, M.; Wadia, N.; Botero, D.; Cruz, M.; Garcia, H.; de Bittencourt, P. R.; Trelles, L.; Arriagada, C.; Lorenzana, P.; Nash, T. E.; Spina-França, A.

    2000-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an infection of the nervous system caused by Taenia solium. It is the most important human parasitic neurological disease and a common cause of epilepsy in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, representing enormous costs for anticonvulsants, medical resources and lost production. Neurocysticercosis is a human-to-human infection, acquired by the faecal-enteric route from carriers of intestinal T. solium, most often in areas with deficient sanitation. Intestinal tapeworms cause few symptoms, but adult taeniae carried by humans release large numbers of infective eggs and are extremely contagious. Ingestion of poorly cooked pig meat infested with T. solium larvae results in intestinal taeniosis but not neurocysticercosis. With a view to hastening the control of taeniosis and neurocysticercosis we propose that neurocysticercosis be declared an international reportable disease. New cases of neurocysticercosis should be reported by physicians or hospital administrators to their health ministries. An epidemiological intervention could then be launched to interrupt the chain of transmission by: (1) searching for, treating and reporting the sources of contagion, i.e. human carriers of tapeworms; (2) identifying and treating other exposed contacts; (3) providing health education on parasite transmission and improvement of hygiene and sanitary conditions; and (4) enforcing meat inspection policies and limiting the animal reservoir by treatment of pigs. We believe that the first step required to solve the problem of neurocysticercosis is to implement appropriate surveillance mechanisms under the responsibility of ministries of health. Compulsory notification also has the major advantage of providing accurate quantification of the incidence and prevalence of neurocysticercosis at regional level, thus permitting the rational use of resources in eradication campaigns. PMID:10812740

  8. An insect-tapeworm model as a proxy for anthelminthic effects in the mammalian host.

    PubMed

    Woolsey, Ian David; Fredensborg, Brian L; Jensen, Per M; Kapel, Christian M O; Meyling, Nicolai V

    2015-07-01

    Invertebrate models provide several important advantages over their vertebrate counterparts including fewer legislative stipulations and faster, more cost-effective experimental procedures. Furthermore, various similarities between insect and mammalian systems have been highlighted. To obtain maximum use of invertebrate models in pharmacology, their fidelity as analogues of vertebrate systems requires verification. We utilised a flour beetle (Tenebrio molitor)-tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta) model to evaluate the efficacy of known anthelmintic compounds, praziquantel, mebendazole and levamisole against H. diminuta cysticercoid larvae in vitro. Inhibition of cysticercoid activity during the excystation procedure was used as a proxy for worm removal. The effects of the three compounds mirrored their relative efficacy in treatment against adult worms in mammalian systems; however, further study is required to determine the fidelity of this model in relation to dose administered. The model precludes comparison of consecutive daily administration of pharmaceuticals in mammals due to cysticercoids not surviving outside of the host for multiple days. Treatment of beetles in vivo, followed by excystation of cysticercoids postdissection could potentially allow for such comparisons. Further model validation will include analysis of pharmaceutical efficacy in varying H. diminuta isolates and pharmaceutical dilution in solvents other than water. Notwithstanding, our results demonstrate that this model holds promise as a method to efficiently identify promising new cestocidal candidates. PMID:25895063

  9. Lifetime inbreeding depression, purging, and mating system evolution in a simultaneous hermaphrodite tapeworm.

    PubMed

    Benesh, Daniel P; Weinreich, Friederike; Kalbe, Martin; Milinski, Manfred

    2014-06-01

    Classical theory on mating system evolution suggests that simultaneous hermaphrodites should either outcross if they have high inbreeding depression (ID) or self-fertilize if they have low ID. However, a mixture of selfing and outcrossing persists in many species. Previous studies with the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus have found worms to self-fertilize some of their eggs despite ID. The probability for selfing to spread depends on the relative fitness of selfers, as well as the genetic basis for ID and whether it can be effectively purged. We bred S. solidus through two consecutive generations of selfing and recorded several fitness correlates over the whole life cycle. After one round of selfing, ID was pronounced, particularly in early-life traits, and the conservatively estimated lifetime fitness of selfed progeny was only 9% that of the outcrossed controls. After a second generation of selfing, ID remained high but was significantly reduced in several traits, which is consistent with the purging of deleterious recessive alleles (the estimated load of lethal equivalents dropped by 48%). Severe ID, even if it can be rapidly purged, likely prevents transitions toward pure selfing in this parasite, although we also cannot exclude the possibility that low-level selfing has undetected benefits. PMID:24611487

  10. Parental effects on the larval performance of a tapeworm in its copepod first host.

    PubMed

    Benesh, D P

    2013-08-01

    Parents can influence the phenotype of their offspring through various mechanisms, besides the direct effect of heredity. Such parental effects are little explored in parasitic organisms, perhaps because in many parasites, per capita investment into offspring is low. I investigated whether parental identity, beyond direct genetic effects, could explain variation in the performance of the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus in its first intermediate host, a copepod. I first determined that two breeding worms could be separated from one another after ~48 h of in vitro incubation and that the isolated worms continued producing outcrossed eggs, that is, rates self-fertilization did not increase after separation. Thus, from a breeding pair, two sets of genetically comparable eggs can be collected that have unambiguous parental identities. In an infection experiment, I found that the development of larval worms tended to vary between the two parental worms within breeding pairs, but infection success and growth rate in copepods did not. Accounting for this parental effect decreased the estimated heritability for development by nearly half. These results suggest that larval performance is not simply a function of a worm's genotype; who mothered or fathered an offspring can also affect offspring fitness, contradicting the perhaps naïve idea that parasites simply produce large quantities of uniformly low-quality offspring. PMID:23859276

  11. Age, season and spatio-temporal factors affecting the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis and Taenia taeniaeformis in Arvicola terrestris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Burlet; Peter Deplazes; Daniel Hegglin

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Taenia taeniaeformis and the related zoonotic cestode Echinococcus multilocularis both infect the water vole Arvicola terrestris. We investigated the effect of age, spatio-temporal and season-related factors on the prevalence of these parasites in their shared intermediate host. The absolute age of the voles was calculated based on their eye lens weights, and we included the mean day temperature and

  12. Egg positive rate of Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia spp. by cellophane tape method in primary school children in Sivas, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Aciöz, Mehmet; De?erli, Serpil; Alim, Ahmet; Aygan, Çetin

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out the number of students with enterobiasis and/or taeniasis in primary schools of Sivas. Among the 2,029 students in 6 primary schools, 316 (15.6%) were positive to Enterobius vermicularis eggs and 32 (1.6%) were positive to Taenia spp. eggs by the cellophane tape method. The egg positive rates of E. vermicularis and Taenia spp. ranged from 9.4% to 27.2% and from 0.8% to 2.6% respectively among six schools. The egg positive rate of E. vermicularis was found to be significantly different among these schools (?2 = 31.96, P < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference between the schools for Taenia spp. (?2 = 4.37; P > 0.05). The rate (18.7%) of E. vermicularis in the urban slum regions was higher than the rate (11.5%) in the urban central regions (?2 = 19.20; P < 0.05). Above results demonstrate that the egg positive rate of E. vermicularis and Taenia spp. was still prevalent among primary school children. PMID:15951641

  13. Ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon in Taenia crassiceps strobilae WFU strain (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Taeniidae) from golden hamsters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaethe Willms; Lilia Robert; José Agustín Jiménez; Mary Everhart; Raymond E. Kuhn

    2004-01-01

    Strobilae from Taenia crassiceps (WFU strain) were obtained from outbred hamsters ( Mesocricetus auratus) by feeding them viable metacestodes maintained by intraperitoneal passage in female Balb\\/c mice. Mature and gravid proglottids from strobilae were recovered from hamster intestines and fixed for light and electron microscopy. By light microscopy, the expected structure of taeniid proglottids was observed. Ultrastructural analysis of ten

  14. Impairment of the chemical defence of the beetle, Tenebrio molitor, by metacestodes (cysticeroids) of the tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta.

    PubMed

    Blankespoor, C L; Pappas, P W; Eisner, T

    1997-07-01

    The defensive glands of beetles, Tenebrio molitor, infected with metacestodes (cysticercoids) of Hymenolepis diminuta are everted less frequently upon stimulation, and contain less toluquinone (methylbenzoquinone) and m-cresol, than glands of uninfected controls. These differences, as shown in predation trials with wild rats, increase the likelihood that both cysticercoids and beetles will be ingested by the tapeworm's definitive host. This is the first documented case of a parasite inhibiting the chemical defence of an intermediate host, and one of only a few reports of parasite-induced manipulation of host biology supported by empirical evidence implicating facilitated parasite transmission between host species. PMID:9226958

  15. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis ), hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme ), and large roundworms (Toxocara...roundworms (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina ), hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum , Ancylostoma braziliense ,...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis ), hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme ), and large roundworms (Toxocara...roundworms (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina ), hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum , Ancylostoma braziliense ,...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Indications for use. For the removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus ); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala ); ascarids (Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina ); and...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis ), hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme ), and large roundworms (Toxocara...roundworms (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina ), hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum , Ancylostoma braziliense ,...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Indications for use . For the removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus ); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala ); ascarids (Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina ); and...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Indications for use . For the removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus ); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala ); ascarids (Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina ); and...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis ), hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme ), and large roundworms (Toxocara...roundworms (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina ), hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum , Ancylostoma braziliense ,...

  2. Evaluation of an antigenic fraction of Taenia hydatigena metacestode cyst fluid for immunodiagnosis of bovine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Kamanga-Sollo, E I; Rhoads, M L; Murrell, K D

    1987-08-01

    An antigenic fraction (ThFAS) isolated from Taenia hydatigena metacestode cyst fluid was used in an ELISA to detect antibodies to T saginata in experimentally and naturally infected cattle. In 10 calves given 1,000 to 100,000 T saginata eggs (20% to 60% viability), IgG and IgM antibodies were detected in all the calves by post-inoculation week 3. Immunoglobulin G antibody values remained increased until calves were slaughtered at post-inoculation weeks 13 to 26. Six naturally infected calves (determined by postmortem examination) were considered positive, using the ELISA. Shared antigens were demonstrated between ThFAS and T saginata and T crassiceps; there were no shared antigens between ThFAS and Haemonchus contortus or Fasciola hepatica. Specific lectin binding to ThFAS indicated the presence of glycoconjugates. Immunoblot analysis indicated that a low molecular weight polypeptide (10,000 Mr) bears the immunodiagnostic antigen. PMID:3631707

  3. Neurocysticercosis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Del Brutto, Oscar H.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroysticercosis is the most common helminthic infection of the nervous system, and a leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The disease occurs when humans become intermediate hosts of Taenia solium by ingesting its eggs from contaminated food or, most often, directly from a taenia carrier by the fecal-to-oral route. Cysticerci may be located in brain parenchyma, subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or spinal cord, causing pathological changes that are responsible for the pleomorphism of neurocysticercosis. Seizures are the most common clinical manifestation, but many patients present with focal deficits, intracranial hypertension, or cognitive decline. Accurate diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is possible after interpretation of clinical data together with findings of neuroimaging studies and results of immunological tests. The introduction of cysticidal drugs have changed the prognosis of most patients with neurocysticercosis. These drugs have shown to reduce the burden of infection in the brain and to improve the clinical course of the disease in most patients. Further efforts should be directed to eradicate the disease through the implementation of control programs against all the interrelated steps in the life cycle of T. solium, including human carriers of the adult tapeworm, infected pigs, and eggs in the environment. PMID:22312322

  4. Inhibition by ouabain and veratridine of acetylcholine-evoked phasic contraction in the guinea-pig taenia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sadaharu Usune I; Takeshi Katsuragi; Tatsuo Furukawa

    1991-01-01

    Inhibitory action of ouabain and veratridine on acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked phasic contraction was examined in the guinea-pig taenia coli. ACh (5×10-4m) produced a biphasic (phasic and tonic) contraction. As the phasic contraction, but not the tonic contraction, was resistant to gallopamil (D600, 2 × 10-7m), a blocker of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, all experiments were carried out in the presence of gallopamil

  5. Evaluation of a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Method Using Fecal Specimens for Differential Detection of Taenia Species from Humans? ‡

    PubMed Central

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Wandra, Toni; Swastika, I. Kadek; Nakao, Minoru; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Qiu, Dongchuan; Ito, Akira

    2010-01-01

    We compared the performance of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with that of a multiplex PCR method for differential detection of human Taenia parasites in fecal specimens from taeniasis patients. The LAMP method, with no false positives, showed a higher sensitivity (88.4%) than the multiplex PCR (37.2%). Thus, it is expected that the LAMP method has a high value for molecular diagnosis of taeniasis. PMID:20631114

  6. Review article Immunodiagnostic tools for taeniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C. Allan; Patricia P. Wilkins; Victor C. W. Tsang; Philip S. Craig

    Most diagnostic work conducted on the Taenia species zoonoses has been carried out on the larval stage of Taenia solium in man, reflecting the relativ es everity of the pathology caused by this stage of that organism. This review will, however, concentrate on the immunodiagnosis of the adult intestinal stages of these parasites in humans. Diagnosis of T. solium will

  7. Rare Case of Disseminated Cysticercosis and Taeniasis in a Japanese Traveler after Returning from India

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Ken-ichiro; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Nishiguchi, Takeshi; Isoda, Kenichi; Kokubo, Yasumasa; Ando, Katsuhiko; Katurahara, Masaki; Sako, Yasuhito; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Ito, Akira; Iwabuchi, Sentaro; Ohnishi, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    We report disseminated cysticercosis concurrent with taeniasis in a 31-year-old male Japanese, who had visited India three times and stayed for 1 month each time during the previous 1 year. The patient presented increasing numbers of subcutaneous nodules and expelled proglottids, although numerous cysts were also found in the brain in imaging findings, though no neurological symptoms were observed. Histopathological and serological findings strongly indicated cysticercosis. We found taeniid eggs in his stool by microscopic examination and revealed them as the Indian haplotype of Taenia solium by mitochondrial DNA analysis. We concluded that disseminated cysticercosis was caused by the secondary autoinfection with eggs released from the tapeworm carrier himself. After confirming the absence of adult worms in the intestine by copro-polymerase chain reaction, the patient was successfully treated with albendazole at a dose of 15 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Subcutaneous and intracranial lesions had completely disappeared by the end of the treatment period. PMID:23629930

  8. Neurocysticercosis: unraveling the nature of the single cysticercal granuloma.

    PubMed

    García, H H; Gonzalez, A E; Rodriguez, S; Tsang, V C W; Pretell, E J; Gonzales, I; Gilman, R H

    2010-08-17

    A single enhancing lesion in the brain parenchyma, also called an inflammatory granuloma, is a frequent neurologic diagnosis. One of the commonest causes of this lesion is human neurocysticercosis, the infection by the larvae of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Following the demonstration that viable cysticercosis cysts survive in good conditions for several years in the human brain, single cysticercal granulomas have been consistently interpreted as representing late degeneration of a long-established parasite. On the basis of epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory evidence detailed in this article, we hypothesize that in most cases these inflammatory lesions correspond to parasites that die in the early steps of infection, likely as the natural result of the host immunity overcoming mild infections. PMID:20713953

  9. Isolated cysticercosis of tongue: a case report.

    PubMed

    Khare, Pratima; Chauhan, Nidhi; Dogra, Rajeev; Kala, Pooja; Chand, Priyanka

    2014-08-01

    Cysticercosis of the tongue is a rare disease caused by infestation with the larval stage of the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) in which man acts as a secondary host rather than a primary host. Most of these lesions are asymptomatic. The patient usually reports to the physician with the complaint of swelling. The solitary swelling in the tongue of this young 12-year-old girl was not suspected clinically for cysticercosis. Fine needle aspiration cytology, used for pre-operative diagnosis, suggested the possibility of cysticercosis. Detailed medical evaluation was carried out which ruled out neural cysticercosis and other extraneural lesions. The complete removal of the lesion was achieved by simple excision. The histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of lingual cysticercosis. PMID:24610792

  10. Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    García, H.H.; Gonzalez, A.E.; Rodriguez, S.; Tsang, V.C.W.; Pretell, E.J.; Gonzales, I.; Gilman, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    A single enhancing lesion in the brain parenchyma, also called an inflammatory granuloma, is a frequent neurologic diagnosis. One of the commonest causes of this lesion is human neurocysticercosis, the infection by the larvae of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Following the demonstration that viable cysticercosis cysts survive in good conditions for several years in the human brain, single cysticercal granulomas have been consistently interpreted as representing late degeneration of a long-established parasite. On the basis of epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory evidence detailed in this article, we hypothesize that in most cases these inflammatory lesions correspond to parasites that die in the early steps of infection, likely as the natural result of the host immunity overcoming mild infections. GLOSSARY NCC = neurocysticercosis; SCG = single cysticercal granuloma. PMID:20713953

  11. Evolution of the trypanorhynch tapeworms: parasite phylogeny supports independent lineages of sharks and rays.

    PubMed

    Olson, Peter D; Caira, Janine N; Jensen, Kirsten; Overstreet, Robin M; Palm, Harry W; Beveridge, Ian

    2010-02-01

    Trypanorhynch tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) are among the most diverse and abundant groups of metazoan parasites of elasmobranchs and are a ubiquitous part of the marine food webs that include these apex predators. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of their phylogeny, character evolution and host associations based on 10years of sampling effort, including representatives of 12 of 15 and 44 of 66 currently recognized trypanorhynch families and genera, respectively. Using a combination of ssrDNA and lsrDNA (Domains 1-3) for 79 and 80 taxa, respectively, we maintain one-to-one correspondence between molecules and morphology by scoring 45 characters from the same specimens used for sequencing, and provide museum vouchers for this material. Host associations are examined through likelihood-based ancestral character state reconstructions (ACSRs) and by estimating dates of divergence using strict and relaxed molecular clock models in a Bayesian context. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses of rDNA produced well-resolved and strongly supported trees in which the trypanorhynchs formed two primary lineages and were monophyletic with respect to the diphyllidean outgroup taxa. These lineages showed marked differences in their rates of divergence which in turn resulted in differing support and stability characteristics within the lineages. Mapping of morphological characters onto the tree resulting from combined analysis of rDNA showed most traits to be highly plastic, including some previously considered of key taxonomic importance such as underlying symmetries in tentacular armature. The resulting tree was found to be congruent with the most recent morphologically based superfamily designations in the order, providing support for four proposed superfamilies, but not for the Tentacularioidea and Eutetrarhynchoidea. ACSRs based on the combined analysis of rDNA estimated the original hosts of the two primary parasite lineages to be alternatively rajiform batoids and carcharhiniform sharks. This fundamental split provides independent support for rejecting the notion that rays are derived sharks, and thus supports the most recent molecular phylogenies of the Neoselachii. Beyond the basal split between shark- and ray-inhabiting lineages, no pattern was found to suggest that the trypanorhynchs have closely tracked the evolutionary histories of these host lineages, but instead, it appears that host-switching has been common and that the subsequent evolution of the parasites has been ecologically driven primarily through overlap in the niches of their shark and ray hosts. Using a relaxed molecular clock model calibrated by means of host fossil data, the ray-inhabiting lineage is estimated to have diversified around the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary, whereas the shark-inhabiting lineage is estimated to have diversified later, in the Middle Cretaceous. Although the large error associated with the estimated divergence dates prevents robust conclusions from being drawn, the dates are nevertheless found to be consistent in a relative sense with the origins of their major hosts groups. The erection and definition of the suborders Trypanobatoida and Trypanoselachoida, for the major clades of trypanorhynchs parasitizing primarily rays and sharks, respectively, is proposed for the two primary lineages recovered here. PMID:19761769

  12. Histochemical and ultrastructural studies on the calcareous corpuscles and eggs of Taenia taeniaeformis and Dipylidium caninum.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Refaat M A; Mazen, Nawal A M; Marawan, Aziza M A; Thabit, Hasnaa T M

    2011-08-01

    Calcareous corpuscles were noticed by several previous workers to be present in larval and adult cestodes without knowing their function. However, nothing was mentioned in the available literature about distribution of these corpuscles and their density, structure and composition in different parts of the body of different cestodes. Hence, in the present work, a comparative study of their distribution, density, histochemical and ultrastructural characters in different parts of the body was performed in Taenia taeniaeformis and Dipylidium caninum. Due to the presence of the eggs in their gravid segments, their histochemical and ultrastructural characteristics were also studied. It was found that the size, location and density of the calcareous bodies were different in different body parts of the same and the other cestode. Histochemically, the main component of these corpuscles was calcium; while other constituents as polysaccharides, lipids, protrins and mucopolysaccharides were found in their outer rim. Ultrastructurally, they were quite similar in the two studied cestodes and different stages of their development were exhibited. Histochemically, the eggs of both cestodes were similar in their contents. However, some ultrastructural differences have been demonstrated particularly in relation to the size and shape of the rods in the embryophore and the structures in between the embryophore and onchosphere. PMID:21980787

  13. Efficacy of albendazole against Taenia multiceps larvae in experimentally infected goats.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Sónia M S; Neves, Luis; Pondja, Alberto; Macuamule, Cristiano; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Arboix, Margarita; Cristòfol, Carles; Capece, Bettencourt P S

    2014-12-15

    A controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of three therapeutics regimes of albendazole (ABZ) against Taenia multiceps larvae in experimental infected goats. Forty-nine goats experimentally infected with 3000 T. multiceps eggs were selected and randomly divided into treatment or control groups. Treatment with 10mg/kg for 3 days for group 1 (G1), 10mg/kg for group 2 (G2) and 20mg/kg/day for group 3 (G3) was applied 2 months after infection; group 4 (G4) served as a control group. A treatment with doses of 10mg/kg/day for 3 days on group 5 (G5) and group 6 (G6) was used as control, 5 months after the infection. The efficacy of ABZ was assessed as percentage of non-viable cysts which were determined by morphologic characteristics, movement and methyl blue staining technique. The efficacy of ABZ against 2 months old cysts was significantly different from the control and were 90.3% (28/31), 72.7% (8/11) and 73.9% (14/19) for G1, G2 and G3, respectively. No differences were observed in cyst viability between treated and control groups for 5-month old cysts. The results in this study indicate that ABZ is effective in goats against 2-month-old cysts of T. multiceps larva located in tissues outside the brain. PMID:25450723

  14. Oncospheral Penetration Glands and Secretory Blebs Are the Sources of Taenia ovis Vaccine Antigens? †

    PubMed Central

    Jabbar, Abdul; Crawford, Simon; Gauci, Charles G.; Walduck, Anna K.; Anderson, Garry A.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

    2010-01-01

    Taenia ovis is a cestode parasite infecting primarily sheep as intermediate hosts and dogs as definitive hosts. The first highly effective, recombinant vaccine against a parasitic organism was developed against T. ovis infection in sheep. Three separate host-protective antigens (To16, To18, and To45W) have been cloned from the oncosphere of the parasite. We localize these antigens in the oncosphere by using quantitative immunogold labeling and transmission electron microscopy. The three antigens were uniquely associated with penetration gland cells. The cytoplasm and secretory granules of both penetration gland type 1 and type 2 cells exhibited statistically significant levels of staining for each of the three antigens. The intensity of labeling of the penetration gland type 1 cell was approximately three to five times greater (P < 0.01) compared to the level of staining intensity seen in the penetration gland type 2 cell. In activated oncospheres, secretory blebs were found to contain granules with a structure similar to those observed in the penetration gland cells. The granules within the secretory blebs were shown to stain specifically for the presence of each of the three host-protective antigens. The absence of surface location of the T. ovis antigens suggests that the parasite may not be susceptible to vaccine-induced antibody- and complement-mediated attack until some postoncospheral development has occurred after infection of the intermediate host. PMID:20643854

  15. A mechanism to account for mouse strain variation in resistance to the larval cestode, Taenia taeniaeformis.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, G F; Rajasekariah, G R; Rickard, M D

    1980-01-01

    Mice of various inbred strains differ markedly in resistance to first infection with Taenia taeniaeformis. Hypothymic nude mice of relatively resistant (e.g. BALB/c) and relatively susceptible (e.g. CBA/H) genotypes are highly susceptible but both can be protected against infection by injection of serum from infected mice. Using differential pH elution of "immune serum" from protein A-Sepharose, evidence was obtained that a combination of the pH 6 eluate (enriched for IgG1 molecules) plus the pH 3 or 4 eluate (enriched for IgG2 molecules) was more effective than either eluate alone at transferring protection to nude mice. By using whole serum transfer techniques, the rate of appearance of "host protective serum activity" (presumably antibody) was shown to be increased in genetically resistant versus susceptible mouse strains. It is suggested that, in relatively resistant mouse strains, host protective antibodies prejudice the establishment (or subsequent survival) of larvae prior to the full expression of protective mechanisms in the establishing larvae. In keeping with a host-protective effect of an accelerated immune response early in infection, a high dose challenge with eggs actually resulted in lower infection levels in genetically resistant mouse strains such as BALB/c and C57B1/6. The proposed mechanism of immunologically mediated, genetically based variation in susceptibility to T. taeniaeformis should not influence the effectiveness of a model vaccine against first infection in all strains of mice. PMID:7380476

  16. Is the human-infecting Diphyllobothrium pacificum a valid species or just a South American population of the holarctic fish broad tapeworm, D. latum?

    PubMed

    Skeríková, Andrea; Brabec, Jan; Kuchta, Roman; Jiménez, Juan A; García, Hector H; Scholz, Tomás

    2006-08-01

    Using ITS2 gene sequences, the validity of the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium pacificum (Nybelin, 1931), infecting humans on the Pacific coast of South America and in Japan, was assessed. ITS2 sequences of this cestode differed markedly (sequence similarity 79.0-80.2%) from those of the most common human-infecting cestode, the broad fish tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum (L.), as well as other four species of Diphyllobothrium, including potential human parasites (D. cordatum, D. dendriticum, and D. lanceolatum) and two species of Spirometra (sequence similarity 77.5-81.9%). Interspecific sequence similarity between all but one (D. pacificum) species was 86.1-99.6%, whereas individual isolates of D. dendriticum and D. ditremum exhibited intraspecific sequence similarity of 97.0-98.0% and 98.2-99.9%, respectively. Phylogenetic trees constructed from ITS2 sequences show a markedly distant position of D. pacificum from other species analyzed and also indicate the possible paraphyly of Spirometra. PMID:16896138

  17. Inhibition of Tapeworm Thioredoxin and Glutathione Pathways by an Oxadiazole N-Oxide Leads to Reduced Mesocestoides vogae Infection Burden in Mice.

    PubMed

    Pasquet, Vivian; Bisio, Hugo; López, Gloria V; Romanelli-Cedrez, Laura; Bonilla, Mariana; Saldaña, Jenny; Salinas, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic flatworms cause serious infectious diseases that affect humans and livestock in vast regions of the world, yet there are few effective drugs to treat them. Thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR) is an essential enzyme for redox homeostasis in flatworm parasites and a promising pharmacological target. We purified to homogeneity and characterized the TGR from the tapeworm Mesocestoides vogae (syn. M. corti). This purification revealed absence of conventional TR and GR. The glutathione reductase activity of the purified TGR exhibits a hysteretic behavior typical of flatworm TGRs. Consistently, M. vogae genome analysis revealed the presence of a selenocysteine-containing TGR and absence of conventional TR and GR. M. vogae thioredoxin and glutathione reductase activities were inhibited by 3,4-bis(phenylsulfonyl)-1,2,5-oxadiazole N2-oxide (VL16E), an oxadiazole N-oxide previously identified as an inhibitor of fluke and tapeworm TGRs. Finally, we show that mice experimentally infected with M. vogae tetrathyridia and treated with either praziquantel, the reference drug for flatworm infections, or VL16E exhibited a 28% reduction of intraperitoneal larvae numbers compared to vehicle treated mice. Our results show that oxadiazole N-oxide is a promising chemotype in vivo and highlights the convenience of M. vogae as a model for rapid assessment of tapeworm infections in vivo. PMID:26132905

  18. Ecological aspects of the occurrence of asian tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934 infection in the largemouth yellowfish, Labeobarbus kimberleyensis ( Gilchrist and Thompson, 1913) in the Vaal Dam, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retief, N.-R.; Avenant-Oldewage, A.; du Preez, H. H.

    Infection of fish by the Asian tapeworm can damage intestines and cause abnormal growth. Eighty largemouth yellowfish Labeobarbus kimberleyensis were collected in the Vaal Dam (26°52.249?S, 28°10.249?E) with the aid of gill nets during a study between April 2005 and February 2006. The fish were killed and the weight and length determined. Thereafter the intestines were removed, the length determined and the intestines opened to expose the tapeworms. The distance between the beginning of the intestine and the attachment position of the first tapeworm was measured, and thereafter all the worms were collected. The prevalence, abundance and mean intensity was calculated for all the surveys. Seasonality and intensity of tapeworms were compared to the intestine and total lengths of the fish. All the tapeworms were identified as the Asian Tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934. The position of the first tapeworm was located between 10% and 20% from the anterior end of the intestine in close proximity to the bile opening. A total of 100% prevalence was recorded for all the surveys and the highest mean intensity of 231.1 was recorded during the autumn survey. The lowest mean intensity of 73.7 was recorded during the summer survey. Although the infection rates were very high, the fish condition was good and apparently the fecundity of the fish was not negatively affected as young fish fry was collected during the summer survey. Parasite numbers are higher and differ from a study conducted in 2000 and this is attributed to water temperature and water quality. No correlation was observed between parasite intensity and total length of each fish. This indicates that intensity is not dependant on host size and that infection is not the result of a buildt of over years.

  19. Androgens Exert a Cysticidal Effect upon Taenia crassiceps by Disrupting Flame Cell Morphology and Function.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Javier R; Valverde-Islas, Laura; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Palacios-Arreola, M Isabel; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Escobedo, Galileo; Ruíz-Rosado, Azucena; Dominguez-Ramírez, Lenin; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The effects of testosterone (T4) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the survival of the helminth cestode parasite Taenia crassiceps, as well as their effects on actin, tubulin and myosin expression and their assembly into the excretory system of flame cells are described in this paper. In vitro evaluations on parasite viability, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, video-microscopy of live flame cells, and docking experiments of androgens interacting with actin, tubulin, and myosin were conducted. Our results show that T4 and DHT reduce T. crassiceps viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, reaching 90% of mortality at the highest dose used (40 ng/ml) and time exposed (10 days) in culture. Androgen treatment does not induce differences in the specific expression pattern of actin, tubulin, and myosin isoforms as compared with control parasites. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a strong disruption of the parasite tegument, with reduced assembly, shape, and motion of flame cells. Docking experiments show that androgens are capable of affecting parasite survival and flame cell morphology by directly interacting with actin, tubulin and myosin without altering their protein expression pattern. We show that both T4 and DHT are able to bind actin, tubulin, and myosin affecting their assembly and causing parasite intoxication due to impairment of flame cell function. Live flame cell video microscopy showing a reduced motion as well changes in the shape of flame cells are also shown. In summary, T4 and DHT directly act on T. crassiceps cysticerci through altering parasite survival as well as the assembly and function of flame cells. PMID:26076446

  20. Sodium/sodium exchange in the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig taenia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Brading, A F

    1975-01-01

    External Na has been shown to initiate a loss of 24 Na from high-Na smooth muscle of the guinea-pig taenia coli. This is an ouabain-insensitive effect, and there appears to be a 1:1 exchange of Na ions, suggesting a classical Na/Na exchange mechanism. 2. The Na/Na exchange has many properties in common with a similar exchange studied in high-Na beef erythrocytes by Motais (1973), and Motais & Sola (1973). It is very temperature-sensitive, it is partially inhibited by the sulphydryl reagents studied and it has a fairly low external affinity for Na. 3. The affinity of the external site for alkali metal cations is Na greater than Li greater than K greater than Rb greater than Cs. 4. It has proved impossible to estimate the affinity of the intracellular sites for Na. The curve relating intracellular Na content with the stimulated efflux reaches a maximum and then declines slightly. 5. Another unexpected finding was that after the rate of loss of Na has been reduced in a Na-free medium, reintroducing Na causes an overshoot in the rate, it increases to a value beyond the original one, and then slowly declines to it. 6. Unlike the classical Na/Na mechanism, the process is reduced, but not abolished by metabolic inhibition that depletes the tissue of ATP. 7. The results are interpreted to suggest that the Na/Na exchange is occurring from a cellular compartment of limited volume, which is itself exchanging with the main cell compartment. It is suggested that this small compartment is the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and the effect of metabolic inhibition is to interfere in some way with the relationship between this compartment and the cell membrane. PMID:1185662

  1. Identification of neglected cestode Taenia multiceps microRNAs by illumina sequencing and bioinformatic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Worldwide, but especially in developing countries, coenurosis of sheep and other livestock is caused by Taenia multiceps larvae, and zoonotic infections occur in humans. Infections frequently lead to host death, resulting in huge socioeconomic losses. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have important roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of a large number of animal genes by imperfectly binding target mRNAs. To date, there have been no reports of miRNAs in T. multiceps. Results In this study, we obtained 12.8 million high quality raw reads from adult T. multiceps small RNA library using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 796 conserved miRNA families (containing 1,006 miRNAs) from 170,888 unique miRNAs were characterized using miRBase (Release 17.0). Here, we selected three conserved miRNA/miRNA* (antisense strand) duplexes at random and amplified their corresponding precursors using a PCR-based method. Furthermore, 20 candidate novel miRNA precursors were verified by genomic PCR. Among these, six corresponding T. multiceps miRNAs are considered specific for Taeniidae because no homologs were found in other species annotated in miRBase. In addition, 181,077 target sites within T. multiceps transcriptome were predicted for 20 candidate newly miRNAs. Conclusions Our large-scale investigation of miRNAs in adult T. multiceps provides a substantial platform for improving our understanding of the molecular regulation of T. multiceps and other cestodes development. PMID:23941076

  2. Androgens Exert a Cysticidal Effect upon Taenia crassiceps by Disrupting Flame Cell Morphology and Function

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosio, Javier R.; Valverde-Islas, Laura; Nava-Castro, Karen E.; Palacios- Arreola, M. Isabel; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Escobedo, Galileo; Ruíz-Rosado, Azucena; Dominguez-Ramírez, Lenin; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The effects of testosterone (T4) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the survival of the helminth cestode parasite Taenia crassiceps, as well as their effects on actin, tubulin and myosin expression and their assembly into the excretory system of flame cells are described in this paper. In vitro evaluations on parasite viability, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, video-microscopy of live flame cells, and docking experiments of androgens interacting with actin, tubulin, and myosin were conducted. Our results show that T4 and DHT reduce T. crassiceps viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, reaching 90% of mortality at the highest dose used (40 ng/ml) and time exposed (10 days) in culture. Androgen treatment does not induce differences in the specific expression pattern of actin, tubulin, and myosin isoforms as compared with control parasites. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a strong disruption of the parasite tegument, with reduced assembly, shape, and motion of flame cells. Docking experiments show that androgens are capable of affecting parasite survival and flame cell morphology by directly interacting with actin, tubulin and myosin without altering their protein expression pattern. We show that both T4 and DHT are able to bind actin, tubulin, and myosin affecting their assembly and causing parasite intoxication due to impairment of flame cell function. Live flame cell video microscopy showing a reduced motion as well changes in the shape of flame cells are also shown. In summary, T4 and DHT directly act on T. crassiceps cysticerci through altering parasite survival as well as the assembly and function of flame cells. PMID:26076446

  3. Zoonotic foodborne parasites and their surveillance.

    PubMed

    Murrell, K D

    2013-08-01

    Humans suffer from several foodborne helminth zoonotic diseases, some of which can be deadly (e.g., trichinellosis, cerebral cysticercosis) while others are chronic and cause only mild illness (e.g., intestinal taeniosis). The route of infection is normally consumption of the parasite's natural host as a human food item (e.g., meat). The risk for infection with these parasites is highest wherever people have an inadequate knowledge of infection and hygiene, poor animal husbandry practices, and unsafe management and disposal of human and animal waste products. The design of surveillance and control strategies for the various foodborne parasite species, and the involvement of veterinary and public health agencies, vary considerably because of the different life cycles of these parasites, and epidemiological features. Trichinella spiralis, which causes most human trichinellosis, is acquired from the consumption of pork, although increasingly cases occur from eating wild game. For cysticercosis, however, the only sources for human infection are pork (Taenia solium) or beef (T. saginata). The chief risk factor for infection of humans with these parasites is the consumption of meat that has been inadequately prepared. For the pig or cow, however, the risk factors are quite different between Trichinella and Taenia. For T. spiralis the major source of infection of pigs is exposure to infected animal meat (which carries the infective larval stage), while for both Taenia species it is human faecal material contaminated with parasite eggs shed by the adult intestinal stage of the tapeworm. Consequently, the means for preventing exposure of pigs and cattle to infective stages of T. spiralis, T. solium, and T. saginata vary markedly, especially the requirements for ensuring the biosecurity of these animals at the farm. The surveillance strategies and methods required for these parasites in livestock are discussed, including the required policy-level actions and the necessary collaborations between the veterinary and medical sectors to achieve a national reporting and control programme. PMID:24547659

  4. Update on the distribution of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, in the U.S. and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choudhury, A.; Charipar, E.; Nelson, P.; Hodgson, J.R.; Bonar, S.; Cole, Rebecca A.

    2006-01-01

    The documented range of the invasive and potentially pathogenic Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934 in the United States and Canada is updated based on examination of museum depositions and original field collections. Gravid specimens of B. acheilognathi were collected from the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Rafinesque in Peter Lake, at the University of Notre Dame Environmental Research Center (UNDERC) Land o' Lakes, Wisconsin. A single immature specimen of the parasite was collected from a white bass, Morone chrysops (Rafinesque) in Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. This is the first record of B. acheilognathi in Canada and extends its northern range in the interior of the continent by more than 600 miles over the last documented record. The previous record of B. acheilognathi in Canada, from the northern pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus oregonensis in British Columbia, is a misidentification of Eubothrium tulipai. Examination of selected records of intestinal cestodes from native cyprinids, in the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology (HWML, n = 9) collection and in the United States National Parasite Collection (USNPC, n = 8), provided evidence of the parasite in Nebraska and possibly in the upper Colorado River basin. Introductions into Wisconsin-Michigan were due to the stocking of golden shiners, whereas the source of the introduction in Manitoba remains unknown.

  5. Comparative effects of verapamil and sodium nitroprusside on contraction and 45Ca uptake in the smooth muscle of rabbit aorta, rat aorta and guinea-pig taenia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Karaki, H.; Nakagawa, H.; Urakawa, N.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of verapamil and sodium nitroprusside on muscle tension and 45Ca uptake activated in different ways were compared in rabbit aorta, rat aorta and guinea-pig taenia coli. In rabbit aorta, K-induced contraction was specifically inhibited by verapamil and noradrenaline-induced contraction by sodium nitroprusside. In rat aorta, both K-induced and noradrenaline-induced contractions were inhibited by verapamil or by sodium nitroprusside also. In taenia, both K- and histamine-induced sustained contractions were inhibited by verapamil but not by sodium nitroprusside. The effect of verapamil was competitively antagonized by external Ca, while that of sodium nitroprusside was not. High K, noradrenaline and histamine increased the rate of 45Ca uptake in aortae and taenia. In rabbit aorta the increment in response to high K was specifically inhibited by verapamil and the increment induced by noradrenaline was specifically inhibited by sodium nitroprusside. In rat aorta, increments induced by both high K and noradrenaline were inhibited by verapamil and by sodium nitroprusside. In taenia, the increments induced by high K and by histamine were inhibited by verapamil but not by sodium nitroprusside. These results suggest different characteristics of Ca entry systems in these smooth muscles. In rabbit aorta, there seem to be two Ca channels, one of which is activated by high K and inhibited by verapamil, while the other is activated by noradrenaline and inhibited by sodium nitroprusside. In rat aorta, both K- and noradrenaline-activated Ca pathways are sensitive to both verapamil and sodium nitroprusside whereas, in taenia, both K- and histamine-activated Ca pathways are sensitive only to verapamil. PMID:6322897

  6. [Electron microscope investigation of bacteria associated with the tegument of the tapeworm species Eubothrium rugosum, a parasite of the intestine of burbot].

    PubMed

    Poddubnaia, L G

    2005-01-01

    Bacteria associated with the tegument of the tapeworm species Eubothrium rugosum (Cestoda, Pseudophyllidea) parasitizing the intestine of burbot (Lota lota) were studied using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Three morphological types of the bacteria were revealed. Bacteria of the first type are localized between microtrichia and fit to them closely. Bacteria of the second (gram-positive) and third (gram-negative) types are localized over microtrichia of the tegument and do not attach to the surface. Physiological functions of the bacteria are discussed. PMID:16134784

  7. Floriparicapitus, a new genus of lecanicephalidean tapeworm (Cestoda) from sawfishes (Pristidae) and guitarfishes (Rhinobatidae) in the Indo-West Pacific.

    PubMed

    Cielocha, Joanna J; Jensen, Kirsten; Caira, Janine N

    2014-08-01

    Floriparicapitus n. gen. (Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea), with Floriparicapitus euzeti n. gen., n. sp. as its type, is erected to house 3 new tapeworm species and 2 known species that are transferred to the new genus, all parasitizing sawfishes and guitarfishes (order Rhinopristiformes) in Indo-Pacific waters. The new genus differs from the 21 valid lecanicephalidean genera in its possession of a large scolex bearing a laterally expanded apical organ in the form of a rugose sheet in combination with a cirrus conspicuously armed with spinitriches and 3 pairs of excretory vessels. It most closely resembles Lecanicephalum, but differs conspicuously in its possession of 3, rather than 1, pair of excretory vessels. Two new species are described from sawfishes: Floriparicapitus euzeti n. sp., from Pristis clavata and Floriparicapitus juliani n. sp. from Pristis pristis, both from Australia. Floriparicapitus plicatilis n. sp. is described from the guitarfish Glaucostegus typus in Australia and the guitarfish Glaucostegus thouin in Malaysian Borneo. Two species formerly assigned to Cephalobothrium are transferred to the new genus; Floriparicapitus variabilis ( Southwell, 1911 ) n. comb. from the sawfish Anoxypristis cuspidata in Sri Lanka and Floriparicapitus rhinobatidis ( Subhapradha, 1955 ) n. comb. from the guitarfish Glaucostegus granulatus in India. The species from guitarfish differ conspicuously from those parasitizing sawfish in their possession of only 4 ( F. plicatilis n. sp.) or 5 (F. rhinobatidis n. comb.) testes per proglottid versus 9 or more in the 3 sawfish-parasitizing species. The latter 3 species differ from one another in scolex width, acetabular size, number of proglottids, and cirrus sac size. As it stands, the new genus appears to be restricted to a subclade of the Rhinopristiformes consisting of the sawfishes and species of Glaucostegus. PMID:24842294

  8. Modulation of granulocyte responses in three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus infected with the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus.

    PubMed

    Scharsack, J P; Kalbe, M; Derner, R; Kurtz, J; Milinski, M

    2004-05-01

    Leukocytes isolated from the head kidney and peripheral blood of 3-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus L. were analysed by means of flow cytometry during infection with the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus (Müller, 1776). Although parasites increased their body weight continuously throughout the observation period (98 d), proportions of granulocytes increased in blood and head kidney only up to Day 63 post-infection (p.i.). Thereafter, declining proportions of granulocytes were observed in both organs. Thus the relative decrease in granulocyte number was not correlated to a decline in the parasitic load of the fish. To investigate a possible modulatory impact of S. solidus on granulocyte function, head kidney leukocytes were isolated at times before Day 63 p.i. and tested in vitro for their capacity to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Head kidney leukocytes from S. solidus-infected fish, analysed immediately after isolation (ex vivo, Day 40 p.i.), exhibited a higher ROS production when stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), than leukocytes from naive, sham-treated control fish and fish that had resisted or cleared the infection (exposed but not infected). The latter showed an increased spontaneous ROS production that was not correlated to the numbers of granulocytes present in the head kidney isolates. In infected sticklebacks, spontaneous and PMA-induced ROS production was significantly correlated with numbers of granulocytes present in the head kidney isolates, suggesting that elevated ROS production was due to higher numbers of responding cells rather than an increased capacity of single cells. In vitro, after cultivation for 4 d in the presence of pokeweed mitogen (PWM) or extracts from S. solidus, head kidney leukocytes from control fish showed an increased ROS production and phagocytic activity compared with non-stimulated control cultures. In contrast, head kidney leukocytes from infected fish isolated on Days 48 and 44 p.i., failed to respond to S. solidus antigens in vitro. During S. solidus infection, granulocyte mobilisation resulted in elevated numbers of these cells in head kidneys, but the lack of an in vitro response to S. solidus antigens indicates an in vivo priming of granulocytes by the parasite. These observations may reflect the ability of S. solidus to impair the host's immune response once the parasite is developing in the body cavity of G. aculeatus. PMID:15212281

  9. Pharmacological effects of isopolar phosphonate analogues of ATP on P2-purinoceptors in guinea-pig taenia coli and urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Cusack, N. J.; Hourani, S. M.; Loizou, G. D.; Welford, L. A.

    1987-01-01

    Isopolar methylene phosphonate analogues of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were synthesized and tested on the guinea-pig isolated taenia coli (where ATP causes relaxation) and urinary bladder (where ATP causes contraction), to see if restoration of the electronegativity of the methylene linkage would enhance pharmacological potency. The compounds used were the dichloromethylene and difluoromethylene analogues of adenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-methylene)triphosphonate (AMP-PCP), L-adenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-methylene)triphosphonate (L-AMP-PCP) and 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-methylene)-triphosphonate (2-methylthio-AMP-PCP). The order of potency of the analogues depended on the tissue, and was independent of the nature of the purine or ribose moieties. None of the analogues was degraded by ectonucleotidases on either tissue. In the taenia coli the order of potency for relaxation was difluoromethylene greater than or equal to dichloromethylene greater than methylene, and this reflected the order of electronegativity of the analogues. The isopolar analogues of L-AMP-PCP were inactive in the taenia coli. In the bladder the order of potency for contraction was difluoromethylene greater than or equal to methylene greater than dichloromethylene, suggesting that electronegativity is of lesser importance here. The isopolar analogues of L-AMP-PCP were active in this tissue. The differences between the two tissues in the order of potency for these non-degradable analogues supports suggestions that P2-purinoceptors in the taenia coli (P2Y) are different from those in the bladder (P2X). The isopolar analogues of L-AMP-PCP, like L-AMP-PCP itself, were selective agonists at the P2X-purinoceptor. PMID:3580709

  10. A quantitative relationship between cellular Na accumulation and relaxation produced by ouabain in the depolarized smooth muscle of guinea-pig taenia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadashi Kishimoto; Hiroshi Ozaki; Norimoto Urakawa

    1980-01-01

    1.An investigation was made of the effect of oubain on the membrane potential, tension development,45Ca uptake and intracellular Na and K contents of smooth muscle of the guinea-pig taenia coli depolarized by high-K solution. The results were compared with the effects of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and verapamil.2.All drugs produced concentration-dependent relaxations of high-K induced contractures without affecting the depolarization of the

  11. Decrease of peritoneal inflammatory CD4 + , CD8 + , CD19 + lymphocytes and apoptosis of eosinophils in a murine Taenia crassiceps infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadia Zepeda; Sandra Solano; Natalia Copitin; Ana María Fernández; Lilián Hernández; Patricia Tato; José L. Molinari

    2010-01-01

    After an intraperitoneal infection of mice with Taenia crassiceps metacestodes, peritoneal inflammatory cells labeled with fluoresceinated MoAb anti-mouse were analyzed by flow cytometry.\\u000a Apoptosis was studied by annexin A\\/PI, TUNEL assays, DNA laddering, caspase-3 activity, and electron microscopy. An important\\u000a continuous decrease of CD4+, CD8+ and CD19+ lymphocytes, and an increase of eosinophils and macrophages throughout the observation\\u000a time were

  12. The effect of loop diuretics on Cl- transport in smooth muscle of the guinea-pig vas deferens and taenia from the caecum.

    PubMed

    Aickin, C C; Brading, A F

    1990-02-01

    1. The role of Na+, K+, Cl- co-transport, identified in the previous paper (Aickin & Brading, 1990), has been characterized further by investigation of the effects of loop diuretics on Cl- movements in the smooth muscle cells of guinea-pig vas deferens measured by 36Cl fluxes and Cl(-)-sensitive microelectrodes. Some flux experiments were also repeated in the taenia from the guinea-pig caecum. 2. Frusemide (2 mM) reduced the steady-state Cl- content, slowed 36Cl loss into Cl(-)-free solution and both slowed and reduced Cl- accumulation by Cl(-)-depleted cells of the vas deferens. When anion exchange was inhibited by the presence of DIDS, (4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid), frusemide further slowed the loss of Cl- into Cl(-)-free solution, further reduced Cl- accumulation such that Cl- uptake amounted to a level consistent with a passive distribution and halted the rise in the intracellular Cl- activity (aiCl) at levels above about 10 mM. 3. Application of the higher-affinity loop diuretics bumetanide and piretanide in vas deferns had no significant effect on 36Cl efflux into Cl(-)-free solution or on the initial rate of rise of aiCl but reduced the final level attained. In the presence of DIDS, however, both agents further slowed efflux into Cl(-)-free solution, and halted the rise in aiCl at levels above about 10 mM. Measurement of greatly slowed intracellular pH transients on removal and readdition of external Cl- (Clo-) in the presence of frusemide suggests that the larger effects of this drug are mediated by inhibition of anion exchange as well as of co-transport. 4. The relative potency of the loop diuretics, investigated in the presence of DIDS was: bumetanide greater than piretanide greater than frusemide. This sequence was found in both vas deferens, using direct measurement of aiCl, and taenia, using 36Cl uptake. 5. Comparison of data from the vas and taenia showed that 36Cl efflux into Cl(-)-free, HCO3(-)-free solution was about twice as fast in the taenia, and that bumetanide or piretanide reduced this efflux to about the same rate as that observed in the vas with or without the loop diuretic. DIDS caused a similar absolute reduction of efflux in both preparations. 6. Stimulation of 36Cl efflux on readdition, and inhibition on removal of Nao+ in the presence of DIDS, was much greater in the taenia than in vas and in both preparations was blocked by bumetanide or piretanide.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1693398

  13. 11/3/08 2:43 PMTale of the Tapeworm (Squeamish Readers Stop Here) -New York Times Page 1 of 2http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/08/health/08case.html?_r=1&pagewanted=print&oref=slogin

    E-print Network

    Davis, Richard E.

    with increasing weakness, shortness of breath, lethargy and fatigue. Bob, her husband, was concerned enough of humans, the fish tapeworm -- known for its length and the length of its life -- is an ideal freeloader

  14. Estimating the Burden of Neurocysticercosis in Mexico 

    E-print Network

    Bhattarai, Rachana

    2012-10-19

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic disease caused by the larva of the zoonotic cestode Taenia solium. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the distribution of presenting clinical manifestations of NCC, to ...

  15. Sex differences in frass production and weight change in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) infected with cysticercoids of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda).

    PubMed

    Shea, John F

    2005-01-01

    In their intermediate host, parasites alter aspects of host physiology including waste production and body weight. Further, this alteration may differ between female and male hosts. To study this, a beetle (Tenebrio molitor)-tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta) system was used. Infected and uninfected male and female beetles were individually housed in vials without food. Each beetle's weight change and frass production were measured over 24 h periods at 3, 7, 12 and 16 days post-infection. Treatment (infection) had no effect on weight change, but males lost more weight than females. Further, infected females produced more frass than control females. Males on the day of infection had a higher food intake than females. These results suggest that males will be more exposed to infection than females and could explain why males had a higher median cysticercoid infection level. PMID:17119613

  16. Prevalence and morphological characterisation of Cysticercus tenuicollis (Taenia hydatigena cysts) in sheep and goat from north India.

    PubMed

    Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S; Sharma, J K

    2015-03-01

    Taenia hydatigena is an adult parasite of dogs with the metacestode (Cysticercus tenuicollis) stage residing in ruminants and pigs. Documentation and surveillance data concerning to the prevalence and risk factors associated with the disease in India is largely lacking. In this experiment, 3,199 carcasses, including 760 sheep and 2,439 goat were examined for the presence of C. tenuicollis (T. hydatigena cysts) on post-mortem inspection at different slaughter houses/shops in northern India. Morphological analysis was also conducted on five samples from each species. Out of 3199 carcasses examined, 135 were found containing cysts of T. hydatigena indicating a prevalence of 4.22 %. Most of the cysts were present in abdominal cavity, except few which were embedded in the liver. The high prevalence of 4.83 was recorded in goats as compared to 2.23 % in sheep. Principal component analysis was applied for statistical analysis. The results of morphological analysis indicated its usefulness as a valid criterion for differentiation of T. hydatigena cysts and that there might be possibility of two different strains infecting sheep and goat. PMID:25698866

  17. Heterologous Prime-Boost Oral Immunization with GK-1 Peptide from Taenia crassiceps Cysticerci Induces Protective Immunity?

    PubMed Central

    Fragoso, Gladis; Esquivel-Guadarrama, Fernando; Santana, M. Angélica; Bobes, Raul J.; Hernández, Beatriz; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Segura, René; Goldbaum, Fernando A.; Sciutto, Edda; Rosas, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Oral immunization is a goal in vaccine development, particularly for pathogens that enter the host through the mucosal system. This study was designed to explore the immunogenic properties of the Taenia crassiceps protective peptide GK-1 administered orally. Mice were orally immunized with the synthetic GK-1 peptide in its linear form with or without the Brucella lumazine synthase (BLS) protein adjuvant or as a chimera recombinantly bound to BLS (BLS-GK-1). Mice were boosted twice with GK-1 only at 15-day intervals. A significant rate of protection of 64.7% was achieved in GK-1-immunized mice, and that rate significantly increased to 91.8 and 96% when mice were primed with GK-1 coadministered with BLS as an adjuvant and BLS as a carrier, respectively. Specific antibodies and T cell activation and proliferation accompanied the protection induced, revealing the potent immunogenicity of GK-1. Through immunohistochemical studies, GK-1 was detected in T and B cell zones of the Peyer's patches (PP) and mesenteric lymph nodes. In the latter, abundant proliferating cells were detected by 5?-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine incorporation. No proliferation was detected in PP. Altogether, these results portray the potent immunogenic properties of GK-1 administered orally and reinforce the usefulness of BLS as an adjuvant and adequate vaccine delivery system for oral vaccines. PMID:21593234

  18. Specificity of a coproantigen ELISA test for fasciolosis: lack of cross-reactivity with Paramphistomum cervi and Taenia hydatigena.

    PubMed

    Kajugu, P-E; Hanna, R E B; Edgar, H W; Forster, F I; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2012-11-17

    A commercial coproantigen ELISA test for fasciolosis, based on the use of MM3 monoclonal antibody for antigen capture, was investigated for possible cross-reactivity with Paramphistomum cervi, a trematode that commonly infects cattle and sheep grazing in fluke-infested pasture in Ireland. Histological sections of adult and immature Fasciola hepatica and P cervi were incubated with MM3 monoclonal antibody, and its binding to tissue-localised coproantigen was subsequently visualised by immunocytochemistry. In a related study, the soluble antigenic fractions derived from homogenates of P cervi adults and Taenia hydatigena metacestodes were tested for cross-reactivity with MM3 monoclonal antibody in an antigen-capture ELISA, using known F hepatica-positive and F hepatica-negative ovine faecal samples as natural controls. It was found that, while intense immunocytochemical labelling was located over the gastrodermis and gut contents of adult and immature F hepatica, sections of adult and immature P cervi were unlabelled. In the ELISA tests, the soluble fractions of F hepatica reacted strongly with MM3 monoclonal antibody, but those of P cervi and T hydatigena gave negative results. These findings support the specificity of the coproantigen ELISA test for fasciolosis in areas where paramphistomosis and cysticercosis are liable to occur singly or as coinfections with F hepatica. PMID:23077134

  19. Myosin light chain phosphorylation and the cross-bridge cycle at low substrate concentration in chemically skinned guinea pig Taenia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per Hellstrand; Anders Arner

    1985-01-01

    Force-velocity relations, rate of ATP turnover (JATP), and phosphorylation of the 20,000 D myosin light chains (LC20) were measured in chemically skinned guinea pigTaenia coli. Relative LC20 phosphorylation at 3.2 mM MgATP was 17% in relaxed tissues at pCa 9, and increased with force at increasing [Ca2+] to a maximum of 67% at pCa 4.5. Force at pCa 4.5 was

  20. Distribution of Taenia saginata metacestodes: a comparison of routine meat inspection and carcase dissection results in experimentally infected calves

    PubMed Central

    SOARES, V E; DE ANDRADE BELO, M A; REZENDE, P C B; SOCCOL, V T; FUKUDA, R T; DE OLIVEIRA, G P; DA COSTA, A J

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of techniques for detecting the presence of Cysticercus bovis in bovine carcasses was made by using carcass dissection and routine beef inspection guidelines. In the study, 28 calves were used after they were tested and found to be negative for the presence of anti-C. bovis serum antibodies and were inoculated orally with aliquots containing 6×104 Taenia saginata eggs. One hundred and twenty days after inoculation, the animals were slaughtered and a post mortem evaluation was done following Brazilian Federal Beef Inspection guidelines. This routine meat inspection was able to identify 71.42% of the assessed infected carcasses as being parasitized. This result implies that 28.58% of the infected carcasses would have been released as fit for human consumption since they would have been considered as free of C. bovis infection when using this method for carcass assessment. Only 3.07% of the total 2311 metacestodes present in the carcasses were identified by the conventional procedures of sanitary inspection. The assessment of different parts of the carcasses showed high infestation rates in shoulder clod (14.37%), head (11.21%), neck+chuck roll (8.05%), heart (7.75%) and top (inside) round (7.18%) which, together, were responsible for housing 48.51% of all the cysts found in the 24 beef cuts assessed. These numbers contrasted to the low incidence of cysts found in organs such as tongue (3.12%), diaphragm (1.69%) and esophagus (1.60%) which are usually described as predilection sites for the parasite. PMID:21929881

  1. Calculation of the membrane potential in smooth muscle cells of the guinea-pig's taenia coli by the Goldman equation

    PubMed Central

    Casteels, R.

    1969-01-01

    1. The intracellular K+, Cl- and Na+ concentrations in the taenia coli cells of the guinea-pig have been estimated from the total ion content or the extrapolated intracellular tracer content, the sorbitol space and the dry wt./wet wt. ratio. 2. The exchange of K+, Cl- and Na+ was studied by following the uptake and the efflux of these ions with radioactive isotopes. The following efflux values have been calculated: mK, 4 p-mole.cm-2.sec-1; mCl, 8·4 p-mole.cm-2.sec-1 and mNa, 7·2 p-mole.cm-2.sec-1. These flux values agree well with the influx values, obtained under the same experimental conditions. 3. The slowness of diffusion in the extracellular space reduces the Na flux by about 2·5% and the K flux by about 30%. A correction factor of 1·3 has to be introduced to obtain the true K flux. 4. The values for the permeability constants calculated by the constant field assumptions are for PK, 11 × 10-8 cm/sec; PCl, 6·7 × 10-8 cm/sec and for PNa, 1·8 × 10-8 cm/sec. The introduction of these values and of the ion concentrations in the Goldman equation gives a resting potential of -37 mV. 5. One of the possible explanations for the discrepancy between the measured resting potential and the calculated one, is that the resting potential of these smooth muscle cells is partly a diffusion potential and partly due to the operation of an electrogenic Na pump. PMID:5354999

  2. 21 CFR 520.1445 - Milbemycin oxime and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Dirofilaria immitis and for the treatment and control of adult roundworm (Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina ), adult hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum ), adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis ), and adult tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1445 - Milbemycin oxime and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Dirofilaria immitis and for the treatment and control of adult roundworm (Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina ), adult hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum ), adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis ), and adult tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus...

  4. Experimental infection of the endangered bonytail chub (Gila elegans) with the Asian fish tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi): impacts on survival, growth, and condition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, S.P.; Choudhury, A.; Heisey, D.M.; Ahumada, J.A.; Hoffnagle, T.L.; Cole, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, a tapeworm known to be pathogenic to some fish species, has become established in the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha Miller, 1964) in Grand Canyon, USA, following the tapeworm's introduction into the Colorado River system. The potential impact of this tapeworm on humpback chub was studied by exposing the closely related bonytail chub (Gila elegans Baird and Girard, 1853) to the parasite under a range of conditions that included potential stressors of humpback chub in their natal waters, such as abrupt temperature change and a limited food base. Survival of infected fish under low food rations was considerably lower than that of control fish, and mortality of infected fish began 20days earlier. Growth of infected fish was significantly reduced, and negative changes in health condition indices were found. No significant negative impacts were revealed from the synergistic effects between temperature shock and infection. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi does present a potential threat to humpback chub in Grand Canyon and should be considered, along with conventional concerns involving altered flow regimes and predation, when management decisions are made concerning conservation of this endangered species.// Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, un ver plat connu comme pathog??ne pour certaines esp??ces de poissons, s'est associ?? au A (Gila cypha Miller, 1964), une esp??ce menac??e du Grand Canyon, ??.-U., apr??s l'introduction du ver dans le r??seau hydrographique du Colorado. Nous avons ??tudi?? l'impact potentiel de ce ver plat sur le m??n?? bossu en exposant l'esp??ce proche Gila elegans Baird et Girard, 1853 au parasite sous une gamme de conditions qui incluent les facteurs potentiels de stress des m??n??s bossus dans leurs cours d'eau d'origine, tels que les changements abrupts de temp??rature et des ressources alimentaires limit??es. La survie des poissons infect??s dans des conditions de nourriture limit??e est substantiellement r??duite par comparaison aux poissons t??moins et la mortalit?? des poissons infect??s d??bute 20 jours plus t?'t. La croissance des poissons infect??s est significativement r??duite et il y a des changements n??gatifs dans les indicateurs des conditions de sant??. Il n'y a pas d'impact n??gatif significatif apparent des effets de synergie du choc thermique et de l'infection. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi est donc une menace potentielle pour le m??n?? bossu dans le Grand Canyon et il devra ??tre pris en consid??ration, au m??me titre que les pr??occupations habituelles au sujet de la modification du r??gime des eaux et de la pr??dation, lorsque des d??cisions seront prises au sujet de la conservation de cette esp??ce menac??e.

  5. A large 28S rDNA-based phylogeny confirms the limitations of established morphological characters for classification of proteocephalidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda)

    PubMed Central

    de Chambrier, Alain; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Fisseha, Makda; Scholz, Tomáš; Mariaux, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Proteocephalidean tapeworms form a diverse group of parasites currently known from 315 valid species. Most of the diversity of adult proteocephalideans can be found in freshwater fishes (predominantly catfishes), a large proportion infects reptiles, but only a few infect amphibians, and a single species has been found to parasitize possums. Although they have a cosmopolitan distribution, a large proportion of taxa are exclusively found in South America. We analyzed the largest proteocephalidean cestode molecular dataset to date comprising more than 100 species (30 new), including representatives from 54 genera (80%) and all subfamilies, thus significantly improving upon previous works to develop a molecular phylogeny for the group. The Old World origin of proteocephalideans is confirmed, with their more recent expansion in South America. The earliest diverging lineages are composed of Acanthotaeniinae and Gangesiinae but most of the presently recognized subfamilies (and genera) appear not to be monophyletic; a deep systematic reorganization of the order is thus needed and the present subfamilial system should be abandoned. The main characters on which the classical systematics of the group has been built, such as scolex morphology or relative position of genital organs in relation to the longitudinal musculature, are of limited value, as demonstrated by the very weak support for morphologically-defined subfamilies. However, new characters, such as the pattern of uterus development, relative ovary size, and egg structure have been identified, which may be useful in defining phylogenetically well-supported subgroups. A strongly supported lineage infecting various snakes from a wide geographical distribution was found. Although several improvements over previous works regarding phylogenetic resolution and taxon coverage were achieved in this study, the major polytomy in our tree, composed largely of siluriform parasites from the Neotropics, remained unresolved and possibly reflects a rapid radiation. The genus Spasskyellina Freze, 1965 is resurrected for three species of Monticellia bearing spinitriches on the margins of their suckers. PMID:25987870

  6. Growth and ontogeny of the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus in its copepod first host affects performance in its stickleback second intermediate host

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background For parasites with complex life cycles, size at transmission can impact performance in the next host, thereby coupling parasite phenotypes in the two consecutive hosts. However, a handful of studies with parasites, and numerous studies with free-living, complex-life-cycle animals, have found that larval size correlates poorly with fitness under particular conditions, implying that other traits, such as physiological or ontogenetic variation, may predict fitness more reliably. Using the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus, we evaluated how parasite size, age, and ontogeny in the copepod first host interact to determine performance in the stickleback second host. Methods We raised infected copepods under two feeding treatments (to manipulate parasite growth), and then exposed fish to worms of two different ages (to manipulate parasite ontogeny). We assessed how growth and ontogeny in copepods affected three measures of fitness in fish: infection probability, growth rate, and energy storage. Results Our main, novel finding is that the increase in fitness (infection probability and growth in fish) with larval size and age observed in previous studies on S. solidus seems to be largely mediated by ontogenetic variation. Worms that developed rapidly (had a cercomer after 9?days in copepods) were able to infect fish at an earlier age, and they grew to larger sizes with larger energy reserves in fish. Infection probability in fish increased with larval size chiefly in young worms, when size and ontogeny are positively correlated, but not in older worms that had essentially completed their larval development in copepods. Conclusions Transmission to sticklebacks as a small, not-yet-fully developed larva has clear costs for S. solidus, but it remains unclear what prevents the evolution of faster growth and development in this species. PMID:22564512

  7. New insights in cysticercosis transmission.

    PubMed

    Arriola, Carmen S; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Lopez-Urbina, Maria T; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H

    2014-10-01

    Taenia solium infection causes severe neurological disease in humans. Even though infection and exposure to swine cysticercosis is scattered throughout endemic villages, location of the tapeworm only explains some of the nearby infections and is not related to location of seropositive pigs. Other players might be involved in cysticercosis transmission. In this study we hypothesize that pigs that carry nematodes specific to dung beetles are associated with cysticercosis infection and/or exposure. We carried out a cross-sectional study of six villages in an endemic region in northern Peru. We euthanized all pigs (326) in the villages and performed necropsies to diagnose cysticercosis. For each pig, we counted cysticerci; measured anti-cysticercus antibodies; identified intestinal nematodes; tabulated distance to nearest human tapeworm infection; and recorded age, sex, productive stage, and geographic reference. For the purpose of this paper, we defined cysticercosis infection as the presence of at least one cysticercus in pig muscles, and cysticercosis exposure as seropositivity to anti-cysticercus antibodies with the presence of 0-5 cysticerci. Compared to pigs without nematode infections, those pigs infected with the nematode Ascarops strongylina were significantly associated with the presence of cysticerci (OR: 4.30, 95%CI: 1.83-10.09). Similarly, pigs infected with the nematode Physocephalus sexalatus were more likely to have cysticercosis exposure (OR: 2.21, 95%CI: 1.50-3.28). In conclusion, our results suggest that there appears to be a strong positive association between the presence of nematodes and both cysticercosis infection and exposure in pigs. The role of dung beetles in cysticercosis dynamics should be further investigated. PMID:25329903

  8. Parasites and steroid hormones: corticosteroid and sex steroid synthesis, their role in the parasite physiology and development

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Marta C.; Jiménez, Pedro; Miranda-Brito, Carolina; Valdez, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    In many cases parasites display highly complex life cycles that include the penetration and permanence of the larva or adults within host organs, but even in those that only have one host, reciprocal, intricate interactions occur. Evidence indicates that steroid hormones have an influence on the development and course of parasitic infections. The host gender's susceptibility to infection, and the related differences in the immune response are good examples of the host-parasite interplay. However, the capacity of these organisms to synthesize their own steroidogenic hormones still has more questions than answers. It is now well-known that many parasites synthesize ecdysteroids, but limited information is available on sex steroid and corticosteroid synthesis. This review intends to summarize some of the existing information in the field. In most, but not all parasitosis the host's hormonal environment determines the susceptibility, the course, and severity of parasite infections. In most cases the infection disturbs the host environment, and activates immune responses that end up affecting the endocrine system. Furthermore, sex steroids and corticosteroids may also directly modify the parasite reproduction and molting. Available information indicates that parasites synthesize some steroid hormones, such as ecdysteroids and sex steroids, and the presence and activity of related enzymes have been demonstrated. More recently, the synthesis of corticosteroid-like compounds has been shown in Taenia solium cysticerci and tapeworms, and in Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci. In-depth knowledge of the parasite's endocrine properties will contribute to understand their reproduction and reciprocal interactions with the host, and may also help designing tools to combat the infection in some clinical situations. PMID:26175665

  9. Antiparasitic treatment of cerebral cysticercosis: lessons and experiences from China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Jia, Fengju; Wang, Wei; Huang, Yixin; Huang, Yong

    2013-08-01

    Cysticercosis is a tropical disease caused by infection with the larval stage of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Humans and pigs acquire cysticercosis by ingesting T. solium eggs shed in the feces of humans with taeniasis (i.e., infected with an adult intestinal tapeworm). Cerebral cysticercosis occurs when the cysts of T. solium develop within the central nervous system, and it is the primary cause of illness in T. solium infection. Currently, cerebral cysticercosis is endemic worldwide, and it is a leading cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. However, it is now increasingly detected in developed countries due to the immigration of T. solium carriers from the endemic areas. The antiparasitic treatment of cerebral cysticercosis remains controversial till now. In China, except a few cases who conform to the contraindicated criteria of antiparasitic therapy, most cerebral cysticercosis patients with symptoms and signs are given etiological treatment. This paper reviews the antiparasitic therapy of cerebral cysticercosis in China during the past several decades. Praziquantel treatment with different regimens has been used, and various efficacies are achieved. In the early stage, unsatisfactory therapeutic efficacy was achieved due to small doses and short treatment courses. Afterwards, the therapeutic efficacy became increasingly remarkable in both adults and children with the increases in dosage and courses. Albendazole also presents activity against cysticercosis with slow and moderate action, and it has been widely used in the treatment of the infection. The comparison between praziquantel and albendazole treatments showed that the immediate and short-term effects of albendazole treatment were better than those of praziquantel treatment, but similar mid- and long-term efficacies were observed following albendazole and praziquantel treatments. The combination of albendazole and praziquantel treatments can increase the therapeutic efficacy, and now, from the massive clinical practices, most of Chinese clinical specialists propose the combination therapy of albendazole and praziquantel for cerebral cysticercosis with simultaneous administration of steroids, especially in the first course. In addition, administration of praziquantel at a high dose can become a diagnostic treatment for suspected cerebral cysticercosis and serve as a supplement of the currently available diagnostic methods, such as diagnoses based on the clinical features, immunology, CT and MRI imaging, etc., in some atypical cerebral cysticercosis patients. Praziquantel and albendazole treatments have some adverse reactions, and to control these adverse effects, all the cerebral cysticercosis patients should be treated in hospital. According to the type of cerebral cysticercosis, especially for intracranial hypertension type and meningocephalitis type, the dosages of anti-cysticercus drugs need to follow a gradually increasing pattern. During the period of anti-cysticercosis treatments, steroids and/or dehydrating agents need be administered which can alleviate the intracranial hypertension and so on. Traditional Chinese medicines have been also used in the treatment of cerebral cysticercosis and achieve satisfactory outcomes. However, the compound prescription of traditional Chinese medicines is very complex, and the effective components are not fully clear. Some cerebral cysticercosis patients with very high intracranial tension could not receive antiparasitic treatment immediately, and surgical treatment is required. Chinese surgeons also achieve some successful experiences, but not all the cysticercus can be removed completely during the surgery. Therefore, antiparasitic drugs are still needed after the operation. The rehabilitative treatment is supplementary in the therapy of cerebral cysticercosis. In China, the rehabilitative treatment of cerebral cysticercosis is still at the initial stage. These lessons and experiences in China can be shared with medical staff and researchers from other countries where the disease is endemic. PMI

  10. Properties of the inhibitory potential of smooth muscle as observed in the response to field stimulation of the guinea-pig taenia coli

    PubMed Central

    Bülbring, Edith; Tomita, T.

    1967-01-01

    1. The inhibitory potential evoked by field stimulation of the guineapig taenia coli was studied in hypertonic solution in which the spontaneous electrical and mechanical activity was slowed or abolished. 2. There was no direct correlation between the inhibitory potential and the muscle membrane polarization in response to the stimulating current. The chronaxie for the inhibitory potential was less than 1 msec and that for the muscle spike 20-30 msec. 3. The inhibitory potential decreased in size along the tissue when one end of the tissue was stimulated, but its spatial decay was slower than that of the electrotonic potential in the muscle bundle. 4. Tetrodotoxin (5 × 10-7 g/ml.) abolished the inhibitory potential without affecting the electrical properties of the muscle membrane. It was concluded that the inhibitory potential was the result of stimulation of intrinsic inhibitory nerves. 5. The following properties of the intrinsic nerve fibres were deduced from the experimental results: The length of the nerve fibres is probably only a few mm and the space constant of the order of 0·1 mm. No repetitive firing is produced by a long current pulse. The absolute refractory period is 3-4 msec. PMID:6034115

  11. Phylogenetic relationships within Taenia taeniaeformis variants and other taeniid cestodes inferred from the nucleotide sequence of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, M; Bessho, Y; Kamiya, M; Kurosawa, T; Horii, T

    1995-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence variations in a region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene (391 bp) were examined within seven species of the genus Taenia and two species of the genus Echinococcus, including ten isolates of T. taeniaeformis and six isolates of E. multilocularis. More than a 12% rate of nucleotide differences between taeniid species was found, allowing the species to be distinguished. In E. multilocularis, no sequence variation was observed among isolates, regardless of the host (gray red-backed vole, tundra vole, pig, Norway rat) or area (Japan, Alaska) from which each metacestode had been isolated. In contrast, six distinct sequences were detected among the ten T. taeniaeformis isolates examined. The level of nucleotide variation in the COI gene within T. taeniaeformis isolates except for one isolate from the gray red-backed vole (TtACR), which has been proposed as a distinct strain or a different species, was about 0.3%-4.1%, whereas the COI gene sequence for TtACR differed from those of the other isolates, with levels being 9.0%-9.5%. Phylogenetic trees were then inferred from these sequence data using two different algorithms. PMID:7567901

  12. Hymenolepis folkertsi n. sp. (Eucestoda: Hymenolepididae) in the oldfield mouse Peromyscus polionotus (Wagner) (Rodentia: Cricetidae: Neotominae) from the southeastern Nearctic with comments on tapeworm faunal diversity among deer mice.

    PubMed

    Makarikov, Arseny A; Nims, Todd N; Galbreath, Kurt E; Hoberg, Eric P

    2015-06-01

    A previously unrecognized species of hymenolepidid cestode attributable to Hymenolepis is described based on specimens in Peromyscus polionotus, oldfield mouse, from Georgia near the southeastern coast of continental North America. Specimens of Hymenolepis folkertsi n. sp. differ from those attributed to most other species in the genus by having testes arranged in a triangle and a scolex with a prominent rostrum-like protrusion. The newly recognized species is further distinguished by the relative position and length of the cirrus sac, shape of seminal receptacle, and relative size of external seminal vesicle and seminal receptacle. Hymenolepidid cestodes have sporadically been reported among the highly diverse assemblage of Peromyscus which includes 56 distinct species in the Nearctic. Although the host genus has a great temporal duration and is endemic to the Nearctic, current evidence suggests that tapeworm faunal diversity reflects relatively recent assembly through bouts of host switching among other cricetid, murid, and geomyid rodents in sympatry. PMID:25762188

  13. The systemic immune response of BALB/c mice infected with larval Taenia crassiceps is a mixed Th1/Th2-type response.

    PubMed

    Toenjes, S A; Spolski, R J; Mooney, K A; Kuhn, R E

    1999-06-01

    The subsets of lymphocytes and cytokines regulating the site-specific immune response in experimental cysticercosis (Taenia crassiceps) are not known. This study investigated the cells present at the site of infection (PECs) using flow cytometry and measured the cytokines produced by these cells through 50 days of infection. The results showed an expansion of B220+CD5+, B220+CD5-, alpha beta TCR+CD4+ and CD8+ cells coincident with a transient increase in IL-10 production. After the initial increase, the percentage of B220+CD5- and helper T cells decreased with a concomitant decrease in IL-10 production. CD8+ T cells continued to increase throughout infection and gamma delta TCR+ cells increased after 10 days of infection. PECs demonstrated an increased IFN-gamma and IL-4 production throughout infection when stimulated with larval antigens. Because a Th2-type polarization has been shown for spleen cells from infected BALB/c mice, cytokine profiles of spleen cells and PECs in response to ConA and larval antigens were compared. ConA and antigen-specific stimulation of spleen cells from 50-day-infected mice produced increased amounts of IL-10 while PECs showed a decreased IL-10 production suggesting that anatomically distinct lymphoid populations produce different cytokines and promote different types of responses. Surprisingly, late in infection the levels of IL-4 and IFN-gamma in serum increased substantially (460-fold and 100-fold, respectively). The systemic immune response of BALB/c mice during experimental cysticercosis, therefore, is a mixed Th1/Th2-type response. PMID:10406041

  14. Comparison of the excitatory actions of substance P, carbachol, histamine and prostaglandin F2 alpha on the smooth muscle of the taenia of the guinea-pig caecum.

    PubMed Central

    Benham, C. D.; Bolton, T. B.

    1983-01-01

    A comparison was made of the actions of substance P, prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha), histamine and carbachol on the membrane potential and conductance of the longitudinal smooth muscle of the taenia of the guinea-pig caecum using the double sucrose gap apparatus. The increases in conductance produced by the four drugs during matched depolarizations in the sucrose gap were not significantly different and they were substantially larger than the increase in conductance brought about during the same depolarization produced by passing outward current. In sucrose-substituted, Na- and Cl-deficient solution the increases in conductance and depolarization due to carbachol, substance P, and PGF2 alpha were attenuated to a similar extent. The depolarization due to histamine under these conditions was reduced to a significantly greater extent than that due to carbachol. In Tris-benzene-sulphonate substituted Na- and Cl-deficient solution the responses due to carbachol and histamine were attenuated to a similar extent. This suggests that sucrose addition may have a specific effect on the histamine response. In Tris-substituted Na-deficient solution the increases in conductance and depolarization produced by substance P, histamine and carbachol were attenuated to a similar extent. The depolarization due to PGF2 alpha was reduced by a significantly greater amount which may be due to unmasking an inhibitory effect that was sometimes apparent in normal solution. In benzenesulphonate-substituted, Cl-deficient solution the increases in conductance and depolarizations produced by moderate concentrations of PGF2 alpha, histamine and carbachol were attenuated to a similar extent. The response to substance P was little affected. In glucuronate-substituted, Cl-deficient solution the increases in conductance and depolarizations due to substance P and carbachol were attenuated to a similar extent. This result, and the observation that the depolarization to large concentrations of carbachol was not reduced in benzenesulphonate-substituted, Cl-deficient solution, suggest that benzenesulphonate interferes with the reactions of the non-peptide stimulants with their respective receptors. The similarities in the effects of activating the four types of receptor under some conditions could be explained if they all acted on the same population of receptor-operated channels. In addition it seems that PGF2 alpha acts also on a population of inhibitory receptors, sucrose interferes with histamine's action, and benzenesulphonate interferes with the reactions of non-peptide stimulants with their respective receptors. PMID:6196069

  15. Effects of 2,3-butanedione monoxime on whole-cell Ca2+ channel currents in single cells of the guinea-pig taenia caeci.

    PubMed

    Lang, R J; Paul, R J

    1991-02-01

    1. The inhibitory actions of cadmium (Cd2+), nifedipine and 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM) on whole-cell Ca2+ channel currents in single cells of the guinea-pig taenia caeci were investigated using a single-electrode whole-cell voltage-clamp technique. 2. Calcium channel currents were isolated using pipette solutions containing Cs+, tetraethylammonium and ATP (3 mM). Ca2+ or Ba2+ (7.5 mM) in the bathing solution acted as the charge carrier during inward current flow. Ca2+ channel currents in 7.5 mM-Ba2+ (IBa) were recorded at potentials positive to -40 mV, were maximal near 0 mV and reversed near +60 mV. Ca2+ channel activation showed a sigmoidal relationship with potential, which was half-maximal at -13 mV. 3. Both the inward and outward flow of current was depressed and eventually blocked by 0.3-100 microM-Cd2+, 0.1-10 microM-nifedipine and 2-20 mM-BDM. Half-maximal blockade of IBa at 0 mV was achieved with approximately 3 microM-Cd2+, 1 microM-nifedipine and 10 microM-BDM. Steady-state activation curves were not affected by Cd2+ or BDM, but were shifted in the hyperpolarizing direction by nifedipine at concentrations > 1 microM. 4. Calcium channel currents in single cells and K+ contractures in intact strips were both blocked in a voltage-dependent manner. Steady-state inactivation curves (f infinity (V)) for IBa were shifted 20 mV in the hyperpolarizing direction by 0.3 microM-nifedipine and 4 mV by 10 mM-BDM. From these shifts a dissociation binding constant to inactivated Ca2+ channels for nifedipine was estimated as 78 nM, and for BDM, 5 mM. 5. At 10 microM Cd2+ produced a 43 +/- 6% (n = 3) block of the inward current at 0 mV when Ca2+ (7.5 mM) was the charge carrier (ICa), compared with the 36 +/- 3% block of IBa induced by 1 microM-Cd2+, consistent with the suggestion that Ca2+, Ba2+ and Cd2+ compete for the same binding site. In contrast, nifedipine (1 microM) and BDM (10 mM) blocked ICa more effectively than IBa. 6. Bay K 8644 (1.0 microM) increased Ca2+ channel currents two- to fourfold at all potentials due to a shift, of approximately 10 mV in the negative direction, of their activation curve and an equal shift in the positive direction of their inactivation curve. BDM (5-10 mM) could antagonize the action of Bay K 8644, shifting both curves back towards their control.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1726794

  16. Automatic counting of immunocytochemically stained cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Arambula Cosio; J. A. Marquez Flores; M. A. Padilla Castaneda; S. Solano; P. Tato

    2003-01-01

    In this work is described the development of an automatic color image segmentation and cell counting system for immunocytochemical analysis of stained tissue samples. The system is designed to automatically count the total number of positive and negative cells in tissue samples treated with cytokines DNA probes of pigs naturally parasitized with Taenia solium metacestodes and using in situ hybridization.

  17. Current Status of Taeniasis in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Taeniasis is prevalent in all regions of Thailand, except the South. Infections were more frequently found in males than females of any age from 7-83 years. Taenia saginata is the most common species throughout the country. Taenia asiatica was reported only in the province of Kanchanaburi in the Central region. Co-infections, with Taenia solium and T. asiatica or T. solium and T. saginata, were found. Hybridization between T. asiatica and T. saginata is evidence that co-infection is never found between these 2 species. Finding more than 1 worm in a single patient was not entirely rare. Genetic variation was found without correlation to its geographic distribution in T. saginata, whereas no variation was found in T. asiatica. PMID:23467328

  18. Current status of taeniasis in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Anantaphruti, Malinee Thairungroj

    2013-02-01

    Taeniasis is prevalent in all regions of Thailand, except the South. Infections were more frequently found in males than females of any age from 7-83 years. Taenia saginata is the most common species throughout the country. Taenia asiatica was reported only in the province of Kanchanaburi in the Central region. Co-infections, with Taenia solium and T. asiatica or T. solium and T. saginata, were found. Hybridization between T. asiatica and T. saginata is evidence that co-infection is never found between these 2 species. Finding more than 1 worm in a single patient was not entirely rare. Genetic variation was found without correlation to its geographic distribution in T. saginata, whereas no variation was found in T. asiatica. PMID:23467328

  19. [Tapeworm fauna of gallinaceans (Galliformes) of Vietnam].

    PubMed

    Nguen Thi, K y; Dubinina, M N

    1978-01-01

    131 specimens of 3 species of Galliformes from Vietnam were investigated (Gallus gallus dom., G. g. jaboruillei, Francolinus pintadeanus and Lophora nycthemerus). In them 9 species of cestodes were found as follows: Davainea proglottina (Davainea, 1860), Cotugnia digonopora (Pasquale, 1890), Raillietina tetragona (Molin, 1858), R. echinobothrida (Megnin, 1880), Skrjabinia cesticillus (Molin, 1858), Paroniella tinguiana Tubangui et Masilungan, 1937, Amoebotaenia cuneata (Linstow, 1872), Echinolepis carioca (Magalhaes, 1898), Dilepidoides bauchei (Joyeux, 1924). In domestic hens there were found all 9 species of cestodes while in wild Galliformes--only 7, which are mentioned for them for the first time. PMID:733321

  20. Effects of okadaic acid and ATP gamma S on cell length and Ca(2+)-channel currents recorded in single smooth muscle cells of the guinea-pig taenia caeci.

    PubMed Central

    Lang, R. J.; Ozolins, I. Z.; Paul, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    1. The effects of inhibiting phosphatase activity on Ca(2+)-channel currents and cell shortening in single cells of the guinea-pig taenia caeci were investigated by whole-cell voltage clamp and video recording techniques. 2. Ca(2+)-channel currents were isolated by use of pipette solutions containing Cs, tetraethylammonium and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (3 mM). Ca2+ or Ba2+ (7.5 mM) in the bathing solution acted as the charge carrier during inward current flow. 3. Ca(2+)-channel currents in 7.5 mM Ba2+ (IBa) were recorded at potentials positive to -40 mV, were maximal near 0 mV and reversed near +60 mV. Both the inward and outward flow of current was blocked by 100 microM Cd2+. 4. Addition of the ATP analogue, adenosine 5'-O(3-thiotriphosphate) (ATP gamma S) (1 mM) to the pipette solution (containing 3 mM ATP) caused cell shortening to 23 +/- 2% (n = 5) of their initial length within 5 min. Control cells (containing 4 mM ATP) did not contract during recording periods up to 60 min in duration. 5. IBa, recorded 1-2 min after membrane rupture, was 134 +/- 19 (n = 13) pA, compared with 209 +/- 25 (n = 5) pA in control cells, otherwise there were no significant time-dependent effects of ATP gamma S. In particular, ATP gamma S did not prevent the decrease in amplitude, nor the acceleration of inactivation when Ca2+ (7.5 mM) replaced Ba2+ as the permeating ion. 6. Okadaic acid (OA) (50 microM), a chemical inhibitor of phosphatase activity, produced similar effects when applied intracellularly.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1665731

  1. Automatic analysis of immunocytochemically stained tissue samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Arámbula Cosío; J. A. Márquez Flores; Miguel A. Padilla Castañeda; S. Solano; P. Tato

    2005-01-01

    An automatic colour image segmentation and cell counting software system has been developed for immunocytochemical analysis\\u000a of stained tissue samples. The system was designed to count the total number of positive and negative cells in tissue samples\\u000a treated with cytokine DNA probes from pigs naturally parasitised with Taenia solium metacestodes, using in situ hybridisation.\\u000a A reaction index was calculated as

  2. Tear IgA-ELISA: a novel and sensitive method for diagnosis of ophthalmic cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Priyadarshi S; Parija, Subhash C; Sahu, Promod K

    2008-06-01

    For the first time, presence of locally secreted specific IgA antibodies in tear specimen from human with ophthalmic cysticercosis is documented in the present study. The ELISA using Taenia solium metacestode excretory secretory (ES) antigen demonstrated a diagnostic level of IgA antibodies in tears with 100% sensitivity (6 out of 6 confirmed cases of ophthalmic cysticercosis) whereas, 25 of 34 (73.52%) clinically suspected cases were diagnosed positive. The ELISA using T. solium metacestode somatic antigen detected a diagnostic titre of IgA antibody in tears with a sensitivity of 50% (3 out of 6 confirmed cases). The specificity of the tear IgAELISA using T. solium metacestode somatic and ES antigens is observed to be 94.87% and 92.3%, respectively. Overall in tears, the ELISA using T. solium metacestode ES antigens for detection of IgA antibodies shows a higher diagnostic efficiency (93.33%) compared to that using T. solium metacestode somatic antigen (88.88%). The sensitivities of the ELISA for detection of IgA antibodies in tears is observed to be higher than that for detection of IgG antibodies in serum using either somatic or ES antigens of the parasite. PMID:18462701

  3. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and associated risk factors in smallholder pig production systems in Mbeya region, southern highlands of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Komba, Erick V G; Kimbi, Eliakunda C; Ngowi, Helena A; Kimera, Sharadhuli I; Mlangwa, James E; Lekule, Faustin P; Sikasunge, Chummy S; Willingham, Arve Lee; Johansen, Maria Vang; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2013-12-01

    Porcine cysticercosis (PC) caused by the larval stage of a zoonotic tapeworm Taenia solium, is known to pose serious economic losses and public health risk among smallholder pig production communities. The present study was conducted to determine prevalence and associated risk factors for PC in smallholder pig production systems in Mbeya region, the major pig rearing region of Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey employing a random sample of 300 pig keepers from 30 villages of Mbozi and Mbeya Rural districts, Mbeya region were used to evaluate pig production systems and practices. Concurrently, 600 male and female pigs of different age categories were randomly selected and examined for PC using lingual examination method and antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA). The overall pig level PC prevalence in Mbozi district was 11.7% (95% CI=8.5-15.8%) and 32% (95% CI: 27-37.5%) based on lingual examination and Ag-ELISA, respectively. In Mbeya Rural district, the prevalences were 6% (95% CI: 3.8-9.3%) and 30.7% (95% CI: 25.8-36.1%) by lingual examination and Ag-ELISA, respectively. In Mbozi district 46% of the households were found infected (one or more infected pigs) and the corresponding figure was 45% for Mbeya Rural district. The agreement between lingual examination and Ag-ELISA was poor (?<0.40). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of PC in different sex categories of pigs. Significant risk factors associated with PC prevalence were free roaming of pigs (OR=2.1; 95% CI=1.3-3.6; p=0.006), past experience of porcine cysticercosis in the household (OR=2.6; 95% CI=1.5-4.8; p=0.002), increased age of pig (OR=1.9; 95% CI=1.2-3.0), slatted raised floor in pig pen (OR=8.4; 95% CI=1.0-70.0), in-house origin of the pig (OR=1.6; 95% CI=1.1-2.5) and sourcing of water from rivers (OR=3.1; 95% CI=1.6-6.3; p<0.001) and ponds (OR=5.0; 95% CI=1.2-21.7; p=0.031). This study has clearly revealed a high sero-prevalence of PC in the study area, which imposes a major economical and public health burden to the smallholder pig farmers. The study also points to a number of important risk factors in smallholder pig management that may be addressed (e.g. confinement, quality of pens and water sources) in future interventions and educational campaigns for control of T. solium. PMID:24139481

  4. Epidemiology and control prospects of foodborne parasitic zoonoses in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Pozio, E

    2008-06-01

    In the 27 Member States of the European Union, zoonotic parasites transmitted by food are circulating with different prevalence according to the country, the environmental conditions, the human behaviour, and the socio-economic level. Foodborne parasites can be divided in two main groups according to the way of transmission to humans. These foodborne parasites reach the human beings through the consumption of raw infected food such as muscle tissues of different animal species (Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis hominis, Sarcocystis suishominis, Diphyllobotrium latum, Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Opisthorchis felineus, Anisakis spp., Pseudoterranova spp., Trichinella spp.), or vegetables (Fasciola hepatica), and contaminated food and water resources (Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., T. gondii, Echinococcus granulosus sensu latu, Echinococcus multilocularis, T. solium, Taenia multiceps). As a general role, the control strategies should be based on the education of the consumers, farmers and shepherds, the improvement of farming conditions, the improvement or the development of more sensitive methods to detect these parasites in slaughtered animals and in foodstuff, a control of sewage sludge on pastures and of drinking water resources, and the reduction of contacts between livestock and wild animals which frequently represent the most important reservoir of these pathogens. PMID:18693552

  5. Coproantigens in gut tapeworm infections: Hymenolepis diminuta in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Allan; P. S. Craig

    1989-01-01

    A capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection ofHymenolepis diminuta coproantigen in detergent-solubilised faecal supernatants was developed. The assay was sensitive to 400 ngH. diminuta protein\\/ml faecal supernatant and to 30 ng\\/ml in PBS 0.3% Tween. Faecal antigen levels started to rise on day 7 post infection and peaked on day 20. Following drug treatment of infected rats with

  6. A new triaenophorid tapeworm from blackfish Centrolophus niger.

    PubMed

    Kuchta, Roman; Scholz, Tomás

    2008-04-01

    Milanella familiaris n. gen. and n. sp. (Bothriocephalidea: Triaenophoridae) is proposed to accommodate a new cestode from blackfish Centrolophus niger (Gmelin) (Perciformes: Centrolophidae). Milanella is characterized as follows: trapeziform, i.e., markedly craspedote proglottids with a velum-like posterior margin and horn like lateral projections; pyriform uterine sac in the first gravid proglottids; arrow-shaped scolex with well-developed apical disc and prominent posterior margins; strobila with intensively stained corpuscles, most numerous in the anterior part; deeply lobated ovary; absence of a neck; a large, pyriform, thin-walled cirrus-sac with the proximal part bent anteromedially; vagina posterior to the cirrus-sac; and cortical vitelline follicles. Milanella most closely resembles Bathycestus Kuchta and Scholz, 2004, Pistana Campbell and Gartner, 1982, and Probothriocephalus Campbell, 1979, differing mainly in the shape of proglottids and uterine sac. PMID:18564751

  7. Comparative Analysis of Cystatin Superfamily in Platyhelminths

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Aijiang

    2015-01-01

    The cystatin superfamily is comprised of cysteine proteinase inhibitors and encompasses at least 3 subfamilies: stefins, cystatins and kininogens. In this study, the platyhelminth cystatin superfamily was identified and grouped into stefin and cystatin subfamilies. The conserved domain of stefins (G, QxVxG) was observed in all members of platyhelminth stefins. The three characteristics of cystatins, the cystatin-like domain (G, QxVxG, PW), a signal peptide, and one or two conserved disulfide bonds, were observed in platyhelminths, with the exception of cestodes, which lacked the conserved disulfide bond. However, it is noteworthy that cestode cystatins had two tandem repeated domains, although the second tandem repeated domain did not contain a cystatin-like domain, which has not been previously reported. Tertiary structure analysis of Taenia solium cystatin, one of the cestode cystatins, demonstrated that the N-terminus of T. solium cystatin formed a five turn ?-helix, a five stranded ?-pleated sheet and a hydrophobic edge, similar to the structure of chicken cystatin. Although no conserved disulfide bond was found in T. solium cystatin, the models of T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin corresponded at the site of the first disulfide bridge of the chicken cystatin. However, the two models were not similar regarding the location of the second disulfide bridge of chicken cystatin. These results showed that T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin had similarities and differences, suggesting that the biochemistry of T. solium cystatin could be similar to chicken cystatin in its inhibitory function and that it may have further functional roles. The same results were obtained for other cestode cystatins. Phylogenetic analysis showed that cestode cystatins constituted an independent clade and implied that cestode cystatins should be considered to have formed a new clade during evolution. PMID:25853513

  8. Neurocysticercosis in free roaming pigs--a slaughterhouse survey.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Anand; Kumar, G Sai; Rout, Manoranjan; Nagarajan, K; Kumar, Ram

    2007-08-01

    To investigate the prevalence of neurocysticercosis among free ranging pigs and to study the type of pathomorphological lesions in affected brains, a total of 200 brains were collected from pigs slaughtered at a local abattoir, between August, 2005 to March, 2006. Gross and histopathological examination revealed 3% (6/200) occurrence of neurocysticercosis in pigs. Taenia solium cysticercosis is an under-rated zoonosis and is a leading cause of epilepsy due to neurocysticercosis in human population of India. The prevailing situation warrants immediate implementation of effective control measures for this dreaded disease. PMID:17966268

  9. Oral cysticercosis: a clinical dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Tekade, Satyajitraje A

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by cysticercus cellulosae, the larval stage of Taenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare entity and represents difficulty in clinical diagnosis. This article reports two cases of oral cysticercosis involving buccal and labial mucosa. Both the cases presented with solitary, nodular swelling that had been clinically diagnosed as a mucocele. Histopathology of excisional biopsy revealed it to be cysticercosis. Single, cystic nodular swelling of oral cavity may be the only evidence of cysticercosis and may present first to dentist. These cases emphasise the role of dentist and thorough histopathological examination in the early diagnosis of disease that can prevent potential systemic complication. PMID:23580668

  10. Antigen-specific suppression of cultured lymphocytes from patients with neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, E C; Vaz, A J; Machado, L R; Livramento, J A; Ávila, S L M; Ferreira, A W

    2001-01-01

    The biological parasite–host interactions involved in neurocysticercosis (NC) are of a complex nature. A lymphoproliferation assay was performed using mononuclear cells from 11 patients with NC, who were classified according to the alterations obtained by imaging examinations. Antigen extracts from the membrane and/or scolex of Taenia solium and from the vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps were used. Mononuclear cells from patients with NC showed antigen-specific suppression when compared with a control group. The patients presenting calcified cysts showed higher suppression when compared with patients in the active phase of disease. The antigen in the vesicular fluid of T. crassiceps seems to play a suppressor role in vitro, completely inhibiting cell proliferation induced by the mitogens phytohaemagglutinin, concanavalin A and pokeweed mitogen. PMID:11703375

  11. Morphological and molecular identification of the metacestode parasitizing the liver of rodent hosts in bamboo growing areas of mizoram, northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Malsawmtluangi, Chenkual; Prasad, Pramod Kumar; Biswal, Devendra Kumar; Tandon, Veena

    2011-01-01

    In Mizoram (Northeast India), rodent outbreaks are known to occur periodically with the onset of bamboo flowering causing a tremendous destruction to food grains and as per the folk belief, often resulting in famine. In an exploratory survey of rodent pests in bamboo growing atreas for their helminth parasite spectrum, metacestodes of tapeworms were frequently encountered infecting the liver lobes and body cavity of the host. The morphological criteria were found to be closely consistent with the metacestode of Taenia species. In molecular characterization of the parasite, the ribosomal DNA (ITS1, ITS2) and mitochondrial COI were amplified and sequenced. Based upon both morphological data and molecular analysis using bioinformatic tools, the metacestode is identified as confirmed to be representing Cysticercus fasciolaris. The adult form of which (Taenia taeniaeformis) commonly occurs in felid and canid mammalian hosts. PMID:22347781

  12. Systematics of Mesocestoides (Cestoda: Mesocestoididae): evaluation of molecular and morphological variation among isolates.

    PubMed

    Padgett, Kerry A; Nadler, Steven A; Munson, Linda; Sacks, Ben; Boyce, Walter M

    2005-12-01

    A hypothesis-based framework was used to test if 3 genetic strains of Mesocestoides (clades A, B, and C) are distinct evolutionary lineages, thereby supporting their delimitation as species. For comparative purposes, 3 established cestode species, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia serialis, and Taenia crassiceps were assessed using the same methods. Sequence data from mitochondrial rDNA (12S) and the second internal transcribed spacer of nuclear rDNA (ITS-2) revealed derived (autapomorphic) characters for lineages representing clade A (n = 6 autapomorphies), clade B (n = 4), and clade C (n = 9) as well as T. pisiformis (n = 15) and T. serialis (n = 12). Furthermore, multivariate analysis of morphological data revealed significant differences among the 3 genetic strains of Mesocestoides and between T. pisiformis and T. serialis. The level of phenotypic variation within evolutionary lineages of Mesocestoides and Taenia spp. tapeworms was similar. Results from this study support recognizing Mesocestoides clades A, B, and C as separate species, and provide evidence that clade B and Mesocestoides vogae are conspecific. PMID:16539028

  13. Seroprevalence of Cysticercosis in Children and Young Adults Living in a Helminth Endemic Community in Leyte, the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jin-Mei; Acosta, Luz P.; Hou, Min; Manalo, Daria L.; Jiz, Mario; Jarilla, Blanca; Pablo, Archie O.; Ovleda, Remigio M.; Langdon, Gretchen; McGarvey, Stephen T.; Kurtis, Jonathan D.; Friedman, Jennifer F.; Wu, Hai-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a significant public health problem in countries where pigs are raised for consumption and remains an important cause of neurological disease worldwide. The Philippines is considered an endemic area for cysticercosis because cases in both humans and pigs have been reported; however, epidemiologic information stays limited. We conducted a pilot survey of the seroprevalence of human cysticercosis in a village in Leyte, the Philippines, by measuring antibody specific for Taenia solium cyst-fluid antigen. There were 497 subjects aged 7–30 years in our study and most subjects were infected with one or more helminths. The overall cysticercosis seroprevalence in this population was 24.6% (95% CI: 20.82% ~ 28.58%) with no significant difference based on age, sex, or other helminth coinfection status. Although the sample may not be representative of the whole community, the findings suggest that cysticercosis is a significant, but underrecognized public health concern in the Philippines. PMID:20368794

  14. Efficacy of diverse antiparasitic treatments for cysticercosis in the pig model.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Armando E; Bustos, Javier A; Jimenez, Juan A; Rodriguez, Mary L; Ramirez, Mercy G; Gilman, Robert H; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-08-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis infects pigs and humans. Because antiparasitic treatment for human cysticercosis has sub-optimal efficacy, alternative regimes are needed. Seven antiparasitic regimens were tested in 42 naturally infected pigs with cysticercosis, and compared with prednisone alone (n = 6) or no treatment (n = 6). The numbers of viable cysts in muscles and in the brain were examined after necropsy and were significantly decreased in pigs receiving combined albendazole plus praziquantel, albendazole alone, or oxfendazole. Pigs receiving praziquantel alone and nitazoxanide had numerous surviving cysts. Control (untreated) pigs and prednisone-treated pigs had many more viable cysts, suggesting no effect. Combined albendazole plus praziquantel, and oxfendazole, showed a strong cysticidal effect and provide suitable alternative treatments to be further explored for their use for treatment of human neurocysticercosis. PMID:22855760

  15. Conservative management of neurocysticercosis in a patient with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Purvey, S; Lu, K; Mukkamalla, S K; Anandi, P; Dumitriu, B; Kranick, S; Hammoud, D A; O'Connell, E; Oh, A L; Barrett, J; Mahanty, S; Battiwalla, M

    2015-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis, an infection of the central nervous system with the larval stage of the cestode Taenia solium, is common in developing countries but its occurrence and management in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has not been reported previously, to our knowledge. We report the case of an immigrant female patient who underwent a matched-related allogeneic HSCT for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and was incidentally found to have a solitary viable neurocysticercosis lesion. However, despite severe immunosuppression, the size of the cyst did not increase. More importantly, restoration of the immune system did not induce significant inflammation or seizures. Subsequent follow-up demonstrated complete resolution of the neurocysticercosis lesion. Thus, in the setting of HSCT, an asymptomatic patient with a single neurocysticercosis lesion was successfully managed without the use of anthelmintics, steroids, or anti-epileptics. PMID:25850995

  16. Myoparasitism mimicking parotid swelling: a rare presentation of cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Sandeep; Singh, Saumya; Jaiswal, Vaibhav; Mishra, Anand Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Muscular infestation with larval stage of Taenia solium is a well-recognised entity but cysticercosis of the head and neck region is a rarity. We present a case of 35-year-old young man with diffuse swelling of 3.5×4?cm in the parotid region on the right side of the face with signs of inflammation. Diagnosis was established on high-resolution ultrasonography which revealed it to be of parasitic origin. The patient was managed with antihelminthic pharmacotherapy and improved within a month. Thus cysticercosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous swellings of the head and neck region, especially in endemic zones and it must be investigated well with appropriate imaging modalities so that inadvertent surgery can be avoided. PMID:24842360

  17. Neurocysticercosis presenting as focal hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Malik, Azharuddin Mohammed; Shamim, Md Dilawez; Ahmad, Mehtab; Abdali, Nasar

    2014-01-01

    A 40-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of headache, nausea and vomiting, with generalised seizures for the past 15?days. On examination he had bilateral papilloedema, visual acuity was 6/6 in both eyes but perimetry showed right homonymous inferior quadrantanopia. His MRI showed numerous small cystic lesions with eccentric nodules, diffusely distributed in bilateral cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres. There was also focal hydrocephalus involving occipital and temporal horns of the left lateral ventricle leading to its selective dilation. Stool examination showed ova of Taenia solium. He was treated with albendazole, prednisone and sustained release sodium valproate for 1?month. His headache resolved and he is free of seizures. Repeat perimetry at 1?month also showed resolution of visual field defect. PMID:24962486

  18. Contributions to the systematics, comparative morphology, and interrelationships of selected lecanicephalidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea)

    E-print Network

    Cielocha, Joanna J.

    2013-05-31

    and Cephalobothrium pteroplateae Zaidi & Khan, 1976 from a species of butterfly ray from Pakistan transferred to Hexacanalis. The new species Hexacanalis folifer n. sp. is described from the zonetail butterfly ray Gymnura zonura (Bleeker) from Borneo. Two new genera...

  19. Fine structure of the copulatory apparatus of the tapeworm Tetrabothrius erostris (Cestoda: Tetrabothriidea).

    PubMed

    Korneva, Janetta V; Jones, Malcolm K; Kuklin, Vadim V

    2015-05-01

    The organization and fine structure of the complex copulatory apparatus of Tetrabothrius erostris (Tetrabothriidea) is investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. A diversity of microstructures was found on the surface of genital ducts. The apical surfaces of male gonadoducts possess tubular and blade-like microtriches that have specific structure in each section of the duct. The apical part of the tubular microtriches contains numerous constrictions in the proximal section of the sperm duct; blade-like microtriches of cirrus possess longitudinal striation in the apical part, and their basal part is reinforced with electron-dense strands. Two types of microtriches occur on the surface of cirrus, and their presence may be considered as systematic features. Prostate glands containing granules of medium electron density (up to 130 nm diameter) are localized in the cirrus sac. The genital atrium contains numerous non-ciliated receptors. Paramyosin-like fibers (up to 200 nm) were found in the muscle fibers surrounding the male atrium canal. Microtriches on the surface of the distal region of the male atrial canal are covered by a glycocalyx. Electron-dense, membrane-like structures (up to 40 nm) lie under the apical membrane of the genital atrium and vagina. These structures do not form a continuous layer; its edges turn down and sink into the apical invaginations of epithelium. Hypotheses on the possible ways of copulation in T. erostris based on the observed ultrastructure are discussed. PMID:25855344

  20. 9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...inspection sites, namely the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus, tongue, and musculature exposed...but not limited to, the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus, tongue, and musculature...

  1. 9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...inspection sites, namely the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus, tongue, and musculature exposed...but not limited to, the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus, tongue, and musculature...

  2. 9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...inspection sites, namely the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus, tongue, and musculature exposed...but not limited to, the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus, tongue, and musculature...

  3. Genetic polymorphisms of Echinococcus tapeworms in China as determined by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Minoru; Li, Tiaoying; Han, Xiumin; Ma, Xiumin; Xiao, Ning; Qiu, Jiamin; Wang, Hu; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Mamuti, Wulamu; Wen, Hao; Moro, Pedro L; Giraudoux, Patrick; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira

    2010-03-01

    The genetic polymorphisms of Echinococcus spp. in the eastern Tibetan Plateau and the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region were evaluated by DNA sequencing analyses of genes for mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear elongation factor-1 alpha (ef1a). We collected 68 isolates of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from Xinjiang and 113 isolates of E. granulosus s. s., 49 isolates of Echinococcus multilocularis and 34 isolates of Echinococcus shiquicus from the Tibetan Plateau. The results of molecular identification by mitochondrial and nuclear markers were identical, suggesting the infrequency of introgressive hybridization. A considerable intraspecific variation was detected in mitochondrial cox1 sequences. The parsimonious network of cox1 haplotypes showed star-like features in E. granulosus s. s. and E. multilocularis, but a divergent feature in E. shiquicus. The cox1 neutrality indexes computed by Tajima's D and Fu's Fs tests showed high negative values in E. granulosus s. s. and E. multilocularis, indicating significant deviations from neutrality. In contrast, the low positive values of both tests were obtained in E. shiquicus. These results suggest the following hypotheses: (i) recent founder effects arose in E. granulosus and E. multilocularis after introducing particular individuals into the endemic areas by anthropogenic movement or natural migration of host mammals, and (ii) the ancestor of E. shiquicus was segregated into the Tibetan Plateau by colonising alpine mammals and its mitochondrial locus has evolved without bottleneck effects. PMID:19800346

  4. Evolution of interspecific variation in size of attachment structures in the large tapeworm genus Acanthobothrium

    E-print Network

    Poulin, Robert

    words: Acanthobothrium spp., allometric relationship, body size, Elasmobranch, general linear model to the mucosal top- ography of the spiral intestine of elasmobranch fishes have been documented (e.g. Carvajal

  5. Research Note Update on the Distribution of the Invasive Asian Fish Tapeworm,

    E-print Network

    Bonar, Scott A.

    , New Mexico and Florida. The parasite seems to be particularly well established in native and non data). The parasite is also widely established on the Hawaiian islands (Font and Tate, 1994; Font, 1997 in Mexico (Salgado-Maldonado and Pineda-Lopez, 2003). In this report, we update the records of B

  6. How might flukes and tapeworms maintain genome integrity without a canonical piRNA pathway?

    PubMed

    Skinner, Danielle E; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Koziol, Uriel; Brehm, Klaus; Brindley, Paul J

    2014-03-01

    Surveillance by RNA interference is central to controlling the mobilization of transposable elements (TEs). In stem cells, Piwi argonaute (Ago) proteins and associated proteins repress mobilization of TEs to maintain genome integrity. This defense mechanism targeting TEs is termed the Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway. In this opinion article, we draw attention to the situation that the genomes of cestodes and trematodes have lost the piwi and vasa genes that are hallmark characters of the germline multipotency program. This absence of Piwi-like Agos and Vasa helicases prompts the question: how does the germline of these flatworms withstand mobilization of TEs? Here, we present an interpretation of mechanisms likely to defend the germline integrity of parasitic flatworms. PMID:24485046

  7. The anthelmintic efficacy of albendazole against gastrointestinal roundworms, tapeworms, lungworms and liverflukes in sheep.

    PubMed

    van Schalkwyk, P C; Geyser, T L; Récio, M; Erasmus, F P

    1979-03-01

    Anthelmintic trials were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of albendazole against helmi of 2,5 to 3,8 mg/kg administered orally, resulted in a 98,8 to 100% reduction of adult parasites of the genera Haemonchus, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, Nematodirus, Gaigeria, Oesophagostomum, Chabertia, Marshallagia and Cooperia. Against the immature stages of these genera, except for Marshallagia and Cooperia, which were not tested, a dose level of 2,5 to 3,8 mg/kg was 83,9-100% effective. Albendazole at 2,5 mg/kg was 99,0% effective against adult stages of Dictyocaulus; its activity at a dose of 3,8 mg/kg against the immature stages of D. filaria was 89,3%. In sheep naturally infested with Moniezia, 100% elimination was obtained at a dose level of 2,5 mg/kg. Dose levels of 3,8 mg/kg and higher were more than 76% effective against adult Fasciola hepatica, while a dose of 4,8 mg/kg was 63% effective against adult Fasciola gigantica. PMID:551183

  8. Controlling parasites, understanding practices: the biosocial complexity of a One Health intervention for neglected zoonotic helminths in northern Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Bardosh, Kevin; Inthavong, Phouth; Xayaheuang, Sivilai; Okello, Anna L

    2014-11-01

    A parasitological survey in northern Lao PDR showed a remote ethnic minority village to be hyper-endemic for Taenia solium, a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) that impacts human and pig health. An intervention combining human Mass Drug Administration (MDA) with porcine vaccination and antihelmintic treatment was then implemented, targeting both T. solium and other soil-transmitted helminths. To understand the biosocial complexity of this integrated One Health intervention, we conducted a rapid ethnographic study exploring the transmission dynamics of T. solium and locally acceptable long-term control options. Informed by two years of project work in the village, this included six focus group discussions, 35 semi-structured interviews, a latrine survey, a school-based education meeting, participant observation and many unstructured interviews conducted over two weeks in October 2013. We found that risk behaviours were mediated by various social determinants including limited market access, interrelationships between alcohol, ancestral sacrifices and the consumption of raw pork, seasonal variations and poor latrine coverage. Only sixteen percent of households had latrines, attributed to the unacceptability of dry latrines, lack of water access, poor building techniques and poverty. Whilst women could explain T. solium transmission, most men and children could not, revealing that distributed posters/leaflets relied too heavily on text and ambiguous images. Compliance with MDA was high due to trust between project staff and village leaders. However understandings of pharmacology, minor side effects, human migration and children's fear of worms may lead to resistance in future programmes. Our research highlights the complexities of controlling T. solium and other soil-transmitted helminths in a remote ethnic minority village and the need to integrate biomedical and participatory approaches. Although we showcase the heuristic value of using rapid ethnography to inform intervention strategies as part of a One Health/NTD agenda, we also identify several possible paradoxes and conundrums in embedding locally-grounded biosocial analysis into NTD programmes. These need to be acknowledged and negotiated by multidisciplinary teams. PMID:25261615

  9. Pig-farming systems and porcine cysticercosis in the north of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Assana, E; Amadou, F; Thys, E; Lightowlers, M W; Zoli, A P; Dorny, P; Geerts, S

    2010-12-01

    A survey was conducted in 150 households owning 1756 pigs in the rural areas of Mayo-Danay division in the north of Cameroon. A questionnaire survey was carried out to collect information on the pig-farming system and to identify potential risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis infection in pigs. Blood samples were collected from 398 pigs with the aim of estimating the seroprevalence of T. solium cysticercosis. The results showed that 90.7% of the pigs are free roaming during the dry season and that 42.7% of households keeping pigs in the rural areas have no latrine facility. Seventy-six per cent of the interviewed pig owners confirmed that members of the household used open-field defecation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antigen and antibody detection showed an apparent prevalence of cysticercosis of 24.6% and 32.2%, respectively. A Bayesian approach, using the conditional dependence between the two diagnostic tests, indicated that the true seroprevalence of cysticercosis in Mayo-Danay was 26.6%. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that a lack of knowledge of the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex and the absence of a pig pen in the household were associated with pig cysticercosis. PMID:20334716

  10. The effects of different plant extracts on intestinal cestodes and on trematodes.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Semmler, Margit; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Strassen, Bianca; Fischer, Katja; Aksu, Gülendem; Klimpel, Sven; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2011-04-01

    In the present study, chloroform, aqueous, (polyethylene glycol/propylene carbonate) PEG/PC extracts were made from coconut, onion, garlic, fig, date tree, chicory, ananas, and cistrose. These extracts were tested in vivo and in vitro on their anthelmintic activity against cestodes (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. microstoma, Taenia taeniaeformis) and trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, Echinostoma caproni). In all in vitro tests, the target parasites died. It turned out that the treatment of mice and rats with a combination of onion and coconut extracts (with PEG/PC) eliminated all cestodes from their final hosts. In addition, the same composition was effective against the intestinal fluke E. caproni, but not against the liver fluke F. hepatica in the final host, while both worms were killed in vitro. Inoculation of fluids of coconut eliminated T. taeniaeformis tapeworms from naturally infected cats. This goal was not reached with oil of cistrose. PMID:21107861

  11. Contribution of NADH dehydrogenase subunit I and cytochrome C oxidase subunit I sequences toward identifying a case of human coenuriasis in France.

    PubMed

    Collomb, Jocelyne; Machouart, Marie; Biava, Marie-France; Brizion, Mélanie; Montagne, Karine; Plénat, François; Fortier, Bernard

    2007-08-01

    Coenuriasis is a parasitic disease induced by larval taeniid tapeworms that is rarely observed in humans. In December 2005, a case was diagnosed in Nancy, France, after surgical excision of a cyst on a 24-yr-old woman returning from the Côte d'Ivoire. Morphological and epidemiological criteria suggested that the infection was due to Taenia serialis. Molecular analysis of NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (NDI) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences was also in favor of T. serialis identification, but the absence of available genetic data on T. brauni and T. glomeratus and the small number of published sequences for T. serialis and T. multiceps must be considered with caution. The NDI partial sequences presented more variations within species of Taenia than the COI sequences, which make them more useful targets for species identification and analysis of intraspecific polymorphisms. The present study points to the usefulness of molecular biology tools to help make up for the shortcomings of the commonplace parasitological diagnosis for coenuriasis. PMID:17918379

  12. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    If parasites are found to be distributed in a carcass in such a manner or to be of such character that their removal and the removal of the lesions caused by them is impracticable, no part of the carcass shall be passed for human...

  13. Growth, nutritional composition, and hematology of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) exposed to toxaphene and tapeworm (Diphyllobothrium dendriticum) larvae.

    PubMed

    Blanar, C A; Curtis, M A; Chan, H M

    2005-04-01

    Toxaphene, an organochlorine pesticide, is the major contaminant of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) in the Canadian Arctic. The objective of this study was to investigate the combined effects of toxaphene exposure and infection by the larval stage of the cestode Diphyllobothrium dendriticum on fish growth, nutritional composition, and hematology. Hatchery-reared Arctic charr were subjected to one of four treatments: (1) oral administration of corn oil (control); (2) single oral dose of 10 microg/g wet wt toxaphene dissolved in corn oil; (3) exposure to 15 larval D. dendriticum; and (4) exposure to toxaphene and D. dendriticum in combination. The experiment was run for 104 days. Mean final toxaphene concentrations in charr muscle were 0.121, 0.336, 0.131 and 0.458 microg/g wet wt in each treatment group, respectively. Exposure to toxaphene and D. dendriticum decreased fish growth and condition as well muscle lipid and protein content. However, toxaphene did not increase the susceptibility of Arctic charr to parasite infection. Overall, 25 of 40 fish (62.5%) exposed to larval D. dendriticum became infected. Parasitized charr had decreased hematocrits and increased lymphocyte:erythrocyte ratios. Although total blood cell counts were decreased in all treatments compared with controls, differential leucocyte counts were unaffected. Our results suggest that toxaphene does not moderate Arctic charr resistance to D. dendriticum and there is no contaminant-parasite interaction at environmental levels. PMID:15719195

  14. The Effects of Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen, and Asian Tapeworm Infection on Growth and Survival of the Topeka Shiner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica J. Koehle; Ira R. Adelman

    2007-01-01

    The Topeka shiner Notropis topeka is an endangered fish species, historically described as inhabiting cool, headwater prairie streams. However, Topeka shiners recently have been found in off-channel habitats with high temperatures and low concentrations of dissolved oxygen. In laboratory experiments to determine whether Topeka shiners can tolerate the conditions in these off-channel habitats for extended periods, we found that their

  15. Hatching requirements of dwarf tapeworm eggs ( Hymenolepis nana ) in relation to extraintestinal development of larval stages in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph J. Conza

    1968-01-01

    It was established that cracked eggs of Hymenolepis nana would develop in the usual manner to the cysticercoid stage within 5 days when injected subcutaneously or intramuscularly into previously uninfected mice. Intestinal enzymes were not necessary to hatching stimulation. The majority of cysticercoids which developed subcutaneously in normal mice survived 3 weeks, relatively few survived 5 weeks, and there was

  16. THE CONTROL OF FISH PARASITES AND THE ERADICATION OF ASIAN TAPEWORM INFECTIONS IN GRASS CARP USING PRAZIQUANTEL BATH TREATMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are few studies on the control of fish parasites and even fewer effective or accepted methods for the direct or indirect control of these parasites. When parasite eradication from fish stocks is the goal, the probability for success is very low. Condition of host, life cycle of parasite, wate...

  17. The tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus alters the activity and response, but not the predation susceptibility of infected copepods.

    PubMed

    Urdal, K; Tierney, J F; Jakobsen, P J

    1995-04-01

    Cyclops abyssorum and Cyclops scutifer were experimentally infected with procercoids of the cestode Schistocephalus solidus, then examined for altered behavior and susceptibility to predation, respectively. Infected C. abyssorum differed from uninfected controls in their initial response to disturbance and their degree of activity but only when they harbored procercoids that were potentially infective to the next host. To examine the possible consequence of the altered behavior for susceptibility to predation, three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were offered equal numbers of infected and uninfected C. scutifer. Infected copepods were not preyed upon significantly more than controls. PMID:7707222

  18. A new genus and species of proteocephalidean tapeworm (Cestoda) from Pangasius larnaudii (Siluriformes: Pangasiidae) in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Tomáš; de Chambrier, Alain

    2012-06-01

    A new proteocephalidean cestode is described from spot pangasius, Pangasius larnaudii (Siluriformes: Pangasiidae), from Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia and a new genus, Pangasiocestus , is proposed to accommodate it. The genus is placed in the Gangesiinae because its scolex possesses a large rostellum-like apical organ and its genital organs (testes, ovary, vitellarium, and uterus) are situated in the medulla, with some vitelline follicles paramuscular. Pangasiocestus romani n. gen. and n. sp., the type and only species of the new genus, is characterized mainly by its rosette-like scolex composed of 4 lobes bearing a small sucker in their center, and the apical part with a large, discoidal, rostellum-like apical organ devoid of hooks, by weakly developed inner longitudinal musculature formed by very few isolated muscle fibers, uneven size of testes in immature and mature proglottids, with lateral testes smaller and more dense than median ones, by very narrow lateral bands of vitelline follicles, formed usually by single follicles, and by the vagina anterior to the cirrus sac. This is the first proteocephalidean cestode from a pangasiid catfish identified to the species level (proteocephalidean cestodes from 3 Pangasius spp. reported in an unpublished account from Vietnam, misidentified as Proteocephalus osculatus (Goeze, 1782) [?=? Glanitaenia osculata ], are not considered). PMID:22257242

  19. Sequential and concurrent exposure of flour beetles ( Tribolium confusum ) to tapeworms ( Hymenolepis diminuta ) and pesticide (diatomaceous earth).

    PubMed

    Shostak, Allen W

    2012-06-01

    The response of Tribolium confusum to sublethal levels of 2 environmental stressors was studied, i.e., parasitic infection represented by the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta , and a physical stressor represented by the natural pesticide diatomaceous earth (DE). These were applied sequentially (DE, then infection) to detect indirect or carryover effects of DE, and concurrently (DE applied immediately after exposure to parasites and DE presence maintained throughout the infection) to detect direct effects of DE. DE alone, but not parasitism alone, produced significant host mortality, and concurrent treatment with DE and parasitism did not increase mortality over DE alone. Parasite abundance was significantly higher following sequential, but not concurrent, DE exposure. Parasite abundance in mated hosts was significantly higher than in virgin hosts. Parasitic infection resulted in significantly fewer eggs retained in the oviduct of beetles, but there was no difference in the number of eggs that accumulated in the culture medium and no difference in the surface-seeking behavior of beetles. Mating status of beetles in all treatments, and DE exposure in concurrent treatments significantly increased their surface-seeking behavior. Concurrent exposure to DE also resulted in a 4- to 6-fold increase in host egg numbers that accumulated in the culture medium. Although DE exposure increased parasite numbers in the beetles, these 2 stressors otherwise appeared to act independently. PMID:22263651

  20. Food Habits of Lacustrine Salmonids in Washington State in Relation to Infections with Larvae of the Bass Tapeworm (Proteocephalus ambloplitis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ross Antipa

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of stomach contents of rainbow trout, cutthroat trout, and coho salmon from four lakes revealed a diversity of feeding habits. Copepods were the most frequently observed food items in the stomachs of the three salmonids. Cyclopoid copepods were most abundant in rainbow trout (198\\/fish), and less abundant in coho salmon (150\\/fish) and cutthroat trout (142\\/fish), respectively. Between 89-93% of

  1. The prevalence of epilepsy follows the distribution of onchocerciasis in a west Ugandan focus.

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, C.; Kipp, W.; Asaba, G.; Mugisa, C.; Kabagambe, G.; Rating, D.; Leichsenring, M.

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiological surveys indicate that the prevalence of epilepsy is higher in developing countries than in industrialized countries. Except for neurocystocercosis due to Taenia solium, little is known about possible underlying causes. This article reports the relationship between epilepsy and onchocerciasis in an Onchocerca volvulus endemic area in West Uganda. Individuals complaining of seizures were identified by means of a population census in 12 villages. Active epilepsy was confirmed in 61 of 4743 inhabitants (crude prevalence rate = 1.3%; age-standardized rate = 1.1%). Distribution of epilepsy in the study area was clustered, ranging from a prevalence of 0.2% to 3.4% in different villages. Age-specific prevalence was highest between 10 and 19 years, with a rate of 3.6% for the study are as a whole, and up to 10.0% in villages of high epilepsy prevalence. The prevalence of onchocerciasis in the 10-19-year-old age group was assessed by skin-snip biopsy and ranged from 15% to 85% in different villages. Epilepsy was significantly more frequent in the three villages with the highest levels of O. volvulus endemicity than in other villages (P < 0.0001). Serological testing for T. solium infection was positive in one and borderline in three of 53 epilepsy patients tested. The significant correlation between epilepsy and onchocerciasis did not change when these four patients were excluded from the analysis. These findings suggest a strong association between epilepsy and onchocerciasis in this area. This could have significant implications for the concept of morbidity due to O. volvulus. PMID:8823957

  2. The spatial ecology of free-ranging domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In many parts of the developing world, pigs are kept under low-input systems where they roam freely to scavenge food. These systems allow poor farmers the opportunity to enter into livestock keeping without large capital investments. This, combined with a growing demand for pork, especially in urban areas, has led to an increase in the number of small-holder farmers keeping free range pigs as a commercial enterprise. Despite the benefits which pig production can bring to a household, keeping pigs under a free range system increases the risk of the pig acquiring diseases, either production-limiting or zoonotic in nature. This study used Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to track free range domestic pigs in rural western Kenya, in order to understand their movement patterns and interactions with elements of the peri-domestic environment. Results We found that these pigs travel an average of 4,340?m in a 12?hr period and had a mean home range of 10,343?m2 (range 2,937–32,759?m2) within which the core utilisation distribution was found to be 964?m2 (range 246–3,289?m2) with pigs spending on average 47% of their time outside their homestead of origin. Conclusion These are the first data available on the home range of domestic pigs kept under a free range system: the data show that pigs in these systems spend much of their time scavenging outside their homesteads, suggesting that these pigs may be exposed to infectious agents over a wide area. Control policies for diseases such as Taenia solium, Trypanosomiasis, Trichinellosis, Toxoplasmosis or African Swine Fever therefore require a community-wide focus and pig farmers require education on the inherent risks of keeping pigs under a free range system. The work presented here will enable future research to incorporate movement data into studies of disease transmission, for example for the understanding of transmission of African Swine Fever between individuals, or in relation to the life-cycle of parasites including Taenia solium. PMID:23497587

  3. [Use of polymerase chain reaction for identifying helminth DNA from the species Trichinella, Fasciola, Echinococcus, Nematodirus, Taenia].

    PubMed

    Romanova, E A; Semenova, S K; Benediktov, I I; Ryskov, A P

    1997-01-01

    We have used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method to identify DNA polymorphism in three classes of helminths, Cestoda, Nematoda and Trematoda. In this study, RAPD markers have been used for a description of the genetic variability between the families, genera, species and isolates of helminths. We optimized the conditions of the RAPD analysis and revealed the genetic variability of helminths belonging to different taxonomic groups. These results show that the RAPD-PCR method can be considered as a suitable technic for a phylogenetic study of helminths. The problem of an age variability and most specificity of RAPDs markers is discussed. PMID:9297179

  4. Evidence-based identification of the most important livestock related zoonotic diseases in Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Makita, Kohei; Fèvre, Eric M; Waiswa, Charles; Kaboyo, Winyi; Eisler, Mark C; Welburn, Susan C

    2011-08-01

    Urban and peri-urban livestock farming in developing countries plays an important role in food security in cities; however it brings with it zoonotic risks. The present study was conducted to identify the most important livestock farming-related zoonotic diseases among the human population in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala, Uganda and to assess the risks from such farming. A framework for identifying livestock farming-related significant zoonoses was developed. The process consisted of screening of medical record summaries for zoonotic diagnoses, selection of the zoonoses which are related to livestock farming, case estimation of the identified zoonoses and evidence-based reassurance of the importance of diseases. Medical records in the Mulago National Referral Hospital were used for the analysis. Leaders and residents of 75 Local Councils (LC1s: villages; 48 urban, 11 peri-urban and 16 rural) randomly selected in Kampala were interviewed for information regarding livestock farming systems, value chains and use of medical service units. Twelve zoonoses were identified in the screening and four out of them were related to livestock farming: animal sourced food-borne gastroenteritis, brucellosis, Taenia solium neuro-cysticercosis and Mycobacterium bovis tuberculosis. Livestock farming, value chain and severity of the diseases confirmed that all four diseases were important. Poor geographical correlation between animals in peri-urban and rural areas and patients in urban areas suggested that the majority of these zoonoses were caused by informally-marketed foods. PMID:21467754

  5. Identification of irradiated refrigerated pork with the DNA comet assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, M. M.; Marin-Huachaca, N. S.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincée, H.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Food irradiation can contribute to a safer and more plentiful food supply by inactivating pathogens, eradicating pests and by extending shelf-life. Particularly in the case of pork meat, this process could be a useful way to inactivate harmful parasites such as Trichinella and Taenia solium. Ionizing radiation causes damage to the DNA of the cells (e.g. strand breaks), which can be used to detect irradiated food. Microelectrophoresis of single cells (``Comet Assay'') is a simple and rapid test for DNA damage and can be used over a wide dose range and for a variety of products. Refrigerated pork meat was irradiated with a 60Co source, Gammacell 220 (A.E.C.L.) installed in IPEN (Sa~o Paulo, Brazil). The doses given were 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5kGy for refrigerated samples. Immediately after irradiation the samples were returned to the refrigerator (6°C). Samples were kept in the refrigerator after irradiation. Pork meat was analyzed 1, 8 and 10 days after irradiation using the DNA ``Comet Assay''. This method showed to be an inexpensive and rapid technique for qualitative detection of irradiation treatment.

  6. Prevalence of Endemic Pig-Associated Zoonoses in Southeast Asia: A Review of Findings from the Lao People's Democratic Republic

    PubMed Central

    Okello, Anna L.; Burniston, Stephanie; Conlan, James V.; Inthavong, Phouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Welburn, Susan C.; Gilbert, Jeffrey; Allen, John; Blacksell, Stuart D.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing intensification of pork production in southeast Asia necessitates an urgent requirement to better understand the dual impact of pig-associated zoonotic disease on both pig production and human health in the region. Sharing porous borders with five countries and representing many regional ethnicities and agricultural practices, the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) appears well placed to gauge the levels of pig-associated zoonoses circulating in the wider region. Despite this, little is known about the true impact of zoonotic pathogens such as leptospirosis, Trichinella, hepatitis E virus (HEV), Japanese encephalitis (JE), and Taenia solium on human health and livestock production in the country. A comprehensive review of the published prevalences of these five pig-associated zoonoses in Lao PDR has demonstrated that although suspicion remains high of their existence in pig reservoirs across the country, epidemiological data are scarce; only 31 epidemiological studies have been undertaken on these diseases in the past 25 years. A greater understanding of the zoonoses prevalence and subsequent risks associated with pork production in the southeast Asian region could help focus public health and food safety interventions at key points along the value chain, benefiting both livestock producers and the broader animal and human health systems in the region. PMID:25802431

  7. Cysticerci Drive Dendritic Cells to Promote In Vitro and In Vivo Tregs Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Arce-Sillas, Asiel; Fragoso, Gladis; Cárdenas, Graciela; Rosetti, Marcos; Casanova-Hernández, Didier; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Fleury, Agnes; Sciutto, Edda

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a crucial role in immune homeostasis. Treg induction is a strategy that parasites have evolved to modulate the host's inflammatory environment, facilitating their establishment and permanence. In human Taenia solium neurocysticercosis (NC), the concurrence of increased peripheral and central Treg levels and their capacity to inhibit T cell activation and proliferation support their role in controlling neuroinflammation. This study is aimed at identifing possible mechanisms of Treg induction in human NC. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) from healthy human donors, cocultivated with autologous CD4+ naïve cells either in the presence or absence of cysticerci, promoted CD25highFoxp3+ Treg differentiation. An increased Treg induction was observed when cysticerci were present. Moreover, an augmentation of suppressive-related molecules (SLAMF1, B7-H1, and CD205) was found in parasite-induced DC differentiation. Increased Tregs and a higher in vivo DC expression of the regulatory molecules SLAMF1 and CD205 in NC patients were also found. SLAMF1 gene was downregulated in NC patients with extraparenchymal cysticerci, exhibiting higher inflammation levels than patients with parenchymal parasites. Our findings suggest that cysticerci may modulate DC to favor a suppressive environment, which may help parasite establishment, minimizing the excessive inflammation, which may lead to tissue damage. PMID:23762101

  8. Genome mining offers a new starting point for parasitology research.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao; Zhang, Limei; Ji, Pengyu; Cai, Yifeng; Luo, Shiqi; Wang, Hongxi; Li, Hao

    2015-02-01

    Parasites including helminthes, protozoa, and medical arthropod vectors are a major cause of global infectious diseases, affecting one-sixth of the world's population, which are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality important and remain impediments to economic development especially in tropical countries. Prevalent drug resistance, lack of highly effective and practical vaccines, as well as specific and sensitive diagnostic markers are proving to be challenging problems in parasitic disease control in most parts of the world. The impressive progress recently made in genome-wide analysis of parasites of medical importance, including trematodes of Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni; nematodes of Brugia malayi, Loa loa, Necator americanus, Trichinella spiralis, and Trichuris suis; cestodes of Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, and Taenia solium; protozoa of Babesia bovis, B. microti, Cryptosporidium hominis, Eimeria falciformis, E. histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Leishmania braziliensis, L. donovani, L. major, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, Trichomonas vaginalis, Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi; and medical arthropod vectors of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles darlingi, A. sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, have been systematically covered in this review for a comprehensive understanding of the genetic information contained in nuclear, mitochondrial, kinetoplast, plastid, or endosymbiotic bacterial genomes of parasites, further valuable insight into parasite-host interactions and development of promising novel drug and vaccine candidates and preferable diagnostic tools, thereby underpinning the prevention and control of parasitic diseases. PMID:25563615

  9. Oxfendazole flukicidal activity in pigs.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Pedro; Terrones, Susana; Cabrera, María; Hoban, Cristian; Ceballos, Laura; Moreno, Laura; Canton, Candela; Donadeu, Meritxell; Lanusse, Carlos; Alvarez, Luis

    2014-08-01

    Although oxfendazole (OFZ) is a well know broad-spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic, the assessment of its potential trematodicidal activity remains unexplored. OFZ administration at single high doses has been recommended to control Taenia solium cysticercus in pigs. The current study investigated the flukicidal activity obtained after a single high (30mg/kg) oral dose of OFZ in pigs harbouring a natural Fasciola hepatica infection. Sixteen (16) local ecotype pigs were randomly allocated into two (2) experimental groups of 8 animals each named as follow: Untreated control and OFZ treated, in which animals received OFZ (Synanthic(®), Merial Ltd., 9.06% suspension) orally at 30mg/kg. At seven (7) days post-treatment, all the animals were sacrificed and direct adult liver fluke counts were performed following the WAAVP guidelines. None of the animals involved in this experiment showed any adverse event during the study. OFZ treatment as a single 30mg/kg oral dose showed a 100% efficacy against F. hepatica. In conclusion, the trial described here demonstrated an excellent OFZ activity against F. hepatica in naturally infected pigs, after its administration at a single oral dose of 30mg/kg. PMID:24713198

  10. [Role of infectious agents in the emergence of malignant tumors].

    PubMed

    Kutikhin, A G; Yuzhalin, A E; Brusina, E B; Briko, N I

    2012-01-01

    According to the data of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), at least 6 virus species (HPV, EBV, HHV-8/KSHV, HTLV-1, HBV, HCV), 4 helminthes species (Schistosoma haematobium and japonicum, Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis) and I bacterium species (Helicobacter pylori) have been proved to be capable of causing the development of cancer. The analysis of the data available shows that Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), John Cunningham polyomavirus (JCV), monkey virus 40 (SV40), cytomegalovirus (CMV), xenotropic murine leukemia virus (XMRV), Helicobacter bilis and hepaticus, Campylobacter jejuni, Fusobacterium varium, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides vulgatus, Prevotella spp., Streptococcus bovis and anginosus, Treponema denticola, Salmonella typhi, paratyphi and typhimurium, Borrelia burgdorferi, Bartonella spp., Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, trachomatis and psittaci, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Propionibacterium acnes, Tropheryma whippelii, Schistosoma mansoni, Opistorchis felineus, Strongyloides stercoralis, Taenia solium, Candida spp., Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Histoplasma capsulatum and Trichomonas vaginalis can also be potential etiological agents of cancer. Apparently, detection of new associations between infectious agents and risk of the development of cancer will facilitate progress in elaboration of prophylaxis measures, early diagnostic methods and, probably, methods of treatment of malignant tumors. PMID:23163048

  11. Hospitalization Frequency and Charges for Neurocysticercosis, United States, 2003–2012

    PubMed Central

    Flecker, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis, brain infection with Taenia solium larval cysts, causes substantial neurologic illness around the world. To assess the effect of neurocysticercosis in the United States, we reviewed hospitalization discharge data in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 2003–2012 and found an estimated 18,584 hospitalizations for neurocysticercosis and associated hospital charges totaling >US $908 million. The risk for hospitalization was highest among Hispanics (2.5/100,000 population), a rate 35 times higher than that for the non-Hispanic white population. Nearly three-quarters of all hospitalized patients with neurocysticercosis were Hispanic. Male sex and age 20–44 years also incurred increased risk. In addition, hospitalizations and associated charges related to cysticercosis far exceeded those for malaria and were greater than for those for all other neglected tropical diseases combined. Neurocysticercosis is an increasing public health concern in the United States, especially among Hispanics, and costs the US health care system a substantial amount of money. PMID:25988221

  12. A specific antigen-detection elisa for the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, H. H.; Harrison, L. J. S.; Parkhouse, R. M. E.; Montenegro, T.; Martinez, S. M.; Tsang, V. C. W.; Gilman, R. H.

    2010-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of antigen secreted by viable Taenia solium metacestodes (Ag-elisa) was applied to 43 pre-treatment and 47 follow-up cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from Peruvian patients with neurocysticercosis demonstrated by computed tomography and enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay. The sensitivity of the assay was 86%. Negative pre-treatment results in the Ag-elisa test were restricted to patients with only a single live cyst or only enhancing lesions. Patients with hydrocephalus had higher levels of circulating antigen. There was no difference between antigen levels in CSF taken before and immediately after treatment (day 14). Levels of parasite antigen were significantly positively correlated with the number of live cysts detected by tomography and were also proportional to the number and intensity of antibody reactions recognized by the immunoblot diagnostic test. In contrast, there was a negative correlation with the number of enhancing lesions revealed by tomography, supporting the hypothesis that enhancing lesions correspond to a terminal, moribund stage of the parasite. The use of antigen-detection tests specific for viable metacestodes has immediate utility in the clinical context, not only providing important information on the viability of the parasites but also leading to an improved understanding of the pathogenesis of neurocysticercosis before and after drug treatment. PMID:9850394

  13. Prevalence of Endemic Pig-Associated Zoonoses in Southeast Asia: A Review of Findings from the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Okello, Anna L; Burniston, Stephanie; Conlan, James V; Inthavong, Phouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Welburn, Susan C; Gilbert, Jeffrey; Allen, John; Blacksell, Stuart D

    2015-05-01

    The increasing intensification of pork production in southeast Asia necessitates an urgent requirement to better understand the dual impact of pig-associated zoonotic disease on both pig production and human health in the region. Sharing porous borders with five countries and representing many regional ethnicities and agricultural practices, the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) appears well placed to gauge the levels of pig-associated zoonoses circulating in the wider region. Despite this, little is known about the true impact of zoonotic pathogens such as leptospirosis, Trichinella, hepatitis E virus (HEV), Japanese encephalitis (JE), and Taenia solium on human health and livestock production in the country. A comprehensive review of the published prevalences of these five pig-associated zoonoses in Lao PDR has demonstrated that although suspicion remains high of their existence in pig reservoirs across the country, epidemiological data are scarce; only 31 epidemiological studies have been undertaken on these diseases in the past 25 years. A greater understanding of the zoonoses prevalence and subsequent risks associated with pork production in the southeast Asian region could help focus public health and food safety interventions at key points along the value chain, benefiting both livestock producers and the broader animal and human health systems in the region. PMID:25802431

  14. Neurocysticercosis: A disease of neglect

    PubMed Central

    Mewara, Abhishek; Goyal, Kapil; Sehgal, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a neglected tropical disease caused by larval forms of the parasite Taenia solium lodging in central nervous system (CNS). There is a huge morbidity and debilitation due to CNS manifestations of NCC in developing and underdeveloped regions of the globe, mainly Asian, African and Latin American countries. It is the cause of epilepsy in about 1% of the population of endemic countries and is the underlying etiology in about 15-50% persons with epilepsy, depending upon the geographical region. There is no perfect diagnostic method and the diagnosis relies on a combination of clinical, radio-imaging, immunologic and epidemiologic data. Treatment includes anti-parasitic treatment by cysticidal drugs and management of associated symptoms and complications. The disease is eradicable and control depends on an integrated and coordinated involvement of international bodies like the World Health Organization along with scientific institutions and political and administrative strata of the endemic countries to provide the essential tools such as adequate sanitation, live-stock management, health education and improved socio-economic conditions. PMID:24470993

  15. Perilesional brain edema and seizure activity in patients with calcified neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Theodore E.; Pretell, E. Javier; Lescano, Andres. G.; Bustos, Javier A.; Gilman, Robert H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Garcia, Héctor H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cysticercosis due to Taenia solium is a leading cause of adult acquired seizures and epilepsy that frequently occurs in patients with only calcified larval cysts. Transient episodes of perilesional brain edema occur around calcified foci but its importance, association with seizures, incidence, and pathophysiology are unknown. Methods One hundred and ten persons with only calcified lesions and a history of seizures or severe headaches were followed prospectively in a cohort design to assess the incidence of seizure relapses. In a nested case-control sub study, perilesional edema was assessed by MRI at the time a seizure occurred in the symptomatic patient and in a matched asymptomatic control, amongst the 110 followed. Results Median follow up was 32.33 months (SD 19.99). Twenty-nine people had an incident seizure with an estimated 5 year seizure incidence of 36%. Twenty-four patients of the 29 with seizure relapse had an MRI evaluation within five days of the event. Perilesional edema was found in 12 (50.0%) compared to 2 of 23 asymptomatic matched controls (8.7%). Conclusions Perilesional edema occurs frequently and is associated with episodic seizure activity in calcified neurocysticercosis. Our findings are likely representative of symptomatic patients in endemic regions and suggest a unique and possibly preventable cause of seizures in this population. PMID:18986841

  16. Banding pattern indicative of echinococcosis in a commercial cysticercosis western blot

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective A commercial cysticercosis Western blot was evaluated for serological cross-reactivity of sera from patients with alveolar (AE) and cystic echinococcosis (CE). Methods A total of 161 sera were examined, including 31 sera from AE-patients, 11 sera from CE-patients, 9 sera from patients with other parasitic diseases and 109 sera from patients with unrelated medical conditions. All AE-and CE-sera were also examined by the echinococcosis Western blot. Results More sera from patients with AE than with CE showed cross-reactivity in the form of ladder-like patterns ("Mikado aspect") and untypical bands at 6-8 kDa (71% and 77.4% versus 27.3% and 45.5%, respectively). In contrast, triplets of bands in the area above 50 kDa and between 24 and 39-42 kDa were more frequent in CE than in AE sera. The fuzzy band at 50-55 kDa typical for cysticercosis was absent in all AE and CE sera. Conclusions Atypical banding patterns in the cysticercosis Western blot should raise the suspicion of a metacestode infection different from Taenia solium, i.e. Echinococcus multilocularis or E. granulosus, especially when the Mikado aspect and an altered 6-8 kDa band is visible in the absence of a fuzzy 50-55 kDa band. PMID:19748853

  17. Seizure and radiological outcomes in children with solitary cysticercous granulomas with and without albendazole therapy: a retrospective case record analysis.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Sheffali; Jain, Puneet; Sachan, Deepak; Chakrabarty, Biswaroop; Kumar, Atin; Pandey, R M; Gupta, Arun K

    2014-09-01

    Neurocysticercosis, parasitic infestation of the central nervous system by the Taenia solium larvae, is a major public health problem, primarily in the developing countries. Seizures are the primary clinical manifestation which could be acute (secondary to active lesions) or remote symptomatic (due to calcified lesions). Cysticidal therapy is the standard of care for solitary parenchymal active neurocysticerci. However treatment related side effects and tendency to spontaneous resolution raises concern from time to time whether cysticidal therapy is actually required. This is a retrospective case record analysis of two groups of patients with solitary parenchymal neurocysticerci (group A; 171 patients between 2000 and 2004 who did not receive cysticidal therapy, group B; 512 patients between 2008 and 2013 who received cysticidal therapy). Group B had significantly more radiological resolution of lesions whereas group A reported significantly more seizure recurrences on antiepileptics. There was no significant difference in occurrence of calcification in the two groups. Overall patients with calcified lesions had significantly more breakthrough seizures. Well designed prospective studies should be planned in future to understand the mechanism underlying the epileptogenicity of calcified lesions and how they are linked to host and environment factors. PMID:24908563

  18. Microhabitat Analysis of Bass Tapeworm, Proteocephalus ambloplitis (Eucestoda: Proteocephalidae), in Smallmouth Bass, Micropterus dolomieu, and Largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides, from Gull Lake, Michigan, U.S.A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Merritt G. Gillilland; Patrick M. Muzzall

    2004-01-01

    A total of 142 bass (54 Micropterus dolomieu and 88 Micropterus salmoides) were collected April through September 2000 and April through July 2001 from 5 locations in Gull Lake, Michigan, U.S.A., and examined for Proteocephalus ambloplitis. Proteocephalus ambloplitis was 100% prevalent in both smallmouth and largemouth bass. The numbers of P. ambloplitis from each microhabitat (gonads, liver, spleen, mesentery, pyloric

  19. Levels of sparganum infections and phylogenetic analysis of the tapeworm Spirometra erinaceieuropaei sparganum in wild frogs from Henan Province in central China.

    PubMed

    Wei, T; Zhang, X; Cui, J; Liu, L N; Jiang, P; Wang, Z Q

    2015-07-01

    Sparganosis is a serious food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with Spirometra spargana. The prevalence of sparganum infection in wild frogs (Rana nigromaculata, R. limmochari, R. temporaria and Bufo gargarizans) was investigated in Henan Province of central China during 2008-2012. Of 3482 caught wild frogs, 565 (16.23%) were found to be infected with plerocercoids (spargana) of the genus Spirometra. Spargana were found in 14.85% (320/2155) of R. nigromaculata, 20.82% (233/1119) of R. limmochari and 10.91% (12/110) of R. temporaria frogs. However, no sparganum was found in B. gargarizans. To investigate the phylogenetic position of collected spargana, three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions, namely cytochrome c oxidase subunits 1 and 3 (cox1 and cox3), and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (nad4), were amplified, sequenced and analysed. Sequences of cox1, cox3 and pnad4 were 417, 390 and 578 bp in length, respectively. The base composition of cox1, cox3 and pnad4 were generally AT rich with a mean of 63.5%, 68.3% and 67% AT, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the sparganum isolates in Henan Province represented Spirometra erinaceieuropaei and were a well-supported clade. These findings demonstrated clearly the usefulness of the three mtDNA sequences for molecular identification and population genetics studies of S. erinaceieuropaei spargana of human and animal health significance. PMID:26017331

  20. A SURVEY OF THE TAPEWORM FAUNA OF THE COWNOSE RAY, RHINOPTERA BONASUS, FROM THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO WITH COMMENTS ON INTERMEDIATE HOSTS

    E-print Network

    Call, Garrett

    2007-10-12

    This survey determined the cestode diversity parasitizing the spiral intestine of the cownose ray, Rhinoptera bonasus (Mitchill), in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Twelve cownose rays were collected near barrier islands off ...

  1. The majority of parasitic worms belong to either the Platyhelminthes (flatworms/flukes and tape-worms) or Nematoda (roundworms/nematodes).

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    The majority of parasitic worms belong to either the Platyhelminthes (flatworms/flukes and tape- worms) or Nematoda (roundworms/nematodes). Unlike earthworms, nematodes are un becomes capable of reproducing (eggs produced after male worm inseminates female). In some instances

  2. Hymenolepis folkertsi n. sp. (Eucestoda: Hymenolepididae) in the oldfield mouse Peromyscus polionotus from the southeastern Nearctic with comments on tapeworm faunal diversity among deer mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previously unrecognized species of hymenolepidid cestode attributable to Hymenolepis Weinland, 1858 is described based on specimens in Peromyscus polionotus, oldfield mouse, from Georgia near the southeastern coast of continental North America. Specimens of Hymenolepis folkertsi n. sp. differ from...

  3. Identification, molecular characterization and expression of the gene encoding the epidermal growth factor receptor orthologue from the fox-tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Spiliotis; Antje Kroner; Klaus Brehm

    2003-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are crucially involved in the development of metazoan organisms and possible mediators of cell–cell communication that occurs between eukaryotic parasites and hosts. We have now cloned and characterized the complete complementary DNA (cDNA) molecule encoding a novel receptor tyrosine kinase, EmER, of the human parasite Echinococcus multilocularis. EmER shared significant amino acid sequence homologies with members

  4. High Prevalence of Cysticercosis in People with Epilepsy in Southern Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Rottbeck, Ruth; Nshimiyimana, Jules Fidèle; Tugirimana, Pierrot; Düll, Uta E.; Sattler, Janko; Hategekimana, Jean-Claudien; Hitayezu, Janvier; Bruckmaier, Irmengard; Borchert, Matthias; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Dieckmann, Sebastian; Harms, Gundel

    2013-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis (NCC), the central nervous system infection by Taenia solium larvae, is a preventable and treatable cause of epilepsy. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the role of NCC in epilepsy differs geographically and, overall, is poorly defined. We aimed at contributing specific, first data for Rwanda, assessing factors associated with NCC, and evaluating a real-time PCR assay to diagnose NCC in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Methodology/Principal findings At three healthcare facilities in southern Rwanda, 215 people with epilepsy (PWE) and 51 controls were clinically examined, interviewed, and tested by immunoblot for cysticerci-specific serum antibodies. Additionally, CSF samples from PWE were tested for anticysticercal antibodies by ELISA and for parasite DNA by PCR. Cranial computer tomography (CT) scans were available for 12.1% of PWE with additional symptoms suggestive of NCC. The Del Brutto criteria were applied for NCC diagnosis. Cysticerci-specific serum antibodies were found in 21.8% of PWE and 4% of controls (odds ratio (OR), 6.69; 95% confidence interval (95%CI), 1.6–58.7). Seropositivity was associated with age and lack of safe drinking water. Fifty (23.3%) PWE were considered NCC cases (definitive, based on CT scans, 7.4%; probable, mainly based on positive immunoblots, 15.8%). In CSF samples from NCC cases, anticysticercal antibodies were detected in 10% (definitive cases, 25%) and parasite DNA in 16% (definitive cases, 44%). Immunoblot-positive PWE were older (medians, 30 vs. 22 years), more frequently had late-onset epilepsy (at age >25 years; 43.5% vs. 8.5%; OR, 8.30; 95%CI, 3.5–20.0), and suffered from significantly fewer episodes of seizures in the preceding six months than immunoblot-negative PWE. Conclusions/Significance NCC is present and contributes to epilepsy in southern Rwanda. Systematic investigations into porcine and human cysticercosis as well as health education and hygiene measures for T. solium control are needed. PCR might provide an additional, highly specific tool in NCC diagnosis. PMID:24244783

  5. Tape worm

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N/A N/A (None; )

    2006-05-11

    The tapeworm is ingested by humans through raw or undercooked meat. The tapeworm comes to rest in the small intestines of the human and absorbs nutrients from food that its host ingests. It matures in the small intestine.

  6. Crossing institutional boundaries: mapping the policy process for improved control of endemic and neglected zoonoses in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Okello, Anna; Welburn, Susan; Smith, James

    2015-07-01

    The recent adoption of the World Health Assembly Resolution 66.12 for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in May 2013 is an important turning point for advocacy regarding a number of endemic zoonotic infections, defined by the World Health Organization as the neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs). In addition to NTD-listed zoonoses such as rabies, echinococcosis (hydatid disease), leishmaniasis, Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) and Taenia solium cysticercosis, the NZDs also include important bacterial zoonoses such as anthrax, bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis. To date, analysis of the processes that prioritize, develop and deliver zoonoses control programmes in many low- and middle-income countries is lacking, despite its potential to highlight significant evidence gaps and institutional constraints to the intersectoral approach required for their control. Policy process analysis was conducted via a series of semi-structured interviews with key policy actors within various ministries and institutes in Uganda and Nigeria. The study concluded that despite the rhetoric around 'linear' models of health policy development promoting consultation with a wide range of national stakeholders, the decision-making process for zoonotic disease control appears instead overtly influenced by the external political economy of trending pandemic threats, often overlooking national and regional zoonoses priorities. The inclusion of political systems remains a key factor in the zoonoses analysis matrix, enhancing our understanding of the intersectoral and transdisciplinary approaches required for their control. The authors consider policy process analysis to be a fundamental first step of any attempt to holistically strengthen human and animal health systems in a development context, particularly regarding the promotion of integrated control policies for regionally important zoonoses under the growing One Health movement. PMID:25000963

  7. False positive reactivity of recombinant, diagnostic, glycoproteins produced in High Five insect cells: effect of glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Kathy; Narang, Someet; Pattabhi, Sowmya; Yushak, Melinda L; Khan, Azra; Lin, Seh-Ching; Plemons, Robert; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Tsang, Victor C W

    2008-01-31

    Baculovirus-mediated expression of recombinant proteins for use in diagnostic assays is commonplace. We expressed a diagnostic antigen for cysticercosis, GP50, caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, in both High Five and Sf9 insect cells. Upon evaluation of the specificity of recombinant GP50 (rGP50) in a western blot assay, we observed that 12.5% (21/168) of the serum samples from persons with a variety of parasitic infections other than cysticercosis reacted positive when rGP50 was produced in High Five cells. The same samples reacted negative when rGP50 was produced in Sf9 cells. The false positive reactivities of these other parasitic infection sera were abolished when rGP50, expressed in High Five cells, was deglycosylated. In addition, the same sera that reacted with rGP50 from High Five cells also reacted with recombinant human transferrin (rhTf) when expressed in High Five cells, but not Sf9 cells. High Five cells, but not Sf9 cells, modify many glycoproteins with a core alpha(1,3)-fucose. This same modification is found in the glycoproteins of several parasitic worms and is known to be immunogenic. Since the distribution of these worms is widespread and millions of people are infected, the use of recombinant proteins with N-linked glycosylation produced in High Five cells for diagnostic antigens is likely to result in a number of false positive reactions and a decrease in assay specificity. PMID:17868684

  8. Ecology 2007 21, 552560

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    for parasite life-cycle dynamics: the case of urban foxes and Echinococcus multilocularis tapeworm D. HEGGLIN. The zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart is transmitted to foxes (Vulpes vulpes L parasites such as cestodes. For example, the small fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart

  9. Comparison of the in vitro translation capacity of Taenia crassiceps metacestode mRNA prepared by the phenol and cesium chloride method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Kleine-Herzbruch; E. Geyer

    1988-01-01

    Total RNA of T. crassiceps metacestodes harvested from male and female NMRI mice was prepared by both the phenol extraction technique and cesium chloride (CsCl) gradient centrifugation. mRNA was selected by oligo (dT)-cellulose affinity chromatography and used as the template for the in vitro translation of parasite polypeptides in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte lysate. The template activity of the mRNA

  10. The macrophage galactose-type lectin-1 (MGL1) recognizes Taenia crassiceps antigens, triggers intracellular signaling, and is critical for resistance to this infection.

    PubMed

    Montero-Barrera, Daniel; Valderrama-Carvajal, Héctor; Terrazas, César A; Rojas-Hernández, Saúl; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Vera-Arias, Laura; Carrasco-Yépez, Maricela; Gómez-García, Lorena; Martínez-Saucedo, Diana; Becerra-Díaz, Mireya; Terrazas, Luis I

    2015-01-01

    C-type lectins are multifunctional sugar-binding molecules expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages that internalize antigens for processing and presentation. Macrophage galactose-type lectin 1 (MGL1) recognizes glycoconjugates expressing Lewis X structures which contain galactose residues, and it is selectively expressed on immature DCs and macrophages. Helminth parasites contain large amounts of glycosylated components, which play a role in the immune regulation induced by such infections. Macrophages from MGL1(-/-) mice showed less binding ability toward parasite antigens than their wild-type (WT) counterparts. Exposure of WT macrophages to T. crassiceps antigens triggered tyrosine phosphorylation signaling activity, which was diminished in MGL1(-/-) macrophages. Following T. crassiceps infection, MGL1(-/-) mice failed to produce significant levels of inflammatory cytokines early in the infection compared to WT mice. In contrast, MGL1(-/-) mice developed a Th2-dominant immune response that was associated with significantly higher parasite loads, whereas WT mice were resistant. Flow cytometry and RT-PCR analyses showed overexpression of the mannose receptors, IL-4R?, PDL2, arginase-1, Ym1, and RELM-? on MGL1(-/-) macrophages. These studies indicate that MGL1 is involved in T. crassiceps recognition and subsequent innate immune activation and resistance. PMID:25664320

  11. Modelling potential presence of metazoan endoparasites of bobcats (Lynx rufus) using verified records.

    PubMed

    Hiestand, Shelby J; Nielsen, Clayton K; Jiménez, F Agustín

    2014-10-01

    Helminth parasites of wild and domestic felines pose a direct or potential threat to human health. Since helminths depend on multiple environmental factors that make their transmission possible, it is imperative to predict the areas where these parasites may complete the transmission to potential hosts. Bobcats, Lynx rufus (Schreberer), are the most abundant and widely-distributed wild felid species in North America. The increase of population densities of bobcats raises concerns about their importance as reservoirs of pathogens and parasites that may affect wildlife, domestic animals and humans. Our objective was to predict the potential presence of the tapeworm Taenia rileyi Loewen, 1929, the fluke Alaria marcianae (La Rue, 1917) and the roundworm Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1788) in southern Illinois. The empirical presence of these parasites in localities across the region was analysed in combination with a sampling bias layer (i.e. bobcat presence) and with environmental data: layers of water, soil, land cover, human density and climate variables in MAXENT to create maps of potential presence for these three species in an area of 46436 km2. All climatic variables were low contributors (0.0-2.0% contribution to model creation) whereas land cover surfaced as an important variable for the presence of A. marcianae (7.6%) and T. cati (6.3%); human density (4.8%) was of secondary importance for T. rileyi. Variables of importance likely represent habitat requirements necessary for the completion of parasite life cycles. Larger areas of potential presence were found for the feline specialist T. rileyi (85%) while potential presence was less likely for A. marcianae (73%), a parasite that requires multiple aquatic intermediate hosts. This study provides information to wildlife biologists and health officials regarding the potential impacts of growing bobcat populations in combination with complex and changing environmental factors. PMID:25549497

  12. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against excretory/secretory products of adult Echinococcus granulosus, and their application to coproantigen detection.

    PubMed

    Casaravilla, Cecilia; Malgor, Ramiro; Rossi, Andrea; Sakai, Hirofumi; Nonaka, Nariaki; Kamiya, Masao; Carmona, Carlos

    2005-03-01

    Two IgM murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), EgC1 and EgC3, were produced against the excretory/secretory (E/S) products of Echinococcus granulosus adult worms. Immunoblotting revealed that both predominantly recognized a 50 kDa antigen in the somatic extract and an 85 kDa component in the E/S products. Immunolocalization showed that both MAbs reacted with the tegument of the parasite, and additionally EgC3 reacted with parenchyma and the tegument lining the external surface of the reproductive organs. A coproantigen capture ELISA was developed using a rabbit polyclonal antibody against E/S products from adult tapeworms as catching antibodies, and each one of MAbs as detecting antibody. The assays detected seven out of eight (EgC1), and eight out of eight (EgC3) experimentally infected dogs (worm burdens ranging from 61 to 57,500), using heat-treated samples obtained at prepatent period, and none (n=8) of helminth-free samples. Time course analysis showed that, after a 12-25 days lag, coproantigen levels rose above cut off O.D. values and typically peaked around 30 days post-infection (DPI) at the end of the experiment. One dog experimentally infected with Taenia hydatigena metacestodes was slightly detected as positive at different time points after 30 DPI. Both MAbs showed a similar pattern of recognition, but T. hydatigena antigens were undetectable for a longer period, and reached lower O.D. values with EgC1. Interestingly, fecal samples from two experimentally infected dogs with Echinococcus multilocularis were not recognized by the EgC1 assay, suggesting a potential value as species-specific diagnostic tool. PMID:15710549

  13. First insight into CD59-like molecules of adult Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yunliang; Toet, Hayley; Rathinasamy, Vignesh; Young, Neil D; Gasser, Robin B; Beddoe, Travis; Huang, Weiyi; Spithill, Terry W

    2014-09-01

    The present study focussed on investigating CD59-like molecules of Fasciola hepatica. A cDNA encoding a CD59-like protein (termed FhCD59-1) identified previously in the membrane fraction of the F. hepatica tegument was isolated. This homologue was shown to encode a predicted open reading frame (ORF) of 122 amino acids (aa) orthologous to human CD59 with a 25 aa signal peptide, a mature protein containing 10 cysteines and a conserved CD59/Ly-6 family motif "CCXXXXCN". An analysis of cDNAs from two different adult specimens of F. hepatica revealed seven variable types of FhCD59-1 sequences, designated FhCD59-1.1 to FhCD59-1.7, which had 94.3-99.7% amino acid sequence identity upon pairwise comparison. Molecular modeling of FhCD59-1.1 with human CD59 confirmed the presence of the three-finger protein domain found in the CD59 family and predicted three disulphide bonds in the F. hepatica sequence. The interrogation of F. hepatica databases identified two additional sequences, designated FhCD59-2 and FhCD59-3, which had only 23.4-29.5% amino acid identity to FhCD59-1.1. Orthologues of the inferred CD59 protein sequences of F. hepatica were also identified in other flatworms, including Fasciola gigantica, Fascioloides magna, Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni, Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus and the free living Schmidtea mediterannea. The results revealed a considerable degree of sequence complexity in the CD59-like sequence families in F. hepatica and flatworms. Phylogenetic analysis of CD59-like aa sequences from F. hepatica and flatworms showed that FhCD59-2 clustered with the known surface-associated protein SmCD59-2 of S. mansoni. Relatively well-supported clades specific to schistosomes, fasciolids and opisthorchiids were identified. The qPCR analysis of gene transcription showed that the relative expression of these 3 FhCD59-like sequences varied by 11-47-fold during fluke maturation, from the newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) to the adult stage. These findings suggest that different FhCD59-like sequences play distinct roles during the development of F. hepatica. PMID:24955521

  14. Post-treatment Vascular Leakage and Inflammatory Responses around Brain Cysts in Porcine Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Mahanty, Siddhartha; Orrego, Miguel Angel; Mayta, Holger; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H.; Nash, Theodore E.

    2015-01-01

    Cysticidal treatment of neurocysticercosis, an infection of humans and pig brains with Taenia solium, results in an early inflammatory response directed to cysts causing seizures and focal neurological manifestations. Treatment-induced pericystic inflammation and its association with blood brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, as determined by Evans blue (EB) extravasation, was studied in infected untreated and anthelmintic-treated pigs. We compared the magnitude and extent of the pericystic inflammation, presence of EB-stained capsules, the level of damage to the parasite, expression of genes for proinflammatory and regulatory cytokines, chemokines, and tissue remodeling by quantitative PCR assays between treated and untreated infected pigs and between EB-stained (blue) and non stained (clear) cysts. Inflammatory scores were higher in pericystic tissues from EB-stained cysts compared to clear cysts from untreated pigs and also from anthelmintic-treated pigs 48 hr and 120 hr after treatment. The degree of inflammation correlated with the severity of cyst wall damage and both increased significantly at 120 hours. Expression levels of the proinflammatory genes for IL-6, IFN-?, TNF-? were higher in EB-stained cysts compared to clear cysts and unaffected brain tissues, and were generally highest at 120 hr. Additionally, expression of some markers of immunoregulatory activity (IL-10, IL-2R?) were decreased in EB-stained capsules. An increase in other markers for regulatory T cells (CTLA4, FoxP3) was found, as well as significant increases in expression of two metalloproteases, MMP1 and MMP2 at 48 hr and 120 hr post-treatment. We conclude that the increase in severity of the inflammation caused by treatment is accompanied by both a proinflammatory and a complex regulatory response, largely limited to pericystic tissues with compromised vascular integrity. Because treatment induced inflammation occurs in porcine NCC similar to that in human cases, this model can be used to investigate mechanisms involved in host damaging inflammatory responses and agents or modalities that may control damaging post treatment inflammation. PMID:25774662

  15. Neglected Zoonotic Diseases—The Long and Winding Road to Advocacy

    PubMed Central

    Mableson, Hayley E.; Okello, Anna; Picozzi, Kim; Welburn, Susan Christina

    2014-01-01

    Background Years of advocacy for the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have focused the world's attention on these diseases of the poor, resulting most recently in the 2012 “London Declaration” and the recent World Health Assembly Resolution WHA66.12 on NTDs in May 2013. Control of the endemic neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs) would benefit from a similar campaign, which needs the support of a global community. Methodology/Principal Findings The resolutions from all 66 World Health Assembly (WHA) meetings held between 1948 and 2013 were examined to determine how many contain a specific focus on any of the following eight NZDs as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO): anthrax, bovine tuberculosis (TB), brucellosis, Taenia solium cysticercosis, cystic echinococcosis (hydatidosis), leishmaniasis, rabies, and zoonotic human African trypanosomiasis (HAT or sleeping sickness). Twenty-one resolutions adopted in the 16 assemblies between 1948 and 2013 targeted one or more of these eight NZDs, representing 4% of the total resolutions on infectious diseases passed to date. The 2013 adoption of Resolution WHA66.12 targeting all 17 NTDs marks a change in approach by the WHA. Whereas previous resolutions have targeted the NTDs as separate entities, the new approach of the combined resolution will help increase the overall momentum to target these ancient diseases as coendemic clusters in endemic countries. However, three major NZDs remain outside this recent resolution: anthrax, brucellosis, and bovine TB. Conclusions and Significance The recent adoption of a specific resolution at the WHA in 2013 that emphasises a One Health approach for the successful control of 17 NTDs is a major development in advocacy. However, recognition of the importance of three major NZDs to public health in endemic countries—anthrax, brucellosis, and bovine tuberculosis—is still lacking despite being prioritised by the WHA as early as the 1950s. Global advocacy for control of the NZDs as a whole would similarly benefit from adoption of a One Health approach as is promoted for the NTDs under WHA66.12. PMID:24901769

  16. Cultural drivers and health-seeking behaviours that impact on the transmission of pig-associated zoonoses in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Burniston, Stephanie; Okello, Anna L; Khamlome, Boualam; Inthavong, Phouth; Gilbert, Jeffrey; Blacksell, Stuart D; Allen, John; Welburn, Susan C

    2015-01-01

    Pig rearing is an important income source in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), with many smallholder farmers using traditional free-range pig production systems. Despite the potentially significant health risks posed by pig production regarding pig-associated zoonoses, information on the sociocultural drivers of these zoonoses is significantly lacking. This review summarises the existing sociocultural knowledge on eight pig-associated zoonoses suspected to be endemic in Southeast Asia: brucellosis, Q fever (Coxiella burnetii), trichinellosis, hepatitis E virus, leptospirosis, Japanese encephalitis, Streptococcus suis and Taenia solium taeniasis-cysticercosis. It summarises current knowledge on these diseases grouped according to their clinical manifestations in humans to highlight the propensity for underreporting. A literature search was conducted across multiple databases for publications from 1990 to the present day related to the eight pig-associated zoonoses and the risk and impact connected with them, with Lao PDR as a case study. Many of these pig-associated zoonoses have similar presentations and are often diagnosed as clinical syndromes. Misdiagnosis and underreporting are, therefore, substantial and emphasise the need for more robust diagnostics and appropriate surveillance systems. While some reports exist in other countries in the region, information is significantly lacking in Lao PDR with existing information coming mainly from the capital, Vientiane. The disease burden imposed by these zoonoses is not only characterised by morbidity and mortality, but directly impacts on livelihoods through income reduction and production losses, and indirectly through treatment costs and lost work opportunities. Other factors crucial to understanding and controlling these diseases are the influence of ethnicity and culture on food-consumption practices, pig rearing and slaughter practices, hygiene and sanitation, health-seeking behaviours and, therefore, risk factors for disease transmission. Published information on the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of people regarding pig zoonoses and their risk factors is also extremely limited in Lao PDR and the broader Southeast Asian region. The need for more transdisciplinary research, using a One Health approach, in order to understand the underlining social determinants of health and their impacts on health-seeking behaviours, disease transmission and, ultimately, disease reporting, cannot be more emphasized. PMID:25973203

  17. Advances with the Chinese anthelminthic drug tribendimidine in clinical trials and laboratory investigations.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shu-Hua; Utzinger, Jürg; Tanner, Marcel; Keiser, Jennifer; Xue, Jian

    2013-05-01

    The anthelminthic drug tribendimidine has been approved by Chinese authorities for human use in 2004, and a first comprehensive review was published in Acta Tropica in 2005. Here, we summarise further advances made through additional clinical trials and laboratory investigations. Two phase IV trials have been conducted in the People's Republic of China, the first one enrolling 1292 adolescents and adults aged 15-70 years and the second one conducted with 899 children aged 4-14 years who were infected with one or multiple species of soil-transmitted helminths. Oral tribendimidine (single 400mg enteric-coated tablet given to adolescents/adults and 200mg to children) showed high cure rates against Ascaris lumbricoides (90.1-95.0%) and moderate-to-high cure rates against hookworm (82.0-88.4%). Another trial done in school-aged children using a rigorous diagnostic approach found a cure rate against hookworm of 76.5%. A single oral dose of tribendimidine showed only low cure rates against Trichuris trichiura (23.9-36.8%) confirming previous results. Tribendimidine administered to children infected with Enterobius vermicularis (two doses of 200mg each on consecutive days) resulted in a high cure rate (97.1%). Importantly, a series of randomised, exploratory trials revealed that tribendimidine shows interesting activity against the liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis, the tapeworm Taenia spp. and the threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis with respective cure rates of 70.0%, 40.0%, 53.3% and 36.4%. Pharmacokinetic studies in healthy Chinese volunteers indicated that after oral administration of tribendimidine, no parent drug was detected in plasma, but its primary metabolite, p-(1-dimethylamino ethylimino) aniline (aminoamidine, deacylated amidantel) (dADT), was found in plasma. dADT is then further metabolised to acetylated dADT (AdADT). dADT exhibits activity against several species of hookworm and C. sinensis in experimental studies, similar to that of tribendimidine. First studies elucidating the mechanism of action suggested that tribendimidine is an L-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist. Additional experimental studies revealed that the anti-parasite spectrum of tribendimidine is very broad. Indeed, to date, activity has been documented against 20 different nematode, trematode and cestode species. Taken together, tribendimidine warrants further scientific inquiry, including more comprehensive toxicity appraisals, mechanism of action studies and clinical investigation as it holds promise as a broad spectrum anthelminthics. PMID:23352956

  18. Cysticercosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a bowel movement. Risk factors include eating pork, fruits, and vegetables contaminated with T. solium as a result of undercooking or improper food preparation. The disease can also be spread by contact with infected ...

  19. Characterization of the carcinoma-associated Tk antigen in helminth parasites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Ubillos; Andrea Medeiros; Martín Cancela; Cecilia Casaravilla; Jenny Saldaña; Laura Domínguez; Carlos Carmona; Jacques Le Pendu; Eduardo Osinaga

    2007-01-01

    Expression of Tk antigen, a truncated carbohydrate antigen, was examined in helmith parasites. Using the monoclonal antibody LM389, this antigen was detected in extracts from Taenia hydatigena, Mesocestoides vogae (syn corti), and Taenia crassiceps. No reactivity was observed in Thysanosoma spp., Dipylidium caninum, Fasciola hepatica, and Nyppostrongylus brasiliensis. On the basis of their electrophoretic mobility, different patterns of Tk-bearing glycoproteins

  20. Vaccination against cestode parasites: anti-helminth vaccines that work and why

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W Lightowlers; A. L Colebrook; C. G Gauci; S. M Gauci; C. T Kyngdon; J. L Monkhouse; C Vallejo Rodriquez; A. J Read; R. A Rolfe; C Sato

    2003-01-01

    Highly effective recombinant vaccines have been developed against the helminth parasites Taenia ovis, Taenia saginata and Echinococcus granulosus. These vaccines indicate that it is possible to achieve a reliable, high level of protection against a complex metazoan parasite using defined recombinant antigens. However, the effectiveness of the vaccines against the taeniid cestodes stands in contrast to the more limited successes

  1. Article de synthse Les protases chez les helminthes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    on the principally identified pro- teases of four helminths: Schistosoma sp., Fasciola sp., Taenia sp. and Haemonchus Fasciola hepatica, have been successfully tested in experimental immunodiagnosis. Proteases identified helminthes : Schistosoma sp., Fasciola sp., Taenia sp. et Haemonchus sp. Certaines de ces protéases et

  2. 21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2) Indications for use . For the treatment and control of adult Toxocara canis (roundworm), Ancylostoma caninum (hookworm), Trichuris vulpis (whipworm), and Dipylidium caninum (tapeworm), and for the prevention of heartworm disease...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2) Indications for use . For the treatment and control of adult Toxocara canis (roundworm), Ancylostoma caninum (hookworm), Trichuris vulpis (whipworm), and Dipylidium caninum (tapeworm), and for the prevention of heartworm disease...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2) Indications for use. For the treatment and control of adult Toxocara canis (roundworm), Ancylostoma caninum (hookworm), Trichuris vulpis (whipworm), and Dipylidium caninum (tapeworm), and for the prevention of heartworm disease...

  5. [Evaluation of the diagnostic value of the ELISA tests developed by using EgHF, Em2 and EmII/3-10 antigens in the serological diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis].

    PubMed

    Pekta?, Bayram; Altinta?, Nazmiye; Akpolat, Nezahat; Gottstein, Bruno

    2014-07-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by larva stage of Echinococcus multilocularis, is one of the lethal parasitic diseases of man and a major public health problem in many countries in the northern hemisphere. When the living conditions and habits in Turkey were considered in terms of relation with the life cycle of the parasite, it was suggested that AE has been much more common than reported mainly from the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Since in vitro serologic diagnosis tests with high specificity for AE have not been used in our country, most of the cases with liver lesions were misdiagnosed by radiological investigations as malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the in-house ELISA methods developed by using three different antigens (EgHF, Em2, EmII/3-10) in the serological diagnosis of AE. The study samples included a total of 100 sera provided by Bern University Parasitology Institute where samples were obtained from patients with helminthiasis and all were confirmed by clinical, parasitological and/or histopathological means. Ten samples from each of the cases infected by E.multilocularis, E.granulosus, Taenia solium, Wuchereria bancrofti, Strongyloides stercolaris, Ascaris lumbricoides, Toxocara canis, Trichinella spiralis, Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma haematobium were studied. In the study, EgHF (E.granulosus hydatid fluid) antigens were prepared in our laboratory from the liver cyst fluids of sheeps with cystic echinococcosis, however Em2 (E.multilocularis metacestode-purified laminated layer) and EmII/3-10 (E.multilocularis recombinant protoscolex tegument) antigens were provided by Bern University Parasitology Institute. Flat bottom ELISA plates were covered with EgHF, Em2 and EmII/3-10 antigens in the concentrations of 2.5 µg, 1 µg and 0.18 µg per well, respectively, and all sera were tested by EgHF-ELISA, Em2-ELISA and EmII/3-10-ELISA methods. For each tests, the samples which were reactive above the cut-off value (mean OD of negative controls+2 SD) were accepted as positive. The sensitivity of the ELISA tests performed with EgHF, Em2 and Em2II/3-10 antigens were estimated as 100%, 90% and 90%, respectively, whereas the specificity were 63%, 91% and 91%, respectively. When Em2-ELISA and EmII/3-10-ELISA tests were evaluated together, the specificity increased to 96%. Our data indicated that the highest sensitivity (100% with EgHF-ELISA) and specificity (96% with Em2-ELISA + EmII/3-10-ELISA) for the serodiagnosis of AE can be achieved by the combined use of the ELISA tests with three different antigens. It was concluded that the early and accurate diagnosis of AE in our country which is endemic for that disease, could be supported by the use of highly specific serological tests such as Em2-ELISA ve EmII/3-10-ELISA contributing radiological data. PMID:25052112

  6. A modified critical test for the efficacy of pyrantel pamoate for Anoplocephala perfoliata in equids.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, J Owen D

    2004-04-01

    Aims of this study with 13 equids naturally infected with Anoplocephala perfoliata were to document (i) a critical test with a period of 48 h from treatment to necropsy to assess the efficacy of an anthelmintic against the tapeworm, (ii) the efficacy of pyrantel pamoate oral paste at 13.2 mg pyrantel base/kg body weight, and (iii) the time after treatment when fecal egg counts would best estimate the tapeworm's prevalence in a herd. Feces passed in successive 12-h periods after treatment were examined for tapeworms. At necropsy, tapeworms in equids were identified as attached to the mucosa or unattached and, with a stereoscope, as normal or abnormal. At the time of treatment and at 6-h intervals thereafter, fecal samples were taken for egg counts. The efficacy of pyrantel pamoate was 96.6%; in 1 equid the efficacy was 75.3%, and in 8 it was 100%. "Major fragments" (worms without a scolex) accounted for 10% of the tapeworms recovered; they were not included in the efficacy analysis but should be. In 3 untreated equids necropsied, tapeworms were in the cecum, and 21.3% were detached. This protocol, when compared with a 24-h one without examination of feces, was more efficient in the treatment of trial animals and reduced underestimation and overestimation of an anthelmintic's efficacy. However, a protocol similar to this 48-h critical test but with a 24- or 36-h post-treatment period should be investigated. The mean egg count peaked 18 to 24 h after treatment and the samples taken at that time would provide the best estimate of prevelance of tapeworms in a herd. The Cornell-Wisconsin centrifugal flotation technique had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% at 18 h and 92% and 100%, respectively, at 24 h. PMID:15188955

  7. Helminth parasites of pine marten, Martes americana (Turton), from Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed

    Poole, B C; Chadee, K; Dick, T A

    1983-01-01

    Five species of helminths were recovered during a survey of 139 North American pine marten (Martes americana) from three areas of Manitoba: Alaria taxideae in 75 marten; Taenia sp. (cf. martis martis) in 16; Taenia mustelae in nine; Baylisascaris devosi in one; Trichinella sp. larvae in one. Taenia mustelae and Taenia sp. (cf. martis martis) were found in two different areas of the province, Taenia sp. (cf. martis martis) being isolated from the more northerly regions. Alaria taxideae, the most prevalent parasite in the survey, was common to all three areas. The intensity of infection and prevalence level of A. taxideae was significantly higher (P less than 0.05) in the southern region of this study. Altogether, male marten had a significantly higher intensity of A. taxideae compared to females, although there was no significant difference in prevalence level. When data for A. taxideae was combined for sexes and for regions a significantly higher prevalence level in young-of-the-year marten was noted compared to juveniles or adults, but no significant difference in intensities among the three age classes was found. No significant differences were detected in the prevalence of A. taxideae, Taenia sp. (cf. martis martis), or T. mustelae between sexes or among age classes from any of the three areas. PMID:6842730

  8. Extracorporeal worm extraction of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense with amidotrizoic acid in a child.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hye Kyung; Roh, Joo-Hyung; Oh, Jae-Won; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Chung, Dong-Il; Kim, Yong Joo

    2014-12-01

    Infection cases of diphyllobothriid tapeworms are not much in the below teen-age group. We report a case of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense infection in a 13-year-old boy. He presented with severe fatigue, occasional abdominal pain at night time. He also had several episodes of tapeworm segment discharge in his stools. By his past history, he had frequently eaten raw fish including salmon and trout with his families. Numerous eggs of diphyllobothriid tapeworm were detected in the fecal examination. We introduced amidotrizoic acid as a cathartic agent through nasogastroduodenal tube and let nearly whole length (4.75 m) of D. nihonkaiense be excreted through his anus. After a single dose of praziquantel, the child's stool showed no further eggs, and his symptoms disappeared. The evacuated worm was identified as D. nihonkaiense by mitochondrial cox1 gene analysis. Here we report a successful extracorporeal worm extraction from an infection case of D. nihonkaiense by the injection of amidotrizoic acid. PMID:25548421

  9. Evidence of experimental postcyclic transmission of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in bonytail chub (Gila elegans)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, S.P.; Choudhury, A.; Cole, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the role that predation of infected conspecific fish and postcyclic transmission might play in the life cycle of the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) Yamaguti, 1934. Young-of-the-year (YOY) bonytail chub (Gila elegans) were exposed to copepods infected with B. acheilognathi and subsequently fed to subadult bonytail chub. Within 1 wk after consumption of the YOY chub, subadults were necropsied and found infected with gravid and nongravid tapeworms. This study provides evidence that postcyclic transfer of B. acheilognathi can occur. Postcyclic transmission may be an important life history trait of B. acheilognathi that merits consideration when studying the impact and distribution of this invasive and potentially pathogenic tapeworm. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2007.

  10. Evidence of experimental postcyclic transmission of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in bonytail chub (Gila elegans).

    PubMed

    Hansen, Scott P; Choudhury, Anindo; Cole, Rebecca A

    2007-02-01

    We examined the role that predation of infected conspecific fish and postcyclic transmission might play in the life cycle of the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) Yamaguti, 1934. Young-of-the-year (YOY) bonytail chub (Gila elegans) were exposed to copepods infected with B. acheilognathi and subsequently fed to subadult bonytail chub. Within 1 wk after consumption of the YOY chub, subadults were necropsied and found infected with gravid and nongravid tapeworms. This study provides evidence that postcyclic transfer of B. acheilognathi can occur. Postcyclic transmission may be an important life history trait of B. acheilognathi that merits consideration when studying the impact and distribution of this invasive and potentially pathogenic tapeworm. PMID:17436966

  11. Diphyllobothrium pacificum Infection is Seldom Associated with Megaloblastic Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Juan A.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gamboa, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Lourdes; Garcia, Hector H.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty cases of Dyphillobothrium pacificum (fish tapeworm) infections were prospectively studied to determine whether this tapeworm is associated with megaloblastic anemia, as commonly reported for D. latum infections. The most frequent symptoms were fatigue and mild abdominal pain, which were identified in approximately 66.6% of the 18 patients interviewed. Fourteen patients received treatment with niclosamide and all were cured. The other six patients spontaneously eliminated the tapeworms. One patient, who also had chronic diabetes and gastric atrophy, had low vitamin B12 levels and megaloblastic anemia. In all other patients, including three other patients with anemia, baseline vitamin B12 levels were in the reference range and did not significantly change when re-assessed three months later. Unlike D. latum, infection with D. pacificum is seldom associated with megaloblastic anemia or vitamin B12 deficit. PMID:22987655

  12. The occurrence of taeniids of wolves in Liguria (northern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Francesca; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Milanesi, Pietro; Serafini, Matteo; Magi, Marta; Deplazes, Peter; Macchioni, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Canids are definitive hosts of Taenia and Echinococcus species, which infect a variety of mammals as intermediate or accidental hosts including humans. Parasite transmission is based on domestic, semi-domestic and wildlife cycles; however, little is known of the epidemiological significance of wild large definitive hosts such as the wolf. In this study, 179 scats of wolves (Canis lupus italicus) collected throughout the Italian region of Liguria were analyzed for the detection of taeniid infection. Taeniid egg isolation was performed using a sieving/flotation technique, and the species level was identified by PCR (gene target: 12S rRNA and nad 1) followed by sequence analyses. Based on sequence homologies of ?99%, Taenia hydatigena was identified in 19.6%, Taenia krabbei in 4.5%, Taenia ovis in 2.2%, Taenia crassiceps in 0.6%, Hydatigera taeniaeformis in 0.6% and Echinococcus granulosus in 5.6% of the samples. According to these results, Canis lupus italicus can be considered as involved in the wild (including cervids and rodents) and semi-domestic cycles (including sheep and goats) of taeniids in this area. PMID:26042204

  13. The occurrence of taeniids of wolves in Liguria (northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Gori, Francesca; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Milanesi, Pietro; Serafini, Matteo; Magi, Marta; Deplazes, Peter; Macchioni, Fabio

    2015-08-01

    Canids are definitive hosts of Taenia and Echinococcus species, which infect a variety of mammals as intermediate or accidental hosts including humans. Parasite transmission is based on domestic, semi-domestic and wildlife cycles; however, little is known of the epidemiological significance of wild large definitive hosts such as the wolf. In this study, 179 scats of wolves (Canis lupus italicus) collected throughout the Italian region of Liguria were analyzed for the detection of taeniid infection. Taeniid egg isolation was performed using a sieving/flotation technique, and the species level was identified by PCR (gene target: 12S rRNA and nad 1) followed by sequence analyses. Based on sequence homologies of ?99%, Taenia hydatigena was identified in 19.6%, Taenia krabbei in 4.5%, Taenia ovis in 2.2%, Taenia crassiceps in 0.6%, Hydatigera taeniaeformis in 0.6% and Echinococcus granulosus in 5.6% of the samples. According to these results, Canis lupus italicus can be considered as involved in the wild (including cervids and rodents) and semi-domestic cycles (including sheep and goats) of taeniids in this area. PMID:26042204

  14. THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF PRAZIQUANTEL TO GRASS CARP AND GOLDEN SHINERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acute praziquantel toxicity and no observable effect concentrations (NOEC), were determined in the laboratory for grass carp and golden shiners, two commercially raised cyprinids known to harbor Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel is an anthelmintic used to treat fish with ta...

  15. Historically, fleas have been involved in devastating epi-demicsofplaguethroughouttheworld.TodayintheU.S.,fleas

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    on mammals in Indiana, but only the cat flea is a serious pest of pets, livestock, and humans. Despite its stimulate an immune response that causes itching. The same immune response can be much more severe in dogs about approaches to flea control. Cat fleas also are one of the hosts of the double pore dog tapeworm

  16. Polymerase chain reaction for detection of patent infections of Echinococcus granulosus (“sheep strain”) in naturally infected dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saša Štefani?; Block S. Shaikenov; Peter Deplazes; Anke Dinkel; Paul R. Torgerson; Alexander Mathis

    2004-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the identification of eggs of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus (“sheep strain”) was evaluated with primers derived from mitochondrial sequences. Specificity of these primers was confirmed by investigating DNA of other strains of E. granulosus and of 14 helminth species which inhabit the intestines of dogs. This PCR assay was used to investigate 131 purged dogs

  17. Diagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs by a coproantigen sandwich ELISA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prathapan Rema Prathiush; Placid Eugene D'Souza; Ananda K. Javare Gowda

    Echinococcosis is a near-cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by the adult or larval stages of tapeworms belonging to the genus echinococcus . Cystic echinococcosis in food animals is highly prevalent in India in general and in the Karnataka state in particular. A sandwich ELISA was standardized and evaluated in field conditions for coproantigen detection of echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs. Field fecal

  18. Wild life surveillance on Echinococcus multilocularis in Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgitta Andersson; Bodil Christensson; Susanne Johansson; Eva Osterman Lind; Göran Zakrisson

    2010-01-01

    Background Echinococcus multilocularis is a tapeworm whose adult stages parasitize the intestine of canids such as foxes and wolves. Also domestic dogs and cats can act as definitive hosts. The sylvatic life cycle includes small rodents as intermediate hosts but humans may become accidentally infected by ingestion of eggs. Sweden, Finland, UK, Ireland, and Malta are considered to be free

  19. Efficacy of 6-, 12-, and 24-h bath treatments against Bothriocephalus acheilognathi infection in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella and the toxicity of praziquantel to C. idella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bothriocephalus acheilognathi is an intestinal tapeworm found in freshwater fish (usually cyprinids) throughout the world and has been in the USA since 1974. It affects the health of fish by slowing growth, lowering the fish’s ability to withstand harvesting procedures, shortening life span, and oc...

  20. INTRAOVARIAN INVASION OF SMALLMOUTH BASS OOCYTES BY 'PROTEOCEPHALUS AMBLOPLITIS' (CESTODA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bass tapeworm Proteocephalus ambloplites (Cestoda) has long been associated with poor reproduction in bass Micropterus sp. It has been suggested that the prevalence of this parasite in the ovaries of mature bass may be due to the rich blood supply of the ovaries. The authors ...

  1. The prevalence and abundance of internal parasites in working horses autopsied in Poland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Gawor

    1995-01-01

    The digestive tracts of 50 working horses from private farms in Poland were examined. Thirty-seven nematode species, two tapeworm species and one species of botfly were recovered. The most prevalent small strongyle specieswere Cyathostomum catinatum, Cylicocyclus nassatus, Cylicostephanus goldi, Cylicostephanus longibursatus, Cyathostomum coronatum, Cylicostephanus calicatus, Cylicocyclus leptostmus and Cylicostephanus minutus. Thirteen cyathostome species showed a site preference in the ventral

  2. Genetic Diversity of the Cestode Echinococcus multilocularis in Red Foxes at a Continental Scale in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenny Knapp; Jean-Mathieu Bart; Patrick Giraudoux; Marie-Louise Glowatzki; Isabelle Breyer; Francis Raoul; Peter Deplazes; Georg Duscher; Karel Martinek; Pavol Dubinsky; Marie-Hélène Guislain; Florence Cliquet; Thomas Romig; Andrzej Malczewski; Bruno Gottstein; Renaud Piarroux

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundAlveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a severe helminth disease affecting humans, which is caused by the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. AE represents a serious public health issue in larger regions of China, Siberia, and other regions in Asia. In Europe, a significant increase in prevalence since the 1990s is not only affecting the historically documented endemic area north of the Alps

  3. FIRST RECORD OF ALCATAENIA LARINA LARINA (CESTODA: DILEPIDIDAE) IN ATLANTIC PUFFINS (AVES, ALCIDAE, FRATERCULA ARCTICA) FROM NEWFOUNDLAND, CANADA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tapeworm Alcataenia larina (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Dilepididae) is a parasite of gulls (Laridae) with a Holarctic distribution. Two subspecies A. l. pacifica and A. l. larina are recognized, with the former occurring in the North Pacific basin and the latter in the North Atlantic. Alcids serve...

  4. SURVIVAL OF PARASITE EGGS IN STORED SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The inactivation rates of digester-resistant parasite eggs in laboratory-stored sludge were measured to determine their potential fate in sludge lagoons. Eggs from roundworms (Ascaris, Toxocara and Trichuris) and a tapeworm (Hymenolepis) were added to domestic sludges either befo...

  5. SURVIVAL OF PARASITE EGGS UPON STORAGE IN SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Destruction rates of parasite eggs in stored sludge were examined to help understand the fate of these agents of enteric diseases in sludge lagoons. Eggs from the roundworms, Ascaris, Toxocara, and Trichuris, and the tapeworms, Hymenolepis, were treated with domestic sludges by a...

  6. The molecular epidemiology of Echinococcus granulosus and cystic hydatid disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. P. McManus

    2002-01-01

    It is now generally recognized that the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, the cause of cystic hydatid disease, exhibits substantial genetic diversity. This variability has important implications for the design and development of vaccines, diagnostic reagents and drugs effective against this parasite. The paper describes various deoxyribonucleic acid-based approaches that have been used for accurate identification of these genetic variants and

  7. Molecular diagnosis of diphyllobothriasis in Spain, most presumably acquired via imported fish, or sojourn abroad

    PubMed Central

    Pastor-Valle, J; González, L M; Martín-Clemente, J P; Merino, F J; Gottstein, B; Gárate, T

    2014-01-01

    Human diphyllobothriasis is sporadically detected in Spain. Diphyllobothrium latum and Diplogonoporus balaenopterae have been identified. In the study, four cases of presumably imported diphyllobothriasis in Spanish patients were appraised. Molecular diagnosis allowed us to identify ‘exotic’ fish tapeworms such as Diplogonoporus balaenopterae in one patient and Diphyllobothrium pacificum in the others. PMID:25356331

  8. Coproantigen survey for Echinococcus multilocularis prevalence of red foxes in Hokkaido, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuyuki Morishima; Hideharu Tsukada; Nariaki Nonaka; Yuzaburo Oku; Masao Kamiya

    1999-01-01

    An epidemiological survey was conducted on the seasonal variation of Echinococcus multilocularis prevalence in red foxes from 1997 to 1998, using a monoclonal antibody-based detection of the tapeworm coproantigen. Thirty-six breeding dens of reproductive fox families were identified in the endemic area of Koshimizu, eastern Hokkaido, Japan. Fecal samples from each site were examined by coproantigen detection assay and fecal

  9. During19822007,alveolarechinococcosis(AE)was diagnosedin407patientsinFrance,acountrypreviously

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    by the larval stage of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocu- laris. In human infections, after a person ingests eggs, the metacestode cells of E. multilocularis proliferate in the liver, inducing a hepatic, Slovakia, Lithuania, Slovenia, Belgium, and Hungary (7,8). Molecular typing of E. multilocularis specimens

  10. Wilderness in the city: the urbanization of Echinococcus multilocularis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Deplazes; Daniel Hegglin; Sandra Gloor; Thomas Romig

    2004-01-01

    A distinct increase in fox populations, particularly in urban areas, has been observed in Europe. This is of particular concern in endemic regions of the small fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the aetiological agent of human alveolar echinococcosis. Novel tools have facilitated the investigation of the ecology of urban foxes and have demonstrated the urban wildlife cycle of E. multilocularis. Such

  11. BioMed Central Page 1 of 11

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    Research article Survey of public knowledge about Echinococcus multilocularis in four European countries: Need by the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. In order to plan information campaigns, public knowledge questions, significant country-specific differences were found. Fewer people had heard of E. multilocularis

  12. Efficacy of Droncit R Spot-on (praziquantel) 4% w\\/v against immature and mature Echinococcus multilocularis in cats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J Jenkins; Thomas Romig

    2000-01-01

    The causative agent of alveolar hydatidosis in humans, the fox tapeworm Echinococcusmultilocularis, is extending its geographical range in Europe and has been found in domestic cats in some areas. A dermally applied cestocidal treatment for domestic cats has been developed and the efficacy of this treatment is reported. Thirty purpose-bred cats were experimentally infected each with 10?000 protoscoleces of Echinococcusmultilocularis.

  13. Parasite contamination of soil in households of a Mexican rural community endemic for neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Huerta, M; Avila, R; Jiménez, H I; Díaz, R; Díaz, J; Díaz Huerta, M E; Hernández, M; Martinez, J J; Garate, T; Gómez, E; Abad, T; Fragoso, G; Fleury, A; Sciutto, E

    2008-04-01

    High neurocysticercosis (NC) prevalence was recently determined by a computed tomography (CT) scan study in the community of Tepetzitzintla, State of Puebla, Mexico. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the magnitude of fecal and parasite contamination by Taenia spp. in the soil of households of this community during the four seasons of the year. The toilet, backyard, kitchen, washboard, water containers and corrals of 14 to 26 households were sampled during each season. High Taenia spp. egg intensity was found in 24.2% of the sampled areas. The highest percentage was detected in Spring and the lowest in Summer. Significantly higher levels of Taenia spp. eggs were present in kitchen soil samples. A significant correlation was found between the presence of Taenia spp. eggs in household soil during the Summer, and NC diagnoses of the inhabitants by CT scan. Coproparasitological examinations and anti-cysticercal antibodies were determined in a cohort of inhabitants of the sampled households. Antibody levels and coproparasitological results were not associated with NC. Overall, these results illustrate the high degree of fecal contamination of potential risk to human health in rural communities and could be of use for control programmes. PMID:18325554

  14. Die orbitotemporale Region im Schädel von Chelydra serpentina Linnaeus (Chelonia) und Lacerta sicula Rafinesque (Lacertilia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Rieppel

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of the ontogenesis of the chondrocran¡um gives the following homologies in the skull of Lacerta and Chelydra: Chelydra Lacerta Pila metoptica subiculum infundibuli cartilago hypochiasmatica Pila antotica pila antotica pila accessoriaDorsal border of planum supraseptale part of the taenia marginalis closing the fenestra epioptica dorsally Caudal process of the pila antotica dorsal to the incisura prootica part of

  15. Helminth fauna of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus, 1758) in southern Belarus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Shimalov

    2002-01-01

    We examined 94 carcasses of and 1,213 faecal samples from red foxes collected between 1981 and 2001 in natural and transformed ecosystems in the southern part of Belarus. A total of 32 helminth species were found. Of these, the most common were Alaria alata, Pearsonema plica, Taenia crassiceps, Toxocara canis, Trichinella spp. larvae and Uncinaria stenocephala. All species are significant

  16. Some intestinal parasites of Arctic fox, Banks Island, N. W. T.

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, R D; Secord, D C

    1979-01-01

    Small intestinal parasitology of 50 trapped Arctic fox taken on Banks Island, The Northwest Territories, showed a prevalence of Taenia crassiceps (78%), Toxascaris leonina (60%), Echinococcus multilocularis (2%) and Coccidia (2%). Attention is drawn to the absence of Toxocara sp. and of Uncinaria sp. PMID:497890

  17. Some intestinal parasites of Arctic fox, Banks Island, N. W. T.

    PubMed

    Eaton, R D; Secord, D C

    1979-04-01

    Small intestinal parasitology of 50 trapped Arctic fox taken on Banks Island, The Northwest Territories, showed a prevalence of Taenia crassiceps (78%), Toxascaris leonina (60%), Echinococcus multilocularis (2%) and Coccidia (2%). Attention is drawn to the absence of Toxocara sp. and of Uncinaria sp. PMID:497890

  18. Case-control study to identify risk factors for bovine cysticercosis on farms in Switzerland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. FLÜTSCH; D. HEINZMANN; A. MATHIS; H. HERTZBERG; R. STEPHAN; P. DEPLAZES

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Taenia saginata cysticercosis causes financial losses to the beef industry and farmers, and represents a significant source for human infection in many countries. A case-control study was conducted to identify risk factors for bovine cysticercosis on farms in Switzerland. The case group (n=119) consisted of farms with infected cattle identified at slaughter in 2005 and 2006. Infections were confirmed

  19. Anatomy of the fully formed chondrocranium of Emydura subglobosa (Chelidae): a pleurodiran turtle.

    PubMed

    Daniel J, Paluh; Christopher A, Sheil

    2013-01-01

    The chondrocranium is a cartilaginous structure that forms around and protects the brain and sensory organs of the head. Through ontogeny, this skeletal structure may become more elaborate, remodeled and reabsorbed, and/or ossified. Though considerable attention has been given to the formation of the chondrocranium and a great amount of data has been gathered on the development of this structure among many craniates, the anatomy of this structure in turtles often is neglected. We describe the mature chondrocranium of the pleurodiran turtle, Emydura subglobosa (Chelidae) based on hatchling specimens. Though formation and ossification of bony elements has been studied previously in this species, a detailed description of the chondrocranium of this pleurodiran turtle has not been presented. Anatomy of the chondrocranium was described for E. subglobosa by examination of cleared and double-stained specimens. The orbitotemporal region of E. subglobosa is dramatically different from that of other described turtles (e.g., Apalone spinifera, Pelodiscus sinensis, Chelydra serpentina, Macrochelys temminckii, Trachemys scripta, Chrysemys picta, and Eretmochelys imbricata) in that a prominent taenia marginalis spans the space between the planum supraseptale and otic capsules, and the pila antotica (which becomes modified and ossified through ontogeny to form the processus clinoideus) is greatly reduced and essentially absent in hatchling specimens. The morphology seen in E. subglobosa is similar to that of Caretta caretta, particularly as it relates to the taenia marginalis. Variation in the orbitotemporal region is briefly discussed in the context of the taenia marginalis, taenia medialis, pila metoptica, and pila antotica. PMID:22972700

  20. Taeniid species of the Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) in Portugal with special focus on Echinococcus spp.?

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Diogo; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Silva, Marta; Bravo, Inês; Santos, Nuno; Deplazes, Peter; Carvalho, Luís Manuel Madeira de

    2012-01-01

    Taeniid species represent relevant pathogens in human and animals, circulating between carnivorous definitive hosts and a variety of mammalian intermediate hosts. In Portugal, however, little is known about their occurrence and life cycles, especially in wild hosts. An epidemiological survey was conducted to clarify the role of the Iberian wolf as a definitive host for taeniid species, including Echinococcus spp. Wolf fecal samples (n = 68) were collected from two regions in Northern Portugal. Taeniid eggs were isolated through a sieving-flotation technique, and species identification was performed using multiplex-PCR followed by sequencing of the amplicons. Taenia hydatigena (in 11.8% of the samples), Taenia serialis (5.9%), Taenia pisiformis (2.9%), Taenia polyacantha (1.5%) and Echinococcus intermedius (Echinococcus granulosus ‘pig strain’, G7) (1.5%) were detected. This is the first study to characterize the taeniid species infecting the Portuguese Iberian wolf, with the first records of T. polyacantha and E. intermedius in this species in the Iberian Peninsula. Iberian wolves can be regarded as relevant hosts for the maintenance of the wild and synanthropic cycles of taeniids in Portugal. PMID:24533315

  1. A redescription of Triuterina anoplocephaloides (Fuhrmann, 1902) (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) from African parrots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arlene Jones

    1982-01-01

    This species was first described as Taenia anoplocephaloides by Fuhrmann (1902) from a single specimen without a scolex from the African grey parrot, Psittacus erithacus L. (distribution, Equatorial Africa); he later (1921) made this the type of a new genus, Triuterina, characterized by the distinctive trilobed uterus. Baer (1927) redescribed the type specimen and Joyeux, Gendre & Baer (1928) briefly

  2. Echinococcus multilocularis infections in dogs from urban and peri-urban areas in France.

    PubMed

    Umhang, Gérald; Comte, Sébastien; Raton, Vincent; Hormaz, Vanessa; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Favier, Stéphanie; Combes, Benoît; Boué, Franck

    2014-06-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis, a severe zoonotic disease. It is maintained through a sylvatic life cycle based on predator-prey interactions mainly between foxes and rodents. Dogs are also good definitive hosts; and due to their close proximity to humans, they may represent a major risk factor for the occurrence of human cases. In two medium-sized cities of Eastern France (Annemasse and Pontarlier), located in highly endemic areas, 817 dog feces samples were collected and analyzed by a flotation technique followed by a multiplex PCR assay. For the first time in France, we assessed the presence of E. multilocularis DNA in four dog feces samples, in which it represents an estimated prevalence of 0.5% (95% CI; 0.1% <> 1.3%). Eight other samples presented taeniid infections from three different species (Taenia crassiceps, Taenia serialis, and Taenia polyacantha). When considering both E. multilocularis and Taenia sensu lato, prevalence rose to 0.6% in Annemasse and 2.6% in Pontarlier. In this highly endemic context, proper application of the usual deworming recommendations (70% of the dogs were treated twice a year or more) failed to prevent dog infection, particularly for hunting dogs. Our results stressed the need to adapt treatment to the environmental context and to the specific activity of dogs. Further epidemiological surveys in domestic dogs and cats using this coprological approach are still needed to obtain a better overview of infection and the associated zoonotic risk. PMID:24687286

  3. Functional and molecular evidence for ?1-, ?2- and ?3-adrenoceptors in human colon

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, S J; Papaioannou, M; Evans, B A; Summers, R J

    1997-01-01

    Relaxation of carbachol pre-contracted human colonic muscle to (–)-isoprenaline was examined in circular, longitudinal and taenia coli preparations to determine the ?-adrenoceptor subtypes involved. ?1-, ?2- and ?3-Adrenoceptor mRNAs were also measured in colonic muscle and mucosa.(–)-Isoprenaline caused relaxation of longitudinal smooth muscle preparations with pEC50=7.39±0.12, and this response was inhibited by both propranolol (0.1??M, pKB 8.55±0.12) and the selective ?1-antagonist, CGP 20712A (0.1??M, pKB 8.80±0.20), while the selective ?2-antagonist, ICI 118551 (0.1??M) failed to inhibit isoprenaline relaxation consistently.(–)-Isoprenaline caused relaxation of taenia coli with a pEC50 of 6.70±0.17. Propranolol (0.1??M), CGP 20712A (0.1??M) and ICI 118551 (0.1??M) inhibited the isoprenaline response with similar low affinities (pKB values 7.93, 7.71 and 7.54, respectively). Carbachol pre-contracted circular smooth muscle preparations failed to relax consistently to isoprenaline and these responses were not characterized.?1- and ?2-Adrenoceptor mRNAs were present in circular/longitudinal muscle samples and taenia coli samples, and lower levels were detected in mucosa. ?3-mRNA was also present in both muscle preparations but was not detected in human colonic mucosa.In summary, ?1-adrenoceptors are the predominant subtype mediating isoprenaline-induced relaxation of the thin longitudinal smooth muscle of human colon, while ?3-receptors do not appear to be involved in these responses. However, ?3-adrenoceptors may play a role in relaxation of the taenia coli as conventional antagonist affinities are low. ?3-Adrenoceptor mRNA was present in taenia coli and circular/longitudinal smooth muscle but absent from human colonic mucosa. PMID:9113375

  4. [Characteristics of protein hydrolysis on the digestive-transport surfaces of the intestine of the kittiwake Rissa tridactyla and Alcataenia larina (Cestoda, Dilepididae) parasitizing it].

    PubMed

    Kuklina, M M; Kuklin, V V

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of the activity of proteolytic enzymes functioning on the digestive-transport surfaces of the intestine of infected and noninfected kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla and cestodes Alcataenia larina (Cestoda, Dilepididae) parasitizing it was conducted. The protease activities depending on the pH values in the intestine of gulls and tapeworms were determined. The dynamics of desorption of enzymes of protein hydrolysis from the surface of the cestodes A. larina and the kittiwake intestine was studied. It was shown that the tapeworm invasion activates the processes of membrane and cavitary digestion of birds. It was determined that the degree of influence of the dilepidid infection on protease activity was defined mainly by the intensity of the invasion. PMID:22117422

  5. Culinary delights and travel? A review of zoonotic cestodiases and metacestodiases.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akira; Budke, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    Due to increased globalization, food-borne parasitic infections are becoming more prevalent worldwide, including in countries where these parasites and parasitic diseases had previously been well controlled or eradicated. Improved sanitation, health education, and establishment of appropriate food safety mechanisms can go a long way towards the control of many these infections. However, food-borne parasitic infections are still common diseases in developing countries, especially in rural areas. As many of today's travelers are looking to explore more distant locations and partake in the local cuisine, they may be at greater risk of acquiring a food-borne parasitic infection, including those caused by a number of adult and larval tapeworms. This review discusses fish and meat-borne tapeworms and zoonotic metacestodiases of public health importance to both developing and developed countries, with a focus on infection prevention in travelers. PMID:25069407

  6. Does examination of fecal samples 24 hours after cestocide treatment increase the sensitivity of Anoplocephala spp. detection in naturally infected horses?

    PubMed Central

    Elsener, Johanne; Villeneuve, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Fecal samples were examined immediately before and 24 to 48 h after cestocide treatment for a comparative detection of tapeworm-positive horses. In early winter, 17 weanlings, 20 yearlings, 15 2-year-old horses, 24 breeding mares, and 2 stallions were treated with praziquantel in combination with a macrocyclic lactone. The horses were presumed to be naturally infected with tapeworms after pasture grazing. Fecal samples were collected before treatment (Day 0), at 24 or 48 h after treatment (Day 1–2), and 16 to 21 d after treatment (Day 16–21). A Wisconsin test was done on all fecal samples. Odds of detection of infection for all age groups increased by a factor of 2.04 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30 to 3.20] from Day 0 to Day 1–2 (P = 0.002). PMID:21532821

  7. [Dehelmintization of wastewater at treatment plants in Tashkent city].

    PubMed

    Yusupkhuzhaeva, A M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the extent of contamination of wastewater with helminth eggs in Tashkent city, as well as to estimate the efficacy of their deworming at wastewater treatment plants. As a result of the study untreated domestic waste waters were found to contain eggs ofascarids, whipworm, tapeworm dwarf pinworms. Specific weight of the eggs of ascarids among other helminth species is 68%, whipworm eggs--30.9%. PMID:25306697

  8. The role of evolutionarily conserved signalling systems in Echinococcus multilocularis development and host–parasite interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Brehm

    2010-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis, one of the most serious and life-threatening zoonoses in the world, is caused by the metacestode\\u000a larval stage of the fox-tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. Mostly due to its accessibility to in vitro cultivation, this parasite has recently evolved into an experimental model system\\u000a to study larval cestode development and associated host–parasite interaction mechanisms. Respective advances include the establishment\\u000a of

  9. Interventricular septal hydatid cyst: Transesophageal echocardiography as a therapeutic tool during bypass.

    PubMed

    Jain, Pawan Kumar; Malik, Vishwas; Divya, Abha; Narula, Jitin; Hote, Milind

    2015-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (hydatid disease) arising from infestation with a larval or adult form of the Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm is endemic in certain states of India, but affecting interventricular septum (IVS) solitarily is a scarce phenomenon. We present a rare case of transesophageal echocardiography guided management of IVS hydatid cyst even during cardiopulmonary bypass, which presented with a rather unusual complaint of repeated syncope. PMID:26139754

  10. Lesson of the month 2: Cough and right hypochondrial discomfort.

    PubMed

    Kurunadalingam, Hariney; Dubrey, Simon W; Chiodini, Peter L

    2015-04-01

    Cystic echinococcosis, commonly known as hydatid disease, is caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. Humans are an accidental host to this rare disease in the UK, with around 10-20 new cases reported each year. Once suspected, the diagnosis is confirmed through a combination of relevant history, imaging studies and serological testing. This lesson presents a case of hydatid disease and outlines the significant management issues when cysts rupture and the disease becomes disseminated. PMID:25824079

  11. Functional expression and characterization of a cytosolic copper\\/zinc-superoxide dismutase of Spirometra erinacei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ai-Hua Li; Byoung-Kuk Na; Sung-Kyu Ahn; Shin-Hyeong Cho; Jhang-Ho Pak; Yun-Kyu Park; Tong-Soo Kim

    2010-01-01

    Spirometra erinacei is a pseudophyllidean tapeworm which inhabits the intestines of cats and dogs. The infections are usually asymptomatic in\\u000a these animals, but the infection of the plerocercoid larvae of the parasite, spargana, cause sparganosis in other vertebrates,\\u000a including human. In this study, we identified a gene encoding the copper\\/zinc-superoxide dismutase of S. erinacei (SeCuZnSOD) and partially characterized the biochemical

  12. Investigation on the occurrence of Echinococcus multilocularis in Central Italy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent studies on geographic distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis in Europe show that it has a wider range than previously thought. It is unclear, however, if the wider distribution is due to its recent spreading or to a lack of previous data from the new areas. Italy, previously considered E. multilocularis-free, is now part of these new areas: infected foxes (the main definitive host of the tapeworm) have been observed in a Northern Alpine territory. Thus, more surveys need to be done in other Italian regions in order to monitor the spreading of E. multilocularis. The aim of the present study was to look for this parasite in 283 foxes collected in an Apennine area of Central Italy by different diagnostic methods. Results The foxes were heavily parasitized by 11 helminthic genera, but none of the animals was infected by E. multilocularis neither by E. granulosus (harboured adult worms or their DNA). Low specificity was observed in commercially available ELISA kits for the detection of E. multilocularis antigens in the faeces. Molecular diagnostics were sensitive and specific for the detection and identification of tapeworm eggs in faeces, but less sensitive, although specific, to adult tapeworms in the intestinal content. Conclusion Preliminarily, we can say that no E. multilocularis could be found in the study area. These data will enable us to follow temporal changes of the spatial distribution of the parasite in the study area of the Central Apennines. Due to its low specificity the ELISA kit for E. multilocularis coproantigens is not suitable for epidemiological surveys, whereas molecular diagnostics applied to faecal samples give useful results. Finally, absence of E. granulosus in foxes living in the endemic areas studied confirms the thought that this tapeworm prefers a different definitive host. PMID:19941652

  13. The Echinococcus multilocularis 14-3-3 protein protects mice against primary but not secondary alveolar echinococcosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Siles-Lucas; M. Merli; U. Mackenstedt; B. Gottstein

    2003-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by the larval stage (metacestode) of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, exhibits very similar disease characteristics in humans and rodents. Recently, it has been shown that an over-expression of the parasite 14-3-3 protein could be associated to the proliferative growth of the E. multilocularis metacestode. We now demonstrate the expression of this protein at the E. multilocularis

  14. Protective immune mechanisms against the metacestode of Echinococcus multilocularis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Gottstein; R. Felleisen

    1995-01-01

    Infection with the larval stage of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis results in a life-threatening hepatic disease concerning humans and intermediate rodent hosts. Immunoepidemiological surveys provided information that a large proportion of infected individuals may demonstrate either constitutional resistance to early post-oncospheral development of the parasite or late resistance to disease by exhibiting an intrahepatic died-out parasite lesion. Similar events

  15. Lack of preference for infective faeces in Hymenolepis diminuta-infected beetles (Tenebrio molitor).

    PubMed

    Shea, John F

    2007-09-01

    The beetle-tapeworm life cycle provides a convenient system to study how host behaviour influences the probability of re-infection because initial and secondary infections can be tracked. The beetle, Tenebrio molitor, is infected with the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta when it ingests rat faeces containing tapeworm eggs, which upon hatching undergo five morphologically distinct stages while developing inside the beetle. In a series of preference trials, both individual and groups of previously infected beetles were exposed to baits of infective (faeces with eggs) and uninfective faeces. Beetles did not differ in the amount of time spent or in the number of occurrences at each bait type, suggesting that infected beetles show no preference for infective faeces. This may be a host adaptation to avoid further infection, parasite manipulation to avoid competition for host resources, or both. Further, once infected, beetles are no more or no less likely to become re-infected than uninfected beetles. An analysis of the mean and variance of infection suggests that some individuals are highly susceptible to and some are highly resistant to infection, with males being more variable than females. This could explain the higher load of cysticercoids observed in males. PMID:17875228

  16. Echinococcus granulosus in gray wolves and ungulates in Idaho and Montana, USA.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, William J; Drew, Mark L; Atkinson, Mark; McCauley, Deborah

    2009-10-01

    We evaluated the small intestines of 123 gray wolves (Canis lupus) that were collected from Idaho, USA (n=63), and Montana, USA (n=60), between 2006 and 2008 for the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The tapeworm was detected in 39 of 63 wolves (62%) in Idaho, USA, and 38 of 60 wolves (63%) in Montana, USA. The detection of thousands of tapeworms per wolf was a common finding. In Idaho, USA, hydatid cysts, the intermediate form of E. granulosus, were detected in elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and a mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). In Montana, USA, hydatid cysts were detected in elk. To our knowledge, this is the first report of adult E. granulosus in Idaho, USA, or Montana, USA. It is unknown whether the parasite was introduced into Idaho, USA, and southwestern Montana, USA, with the importation of wolves from Alberta, Canada, or British Columbia, Canada, into Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA, and central Idaho, USA, in 1995 and 1996, or whether the parasite has always been present in other carnivore hosts, and wolves became a new definitive host. Based on our results, the parasite is now well established in wolves in these states and is documented in elk, mule deer, and a mountain goat as intermediate hosts. PMID:19901399

  17. [Electrophysiological analysis of the action of kavinton on the smooth muscles].

    PubMed

    Gurkovskaia, A V; Gokina, N I; Bury?, V A; Shuba, M F

    1987-01-01

    Cavinton at a concentration of 10(-7)-10(-5) M was found to have a dose-dependent relaxing effect on bovine cerebral artery smooth muscles, without changing the resting potential and membrane resistance. Smooth muscles of the rabbit portal vein and guinea-pig taenia coli were insensitive to low cavinton concentrations. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that relaxing action of cavinton is due to the blocking of Ca2+ ions influx into the cells of cerebral artery through receptor-operated calcium channels. At higher concentrations (exceeding 10(-5) M) cavinton exerts nonspecific influence on the smooth muscles under study, inhibiting their excitability and decreasing membrane resistance resulting in the attenuation of tetanic contractions in the smooth muscles of the portal vein and taenia coli. PMID:3801654

  18. The effects of different plant extracts on intestinal cestodes and on trematodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fathy Abdel-Ghaffar; Margit Semmler; Khaled A. S. Al-Rasheid; Bianca Strassen; Katja Fischer; Gülendem Aksu; Sven Klimpel; Heinz Mehlhorn

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, chloroform, aqueous, (polyethylene glycol\\/propylene carbonate) PEG\\/PC extracts were made from coconut,\\u000a onion, garlic, fig, date tree, chicory, ananas, and cistrose. These extracts were tested in vivo and in vitro on their anthelmintic\\u000a activity against cestodes (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. microstoma, Taenia taeniaeformis) and trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, Echinostoma caproni). In all in vitro tests, the target parasites died.

  19. Reverse vaccinology approach identify an Echinococcus granulosus tegumental membrane protein enolase as vaccine candidate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenjia Gan; Guoxiong Zhao; Hongxu Xu; Weihua Wu; Wuying Du; Jiang Huang; Xinbing Yu; Xuchu Hu

    2010-01-01

    Applying reverse vaccinology strategy, we employed a sequence encoding an enolase from Taenia asiatica to search its homolog in the expression sequence tag (EST) database of Echinococcus granulosus and found two EST sequences (Access number: CN653186 and CN649593) of a clone Eg_PSGRS_13B09 from E. granulosus protoscolex full-length cDNA library, which are responding for the 5? and 3? partial cds of

  20. Nutrias and muskrats as bioindicators for the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis in new endemic areas.

    PubMed

    Umhang, Gérald; Richomme, Céline; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Guedon, Gérald; Boué, Franck

    2013-10-18

    Nutrias (Myocastor coypus) and muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) are large invasive semi-aquatic or aquatic rodents, naturalized throughout Europe. They are regarded as pests, and can be infected with several pathogens and parasites transmissible to wildlife, livestock, pets and humans. As a rule, in Europe the life cycle of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis involves red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as main definitive hosts and common voles as intermediate hosts. The suitability of nutrias and muskrats as intermediate hosts has already been described. Here, we investigate the occurrence of E. multilocularis in the context of a wide-scale health study on nutrias and muskrats in 12 "départements" in the western part of France. During the sampling period, a total of 817 aquatic rodents were trapped in five rivers or ponds in each "départements". During post-mortem examinations, lesions were observed on the livers of 21 nutrias and 104 muskrats, and analyzed by PCR and sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 gene for specific identification. Several non-zoonotic parasites were identified: Taenia taeniaformis, Taenia mustelae, Taenia polyacantha and Taenia martis. Four livers from 2 nutrias and 2 muskrats exhibited E. multilocularis infection. One of the muskrats was infected with fertile E. multilocularis lesions. The 4 animals came from 3 French "départements" where foxes have recently been found to be infected by E. multilocularis. These results lead us to consider nutrias and muskrats as relevant bioindicators for the presence of E. multilocularis in this environment. Our results also suggest that, when listed as pests and targeted by large trapping campaigns, nutrias and muskrats could be used to detect the presence of E. multilocularis in areas considered free of this parasite. PMID:23725822

  1. Coprological survey of alimentary tract parasites in dogs from Zambia and evaluation of a coproantigen assay for canine echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, N; Nakamura, S; Inoue, T; Oku, Y; Katakura, K; Matsumoto, J; Mathis, A; Chembesofu, M; Phiri, I G K

    2011-10-01

    Faecal samples were collected from the rectum of 540 domestic dogs from four districts (Lusaka, Katete, Petauke and Luangwa) in Zambia between 2005 and 2006 and prevalences of canine alimentary tract parasites were determined by coprological examination. Thirteen different ova and parasites including strongyle (43.3%), Spirocerca lupi (18.7%), taeniid (13.1%), Toxocara canis (7.6%), Sarcocystis sp.* (7.5%), Isospora sp.* (5.7%), Physaloptera sp.* (4.6%), Capillaria sp.* (2.8%), Dipylidium caninum (2.2%), Mesocestoides sp.* (2.0%), Ascaris sp.* (1.7%), Trichuris vulpis* (0.4%) and Schistosoma mansoni* (0.4%) were detected, Ascaris and Schistosoma probably originating from coprophagy. The species with asterisks and later-described Taenia multiceps are for the first time reported from dogs in Zambia. A coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoproAg-ELISA) developed for Echinococcus spp. revealed 43 positive dogs and 37 of these harboured taeniid eggs. From 63 of the 71 taeniid egg-positive samples, eggs and DNA thereof were isolated and subjected to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for differentiating E. granulosus sensu lato, E. multilocularis and Taenia spp. Amplicons indicative for Taenia spp. were obtained from 60 samples. Sequencing of amplicons spanning part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, which was possible with 38 samples, revealed 35 infections with T. hydatigena and 3 with T. multiceps. Therefore, the CoproAg-ELISA showed some positives, but concrete evidence for the existence of canine E. granulosus infection could not be established. Comparison of the results of the CoproAg-ELISA and Taenia species identification indicated that the CoproAg-ELISA cross-reacts with patent infections of T. hydatigena (57%) and T. multiceps (33%). PMID:22185947

  2. Role of the programmed Death1 pathway in the suppressive activity of alternatively activated macrophages in experimental cysticercosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis I. Terrazas; Daniel Montero; César A. Terrazas; José L. Reyes; Miriam Rodríguez-Sosa

    2005-01-01

    We characterised a population of macrophages potentially involved in the immunoregulation induced by experimental cysticercosis. Following Taenia crassiceps infection, macrophages recruited in the peritoneal cavity were isolated and co-cultured at different ratios with T cells from naïve mice previously stimulated with anti-CD3\\/CD28 antibodies; these macrophages inhibited naïve T cell proliferation. This suppressive effect was Interleukin (IL)-10, Interferon-gamma (IFN-?), and nitric

  3. The epidemiology of helminthosis in small ruminants under the traditional husbandry system in eastern Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. B. Fakae

    1990-01-01

    The epidemiology of helminth infections in West African dwarf sheep and goats under the traditional husbandry system prevailing in the derived savanna area of eastern Nigeria was studied for 12 months. The infections observed were due to Haemonchus contortus (87.1%), Trichostrongylus spp. (63.8%), metacestodes of Taenia hydatigena (30.2%), Oesophagostomum columbianum (22.4%), Strongyloides sp. (18.8%), Cooperia spp. (17.2%), Gaigeria pachyscelis (6.0%),

  4. Pulse-driven magnetoimpedance sensor detection of biomagnetic fields in musculatures with spontaneous electric activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinsuke Nakayama; Satoshi Atsuta; Takao Shinmi; Tsuyoshi Uchiyama

    2011-01-01

    We measured biomagnetic fields in musculatures with spontaneous electric activity using a pulse-driven magnetoimpedance (PMI) sensor with the sensitivity improved toward a pico-Tesla (pT) level. Due to the sufficiently short operation interval of 1?s, this magnetic sensor enabled quasi-real time recordings of the magnetic field for biological electric activity. Isolated small musculatures from the guinea-pig stomach, taenia caeci, portal vein

  5. In vitro uptake of /sup 14/C-praziquantel by cestodes, trematodes, and a nematode

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, P.; Thomas, H.; Weber, H.

    1980-12-01

    /sup 14/C-praziquantel was rapidly taken up by Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, and isolated strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis. Schistosoma mansoni lost praziquantel rapidly to drug-free medium. Chromatography of extracts prepared after incubation of S. mansoni and H. nana yielded no indication that praziquantel was metabolized. Autoradiography revealed a uniform distribution of praziquantel throughout the tissues of S. mansoni and H. nana. Uptake was considerably slower in the nematode Heterakis spumosa and apparently via the oral route.

  6. The initial immune response during experimental cysticercosis is of the mixed Th1\\/Th2 type

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Toenjes; R. E. Kuhn

    2003-01-01

    The immunological events that occur during the initial stages of experimental cysticercosis are not known. The studies presented here examined the cytokines produced by peritoneal exudate cells (PECs), splenocytes and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells during the first week of infection with larval Taenia crassiceps in BALB\\/cJ mice. Proliferation assays determined that the earliest time when antigen-specific responses could be

  7. Coprological survey of alimentary tract parasites in dogs from Zambia and evaluation of a coproantigen assay for canine echinococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Nonaka, N; Nakamura, S; Inoue, T; Oku, Y; Katakura, K; Matsumoto, J; Mathis, A; Chembesofu, M; Phiri, I G K

    2011-01-01

    Faecal samples were collected from the rectum of 540 domestic dogs from four districts (Lusaka, Katete, Petauke and Luangwa) in Zambia between 2005 and 2006 and prevalences of canine alimentary tract parasites were determined by coprological examination. Thirteen different ova and parasites including strongyle (43.3%), Spirocerca lupi (18.7%), taeniid (13.1%), Toxocara canis (7.6%), Sarcocystis sp.* (7.5%), Isospora sp.* (5.7%), Physaloptera sp.* (4.6%), Capillaria sp.* (2.8%), Dipylidium caninum (2.2%), Mesocestoides sp.* (2.0%), Ascaris sp.* (1.7%), Trichuris vulpis* (0.4%) and Schistosoma mansoni* (0.4%) were detected, Ascaris and Schistosoma probably originating from coprophagy. The species with asterisks and later-described Taenia multiceps are for the first time reported from dogs in Zambia. A coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoproAg-ELISA) developed for Echinococcus spp. revealed 43 positive dogs and 37 of these harboured taeniid eggs. From 63 of the 71 taeniid egg-positive samples, eggs and DNA thereof were isolated and subjected to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for differentiating E. granulosus sensu lato, E. multilocularis and Taenia spp. Amplicons indicative for Taenia spp. were obtained from 60 samples. Sequencing of amplicons spanning part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, which was possible with 38 samples, revealed 35 infections with T. hydatigena and 3 with T. multiceps. Therefore, the CoproAg-ELISA showed some positives, but concrete evidence for the existence of canine E. granulosus infection could not be established. Comparison of the results of the CoproAg-ELISA and Taenia species identification indicated that the CoproAg-ELISA cross-reacts with patent infections of T. hydatigena (57%) and T. multiceps (33%). PMID:22185947

  8. The electrical activity of single isolated smooth muscle cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Purves; Gerda E. Mark; Geoffrey Burnstock

    1973-01-01

    Summary 1.Smooth mucle cells from the taenia coli of the guinea-pig have been grown in tissue culture.2.Intracellular recordings from clumps of cells showed spontaneous spikes of variable height, associated with slow waves. Cells in clumps appeared to be electrotonically coupled to their neighbours.3.Single isolated cells also generated spontaneous spikes and slow waves. Spikes from these cells were of nearly constant

  9. Effect of pinaverium bromide on electrical and mechanical activity of smooth muscle cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Droogmans; B. Himpens; R. Casteels

    1983-01-01

    Pinaverium bromide exerts antagonistic effects on the contractions induced by BaCl2 in intestinal smooth muscle. We have therefore investigated its effects on the electrical and mechanical activity and on the 45Ca exchange of guinea-pig taenia coli and ileum. In the concentration range 10-7 to 10-5 M this drug does not exert an effect on the resting potential of either preparation.

  10. Intestinal parasites of the Arctic fox in relation to the abundance and distribution of intermediate hosts.

    PubMed

    Stien, A; Voutilainen, L; Haukisalmi, V; Fuglei, E; Mørk, T; Yoccoz, N G; Ims, R A; Henttonen, H

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal parasite community of Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) on the Svalbard archipelago in the High Arctic was investigated in relation to the abundance and distribution of intermediate hosts. Five species of cestodes (Echinococcus multilocularis, Taenia crassiceps, Taenia polyacantha, Taenia krabbei and Diphyllobothrium sp.), ascaridoid nematodes and one unidentified acanthocephalan species were found. The cestodes E. multilocularis, T. crassiceps and T. polyacantha all showed a decreasing prevalence in the fox population with increasing distance from their spatially restricted intermediate host population of sibling voles (Microtus levis). In addition, the prevalence of E. multilocularis in a sample from the vole population was directly related to the local vole abundance. The cestode T. krabbei uses reindeer as intermediate host, and its prevalence in female foxes was positively related to the density of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhyncus). Finally, the prevalence of the ascaridoid nematodes also decreased with increasing distance from the vole population, a finding that is consistent with the idea that voles are involved in transmission, most likely as paratenic hosts. The prevalence of the remaining species (Diphyllobothrium sp. and an unidentified acanthocephalan) was very low. We conclude that the distribution and abundance of intermediate host structure the gastrointestinal parasite community of the Arctic fox on the Svalbard archipelago. PMID:19723357

  11. Taeniasis in Indonesia with special reference to Samosir Island, north Sumatra.

    PubMed

    Depary, A A; Kosman, M L

    1991-12-01

    In Indonesia, taeniasis is endemic on the islands of Bali, Irian Jaya and Sumatra. The Balinese eat pork or beef raw in a dish called "lawar". Natives of Irian Jaya also have a custom of preparing and consuming raw pork. On Samosir Island in North Sumatra, undercooked pork is consumed in traditional ceremonies. In Bali, the local people defecate into cages (called "teba") of domestic animals. In Irian Jaya, pigs are allowed to feed on human feces inside houses at night. The natives of Samosir Island defecate in their gardens and their feces are easily consumed by freely roaming pigs. Since 1972, studies have been carried out on the epidemiology of taeniasis in North Sumatra. The Taenia sp. found on Samosir Island is morphologically identical to Taenia saginata. However, the local people seldom or never consume beef because it is very expensive, while pork is commonly consumed. The species and the natural intermediate hosts of Taenia sp. on Samosir Island are still under investigation. PMID:1822896

  12. Extraintestinal Helminth Infection Limits Pathology and Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression during DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis: A Role for Alternatively Activated Macrophages and Prostaglandins

    PubMed Central

    Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Callejas, Blanca E.; Terrazas, César A.; Reyes, Jose L.; Espinoza-Jiménez, Arlett; González, Marisol I.; León-Cabrera, Sonia; Morales, Rosario; Olguín, Jonadab E.; Saavedra, Rafael; Oghumu, Steve; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa is characteristic of inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Helminth parasites have developed immunomodulatory strategies that may impact the outcome of several inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we investigated whether Taenia crassiceps infection is able to decrease the inflammatory effects of dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced ulcerative colitis in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Preinfection significantly reduced the manifestations of DSS-induced colitis, as weight loss and shortened colon length, and decreased the disease activity index independently of the genetic background of the mice. Taenia infection decreased systemic levels of proinflammatory cytokines while increasing levels of IL-4 and IL-10, and the inflammatory infiltrate into the colon was also markedly reduced. RT-PCR assays from colon showed that T. crassiceps-infected mice displayed increased expression of Arginase-1 but decreased expression of iNOS compared to DSS-treated uninfected mice. The percentages of T regulatory cells were not increased. The adoptive transfer of alternatively activated macrophages (AAM?s) from infected mice into mice with DSS-induced colitis reduced the severity of colon inflammation. Administration of indomethacin abrogated the anticolitic effect of Taenia. Thus, T. crassiceps infection limits the pathology of ulcerative colitis by suppressing inflammatory responses mechanistically associated with AAM?s and prostaglandins. PMID:26090422

  13. Recent Situation of Taeniasis in Mongolia (2002-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Dorjsuren, Temuulen; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Davaajav, Abmed; Agvaandaram, Gurbadam; Enkhbat, Tsatsral; Gonchigoo, Battsetseg; Dulmaa, Nyamkhuu; Chuluunbaatar, Gantigmaa; Ito, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological situation of taeniasis in Mongolia was assessed based on mitochondrial DNA identification of the parasite species. Multiplex PCR was used on a total of 194 proglottid specimens of Taenia species and copro-PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays were utilized for detection of copro-DNA of 37 fecal samples from taeniasis patients submitted to the Mongolian National Center for Communicable Diseases (NCCD) from 2002 to 2012. In addition, 4 out of 44 calcified cysts in beef kept in formalin since 2003 were evaluated for histopathological confirmation of cattle cysticercosis. All proglottid specimens and stool samples were confirmed to be Taenia saginata by multiplex PCR and by copro-PCR and LAMP, respectively. Cysts collected from cattle were morphologically confirmed to be metacestodes of Taenia species. T. saginata taeniasis was identified from almost all ages from a 2-year-old boy up to a 88-year-old woman and most prominently in 15-29 age group (37%, 74/198) followed by 30-44 age group (34.8%, 69/198 ) from 15 of Mongolia's 21 provinces, while cattle cysticerci were found from 12 provinces. The highest proportion of taeniasis patients was in Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia. PMID:24850968

  14. An epidemiological survey on intestinal helminths of stray dogs in Mashhad, North-east of Iran.

    PubMed

    Emamapour, Seyed Rasoul; Borji, Hassan; Nagibi, Abolghasem

    2015-06-01

    This research was conducted to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in stray dogs in the northeast of Iran, with special attention to those parasites that can be transmitted to human. In this experiment, a total of 72 adult and 18 juvenile stray dogs were collected and necropsied for the presence of helminth parasites from October 2011 to August 2012. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths was 86 % (95 % CI: 79.2-92.8 %). The observed helminths of the gastrointestinal tract were listed as follows: Toxocara canis (29 %), Toxascaris leonina (7 %), Ancylostoma caninum (2 %), Taenia hydatigena (43 %), Dipylidium caninum (39 %), Echinococcus granulosus (38 %), Mesocestoides lineatus (16 %), Taenia multiceps (11 %), Taenia ovis (3 %). There were no significant differences for the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths between female (83.6 %) and male (89.7 %) and between young (89 %) and adult (72.2 %) animals. However, the prevalence of E. granulosus, T. hydatigena and D. caninum showed an increasing trend with increasing host age, significantly. Based on our data, it is important to point out the presence of zoonotic agents, namely E. granulosus and T. canis in stray dogs in the investigated area. Due to its impact on public health, appropriate control measures should be taken and it is recommended to determine the most appropriate preventive methods. PMID:26064015

  15. Survey on Helminths in the Small Intestine of Wild Foxes in Qinghai, China

    PubMed Central

    LI, Wei; GUO, Zhihong; DUO, Hong; FU, Yong; PENG, Mao; SHEN, Xiuying; TSUKADA, Hideharu; IRIE, Takao; NASU, Tetsuo; HORII, Yoichiro; NONAKA, Nariaki

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The intestinal helminth fauna of Tibetan sand foxes (Vulpes ferrilata) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) inhabiting in Qinghai, China, was evaluated by conducting necropsy of hunted foxes and fecal egg examination of field-collected feces. In northeast and south Qinghai, 36 foxes were necropsied, and the species of foxes and the parasites detected were identified by the DNA barcoding. In 27 red foxes and 9 Tibetan sand foxes examined, Mesocestoides litteratus (total prevalence: 64%), Toxascaris leonina (50%), Taenia pisiformis (8%) and Taenia crassiceps (8%) were found in both species of foxes. Echinococcus shiquicus (8%) and Taenia multiceps (6%) were found only in Tibetan sand foxes. Echinococcus multilocularis (3%) and Alaria alata (8%) were found only in red foxes. In the fecal egg examination of the rectal feces, 100% of taeniid cestodes, 73% of Toxascaris and 27% of Mesocestoides worm-positive samples showed egg-positive, indicating that coprological survey for parasite eggs could only provide partial information of intestinal parasite fauna. For field-collected feces, molecular identification of feces origins and fecal egg examination were performed. In 15 Tibetan sand fox and 30 red fox feces, we found E. multilocularis eggs in one feces of Tibetan sand fox. The present study indicated that the upper intestinal helminth fauna of the two fox species in Qinghai does not differ significantly and both species would play an important role in the maintenance of taeniid cestodes. PMID:23749034

  16. Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Saeed, I; Maddox-Hyttel, C; Monrad, J; Kapel, C M O

    2006-06-30

    An epidemiological study of helminths in 1040 red foxes collected from various localities in Denmark during 1997-2002, revealed 21 helminth species at autopsy, including nine nematode species: Capillaria plica (prevalence 80.5%), Capillaria aerophila (74.1%), Crenosoma vulpis (17.4%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (48.6% from Northern Zealand (endemic area)), Toxocara canis (59.4%), Toxascaris leonina (0.6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (68.6%), Ancylostoma caninum (0.6%), and Trichuris vulpis (0.5%); seven cestodes: Mesocestoides sp. (35.6%), a number of Taeniid species (Taenia pisiformis, T. hydatigena, T. taeniaeformis, T. crassiceps, and unidentified Taenia spp.) (22.8%), and Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%); four trematodes: Alaria alata (15.4%), Cryptocotyle lingua (23.8%), Pseudamphystomum truncatum (3.6% from Northern Zealand), and Echinochasmus perfoliatus (2.4% from Northern Zealand); one acanthocephalan: Polymorphus sp. (1.2%). Significant difference in prevalence was found for T. canis and A. vasorum according to host sex, and for T. canis, U. stenocephala, Mesocestoides sp., Taenia spp., A. alata, A. vasorum, and Capillaria spp. according to age groups (adult, young or cub). Prevalence and average worm intensity for each helminth species varied considerably according to geographical locality, season, and year. Aggregated distribution was found for several helminth species. The two species E. multilocularis and E. perfoliatus are first records for Denmark. PMID:16580775

  17. Echinococcus granulosus coproantigens: chromatographic fractionation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Elayoubi, F A; Craig, P S

    2004-04-01

    Dogs infected with adult tapeworms of Echinococcus granulosus release antigens (coproantigens) in faeces which can be detected by a capture ELISA. Supernatants prepared from E. granulosus-infected dog faecal samples were fractionated by size-exclusion fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) on a Superose-6 column. Coproantigen ELISA and Western blotting were used to demonstrate the immunoreactivity of eluted fractions. Two main FPLC peaks of antigenic activity were detected and designated as fraction F1 and fraction F2 with approximate relative molecular weights > 670 kDa, and in the range of 146 to 440 kDa respectively. These two antigenic fractions (F1 and F2) fractionated from infected dog faeces were heat stable and largely protease-insensitive, but were highly sensitive to sodium periodate treatment, which strongly suggested the involvement of carbohydrates. Capture IgG antibodies against E. granulosus proglottis somatic extracts, detected a molecule with an approximate molecular weight of 155 kDa in fraction F2 after immunoblotting. The 155 kDa antigen could be completely ablated by sodium periodate treatment, but not after protease or lipase treatment. A surface tegument preparation of adult E. granulosus tapeworms contained large amounts of antigen that corresponded in size range and antigenicity to that observed in the FPLC fraction F2. There was also a peak of antigenic activity at > 670 kDa corresponding to fraction F1 from a culture derived excretory-secretory (E-S) adult tapeworm preparation. The involvement of carbohydrate moieties in coproantigen activity present in the FPLC fractions F1 and F2 from faecal supernatants of E. granulosus-infected dogs was confirmed by lectin-binding assays and exoglycosidase treatment, which showed that alpha-D-mannose and/or alpha-D-glucose, beta-galactose and N-acetyl-beta-glucosamine residues were the most important carbohydrate components in putative coproantigens present in both fractions. N-acetyl-beta-glucosamine and sialic acid residues were also contained in coproantigen molecules present in fraction F2. These results suggested that coproantigens detected in faeces of E. granulosus-infected dogs are large molecular weight molecules that may be derived from the carbohydrate-rich surface glycocalyx of adult worms, and are shed, released or secreted during the life-span of the tapeworm. PMID:15151151

  18. Seasonal variation of parasite infection of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) in the southern Baltic.

    PubMed

    Morozi?ska-Gogol, Jolanta

    2002-01-01

    Seasonal changes of infection were observed in the case of some species of ectoparasites: Trichodina domerguei domerguei, T. tenuidens, Gyrodactylus arcuatus, and Thersitina gasterostei, as well as for endoparasites: Glugea anomala, Schistocephalus solidus, Diphyllobothrium ditremum, and Proteocephalus filicollis. Same seasonal changes in frequency of developmental stages were observed in the case of females T. gasterostei. The highest level of infection with ectoparasites was observed in spring and summer and was probably an effect of increase of the reproductive activity with increase of temperature. Infection with tapeworms was generally low and was a result of feeding activity and fish diet. PMID:16894719

  19. Unusual presentation of severely disseminated and rapidly progressive hydatic cyst: Malignant hydatidosis.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Aya; Hellara, Olfa; Mnari, Walid; Loussaief, Chaouki; Bedioui, Fethia; Safer, Leila; Golli, Mondher; Chakroun, Mohamed; Saffar, Hammouda

    2015-03-27

    The infection caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus leads to the development of hydatic disease. It is the most frequent mediterranean parasitic infection that commonly affects the liver and rarely involves multiple organs. Herein, we report an exceptional and confusing presentation of hepatopulmonary and splenic hydatidosis due to Echinococcus granulosus that caused diagnostic problems occuring in a 70-year-old man, treated with chemotherapy, with favorable outcome. This was a very unusual case of disseminated hydatid cyst highlighting the interest of keeping a high level of clinical suspicion of this diagnosis every time we have a cystic lesion of the liver. PMID:25848488

  20. Diagnosis of primary hydatid cyst of thigh by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Bothale, K A; Kolhe, H; Mahore, S D; Wilkinson, A R

    2015-01-01

    Hydatidosis is a parasitic infestation caused by larval form of the tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus. Primary hydatid cyst in the skeletal muscles and subcutaneous tissue of thigh without involving thoracic and abdominal organs is an exceptional entity, even in countries where the Echinococcus infestation is endemic. We report an unusual case of primary hydatid cyst of thigh in proximity to skeletal muscles. This case illustrates that echinococcal disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of every subcutaneous cystic mass. This case is presented here for its rarity. PMID:25560023

  1. A case of Budd-Chiari syndrome associated with alveolar echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Karadas, Sevdegul; Cumhur, Dulger Ahmet; Bilge, Gultepe; Mehmet, Beyazal; Mustafa, Kosem

    2014-04-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis of the liver is caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. Budd-Chiari Syndrome (BCS) is a hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction and involves abdominal pain, hepatomegaly and high-gradient ascites. A low-gradient ascites in connection with the syndrome rarely occurs in case of alveolar echinococcosis of the liver. Here we report a 20-year-old man with the syndrome and low-gradient ascites due to a huge liver mass. Further diagnostic examination revealed alveolar echinococcosis of the liver. Diuretic agents and albendazole were used as palliative therapy in the case. PMID:24864647

  2. Intramuscular Sparganosis in the Gastrocnemius Muscle: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeung Il; Kim, Tae Wan; Hong, Sung Min; Moon, Tae Yong; Lee, In Sook; Choi, Kyung Un

    2014-01-01

    Sparganosis is a parasitic infection caused by the plerocercoid tapeworm larva of the genus Spirometra. Although the destination of the larva is often a tissue or muscle in the chest, abdominal wall, extremities, eyes, brain, urinary tract, spinal canal, and scrotum, intramuscular sparganosis is uncommon and therefore is difficult to distinguish from a soft tissue tumor. We report a case of intramuscular sparganosis involving the gastrocnemius muscle in an elderly patient who was diagnosed using ultrasonography and MRI and treated by surgical excision. At approximately 1 cm near the schwannoma at the right distal sciatic nerve, several spargana worms were detected and removed. PMID:24623885

  3. The cestode community in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, Tetiana A; Hernández-Orts, Jesús S; Lyons, Eugene T; Spraker, Terry R; Kornyushyn, Vadym V; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-08-01

    The diversity and ecology of cestodes from the northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus (NFS), were examined using newly collected material from 756 humanely harvested subadult males between 2011 and 2014. NFSs were collected from five different haul-outs on St. Paul Island, Alaska. A total of 14,660 tapeworms were collected with a prevalence of 98.5% and intensity up to 107 cestodes per host (mean intensity 19.7?±?16.5 SD). Three species of tapeworms were found: Adenocephalus pacificus (Diphyllobothriidea) was the most prevalent (prevalence 97.4%), followed by Diplogonoporus tetrapterus (49.7%), and 5 immature specimens of Anophryocephalus cf. ochotensis (Tetrabothriidea) (0.5%). Most of the cestodes found in the NFS were immature (69.7%). However, only 0.9% of cestodes were in larval (plerocercoid) stages. The species composition, prevalence and intensity of cestodes from these NFSs were not statistically different between the five separate haul-outs. Significant increases in the intensity of NFS infections were observed during the study period. PMID:26101743

  4. Survey of public knowledge about Echinococcus multilocularis in four European countries: Need for proactive information

    PubMed Central

    Hegglin, Daniel; Bontadina, Fabio; Gloor, Sandra; Romig, Thomas; Deplazes, Peter; Kern, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background Public information about prevention of zoonoses should be based on the perceived problem by the public and should be adapted to regional circumstances. Growing fox populations have led to increasing concern about human alveolar echinococcosis, which is caused by the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. In order to plan information campaigns, public knowledge about this zoonotic tapeworm was assessed. Methods By means of representative telephone interviews (N = 2041), a survey of public knowledge about the risk and the prevention of alveolar echinococcosis was carried out in the Czech Republic, France, Germany and Switzerland in 2004. Results For all five questions, significant country-specific differences were found. Fewer people had heard of E. multilocularis in the Czech Republic (14%) and France (18%) compared to Germany (63%) and Switzerland (70%). The same effect has been observed when only high endemic regions were considered (Czech Republic: 20%, France: 17%, Germany: 77%, Switzerland: 61%). In France 17% of people who knew the parasite felt themselves reasonably informed. In the other countries, the majority felt themselves reasonably informed (54–60%). The percentage that perceived E. multilocularis as a high risk ranged from 12% (Switzerland) to 43% (France). In some countries promising measures as deworming dogs (Czech Republic, Switzerland) were not recognized as prevention options. Conclusion Our results and the actual epidemiological circumstances of AE call for proactive information programs. This communication should enable the public to achieve realistic risk perception, give clear information on how people can minimize their infection risk, and prevent exaggerated reactions and anxiety. PMID:18644138

  5. Host specificity and population structure of two exotic helminths, Camallanus cotti (Nematoda) and Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda), parasitizing exotic fishes in Waianu Stream, O'ahu, Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Amanda G; Font, William F

    2003-06-01

    Introduction of exotic fishes into Hawai'ian streams has resulted in the simultaneous introduction of exotic parasites. Camallanus corti (Nematoda) and Bothricephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda) are the most prevalent and abundant fish helminths in Hawai'ian streams. The population structure and host specificity of C. cotti and B. acheilognathi in exotic poeciliids were examined during May and June 1995 in Waianu Stream, O'ahu, Hawai'i. Prevalence and mean abundance of C. cotti were significantly different among Poecilia reticulata (65.2%, 1.05), Poecilia mexicana (49.0%, 0.87), and Xiphophorus helleri (32.3%, 0.44). Prevalence of B. acheilognathi was significantly higher in P. mexicana (6.1%) than in P. reticulata (2.1%) and X. helleri (1.6%). However, tapeworm differences in mean abundance were not significant among P. mexicana (0.08), P. reticulata (0.04), or X. helleri (0.03). Nematode and tapeworm prevalence and mean abundance were not significantly different with regard to fish sex. Camallanus cotti prevalence and mean abundance increased as P. mexicana body size increased (r2 = 0.84 and r2 = 0.72, respectively), whereas B. acheilognathi displayed no significant trend with respect to poeciliid body size. PMID:12880255

  6. Evolutionary implications of the adaptation to different immune systems in a parasite with a complex life cycle

    PubMed Central

    Hammerschmidt, Katrin; Kurtz, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Many diseases are caused by parasites with complex life cycles that involve several hosts. If parasites cope better with only one of the different types of immune systems of their host species, we might expect a trade-off in parasite performance in the different hosts, that likely influences the evolution of virulence. We tested this hypothesis in a naturally co-evolving host–parasite system consisting of the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus and its intermediate hosts, a copepod, Macrocyclops albidus, and the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus. We did not find a trade-off between infection success in the two hosts. Rather, tapeworms seem to trade-off adaptation towards different parts of their hosts' immune systems. Worm sibships that performed better in the invertebrate host also seem to be able to evade detection by the fish innate defence systems, i.e. induce lower levels of activation of innate immune components. These worm variants were less harmful for the fish host likely due to reduced costs of an activated innate immune system. These findings substantiate the impact of both hosts' immune systems on parasite performance and virulence. PMID:16271977

  7. Evolutionary implications of the adaptation to different immune systems in a parasite with a complex life cycle.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, Katrin; Kurtz, Joachim

    2005-12-01

    Many diseases are caused by parasites with complex life cycles that involve several hosts. If parasites cope better with only one of the different types of immune systems of their host species, we might expect a trade-off in parasite performance in the different hosts, that likely influences the evolution of virulence. We tested this hypothesis in a naturally co-evolving host-parasite system consisting of the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus and its intermediate hosts, a copepod, Macrocyclops albidus, and the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus. We did not find a trade-off between infection success in the two hosts. Rather, tapeworms seem to trade-off adaptation towards different parts of their hosts' immune systems. Worm sibships that performed better in the invertebrate host also seem to be able to evade detection by the fish innate defence systems, i.e. induce lower levels of activation of innate immune components. These worm variants were less harmful for the fish host likely due to reduced costs of an activated innate immune system. These findings substantiate the impact of both hosts' immune systems on parasite performance and virulence. PMID:16271977

  8. Outcrossing increases infection success and competitive ability: experimental evidence from a hermaphrodite parasite.

    PubMed

    Christen, Mira; Kurtz, Joachim; Milinski, Manfred

    2002-11-01

    The maintenance of two genetically distinct reproductive modes such as outcrossing and selfing within a population of animals or plants is still a matter of considerable debate. Hermaphroditic parasites often reproduce either alone by selfing or in pairs by outcrossing. They can be used as a model to study potential benefits of outcrossing. Any advantage from outcrossing may be important, especially in host-parasite coevolution, but has not, to our knowledge, been studied yet in any parasite species. We studied the potential effect of outcrossing in a tapeworm, Schistocephalus solidus, on both infection success and growth in its first intermediate host, the copepod Macrocyclops albidus. Tapeworms that had been obtained from natural populations of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were allowed to reproduce either alone or in pairs, in an in vitro system that replaced the final host's gut. This resulted in either selfed or outcrossed offspring, respectively. In one part of the experiment, copepods were exposed to either selfed or outcrossed parasites, in a second part to both types simultaneously, in order to study the effect of competition between them. To discriminate parasites of either origin within the same host, a novel method for fluorescent vital labeling was used. We show here for the first time that outcrossed parasites had a higher infection success and faster development in the host. This advantage of outcrossing became apparent only in the competitive situation, in which superior abilities of parasites to extract limiting resources from the host become crucial. PMID:12487354

  9. The cestode community in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmina, Tetiana A.; Hernández-Orts, Jesús S.; Lyons, Eugene T.; Spraker, Terry R.; Kornyushyn, Vadym V.; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The diversity and ecology of cestodes from the northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus (NFS), were examined using newly collected material from 756 humanely harvested subadult males between 2011 and 2014. NFSs were collected from five different haul-outs on St. Paul Island, Alaska. A total of 14,660 tapeworms were collected with a prevalence of 98.5% and intensity up to 107 cestodes per host (mean intensity 19.7?±?16.5 SD). Three species of tapeworms were found: Adenocephalus pacificus (Diphyllobothriidea) was the most prevalent (prevalence 97.4%), followed by Diplogonoporus tetrapterus (49.7%), and 5 immature specimens of Anophryocephalus cf. ochotensis (Tetrabothriidea) (0.5%). Most of the cestodes found in the NFS were immature (69.7%). However, only 0.9% of cestodes were in larval (plerocercoid) stages. The species composition, prevalence and intensity of cestodes from these NFSs were not statistically different between the five separate haul-outs. Significant increases in the intensity of NFS infections were observed during the study period.

  10. A Pilot Study for Control of Hyperendemic Cystic Hydatid Disease in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenbao; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Yimit, Turhong; Shi, Baoxin; Aili, Hasyeti; Tulson, Gulnor; You, Hong; Li, Jun; Gray, Darren J.; McManus, Donald P.; Wang, Jincheng

    2009-01-01

    Background Cystic hydatid disease (CHD) is a global parasitic zoonosis caused by the dog tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus. The disease is hyperendemic in western China because of poor economic development; limited community knowledge of CHD; widespread, small-scale household animal production; home killing of livestock; and the feeding of dogs with uncooked offal. Methodology/Principal Findings A control program focusing on monthly praziquantel (PZQ) treatment of all registered dogs and culling unwanted and stray dogs has been designed to control CHD in hyperendemic areas in China. A pilot field control project in two counties (Hutubi and Wensu) in Xinjiang, China showed that after 4 years of treatment, the prevalence of dogs with E. granulosus was reduced from 14.7% and 18.6%, respectively, to 0%, and this caused a 90%–100% decrease of CHD in sheep born after commencement of the control program. Conclusions/Significance The strategy aimed at preventing eggs being released from dogs into the environment by treating animals before adult tapeworms are patent can decrease E. granulosus transmission and considerably reduce hyperendemic CHD. Monthly treatment of dogs with PZQ and culling unwanted and stray dogs have been shown to be an efficient, highly cost-effective and practicable measure for implementation in rural communities. As a result, the Chinese Ministry of Health has launched an extensive CHD control program in 117 counties in western China using this control strategy. PMID:19859535

  11. Histopathological survey of protozoa, helminths and acarids of imported and local psittacine and passerine birds in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, S S; Hirai, K; Itakura, C

    1992-12-01

    A total of 534 psittacine and passerine birds consisting of 241 imported and 293 local birds were examined histologically. As a result, the following parasites were found: Giardia (86 cases), Knemido-coptes (26 cases), coccidia (10 cases), Ascaridia (6 cases), Cryptosporidium (5 cases), Sarcocystis (5 cases), tapeworm (4 cases), microfilaria (2 cases), Hexamita (1 case), and Spiroptera (1 case). High incidences of giardiasis and knemido-coptic infestation were detected in the local birds, but rarely in the imported birds. Giardial trophozoites were observed mainly in the duodenum of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Knemidocoptic mites burrowed into the epidermis producing proliferative dermatitis in 25 budgerigars and 1 African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). This ectoparasite often infested the skin around the cloaca. Coccidiosis was seen only in the small intestines of the finch (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae), African Grey Parrot, Rainbow lory (Trichoglossus haematodus), Indian Ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri manillensis) and peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis). Two parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva and Psittacus erithacus erithacus) and two budgerigars had intestinal cryptosporidiosis. Conjunctivitis associated with cryptosporidial infection was seen in a lovebird. Sarcocystis cysts containing crescent-shaped bradyzoites were found not only in the thigh and breast but also in the heart and cloacal muscles. Other organisms such as Ascaridia, tapeworm, microfilaria, Hexamita, and Spiroptera were clinically less significant. However, infections such as Giardia and Cryptosporidim might have zoonotic implications. PMID:1297009

  12. Epidemiology of Echinococcus granulosus infection in the central Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed Central

    Moro, P. L.; McDonald, J.; Gilman, R. H.; Silva, B.; Verastegui, M.; Malqui, V.; Lescano, G.; Falcon, N.; Montes, G.; Bazalar, H.

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence of human, canine, and ovine echinococcosis was determined in an endemic area of the Peruvian Andes where control programmes have not been operational since 1980. Prevalence of infection in humans was determined using portable ultrasound, chest X-rays, and an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. Canine and ovine echinococcal prevalence was determined by microscopic stool examinations following arecoline purging for tapeworm detection and by examination of the viscera from slaughtered livestock animals, respectively. The prevalence among 407 humans surveyed was 9.1%. The frequency of disease in the liver, lung, and in both organs was 3.4%, 2.0%, and 0.2%, respectively. Portable ultrasound or portable chest X-ray has shown that, compared to adults, children under 11 years had significantly higher seropositive rates without evidence of hydatid disease (P < 0.05). Among the 104 dogs inspected for echinococcus after arecoline purging, 33 (32%) were positive for adult tapeworms. Among the 117 sheep slaughtered at the local abattoir, 102 (87%) had hydatid cysts. The prevalence of human hydatidosis in this endemic area of Peru is one of the highest in the world and nearly five times higher than previously reported in 1980. An increase in echinococcosis prevalence may result after premature cessation of control programmes. PMID:9509628

  13. Latent-Class Methods to Evaluate Diagnostics Tests for Echinococcus Infections in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hartnack, Sonja; Budke, Christine M.; Craig, Philip S.; Jiamin, Qiu; Boufana, Belgees; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Torgerson, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of canine echinococcosis can be a challenge in surveillance studies because there is no perfect gold standard that can be used routinely. However, unknown test specificities and sensitivities can be overcome using latent-class analysis with appropriate data. Methodology We utilised a set of faecal and purge samples used previously to explore the epidemiology of canine echinococcosis on the Tibetan plateau. Previously only the purge results were reported and analysed in a largely deterministic way. In the present study, additional diagnostic tests of copro-PCR and copro-antigen ELISA were undertaken on the faecal samples. This enabled a Bayesian analysis in a latent-class model to examine the diagnostic performance of a genus specific copro-antigen ELISA, species-specific copro-PCR and arecoline purgation. Potential covariates including co-infection with Taenia, age and sex of the dog were also explored. The dependence structure of these diagnostic tests could also be analysed. Principle findings The most parsimonious result, indicated by deviance-information criteria, suggested that co-infection with Taenia spp. was a significant covariate with the Echinococcus infection. The copro-PCRs had estimated sensitivities of 89% and 84% respectively for the diagnoses of Echinococcus multilocularis and E. granulosus. The specificities for the copro-PCR were estimated at 93 and 83% respectively. Copro-antigen ELISA had sensitivities of 55 and 57% for the diagnosis of E. multilocularis and E. granulosus and specificities of 71 and 69% respectively. Arecoline purgation with an assumed specificity of 100% had estimated sensitivities of 76% and 85% respectively. Significance This study also shows that incorporating diagnostic uncertainty, in other words assuming no perfect gold standard, and including potential covariates like sex or Taenia co-infection into the epidemiological analysis may give different results than if the diagnosis of infection status is assumed to be deterministic and this approach should therefore be used whenever possible. PMID:23459420

  14. Environmental conditions predict helminth prevalence in red foxes in Western Australia?

    PubMed Central

    Dybing, Narelle A.; Fleming, Patricia A.; Adams, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most common and widely distributed wild carnivore worldwide. These predators harbour a wide range of parasites, many of which may have important conservation, agricultural and zoonotic repercussions. This project investigated the occurrence of helminth parasites from the intestines of 147 red foxes across 14 sampling localities of southwest Western Australia. Helminth parasites were detected in 58% of fox intestines: Dipylidium caninum (27.7% of foxes), Uncinaria stenocephala (18.2%), Toxocara canis (14.9%), Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (5.4%), Toxascaris leonina (4.7%), Taenia serialis (1.4%), Taenia hydatigena (0.7%), unidentified Taenia spp. (4.1%), Brachylaima cribbi (0.7%), Plagiorchis maculosus (0.7%) and an Acanthocephalan; family Centrorhynchidae (2.1%). Importantly, two cestodes of agricultural significance, Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia ovis, were not detected in red foxes in this study, despite the presence of suitable intermediate hosts in the diets of these animals. Parasite richness varied from 1–3 species per host, with average parasite number varying from 1–39 worms (across all helminth species). Regression analyses indicated that the presence of four helminth parasites was related to various environmental factors. The presence of S. erinaceieuropaei (p < 0.001), T. leonina (p < 0.01) and U. stenocephala (p < 0.01) was positively associated with average relative humidity which may affect the longevity of infective stages in the environment. The presence of S. erinaceieuropaei and U. stenocephala (p < 0.001) was positively associated with 5-y-average minimum temperature which could reflect poor survival of infective stages through cold winter conditions. The presence of T. canis and U. stenocephala (p < 0.001) was positively associated with the percentage cover of native vegetation at each sampling location, which is likely to reflect transmission from native prey species acting as paratenic hosts. These data identify environmental factors affecting transmission and potential distribution of each parasite taxon, and provide important information increasing our understanding of the potential effects of environmental change on parasite ecology. PMID:24533331

  15. Helminth parasites of fisher Martes pennanti (Erxleben) from Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed

    Dick, T A; Leonard, R D

    1979-07-01

    Seven species of helminths were recovered during a survey of 162 fisher (Martes pennanti) from four areas of Manitoba: Baylisascaris devosi in 52 fisher; Taenia sibirica in 25; Physaloptera sp. in nine; Alaria mustelae in two; Metorchis conjunctus in one; Trichinella spiralis in one of 81; Molineus sp. in one. B. devosi was the most prevalent parasite and differences in its geographical distribution were possibly related to population density of fisher. The prevalence of other parasites did not appear to be related to density of fisher. PMID:574167

  16. Effect of illuminated nifedipine, a potent antioxidant, on intestinal and vascular smooth muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, V.; Rekalov, V. V.; Juránek, I.; Gergel, D.; Bohov, P.

    1995-01-01

    1. The effects of nifedipine (Nif) and its illuminated nitroso product nitrosopine (NTP) were investigated on lipid peroxidation, KCl elevated smooth muscle tension, and ionic currents of single smooth muscle cells. 2. Illumination of Nif at 400-700 nm within 24-48 h changed it completely to a potent antioxidant, NTP. 3. Nif relaxed the KCl-induced contractions of guinea-pig taenia caeci and rat aorta and reduced the amplitude of the evoked inward Ca2+ current of taenia caeci cells in a concentration-dependent manner. NTP (up to 100 microM) was ineffective in this respect. Pretreatment by NTP (10 microM) did not affect the actions of Nif. 4. The evidence suggests that NTP, generated by day-light illumination from Nif, exerts antioxidant activity but is devoid of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel (VDC) blocking property and does not interfere with the action of Nif on the smooth muscle cell membrane VDC. PMID:7582513

  17. Effects of various selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors on carbachol-induced contraction and cyclic nucleotide contents in the guinea pig gall bladder.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, Takeharu; Watanabe, Akitoshi; Shimizu, Kazumasa; Urakawa, Norimoto; Nakajyo, Shinjiro

    2005-07-01

    The effects of various selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors on muscle contractility and cyclic nucleotide contents in the guinea pig gall bladder were investigated. Various selective PDE inhibitors, vinpocetine (type 1), erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine (EHNA, type 2), milrinone (type 3), Ro20-1724 (type 4), and zaprinast (type 5), inhibited CCh-induced contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. The rank order of potency for the gall bladder was Ro20-1724 > vinpocetine > EHNA > milrinone > zaprinast, which was different from that of the trachea, taenia coli, and aorta. In the presence of CCh (0.3 muM), vinpocetine, milrinone, and Ro20-1724 each increased cAMP content, but not cGMP. By contrast, zaprinast increased cGMP content, but not cAMP, and EHNA increased both cAMP and cGMP contents. These results suggest that vinpocetine-, milrinone-, and Ro20-1724-induced relaxation was correlated with cAMP, zaprinast-induced relaxation was correlated with cGMP, and that EHNA-induced relaxation was correlated with cAMP and cGMP in the guinea pig gall bladder. In conclusion, the effect of PDE inhibitors in the guinea pig gall bladder was different from those in smooth muscles, such as the trachea, taenia coli, and aorta. PMID:16082113

  18. A recombinant immunodiagnostic antigen for bovine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Rhoads, M L; Zarlenga, D S; al-Yaman, F M

    1991-12-01

    The 70% ammonium sulfate-soluble fraction of the cyst fluid of Taenia hydatigena (designated ThFAS) was previously shown to have potential as an immunodiagnostic reagent for bovine cysticercosis. Western blot analysis indicated that the specific reactivity with antibodies in sera of T. saginata-infected cattle was associated with a 10 kDa component. Rabbit antiserum to ThFAS identified a homologous antigenic protein from the cestode Taenia crassiceps. Consequently, a cDNA expression library was constructed in lambda gt11 using poly A mRNA purified from T. crassiceps metacestodes and screened with rabbit antiserum to ThFAS. One strongly reactive clone (designated lambda TCA-2) produced a 123 kDa beta-galactosidase fusion protein which reacted in Western blot with sera from calves experimentally-infected with T. saginata and did not react with sera from uninfected calves or from cattle infected with Fasciola hepatica or with common gastrointestinal cattle parasites. PMID:1822902

  19. Seasonal prevalence of Toxocara ova in soil samples from public parks in Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Avcioglu, H; Burgu, A

    2008-06-01

    This survey was conducted to determine prevalence of Toxocara spp. eggs and seasonal variation of this prevalence in public parks in Ankara, Turkey. A total of 259 sand samples were collected from May 2005 to April 2006 in 40 public parks for determining prevalence. To attain seasonal variation, a total of 696 sand samples were collected from five public parks regularly throughout year. Prevalence of Toxocara spp. and combination of Toxascaris leonina and Taenia spp. was 15.05% and 0.38%. Overall, 45% of public parks were contaminated. There was a seasonal variation in prevalence. Prevalence of Toxocara spp., Toxascaris leonina, and Taenia spp. eggs during summer (4.21%) was lower than during spring (12.64%), autumn (13.21%), and winter (9.77%; p < 0.05). Average number of Toxocara spp. eggs was 2.57 per 50 g of sand, with average dimension of 70.1 mum. In conclusion, prevalence data are consistent with international data reported in other metropolitans. Our results indicate that the public parks in surveyed areas may be a source of toxocariasis. Effective preventive measures should be established. PMID:18494602

  20. Estimation of canine intestinal parasites in Córdoba (Spain) and their risk to public health.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Moreno, F J; Hernández, S; López-Cobos, E; Becerra, C; Acosta, I; Martínez-Moreno, A

    2007-01-19

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in dogs was studied in the province of Córdoba (southern Spain), with special attention to those parasites that can be transmitted to man. The experiment was completed with the examination of soil samples from public parks and city gardens. The study was carried out over a population of 1800 animals entered in the Control Animal Centre (CECA) by coprological methods, and within this group, 300 dogs were sacrificed and necropsied. The prevalence of any intestinal parasitic infection was 71.33%. The following parasites of the gastrointestinal tract were recorded: Isospora canis (22%), Isospora (Cystoisospora) spp. (10.22%), Sarcocystis (2.5%), Hammondia/Neospora (1.94%), Giardia canis (1%), Dipylidium caninum (13.2%), Taenia hydatigena (7.66%), Taenia pisiformis (4%), Uncinaria stenocephala (33.27%), Toxascaris leonina (14.94%), Toxocara canis (17.72%) and Trichuris vulpis (1.66%). Related to public health, it is important to point out the presence of T. canis only in puppies younger than one year and Uncinaria, more frequent in adult dogs. Soil samples of parks revealed the presence of eggs of Toxocara, and it suggests the existence of real risk for human infection. PMID:16971046

  1. Muscarinic activity of McN-A-343 and its value in muscarinic receptor classification.

    PubMed Central

    Eglen, R. M.; Kenny, B. A.; Michel, A. D.; Whiting, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    The affinity and potency of McN-A-343 (4-(m-chlorophenyl-carbamoyloxy) -2-butynyltrimethylammonium chloride) has been assessed at a range of M1 and M2 muscarinic receptors. McN-A-343 was shown to act as a full agonist at M2 receptors present in the guinea-pig isolated taenia caeci (-log EC50 = 5.14). McN-A-343 exhibited no agonist action in the guinea-pig ileum, atria, bladder or trachea. McN-A-343 was not selective in terms of affinity since its dissociation constants at M1 and M2 binding sites in the rat cerebral cortex and myocardium respectively, were very similar (cortical pPKi = 5.05; myocardial pKi = 5.22). The selectivity previously reported for the compound may be due to differences in intrinsic efficacy and/or tissue receptor reserve. Based on differential antagonist affinities, the muscarinic receptor profile of the taenia caeci, trachea and bladder was similar to that observed in the ileum, but dissimiliar to that observed in the atria. PMID:2437988

  2. Evaluation of host preferences by helminths and ectoparasites among black-tailed jackrabbits in northern California.

    PubMed

    Clemons, C; Rickard, L G; Keirans, J E; Botzler, R G

    2000-07-01

    Fifty-four black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus) (five juvenile males, 22 adult males, five juvenile females, and 22 adult females) from Humboldt County, California (USA) were evaluated for sex and age-specific differences in parasite prevalences and intensities, 26 February through 30 October 1996. Nematodes found included Biogastranema leporis in 42 hares (78% prevalence), Rauschia triangularis in 26 hares (48%), Trichostrongylus calcaratus in 14 hares (26%), and Trichuris sylvilagi in two hares (4%). Cestodes found included Taenia sp. cysticerci in five hares (9%) and Taenia sp. coenurus found in one hare (2%). Ectoparasites found included the ticks Dermacentor variabilis on 10 hares (19%) and Ixodes spinipalpis (= Ixodes neotomae) on nine hares (17%), as well as the anoplurid louse Haemodipsus setoni on 12 hares (22%). No significant differences in the parasite prevalences or intensities were found between male and female jackrabbits; this was for all males and females collectively, juvenile males and females only, as well as adult males and females only. Combining male and female hosts, adult jackrabbits had a significantly higher prevalence of B. leporis and R. triangularis compared to juveniles. This is the first known report of Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Rauschia triangularis, Trichuris sylvilagi, and Dermacentor variabilis among black-tailed jackrabbits and the first known report of T. calcaratus and T. sylvilagi in the western USA. This is the first published report of I. spinipalpis, the vector for Lyme disease in California, on black-tailed jackrabbits. PMID:10941744

  3. Survey of hepatic and pulmonary helminths of wild cervids in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pybus, M J

    1990-10-01

    During the 1988 hunting season, livers and lungs from 263 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), 198 moose (Alces alces), 147 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and 94 wapiti (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) from Alberta (Canada) were collected for parasitological examination. Most of the samples (89%) were submitted by big game hunters throughout the province. Giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna) was found in 9% of 22 yearling and 29% of 65 adult wapiti; 4% of 161 adult moose; and 2% of 97 adult white-tailed deer. The intensity of infection generally was low; however, one wapiti had over 600 flukes in the liver. Infections were restricted to alpine and montane regions in southwestern Alberta (97%) as well as boreal uplands of the Cypress Hills in southeastern Alberta (3%). Other parasites recorded included Taenia hydatigena cysts in liver of 61% of 191 moose and 14% of 247 mule deer. Dictyocaulus viviparus was found in lungs of 14% of 50 moose, 14% of 118 mule deer, 12% of 41 wapiti, and 6% of 54 white-tailed deer. Echinococcus granulosus cysts were found in lungs (and occasionally liver) of 37% of 51 moose. Incidental infections of Thysanosoma actinoides, Orthostrongylus macrotis, and Taenia omissa were recorded. Adult Dicrocoelium dendriticum were collected from liver of two wapiti, one mule deer, and one white-tailed deer from the Cypress Hills. PMID:2250321

  4. High Prevalence of Haplorchis taichui, Phaneropsolus molenkampi, and Other Helminth Infections among People in Khammouane Province, Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    Han, Eun-Taek; Shin, Eun-Hee; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S.; Min, Duk-Young; Um, Jin-Young; Park, Min-Sung; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Phommasack, Bounlay; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Rim, Han-Jong

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of liver and intestinal helminth infections, including Opisthorchis, Haplorchis, Phaneropsolus, hookworms, Enterobius, and Taenia, was surveyed in Khammouane province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 1,242 people (590 men and 652 women) in 3 Mekong riverside villages and were examined by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 81.1%. The positive rate for small trematode eggs, including Opisthorchis viverrini, heterophyids, and lecithodendriids, was 81.1% and the positive rate for hookworms was 6.7%. To obtain adult worms, 35 people who were positive for small trematode eggs were treated with 20-30 mg/kg praziquantel and 10-15 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate, and then purged. Diarrheic stools were collected from 33 of these people and searched for helminth parasites using a stereomicroscope. Mixed infections with various helminths (Haplorchis taichui, Haplorchis yokogawai, Prosthodendrium molenkampi, Phaneropsolus bonnei, echinostomes, hookworms, Trichostrongylus spp., Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, and/or Taenia saginata) were found. The total number of helminth specimens collected was 20,907 (approximately 634 per person). The most common species was H. taichui, followed by P. molenkampi, O. viverrini, P. bonnei, E. vermicularis, hookworms, and Trichostrongylus spp. These results show that diverse species of intestinal nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes are infecting humans in Khammouane province, Lao PDR. PMID:19724697

  5. Intestinal helminth parasites of the grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) in Serbia.

    PubMed

    ?irovi?, Duško; Pavlovi?, Ivan; Penezi?, Aleksandra

    2015-06-01

    The grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) is the most widespread large carnivore in Europe with large populations in the Eastern part of Europe and the Balkan Peninsula. In this study, a total of 102 wolves were examined for intestinal helminth parasites. The carcasses were collected within the Serbian part of the wolf's range during the period 2009-2014. Nine helminth species were found: one nematode, Toxocara canis (3.9%), one trematode, Alaria alata (1.0%), and seven cestodes, Taenia pisiformis (1.0%), T. hydatigena (9.8%), T. polyacantha (2.9%), T. taeniaeformis (2.0%), T. (syn. Multiceps) multiceps (3.9%), T. serialis (1.0%) and Mesocestoides litteratus (1.0%). Taenia (syn. Hydatigera) taeniaeformis has been registered for the first time in a wolf from Europe. An overall moderate prevalence (16.7%) of infected wolves was recorded. There was no statistically significant difference in prevalence between sexes. Of the years studied, the highest prevalence was found in 2014 (57.1%). The maximum number of helminth species per host specimen was four. PMID:26051257

  6. [Acute appendicitis and coinfection with enterobiasis and taeniasis: a case report].

    PubMed

    Çall?, Gülhan; Özbilgin, Mücahit; Yapar, Nur; Sar?o?lu, Sülen; Özkoç, Soykan

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are rarely associated with inflammation of the appendix. Generally, parasites cause acute abdominal pain via blocking the gut lumen. In this article, we presented a case of appendicitis where Enterobius vermicularis was detected in the surgical specimen and Taenia was detected in the stool. A 31 year old male patient was admitted to the emergency room with severe abdominal pain, which has begun two days ago. On physical examination, tenderness was positive on palpation of the right lower abdominal quadrant and the patient was operated on with the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Histopathological examination of the patient's appendectomy material revealed numerous parts of parasites resembling Enterobius vermicularis and slight mucosal erosion. On parasitological examination of the patient's stool, Taenia eggs and adult forms were determined. Antiparasitic therapy was started with niclosamide for taeniasis and albendazole for enterobiasis. Parasitic infections can mimic acute appendicitis clinically. Radiological and laboratory findings do not help to distinguish the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. In the histopathological examination of the appendix, the findings of acute inflammation of the appendix wall may not be defined. For patients with normal histopathological examination, screening for parasites should be done, and anti-parasitic treatment should be started after appendectomy. PMID:24659705

  7. Incidental parasitic infestations in surgically removed appendices: a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Özgür

    2007-01-01

    Background Appendiceal parasites can cause symptoms of appendiceal pain, independent of microscopic evidence of acute inflammation. The diagnosis of a parasitic infestation is generally achieved only after the pathologic examination of the resected appendices. Patients/Methods Pathology department records were reviewed for all patients who required an operation for symptoms of acute appendicitis between 2000 and 2006. The specimens which were pathologically diagnosed to contain parasites were reevaluated for features of acute inflamation, and parasite type. The medical records were reviewed in detail to achieve a diagnostic score(Eskelinen). Radiologic imaging findings were correlated, if present. Results Of the 190 appendectomies performed, 6 specimens (3,15%) were found to contain parasites(4 Enterobius vermicularis, 2 Taenia subspecies). Appendectomies with Taenia showed acute inflamation, while acute inflamation was absent in the ones with Enterobius vermicularis. The Eskelinen score was higher than the treshold in two cases with an acute inflamation, and in two without. Ultrasound scans, and a computed tomography scan were performed in 5 patients. In 3 of 4 bland appendices, results favored acute appendicitis. Conclusion The diagnosis of gastrointestinal parasites is not only made by examining the stool but the diagnosis can be made by histology from surgical specimens. Timely diagnosis and appropriate therapy might prevent probable future complications that may necessitate surgical procedures, at least in some of the patients. The clinical management of these infections is different from that for classical appendicitis. PMID:17524150

  8. High prevalence of Haplorchis taichui, Phaneropsolus molenkampi, and other helminth infections among people in Khammouane province, Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Han, Eun-Taek; Shin, Eun-Hee; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Min, Duk-Young; Um, Jin-Young; Park, Min-Sung; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Phommasack, Bounlay; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Rim, Han-Jong

    2009-09-01

    The prevalence of liver and intestinal helminth infections, including Opisthorchis, Haplorchis, Phaneropsolus, hookworms, Enterobius, and Taenia, was surveyed in Khammouane province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 1,242 people (590 men and 652 women) in 3 Mekong riverside villages and were examined by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 81.1%. The positive rate for small trematode eggs, including Opisthorchis viverrini, heterophyids, and lecithodendriids, was 81.1% and the positive rate for hookworms was 6.7%. To obtain adult worms, 35 people who were positive for small trematode eggs were treated with 20-30 mg/kg praziquantel and 10-15 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate, and then purged. Diarrheic stools were collected from 33 of these people and searched for helminth parasites using a stereomicroscope. Mixed infections with various helminths (Haplorchis taichui, Haplorchis yokogawai, Prosthodendrium molenkampi, Phaneropsolus bonnei, echinostomes, hookworms, Trichostrongylus spp., Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, and/or Taenia saginata) were found. The total number of helminth specimens collected was 20,907 (approximately 634 per person). The most common species was H. taichui, followed by P. molenkampi, O. viverrini, P. bonnei, E. vermicularis, hookworms, and Trichostrongylus spp. These results show that diverse species of intestinal nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes are infecting humans in Khammouane province, Lao PDR. PMID:19724697

  9. Niclosamide, an old antihelminthic agent, demonstrates antitumor activity by blocking multiple signaling pathways of cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jing-Xuan; Ding, Ke; Wang, Cheng-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Niclosamide, an oral antihelminthic drug, has been used to treat tapeworm infection for about 50 years. Niclosamide is also used as a molluscicide for water treatment in schistosomiasis control programs. Recently, several groups have independently discovered that niclosamide is also active against cancer cells, but its precise mechanism of antitumor action is not fully understood. Evidence supports that niclosamide targets multiple signaling pathways (NF-?B, Wnt/?-catenin, Notch, ROS, mTORC1, and Stat3), most of which are closely involved with cancer stem cells. The exciting advances in elucidating the antitumor activity and the molecular targets of this drug will be discussed. A method for synthesizing a phosphate pro-drug of niclosamide is provided. Given its potential antitumor activity, clinical trials for niclosamide and its derivatives are warranted for cancer treatment. PMID:22237038

  10. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi and other intestinal helminths of Cyprinella lutrensis in Deep Creek, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pullen, Rebecca R.; Bouska, Wesley W.; Campbell, Scott W.; Paukert, Craig P.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the intestinal parasites of a wild fish population in a Kansas stream to determine the prevalence and abundance of potentially harmful parasites. In total, 180 red shiners (Cyprinella lutrensis) were collected from 6 sites in October-November 2007. Fifteen Asian tapeworms (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) were recovered from 13 fish (prevalence of 7.2%). Prevalence did not differ among sites; however, B. acheilognathi abundance was greatest at the site of a public fishing area. A total of 39 roundworms (Rhabdochona canadensis) were recovered from 28 fish (prevalence of 15.6%). Prevalence did not differ among sites, nor did abundance. However, mean abundance tended to be about 50% greater at the site of a public fishing area compared to all other sites. This paper documents the presence of both B. acheilognathi and R. canadensis in Kansas and offers a compilation of the known potential impacts these parasites may have on the native, federally endangered Topeka shiner (Notropis topeka).

  11. Rudolf Virchow and the Recognition of Alveolar Echinococcosis, 1850s

    PubMed Central

    Frosch, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis, which is caused by the larval stage of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, is one of the most dangerous parasitic diseases. It is endemic in many parts of the Northern Hemisphere and an emerging health problem in the People’s Republic of China. In Europe and North America, human cases are rare, but concomitant with an increase in the population of the final host, the red fox, an increase of human infections is expected. Rudolf Virchow, the father of the concept of cellular pathology, determined in the 1850s that an Echinococcus sp. was the causative agent of this enigmatic emerging disease. In his famous publication in 1855, he described the clinical course of the disease, its macroscopic aspects, and histopathologic findings in detail. He also identified the disease formerly known as alveolar colloid of the liver to be an infection with the larval stage of an Echinococcus sp. PMID:17553252

  12. CT and MRI findings of renal infestation by a huge active hydatid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Kizildag, Betul; Dagistan, Emine; Gurel, Safiye; Alan, Cabir

    2013-01-01

    Hydatid cysts derived from a type of tapeworm called Echinococcus granulosis larvaes which can situate in various organs or tissues in human body. It encounters as an endemic zoonosis in many regions all over the world including eastern part of Turkey. Renal involvement of hydatid cysts is uncommon even in endemic areas. The imaging properties vary according to the phase of the disease. Although it is a benign condition, the diagnosis of a renal hydatid cyst is critical in managing treatment and complications, such as nephrectomy, medical treatment before surgery and the risk of anaphylaxis or dissemination during intervention. Herein authors reported a case of an isolated involvement of the right kidney by a huge active hydatid cyst in a young man who was treated surgically, emphasising its ultrasound, CT, contrast-enhanced MR and diffusion-weighted imaging findings. PMID:23833098

  13. Cystic hydatidosis: a rare case of spine localization.

    PubMed

    Scarlata, Francesco; Giordano, Salvatore; Saporito, Laura; Marasa, Lorenzo; Li Pani, Giuseppe; Odierna, Antonio; Scaglione, Vincenzo; Di Carlo, Paola; Romano, Amelia

    2011-03-01

    Cystic hydatidosis is a zoonosis endemic both to Sicily and other Mediterranean areas. Generally, Echinococcus granulosus tapeworms develop in the liver, lung and less frequently in the peritoneum, spleen or kidney. We present a rare case of spinal hydatid disease. The patient was a 38-year-old housewife with a vertebral echinococcosis revealed by acute paraplegia of the legs. Medical treatment with albendazole and surgical intervention improved the clinical symptoms. This case is emblematic both for the unusual localization and for the need of a multidisciplinary approach for diagnosing and monitoring suspected hydatid lesions. Patients with suspected abdominal or lung echinococcosis should also be investigated for other localizations such as the brain, spine and heart. Furthermore, in endemic areas hydatidosis must be suspected in the presence of lesions occupying space in these districts. PMID:21471745

  14. The effect of Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda) cysticercoids on the weight change, frass production, and food intake of the intermediate host, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Shea, John F

    2005-12-01

    Parasitism results in nutritionally related changes in hosts, often leading to altered feeding behavior. Infected hosts that increase their feeding also increase their probability of reinfection. To study this, I used a beetle (Tenebrio molitor)-tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta) system. Infected and uninfected male and female beetles were individually housed in vials with food. Each beetle's weight change, food intake, and frass production were measured over 24-h periods at 3, 7, 12, and 16 days postinfection. Treatment (infection) had no effect on weight change, but males lost more weight and produced more frass than females. Additionally, treatment had no effect on food consumption, but males had a higher food intake than females. These results suggest that infection status will not alter the probability of reinfection, but males will be more susceptible to infection than females. However, despite the male's greater food intake during the experimental infection period, parasite loads did not differ between males and females. PMID:16231174

  15. Discovery, production and purification of the Na+, K+ activated ATPase inhibitor, L-681,110 from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces sp. MA-5038.

    PubMed

    Huang, L; Albers-Schonberg, G; Monaghan, R L; Jakubas, K; Pong, S S; Hensens, O D; Burg, R W; Ostlind, D A; Conroy, J; Stapley, E O

    1984-09-01

    The maximum yield for the production of L-681,110 by Streptomyces sp. MA-5038 (ATCC 31587) was observed after 5 days' incubation at 28 degrees C and pH about 8.3. L-681,110 was isolated from the fermentation broth by acetone extraction of the mycelia, absorption to Amberlite XAD-2 resin and two separations by thin-layer chromatography. The structure of L-681,110 was found to consist of a sixteen-membered lactone with a new type of substitution. The inhibition of ATPase, activity against Caenorhabditis elegans and stimulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid release indicate that L-681,110 possesses some characteristics of both oligomycin and avermectin. L-681,110 was also active against tapeworm and ticks in an in vivo assay. PMID:6094416

  16. Emergence of Polycystic Neotropical Echinococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Stich, August; Frosch, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a parasitic zoonosis of increasing concern. In 1903, the first cases of human polycystic echinococcosis, a disease resembling alveolar echinococcosis, emerged in Argentina. One of the parasites responsible, Echinococcus oligarthrus, had been discovered in its adult strobilar stage before 1850. However, >100 years passed from the first description of the adult parasite to the recognition that this species is responsible for some cases of human neotropical polycystic echinococcosis and the elucidation of the parasite’s life cycle. A second South American species, E. vogeli, was described in 1972. Obtaining recognition of the 2 species and establishing their connection to human disease were complicated because the life cycle of tapeworms is complex and comprises different developmental stages in diverse host species. To date, at least 106 human cases have been reported from 12 South and Central American countries. PMID:18258123

  17. Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Echinococcosis in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Gloria A.; Cameron, T. W. M.

    1967-01-01

    Two species of Echinococcus occur in Canada: (1) E. multilocularis and (2) E. granulosus. E. multilocularis, originating in the Arctic, is spreading southwards and has reached Saskatchewan and the Dakotas. The original hosts are foxes but dogs and cats are alternatives. The larvae occur in field mice as multilocular microcysts containing numerous protoscolices, but in man the cysts are alveolar and sterile and resemble both in histology and growth a cholangiocellular carcinoma of the liver with metastases. Signs and symptoms are chronic and poorly defined. Diagnosis is difficult. Test antigens are not yet satisfactory. E. granulosus has a sylvatic cycle, the adult tapeworms living in wolves and dogs, while the larvae occur only in Cervidae and man. The cysts occur almost exclusively in the lungs as unilocular, macrocystic, relatively benign tumours, although abnormal complications can occur. The Casoni intradermal sensitivity test, its technique and interpretation are discussed. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:6066987

  18. Alveolar Echinococcosis Infection in a Monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) In Mashhad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Borji, H; Emami, MR; Maleki, M; Razmi, GH; Mehrjerdi, H Kazemi; Moghaddas, E

    2012-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE), which is caused by ingestion of eggs of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, is the most potentially lethal parasitic infection because of its tendency to invade and proliferate in the liver and the difficulty in treatment. This article describes a case of alveolar echinococcosis found in Ateles geoffroyi in Mashhad, Iran. The cysts were characterized as an alveolar structure, composed of numerous small vesicles in liver, abdominal cavity, retroperitoneum and lungs. A characteristic feature of these vesicles was its exogenous tumor-like proliferation. These cysts were filled with numerous protoscoleces suggesting a potential role of this monkey in cycle of transmission. Up to now, this is probably the first report of alveolar echinococcosis in A. geoffroyi in the world. PMID:23113143

  19. Nine human sparganosis cases in Thailand with molecular identification of causative parasite species.

    PubMed

    Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Cheunsuchon, Pornsuk; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Sanpool, Oranuch; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M

    2014-08-01

    Human sparganosis is one of the neglected diseases but important food-borne parasitic zoonoses. The disease is caused by larvae (spargana) of diphyllobothriidean tapeworm. Here, we describe nine cases of human sparganosis, caused by Spirometra erinaceieuropaei in a hospital in Thailand during 2001-2012. Clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome of cases were revealed. Diagnosis and identification of causative parasite species was made by histopathological investigations followed by a polymerase chain reaction-based molecular method using formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissues. The DNA samples were extracted from tissues and a partial fragment of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene was amplified for the detection of parasitic DNA. Infection could be prevented by increasing activities on health communication by responsible public health agencies. PMID:24842879

  20. Caprine enteritis associated with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Seimiya, Yukio M; Sasaki, Koji; Satoh, Chihiro; Takahashi, Maki; Yaegashi, Gakuji; Iwane, Hideaki

    2005-09-01

    Yersiniosis was prevalent among a caprine herd during the late autumn of 2003 in Iwate Prefecture, Japan. The disease affected 29 of about 100 lactating goats, but not dried or nonparous goats, mature male goats or kids. Four animals died within an epidemic period of 20 days. Affected animals developed decreased milk production with subsequent watery diarrhea, neutrophilia with increased band forms and multiple microabscesses characteristic of yersiniosis in the intestinal mucosa from the jejunum to caecum as well as in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Y. pseudotuberculosis serotype III was isolated from intestinal contents and mesenteric lymph nodes. The organism was also cultured from clinically normal dried animals. The outbreak might have been precipitated by multiple stress factors, such as lactation, cold weather, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection resulting in abscess formation and tapeworm and coccidium parasitisms. PMID:16210800

  1. Alveolar echinococcosis in a Belgian urban dweller.

    PubMed

    Landen, S; Van de Sande, J; Berger, P; Ursaru, D; Baert, J; Delugeau, V

    2013-09-01

    Human alveolar echinococcosis is a rare parasitic disease caused by larvae of the tapeworm E. multilocularis that colonizes the intestines of foxes. The disease predominantly affects the liver and mimics slow growing liver cancer. With a mere 13 reports coming mostly from southern rural regions Belgium has so far been spared from the disease. However alveolar echinococcosis appears to be slowly spreading to non-endemic European countries like Belgium and to urban centres. We report the first autochthonous case involving a patient having lived exclusively in downtown Brussels. Heightened awareness by the medical community is necessary to detect this lethal disease at an early curable stage. In patients with an undetermined focal liver lesion--especially if calcified--and no firm evidence of malignancy, serological screening should be performed to exclude alveolar echinococcosis. PMID:24261026

  2. Sex, War, and Disease: The Role of Parasite Infection on Weapon Development and Mating Success in a Horned Beetle (Gnatocerus cornutus)

    PubMed Central

    Demuth, Jeffery P.; Naidu, Amrita; Mydlarz, Laura D.

    2012-01-01

    While parasites and immunity are widely believed to play important roles in the evolution of male ornaments, their potential influence on systems where male weaponry is the object of sexual selection is poorly understood. We experimentally infect larval broad-horned flour beetles with a tapeworm and study the consequent effects on: 1) adult male morphology 2) male-male contests for mating opportunities, and 3) induction of the innate immune system. We find that infection significantly reduces adult male size in ways that are expected to reduce mating opportunities in nature. The sum of our morphological, competition, and immunological data indicate that during a life history stage where no new resources are acquired, males allocate their finite resources in a way that increases future mating potential. PMID:22247759

  3. Photosenitization of sheep on kleingrass pasture.

    PubMed

    Muchiri, D J; Bridges, C H; Ueckert, D N; Bailey, E M

    1980-08-15

    The clinical appearance and serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity were studied in 5 groups of sheep (12 per group) on kleingrass (Panicum coloratum) pasture plots and in 1 group of sheep (10 animals) on native buffalograss (Buchloë dactyloides) pasture. Eleven sheep (at least 1 from each group on kleingrass pasture plots) had elevated serum GGT activity. Seven of 11 sheep with elevated serum GGT activity developed signs of photosensitization. None of the sheep on buffalograss pasture developed signs of photosensitization or elevated GGT activity. The pathologic findings were similar in the sheep that had signs of photosensitization. Grossly, there was icterus and subcutaneous edema. The livers had tapeworms (Thysanosoma actinioides) in the bile ducts, were slightly swollen, and varied in color from yellow to ochre in severe cases of biliary system derangements. Microscopically, there was cholangitis. PMID:6108949

  4. Four human cases of Diphyllobothrium latum infection.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hee-Jung; Lee, Junghye; Yang, Hyun-Jong

    2012-06-01

    Diphyllobothrium latum infections in 4 young Korean men detected from 2008 to 2012 are presented. Three were diagnosed based on spontaneously discharged strobila of the adult worm in their feces, and 1 case was diagnosed by finding the worm at colonoscopy examination in a local clinic. The morphologic characteristics of the gravid proglottid and eggs were consistent with D. latum. All patients were treated with praziquantel 15 mg/kg, and follow-up stool examinations were done at 2 months after the medication. The main clinical complaints were intermittent gastrointestinal troubles such as indigestion, abdominal distension, and spontaneous discharge of tapeworm's segments in their feces. The most probable source of infection was the flesh of salmon or trout according to a patient's past history. These are the 45th to 48th recorded cases diagnosed by the adult worm in the Republic of Korea since 1971. PMID:22711926

  5. Sudden death due to hydatid disease: a six-year study in the northern part of Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Khelil, Mehdi; Allouche, Mohamed; Banasr, Ahmed; Gloulou, Fatma; Benzarti, Anis; Zhioua, Mongi; Haouet, Slim; Hamdoun, Moncef

    2013-09-01

    Human ecchinococcosis also known as hydatid disease is a zoonotic infection caused by the tapeworm Ecchinococcus with 2-3 Million cases worldwide. We hereby report a 6 years period study of Sudden death due to hydatidosis aiming to analyze the epidemiological criteria, death circumstances, and autopsy observations attributed to hydatid disease. During the past 6 years, 26 death cases were due to hydatid disease. Our analysis shows that the sex ratio (M/F) was 1.6, the mean age was 31-year old, and 65% of the subjects lived in rural places. In 17 cases, death occurred in the victim's place, five victims died after a heavy exercise, and in two cases, death occurred immediately after trauma. At autopsy, 91% of the cysts were found in the liver. In three cases, death followed a septic state, and in two cases, it followed an acute respiratory failure. Death was attributed to anaphylaxis in 17 cases. PMID:23822140

  6. Unique MRI findings for differentiation of an early stage of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Takanori; Hagiwara, Masahiro; Yabuki, Hidehiko; Ito, Akira

    2015-01-01

    CT scan and ultrasonography images revealed two small uniformly low-density and hypoechoic lesions in the liver, respectively, 7 years after curative resection of rectal cancer, in a 74-year-old man. The area of the liver including the two lesions was segmentally resected. Two lesions were histopathologically confirmed as early but active stage alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by accidental ingestion of eggs of the fox tapeworm, Echinococcus multilocularis. This case is very unique and rare, since early stage hepatic AE cases have only accidentally been confirmed from cases in which malignant hepatic tumours were suspected, and because two independent AE lesions were detected. Abdominal MRI showed two isointense tumour lesions with small areas of high-signal intensity in their centres on T2-weighted images. MRI findings appear to reflect the macroscopic view and microscopic findings of early stage AE with active cyst in the centre of each hepatic lesion well. PMID:25697300

  7. Cestodes of the family Dilepididae (Cestoda:Cyclophyllidea) from fish-eating birds in Mexico: a survey of species.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Tomás; Kuchta, Roman; Salgado-Madonado, Guillermo

    2002-07-01

    A survey of adults of dilepidid tapeworms (Cyclophyllidea) from piscivorous birds from Mexico is presented on the basis of the taxonomic evaluation of freshly collected and voucher specimens. The following species are reported (first records from Mexico marked with an asterisk): Cyclustera capito (Rudolphi, 1819); *C. ibisae (Schmidt & Bush, 1972); *Dendrouterina ardeae Rausch, 1955; *D. herodiae Fuhrmann, 1912; *D. papillifera (Fuhrmann, 1908); Glossocercus auritus (Rudolphi, 1819); *Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus (Wedl, 1855); Paradilepis caballeroi Rysavy & Macko, 1973; Paradilepis sp.; Parvitaenia cochlearii Coil, 1955; and Valipora mutabilis Linton, 1927. Dendrouteria herodiae is reported from America for the first time. New definitive hosts are Phalacrocorax olivaceus for C. capito, N. cheilancristrotus and P. caballeroi; Casmerodius albus and Egretta thula for G. auritus; and E. thula for D. herodiae. Data on the morphology of the rostellar hooks of all species, their hosts and distribution in Mexico are provided. PMID:12143788

  8. Helminth parasites of native Hawaiian freshwater fishes: an example of extreme ecological isolation.

    PubMed

    Font, W F; Tate, D C

    1994-10-01

    The Hawaiian Islands harbor a depauperate native freshwater fish fauna comprised of 4 endemic gobies (Gobiidae) and 1 endemic sleeper (Eleotridae). We hypothesized that the natural helminth parasite community of these stream fishes would be depauperate because of colonizing constraints. In the absence of exotic fishes, native fishes in streams of Hanakapi'ai and Nu'alolo valleys harbored no adult helminth parasites. In Hakalau Stream on Hawai'i and Wainiha River on Kaua'i, we found introduced swordtails and guppies (Poeciliidae); here, the native gobioid fishes shared species of helminths with poeciliids. They were the nematode Camallanus cotti, the Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, and the leech Myzobdella lugubris. Such parasitological data should be incorporated into management plans for the conservation of native Hawaiian stream fishes as these parasites have been previously demonstrated to cause disease. PMID:7931902

  9. Some studies on spontaneous Hymenolepis diminuta infection in laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Azza K; Abdel-Hafeez, Ekhlas H; Kamal, Amany M

    2015-04-01

    Hymenolepis diminuta is a tapeworm that occurs worldwide. It is known to be found commonly in areas where large amounts of food grains or other dry feed products, which are the favorite foods for rats. Transmission of disease to human is uncommon; however, it may be a serious threat for population who are living in rural areas which are suffering from excessive rodents. Here, this study had done on spontaneous H. diminuta infection in laboratory rats as a model. Out of thirty five adult laboratory rats investigated for parasitic diseases only nine (25.71%) were diagnosed positive for spontaneous H. diminuta infection. Four of them (44.44%) were found losing of weight and lacking of motility, while the others were normal. On microscopic examination, H. diminuta eggs had been found in their stool. On autopsy, small intestines were found to contain from 5-6 multi-segmented tapeworms in each rat. Histopathologically, intestinal lumen showed varying sections of H. diminuta segments with serrated borders. H. diminuta infection caused multiple mucosal ulcers with absence of intestinal villi from the surface epithelium and excessive mucin. Moreover, inflammatory cells infiltration in the connective tissue core of the villi. Furthermore, the Toluidine blue stain showed that there are Mastiocytosis. Additionally, there were goblet cells hyperplasia on using PAS. Moreover, there were high expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and inducible Nitric-Oxide Synthase (iNOs). This implicate, strong correlation between COX-2, TNF-? and iNOs expression and inflammation induced by H. diminuta. PMID:26012226

  10. Cloacotaenia megalops (Nitzsch in Creplin, 1829) (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae) in wild ducks in Western Pomerania, Poland.

    PubMed

    Królaczyk, Katarzyna; Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Kalisi?ska, Elzbieta; Nowak, Ma?gorzata R

    2011-01-01

    Cloacotaenia megalops (Nitzsch in Creplin, 1892) is a polyxenic and cosmopolitan tapeworm from the family Hymenolepididae. Its generic name derives from their typical location (cloaca), and the typical final hosts which are birds typically associated with water and marsh environments: Anseriformes, Galliformes and Gruiformes. In Poland, the presence of C. megalops has been observed so far in 16 species of ducks from the Baltic coast, the Mazurian Lake District, Wielkopolsko-Kujawska Lowland, Mazovian Lowland, and Podlasie Lowland. In Western Pomerania, quantitative structure analyses were only carried out on Anas platyrhynchos, and therefore the aim of this study was the detailed analysis of environmental populations of C. megalops in wild ducks. The examined tapeworms were isolated from the digestive tract of 1005 wild ducks representing 17 species belonging to three different eco-tribes: Anatini (n=225), Aythyini (n=413) and Mergini (n=367), from northwestern Poland. During the Study 187 C. megalops were found in 89 birds (8.8% of examined ducks) belonging to 7 species: Anas crecca (common teal), A. querquedula (garganey), A. platyrhynchos (mallard) (Anatini); Aythyaferina (pochard), A. fuligula (tufted duck), A. marila (greater scaup) (Aythyini) and Bucephala clangula (goldeneye) (Mergini). The results show the differences in the quantitative structure of C. megalops among the examined species of ducks. The highest prevalence was found in mallard (18.6%) and the lowest in greater scaup (3.2%). The highest mean intensity was observed in greater scaup (4.0), and the lowest in garganey and common teal (1.0). Relative density was at a similar level in the tested birds. Based on the ratio of dominance, it was found that C. megalops is a rare species in the cestodofauna in the examined birds. PMID:21682099

  11. Fitness consequences of selfing and outcrossing in the cestode Schistocephalus solidus.

    PubMed

    Milinski, Manfred

    2006-08-01

    Mixed-mating, that is reproduction by both self-fertilization and cross-fertilization is common in hermaphroditic parasites. Its maintenance poses, however, a problem for evolutionary biology. The tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus Müller 1776, served as a model to study experimentally the consequences of selfing and outcrossing in its 2 consecutive intermediate hosts, a copepod (Macrocyclops albidus Jurine) and the three-spined stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Size-matched tapeworms were allowed to reproduce either alone or in pairs in an in vitro system that replaced the definitive bird host's gut. Selfed eggs from singletons had a 4 times lower hatching success than outcrossed eggs from pairs. Outcrossed offspring achieved both a higher infection success and a higher weight in the copepod, and a higher number of parasites per host in both intermediate hosts, but only under competition. Outcrossed offspring were generally more successful. If a S. solidus plerocercoid has a partner in the bird's gut, they should outcross unless they differ in size and thus cannot solve the Hermaphrodite's Dilemma cooperatively. Using microsatellite markers, the proportion of selfed offspring and the total reproductive output of each worm within pairs varying in mean weight and in weight difference was measured. Worms produced more selfed offspring not only with increasing weight difference as expected but also with decreasing total weight of the pair. If small worms were selfed, they have already purged deleterious mutations and would thus be better selfers in a year with low parasite density when worms cannot find partners. To maintain this advantage they should self a higher proportion of their eggs even with a partner. Here I review recent exprimental evidence. PMID:21672749

  12. In vitro effects of prostaglandin E2 on leucocytes from sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) infected and not infected with the cestode Schistocephalus solidus.

    PubMed

    Kutyrev, Ivan A; Franke, Frederik; Büscher, Janine; Kurtz, Joachim; Scharsack, Jörn P

    2014-12-01

    Many helminth parasites have evolved strategies to evade the immune response of their hosts, which includes immunomodulation. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is one of the best-described immunomodulators in mammalian helminth parasite infections. We hypothesized that also in teleost fish anti-helminthic immune responses are regulated via PGE2. We used a model system consisting of the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus and its host, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), to investigate in vitro effects of PGE2 on head kidney leucocytes (HKL) derived from sticklebacks that were experimentally infected with S. solidus. PGE2 was tested alone or in combination with either S. solidus antigens or bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). After in vitro culture, cell viability and changes in leucocyte subpopulations (granulocytes to lymphocytes ratios) were monitored by flow cytometry and HKL were tested for their capacity to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a chemiluminescence assay. In short term (2 h) HKL cultures PGE2 did not change the total numbers of live HKL, but the production of ROS decreased significantly with high (0.1 ?mol L(-1)) PGE2 concentrations. In long-term (96 h) cultures high PGE2 concentrations induced a sharp decrease of leucocytes viability, while low (0.1 pmol L(-1)) and intermediate (0.1 nmol L(-1)) concentrations of PGE2 caused elevated leucocyte viability compared to controls. This coincided with reduced ROS production in cultures with high PGE2 and elevated ROS production in cultures with low PGE2. Granulocyte to lymphocyte ratios increased with high PGE2 concentrations alone and in combination with S. solidus antigens and LPS, most prominently with HKL from S. solidus infected sticklebacks. The present study supports the hypothesis that PGE2 might be an immunomodulator in tapeworm-fish parasite-host interactions. PMID:25301719

  13. Distribution and genetic variation of hymenolepidid cestodes in murid rodents on the Canary Islands (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the Canary Islands there are no previous data about tapeworms (Cestoda) of rodents. In order to identify the hymenolepidid species present in these hosts, a survey of 1,017 murine (349 Rattus rattus, 13 Rattus norvegicus and 655 Mus musculus domesticus) was carried out in the whole Archipelago. Molecular studies based on nuclear ITS1 and mitochondrial COI loci were performed to confirm the identifications and to analyse the levels of genetic variation and differentiation. Results Three species of hymenolepidids were identified: Hymenolepis diminuta, Rodentolepis microstoma and Rodentolepis fraterna. Hymenolepis diminuta (in rats) and R. microstoma (in mice) showed a widespread distribution in the Archipelago, and R. fraterna was the least spread species, appearing only on five of the islands. The hymenolepidids found on Fuerteventura, Lanzarote and La Graciosa were restricted to one area. The COI network of H. diminuta showed that the haplotypes from Lanzarote and Fuerteventura are the most distant with respect to the other islands, but clearly related among them. Conclusions Founder effects and biotic and abiotic factors could have played important role in the presence/absence of the hymenolepidid species in determined locations. The haplotypes from the eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote) seem to have shared an ancestral haplotype very distant from the most frequent one that was found in the rest of the islands. Two colonization events or a single event with subsequent isolation and reduced gene flow between western-central and eastern islands, have taken place in the Archipelago. The three tapeworms detected are zoonotic species, and their presence among rodents from this Archipelago suggests a potential health risk to human via environmental contamination in high risk areas. However, the relatively low prevalence of infestations detected and the focal distribution of some of these species on certain islands reduce the general transmission risk to human. PMID:21943096

  14. Endoparasites of Wild Rodents in Southeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nateghpour, Mehdi; Motevalli-Haghi, Afsaneh; Akbarzadeh, Kamran; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Mohebali, Mehdi; Mobedi, Iraj; Farivar, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was aimed to collect wild rodents for endoparasites determination in some parts of Sistan and Baluchistan Province, southeastern Iran nearby Pakistan and Afghanistan countries. Methods: A total of 100 wild rodents were captured alive with cage traps. Various samples were collected from blood and feces, also impression smear prepared from different organs. The samples were prepared by formalin-ether or stained with Giemsa, after that were examined under microscope. Results: All the caught rodents (47 Tatera indica, 44 Meriones hurriana, 5 Gerbilus nanus and 4 Meriones libycus) were studied for endoparasites emphasizing to their zoonotic aspects. Endoparasites including Spirurida, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana feraterna, Trichuris trichiura, Skerjabino taenia, Trichostrongylus spp, Entamoeba muris, Chilomastix mesnili and Leishmania spp were parasitologically identified. Conclusion: Among 9 genera or species of the identified parasites at least 5 of them have zoonotic and public health importance.

  15. Le kyste hydatique du cordon spermatique: une localisation exceptionnelle

    PubMed Central

    Hamdane, Mohamed Moncef; Bougrine, Fethi; Msakni, Issam; Dhaoui-Ghozzi, Amen; Bouziani, Ammar

    2011-01-01

    L’ hydatidose est une anthropo-zoonose due au développement chez l'homme de la forme larvaire du taenia Echinococcus granulosis. La plupart des kystes hydatiques se localisent dans le foie et les poumons. Le kyste hydatique du cordon spermatique est extrêmement rare avec seulement 4 cas rapportés dans la littérature. Les auteurs rapportent dans cet article un nouveau cas d'hydatidose du cordon spermatique. Il s'agissait d'un homme de 40 ans qui consultait pour des douleurs scrotales évoluant depuis huit mois. L'examen clinique a mis en évidence une tuméfaction mobile, inguino-scrotale, droite. L’échographie testiculaire a objectivé une hernie inguinale droite associée à deux kystes épididymaires bilatéraux. Le patient a été opéré pour cure de son hernie avec découverte en per-opératoire d'un kyste du cordon spermatique qui a été réséqué. L'examen anatomopathologique a conclu à une hydatidose du cordon spermatique. PMID:22384304

  16. A survey of the intestinal helminths of refugees in Juba, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Marnell, F; Guillet, A; Holland, C

    1992-08-01

    A parasitological survey of refugees based in Juba, Sudan, involving 241 faecal samples, revealed that 66% of the population harboured intestinal helminths. The most commonly found infection was hookworm (36%), followed by Schistosoma mansoni (26%), Strongyloides stercoralis (20%), Hymenolepis nana (11%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.2%), Trichuris trichiura (0.8%) and Taenia sp. (0.4%). Many of the specimens (42%) harboured a single infection, 21% had double, 2% triple and 1% quadruple infections. Parasite prevalences and intensities were analysed in relation to age, sex, religion and occupation: females (70%) were found to be more infected than males (64%); Muslims (50%) were less infected than Christians (68%) and agriculturalists (90%) were the most infected occupational group. PMID:1463359

  17. Gastrointestinal helminthes in stray cats (Felis catus) from Aizawl, Mizoram, India.

    PubMed

    Borthakur, S K; Mukharjee, S N

    2011-03-01

    Gastrointestinal helminthes were collected from 27 necropsied stray cats (Felis catus) in Aizawl, Mizoram, India from January 2005 to April, 2009. The examined cats showed mixed helminthic infections, with an overall prevalence of 85.2%. Five nematodes, 2 cestodes and 1 trematode were identified. The most common helminthes were Taenia taeniaeformis (70.4%), Toxocara cati (59.3%), Physaloptera praeputalis (44.4%), Dipylidium caninum (40.7%), Spirocerca felineus (18.5%), Gnathostoma spinigerum (11.1%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (7.4%) and Opisthorchis sp (3.7%). Co-infection with T. taeniaeformis and T. cati was seen in 48.1% (13/27), indicating the possibility of these cats were paratenic hosts for toxocariasis in cats. PMID:21710844

  18. Comparative cytogenetics of Neotropical cichlid fishes (Nannacara, Ivanacara and Cleithracara) indicates evolutionary reduction of diploid chromosome numbers

    PubMed Central

    Hoda?ová, Lucie; Kalous, Lukáš; Musilová, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A comparative cytogenetic analysis was carried out in five species of a monophyletic clade of neotropical Cichlasomatine cichlids, namely Cleithracara maronii Steindachner, 1881, Ivanacara adoketa (Kullander & Prada-Pedreros, 1993), Nannacara anomala Regan, 1905, N. aureocephalus Allgayer, 1983 and N. taenia Regan, 1912. Karyotypes and other chromosomal characteristics were revealed by CDD banding and mapped onto the phylogenetic hypothesis based on molecular analyses of four genes, namely cyt b, 16S rRNA, S7 and RAG1. The diploid numbers of chromosomes ranged from 44 to 50, karyotypes were composed predominantly of monoarmed chromosomes and one to three pairs of CMA3 signal were observed. The results showed evolutionary reduction in this monophyletic clade and the cytogenetic mechanisms (fissions/fusions) were hypothesized and discussed. PMID:25349669

  19. Enteric parasites of free-roaming, owned, and rural cats in prairie regions of Canada.

    PubMed

    Hoopes, Jessica; Hill, Janet E; Polley, Lydden; Fernando, Champika; Wagner, Brent; Schurer, Janna; Jenkins, Emily

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine prevalence, intensity, and zoonotic potential of gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming and pet cats in urban areas of Saskatchewan (SK) and a rural region in southwestern Alberta (AB). Fecal samples were analyzed using a modified double centrifugation sucrose flotation to detect helminth eggs and coccidian oocysts, and an immunofluorescence assay to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Endoparasite prevalence was higher in samples from rural AB cats (41% of 27) and free-roaming SK cats (32% of 161) than client-owned SK cats (6% of 31). Parasites identified using morphological and molecular techniques included Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina, Baylisascaris-type eggs, Eucoleus aerophilus, Taenia taeniaeformis, Isospora spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and zoonotic genotype A of Giardia duodenalis. This study demonstrates significant differences in endoparasite prevalence in feline populations, and the value of molecular techniques in fecal-based surveys to identify and determine parasite zoonotic potential. PMID:25969584

  20. Helminth fauna of the Iberian lynx, Lynx pardinus.

    PubMed

    Torres, J; Garciá-Perea, R; Gisbert, J; Feliu, C

    1998-09-01

    Specimens of 12 helminth species were collected from carcasses of eight Lynx pardinus (Temminck, 1827), a carnivore endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. These species included: Brachylaima sp. (12.5%) (Trematoda); Taenia pisiformis (12.5%), T. polyacantha (25%), T. taeniaeformis (25%) and Mesocestoides litteratus (37.5%) (Cestoda); Eucoleus aerophilus (12.5%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (12.5%), Toxocara cati (37.5%), Toxascaris leonina (62.5%), Vigisospirura potekhina potekhina (12.5%), Mastophorus muris (12.5%) and Physaloptera praeputialis (12.5%) (Nematoda). The helminth fauna in Iberian lynx is compared with that of L. canadensis and L. rufus in America, and for L. lynx in Eurasia. The potential relationships between the parasitological data and some geographical, historical and dietary factors are discussed. PMID:9765373

  1. A coprological survey of intestinal helminthes in stray dogs captured in osaka prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Akio; Morishima, Yasuyuki; Nagahama, Shinya; Horikoshi, Takashi; Edagawa, Akiko; Kawabuchi-Kurata, Takako; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Yamasaki, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate intestinal helminth infection in stray dogs in Osaka Prefecture by surveying coprological samples from dogs captured from 2006-2011. Of 212 fecal samples collected, overall prevalence of infection was 39.2%. The most common species was Toxocara canis (25.0%), followed by Trichuris vulpis (8.0%), Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (3.3%), Taeniidae (2.4%), Ancylostoma caninum (1.9%) and Toxascaris leonine (0.5%). In the molecular analysis, all of the taeniid eggs were negative for Echinococcus multilocularis and were identified as other taeniid species (e.g., Taenia pisiformis). Our results suggest that stray dogs remain important infection reservoirs of zoonotic parasites in Osaka Prefecture. Therefore, control of stray dogs is crucial for reducing the risk of public health problems due to parasitic infections. PMID:23774027

  2. A survey of helminthic infections in the residents of rural areas near Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Do-Sung; Chung, Byung-Ha; Lee, Nam-Seok; Kim, Joong-Ho

    1999-01-01

    A total of 738 samples was collected to survey the helminthic infections of residents in two rural areas near Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia for 2 weeks from July 23 to August 2, 1998. Among 391 scotch-taped slides of anal swabs of children and of young teenagers, Enterobius vermicularis eggs were detected in 138 cases (35.3%). With the fecal samples of 206 Kato-Katz thick smear slides from adults, the eggs of E. vermicularis were observed in 9 cases and Taenia sp. in one case, respectively. And by ELISA on 141 blood samples absorbed to blood sampling paper, 12 cases (8.5%) were found to be positive against the hydatid cyst antigen. Enterobiasis and hydatidosis are two major endemic diseases which are related closely to the life style of Mongolian. PMID:10507221

  3. Human helminthosis in a rural community of Plateau State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onwuliri, C O; Imandeh, N G; Okwuosa, V N

    1992-11-01

    Urine and faecal samples were obtained from 1,517 people in Fier, a typical rural village in Plateau State, Nigeria, for a parasitological survey among the population. 643 (42.39%) persons were found to be infected with altogether 9 helminths, namely: Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Taenia sp., Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, Hymenolepis nana and Strongyloides stercoralis. Age and religion as opposed to sex, type of sewage system, and type of housing had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on the prevalence rates of the helminths in the population. Snail vector survey for schistosomatosis revealed the presence of Bulinus (Bulinus) truncatus, Bulinus (Physopsis) globosus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi with the latter being the most common with brevifurcate cercariae, and xiphidiocercariae being the most common cercariae harboured by the snails. PMID:1456465

  4. Field evaluation of the efficacy and the safety of a combination of oxantel/pyrantel/praziquantel in the treatment of naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematode and/or cestode infestations in dogs in Europe.

    PubMed

    Grandemange, E; Claerebout, E; Genchi, C; Franc, M

    2007-04-10

    In five multicentre field trials, the efficacy and safety of a combination of oxantel/pyrantel/praziquantel (Dolpac), Vetoquinol SA) in the treatment of naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematode and/or cestode infestation in dogs was evaluated in northern and southern Europe. Forty-eight investigators from France, Belgium, Germany, Italy and Spain enrolled 329 dogs to be treated with the tested combination; 235 of these dogs complied with the inclusion criteria of the protocol and had a tested helminth identified on Day 0. A pooled analysis was performed on each of the following helminth species: Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Taenia spp. and Dipylidium caninum, which were isolated on Day 0. The main efficacy criterion was the egg per gram (epg) percent reduction of the nematodes and the absence of proglottids and or eggs for the cestodes. After treatment, dogs were examined on Day 7, Day 14 and Day 21. The efficacy of the combination against Toxocara canis was 99.1%, 98.8% and 98.9% on Day 7, Day 14 and Day 21, respectively. At the same occasions the efficacy was, respectively, 99.2%, 99.2% and 99.3% against Ancylostoma caninum, 97.3%, 97.2% and 98.4% against Trichuris vulpis, 98.4%, 98.8% and 98.8% against Uncinaria stenocephala, 98.9%, 99.5% and 99.9% against Toxascaris leonina, 97.1%, 100% and 100% against Dipylidium caninum and 100% against Taenia spp. PMID:17184919

  5. Pediatric Neurocysticercosis: Usefulness of Antibody Response in Cysticidal Treatment Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Atluri, Venkata Subba Rao; Gogulamudi, Venkateswara Reddy; Singhi, Pratibha; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Parasa, Lakshmana Swamy; Malla, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Serum and urine samples were collected from 33 NCC patients before the albendazole treatment, 3–6 and 12 months PT. At 3 months PT, 24 (72.7%) patients had no detectable CT/MRI lesions and 9 (27.2%) patients had persistent lesions. Antibody response to crude soluble extract (CSE), excretory secretory (ES), and lower molecular mass (LMM) (10–30?KDa) antigenic fraction of T. solium cysticerci was detected in serum and urine samples by ELISA. Before the treatment, out of 33 NCC children, 14 (42.4%), 22 (66.6%), and 11 (33.3%) serum samples were found positive with the use of CSE, ES, and LMM antigen, respectively. At 3–6 months PT, positivity rate was 5 (15.1%), 2 (6%), and 4 (12.1%) and at 12 months PT, positivity rate was 5 (15.1%), 0, and 3 (9%) with the use of CSE, ES, and LMM antigen, respectively. There was no significant difference in the positivity with the use of three antigens in pretreatment and PT urine samples. The study suggests that the use of ES antigen to detect antibody in serum samples may serve better purpose to evaluate the therapeutic response in patients with NCC. PMID:25215297

  6. Pediatric neurocysticercosis: usefulness of antibody response in cysticidal treatment follow-up.

    PubMed

    Atluri, Venkata Subba Rao; Gogulamudi, Venkateswara Reddy; Singhi, Pratibha; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Parasa, Lakshmana Swamy; Malla, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Serum and urine samples were collected from 33 NCC patients before the albendazole treatment, 3-6 and 12 months PT. At 3 months PT, 24 (72.7%) patients had no detectable CT/MRI lesions and 9 (27.2%) patients had persistent lesions. Antibody response to crude soluble extract (CSE), excretory secretory (ES), and lower molecular mass (LMM) (10-30?KDa) antigenic fraction of T. solium cysticerci was detected in serum and urine samples by ELISA. Before the treatment, out of 33 NCC children, 14 (42.4%), 22 (66.6%), and 11 (33.3%) serum samples were found positive with the use of CSE, ES, and LMM antigen, respectively. At 3-6 months PT, positivity rate was 5 (15.1%), 2 (6%), and 4 (12.1%) and at 12 months PT, positivity rate was 5 (15.1%), 0, and 3 (9%) with the use of CSE, ES, and LMM antigen, respectively. There was no significant difference in the positivity with the use of three antigens in pretreatment and PT urine samples. The study suggests that the use of ES antigen to detect antibody in serum samples may serve better purpose to evaluate the therapeutic response in patients with NCC. PMID:25215297

  7. Food-Safety Hazards in the Pork Chain in Nagaland, North East India: Implications for Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Fahrion, Anna Sophie; Jamir, Lanu; Richa, Kenivole; Begum, Sonuwara; Rutsa, Vilatuo; Ao, Simon; Padmakumar, Varijaksha P.; Deka, Ram Pratim; Grace, Delia

    2013-01-01

    Pork occupies an important place in the diet of the population of Nagaland, one of the North East Indian states. We carried out a pilot study along the pork meat production chain, from live animal to end consumer. The goal was to obtain information about the presence of selected food borne hazards in pork in order to assess the risk deriving from these hazards to the health of the local consumers and make recommendations for improving food safety. A secondary objective was to evaluate the utility of risk-based approaches to food safety in an informal food system. We investigated samples from pigs and pork sourced at slaughter in urban and rural environments, and at retail, to assess a selection of food-borne hazards. In addition, consumer exposure was characterized using information about hygiene and practices related to handling and preparing pork. A qualitative hazard characterization, exposure assessment and hazard characterization for three representative hazards or hazard proxies, namely Enterobacteriaceae, T. solium cysticercosis and antibiotic residues, is presented. Several important potential food-borne pathogens are reported for the first time including Listeria spp. and Brucella suis. This descriptive pilot study is the first risk-based assessment of food safety in Nagaland. We also characterise possible interventions to be addressed by policy makers, and supply data to inform future risk assessments. PMID:24368430

  8. Food-safety hazards in the pork chain in Nagaland, North East India: implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Fahrion, Anna Sophie; Jamir, Lanu; Richa, Kenivole; Begum, Sonuwara; Rutsa, Vilatuo; Ao, Simon; Padmakumar, Varijaksha P; Deka, Ram Pratim; Grace, Delia

    2014-01-01

    Pork occupies an important place in the diet of the population of Nagaland, one of the North East Indian states. We carried out a pilot study along the pork meat production chain, from live animal to end consumer. The goal was to obtain information about the presence of selected food borne hazards in pork in order to assess the risk deriving from these hazards to the health of the local consumers and make recommendations for improving food safety. A secondary objective was to evaluate the utility of risk-based approaches to food safety in an informal food system. We investigated samples from pigs and pork sourced at slaughter in urban and rural environments, and at retail, to assess a selection of food-borne hazards. In addition, consumer exposure was characterized using information about hygiene and practices related to handling and preparing pork. A qualitative hazard characterization, exposure assessment and hazard characterization for three representative hazards or hazard proxies, namely Enterobacteriaceae, T. solium cysticercosis and antibiotic residues, is presented. Several important potential food-borne pathogens are reported for the first time including Listeria spp. and Brucella suis. This descriptive pilot study is the first risk-based assessment of food safety in Nagaland. We also characterise possible interventions to be addressed by policy makers, and supply data to inform future risk assessments. PMID:24368430

  9. Experimental Development and Demonstration of Ultrasonic Measurement Diagnostics for Sodium Fast Reactor Thermal-hydraulics

    SciTech Connect

    Tokuhiro, Akira; Jones, Byron

    2013-09-13

    This research project will address some of the principal technology issues related to sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR), primarily the development and demonstration of ultrasonic measurement diagnostics linked to effective thermal convective sensing under normatl and off-normal conditions. Sodium is well-suited as a heat transfer medium for the SFR. However, because it is chemically reactive and optically opaque, it presents engineering accessibility constraints relative to operations and maintenance (O&M) and in-service inspection (ISI) technologies that are currently used for light water reactors. Thus, there are limited sensing options for conducting thermohydraulic measurements under normal conditions and off-normal events (maintenance, unanticipated events). Acoustic methods, primarily ultrasonics, are a key measurement technology with applications in non-destructive testing, component imaging, thermometry, and velocimetry. THis project would have yielded a better quantitative and qualitative understanding of the thermohydraulic condition of solium under varied flow conditions. THe scope of work will evaluate and demonstrate ultrasonic technologies and define instrumentation options for the SFR.

  10. Hydatid cyst/cystic echinococcosis: anatomical and surgical nomenclature and method to quantify the cyst content solidification.

    PubMed

    da Silva, A Menezes

    2011-09-01

    The terminology related to the hydatid cyst is sometimes inappropriate and wrong designations are used, based on incorrect concepts. "Hydatid cyst" is the larval form of the tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus granulosus, a parasite found in the small intestine of carnivores. The disease, called cystic echinococcosis, is among the most neglected parasitic diseases despite the development of new drugs and other treatment modalities. Although all of us know the vital cycle of the parasite and the different aspects of the disease, the designations around the parasite, its evolution and some therapeutic procedures are not uniform. It would be useful, for all of us, to use the same nomenclature and it is absolutely necessary that the nomenclature is correct and universally accepted. In this paper I remember the correct terms related to all aspects of the hydatid cyst's nomenclature, including especially the anatomical and surgical terminology, as well as the criteria to define the cyst inactivity and the way to know when the cyst range the inactive stage after therapy. PMID:22040484

  11. Renifer aniarum (Digenea: Reniferidae), an introduced North American parasite in grass snakes Natrix natrix in Calabria, southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; Tkach, Vasyl V; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Kinsella, John M; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2011-07-12

    Over the past decades, as a result of various human activities involving intentional or unintentional movement of animals, many helminth species have been introduced to new regions with several ecological and epidemiological implications for the native species. A high prevalence of infection with an introduced digenean Renifer aniarum, previously known only from North America, was found in the grass snake Natrix natrix in the Calabria region, southern Italy. Morphological and molecular comparison with North American R. aniarum has confirmed the identity of the Italian specimens. A total of 41 grass snakes were studied for R. aniarum infection. Of 24 snakes sampled between 2009 and 2010, 22 were positive for this parasite. In contrast, all 17 snakes sampled from museum collections between 1983 and 1994 were negative. Our results support the hypothesis that R. aniarum was perhaps introduced into this area during the 1990s by the translocation of the American bullfrog Lithobates (Rana) catesbeianus, a normal second intermediate host of the digenean in its native range in North America. Although the life cycle of R. aniarum is complex and includes 3 host stages, this parasite has found suitable first and second intermediate hosts as well as definitive hosts in Italy. Renifer aniarum was second only to the very common grass snake tapeworm Ophiotaenia europaea in both prevalence and abundance among 9 species of helminths recovered in our study. PMID:21932535

  12. Role of pet dogs and cats in the transmission of helminthic zoonoses in Europe, with a focus on echinococcosis and toxocarosis.

    PubMed

    Deplazes, Peter; van Knapen, Frans; Schweiger, Alexander; Overgaauw, Paul A M

    2011-11-24

    The close emotional tie between people and companion animals is a beneficial relation known as the human-animal bond. However, pet dogs and cats can play an important role in the transmission of helminthic zoonotic agents such as the tapeworms Echinococcus and the roundworms Toxocara which are directly transmitted from pets to the human environment without the involvement of vectors or intermediate hosts. In humans, echinococcosis has emerged in Europe and toxocarosis is still persisting in large endemic areas despite the availability of highly efficient anthelminthics for dogs and cats. Ecological changes significantly contributed to these trends: the high wild fox populations and the high density of freely roaming dogs and cats maintain a permanent infection pressure of these and other parasites. Further, the establishment of urban recreational environments closer to natural ecological systems boosted vole populations that represent urban reservoirs for zoonotic helminths. A good understanding of the parasites' biology and epidemiology including the transmission to humans is required for planning and implementing effective prevention strategies. The continuous education of veterinarians and the information of the pet owners by providing uniform recommendations are of priority importance. A close collaboration between veterinary and public health professionals in a 'One Health' concept is required. PMID:21813243

  13. Evaluation of the Antibacterial and Antidiarrhoeal Activities of Heeria Insignis O. Ktze

    PubMed Central

    Agunu, A.; Ahmadu, A. A.; Afolabi, S. O.; Yaro, A. U.; Ehinmidu, J. O.; Mohammed, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Heeria insignis O. Ktze (Anacardiaceae) is an indigenous African shrub used in treatment of diarrhea, venereal diseases, tapeworm, hookworm, schistosomiasis, kidney trouble and for increasing lactation in women after childbirth. The methanol and dichloromethane extracts of the leaves were evaluated for antibacterial activity (using agar-diffusion method) and antidairrheal activity (using isolated rabbit jejunum and castor-oil induced diarrhea in mice). The methanol extract gave higher antibacterial activity than dichloromethane. The order of susceptibility of test microorganisms to methanol extract were Salmonella typhi>Pseudomous aeruginosa> Staphylococcus aureus>Bacillus subtilis>Escherichia coli which were comparable to standard. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the methanol extract for these microorganisms was also determined. The minimum inhibitory concentration (mg/ml) of methanol extract against microorganisms is; B. subtilis (3.9), S. aureus (1.95), E. coli (62.5), Ps. aeruginosa (3.9) and S. typhi (1.95). On the isolated rabbit jejunum evaluation, both extracts produced concentration-dependent relation of isolated rabbit jejunum that was not blocked by phentolamine, suggesting that extracts act via mechanisms other than alpha-adrenergic receptor. In the castor oil-induced diarrheoeal test, each extract gave 80% protection at 200 mg/kg, which is comparable to loperamide 2 mg/kg with 80% protection. This finding may explain the use of the plant in diarrhea and bacterial diseases. PMID:22457562

  14. Unusual infections in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Neafie, R C; Marty, A M

    1993-01-01

    Nine cases of unusual infections in humans are presented. In each case, we present the clinical history, histopathologic changes (if indicated), morphologic features of the causative organism, diagnosis, discussion, differential diagnosis, therapy, and current literature. All of the cases are illustrated with pertinent photographs. The nine cases are as follows: (i) acanthocephaliasis, the first acquired human infection by Moniliformis moniliformis in the United States; (ii) dipylidiasis, an uncommon infection caused by the dog tapeworm, Dipylidium caninum; (iii) granulomatous amebic encephalitis, caused by the recently identified leptomyxid group of amebae; (iv) schistosomiasis, a dual infection of the urinary bladder with the rare presentation of both adult worms and eggs of Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni in tissue sections; (v) syphilitic gastritis, an uncommon presentation of Treponema pallidum infection, in a patient with an additional incidental infection by Helicobacter pylori; (vi) microsporidiosis, the only infection caused by a Pleistophora sp. in humans; (vii) sporotrichosis, a rare disseminated infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii with numerous yeast cells in the scrotum; (viii) angiostrongyliasis, the first and only infection caused by Angiostrongylus costaricensis acquired in either Puerto Rico or the United States; and (ix) botryomycosis of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, caused by gram-positive cocci with an unusually large number of granules. Images PMID:8457979

  15. In vitro protoscolicidal effects of fungal chitosan isolated from Penicillium waksmanii and Penicillium citrinum.

    PubMed

    Fakhar, Mahdi; Chabra, Aroona; Rahimi-Esboei, Bahman; Rezaei, Fatemeh

    2015-06-01

    Hydatidosis is caused by a tapeworm which infects humans by the larval stage. In humans, the disease is so serious that it requires surgery for treatment. Documents show that there have been many efforts in finding new scolicidal agents for reducing the rate of the infection. The objective of this study was determination of the scolicidal effect of two fungal chitosan types, produced from Penicillium spp. and commercially chitosan (CC) on Echinococcus granulosus protoscolex. Protoscolices were aseptically aspirated from sheep livers hydatid cysts. Four concentrations (50, 100, 200, 400 ?g/ml) of each type of prepared chitosan were used for 10, 30, 60 and 180 min. Viability of protoscolices was detected by 0.1 % eosin staining. Fungal chitosan which was the most bioactive type with higher degree of deacetylation showed stronger scolicidal activity in vitro (P < 0.05). Fungal chitosan could be recommended, as good as CC for hydatid cysts control and is a noble alternative for synthetic and chemical scolicidal. PMID:26063992

  16. Parasites reduce attractiveness and reproductive success in male grain beetles.

    PubMed

    Worden; Parker; Pappas

    2000-03-01

    Sexual characters may reveal the quality of a potential mate, including the mate's level of infection with parasites. Females that prefer males with low levels of infection or no infection may benefit in several ways. Direct benefits may include avoidance of infection, acquistition of larger nuptial gifts or enhancement in fecundity due to differences in male fertility. Females may also benefit indirectly by producing offspring that are more resistant to infections. We measured female preference for odours produced by male grain beetles, Tenebrio molitor, that were either infected by a tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, or uninfected. This parasite is not transmitted directly between conspecifics. Females were attracted to odours of all males, but they were less attracted to those from parasitized males. To the contrary, females were preferentially attracted to infected females. Males did not show any biased attraction to odours from infected and uninfected male beetles. Females that mated with highly infected males produced fewer offspring than females mated to uninfected males, indicating parasitic infection inflicts multiple costs to males. These results are consistent with models of parasite-mediated sexual selection. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10715176

  17. Mode of attachment and lesions associated with trypanorhynch cestodes in the gastrointestinal tracts of two species of sharks collected from coastal waters of Borneo.

    PubMed

    Borucinska, J D; Caira, J N

    2006-07-01

    Lesions associated with two species of tapeworms within the digestive tract of wild-caught specimens of the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, and the sicklefin weasel shark, Hemigaleus microstoma, from Malaysian Borneo are described. Portions of the glandular stomach and pyloric gut with parasites were removed and fixed in 10% formalin buffered in sea water. Whole mounts, histological sections of tissues with and without worms in situ, and scanning electron microscopy images of detached worms were examined. Both species of cestodes belonged to the trypanorhynch family Tentaculariidae. Heteronybelinia estigmena was found in large numbers parasitizing the pyloric gut of C. leucas; an unidentified tentaculariid was found in relatively small numbers in both the glandular stomach and pyloric gut of H. microstoma. Both species burrowed their scoleces deeply in the mucosa and attached via hooked tentacles and unciniform microtriches of the scolex. The lesions induced by the parasites were marked in both sharks and ranged from acute necrotizing to chronic granulomatous gastroenteritis. Regenerative hyperplasia and intestinal metaplasia of gastric epithelium were also present. The severity and character of pathology was causally linked to the intensity of infection, the attachment mode of the parasites, and to the anatomophysiological relationships within the gut of the host shark. PMID:16866923

  18. Exposure to infectious agents in dogs in remote coastal British Columbia: Possible sentinels of diseases in wildlife and humans

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Heather M.; Darimont, Chris T.; Paquet, Paul C.; Ellis, John A.; Goji, Noriko; Gouix, Maëlle; Smits, Judit E.

    2011-01-01

    Ranked among the top threats to conservation worldwide, infectious disease is of particular concern for wild canids because domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) may serve as sources and reservoirs of infection. On British Columbia’s largely undeveloped but rapidly changing central and north coasts, little is known about diseases in wolves (Canis lupus) or other wildlife. However, several threats exist for transfer of diseases among unvaccinated dogs and wolves. To gain baseline data on infectious agents in this area, including those with zoonotic potential, we collected blood and stool samples from 107 dogs in 5 remote communities in May and September 2007. Serology revealed that the dogs had been exposed to canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus, Bordetella bronchiseptica, canine respiratory coronavirus, and Leptospira interrogans. No dogs showed evidence of exposure to Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Dirofilaria immitis, or Cryptococcus gattii. Of 75 stool samples, 31 contained at least 1 parasitic infection, including Taeniid tapeworms, the nematodes Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina, and the protozoans Isospora sp., Giardia sp., Cryptosporidium sp., and Sarcocystis sp. This work provides a sound baseline for future monitoring of infectious agents that could affect dogs, sympatric wild canids, other wildlife, and humans. PMID:21461190

  19. Monticellia ophisterni n. sp. (Cestoda: Monticelliidae) from the swamp-eel Ophisternon aenigmaticum (Synbranchiformes) from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Scholz, T; de Chambrier, A; Salgado-Maldonado, G

    2001-12-01

    Monticellia ophisterni n. sp. is described from the swamp-eel Ophisternon aenigmaticum Rosen and Greenwood (Synbranchiformes: Synbranchidae) from Lake Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico. The new species is placed into Monticellia because of the cortical position of the testes, ovary, and uterus. It differs from other Monticellia species (with the exception of Monticellia magna (Rego, Santos and Silva, 1974)) in the position of longitudinal musculature that crosses the vitelline follicles, making them paramuscular. The new species can be distinguished from M. magna--which possesses a similar number of testes (107-139), paramuscular vitelline follicles, and numerous gland cells distributed between the apex of the scolex and suckers--in the position of the genital pore (8-21% vs. 19-27%), in the presence of a weak internal longitudinal musculature, in the arrangement of the testes in the median field, and in the absence of a vaginal sphincter. This is the first proteocephalidean tapeworm reported from a synbranchid fish and the first species of Monticellia found in North America. PMID:11780817

  20. Morphometric characteristics of the metacestode Echinococcus vogeli Rausch & Bernstein, 1972 in human infections from the northern region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F; Oliveira, F; Neves, R; Siqueira, N; Rodrigues-Silva, R; Daipert-Garcia, D; Machado-Silva, J R

    2015-07-01

    Polycystic echinococcosis, caused by the larval stage (metacestode) of the small-sized tapeworm, Echinococcus vogeli, is an emerging parasitic zoonosis of great public health concern in the humid tropical rainforests of South and Central America. Because morphological and morphometric characteristics of the metacestode are not well known, hydatid cysts from the liver and the mesentery were examined from patients following surgical procedures. Whole mounts of protoscoleces with rostellar hooks were examined under light and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Measurements were made of both large and small hooks, including the total area, total length, total width, blade area, blade length, blade width, handle area, handle length and handle width. The results confirmed the 1:1 arrangement of hooks in the rostellar pad and indicated, for the first time, that the morphometry of large and small rostellar hooks varies depending upon the site of infection. Light and confocal microscopy images displayed clusters of calcareous corpuscles in the protoscoleces. In conclusion, morphological features of large and small rostellar hooks of E. vogeli are adapted to a varied environment within the vertebrate host and such morphological changes in calcareous corpuscles occur at different stages in the maturation of metacestodes. PMID:24849308

  1. Echinococcus multilocularis infection of a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) and a nutria (Myocastor coypus) in a French zoo.

    PubMed

    Umhang, Gérald; Lahoreau, Jennifer; Nicolier, Alexandra; Boué, Franck

    2013-12-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is a tapeworm responsible in its larval stage for alveolar echinococcosis, a disease which is lethal when left untreated. Multivesiculated parasitic lesions in the liver were diagnosed at necropsy in a captive-born nutria (Myocastor coypus) and in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) which had been in a French zoo for 16months. Molecular analyses confirmed the diagnosis of E. multilocularis obtained by histological analyses. These were the first cases of infection by E. multilocularis reported in lemurs in Europe, and the first case in nutria in European enclosures. Lemurs are confirmed to be particularly sensitive to E. multilocularis with a massive infection. In both cases, the infection appears to have been contracted in the zoo indirectly via environmental contamination by feces from roaming foxes. Due to the large endemic area for E. multilocularis, the increasing prevalence in foxes in France, and an increase in awareness of the disease, other cases of infection in captive animals will probably be recorded in France in the coming years. PMID:23994606

  2. Human-induced eutrophication maintains high parasite prevalence in breeding threespine stickleback populations.

    PubMed

    Budria, Alexandre; Candolin, Ulrika

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities are having profound impacts on species interactions, with further consequences for populations and communities. We investigated the influence that anthropogenic eutrophication has on the prevalence of the parasitic tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus in threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus populations. We caught stickleback from four areas along the coast of Finland, and within each area from one undisturbed and one eutrophied habitat. We found the prevalence of the parasite to be lower in the eutrophied habitats at the start of the breeding season, probably because of fewer piscivorous birds that transmit the parasite. However, while the prevalence of the parasite declined across the season in the undisturbed habitat, it did less so in eutrophied habitats. We discuss different processes that could be behind the differences, such as lower predation rate on infected fish, higher food availability and less dispersal in eutrophied habitats. We found no effect of eutrophication on the proportion of infected stickleback that entered reproductive condition. Together with earlier findings, this suggests that eutrophication increases the proportion of infected stickleback that reproduce. This could promote the evolution of less parasite resistant populations, with potential consequences for the viability of the interacting parties of the host-parasite system. PMID:25498372

  3. Evaluation of diagnostic techniques for Anoplocephala perfoliata in horses from Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Skotarek, S L; Colwell, D D; Goater, C P

    2010-09-20

    Accurate diagnosis of parasites within individual hosts remains a difficult task. Incorrect and/or inaccurate diagnosis restricts the potential for targeted treatment of individuals and limits our understanding of key epidemiological characteristics of potential pathogens of domestic stock. In this study, we compared the specificity and sensitivity of four diagnostic methods for determination of the presence and intensity of the cestode Anoplocephala perfoliata in horses. Over 400 horses from an abattoir in south-central Alberta were evaluated for the presence and number of cestodes. Thirty one horses were infected with 1 to >1000 worms. Diagnosis based upon faecal egg counts of horses with known numbers of worms was least accurate in detecting worm presence. Detection of circulating antibodies to the cestode was most sensitive using Western blot analysis (100%), but had lower specificity (87%). A serum-based ELISA had a lower sensitivity (70%) for detection of antibodies. A coproantigen ELISA had 74% sensitivity and 92% specificity, and there was a positive correlation between antigen concentration and tapeworm intensity. The coproantigen ELISA may have the potential as a diagnostic tool for determining the presence and intensity of this potentially pathogenic cestode. PMID:20605685

  4. Parasites and human evolution.

    PubMed

    Perry, George H

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of human evolutionary and population history can be advanced by ecological and evolutionary studies of our parasites. Many parasites flourish only in the presence of very specific human behaviors and in specific habitats, are wholly dependent on us, and have evolved with us for thousands or millions of years. Therefore, by asking when and how we first acquired those parasites, under which environmental and cultural conditions we are the most susceptible, and how the parasites have evolved and adapted to us and we in response to them, we can gain considerable insight into our own evolutionary history. As examples, the tapeworm life cycle is dependent on our consumption of meat, the divergence of body and head lice may have been subsequent to the development of clothing, and malaria hyperendemicity may be associated with agriculture. Thus, the evolutionary and population histories of these parasites are likely intertwined with critical aspects of human biology and culture. Here I review the mechanics of these and multiple other parasite proxies for human evolutionary history and discuss how they currently complement our fossil, archeological, molecular, linguistic, historical, and ethnographic records. I also highlight potential future applications of this promising model for the field of evolutionary anthropology. PMID:25627083

  5. [Human plerocercoidosis and sparganosis: I. A historical review on aetiology].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ming-hua; Qiu, Ming-de

    2009-02-28

    Plerocercoid should not be confused with Sparganum. The scolex of plerocercoid has a bothrium or bothrial slit but there is no true scolex in sparganum. Plerocercoid is a developmental stage of an animal tapeworm, genus Spirometra. Sparganum is another generic name of a pseudophyllidean cestode. Plerocercoid causes benign plerocercoidosis and sparganum causes "malignant sparganosis". Plerocercoidosis is a parasitic zoonosis which can be food-borne, water-borne, contact-borne or mother-borne. During the past 20 years, there has been significant progress in studies of human plerocercoidosis and sparganosis, especially the former. Spirometra erinacei-europiea plerocercoidosis and sparganosis prolifera distributed mainly in East Asia. Spirometra mansonoides plerocercoidosis has been reported from the USA. Up to the present, approximately 1400 cases of plerocercoidosis were reported from China, Japan, Korea, USA and Thailand, and at least 16 well-documented cases of human proliferating sparganosis were reported worldwide (in Japan, China, Thailand, USA, Paraguay, Venezuela, and the Philippines). The life cycle of Sparganum is unknown. For plerocercoid, human being acts as a dead-end hosts, copepod and frogs serve as intermediate hosts, and snakes and carnivorous animals are its paratenic hosts. This review summarizes the research progress on aetiology and pathogenesis of human plerocercoidosis and sparganosis. The second part (in press) will be concentrated on their pathology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, epidemiology, control and prevention. PMID:19459502

  6. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications: Progress report for period December 1, 1986-July 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, W.P.

    1987-08-01

    The vacuum gas-analysis system is running and we use doubly labeled water routinely in our research. We have the computer-controlled respirometer system running, and can routinely measure respiratory gases and body temperatures in small, living mammals. Our heat- and mass-balance model calculations of field metabolism and water loss agree exceptionally well with doubly labeled water measurements of the field metabolism and water loss for Sceloporus undulatus in the sandhill country of western Nebraska. We established theoretical links between our biophysical models of individual animals and population dynamics and community models in the literature. Our general, dry, porous-media model works for bird feathers as well as fur. Now heat and mass fluxes for any endotherm in any physical environment can be calculated with accuracy knowing only allometry, insulation properties, core or skin temperature and environmental conditions. We developed a general respiratory water-loss model using a coupled molar and heat balance. We developed a general counter-current heat exchange model with a peripheral heat generation and iterative skin temperature solution. We are testing our endotherm model on four species of temperate and tropical birds. We are completing parameter measurements for a test of the ectotherm model on an herbivorous lizard, like the test described above for the carnivorous lizard, Sceloporus undulatus. We have begun lab and field studies of the energetic costs of parasitism and climate on a small endotherm (using tapeworm infection of white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus). 8 figs.

  7. A random forest approach for predicting the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis intermediate host Ochotona spp. presence in relation to landscape characteristics in western China.

    PubMed

    Marston, Christopher G; Danson, F Mark; Armitage, Richard P; Giraudoux, Patrick; Pleydell, David R J; Wang, Qian; Qui, Jiamin; Craig, Philip S

    2014-12-01

    Understanding distribution patterns of hosts implicated in the transmission of zoonotic disease remains a key goal of parasitology. Here, random forests are employed to model spatial patterns of the presence of the plateau pika (Ochotona spp.) small mammal intermediate host for the parasitic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis which is responsible for a significant burden of human zoonoses in western China. Landsat ETM+ satellite imagery and digital elevation model data were utilized to generate quantified measures of environmental characteristics across a study area in Sichuan Province, China. Land cover maps were generated identifying the distribution of specific land cover types, with landscape metrics employed to describe the spatial organisation of land cover patches. Random forests were used to model spatial patterns of Ochotona spp. presence, enabling the relative importance of the environmental characteristics in relation to Ochotona spp. presence to be ranked. An index of habitat aggregation was identified as the most important variable in influencing Ochotona spp. presence, with area of degraded grassland the most important land cover class variable. 71% of the variance in Ochotona spp. presence was explained, with a 90.98% accuracy rate as determined by 'out-of-bag' error assessment. Identification of the environmental characteristics influencing Ochotona spp. presence enables us to better understand distribution patterns of hosts implicated in the transmission of Em. The predictive mapping of this Em host enables the identification of human populations at increased risk of infection, enabling preventative strategies to be adopted. PMID:25386042

  8. Redescription of Eubothrium fragile (Rudolphi, 1802) and E. rugosum (Batsch, 1786) (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea), parasites of fish in the Holarctic Region.

    PubMed

    Kuchta, Roman; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Shinn, Andy P; Poddubnaya, Larisa G; Scholz, Tomás

    2005-09-01

    Two fish cestodes, the little-known Eubothrium fragile (Rudolphi, 1802) and E. rugosum (Batsch, 1786), the type species of the genus Eubothrium Nybelin, 1922, are redescribed on the basis of new material from twaite shad, Alosa fallax (Lacépède, 1803), from England and burbot, Lota lota (Linnaeus, 1758), from Russia, respectively. The tapeworms are compared with two other species of the genus, E. crassum (Bloch, 1779) and E. salvelini (Schrank, 1790), common parasites of salmonid fish in the Holarctic. The most notable differential characters are the size and the shape of the scolex (smaller and oval in E. fragile), the shape of the apical disc (four or more indentations in E. crassum), the number and size of the testes (the largest and least numerous in E. rugosum), and the position and size of the vitelline follicles (almost entirely cortical in distribution in E. fragile and E. crassum versus largely medullary in E. rugosum and E. salvelini). A comparison of species has also shown the morphological similarity of the freshwater species (E. rugosum and E. salvelini) on one hand and those of marine origin, E. fragile and E. crassum, on the other, with the latter species occurring also in fresh waters. A key to the identification of the species studied is also provided. PMID:16270806

  9. Serological differentiation between cystic and alveolar echinococcosis by use of recombinant larval antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Helbig, M; Frosch, P; Kern, P; Frosch, M

    1993-01-01

    Two recombinant antigens of the larval stages of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis, termed EG55 and EM10, respectively, were applied for serodiagnosis and serological differentiation between parasitic infections caused by the metacestode tissue of both tapeworms. Antigen EM10 is synthesized by E. multilocularis larvae. Antigen EG55 represents the recombinant form of the low-molecular-weight subunit of antigen B, which is an Echinococcus genus-specific antigen. Both recombinant antigens were expressed as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with monoclonal antibodies against EM10 and EG55 as capture reagents for the recombinant antigens was established and was evaluated with 74 serum samples from patients with histologically confirmed alveolar echinococcosis and 63 serum samples from patients with histologically confirmed cystic echinococcosis. A sensitivity of 93.2% and a specificity of 96.8% were achieved for the serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis. Cystic echinococcosis could be detected with a sensitivity of 89.1% and a specificity of 98.6%. PMID:8308113

  10. Morphological features of Cloacotaenia megalops (Nitzsch in Creplin, 1829) (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae) from different hosts.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Ma?gorzata R; Królaczyk, Katarzyna; Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Pilarczyk, Bogumi?a

    2011-01-01

    The tapeworm species Cloacotaenia megalops (Nitzsch in Creplin, 1829) is characterized by a very specific morphology. A particularly distinct feature is a large almost square scolex in which four fleshy suction cups are embedded and a rudimentary rostellum. During standard studies of wild duck cestode fauna in northwestern Poland, some morphological differences were observed among specimens, mainly in the shape of scolices and hermaphroditic proglottids of C. megalops isolated from different bird species. This paper attempts to demonstrate the impact of the host species on morphology of the parasite. The study material consisted of 39 individuals of C. megalops (19 from Aythya fuligula, 10 from Anas platyrhynchos, 4 from Bucephala clangula, 4 from Aythya marila and 2 from A. ferina). The isolated parasites were fixed and stored in 70% ethanol and solid preparations were made. Selected external and internal structures of the parasite were measured and photographed using a Zeiss microscope, a microscope camera Opta Tech 2.1 and Opta View 6.0.2.2. It was stated that the sizes of the most important elements of the parasite morphology are generally consistent with those presented in the available literature, nevertheless some differences were observed in both morphology and sizes of some anatomical structures, especially in the form of scolices and hermaphroditic proglottids between specimens isolated from hosts representing three different eco-tribes (Aythyini, Anatini and Mergini). PMID:21634232

  11. Cytogenetics of Aspidogaster limacoides (Trematoda, Aspidogastrea): karyotype, spermatocyte division, and genome size.

    PubMed

    Bombarová, Marta; Špakulová, Marta; Kello, Martin; Nguyen, Petr; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Králová-Hromadová, Ivica

    2015-04-01

    A detailed cytogenetic analysis of the aspidogastrean fluke Aspidogaster limacoides revealed a karyotype consisting of six medium-sized chromosome pairs. The first and the last pairs were two-armed while four remaining were one-armed; 2n?=?12, n?=?1 m?+?1 m?-?sm?+?4a. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probe detected a single cluster of ribosomal genes (NOR) located in pericentromeric regions of the long arms of the third chromosome pair in a site of secondary constriction apparent in meiotic prophase, especially in diplotene. The silver nitrate staining showed only a single active NOR site on one of homologous chromosomes in the majority of spermatogonia and spermatocyte divisions. A course of meiosis corresponded to standard schemes. The nucleolus was apparent in early meiotic spermatocytes and disintegrated by the end of pachytene. For the first time in Aspidogastrea, the genome size was determined. The flow cytometry showed 1.21 pg DNA per haploid nucleus in A. limacoides which is in accordance with relatively low genome sizes of other flukes and tapeworms (Neodermata). A comparison of cytogenetic data available to date in the fluke sister groups Aspidogastrea and Digenea suggests that the lower chromosome number of Aspidogastrea might represent an ancestral condition and their split might have been accompanied by an increase in chromosome number via either chromosome fissions or paleopolyploidy. PMID:25627029

  12. Ivermectin sensitivity is an ancient trait affecting all ecdysozoa but shows phylogenetic clustering among sepsid flies.

    PubMed

    Puniamoorthy, Nalini; Schäfer, Martin A; Römbke, Jörg; Meier, Rudolf; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U

    2014-05-01

    Avermectins are potent and popular veterinary pharmaceuticals used globally to fight parasites of livestock and humans. By disturbing ion channel transport through the membrane, avermectins are effective against endo- and ectoparasitic round and horsehair worms (Nematoida), insects, or ticks (Arthropoda), but not against Plathelminthes, including flatworms (Trematoda) and tapeworms (Cestoda), or segmented worms (Annelida). Unfortunately, excreted avermectins have strong nontarget effects on beneficial arthropods such as the insect community decomposing livestock dung, ultimately impeding this important ecosystem function to the extent that regulators mandate standardized eco-toxicological tests of dung organisms worldwide. We show that the ancient phylogenetic pattern and qualitative mechanism of avermectin sensitivity is conserved and compatible with most recent phylogenomic hypotheses grouping the Nematoida with the Arthropoda as Ecdysozoa (molting animals). At the species level, we demonstrate phylogenetic clustering in ivermectin sensitivities of 23 species of sepsid dung flies (Diptera: Sepsidae). This clustered 500-fold quantitative variation in sensitivity may indicate recent lineage-specific responses to selection, but more likely reflects pre-existing genetic variation with pleiotropic effects on eco-toxicological responses to pollutants. Regardless, our results question the common practice in eco-toxicology of choosing single test species to infer detrimental effects on entire species communities, which should ideally assess a representative taxonomic sample. PMID:24944568

  13. Hepatopulmonary hydatidosis in a ten-year-old girl: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Hydatid disease is a parasitic infection caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus and is characterised by cystic lesions in the liver and lungs. Concomitant pulmonary and hepatic localization of hydatid cysts in childhood is unusual and represents a distinct clinical entity called hepatopulmonary hydatidosis. Case presentation A ten-year-old Caucasian girl, a permanent resident of rural Greece, was admitted to hospital reporting a nonspecific symptomatology compatible with a diagnosis of viral infection. Chest radiography revealed a large homogenous circular opacity in the right lung field. On the basis of imaging studies, a diagnosis of hydatidosis was made with synchronous hepatic and pulmonary involvement, successfully managed through a single-stage transthoracic surgical approach. Conclusion This case report highlights the necessity of realizing that hydatid disease continues to be a public health problem, which often remains asymptomatic for years. Therefore, the presence of any homogeneous cystic spherical opacity on routine chest radiography should raise the suspicion of hydatid disease, mainly in endemic areas such as Greece. General practitioners and physicians involved in pediatric care need to be familiar with the diagnosis and management of the variable clinical manifestations of hydatid disease. Taking into consideration that hepatopulmonary hydatidosis represents a special entity that requires a different therapeutic approach may positively affect its economic and social-related burden. PMID:20598122

  14. When parasites disagree: evidence for parasite-induced sabotage of host manipulation.

    PubMed

    Hafer, Nina; Milinski, Manfred

    2015-03-01

    Host manipulation is a common parasite strategy to alter host behavior in a manner to enhance parasite fitness usually by increasing the parasite's transmission to the next host. In nature, hosts often harbor multiple parasites with agreeing or conflicting interests over host manipulation. Natural selection might drive such parasites to cooperation, compromise, or sabotage. Sabotage would occur if one parasite suppresses the manipulation of another. Experimental studies on the effect of multi-parasite interactions on host manipulation are scarce, clear experimental evidence for sabotage is elusive. We tested the effect of multiple infections on host manipulation using laboratory-bred copepods experimentally infected with the trophically transmitted tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus. This parasite is known to manipulate its host depending on its own developmental stage. Coinfecting parasites with the same aim enhance each other's manipulation but only after reaching infectivity. If the coinfecting parasites disagree over host manipulation, the infective parasite wins this conflict: the noninfective one has no effect. The winning (i.e., infective) parasite suppresses the manipulation of its noninfective competitor. This presents conclusive experimental evidence for both cooperation in and sabotage of host manipulation and hence a proof of principal that one parasite can alter and even neutralize manipulation by another. PMID:25643621

  15. Conspicuous carotenoid-based pelvic spine ornament in three-spined stickleback populations-occurrence and inheritance.

    PubMed

    Amundsen, C R; Nordeide, J T; Gjøen, H M; Larsen, B; Egeland, E S

    2015-01-01

    Reports on reddish carotenoid-based ornaments in female three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) are few, despite the large interest in the species' behaviour, ornamentation, morphology and evolution. We sampled sticklebacks from 17 sites in north-western Europe in this first extensive study on the occurrence of carotenoid-based female pelvic spines and throat ornaments. The field results showed that females, and males, with reddish spines were found in all 17 populations. Specimens of both sexes with conspicuous red spines were found in several of the sites. The pelvic spines of males were more intensely red compared to the females' spines, and large specimens were more red than small ones. Fish infected with the tapeworm (Schistocephalus solidus) had drabber spines than uninfected fish. Both sexes had red spines both during and after the spawning period, but the intensity of the red colour was more exaggerated during the spawning period. As opposed to pelvic spines, no sign of red colour at the throat was observed in any female from any of the 17 populations. A rearing experiment was carried out to estimate a potential genetic component of the pelvic spine ornament by artificial crossing and rearing of 15 family groups during a 12 months period. The results indicated that the genetic component of the red colour at the spines was low or close to zero. Although reddish pelvic spines seem common in populations of stickleback, the potential adaptive function of the reddish pelvic spines remains largely unexplained. PMID:25861558

  16. Fluorescent vital labeling to track cestodes in a copepod intermediate host.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Joachim; van der Veen, Ineke T; Christen, Mira

    2002-01-01

    In experimental studies of host-parasite interactions, it is often important to track parasites in their hosts and to discriminate between individual parasites. We used the fluorescent tracer dyes 7-amino-4-chloromethylcoumarin (CMAC) and, 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate (CMFDA) for vital labeling of Schistocephalus solidus (Cestoda) coracidia larvae. Labeling was fast and easy to perform and enabled microscopic detection of parasites appearing as procercoids in the hemocoel of the copepod intermediate host at 3 h after exposure. The label was still visible after 14 days. Extensive controls showed that CMAC (20 microM) labeling did not harm tapeworms or copepods. CMFDA (2 microM) reduced host survival, but the dye concentration can be decreased to avoid this in future studies. The new labeling method presented here has been very useful to track S. solidus parasites. It can be valuable for other parasites also and may be particularly suitable for visualization of individual live macroparasites in invertebrate hosts, for which we are not aware of any other appropriate method. PMID:11971652

  17. Major histocompatibility complex diversity influences parasite resistance and innate immunity in sticklebacks.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Joachim; Kalbe, Martin; Aeschlimann, Peter B; Häberli, Michael A; Wegner, K Mathias; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Milinski, Manfred

    2004-01-22

    Proteins of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play a central role in the presentation of antigens to the adaptive immune system. The MHC also influences the odour-based choice of mates in humans and several animal taxa. It has recently been shown that female three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) aim at a moderately high MHC diversity in their offspring when choosing a mate. Do they optimize the immune systems of their offspring? Using three-spined sticklebacks that varied in their individual numbers of MHC class IIB molecules, we tested, experimentally, whether allelic diversity at the MHC influences parasite resistance and immune parameters. We found that sticklebacks with low MHC diversity suffered more from parasite infection after experimental exposure to Schistocephalus solidus tapeworms and Glugea anomala microsporidians. They also showed the highest proportion of granulocytes and the strongest respiratory burst reaction, which are correlates of innate immunity. This indicates a strong activity of the innate immune system after challenge by parasites when MHC diversity is suboptimal. Individuals with very high allelic diversity at the MHC seemed inferior to those with moderately high diversity. Such a pattern is consistent with theoretical expectations of an optimal balance between the number of recognizable antigens and self-tolerance. PMID:15058398

  18. When to go: optimization of host switching in parasites with complex life cycles.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, Katrin; Koch, Kamilla; Milinski, Manfred; Chubb, James C; Parker, Geoff A

    2009-08-01

    Many trophically transmitted parasites have complex life cycles: they pass through at least one intermediate host before reproducing in their final host. Despite their economic and theoretical importance, the evolution of such cycles has rarely been investigated. Here, combining a novel modeling approach with experimental data, we show for the first time that an optimal transfer time between hosts exists for a "model parasite," the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus, from its first (copepod) to its second (fish) intermediate host. When transferring between hosts around this time, (1) parasite performance in the second intermediate host, (2) reproductive success in the final host, and (3) fitness in the next generation is maximized. At that time, the infected copepod's behavior changes from predation suppression to predation enhancement. The optimal time for switching manipulation results from a trade-off between increasing establishment probability in the next host and reducing mortality in the present host. Our results show that these manipulated behavioral changes are adaptive for S. solidus, rather than an artifact, as they maximize parasite fitness. PMID:19453381

  19. Effects of Schistocephalus solidus infection on brain monoaminergic activity in female three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    PubMed

    Overli, O; Páll, M; Borg, B; Jobling, M; Winberg, S

    2001-07-01

    The three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus is an intermediate host of the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus. Changes in predator avoidance, foraging and shoaling behaviour have been reported in sticklebacks infested with S. solidus, but the mechanisms underlying parasite-induced behavioural changes are not understood. Monoamine neurotransmitters are involved in the control of behaviour and central monoaminergic systems are sensitive to various stressors. Thus, the behavioural effects of S. solidus infestation might be a reflection of changes in brain monoaminergic activity in the stickleback host. The concentrations of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and their metabolites 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanilic acid (HVA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) were measured in the telencephalons, hypothalami and brainstems of parasitized and non-parasitized female sticklebacks held in the laboratory. The ratios of 5-HIAA:5-HT were significantly elevated in both the hypothalami and brainstems of infected sticklebacks. The concentrations of 5-HT and NE were significantly reduced in the telencephalons of infected fish as compared with controls, but there was no elevation of metabolite concentrations. The results are consistent with chronic stress in infected fish, but may also reflect other alterations of neuroendocrine status resulting from parasite infection. PMID:11429142

  20. In vitro transition of Schistocephalus solidus (Cestoda) from coracidium to procercoid and from procercoid to plerocercoid.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, P J; Scharsack, J P; Hammerschmidt, K; Deines, P; Kalbe, M; Milinski, M

    2012-03-01

    With the present study, a culture system for successive life-cycle stages of the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus was developed and this report documents for the first time, cultivation of the procercoid stage of S. solidus from eggs. Additionally we have transformed procercoids dissected from experimentally infected copepods and cultured procercoids into the early plerocercoid stage in vitro. Observations in the culture suggest that the coracidia can interact with their external environment and need no host specific stimuli, except for the components in the culture medium, for activation and hatching from the embryophore. Increasing the culture medium pH from 7.3 to 8.0 improved escape rates and frequencies of hook contractions, suggesting that the oncosphere may recognize and respond to environmental conditions along the host intestine. Procercoids in the culture did not stop growing indicating that conditions within the copepod may be important to limit growth and to induce transformation to plerocercoids. When procercoids are dissected from copepods and transferred to the culture, the outer tegument layers and cercomer starts to loosen. Comparison of the lectin staining of the loosened outer tegument layers and cercomer in procercoids dissected from copepods confirms that transitions of both, the oncosphere to procercoid and procercoid to plerocercoids, has taken place in the in vitro cultures. PMID:22024449

  1. Effects of Schistocephalus solidus infection on brain monoaminergic activity in female three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    PubMed Central

    Overli , O.; Páll, M.; Borg, B.; Jobling, M.; Winberg, S.

    2001-01-01

    The three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus is an intermediate host of the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus. Changes in predator avoidance, foraging and shoaling behaviour have been reported in sticklebacks infested with S. solidus, but the mechanisms underlying parasite-induced behavioural changes are not understood. Monoamine neurotransmitters are involved in the control of behaviour and central monoaminergic systems are sensitive to various stressors. Thus, the behavioural effects of S. solidus infestation might be a reflection of changes in brain monoaminergic activity in the stickleback host. The concentrations of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and their metabolites 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanilic acid (HVA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) were measured in the telencephalons, hypothalami and brainstems of parasitized and non-parasitized female sticklebacks held in the laboratory. The ratios of 5-HIAA:5-HT were significantly elevated in both the hypothalami and brainstems of infected sticklebacks. The concentrations of 5-HT and NE were significantly reduced in the telencephalons of infected fish as compared with controls, but there was no elevation of metabolite concentrations. The results are consistent with chronic stress in infected fish, but may also reflect other alterations of neuroendocrine status resulting from parasite infection. PMID:11429142

  2. What are the evolutionary constraints on larval growth in a trophically transmitted parasite?

    PubMed

    Benesh, Daniel P

    2010-03-01

    For organisms with a complex life cycle, a large larval size is generally beneficial, but it may come at the expense of prolonged development. Individuals that grow fast may avoid this tradeoff and switch habitats at both a larger size and younger age. A fast growth rate itself can be costly, however, as it requires greater resource intake. For parasites, fast larval growth is assumed to increase the likelihood of host death before transmission to the next host occurs. Using the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus in its copepod first intermediate host, I investigated potential constraints in the parasite's larval life history. Fast-growing parasites developed infectivity earlier, indicating there is no functional tradeoff between size and developmental time. There was significant growth variation among full-sib worm families, but fast-growing sibships were not characterized by lower host survival or more predation-risky host behavior. Parental investment also had little effect on larval growth rates. The commonly assumed constraints on larval growth and development were not observed in this system, so it remains unclear what prevents worms from exploiting their intermediate hosts more aggressively. PMID:19921268

  3. Making the in vitro breeding of Schistocephalus solidus more flexible.

    PubMed

    Weinreich, Friederike; Kalbe, Martin; Benesh, Daniel P

    2014-04-01

    Schistocephalus solidus is one of the few cestodes that can be bred in vitro. Worms have typically been bred in pairs, so the parents of each offspring can clearly be assigned. From a genetic perspective, it would be useful to be able to mate an individual worm to multiple partners while still being able to distinguish among different parents. As each adult S. solidus possesses numerous reproductive complexes, cutting worms and breeding the pieces separately would facilitate such breeding designs. We halved worms before in vitro breeding and evaluated whether this affected outcrossing rates and reproductive output. Cutting did not influence clutch mass, i.e. egg number and size, or outcrossing rates, but eggs from cut worms had a lower hatching rate than eggs from uncut worms. We found that when two anterior worm halves were bred together, they produced fewer, smaller eggs with higher hatching rates, compared to two posterior halves. Moreover, once we controlled for this effect of 'worm half', the two halves of an individual worm tended to reproduce similarly under comparable circumstances. We conclude that cutting plerocercoids increases the flexibility with which this tapeworm can be experimentally bred without dramatically affecting the production of viable, outcrossed eggs. PMID:24560832

  4. Suppression of predation on the intermediate host by two trophically-transmitted parasites when uninfective.

    PubMed

    Weinreich, F; Benesh, D P; Milinski, M

    2013-01-01

    Trophically-transmitted parasites generally need to undergo a period of development in the intermediate host before reaching infectivity. During this vulnerable period, manipulation of the host to reduce susceptibility to predation would be advantageous for parasites, because it increases the probability of surviving until infectivity and thus the probability of transmission. We tested this 'predation suppression' hypothesis in 2 parasite species that use copepods as first hosts: the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus and the nematode Camallanus lacustris. In a series of prey choice experiments, we found that copepods harbouring uninfective, still-developing worm larvae were less frequently consumed by stickleback predators than uninfected copepods. The levels of predation suppression were similar in the two parasite species, suggestive of convergent evolution. Additionally, copepods harbouring 2 worms of a given species were not more susceptible to predation than those with 1 worm, suggesting that excessive larval parasite growth does not increase host susceptibility to predation. Our results support the idea that parasites can suppress intermediate host susceptibility to predation while uninfective, but we also note that the available studies suggest that this effect is weaker than the frequently observed enhancement of host predation by infective helminth larvae. PMID:22906915

  5. No effect of a parasite on reproduction in stickleback males: a laboratory artefact?

    PubMed

    Candolin, U; Voigt, H R

    2001-04-01

    Experiments are often carried out in the laboratory under artificial conditions. Although this can control for confounding factors, it may eliminate important factors that under natural conditions mediate the interaction under investigation. Here, we show that different results can be gained in the field and in the laboratory regarding host-parasite interaction. In the field, courting three-spined stickleback males, Gasterosteus aculeatus, were less often infected with plerocercoids of a cestode tapeworm, Schistocephalus solidus, than shoaling males. However, when a random sample of males was allowed to nest and court females in individual aquaria in the laboratory, both uninfected and infected males built nests and courted females. Moreover, while the few infected males that courted females in the field expressed less red nuptial coloration than uninfected courting males, there was no difference in redness between infected and uninfected males in the laboratory. We argue that the different results gained in the field and in the laboratory are due to differences in the cost of reproduction, due to differences in the resource pool of the males. The favourable conditions in the laboratory exclude factors such as predation risk, social interactions, and fluctuating environmental conditions that may use up resources in the field and mediate the effect of the parasite. PMID:11315179

  6. Major histocompatibility complex diversity influences parasite resistance and innate immunity in sticklebacks.

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, Joachim; Kalbe, Martin; Aeschlimann, Peter B.; Häberli, Michael A.; Wegner, K. Mathias; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.; Milinski, Manfred

    2004-01-01

    Proteins of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play a central role in the presentation of antigens to the adaptive immune system. The MHC also influences the odour-based choice of mates in humans and several animal taxa. It has recently been shown that female three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) aim at a moderately high MHC diversity in their offspring when choosing a mate. Do they optimize the immune systems of their offspring? Using three-spined sticklebacks that varied in their individual numbers of MHC class IIB molecules, we tested, experimentally, whether allelic diversity at the MHC influences parasite resistance and immune parameters. We found that sticklebacks with low MHC diversity suffered more from parasite infection after experimental exposure to Schistocephalus solidus tapeworms and Glugea anomala microsporidians. They also showed the highest proportion of granulocytes and the strongest respiratory burst reaction, which are correlates of innate immunity. This indicates a strong activity of the innate immune system after challenge by parasites when MHC diversity is suboptimal. Individuals with very high allelic diversity at the MHC seemed inferior to those with moderately high diversity. Such a pattern is consistent with theoretical expectations of an optimal balance between the number of recognizable antigens and self-tolerance. PMID:15058398

  7. Ultrastructural characters of the spermatozoon of the cestode Corallobothrium solidum Fritsch, 1886 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea), a parasite of the electric catfish Malapterurus electricus.

    PubMed

    Brunanská, Magdaléna; Scholz, Tomás; Ibraheem, Mohammed Hassan

    2004-12-01

    The fine structure of the mature spermatozoon of the corallobothriine tapeworm Corallobothrium solidum Fritsch, 1886 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea) from the electric catfish Malapterurus electricus from the Nile River in Egypt was studied by transmission electron microscopy for the first time. The filiform spermatozoon of C. solidum contains two axonemes of unequal length and a typical 9 + "1" trepaxonematan pattern. A single helicoidal crested body (30-200 nm thick) is localized at the anterior extremity of the gamete. The cortical microtubules line the periphery of the cell, largely parallel to the long axis of the spermatozoon and exhibiting signs of twisting at the beginning of region II. The nucleus, in the form of an electron-dense (largely in gametes of testes) and/or fibrous cord (largely in gametes from male reproductive ducts and seminal vesicle), coils in a spiral through the middle part (region III) of the spermatozoon. The cytoplasm contains electron-dense granules in regions II, III and partly in region IV. The cytoplasm of some spermatozoa exhibits an apparently higher electron-density at the end of the nucleated region (III), and continuously toward the middle part of region IV. The anterior and posterior extremities of the spermatozoa have a single axoneme. The ultrastructural features of the mature spermatozoon of C. solidum mostly coincide with those of the spermatozoon of other proteocephalideans, especially the gangesiine Electrotaenia malopteruri parasitizing the same host. PMID:15517385

  8. Three-dimensional conformal intensity-modulated radiation therapy of left femur foci does not damage the sciatic nerve

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wanlong; Zhao, Xibin; Wang, Qing; Sun, Jungang; Xu, Jiangbo; Zhou, Wenzheng; Wang, Hao; Yan, Shigui; Yuan, Hong

    2014-01-01

    During radiotherapy to kill femoral hydatid tapeworms, the sciatic nerve surrounding the focus can be easily damaged by the treatment. Thus, it is very important to evaluate the effects of radiotherapy on the surrounding nervous tissue. In the present study, we used three-dimensional, conformal, intensity-modulated radiation therapy to treat bilateral femoral hydatid disease in Meriones meridiani. The focus of the hydatid disease on the left femur was subjected to radiotherapy (40 Gy) for 14 days, and the right femur received sham irradiation. Hematoxylin-eosin staining, electron microscopy, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-dUTP nick end labeling assays on the left femurs showed that the left sciatic nerve cell structure was normal, with no obvious apoptosis after radiation. Trypan blue staining demonstrated that the overall protoscolex structure in bone parasitized with Echinococcus granulosus disappeared in the left femur of the animals after treatment. The mortality of the protoscolex was higher in the left side than in the right side. The succinate dehydrogenase activity in the protoscolex in bone parasitized with Echinococcus granulosus was lower in the left femur than in the right femur. These results suggest that three-dimensional conformal intensity-modulated radiation therapy achieves good therapeutic effects on the secondary bone in hydatid disease in Meriones meridiani without damaging the morphology or function of the sciatic nerve. PMID:25422645

  9. Interactions between multiple helminths and the gut microbiota in wild rodents.

    PubMed

    Kreisinger, Jakub; Bastien, Géraldine; Hauffe, Heidi C; Marchesi, Julian; Perkins, Sarah E

    2015-08-19

    The gut microbiota is vital to host health and, as such, it is important to elucidate the mechanisms altering its composition and diversity. Intestinal helminths are host immunomodulators and have evolved both temporally and spatially in close association with the gut microbiota, resulting in potential mechanistic interplay. Host-helminth and host-microbiota interactions are comparatively well-examined, unlike microbiota-helminth relationships, which typically focus on experimental infection with a single helminth species in laboratory animals. Here, in addition to a review of the literature on helminth-microbiota interactions, we examined empirically the association between microbiota diversity and composition and natural infection of multiple helminth species in wild mice (Apodemus flavicollis), using 16S rRNA gene catalogues (metataxonomics). In general, helminth presence is linked with high microbiota diversity, which may confer health benefits to the host. Within our wild rodent system variation in the composition and abundance of gut microbial taxa associated with helminths was specific to each helminth species and occurred both up- and downstream of a given helminth's niche (gut position). The most pronounced helminth-microbiota association was between the presence of tapeworms in the small intestine and increased S24-7 (Bacteroidetes) family in the stomach. Helminths clearly have the potential to alter gut homeostasis. Free-living rodents with a diverse helminth community offer a useful model system that enables both correlative (this study) and manipulative inference to elucidate helminth-microbiota interactions. PMID:26150661

  10. Artocarpus: a review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Jagtap, U B; Bapat, V A

    2010-05-27

    The genus Artocarpus (Moraceae) comprises about 50 species of evergreen and deciduous trees. Economically, the genus is of appreciable importance as a source of edible fruit, yield fairly good timber and is widely used in folk medicines. The aim of the present review is to present comprehensive information of the chemical constituents, biological and pharmacological research on Artocarpus which will be presented and critically evaluated. The close connection between traditional and modern sources for ethnopharmacological uses of Artocarpus species, especially for treatment against inflammation, malarial fever, diarrhoea, diabetes and tapeworm infection. Artocarpus species are rich in phenolic compounds including flavonoids, stilbenoids, arylbenzofurons and Jacalin, a lectin. The extracts and metabolites of Artocarpus particularly those from leaves, bark, stem and fruit possess several useful bioactive compounds and recently additional data are available on exploitation of these compounds in the various biological activities including antibacterial, antitubercular, antiviral, antifungal, antiplatelet, antiarthritic, tyrosinase inhibitory and cytotoxicity. Several pharmacological studies of the natural products from Artocarpus have conclusively established their mode of action in treatment of various diseases and other health benefits. Jacalin, a lectin present in seeds of this plant has a wide range of activities. Strong interdisciplinary programmes that incorporate conventional and new technologies will be critical for the future development of Artocarpus as a promising source of medicinal products. In the present review, attempts on the important findings have been made on identification; synthesis and bioactivity of metabolites present in Artocarpus which have been highlighted along with the current trends in research on Artocarpus. PMID:20380874

  11. First record of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in the Rio Grande with comparative analysis of ITS2 and V4-18S rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Bean, Megan G; Skeríkova, Andrea; Bonner, Timothy H; Scholz, Tomás; Huffman, David G

    2007-06-01

    Bothriocephalus acheilognathi is an introduced tapeworm in North America often reported as a serious ecological threat to native fishes. In this paper, we report the first record of B. acheilognathi in the Big Bend region of the Rio Grande in Texas (known as the Río Bravo del Norte in Mexico). Identification of B. acheilognathi was confirmed by morphologic and genetic techniques (sequences of ITS2 and V4-18S rRNA genes). Its prevalence was 27% and its intensity ranged from 1 to 5 individuals in a January 2006 collection of 115 red shiners Cyprinella lutrensis. In addition, it was found in the Tamaulipas shiner Notropis braytoni, a Rio Grande endemic and a new host record. The occurrence of B. acheilognathi might have negative ecological impacts on endemic fishes in the Rio Grande. Several of the fishes that could serve as definitive hosts are of conservation concern. Its occurrence also might affect the success of reintroducing the Rio Grande silvery minnow Hybognathus amarus, which is federally listed as endangered, in this portion of the Rio Grande. PMID:18201046

  12. In vitro effect of 5-fluorouracil and paclitaxel on Echinococcus granulosus larvae and cells.

    PubMed

    Pensel, P E; Albani, C; Gamboa, G Ullio; Benoit, J P; Elissondo, M C

    2014-12-01

    Human cystic echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by the metacestode stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. Although benzimidazole compounds such as albendazole and mebendazole have been the cornerstone of chemotherapy for the disease, there is often no complete recovery after treatment. Hence, in searching for novel treatment options, we examined the in vitro efficacies of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and paclitaxel (PTX) against E. granulosus germinal cells, protoscoleces and cysts. 5-FU or PTX inhibited the growth of E. granulosus cells in a time dependent manner. Although both treatments had a protoscolicidal effect, 5-FU had a considerably stronger effect than PTX. 5-FU produced a dose- and time-dependent effect, provoking the complete loss of viability after 24 days of incubation. Moreover, cysts did not develop following the inoculation of treated protoscoleces into mice. The loss of viability was slower in PTX treated protoscoleces, reaching to approximately 60% after 30 days. The results of the in vitro treatment with 5-FU and PTX were similar in secondary murine cysts. The employment of SEM and TEM allowed us to examine, at an ultrastructural level, the effects induced by 5-FU and PTX on E. granulosus germinal cells, protoscoleces and murine cysts. In conclusion, the data obtained clearly demonstrated that 5-FU and PTX at clinically achievable concentrations inhibit the survival of larval cells, protoscoleces and metacestodes. In vivo studies to test the antiparasitic activities of 5-FU and PTX are currently being undertaken on the murine model of cystic echinococcosis. PMID:25088684

  13. Identification and characterisation of Emp53, the homologue of human tumor suppressor p53, from Echinococcus multilocularis: its role in apoptosis and the oxidative stress response.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhe; Zhu, Shan; Wang, Liang; Liu, Fan; Tian, Huimin; Pengsakul, Theerakamol; Wang, Yanhai

    2015-07-01

    Larvae of the fox tapeworm, Echinococcus multilocularis, cause alveolar echinococcosis, which is considered to be the most lethal helminthic infection in humans. Since it develops in host organs, the parasite must have evolved a stress defense system to cope with various genotoxic and cellular stresses that may cause DNA damage and genomic instability. Tumor suppressor p53, well known as the "guardian of the genome", plays a vital role in response to many types of stress and damage. In the present study, we describe the characterisation of Emp53 from E. multilocularis and demonstrate that it is a structural and functional homologue of mammalian tumor suppressor p53. We show that Emp53 binds specifically to oligonucleotides containing conventional p53 binding sites, indicating that it exhibits a function as a DNA binding transcription factor. Inhibition of Emp53 function can suppress UV irradiation-induced apoptosis in the E. multilocularis metacestode, indicating an important role of Emp53 in the induction of apoptosis following DNA damage. We also reveal that Emp53 plays important roles in resistance to oxidative stress and regulation of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Our results suggest that, similar to its human counterpart, Emp53 plays a central role in the network of DNA damage responses and apoptosis in E. multilocularis. These results may help in exploring stress defense mechanisms of parasitic helminths and may provide useful information for the development of new interventions and therapeutic drugs for the control of alveolar echinococcosis. PMID:25858091

  14. The Styx field trial

    PubMed Central

    Gemmell, M. A.

    1968-01-01

    An assessment was made of the effectiveness of the generally accepted methods recommended for controlling hydatid disease during the course of a field-trial, initiated in 1943 in an isolated region of New Zealand. The results obtained during the first 21 years are described. Basically, the trial was an attempt to compare the effectiveness of a general public health educational programme and an anthelmintic programme using arecoline hydrobromide for treatment of dogs with that of a specific educational programme using this compound as a diagnostic agent. Arecoline hydrobromide was found to be too uncertain in its action to be of practical value as an anthelmintic. The development of diagnostic techniques, described in this paper, made it possible to use the compound for diagnostic purposes and thus for educational purposes, since each dog could be examined for tapeworms in the presence of the owner. Using changes in the annual prevalence rate in sheep of the cysts of E. granulosus and those of T. hydatigena as the principal indicators, the conclusion has been reached that the specific diagnostic approach achieved more success than the general educational and treatment programme. The principal reason for this appears to be that the former approach induced a greater awareness in owners of the need for strict management to prevent dogs gaining access to infective raw offal than that stimulated in the community when the dogs were dosed but not examined. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:5303843

  15. Exposure to infectious agents in dogs in remote coastal British Columbia: Possible sentinels of diseases in wildlife and humans.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Heather M; Darimont, Chris T; Paquet, Paul C; Ellis, John A; Goji, Noriko; Gouix, Maëlle; Smits, Judit E

    2011-01-01

    Ranked among the top threats to conservation worldwide, infectious disease is of particular concern for wild canids because domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) may serve as sources and reservoirs of infection. On British Columbia's largely undeveloped but rapidly changing central and north coasts, little is known about diseases in wolves (Canis lupus) or other wildlife. However, several threats exist for transfer of diseases among unvaccinated dogs and wolves. To gain baseline data on infectious agents in this area, including those with zoonotic potential, we collected blood and stool samples from 107 dogs in 5 remote communities in May and September 2007. Serology revealed that the dogs had been exposed to canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus, Bordetella bronchiseptica, canine respiratory coronavirus, and Leptospira interrogans. No dogs showed evidence of exposure to Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Dirofilaria immitis, or Cryptococcus gattii. Of 75 stool samples, 31 contained at least 1 parasitic infection, including Taeniid tapeworms, the nematodes Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina, and the protozoans Isospora sp., Giardia sp., Cryptosporidium sp., and Sarcocystis sp. This work provides a sound baseline for future monitoring of infectious agents that could affect dogs, sympatric wild canids, other wildlife, and humans. PMID:21461190

  16. Intestinal Helminthic Infections in Striped Field Mice, Apodemus agrarius, from Two Southern Regions of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Na, Byoung-Kuk; Song, Hyeon-Je; Kim, Chung-Mo; Nam, Gi-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The present study was performed to know the infection status of intestinal helminths in a most common species of field mice, Apodemus agrarius, from 2 southern regions of Korea. Total 133 and 103 mice were collected by the mouse trap in Hapcheon-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do and Gurye-gun, Jeollanam-do, respectively, from July 2005 to June 2006. The small intestine of each mouse was resected and longitudinally opened with a pair of scissors. The intestinal contents were washed with 0.85% saline until the supernatant became clear. Helminths were collected with naked eyes or under a stereomicroscope from the sediment of the intestinal content. More than 11 species of helminths (4 nematode spp., 5 trematode spp., and 2 cestode spp.) were recovered. Among these, heligmosomoid nematodes (97.5%) was the most highly and heavily infected species. As the members of trematodes, Plagiorchis muris, Brachylaima sp., Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma cinetorchis, and unidentified echinostome larvae were found in the small intestines of 35 (14.8%), 12 (5.1%), 6 (2.5%), 1 (0.4%), and 1 (0.4%) mice respectively. Two species of tapeworms, Hymenolepis nana and Hymenolepis diminuta were also detected in 79 (33.5%) and 21 (8.9%) mice, respectively. Conclusively, heligmosomoid nematodes were the most prevalent (dominant) species among more than 11 helminth species detected, and Brachylaima sp. fluke is newly added in the list of intestinal trematodes in Korea. PMID:25246721

  17. Target animal safety and tolerance study of pyrantel pamoate paste (19.13% w/w pyrantel base) administered orally to horses.

    PubMed

    Marchiondo, Alan A; TerHune, Terry N; Herrick, Robert L

    2005-01-01

    Pyrantel pamoate paste (19.13% w/w pyrantel base) for the treatment of tapeworm, Anoplocephala spp was evaluated for target animal safety and tolerance in horses treated orally at 0, 1, 3, 5, and 10 times the clinical dose of 13.2 mg pyrantel base/kg body weight administered daily for six consecutive days. Parameters evaluated included clinical signs, food and water consumption, body weights, physical examinations, clinical pathology (hematology, coagulation, serum chemistry, urinalyses, and fecal examinations), complete necropsy, organ weights, and histopathology. No adverse events or test article-related effects were observed in any treatment group during daily clinical observations of the test animals. Statistically significant changes (P < .05) lacked a dose- and/or time-dependent trend and were considered incidental. Administration of pyrantel pamoate paste did not produce any macroscopic or microscopic tissue effects in any dose group of either sex. The no-observed-effect-level (NOEL) for pyrantel pamoate paste, when administered orally to horses once daily for 6 consecutive days, was determined to be 132 mg/kg/day. Pyrantel pamoate paste (19.13% w/w pyrantel base) can be safely administered orally to horses at 13.2 mg of pyrantel base/kg for the treatment of Anoplocephala infestations. PMID:16550493

  18. Case report: protein-losing enteropathy caused by Mesocestoides vogae (syn. M. corti) in a dog.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Yu; Ohta, Hiroshi; Kashiide, Takuya; Matsumoto, Jun; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Yokoyama, Nozomu; Morishita, Keitaro; Nakamura, Kensuke; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-09-15

    An eight-year-old, neutered, female Shetland Sheepdog presented with a 6-week history of small intestinal diarrhea. Regenerative anemia, hypoproteinemia, and an increased plasma C-reactive protein concentration were detected on blood examination. Fecal examination and abdominal radiography were unremarkable. Abdominal ultrasonography showed diffusely hyperechoic mucosa in the small intestine. Gastroduodenoscopy, performed under general anesthesia, revealed mucosal edema and increased granularity in the duodenum and jejunum. Histopathological examination of the endoscopically biopsied small intestinal mucosa revealed tapeworm infection. A single administration of a combined anthelmintic drug (5mg/kg praziquantel, 14.4 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate, and 15 mg/kg febantel) was successful for deworming, and the dog fully recovered. The parasites were removed from stored frozen duodenal mucosa and morphologically identified as Mesocestoides sp. immature adult worms. Mitochondrial (mt) 12S rDNA and mt cytochrome c oxide subunit 1 genes were amplified from the parasites. DNA sequence analysis showed that the genes shared 100% identity with those of reported M. vogae (syn. M. corti). This is the first reported case of protein-losing enteropathy caused by M. vogae in a dog. PMID:25129334

  19. [Dipylidium caninum infection in an infant].

    PubMed

    Tsumura, Naoki; Koga, Hiroyasu; Hidaka, Hidenobu; Mukai, Fumiko; Ikenaga, Masaaki; Otsu, Yasushi; Masunaga, Kenji; Nagai, Kensuke; Yoneda, Yutaka; Fukuma, Toshihide; Ishimoto, Koji

    2007-07-01

    Dipylidium caninum, the dog tapeworm, is a common intestinal cestode of domestic dogs and cats, but few cases have been reported of human infection by this parasite in Japan. We repot a case of D. caninum infection in a 17 month-old girl, who sometimes had symptoms of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and dysphoria at night. Her mother noted the appearance of small white worms in her stool, and she was seen by a local pediatrician. Despite antiparasitic therapy wiht pyrantel pamoate, the problem persisted and was eventually referred for further workup to Kurume University Hospital. The diagnosis was made by microscopic examination of the excreted proglottids, which contained characteristic egg capsules. She was successfully treated with a singledose of praziquantel and four adult parasites were recovered. The longest intact worm was 32cm. Her family had household pets (a dog and a cat). The pets were seen by the local veterinary and both were evidenced D. caninum. Humans, primarily children, become infected when they accidentally ingest fleas. Parents usually find proglottids as multiple white objects, often described as cucumber, melon, or pumpkin seeds, in stool, diapers, or on the perineum. Most general practitioners and pediatricians may treat children with enterobiasis (pinworm) infection, and in case the treatment fails, other parasite infection should be considered such as this worm. A history of dog or cat pets, fleas, and flea bites may be important clues to diagnosis. Pets found to be infected should also be treated. PMID:17695802

  20. Stability of the southern European border of Echinococcus multilocularis in the Alps: evidence that Microtus arvalis is a limiting factor.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Diogo; Hegglin, Daniel; Bacciarini, Luca; Schnyder, Manuela; Deplazes, Peter

    2014-06-16

    SUMMARY The known range of the zoonotic fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis has expanded since the 1990s, and today this parasite is recorded in higher abundances throughout large parts of Europe. This phenomenon is mostly attributed to the increasing European fox populations and their invasion of urban habitats. However, these factors alone are insufficient to explain the heterogeneous distribution of the parasite in Europe. Here, we analysed the spatial interrelationship of E. multilocularis with the known distribution of seven vole species in Ticino, southern Switzerland. Among 404 necropsied foxes (1990-2006) and 79 fox faecal samples (2010-2012), E. multilocularis was consistently found in the north of the investigated area. No expansion of this endemic focus was recorded during the 22 years of the study period. This stable endemic focus is coincident with the known distribution of the vole species Microtus arvalis but not, or only partly, with the distribution of the other autochthonous vole species. Our results give evidence that this vole species plays a crucial role in the maintenance of the parasite's life cycle and that its absence could be a limiting factor for the spread of E. multilocularis in this region. PMID:24932666

  1. [Diagnostic features of Microsomacanthus microsoma (Creplin, 1829), type species of the genus Microsomacanthus Lopez-Neyra, 1942, as the base for the revision of the genus].

    PubMed

    Galkin, A K; Regel', K V

    2010-01-01

    The genus Microsomacanthus was created by Lopez-Neyra (1942). Its type species, Taenia microsoma Creplin, 1829, was described from the common eider Somateria mollissima and remained a collective species until Fuhrmann (1913) revealed its diagnostic features on the original material. Simultaneously he described two new species of "microsoma-Gruppe", Microsomacanthus jaegerskioeldi (Fuhrmann, 1913) and M. diorchis (Fuhrmann, 1913). Fuhrmann stressed that under the name of Hymenolepis microsoma Cohn (1901) gave a description of quite different species (a parasite of the freshwater duck Anas penelope). Much earlier Leuckart (1879) used the same name for the denomination of a certain larval form from freshwater snails, without any experimental verification. Fuhrmann (1932), in conflict with himself, synonymized Taenia microsoma Creplin, 1829 and Hymenolepis microsoma sensu Cohn, 1901 and thus caused new inadequacy. Spassky et Spasskaja (1954) confirmed the validity of the genus Microsomacanthus Lopez-Neyra, 1942 and supplemented its diagnosis with such significant criteria as the number of rostellar hooks (10) and the absence of any accessory structures in the copulatory apparatus. Intermediate hosts of M. microsoma proved to be gammarids (Belopolskaya, 1952). Nevertheless Yamaguti (1959) synonymized a larval form from pond snails (Monocercus lymnaei Villot, 1883) with Microsomacanthus microsoma, meanwhile Hymenolepis microsoma sensu Cohn, 1901 was shown to be a synonym of Microsomacanthus compressa (Linton, 1892). The life cycle of the latter species includes copepods as intermediate hosts and freshwater gastropods as storage (reservoir) ones. Schmidt (1986) and Czaplinski and Vaucher (1994) chose M. compressa as an illustrative example of the genus Microsomacanthus instead of its type species. The diagnostic features of the genus remain vague, so the list of its synonyms attained as much as 17. Fuhrmann's material on M. microsoma, as well as on the two other species of "microsoma-Gruppe", deposited in the Museum of Natural History (Geneva) was reinvestigated. The diagnostic features of the group formulated by Fuhrmann (1913) were confirmed and enlarged. Large assemblage of species corresponding to M. microsoma by morphology (small gonads, early resorption of testes, formation of eggpacket in the uterus) and biology (gammarids as intermediate hosts) is established. This group is taken as the nominotypical subgenus Microsomacanthus (Microsomacanthus). For the antithetic group which life cycle corresponds to that of M. compressa (a species with comparatively large gonads, with testes persisting till the maturation of female gonads and eggs disseminating one by one from the uterus) we erect a new taxon, Microsomacanthus (Leucartcohnacanthus subgen. nov. Microsomacanthus paracompressa (Czaplinski, 1956) is selected as its type species. Representatives of both subgenera of the genus Microsomacanthus may have rostellar hooks of the same length. Literary data on their larval forms were often based on misidentification. PMID:21309145

  2. Helminth Parasites of Rhombomys opimus from Golestan Province, Northeast Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kamranrashani, B; Kia, EB; Mobedi, I; Mohebali, M; Zarei, Z; Mowlavi, Gh; Hajjaran, H; Abai, MR; Sharifdini, M; Kakooei, Z; Mirjalali, H; Charedar, S

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to determine the helminthic species occurring in great gerbil Rhombomys opimus collected from Maraveh Tappeh, Golestan Province, northeast Iran. Methods During 2010-2011, a total of 77 R. opimus were captured from rural areas of Maraveh Tappeh, Golestan Province, using Sherman live traps and examined for infectivity with any larva or adult stages of helminthic parasites. Results Overall, 63 R. opimus (81.8%) were found infected with different helminthic species. The rate of infectivity with each species was as follows: Trichuris rhombomidis 31.2%, Trichuris muris 32.5%, Trichuris spp. 10.4%, Syphacia muris 2.6%, Dipetalonema viteae (Acanthocheilonema viteae) 37.7%, Skrjabinotaenia lobata 15.6%, Hymenolepis (=Rodentolepis) nana fraterna 5.2%, and Taenia endothoracicus larva 1.3%. Conclusion R. opimus is host for several species of cestodes and nematodes in the study area. The high rate of infectivity with D. viteae indicates the susceptibility of these gerbils to this filarial nematode. Synchronous infections occurred up to four species of helminthes in one host. PMID:23682264

  3. GK-1 Improves the Immune Response Induced by Bone Marrow Dendritic Cells Loaded with MAGE-AX in Mice with Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Piñón-Zárate, Gabriela; Herrera-Enríquez, Miguel Ángel; Hernández-Téllez, Beatriz; Jarquín-Yáñez, Katia; Castell-Rodríguez, Andrés Eliú

    2014-01-01

    The aim of dendritic cell (DC) vaccination in cancer is to induce tumor-specific effector T cells that may reduce and control tumor mass. Immunostimulants that could drive a desired immune response are necessary to be found in order to generate a long lasting tumor immune response. GK-1 peptide, derived from Taenia crassiceps, induces not only increase in TNF?, IFN?, and MCP-1 production in cocultures of DCs and T lymphocytes but also immunological protection against influenza virus. Moreover, the aim of this investigation is the use of GK-1 as a bone marrow DCs (BMDCs) immunostimulant targeted with MAGE antigen; thus, BMDC may be used as immunotherapy against murine melanoma. GK-1 induced in BMDCs a meaningful increment of CD86 and IL-12. In addition, the use of BMDCs TNF?/GK-1/MAGE-AX induced the highest survival and the smallest tumors in mice. Besides, the treatment helped to increase CD8 lymphocytes levels and to produce IFN? in lymph nodes. Moreover, the histopathological analysis showed that BMDCs treated with GK-1/TNF? and loaded with MAGE-AX induced the apparition of more apoptotic and necrotic areas in tumors than in mice without treatment. These results highlight the properties of GK-1 as an immunostimulant of DCs and suggest as a potential candidate the use of this immunotherapy against cancer disease. PMID:25759825

  4. Helminth communities of the autochthonous mustelids Mustela lutreola and M. putorius and the introduced Mustela vison in south-western France.

    PubMed

    Torres, J; Miquel, J; Fournier, P; Fournier-Chambrillon, C; Liberge, M; Fons, R; Feliu, C

    2008-12-01

    This study presents the first comprehensive helminthological data on three sympatric riparian mustelids (the European mink Mustela lutreola, the polecat M. putorius and the American mink M. vison) in south-western France. One hundred and twenty-four specimens (45 M. lutreola, 37 M. putorius and 42 M. vison) from eight French departments were analysed. Globally, 15 helminth species were detected: Troglotrema acutum, Pseudamphistomum truncatum, Euryhelmis squamula, Euparyphium melis and Ascocotyle sp. (Trematoda), Taenia tenuicollis (Cestoda), Eucoleus aerophilus, Pearsonema plica, Aonchotheca putorii, Strongyloides mustelorum, Molineus patens, Crenosoma melesi, Filaroides martis and Skrjabingylus nasicola (Nematoda) and larval stages of Centrorhynchus species (Acanthocephala). The autochthonous European mink harboured the highest species richness (13 species) followed by the polecat with 11 species. The introduced American mink presented the most depauperate helminth community (nine species). The prevalence and worm burden of most of the helminths found in M. putorius and M. lutreola were also higher than those of M. vison. Some characteristics of their helminth communities were compared to relatively nearby populations (Spain) and other very distant populations (Belarus). This comparison emphasized M. patens as the most frequent parasite in all of the analysed mustelid populations. It was possible to conclude that the invasive M. vison contributes to the maintenance of the life cycle of the pathogenic T. acutum and S. nasicola helminths, with possible implications for the conservation of the endangered European mink. PMID:18752724

  5. [Palaeoparasitological study of atypical elements of the low and High Nile Valley].

    PubMed

    Harter-Lailheugue, S; Bouchet, F

    2006-03-01

    Paleoparasitology in the Old World has mainly concerned the study of latrine sediments and coprolites collected from mummified bodies or archaeological strata, mostly preserved by natural conditions. For the first time, different unusual archaeological samples were studied to look for the eggs of helminths parasites (embalming reject jar, canopic package, shroud). Now, samples of organic matter have been successfully processed in order to extract helminths eggs, following the protocol of BOUCHET 2001 (4). Helminth eggs are frequently preserved in the late Quaternary archaeological contexts because of their hard-wearing chitin shell. Six types of eggs were revealed (Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma haematobium, Taenia, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura). This study allows to enlarge the Palaeoparasitological research with material never exploited. Moreover, if we take into account identified parasite and geography, it's possible to enlarge the debate to parasite spatio-temporal migration. Considering the particular context of samples preservation, it's interesting to observe an exceptional conservation of parasitological sign related to excellent taphonomic condition (aridity anaeroby, rapid interruption of thanatomorphosis, natural "mummification"). PMID:16568686

  6. Extraintestinal Helminth Infection Reduces the Development of Colitis-Associated Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    León-Cabrera, Sonia; Callejas, Blanca E.; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Coronel, Jossimar; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Cirlos, Emma B.; Ávila-Moreno, Federico; Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Marquina-Castillo, Brenda; Chirino, Yolanda I.; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2014-01-01

    Colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) is one of the most common cancers and is closely related to chronic or deregulated inflammation. Helminthic infections can modulate inflammatory responses in some diseases, but their immunomodulatory role during cancer development remains completely unknown. We have analyzed the role of Taenia crassiceps-induced anti-inflammatory response in determining the outcome of CAC. We show that extraintestinal T. crassiceps infection in CAC mice inhibited colonic inflammatory responses and tumor formation and prevented goblet cell loss. There was also increased expression of IL-4 and alternatively activated macrophages markers in colonic tissue and negative immunomodulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. In addition, T. crassiceps infection prevented the upregulation of ?-catenin and CXCR2 expression observed in the CAC mice, which are both markers associated with CAC-tumorigenesis, and reduced the numbers of circulating and colonic CD11b+Ly6ChiCCR2+ monocytes. Thus, immunomodulatory activities induced by helminth infections may have a role in the progression of CAC. PMID:25210492

  7. Helminths of the ocelot from southern Texas.

    PubMed

    Pence, Danny B; Tewes, Michael E; Laack, Linda L

    2003-07-01

    In the USA, the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is a highly endangered felid found only in a few remaining vestiges of native thornshrub brushland in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of extreme southern Texas. From 1987-1998, carcasses of 15 adult ocelots that died of vehicular accidents or natural causes were examined for helminths. All cats had 1-8 (mean = 3) helminth species. All were infected with 1-101 (mean +/- SE = 32 +/- 7) Toxascaris leonina. Other helminths from these ocelots were Alaria marcianae, Brachylaima sp., Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia rileyi, Oncicola canis, Dirofilaria immitis, Physaloptera rara, Ancylostoma tubaeformae, Cylicospirura chevreuxi, Vogeloides felis, and Metathelazia californica. Additionally, two cats had scarring of the aorta with lesions typical of those caused by Spriocerca lupi, although larval nematodes were not seen. A clinal variation in size of nearly three orders of magnitude was noted in the diplostomatid trematodes in the small intestine of one adult male ocelot. Despite the differences in size, all specimens appeared morphologically identical and were regarded as A. marcianae. Helminth prevalences and abundances, including those of potentially pathogenic species like D. immitis, were low. Although a single heartworm infection may have contributed to the death of one ocelot, helminth infections in general seemed to be of no great consequence to this endangered ocelot population. The helminth fauna of ocelots in the LRGV is reflective of that from wild felids in general; all have been reported previously from the bobcat (Lynx rufus) and mountain lion (Puma concolor) elsewhere in Texas. PMID:14567231

  8. Epizootic and zoonotic helminths of the bobcat (Lynx rufus) in Illinois and a comparison of its helminth component communities across the American Midwest.

    PubMed

    Hiestand, Shelby J; Nielsen, Clayton K; Jiménez, F Agustín

    2014-01-01

    A total of 6257 helminths of 19 taxa were recovered from the digestive tract and lungs of 67 bobcats in Illinois. Infections caused by Alaria mustelae, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Macracanthorhynchus ingens are reported for the first time in bobcats. From all the taxa recovered, only three species occurred in high prevalence and caused intense infections: Taenia rileyi, Alaria marcianae, and Toxocara cati, with prevalence and mean intensity of 70% and 6; 42% and 193, and 25% and 14 individuals, respectively. Prevalence lower than 15% of 14 helminth species suggests bobcats are not continuously exposed to infective stages of a single parasite, and may be exposed to a large variety of generalists during their lifespan. No significant difference in parasite species according to host sex or age was detected, except for Diphyllobothrium spp., which were found more frequently in females and in trapped bobcats, and the hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, which infected juveniles more frequently. Average species richness per infracommunity was 2.4 (±1.2), and the parasite component community showed low qualitative similarity with neighbor communities. The taxa A. caninum, Alaria spp., Diphyllobothrium spp., Paragonimus kellicotti, and T. cati are etiological agents of epizootic and zoonotic diseases. PMID:24521984

  9. Distribution of tryptophan hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the brainstem and diencephalon of the pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Meneghelli, Cristiane; Rocha, Nelisa Helena; Mengatto, Vanessa; Hoeller, Alexandre Ademar; Santos, Tiago Souza; Lino-de-Oliveira, Cilene; Marino-Neto, José

    2009-09-01

    The distribution of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH)-containing perikarya and processes in the brainstem and diencephalon of the pigeon (Columba livia) were investigated using single-labeling chromogenic and double-labeling fluorescence immunohistochemical methods for TPH and 5-HT. TPH-immunoreactive (TPH-ir) perikarya were seen extending from the caudal medulla to mid-hypothalamic levels, located in brainstem regions previously described as containing 5-HT-ir somata. Brainstem TPH-ir cell clusters (the midline raphe, and the dorsolateral and ventrolateral serotonergic cell groups) and the circumventricular cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons in the taenia choroidea (in the caudal brainstem), recessus infundibuli and paraventricular organ (in the hypothalamus) were shown to co-express 5-HT immunoreactivity. However, heavily labeled TPH-ir cell clusters were observed in the nucleus premamillaris (PMM), in the stratum cellulare internum (SCI), in the nucleus paraventricularis magnocellularis (PVN) and in the medial border of the nucleus dorsomedialis anterior thalami (DMA). Double-labeling experiments indicated that none of these medial hypothalamic TPH-ir cells were immunoreactive to 5-HT. These cells correspond to dopamine- and melatonin-containing neurons previously found in the avian hypothalamus, and appear to be comparable to the mammalian TPH-ir hypothalamic A11-A13 catecholaminergic somata, suggesting that they may be a conserved attribute in the amniote medial hypothalamus. PMID:19559984

  10. The parasitic fauna of the European bison (Bison bonasus) (Linnaeus, 1758) and their impact on the conservation. Part 1. The summarising list of parasites noted.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Pyziel, Anna M; Wita, Irena; Moskwa, Bo?ena; Werszko, Joanna; Bie?, Justyna; Go?dzik, Katarzyna; Lachowicz, Jacek; Cabaj, W?adys?aw

    2014-09-01

    During the current century, 88 species of parasites have been recorded in Bison bonasus. These are 22 species of protozoa (Trypanosoma wrublewskii, T. theileri, Giardia sp., Sarcocystis cruzi, S. hirsuta, S. hominis, S. fusiformis, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium sp., Eimeria cylindrica, E. subspherica, E. bovis, E. zuernii, E. canadensis, E. ellipsoidalis, E. alabamensis, E. bukidnonensis, E. auburnensis, E. pellita, E. brasiliensis, Babesia divergens), 4 trematodes species (Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Fasciola hepatica, Parafasciolopsis fasciolaemorpha, Paramphistomum cervi), 4 cestodes species (Taenia hydatigena larvae, Moniezia benedeni, M. expansa, Moniezia sp.), 43 nematodes species (Bunostomum trigonocephalum, B. phlebotomum, Chabertia ovina, Oesophagostomum radiatum, O. venulosum, Dictyocaulus filaria, D.viviparus, Nematodirella alcidis, Nematodirus europaeus, N. helvetianus, N. roscidus, N. filicollis, N. spathiger, Cooperia oncophora, C. pectinata, C. punctata, C. surnabada, Haemonchus contortus, Mazamastrongylus dagestanicus, Ostertagia lyrata, O. ostertagi, O. antipini, O. leptospicularis, O. kolchida, O. circumcincta, O. trifurcata, Spiculopteragia boehmi, S. mathevossiani, S. asymmetrica, Trichostrongylus axei, T. askivali, T. capricola, T. vitrinus, Ashworthius sidemi, Onchocerca lienalis, O. gutturosa, Setaria labiatopapillosa, Gongylonema pulchrum, Thelazia gulosa, T. skrjabini, T. rhodesi, Aonchotheca bilobata, Trichuris ovis), 7 mites (Demodex bisonianus, D. bovis, Demodex sp., Chorioptes bovis, Psoroptes equi, P. ovis, Sarcoptes scabiei), 4 Ixodidae ticks (Ixodes ricinus, I. persulcatus, I. hexagonus, Dermacentor reticulatus), 1 Mallophaga species (Bisonicola sedecimdecembrii), 1 Anoplura (Haematopinus eurysternus), and 2 Hippoboscidae flies (Lipoptena cervi, Melophagus ovinus). There are few monoxenous parasites, many typical for cattle and many newly acquired from Cervidae. PMID:25119348

  11. Helminthes of synanthropic rodents (Rodentia: Muridae) from Dakahlia and Menoufia, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elshazly, Atef M; Awad, Soha I; Azab, Manar S; Elsheikha, Hany M; Abdel-Gawad, Abdel Gawad E; Khalil, Hazem H M; Morsy, Tosson A

    2008-12-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to monitor and compare the prevalence of helminthes in rodents from Dakahlia and Menoufia governorates. The domestic rodents (271) were Rattus norvegicus, Rattus rattus frugivorous, Rattus r. alexandrinus, & Mus musculus. The overall prevalence of helminthes was 52.8%. In Dakahlia, 72/145 rats (49.6%) were infected. The highest prevalence of infection was in R. r. frugivorous 43 (60.4%), then R. r. alexandrinus 44 (47.7%), R. norvegicus 38 (44.7%), and the lowest was M. musculus 20 (40%). In Menoufia, 71/126 rats (56.3%) were infected. The highest prevalence of infection was in R. r. frugivorous 36 (77.7%), then M. musculus 27 (48.1%), R. norvegicus 23 (47.8%), and the lowest was in R. r. alexandrinus 40 (47.5%). A total of 24 species of helminthes (11 trematodes, 4 cestodes & 10 nematodes) were identified among the 271 rodents. The commonest trematode was Mesostephanus aegypticus followed by Stictodora tridactyla. The commonest cestode was Hymenolepis diminuta followed by Taenia taeniaformis. The commonest nematode was Capillaria hepatica followed by Trichurus muris. Given the zoonotic potential of rodents' parasites and since several residential, commercial, and agricultural sites exist in the examined geographic areas, the potential health risk should not be ignored. PMID:19209758

  12. The spatial arrangement of the human large intestinal wall blood circulation.

    PubMed

    Kachlik, David; Baca, Vaclav; Stingl, Josef

    2010-03-01

    The aim of the study was to describe and depict the spatial arrangement of the colon microcirculatory bed as a whole. Various parts of the large intestine and terminal ileum were harvested from either cadaver or section material or gained peroperatively. Samples were then injected with India ink or methylmetacrylate Mercox resin for microdissection and corrosion casting for scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that extramural vasa recta ramified to form the subserous plexus, some of them passing underneath the colon taeniae. Branches of both short and long vasa recta merged in the colon wall, pierced the muscular layer and spread out as the submucous plexus, which extended throughout the whole intestine without any interruption. The muscular layer received blood via both the centrifugal branches of the submucous plexus and the minor branches sent off by the subserous plexus. The mucosa was supplied by the mucous plexus, which sent capillaries into the walls of intestinal glands. The hexagonal arrangement of the intestinal glands reflected their vascular bed. All three presumptive critical points are only gross anatomical points of no physiological relevance in healthy individuals. Neither microscopic weak points nor regional differences were proven within the wall of the whole large intestine. The corrosion casts showed a huge density of capillaries under the mucosa of the large intestine. A regular hexagonal pattern of the vascular bed on the inner surface was revealed. No microvascular critical point proofs were confirmed and a correlation model to various pathological states was created. PMID:20447248

  13. Prevalence and pattern of bacteria and intestinal parasites among food handlers in the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ifeadike, C. O.; Ironkwe, O. C.; Adogu, P. O. U.; Nnebue, C. C.; Emelumadu, O. F.; Nwabueze, S. A.; Ubajaka, C. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In developing countries, biological contaminants largely bacteria and other parasites constitute the major causes of food-borne diseases often transmitted through food, water, nails, and fingers contaminated with faeces. Accordingly, food-handlers with poor personal hygiene could be potential sources of infections by these micro-organisms. Objective: This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and pattern of bacteria and intestinal parasites among food handlers in the Federal Capital Territory. Materials and Methods: The study was a descriptive one in which a multistage sampling technique was employed to select 168 food handlers of various types. Subjects’ stool, urine, and fingernail analyses were carried out and the result scientifically scrutinized. Results: Fingernail bacteria isolates include: E. Coli (1.8%), coagulase-negative staphylococcus (17.9%), Staphylococcus aureus(7.1%), Klebsiella species (2.4%), Serratia species (1.2%), Citrobacter species (1.2%), and Enterococcus species (1.8%). The subjects’ stool samples tested positive: For A. lumbricoides (14.9%), T. trichuria (1.8%), S. starcolaris (3.0%), E. histolytica (10.7%), G. lambilia (1.8%), S. mansoni (1.2%), and Taenia species (4.8%). Furthermore, 42.3% and 15.5% of the stool specimen tested positive for Salmonella and Shigella species, respectively. Conclusion: Food establishments should screen and treat staff with active illness, and regularly train them on good personal and workplace hygiene practices. PMID:23293419

  14. High Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini Infection in a Riparian Population in Takeo Province, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Tai-Soon; Shin, Eun-Hee; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S.; Lee, Dong-Min; Park, Keunhee; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Lee, Yoon-Hee; Woo, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Ji-Hwa; Kang, Sin-Il; Cha, Jae-Ku; Lee, Keon-Hoon; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2012-01-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini infection was found to be highly prevalent in 3 riverside villages (Ang Svay Chek A, B, and C) of the Prey Kabas District, Takeo Province. This area is located in the southern part of Cambodia, where the recovery of adult O. viverrini worms was recently reported. From May 2006 until May 2010, fecal examinations were performed on a total of 1,799 villagers using the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. In the 3 villages, the overall positive rate for helminth eggs ranged from 51.7 to 59.0% (av. 57.4%), and the percentage positive for O. viverrini was 46.4-50.6% (47.5%). Other helminths detected included hookworms (13.2%), echinostomes (2.9%), Trichuris trichiura (1.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.6%), and Taenia spp. (0.06%). The prevalence of O. viverrini eggs appeared to reflect a lower infection in younger individuals (<20 years) than in the adult population (>20 years). Men (50.4%) revealed a significantly higher (P=0.02) prevalence than women (44.3%). The Ang Svay Chek villages of the Prey Kabas District, Takeo Province, Cambodia have been confirmed to be a highly endemic area for human O. viverrini infection. PMID:22711932

  15. Prevalence of Helminthic Infections among Inhabitants of Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Keeseon S.; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Banouvong, Virasack; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of helminthic infections was surveyed on a total of 6,178 residents (males 2,549 and females 3,629) in 102 villages of 9 provinces in Lao PDR between 2007 and 2011 under the project of Korea-Laos Collaborative Project for Control of Foodborne Trematode Infections in Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected and examined by the Kato-Katz thick smear and Stoll's egg counting techniques. The overall liver/intestinal helminth egg positive rate was 71.9% with a single or mixed infections with Opisthorchis viverrini and minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF), Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, Trichuris trichiura, Trichostrongylus sp., echinostomes, Taenia spp., and others. Ov/MIF revealed the highest prevalence (55.6%) followed by hookworms (27.8%) and T. trichiura (6.5%). The endemic regions with the highest prevalence of Ov/MIF were Savannakhet, Khammouane, Vientiane (Nam Ngum), Champasak (Khong Island), and Saravane Province. High prevalences of A. lumbricoides (33.8%), hookworms (47.8%), and T. trichiura (32.6%) were observed in Phongsaly, Luang Prabang, and Vientiane (Nam Ngum) areas, respectively. The results of this study highlight helminth parasites of current public health significance in different areas of Lao PDR. PMID:24623882

  16. Prevalence of helminthic infections among inhabitants of Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Eom, Keeseon S; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Banouvong, Virasack; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay

    2014-02-01

    The prevalence of helminthic infections was surveyed on a total of 6,178 residents (males 2,549 and females 3,629) in 102 villages of 9 provinces in Lao PDR between 2007 and 2011 under the project of Korea-Laos Collaborative Project for Control of Foodborne Trematode Infections in Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected and examined by the Kato-Katz thick smear and Stoll's egg counting techniques. The overall liver/intestinal helminth egg positive rate was 71.9% with a single or mixed infections with Opisthorchis viverrini and minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF), Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, Trichuris trichiura, Trichostrongylus sp., echinostomes, Taenia spp., and others. Ov/MIF revealed the highest prevalence (55.6%) followed by hookworms (27.8%) and T. trichiura (6.5%). The endemic regions with the highest prevalence of Ov/MIF were Savannakhet, Khammouane, Vientiane (Nam Ngum), Champasak (Khong Island), and Saravane Province. High prevalences of A. lumbricoides (33.8%), hookworms (47.8%), and T. trichiura (32.6%) were observed in Phongsaly, Luang Prabang, and Vientiane (Nam Ngum) areas, respectively. The results of this study highlight helminth parasites of current public health significance in different areas of Lao PDR. PMID:24623882

  17. Prevalence of intestinal helminths among inhabitants of Cambodia (2006-2011).

    PubMed

    Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2014-12-01

    In order to investigate the status of intestinal helminthic infections in Cambodia, epidemiological surveys were carried out on a national scale, including 19 provinces. A total of 32,201 fecal samples were collected from schoolchildren and adults between 2006 and 2011 and examined once by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths was 26.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was the highest (9.6%), followed by that of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF) (5.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.6%), and Trichuris trichiura (4.1%). Other types of parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis (1.1%), Taenia spp. (0.4%), and Hymenolepis spp. (0.2%). The northwestern regions such as the Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, and Banteay Meanchey Provinces showed higher prevalences (17.4-22.3%) of hookworms than the other localities. The southwestern areas, including Koh Kong and Preah Sihanouk Provinces showed higher prevalences of A. lumbricoides (17.5-19.2%) and T. trichiura (6.1-21.0%). Meanwhile, the central and southern areas, in particular, Takeo and Kampong Cham Provinces, showed high prevalences of Ov/MIF (23.8-24.0%). The results indicate that a considerably high prevalence of intestinal helminths has been revealed in Cambodia, and thus sustained national parasite control projects are necessary to reduce morbidity due to parasitic infections in Cambodia. PMID:25548418

  18. Prevalence of Intestinal Helminths among Inhabitants of Cambodia (2006-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S.; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the status of intestinal helminthic infections in Cambodia, epidemiological surveys were carried out on a national scale, including 19 provinces. A total of 32,201 fecal samples were collected from schoolchildren and adults between 2006 and 2011 and examined once by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths was 26.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was the highest (9.6%), followed by that of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF) (5.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.6%), and Trichuris trichiura (4.1%). Other types of parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis (1.1%), Taenia spp. (0.4%), and Hymenolepis spp. (0.2%). The northwestern regions such as the Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, and Banteay Meanchey Provinces showed higher prevalences (17.4-22.3%) of hookworms than the other localities. The southwestern areas, including Koh Kong and Preah Sihanouk Provinces showed higher prevalences of A. lumbricoides (17.5-19.2%) and T. trichiura (6.1-21.0%). Meanwhile, the central and southern areas, in particular, Takeo and Kampong Cham Provinces, showed high prevalences of Ov/MIF (23.8-24.0%). The results indicate that a considerably high prevalence of intestinal helminths has been revealed in Cambodia, and thus sustained national parasite control projects are necessary to reduce morbidity due to parasitic infections in Cambodia. PMID:25548418

  19. Inputs to the ventrolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-Won; Geerling, Joel C; Loewy, Arthur D

    2008-12-10

    The ventrolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTvl) receives direct input from two specific subpopulations of neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). It is heavily innervated by aldosterone-sensitive NTS neurons, which are selectively activated by sodium depletion, and by the A2 noradrenergic neurons, which are activated by visceral and immune- and stress-related stimuli. Here, we used a retrograde neuronal tracer to identify other brain sites that innervate the BSTvl. Five general brain regions contained retrogradely labeled neurons: cerebral cortex (infralimbic and insular regions), rostral forebrain structures (subfornical organ, organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, taenia tecta, nucleus accumbens, lateral septum, endopiriform nucleus, dorsal BST, substantia innominata, and, most prominently the amygdala--primarily its basomedial and central subnuclei), thalamus (central medial, intermediodorsal, reuniens, and, most prominently the paraventricular thalamic nucleus), hypothalamus (medial preoptic area, perifornical, arcuate, dorsomedial, parasubthalamic, and posterior hypothalamic nuclei), and brainstem (periaqueductal gray matter, dorsal and central superior raphe nuclei, parabrachial nucleus, pre-locus coeruleus region, NTS, and A1 noradrenergic neurons in the caudal ventrolateral medulla). In the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus, some retrogradely labeled neurons contained either agouti-related peptide or cocaine/amphetamine-regulated transcript. Of the numerous retrogradely labeled neurons in the perifornical hypothalamic area, few contained melanin-concentrating hormone or orexin. In the brainstem, many retrogradely labeled neurons were either serotoninergic or catecholaminergic. In summary, the BSTvl receives inputs from a variety of brain sites implicated in hunger, salt and water intake, stress, arousal, and reward. PMID:18853414

  20. Epidemiology of Strongyloides stercoralis on Mekong islands in southern Laos.

    PubMed

    Vonghachack, Youthanavanh; Sayasone, Somphou; Bouakhasith, Dalouny; Taisayavong, Keoka; Akkavong, Kongsap; Odermatt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a neglected helminth infection potentially that can lead to systemic infection in immunocompromised individuals. In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR, Laos), information on S. stercoralis infection is scarce. We assessed S. stercoralis infection and associated risk factors and symptoms on the Mekong islands in Southern Laos. Baermann and Kato-Katz techniques were performed on two stool samples from each individual to detect S. stercoralis larvae and concomitant helminth infections. Among 729 individuals, 41.0% were infected with S. stercoralis. Men were at higher risk than women (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.45-2.67). Urticaria and body itching was associated with S. stercoralis infection (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.42-4.05). Infection with Opisthorchis viverrini (72.2%), Schistosoma mekongi (12.8%), and hookworm (56.1%) were very common. Few infections with Trichuris trichiura (3.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.3%) and Taenia spp. (0.3%) were detected. The majority of helminth infections were of light intensity, with prevalences of 80.4%, 92.9%, 64.5%, 100% and 100%, for O. viverrini, hookworm, S. mekongi, T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides, respectively. Nevertheless, heavy infection intensities were observed for O. viverrini (1.0%), S. mekongi (14.0%) and hookworm (2.9%). S. stercoralis is highly endemic on the islands of Khong district, Champasack province, Southern Laos. The national helminth control programme should take action to control this helminth infection. PMID:25291044