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1

Morphologic and Genetic Identification of Taenia Tapeworms in Tanzania and DNA Genotyping of Taenia solium  

PubMed Central

Species identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed using morphologic observations and multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. In 2008 and 2009, a total of 1,057 fecal samples were collected from residents of Kongwa district of Dodoma region, Tanzania, and examined microscopically for helminth eggs and proglottids. Of these, 4 Taenia egg positive cases were identified, and the eggs were subjected to DNA analysis. Several proglottids of Taenia solium were recovered from 1 of the 4 cases. This established that the species were T. solium (n=1) and T. saginata (n=3). One further T. solium specimen was found among 128 fecal samples collected from Mbulu district in Arusha, and this had an intact strobila with the scolex. Phylegenetic analysis of the mtDNA cox1 gene sequences of these 5 isolates showed that T. saginata was basal to the T. solium clade. The mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences of 3 of these Tanzanian isolates showed 99% similarity to T. saginata, and the other 2 isolates showed 100% similarity to T. solium. The present study has shown that Taenia tapeworms are endemic in Kongwa district of Tanzania, as well as in a previously identified Mbulu district. Both T. solium isolates were found to have an "African/Latin American" genotype (cox1). PMID:22355207

Eom, Keeseon S.; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Kihamia, Charles

2011-01-01

2

The Hamster Model for Identification of Specific Antigens of Taenia solium Tapeworms  

PubMed Central

Humans acquire taeniasis by ingesting pork meat infected with Taenia solium cysticerci, which are the only definitive hosts of the adult stage (tapeworm) and responsible for transmitting the human and porcine cysticercosis. Hence, detection of human tapeworm carriers is a key element in the development of viable strategies to control the disease. This paper presents the identification of specific antigens using sera from hamsters infected with T. solium tapeworms analyzed by western blot assay with crude extracts (CEs) and excretion-secretion antigens (E/S Ag) obtained from T. solium cysticerci and tapeworms and extracts from other helminthes as controls. The hamster sera infected with T. solium tapeworms recognized specific bands of 72, 48, 36, and 24?kDa, in percentages of 81, 81, 90, and 88%, respectively, using the T. solium tapeworms E/S Ag. The antigens recognized by these hamster sera could be candidates to improve diagnosis of human T. solium taeniasis. PMID:22253530

Ochoa-Sánchez, Alicia; Jiménez, Lucía; Landa, Abraham

2011-01-01

3

Tapeworm - beef or pork  

MedlinePLUS

Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata; Taenia solium; Taeniasis ... undercooked meat of infected animals. Cattle usually carry Taenia saginata ( T. saginata ). Pigs carry Taenia solium (T. solium) . ...

4

Effective protection against experimental Taenia solium tapeworm infection in hamsters by primo-infection and by vaccination with recombinant or synthetic heterologous antigens.  

PubMed

The disease caused by Taenia solium is progressively being recognized as a growing global threat for public human health and pig husbandry that requires the development of effective control measures. A central participant in the taeniasis/cysticercosis transmission network is the human carrier of the adult tapeworm because of its great potential in spreading the infection. Herein, evidence is presented that a primary infection of golden hamsters with orally administered T. solium cysticerci improved the host's resistance against a secondary infection. Likewise, previous vaccination increased the hamster's resistance. Similar high levels of protection (> 78%) were induced by systemic or oral vaccination with the S3Pvac anticysticercosis synthetic peptide vaccine or the highly immunogenic recombinant chimera based on the protective peptide KETc1 bound to Brucella spp. lumazine synthase (BLS-KETc1). Increased resistance after primo-infection and vaccination possibly results from changes in the immune conditions prevailing in the host's intestine. The contribution to protection from the KETc1 and BLS epitopes in a chimeric vaccine is under study. Preventive vaccination of definitive hosts of T. solium against the tapeworm, the most relevant step in the taeniasis/cysticercosis transmission, may greatly impact the dynamics of endemic disease and has not been studied or tried previously. PMID:16995407

Cruz-Revilla, C; Toledo, A; Rosas, G; Huerta, M; Flores-Perez, I; Peña, N; Morales, J; Cisneros-Quiñones, J; Meneses, G; Díaz-Orea, A; Anciart, N; Goldbaum, F; Aluja, A; Larralde, C; Fragoso, G; Sciutto, E

2006-08-01

5

Towards a Taenia solium Cysticercosis Vaccine: an Epitope Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Protects Mice against Experimental Cysticercosis  

PubMed Central

The Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigen KETc7 has been shown to be effective as a vaccine against experimental murine cysticercosis, a laboratory model used to test potentially promising molecules against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence of this proline-rich polypeptide, three fragments, GK-1, GK-2, and GK-3, were chemically synthesized in linear form. Of the three peptides, only GK-1 induced sterile protection against T. crassiceps cysticercosis in 40 to 70% of BALB/cAnN male mice. GK-1 is an 18-amino-acid peptide which contains at least one B-cell epitope, as demonstrated by its ability to induce an antibody response to the peptide and T. crassiceps antigen without need of a carrier protein. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that anti-GK1 antibodies strongly react with the native protein in the tegument of T. crassiceps and also with anatomical structures of T. solium eggs, oncospheres, cysticercus, and tapeworm. GK-1 also contains at least one T-cell epitope, capable of stimulating the proliferation of CD8+ and to a lower extent CD4+ T cells primed either with the free peptide or T. crassiceps total antigen. The supernatant of the stimulated cells contained high levels of gamma interferon and low levels of interleukin-4. Similar results were obtained with T cells tested for intracellular cytokine production, an indication of the peptide’s capacity to induce an inflammatory response. The remarkable protection induced by GK-1 immunization, its physicochemical properties, and its presence in all developmental stages of T. solium point to this synthetic peptide as a strong candidate in the construction of a synthetic vaccine against T. solium pig cysticercosis. PMID:10225916

Toledo, Andrea; Larralde, Carlos; Fragoso, Gladis; Gevorkian, Goar; Manoutcharian, Karen; Hernández, Marisela; Acero, Gonzalo; Rosas, Gabriela; López-Casillas, Fernando; Garfias, Carlos Kubli; Vázquez, Ricardo; Terrazas, Ignacio; Sciutto, Edda

1999-01-01

6

Phylogenetic characterisation of Taenia tapeworms in spotted hyenas and reconsideration of the "Out of Africa" hypothesis of Taenia in humans.  

PubMed

The African origin of hominins suggests that Taenia spp. in African carnivores are evolutionarily related to the human-infecting tapeworms Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. Nevertheless, the hypothesis has not been verified through molecular phylogenetics of Taenia. This study aimed to perform phylogenetic comparisons between Taenia spp. from African hyenas and the congeneric human parasites. During 2010-2013, 233 adult specimens of Taenia spp. were collected from 11 spotted hyenas in Ethiopia. A screening based on short DNA sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene classified the samples into four mitochondrial lineages designated as I-IV. DNA profiles of nuclear genes for DNA polymerase delta (pold) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) showed that lineages II and III can be assigned as two independent species. Common haplotypes of pold and pepck were frequently found in lineages I and IV, suggesting that they constitute a single species. Morphological observations suggested that lineage II is Taenia crocutae, but the other lineages were morphologically inconsistent with known species, suggesting the involvement of two new species. A phylogenetic tree of Taenia spp. was reconstructed by the maximum likelihood method using all protein-coding genes of their mitochondrial genomes. The tree clearly demonstrated that T. crocutae is sister to T. saginata and T. asiatica, whereas T. solium was confirmed to be sister to the brown bear tapeworm, Taenia arctos. The tree also suggested that T. solium and T. arctos are related to two species of Taenia in hyenas, corresponding to lineages I+IV and III. These results may partially support the African origin of human-infecting Taenia spp., but there remains a possibility that host switching of Taenia to hominins was not confined to Africa. Additional taxa from African carnivores are needed for further testing of the "Out of Africa" hypothesis of Taenia in humans. PMID:24815426

Terefe, Yitagele; Hailemariam, Zerihun; Menkir, Sissay; Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Iwaki, Takashi; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

2014-07-01

7

Immunology of Taenia solium taeniasis and human cysticercosis.  

PubMed

The life cycle of Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm, is continuously closed in many rural settings in developing countries when free roaming pigs ingest human stools containing T. solium eggs and develop cysticercosis, and humans ingest pork infected with cystic larvae and develop intestinal taeniasis, or may also accidentally acquire cysticercosis by faecal-oral contamination. Cysticercosis of the human nervous system, neurocysticercosis, is a major cause of seizures and other neurological morbidity in most of the world. The dynamics of exposure, infection and disease as well as the location of parasites result in a complex interaction which involves immune evasion mechanisms and involutive or progressive disease along time. Moreover, existing data are limited by the relative lack of animal models. This manuscript revises the available information on the immunology of human taeniasis and cysticercosis. PMID:24962350

Garcia, H H; Rodriguez, S; Friedland, J S

2014-08-01

8

State of the art of Taenia solium as compared to Taenia asiatica.  

PubMed

Three species of tapeworms infect humans in their adult stage (Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica). The 3 are flat, opaque white or yellowish, and exceptional long segmented parasites, measuring 1 to 12 m in their adult stage. In this review, the development of the knowledge regarding the first species, mainly focused on understanding how the larval stage or cysticercus is transmitted to humans, is described. The second species is a cosmopolitan parasite that only causes taeniosis and not cysticercosis; therefore, it will not be included. Information on the third species, which is presently being produced, since this species was recognized as such only at the end of the 20th century, will be discussed at the end of this review. PMID:23467388

Flisser, Ana

2013-02-01

9

State of the Art of Taenia solium as Compared to Taenia asiatica  

PubMed Central

Three species of tapeworms infect humans in their adult stage (Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica). The 3 are flat, opaque white or yellowish, and exceptional long segmented parasites, measuring 1 to 12 m in their adult stage. In this review, the development of the knowledge regarding the first species, mainly focused on understanding how the larval stage or cysticercus is transmitted to humans, is described. The second species is a cosmopolitan parasite that only causes taeniosis and not cysticercosis; therefore, it will not be included. Information on the third species, which is presently being produced, since this species was recognized as such only at the end of the 20th century, will be discussed at the end of this review. PMID:23467388

2013-01-01

10

Renewed hope for a vaccine against the intestinal adult Taenia solium.  

PubMed

Review of experimental and observational evidence about various cestode infections of mammalian hosts revives hope for the development of an effective vaccine against adult intestinal tapeworms, the central protagonists in their transmission dynamics. As for Taenia solium, there are abundant immunological data regarding cysticercosis in humans and pigs, but information about human taeniasis is scarce. A single publication reporting protection against T. solium taeniasis by experimental primo infection and by vaccination of an experimental foster host, the immunocompetent female hamster, kindles the hope of a vaccine against the tapeworm to be used in humans, its only natural definitive host. PMID:17918361

Sciutto, Edda; Rosas, Gabriela; Cruz-Revilla, Carmen; Toledo, Andrea; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Hernández, Marisela; Hernándezt, Beatríz; Goldbaum, Fernando A; de Aluja, Aline S; Fragoso, Gladis; Larralde, Carlos

2007-08-01

11

Tamoxifen Treatment in Hamsters Induces Protection during Taeniosis by Taenia solium  

PubMed Central

Human neurocysticercosis by Taenia solium is considered an emergent severe brain disorder in developing and developed countries. Discovery of new antiparasitic drugs has been recently aimed to restrain differentiation and establishment of the T. solium adult tapeworm, for being considered a central node in the disease propagation to both pigs and humans. Tamoxifen is an antiestrogenic drug with cysticidal action on Taenia crassiceps, a close relative of T. solium. Thus, we evaluated the effect of tamoxifen on the in vitro evagination and the in vivo establishment of T. solium. In vitro, tamoxifen inhibited evagination of T. solium cysticerci in a dose-time dependent manner. In vivo, administration of tamoxifen to hamsters decreased the intestinal establishment of the parasite by 70%, while recovered tapeworms showed an 80% reduction in length, appearing as scolices without strobilar development. Since tamoxifen did not show any significant effect on the proliferation of antigen-specific immune cells, intestinal inflammation, and expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines in spleen and duodenum, this drug could exert its antiparasite actions by having direct detrimental effects upon the adult tapeworm. These results demonstrate that tamoxifen exhibits a strong cysticidal and antitaeniasic effect on T. solium that should be further explored in humans and livestock. PMID:23509701

Escobedo, Galileo; Palacios-Arreola, M. Isabel; Olivos, Alfonso; López-Griego, Lorena; Morales-Montor, Jorge

2013-01-01

12

Isolation and characterization of species-specific DNA probes from Taenia solium and Taenia saginata and their use in an egg detection assay.  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis results from ingestion of the eggs of the tapeworm Taenia solium. Reduction of the incidence of human and swine cysticercosis requires identification and treatment of individuals who carry the adult tapeworm. T. solium and Taenia saginata eggs cannot be differentiated on the basis of morphology; thus, in order to improve existing methods for the diagnosis of taeniasis, we have developed highly sensitive, species-specific DNA probes which differentiate T. solium and T. saginata. Recombinant clones containing repetitive DNA sequences which hybridize specifically with genomic DNAs from either species were isolated and characterized. T. solium-specific DNA sequences contained complete and truncated forms of a tandemly repeated 158-bp DNA sequence. An unrelated T. saginata DNA sequence was also characterized and shown to encode a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene. T. solium- and T. saginata-specific DNA probes did not hybridize in dot blot assays either with genomic DNA from the platyhelminths Taenia hydatigena, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia taeniaeformis, Echinococcus granulosus, and Schistosoma mansoni or with genomic DNA from other eukaryotes, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, Cryptosporidium parvum, Entamoeba histolytica, Trypanosoma gambiense, Trypanosoma brucei, and Giardia lamblia, Caenorhabditis elegans, and human DNA. By using these T. solium and T. saginata DNA probes, a rapid, highly sensitive and specific dot blot assay for the detection of T. solium eggs was developed. PMID:7615742

Chapman, A; Vallejo, V; Mossie, K G; Ortiz, D; Agabian, N; Flisser, A

1995-01-01

13

Differentiating Taenia solium and Taenia saginata Infections by Simple Hematoxylin-Eosin Staining and PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species-specific identification of human tapeworm infections is important for public health purposes, because prompt identification of Taenia solium carriers may prevent further human cysticercosis infections (a major cause of acquired epilepsy). Two practical methods for the differentiation of cestode proglottids, (i) routine embedding, sectioning, and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and (ii) PCR with restriction enzyme analysis (PCR-REA), were tested on samples

H. MAYTA; A. TALLEY; R. H. GILMAN; J. JIMENEZ; M. VERASTEGUI; M. RUIZ; H. H. GARCIA; A. E. GONZALEZ

2000-01-01

14

Vaccine development against the Taenia solium parasite  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium is a zoonotic parasite that causes cysticercosis. The parasite is a major cause of human disease in impoverished communities where it is transmitted to humans from pigs which act as intermediate hosts. Vaccination of pigs to prevent transmission of T. solium to humans is an approach that has been investigated to control the disease. A recombinant vaccine antigen, TSOL18, has been remarkably successful at reducing infection of pigs with T. solium in several experimental challenge trials. The vaccine has been shown to eliminate transmission of naturally acquired T. solium in a field trial conducted in Africa. We recently reported that the vaccine was also effective in a field trial conducted in Peru. The TSOL18 recombinant antigen for each of these trials has been produced by expression in Escherichia coli. Here we discuss research that has been undertaken on the TSOL18 antigen and related antigens with a focus on improved methods of preparation of recombinant TSOL18 and optimized expression in Escherichia coli. PMID:23196744

Gauci, Charles; Jayashi, César; Lightowlers, Marshall W

2013-01-01

15

Towards a Taenia solium Cysticercosis Vaccine: an Epitope Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Protects Mice against Experimental Cysticercosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigen KETc7 has been shown to be effective as a vaccine against exper- imental murine cysticercosis, a laboratory model used to test potentially promising molecules against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence of this proline-rich polypeptide, three fragments, GK-1, GK-2, and GK-3, were chemically synthesized in linear form. Of the three

ANDREA TOLEDO; CARLOS LARRALDE; GLADIS FRAGOSO; GOAR GEVORKIAN; KAREN MANOUTCHARIAN; MARISELA HERNANDEZ; GONZALO ACERO; GABRIELA ROSAS; FERNANDO LOPEZ-CASILLAS; CARLOS KUBLI GARFIAS; RICARDO VAZQUEZ; IGNACIO TERRAZAS; EDDA SCIUTTO

16

Epidemiological understanding of Taenia tapeworm infections with special reference to Taenia asiatica in Korea  

PubMed Central

In endemic areas of Taenia tapeworms in Korea, most of the reports showed that T. saginata was dominant over T. solium, but eating pigs is the dominant habit over eating cattle. Why do they have more T. saginata despite lower consumption of beef? This problem actually has long been recognized but until recently there has been no intensive trial to give a scientific explanation on this epidemiological enigma. By summing up the data published between the years 1963 and 1999, the ratio of armed versus unarmed tapeworms in humans was estimated at approximately 1:5. The ratio of pig-eaters versus cattle-eaters, however, was approximately 5:1. This inconsistency could be explained with the recently described T. asiatica, which infects humans through the eating of pig's viscera. We re-evaluate the importance of the consumption of visceral organ of pigs, leading us to an improved epidemiological understanding of the T. asiatica infection together with co-existing T. saginata and T. solium in Korea. PMID:11775327

Rim, Han-Jong

2001-01-01

17

Investigating a hyper-endemic focus of Taenia solium in northern Lao PDR  

PubMed Central

Background The Taenia solium cysticercosis-taeniasis complex is a Neglected Tropical Disease of significant public health importance in many impoverished communities worldwide. The parasite is suspected to be endemic in Lao PDR as a result of widespread risk factors including open human defecation, free ranging pigs and weak systems for meat inspection and carcass condemnation. Reported prevalences of human taeniasis throughout the country have ranged from 0-14%, although few of these have definitively diagnosed T. solium, grossly indistinguishable from Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) and Taenia asiatica. This short communication details the suspicion of a hyper endemic “hotspot” of T. solium in a remote Tai Dam village in northern Lao PDR. Findings Initial antibody serosurveillance of four provinces in Lao PDR in 2011 indicated human taeniasis and cysticercosis prevalences of 46.7% and 66.7% respectively, in the village of Om Phalong in the north of the country. Subsequent copro-antigen ELISA on 92 human faecal samples from this same village, representing a total 27.9% of the target community, indicated a taeniasis prevalence of 26.1% (95% CI?=?18.2-35.9). Subsequent PCR and sequencing of samples (n?=?5) all identified as T. solium; the other human tapeworms T. saginata and T. asiatica were not detected in any of the samples genotyped. Conclusion This is potentially one of the highest documented prevalences of T. solium taeniasis to date in Lao PDR, if not the Southeast Asia region. This result raises suspicion that other “hotspots” of T. solium hyper endemicity may exist in the region, particularly in communities where the consumption of raw pork is commonplace as a result of cultural practices. PMID:24678662

2014-01-01

18

Differentiating Taenia solium and Taenia saginata infections by simple hematoxylin-eosin staining and PCR-restriction enzyme analysis.  

PubMed

Species-specific identification of human tapeworm infections is important for public health purposes, because prompt identification of Taenia solium carriers may prevent further human cysticercosis infections (a major cause of acquired epilepsy). Two practical methods for the differentiation of cestode proglottids, (i) routine embedding, sectioning, and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and (ii) PCR with restriction enzyme analysis (PCR-REA), were tested on samples from 40 individuals infected with T. solium (n = 34) or Taenia saginata (n = 6). Microscopic examination of HE staining of sections from 24 cases, in which conserved proglottids were recovered, clearly revealed differences in the number of uterine branches. Distinct restriction patterns for T. solium and T. saginata were observed when the PCR products containing the ribosomal 5.8S gene plus internal transcribed spacer regions were digested with either AluI, DdeI, or MboI. Both HE histology and PCR-REA are useful techniques for differentiating T. solium from T. saginata. Importantly, both techniques can be used in zones of endemicity. HE histology is inexpensive and is currently available in most regions of endemicity, and PCR-REA can be performed in most hospital centers already performing PCR without additional equipment or the use of radioactive material. PMID:10618076

Mayta, H; Talley, A; Gilman, R H; Jimenez, J; Verastegui, M; Ruiz, M; Garcia, H H; Gonzalez, A E

2000-01-01

19

Taenia solium Infection in Peru: A Collaboration between Peace Corps Volunteers and Researchers in a Community Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of seizures and epilepsy in most of the world, and it occurs when Taenia solium larval cysts infect the central nervous system. T. solium tapeworm infection is endemic in much of Peru, but there are scarce data on the prevalence in many rural highland communities where it is likely to be hyper-endemic. Peace Corps Volunteers live and work in these communities; however, to our knowledge, they have not been used to facilitate public health research. Materials and Methods We utilized Peace Corps Volunteers to estimate the prevalence of T. solium tapeworm infection in seven rural communities in northern Peru. A convenience non-random sampling frame was used. Peace Corps Volunteers facilitated the collection of stool samples (N?=?2,328), which were analyzed by sedimentation and microscopy. Niclosamide treatment and purgation preceded species identification, which was done by PCR-REA. Results Taenia sp. egg-positive stool samples were found in three of the seven communities we surveyed. The overall prevalence of Taenia sp. egg positivity was 2.1% (49/2,328) (95% CI?=?1.6–2.8%) with prevalence up to 4.3% (42/977) (95% CI?=?3.1–5.8%) by community. All 34 of the specimens tested by PCR-REA were T. solium. The overall prevalence of T. solium tapeworm infection was 1.5% (34/2,328) (95% CI?=?1.0–2.0%). Prevalence up to 2.9% (28/977) (95% CI?=?1.9–4.1%) by community was observed. Conclusion/Significance This study recorded high T. solium tapeworm prevalence, and identified hyper-endemic rural communities. It demonstrates that synergy between researchers and Peace Corps Volunteers can be an effective means to conducting large-scale, community-based studies in remote areas of Peru. PMID:25469506

Watts, Nathaniel S.; Pajuelo, Monica; Clark, Taryn; Loader, Maria-Cristina I.; Verastegui, Manuela R.; Sterling, Charles; Friedland, Jon S.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

2014-01-01

20

Seroprevalence of Taenia solium infections in Croatian patients presenting with epilepsy.  

PubMed

Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders, while neurocysticercosis caused by Taenia solium infection of the central nervous system currently represents the leading cause of secondary epilepsy in Central and South America, East and South Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. As a result of increased migration from these endemic regions, neurocysticercosis and subsequent epilepsy are becoming a growing public health problem in developed countries as well. In order to determine the prevalence of T. solium infection in patients with epilepsy in Croatia, a retrospective serological study was conducted. A total of 770 serum samples were tested for the presence of T. solium IgG antibodies using a commercial qualitative enzyme immunoassay. The Western blot technique was used as a confirmatory test for the diagnosis. The overall seroprevalence rate of T. solium infection in patients with clinically proven epilepsy was 1.5%. Although the results have shown that infection with this tapeworm is rare in Croatia, this study hopes to increase awareness about the importance of preventive measures and benefits of accurate and timely diagnosis. Intervention measures for infection control are crucial, namely sanitation improvement, control of domestic pig-breeding, detailed meat inspection, detection and treatment of tapeworm carriers, hand washing and health education. PMID:21729385

Meštrovi?, T; Sviben, M; Vilibi?-?avlek, T; Ljubin-Sternak, S; Tabain, I; Mlinari?-Galinovi?, G

2012-09-01

21

Assessing the burden of Taenia solium cysticercosis and echinococcosis.  

PubMed

This collection of articles provides an account of the papers delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP)(held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on assessing the burden of Taenia solium cysticercosis and echinococcosis organised and chaired by A. Lee Willingham III from the WHO/FAO Collaborating Center for Research and Training on Emerging and other Parasitic Zoonoses in Denmark and Peter M. Schantz from the Parasitic Diseases Division of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA. The focus was on the persistence of the zoonotic parasitic diseases cysticercosis, caused by the pork tapeworm T. solium, and echinococcosis,caused by species of the tapeworm Echinococcus, and why these diseases are given very little attention on the national and international agendas in spite of the availability of tools to detect, treat,control and prevent them when it is quite clear in most instances that they are clearly associated with and help perpetuate poverty. A major reason for this is that in many endemic areas the presence and impact of these diseases are not known due to the lack of investigation and information thus policymakers are not aware of their burden and benefits of their control. Documentation is also needed to help increase awareness of the international community and hopefully result in financial and technical support being made available. Thus, burden assessments of cysticercosis and echinococcosis provide an essential evidence base for securing political will and financial and technical support as well as providing a basis for cost-benefit analysis of prevention and control efforts. In order to make an appropriate and full burden assessment one must consider the health, agricultural, social and other impacts of these parasitic zoonoses comprehensively. During the symposium presentations were given concerning current ongoing initiatives to assess the burden of cysticercosis and echinococcosis and examples of the impact of these diseases in both developing and developed countries were provided. In addition, cost factors related to vaccines for these cestode diseases were discussed and the possibilities for technical and financial support from multilateral agencies for assessments and interventions presented. PMID:24937886

Carabin, H; Torgerson, P R; Budke, C; Cowan, L D; Nash, T; Willingham, A L; Krecek, R C; Michael, L M; Schantz, P M; Dorny, P; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, R; Benitez-Ortiz, W; Geerts, S; Geyson, D; Ron-Román, J; Proaño-Pérez, F; Chávez-Larrea, M A; Barrionuevo-Samaniego, M; Celi-Erazo, M; Vizcaíno-Ordóñez, L; Brandt, J; Jenkins, D J; Lightowlers, M W; Heath, D D; Eddi, C; De Balogh, K; Lubroth, J; Amanfu, W; Speedy, A; Battaglia, D

2004-10-28

22

High prevalence of Taenia saginata taeniasis and status of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Bali, Indonesia, 2002-2004.  

PubMed

An epidemiological survey of taeniasis/cysticercosis was carried out in one semi-urban and two urban villages in three districts of Bali, Indonesia in 2002 and 2004. In total, 398 local people from 247 families were diagnosed by anamnesis and clinical examinations, and 60 residents were suspected to be taeniasis carriers. Among 60 suspected carriers, 56 persons expelled a total of 61 taeniid adult worms after praziquantel treatment. From 398 residents, 252 stool samples were available for analysis of taeniid eggs, coproantigens or copro-DNA for identification of taeniid species, and 311 serum samples were available for detection of antibodies against Taenia solium cysticercosis. Taeniasis prevalences were highly variable among three villages (1.1-27.5%), and only one case of cysticercosis due to T. solium infection was detected. All expelled tapeworms were confirmed to be Taenia saginata by mtDNA analysis. There was no Taenia asiatica human case in Bali. Case control analysis of 106 families chosen at random from 179 families in 2004 and another 106 families from non-endemic areas revealed that risk factors of T. saginata taeniasis for families were: level of education (P<0.01); consumption of beef lawar (P<0.01); and the source of lawar (P<0.01). PMID:16199069

Wandra, T; Sutisna, P; Dharmawan, N S; Margono, S S; Sudewi, R; Suroso, T; Craig, P S; Ito, A

2006-04-01

23

The immune response in Taenia solium cysticercosis: protection and injury.  

PubMed

This article reviews current knowledge on the innate and acquired immune responses in human Taenia solium neurocysticercosis, highlighting the conditions that appear to be favourable for the survival or destruction of the parasite and for the benefit or injury to its host. PMID:18042169

Sciutto, E; Chavarria, A; Fragoso, G; Fleury, A; Larralde, C

2007-12-01

24

Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Japan  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases is increasing in Japan, the current situation is not clear. This is largely because taeniasis and cysticercosis are not notifiable conditions in Japan and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of T. solium infections in Japan conducted in the last 15 years. Herein, we provide an overview of the status of T. solium infection in Japan over the past 35 years and point out the potential risks to Japanese society. PMID:22248435

2012-01-01

25

From stillness to motion: 80 years after the first description of Taenia solium oncosphere hatching  

PubMed Central

Background Human neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a considered public health problem in many underdeveloped and developing countries. Because of the enormous increase in international tourism and migration, NCC nowadays is also found in some developed countries. Our group was the first to demonstrate that tapeworm carriers in the household are the main risk factor for acquiring cysticercosis in humans and pigs, since the disease results from the ingestion of microscopic tapeworm eggs. Findings We had the opportunity to film the liberation of the embryo from the oncospheral membrane after the hatching of the egg, which is the activation process required for intestinal wall invasion by the onchosphere. Yoshino (J Formosa Med Ass 32:139-142, 1933) described with great detail in diagrams and photographs this process eighty years ago after he infected himself with three living cysticerci in order to study the life cycle of Taenia solium. Other authors further described this process. Nevertheless it has never been filmed before. The purpose of this paper is to shift from stillness to motion since we can now show for the first time a movie of an activated oncosphere and its release from the oncospheral membrane. Conclusion Oncospheral activation is the requisite for T. solium embryos to invade the intestinal mucosa and develop into cysticerci. This process has been amply described but here it is shown for the first time in motion; thus it may be of interest for readers of the journal and useful for educational purposes towards the control of NCC. PMID:24433262

2014-01-01

26

Human subcutaneous Taenia solium cysticercosis in an Andean population with neurocysticercosis.  

PubMed

Subcutaneous involvement by the larval stages of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium in patients suffering from neurocysticercosis (neurocysticercosis) is well-described. It has been a clinical but undocumented impression that subcutaneous nodules are less common in cases of neurocysticercosis in Latin American than in Africa or Asia. We report on the absence of subcutaneous nodules found in a screened population of 2,891 residents of an Andean village in Ecuador with a prevalence rate for neurocysticercosis of 144 per thousand. Thirty-four patients with multiple intracranial calcifications and or cystic or encephalitic parenchymal lesions of neurocysticercosis were examined and questioned about subcutaneous nodules. Only one patient described nodules and this computed tomography plain films are presented. Several hypotheses are presented as to why nodules may be less common in this Andean community with a high prevalence of neurocysticercosis. PMID:7943565

Cruz, I; Cruz, M E; Teran, W; Schantz, P M; Tsang, V; Barry, M

1994-10-01

27

Taenia solium and Taenia saginata: identification of sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers.  

PubMed

Cysticercosis is one of the most important zoonosis, not only because of the effects on animal health and its economic consequences, but also due to the serious danger it poses to humans. The two main parasites involved in the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex in Brazil are Taenia saginata and Taenia solium. Differentiating between these two parasites is important both for disease control and for epidemiological studies. The purpose of this work was to identify genetic markers that could be used to differentiate these parasites. Out of 120 oligonucleotide decamers tested in random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assays, 107 were shown to discriminate between the two species of Taenia. Twenty-one DNA fragments that were specific for each species of Taenia were chosen for DNA cloning and sequencing. Seven RAPD markers were converted into sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers with two specific for T. saginata and five specific for T. solium as shown by agarose gel electrophoresis. These markers were developed as potential tools to differentiate T. solium from T. saginata in epidemiological studies. PMID:17466296

Dias, Ana Karina Kerche; Aoki, Sérgio Moraes; Garcia, José Fernando; Nunes, Cáris Maroni

2007-09-01

28

Does interspecific competition have a moderating effect on Taenia solium transmission dynamics in Southeast Asia?  

PubMed

It is well understood that sociocultural practices strongly influence Taenia solium transmission; however, the extent to which interspecific parasite competition moderates Taenia transmission has yet to be determined. This is certainly the case in Southeast Asia where T. solium faces competition in both the definitive host (people) and the intermediate host (pigs). In people, adult worms of T. solium, T. saginata and T. asiatica compete through density-dependent crowding mechanisms. In pigs, metacestodes of T. solium, T. hydatigena and T. asiatica compete through density-dependent immune-mediated interactions. Here, we describe the biological and epidemiological implications of Taenia competition and propose that interspecific competition has a moderating effect on the transmission dynamics of T. solium in the region. Furthermore, we argue that this competitive ecological scenario should be considered in future research and surveillance activities examining T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Southeast Asia. PMID:19717341

Conlan, James V; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Fenwick, Stanley; Blacksell, Stuart D; Thompson, R C Andrew

2009-09-01

29

Epidemiology of Taenia solium in Nepal: is it influenced by the social characteristics of the population and the presence of Taenia asiatica?  

PubMed

The transmission of the zoonotic pork tapeworms Taenia solium and T. asiatica depends on a combination of specific risk factors, such as open defecation, backyard pig raising and the consumption of raw or undercooked pork and viscera. A community-based survey was conducted among 289 households in south-eastern Nepal to study the heterogeneity of these risk factor frequencies as a function of the social composition of the population. The frequency of open defecation, backyard pig raising and pork consumption differed significantly (P < 0.005) among the different coexisting caste and ethnic groups. In the same survey, the taeniosis prevalence was examined among the different groups. Tapeworm carriers were identified at a high prevalence among the Dum, one of the most disadvantaged communities of Nepal. A PCR-RFLP assay revealed that all collected tapeworm specimens were T. asiatica, a species thus far not known to occur in South Asia. These results can help to understand the epidemiology of T. solium in Nepal, which appears to be more complex than thought so far. PMID:22643112

Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aryal, Arjun; Joshi, Durga Datt; Rijal, Suman; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Duchateau, Luc; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre

2012-08-01

30

Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Taenia solium Cysticerci among Refugees Resettled in United States  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a disease caused by central nervous system infection by the larval stage of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. In developing countries, NCC is a leading cause of adult-onset epilepsy. Case reports of NCC are increasing among refugees resettled to the United States and other nations, but the underlying prevalence among refugee groups is unknown. We tested stored serum samples from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Migrant Serum Bank for antibodies against T. solium cysts by using the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot. Seroprevalence was high among all 4 populations tested: refugees from Burma (23.2%), Lao People’s Democratic Republic (18.3%), Bhutan (22.8%), and Burundi (25.8%). Clinicians caring for refugee populations should suspect NCC in patients with seizure, chronic headache, or unexplained neurologic manifestations. Improved understanding of the prevalence of epilepsy and other associated diseases among refugees could guide recommendations for their evaluation and treatment before, during, and after resettlement. PMID:22377408

Townes, John M.; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Noh, John C.; Lee, Deborah; Rodriguez, Silvia; Garcia, Hector H.; Stauffer, William M.

2012-01-01

31

Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis: potential linkage with FAO activities; FAO support possibilities.  

PubMed

Neurocysticercosis due to Taenia solium metacestodes is an important cause of human morbidity and mortality, particularly in parts of Latin America, Africa and Asia. The disease has been recognized as potentially eradicable. Emphasis has been placed on control through mass chemotherapy of human populations to remove tapeworm carriers, but this strategy does not control the source of infections, which is cysticercosis in pigs. Also, transmission may continue due to incomplete chemotherapy coverage of human carriers or because of immigration of tapeworm carriers into controlled areas. The FAO through the Veterinary Public Health (VPH) and Food Safety program has provided support for the write-up of guidelines for cysticercosis, diagnoses and control. This should be released in a joint effort with OIE and WHO and will provide regular support to seminars, workshops and congresses related to VPH. The FAO regular program has also established a global network of people directly involved in VPH, and is currently in the process of establishing four regional networks located in Asia, Africa, Eastern and Central Europe and Latin America. The networks should provide a basic framework to spread information related to diagnosis, prevention and control of major zoonotic diseases through electronic conferences, discussions, newsletters, and a Directory to establish contact with people involved in VPH and zoonotic diseases. Through the Technical Cooperation Program (TCP) the FAO has a tool to help Member Countries to create the basic environment to control emerging zoo-sanitary problems, such as zoonotic and food borne diseases. PMID:12781389

Eddi, Carlos; Nari, Armando; Amanfu, William

2003-06-01

32

Genetic diversity of Taenia solium cysticerci from naturally infected pigs of central Mexico.  

PubMed

This study was designed to explore if each individual case of naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis, living in different geographic rural areas of central Mexico, is caused by one or more different specimens of Taenia solium tapeworm. The genetic variability among cysticerci from the same pig and that from different pigs was assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA markers (RAPDs), through the percentage of polymorphic loci, the number of effective alleles, the expected heterozygosity and the Shannon index. The parasite population's reproductive structure was estimated through the association index (I(A)), and the degree of genetic differentiation and variation was determined using AMOVA. Using six different random primers, and a total of 181 cysticerci from 14 pigs, 88 different loci were amplified: 85% were polymorphic between pigs and 24% within pigs. The phenogram grouped the cysticerci into eight major clusters, with differences in the genetic distances among all cysticerci from 14 pigs ranging from 0.78 to 1. Most of the cysticerci grouped in accord with their different geographical origin and with their pig of origin. The similarity matrix produced from the phenogram (obtained by UPGMA) and the original similarity matrix yielded a good cophenetic correlation (r=0.82317, P=0.0004), which suggests that the phenogram accurately represents the original genetic similarities between isolates. The combination of I(A) (0.0-0.089) with the genetic diversity index (0.009-0.073) supports the idea that DNA diversity in T. solium cysticerci of naturally infected pigs is within the range expected from a recombination process occurring during sexual reproduction. The small genetic diversity found within the cysticerci of each pig (33.81%), when compared with that between pigs (66.19%), indicates that pigs are rarely infected by different tapeworms. It would then appear that porcine cysticercosis courses with effective concomitant immunity, as occurs in ovine cysticercosis. PMID:19963321

Bobes, Raúl J; Fragoso, Gladis; Reyes-Montes, María del Rocio; Duarte-Escalante, Esperanza; Vega, Rodrigo; de Aluja, Aline S; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Morales, Julio; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

2010-02-26

33

A Cross-Sectional Study of Taenia solium in a Multiple Taeniid-Endemic Region Reveals Competition May be Protective  

PubMed Central

We conducted cross-sectional surveys for taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans, pigs, and dogs in four northern provinces of Laos. Human cysticercosis and taeniasis prevalence was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4–3.0%) and 8.4% (95% CI = 6.9–9.9%), respectively. Eating uncooked beef, being male, province of residence, age, and ethnicity were significant risk factors for taeniasis and only province of residence was a significant risk factor for cystiercosis. Thirty-five human tapeworms were recovered during the survey and 33 (94.3%) and 2 (5.7%) were identified as Taenia saginata and T. solium, respectively. Maximum-likelihood adjusted prevalence of T. solium and T. hydatigena in pigs was 4.2% (95% CI = 0.5–7.9%) and 55.9% (95% CI = 47.5–64.3%), respectively, and T. hydatigena taeniasis in dogs was 4.8% (95% CI = 0.0–11.3%). Taenia hydatigena and T. saginata were the most prevalent taeniids in the respective pig and human populations and together may suppress T. solium transmission. PMID:22855759

Conlan, James V.; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Dorny, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Elliot, Aileen; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R. C. Andrew

2012-01-01

34

A cross-sectional study of Taenia solium in a multiple taeniid-endemic region reveals competition may be protective.  

PubMed

We conducted cross-sectional surveys for taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans, pigs, and dogs in four northern provinces of Laos. Human cysticercosis and taeniasis prevalence was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-3.0%) and 8.4% (95% CI = 6.9-9.9%), respectively. Eating uncooked beef, being male, province of residence, age, and ethnicity were significant risk factors for taeniasis and only province of residence was a significant risk factor for cystiercosis. Thirty-five human tapeworms were recovered during the survey and 33 (94.3%) and 2 (5.7%) were identified as Taenia saginata and T. solium, respectively. Maximum-likelihood adjusted prevalence of T. solium and T. hydatigena in pigs was 4.2% (95% CI = 0.5-7.9%) and 55.9% (95% CI = 47.5-64.3%), respectively, and T. hydatigena taeniasis in dogs was 4.8% (95% CI = 0.0-11.3%). Taenia hydatigena and T. saginata were the most prevalent taeniids in the respective pig and human populations and together may suppress T. solium transmission. PMID:22855759

Conlan, James V; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Dorny, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Elliot, Aileen; Blacksell, Stuart D; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R C Andrew

2012-08-01

35

Genotoxicity induced by Taenia solium and its reduction by immunization with calreticulin in a hamster model of taeniosis.  

PubMed

Genotoxicity induced by neurocysticercosis has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo in humans. The adult stage of Taenia solium lodges in the small intestine and is the main risk factor to acquire neurocysticercosis, nevertheless its carcinogenic potential has not been evaluated. In this study, we determined the genotoxic effect of T. solium infection in the hamster model of taeniosis. In addition, we assessed the effect of oral immunization with recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) plus cholera toxin as adjuvant on micronuclei induction, as this protein has been shown to induce 33-44% protection in the hamster model of taeniosis. Blood samples were collected from the orbital venous plexus of noninfected and infected hamsters at different days postinfection, as well as from orally immunized animals, to evaluate the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes as a measure of genotoxicity induced by parasite exposure and rTsCRT vaccination. Our results indicate that infection with T. solium caused time-dependent DNA damage in vivo and that rTsCRT immunization reduced the genotoxic damage induced by the presence of the tapeworms. PMID:23704053

Salazar, Ana María; Mendlovic, Fela; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Chávez-Talavera, Oscar; Sordo, Monserrat; Avila, Guillermina; Flisser, Ana; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia

2013-06-01

36

Regional status, epidemiology and impact of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Western and Central Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In West Africa, Taenia solium cysticercosis in both pigs and man has been reported in Benin, Burkina-Faso, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Senegal and Togo, and although official data are lacking, T. solium is anticipated to be present in most of the pig-raising regions of other West African countries as well. In some regions of Nigeria, the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and

André Zoli; Oliver Shey-Njila; Emmanuel Assana; Jean-Pierre Nguekam; Pierre Dorny; Jef Brandt; Stanny Geerts

2003-01-01

37

In vitro oncosphere-killing assays to determine immunity to the larvae of Taenia pisiformis, Taenia ovis, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium.  

PubMed

Taeniid cestodes infect humans and livestock, causing considerable morbidity and mortality, as well as economic loss. Substantial progress has been made toward the production of recombinant vaccines against cysticercosis in livestock animals. Further development of these vaccines would be aided if a reliable in vitro test were available to measure host-protective immune responses in vaccinated animals. Here, we describe in vitro oncosphere-killing assays for the quantification of host-protective serum antibodies against Taenia pisiformis, Taenia ovis, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium in rabbits, sheep, cattle, and pigs, respectively. Activated oncospheres of T. pisiformis, T. ovis, T. saginata, and T. solium were incubated in vitro in culture medium, test serum, and a source of complement, and oncosphere killing was assessed after 10 days of culture. In vitro oncosphere killing reflected the presence of specific antibody, and the oncosphere-killing assay typically indicated immunity to the homologous parasite that had been determined in vivo. This study describes the first reliable oncosphere-killing assays for T. pisiformis, T. ovis, T. saginata, and T. solium. These assays will be used for further research into the optimization of recombinant vaccines against cysticercosis. PMID:16729683

Kyngdon, Craig T; Gauci, Charles G; Rolfe, Rick A; Velásquez Guzmán, Jeanette C; Farfán Salazar, Marilú J; Verástegui Pimentel, Manuela R; Gonzalez, Armando E; Garcia, Hector H; Gilmanl, Robert H; Strugnell, Richard A; Lightowlers, Marshall W

2006-04-01

38

Specific Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Antigenic Peptides for Neurocysticercosis Immunodiagnosis Using Serum Samples  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis (NC), i.e., the presence of the larval form of Taenia solium in tissues, is the most frequent and severe infection involving the central nervous system. Paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with NC, CSF and serum samples from a control group, and serum samples from patients with other parasitoses were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by immunoblotting with Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid antigen (Tcra) and Taenia solium total saline antigen (Tso) for the detection of immunoglobulin G antibodies. ELISAs carried out with the Tso and Tcra antigens showed 94.1 and 95.6% sensitivities, respectively, for the detection of antibodies in CSF and 70.6% and 91.2% sensitivities, respectively, for the detection of antibodies in serum, with 100% specificity for the detection of antibodies in CSF and 80% specificity for the detection of antibodies in serum for both antigens. On the basis of the reactivities of the peptides in the samples analyzed, the peptides of ?23, 39, 85 to 77, and 97 kDa were found to be Tso specific by immunoblotting and the peptides of ?62, 74, 109, 121, and 131 kDa were found to be Tcra specific. Tests with Tcra extract had higher sensitivities and more homogeneous results and permitted us to obtain the parasites easily. We suggest the use of Tcra ELISA for the study of serum and confirmation of the results for sera positive by an immunoblotting analysis in which specific peptides (e.g., peptides of 19 to 13 kDa) are detected. PMID:10618078

Bueno, Ednéia Casagranda; Vaz, Adelaide José; Machado, Luís Dos Ramos; Livramento, José Antônio; Mielle, Sílvia Regina

2000-01-01

39

Detection of Taenia solium Taeniasis Coproantigen Is an Early Indicator of Treatment Failure for Taeniasis  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective. PMID:22336287

Bustos, Javier A.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A.; Moyano, Luz M.; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C.; Craig, Philip S.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.

2012-01-01

40

Ring-Screening to Control Endemic Transmission of Taenia solium  

PubMed Central

Background Taenia solium is a major cause of preventable epilepsy in developing nations. Screening and treatment of human intestinal stage infection (taeniasis) within high-risk foci may reduce transmission and prevent epilepsy by limiting human exposure to infective eggs. We piloted a ring-strategy that involves screening and treatment for taeniasis among households located nearby pigs heavily-infected with the larval stage (cysticercosis). These pigs mark areas of increased transmission and can be identified by tongue examination. Methodology We selected two villages in northern Peru for a controlled prospective interventional cohort pilot study. In the intervention village (1,058 residents) we examined the tongues of all pigs every 4 months for nodules characteristic of cysticercosis. We then screened all residents living within 100-meters of any tongue-positive pig using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Taenia antigens in stool. Residents with taeniasis were treated with niclosamide. In both the intervention and control (753 residents) we measured incidence of exposure by sampling the pig population every 4 months for serum antibodies against cysticercosis using enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot. Principal Findings Baseline seroincidence among pigs born during the study was 22.6 cases per 100 pigs per-month (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.0–30.0) in the intervention and 18.1 (95% CI 12.7–25.9) in the control. After one year we observed a 41% reduction in seroincidence in the intervention village compared to baseline (incidence rate ratio 0.59, 95% CI 0.41–0.87) while the seroincidence in the control village remained unchanged. At study end, the prevalence of taeniasis was nearly 4 times lower in the intervention than in the control (prevalence ratio 0.28, 95% CI 0.08–0.91). Conclusions/Significance Ring-screening reduced transmission of T. solium in this pilot study and may provide an effective and practical approach for regions where resources are limited. However, this strategy requires validation in larger populations over a greater period of time. PMID:25210748

O'Neal, Seth E.; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gavidia, Cesar; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

2014-01-01

41

Transcriptome analysis of Taenia solium cysticerci using Open Reading Frame ESTs (ORESTES)  

PubMed Central

Background Human infection by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium affects more than 50 million people worldwide, particularly in underdeveloped and developing countries. Cysticercosis which arises from larval encystation can be life threatening and difficult to treat. Here, we investigate for the first time the transcriptome of the clinically relevant cysticerci larval form. Results Using Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) produced by the ORESTES method, a total of 1,520 high quality ESTs were generated from 20 ORESTES cDNA mini-libraries and its analysis revealed fragments of genes with promising applications including 51 ESTs matching antigens previously described in other species, as well as 113 sequences representing proteins with potential extracellular localization, with obvious applications for immune-diagnosis or vaccine development. Conclusion The set of sequences described here will contribute to deciphering the expression profile of this important parasite and will be informative for the genome assembly and annotation, as well as for studies of intra- and inter-specific sequence variability. Genes of interest for developing new diagnostic and therapeutic tools are described and discussed. PMID:19646239

Almeida, Carolina R; Stoco, Patricia H; Wagner, Glauber; Sincero, Thaís CM; Rotava, Gianinna; Bayer-Santos, Ethel; Rodrigues, Juliana B; Sperandio, Maísa M; Maia, Antônio AM; Ojopi, Elida PB; Zaha, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Henrique B; Tyler, Kevin M; Dávila, Alberto MR; Grisard, Edmundo C; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel

2009-01-01

42

Improvement of the synthetic tri-peptide vaccine (S3Pvac) against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis in search of a more effective, inexpensive and manageable vaccine.  

PubMed

Vaccination of pigs may curtail Taenia solium transmission by reducing the number of cysticerci, the precursors of adult intestinal tapeworms in humans. Several antigen preparations induce protection against porcine cysticercosis in experimental settings but only one subunit vaccine (S3Pvac) has been tested and proved effective in the field against naturally acquired disease. Besides improving of the vaccine's effectiveness, significant reductions in production costs and in the logistics of its administration are necessary for the feasibility of nationwide control programs. This review highlights the development of several versions of S3Pvac aimed to increase effectiveness, reduce costs and increase feasibility by novel delivery systems and alternative routes of administration. PMID:17188784

Sciutto, Edda; Rosas, Gabriela; Hernández, Marisela; Morales, Julio; Cruz-Revilla, Carmen; Toledo, Andrea; Manoutcharian, Karen; Gevorkian, Goar; Blancas, Abel; Acero, Gonzalo; Hernández, Beatriz; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Bobes, Raul J; Goldbaum, Fernando A; Huerta, Mirna; Diaz-Orea, Alicia; Fleury, Agnes; de Aluja, Aline S; Cabrera-Ponce, Jose Luis; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Fragoso, Gladis; Larralde, Carlos

2007-02-01

43

Taenia solium Infections in a Rural Area of Eastern Zambia-A Community Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a parasitic infection occurring in many developing countries. Data on the status of human infections in Zambia is largely lacking. We conducted a community-based study in Eastern Zambia to determine the prevalence of human taeniosis and cysticercosis in a rural community. Methods and Findings Stool and serum samples were collected from willing participants. Geographical references of the participants' households were determined and household questionnaires administered. Taeniosis was diagnosed in stool samples by coprology and by the polyclonal antibody-based copro-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (copro-Ag ELISA), while cysticercosis was diagnosed in serum by the B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based antigen ELISA (sero-Ag ELISA). Identification of the collected tapeworm after niclosamide treatment and purgation was done using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). A total of 255 households from 20 villages participated in the study, 718 stool and 708 serum samples were collected and examined. Forty-five faecal samples (6.3%) were found positive for taeniosis on copro-Ag ELISA while circulating cysticercus antigen was detected in 5.8% (41/708) individuals. The tapeworm recovered from one of the cases was confirmed to be T. solium on PCR-RFLP. Seropositivity (cysticercosis) was significantly positively related to age (p?=?0.00) and to copro-Ag positivity (taeniosis) (p?=?0.03) but not to gender. Change point analysis revealed that the frequency of cysticercus antigens increased significantly in individuals above the age of 30. Copro-Ag positivity was not related to age or gender. The following risk factors were noted to be present in the study community: free-range pig husbandry system and poor sanitation with 47.8% of the households visited lacking latrines. Conclusions This study has recorded high taeniosis and cysticercosis prevalences and identified the need for further studies on transmission dynamics and impact of the disease on the local people. PMID:22479664

Mwape, Kabemba E.; Phiri, Isaac K.; Praet, Nicolas; Muma, John B.; Zulu, Gideon; de Deken, Reginald; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

2012-01-01

44

Development of the S3Pvac vaccine against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis: a historical review.  

PubMed

Herein we present a review of our research dealing with vaccination against experimental and naturally acquired porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis using Taenia crassiceps-derived antigens. Results strongly support that the different versions of S3Pvac vaccine are indeed effective against porcine T. solium cysticercosis. Immunological results related to vaccination prove that protection is at least partially mediated by specific immunity. The data also support the validity of T. crassiceps murine cysticercosis as an effective tool to identify vaccine candidates against some metacestode infections. PMID:23445359

Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Hernández, Marisela; Rosas, Gabriela; Martínez, José J; Fleury, Agnès; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Aluja, Aline; Larralde, Carlos

2013-08-01

45

Nanobodies, a promising tool for species-specific diagnosis of Taenia solium cysticercosis.  

PubMed

Taenia solium cysticercosis is a major helminth zoonosis in developing countries. Pigs are the intermediate hosts mediating transmission of infection. Specific assays to diagnose living cysts in pigs are lacking. The monoclonal-based antigen detection ELISA is genus-specific and cross-reactions with Taenia hydatigena hamper the use of this test to screen pigs. We, therefore, aimed to introduce nanobodies, camelid-derived single-domain antibodies specific for T. solium cysticercosis, to develop unambiguous tests. Nanobodies were cloned following immunization of two dromedaries with T. solium antigen and eight T. solium-specific nanobodies were selected after phage display. Their binding characteristics and potential for the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis were investigated. The nanobodies do not cross-react with T. hydatigena, Taenia saginata, Taenia crassiceps or Trichinella spiralis and were categorized into four epitope-binding groups. The target protein was identified as 14kDa diagnostic glycoprotein (Ts14), but the nanobodies also reacted with other proteins of the same family. Nanobodies were tested in a sandwich ELISA with cyst fluid, and one particular nanobody detected its cognate serum antigens in a species-specific inhibition ELISA. Considering their beneficial production and stability properties, these highly specific nanobodies constitute a promising tool to diagnose cysticercosis after further improvement of the sensitivity and future assay validation. PMID:19041315

Deckers, N; Saerens, D; Kanobana, K; Conrath, K; Victor, B; Wernery, U; Vercruysse, J; Muyldermans, S; Dorny, P

2009-04-01

46

Spatial distribution of Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis within a rural area of Mexico.  

PubMed

Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is clustered or widely dispersed in a limited rural area, a spatial analysis of rural porcine cysticercosis was applied to 13 villages of the Sierra de Huautla in Central Mexico. Clustering of cases in specific households would indicate tapeworm carriers in the vicinity, whereas their dispersal would suggest that the ambulatory habits of both humans and pigs contribute to the spread of cysticercosis. A total of 562 pigs were included in this study (August-December 2003). A global positioning system was employed in order to plot the geographic distribution of both cysticercotic pigs and risk factors for infection within the villages. Prevalence of pig tongue cysticercosis varied significantly in sampled villages (p = 0.003), ranging from 0% to 33.3% and averaging 13.3%. Pigs were clustered in households, but no differences in the clustering of cysticercotic and healthy pigs were found. In contrast, the presence of pigs roaming freely and drinking stagnant water correlated significantly with porcine cysticercosis (p = 0.07), as did the absence of latrines (p = 0.0008). High prevalence of porcine cysticercosis proves that transmission is still quite common in rural Mexico. The lack of significant differentiation in the geographical clustering of healthy and cysticercotic pigs weakens the argument that focal factors (e.g., household location of putative tapeworm carriers) play an important role in increasing the risk of cysticercosis transmission in pigs. Instead, it would appear that other wide-ranging biological, physical, and cultural factors determine the geographic spread of the disease. Extensive geographic dispersal of the risk of cysticercosis makes it imperative that control measures be applied indiscriminately to all pigs and humans living in this endemic area. PMID:18846230

Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

2008-01-01

47

Spatial Distribution of Taenia solium Porcine Cysticercosis within a Rural Area of Mexico  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is clustered or widely dispersed in a limited rural area, a spatial analysis of rural porcine cysticercosis was applied to 13 villages of the Sierra de Huautla in Central Mexico. Clustering of cases in specific households would indicate tapeworm carriers in the vicinity, whereas their dispersal would suggest that the ambulatory habits of both humans and pigs contribute to the spread of cysticercosis. A total of 562 pigs were included in this study (August–December 2003). A global positioning system was employed in order to plot the geographic distribution of both cysticercotic pigs and risk factors for infection within the villages. Prevalence of pig tongue cysticercosis varied significantly in sampled villages (p?=?0.003), ranging from 0% to 33.3% and averaging 13.3%. Pigs were clustered in households, but no differences in the clustering of cysticercotic and healthy pigs were found. In contrast, the presence of pigs roaming freely and drinking stagnant water correlated significantly with porcine cysticercosis (p?=?0.07), as did the absence of latrines (p?=?0.0008). High prevalence of porcine cysticercosis proves that transmission is still quite common in rural Mexico. The lack of significant differentiation in the geographical clustering of healthy and cysticercotic pigs weakens the argument that focal factors (e.g., household location of putative tapeworm carriers) play an important role in increasing the risk of cysticercosis transmission in pigs. Instead, it would appear that other wide-ranging biological, physical, and cultural factors determine the geographic spread of the disease. Extensive geographic dispersal of the risk of cysticercosis makes it imperative that control measures be applied indiscriminately to all pigs and humans living in this endemic area. PMID:18846230

Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S.; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

2008-01-01

48

Protection against Asiatic Taenia solium Induced by a Recombinant 45W-4B Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taenia solium is a great threat not only to human health but also to the pig-raising industry. Oncospheral stage-specific 45W proteins are good candidates for the development of anticysticercosis vaccines. In this study, a recombinant 45W-4B protein was highly produced and used for vaccination. Two animal trials resulted in a significant reduction in parasite burden induced by the definite protein

Xuenong Luo; Yadong Zheng; Junling Hou; Shaohua Zhang; Xuepeng Cai

2009-01-01

49

Human Neurocysticercosis Case and an Endemic Focus of Taenia solium in Lao PDR  

PubMed Central

A male patient with neurocysticercosis was identified in Montai Village, Xay District, Oudomxay Province, Lao PDR in February 2004. He had a history of diagnosis for neurocysticercosis by a CT scan in Thailand after an onset of epileptic seizure in 1993. A pig in the same district was found to contain Taenia solium metacestodes (=cysticerci); the slaughtered pig body contained more than 2,000 cysticerci. In addition to morphological identification, molecular identification was also performed on the cysticerci by DNA sequencing analysis of the mitochondrial cox1 gene; they were confirmed as T. solium metacestodes. The patient is regarded as an indigenous case of neurocysticercosis infected in an endemic focus of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Oudomxay Province, Lao PDR. PMID:24327790

Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth

2013-01-01

50

Evidence for high seroprevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in individuals from three rural communities in Venezuela.  

PubMed

A serological study was undertaken in 1998 to evaluate levels of Taenia solium cysticercosis in 3 rural Venezuelan communities. Infection with viable metacestodes was diagnosed with a trapping enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects a secreted product of viable parasites. Anti-metacestode antibodies were assayed by ELISA using T. solium vesicular fluid as antigen. A total of 1254 sera was collected from 3 communities (Canoabo, Sanare, and Rio Tocuyo) where previous studies had suggested the presence of T. solium. Our results demonstrate an unusually high seroprevalence of cysticercosis, indicating an attendant risk of transmitting the disease to other areas. The seroprevalence of infection with viable cysts, as indicated by detection of circulating parasite antigen, was 9.1% in Canoabo, 6.1% in Sanare, and 5.7% in Rio Tocuyo. The corresponding frequency of antibodies to T. solium cyst antigens was 36.5% in Canoabo, 36.5% in Sanare, and 4% in Rio Tocuyo. As these communities are probably representative of many others in Venezuela, T. solium cysticercosis may be a significant public health problem and more work is certainly indicated. An important finding was that local knowledge of the disease and its transmission do not necessarily guarantee diminished disease prevalence, indicating a lack of appropriate vigilance towards disease control. PMID:15307416

Ferrer, Elizabeth; Cabrera, Zully; Rojas, Glenda; Lares, Maria; Vera, Andez; de Noya, Belkis Alarcon; Fernandez, Iris; Romero, Haidee Urdaneta; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E; Cortez, Milagros M

2003-01-01

51

Two Epitopes Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Confer Protection against Murine T. crassiceps Cysticercosis along with a Prominent T1 Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigens KETc1 and KETc12 have been shown to induce high level of protection against experimental murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis, an experimental model successfully used to test candidate antigens for use in vaccination against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, KETc1 and KETc12 were chemically synthesized in linear form. Immunization with KETc1 induced

ANDREA TOLEDO; GLADIS FRAGOSO; GABRIELA ROSAS; MARISELA HERNANDEZ; GOAR GEVORKIAN; FERNANDO LOPEZ-CASILLAS; BEATRIZ HERNANDEZ; GONZALO ACERO; MIRNA HUERTA; CARLOS LARRALDE; EDDA SCIUTTO

2001-01-01

52

Helminth antigens ( Taenia solium, Taenia crassiceps, Toxocara canis, Schistosoma mansoni and Echinococcus granulosus) and cross-reactivities in human infections and immunized animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helminth antigens were investigated in the search for accessible heterologous antigens capable to discriminate different helminthiases, by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the immunoblot assay (IB). Antigens used were: Taenia solium cysticercus total saline (Tso); Taenia crassiceps cysticercus vesicular fluid (Tcra-VF); T. crassiceps cysticercus glycoproteins (Tcra-GP and Tcra-(18-14)-GP); Toxocara canis larva excretory-secretory (TES); Schistosoma mansoni adult total saline

M. M. I. Ishida; G. Rubinsky-Elefant; A. W. Ferreira; S. Hoshino-Shimizu; A. J. Vaz

2003-01-01

53

Protection of pigs against Taenia solium cysticercosis by immunization with novel recombinant antigens  

PubMed Central

Recombinant antigens from the oncosphere stage of the parasite Taenia solium were expressed in Escherichia coli. The TSOL16, TSOL45-1A and TSOL45-1B recombinant antigens, each consisting of fibronectin type III (FnIII) domain S, were produced as fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and maltose binding protein (MBP). Groups of pigs were immunized twice with the GST fusions of the antigens and boosted a third time with the MBP fusions prior to receiving a challenge infection with T. solium eggs. The TSOL16 antigen was found to be capable of inducing high levels of immunity in pigs against a challenge infection with T. solium. Immunological investigations identified differences in immune responses in the pigs vaccinated with the various antigens. The results demonstrate that the TSOL16 antigen could be a valuable adjunct to current porcine vaccination approaches and may allow the further development of new vaccination strategies against T. solium cysticercosis. PMID:22521850

Gauci, Charles G.; Jayashi, César M.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Lackenby, Julia; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

2012-01-01

54

Taenia solium: antioxidant metabolism enzymes as targets for cestocidal drugs and vaccines.  

PubMed

This review focuses in the role that antioxidant enzymes play in protection and other important physiological functions such as signal transduction, cell differentiation, growth and apoptosis. Parasites use these enzymes to evade ROS produced by the host immune response and for development inside the host. In the cestoda Taenia solium, three antioxidant enzymes have been studied: a cystosolic Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase that is a target of cestocidal drugs (bencimidazoles); a 2-Cys peroxiredoxin that is a regulatory enzyme of H(2)O(2), molecule essential for several physiological functions; and two isoforms of glutathione transferases that are immunological targets, since they protect immunized mice against cysticercosis. Moreover, all these enzymes are present in all stages of the parasite. These findings suggest that antioxidant enzymes have an important role in T. solium physiology and infection, therefore they might represent the Achilles' heel of the parasite. PMID:18393902

Vaca-Paniagua, F; Torres-Rivera, A; Parra-Unda, R; Landa, A

2008-01-01

55

Simple and reliable preparation of immunodiagnostic antigens for Taenia solium cysticercosis.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Cysticercosis caused by infection with the larval stage of Taenia solium is an important cause of neurological disease worldwide and immunodiagnosis is important for the control and elimination of cysticercosis. In the present study, we established a simple and reliable preparation of immunodiagnostic low-molecular-weight antigens (LMWAgs) from T. solium cyst fluids by a cation-exchange chromatography (CEC). Banding patterns of LMWAgs on SDS-PAGE were different between isolates from Ecuador and China. All cysticercosis patient sera and some echinococcosis patient sera recognized both LMWAgs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), but sera from healthy persons were not positive. There was no statistical difference in immunodiagnostic performance of LMWAgs prepared from different geographical isolates. These results indicated that these novel immunodiagnostic antigen preparations could contribute the control and prevention of cysticercosis in endemic areas, especially developing countries. PMID:23790268

Sako, Yasuhito; Itoh, Sonoyo; Okamoto, Munehiro; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira

2013-11-01

56

Epidemiology and Management of Cysticercosis and Taenia solium Taeniasis in Europe, Systematic Review 1990–2011  

PubMed Central

Background Cysticercosis is caused by the invasion of human or pig tissues by the metacestode larval stage of Taenia solium. In Europe, the disease was endemic in the past but the autochthonous natural life cycle of the parasite is currently completed very rarely. Recently, imported cases have increased in parallel to the increased number of migrations and international travels. The lack of specific surveillance systems for cysticercosis leads to underestimation of the epidemiological and clinical impacts. Objectives To review the available data on epidemiology and management of cysticercosis in Europe. Methods A review of literature on human cysticercosis and T. solium taeniasis in Europe published between 1990–2011 was conducted. Results Out of 846 cysticercosis cases described in the literature, 522 cases were autochthonous and 324 cases were imported. The majority (70.1%) of the autochthonous cases were diagnosed in Portugal from 1983 and 1994. Imported cases of which 242 (74.7%) diagnosed in migrants and 57 (17.6%) in European travellers, showed an increasing trend. Most of imported cases were acquired in Latin America (69.8% of migrants and 44.0% of travellers). The majority of imported cases were diagnosed in Spain (47.5%), France (16.7%) and Italy (8.3%). One third of neurosurgical procedures were performed because the suspected diagnosis was cerebral neoplasm. Sixty eight autochthonous and 5 imported T. solium taeniasis cases were reported. Conclusions Cysticercosis remains a challenge for European care providers, since they are often poorly aware of this infection and have little familiarity in managing this disease. Cysticercosis should be included among mandatory reportable diseases, in order to improve the accuracy of epidemiological information. European health care providers might benefit from a transfer of knowledge from colleagues working in endemic areas and the development of shared diagnostic and therapeutic processes would have impact on the quality of the European health systems. Key words: cysticercosis, neurocysticercosis, Taenia solium, taeniasis, Europe, travellers, migrants. PMID:23922733

Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartalesi, Filippo; Bruno, Elisa; Muñoz, José; Buonfrate, Dora; Nicoletti, Alessandra; García, Héctor Hugo; Pozio, Edoardo; Bartoloni, Alessandro

2013-01-01

57

The Vicious Worm: a computer-based Taenia solium education tool.  

PubMed

Ignorance is a major obstacle for the effective control of diseases. To provide evidence-based knowledge about prevention and control of Taenia solium cysticercosis, we have developed a computer-based education tool: 'The Vicious Worm'. The tool targets policy makers, professionals, and laypeople, and comprises educational materials including illustrated short stories, videos, and scientific texts designed for the different target groups. We suggest that evidence-based health education is included as a specific control measure in any control programme. PMID:25017127

Johansen, Maria Vang; Trevisan, Chiara; Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Ertel, Rebekka Lund; Mejer, Helena; Saarnak, Christopher F L

2014-08-01

58

Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Human Taenia Solium Infections in Mbozi District, Mbeya Region, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis is emerging as a serious public health and economic problem in many developing countries. This study was conducted to determine prevalence and risk factors of human T. solium infections in Mbeya Region, Tanzania. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 13 villages of Mbozi district in 2009. Sera of 830 people (mean 37.9±11.3 years (SD); 43% females) were tested for circulating cysticerci antigen (Ag-ELISA) and antibody (Ab-ELISA). A subset of persons found seropositive by Ag-ELISA underwent computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain for evidence of neurocysticercosis. Stool samples from 820 of the same participants were tested for taeniosis by copro-antigens (copro-Ag-ELISA) and formol-ether concentration technique. Cases of T. solium taeniosis were confirmed serologically by EITB assay (rES38). A questionnaire was used for identification of risk factors. Active cysticercosis by positive Ag-ELISA was found in 139 (16.7%) persons while anti-cysticercal antibodies were detected in 376 (45.3%) persons by Ab-ELISA. Among 55 persons positive for Ag-ELISA undergoing CT scan, 30 (54.6%) were found to have structures in the brain suggestive of neurocysticercosis. Using faecal analysis, 43 (5.2%) stool samples tested positive for taeniosis by copro-Ag-ELISA while Taenia eggs were detected in 9 (1.1%) stool samples by routine coprology. Antibodies specifically against adult T. solium were detected in 34 copro-Ag-ELISA positive participants by EITB (rES38) indicating T. solium taeniosis prevalence of 4.1%. Increasing age and hand washing by dipping in contrast to using running water, were found associated with Ag-ELISA seropositivity by logistic regression. Gender (higher risk in females) and water source were risk factors associated with Ab-ELISA seropositivity. Reported symptoms of chronic severe headaches and history of epileptic seizures were found associated with positive Ag-ELISA (p?0.05). Conclusion The present study indicates T. solium infection in humans is highly endemic in the southern highlands of Tanzania. PMID:23516650

Mwanjali, Gloria; Kihamia, Charles; Kakoko, Deodatus Vitalis Conatus; Lekule, Faustin; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Willingham, Arve Lee

2013-01-01

59

Cloning, characterization and functional expression of Taenia solium 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

The 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17?-HSD) are key enzymes involved in the formation (reduction) and inactivation (oxidation) of sex steroids. Several types have been found in vertebrates including fish, as well as in invertebrates like Caenorhabditis elegans, Ciona intestinalis and Haliotis diversicolor supertexta. To date limited information is available about this enzyme in parasites. We showed previously that Taenia solium cysticerci are able to synthesize sex steroid hormones in vitro when precursors are provided in the culture medium. Here, we identified a T. solium 17?-HSD through in silico blast searches in the T. solium genome database. This coding sequence was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into the pcDNA 3.1(+) expression vector. The full length cDNA contains 957bp, corresponding to an open reading frame coding for 319 aa. The highest identity (84%) at the protein level was found with the Echinococcus multilocularis 17?-HSD although significant similarities were also found with other invertebrate and vertebrate 17?-HSD sequences. The T. solium Tsol-17?HSD belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) protein superfamily. HEK293T cells transiently transfected with Tsol17?-HSD induced expression of Tsol17?-HSD that transformed 3H-androstenedione into testosterone. In contrast, 3H-estrone was not significantly transformed into estradiol. In conclusion, T. solium cysticerci express a 17?-HSD that catalyzes the androgen reduction. The enzyme belongs to the short chain dehydrogenases/reductase family and shares motifs and activity with the type 3 enzyme of some other species. PMID:24698785

Aceves-Ramos, A; de la Torre, P; Hinojosa, L; Ponce, A; García-Villegas, R; Laclette, J P; Bobes, R J; Romano, M C

2014-07-01

60

Impact of naturally acquired Taenia solium cysticercosis on the hormonal levels of free ranging boars.  

PubMed

In chronically infected BALBc/AnN male mice, Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis induces changes in the host's sex steroids hormone that lead to their estrogenization and deandrogenization, with possible repercussions on their susceptibility to infections. Here reported are the serum steroid levels in free range cysticercotic male boars. Therefore, the possible effects of Taenia solium cysticerci over the pig steroid levels were evaluated. Herein are described the sex steroids and cortisol levels of non-cysticercotic (n=25) and cysticercotic (n=22) adult boars, as diagnosed by tongue inspection, all free-ranging in a typical village of an endemic rural area in Mexico. A significant reduction of testosterone (P=0.022) and a likely one of 17beta-estradiol (P=0.08) levels were found in the cysticercotic boars in comparison with those non-cysticercotic, whilst no significant differences in the cortisol and DHEA levels were detected. Serum levels of specific antibodies did not correlate with infection nor with the levels of any of the hormones measured. Results suggest that T. solium cysticercosis significantly affects the hormonal status of its porcine host independently of their antibody response. PMID:17716821

Peña, N; Morales, J; Morales-Montor, J; Vargas-Villavicencio, A; Fleury, A; Zarco, L; de Aluja, A S; Larralde, C; Fragoso, G; Sciutto, E

2007-10-21

61

[Would not the Taenia be folium?].  

PubMed

The name of Taenia solium is a problem for the latinists because solium cannot mean solitary. In some incunabula, appears the word folium. Because they studied latin and parasitology and because they know the possibility to confuse the s and the f in the gothic types, the authors are convinced, that the segment of the tapeworm, in the Breviarium attributed to Arnau de Vilanova, from which is originated the name of this worm was compared to a leaf (folium). PMID:11625397

Cordero del Campillo, M; Rousset, J J

1997-01-01

62

Population genetic structure of Taenia solium from Madagascar and Mexico: implications for clinical profile diversity and immunological technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taenia solium is a cestode parasitic of humans and pigs that strongly impacts on public health in developing countries. Its larvae (cysticercus) lodge in the brain, causing neurocysticercosis, and in other tissues, like skeletal muscle and subcutaneous space, causing extraneuronal cysticercosis. Prevalences of these two clinical manifestations vary greatly among continents. Also, neurocysticercosis may be clinically heterogeneous, ranging from asymptomatic

Rodrigo Vega; Daniel Piñero; Bienvenue Ramanankandrasana; Michel Dumas; Bernard Bouteille; Agnes Fleury; Edda Sciutto; Carlos Larralde; Gladis Fragoso

2003-01-01

63

Taenia solium cysticercosis in a village in northern Viet Nam: seroprevalence study using an ELISA for detecting circulating antigen  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting circulating Taenia solium antigen was evaluated in Viet Nam; 12 of 210 people gave a positive result, including 5 persons with epilepsy. Cysticercosis was confirmed in 9 persons. Agreement between the ELISA, computerized tomography scanning and biopsy examination was high.

Annette Erhart; Pierre Dorny; Nguyen Van De; Ha Viet Vien; Dang Cam Thach; Nguyen Duy Toan; Le Dinh Cong; Stanny Geerts; Niko Speybroeck; Dirk Berkvens; Jef Brandt

2002-01-01

64

Use of Taenia crassiceps Cysticercus Antigen Preparations for Detection of Antibodies in Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples from Patients with Neurocysticercosis (Taenia solium)  

PubMed Central

Antigen extracts obtained from the vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci and from fractions purified by affinity chromatography with the lectin concanavalin A and the glycoprotein antigen separated by electrophoresis were used for the detection of Taenia solium anticysticercus antibodies. The sensitivity and specificity obtained for all antigens were 100% in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with good reproducibility. Using immunoblotting of the three antigens, low-molecular-mass peptides (18 and 14 kDa) were characterized only in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis. The results confirm that antigen fractions purified from T. crassiceps cisticerci are important sources of specific peptides and proved to be efficient in detecting anti-T. solium antibodies. PMID:11777854

Pardini, Alessandra Xavier; Peralta, Regina Helena; Vaz, Adelaide José; Machado, Luis dos Ramos; Peralta, José Mauro

2002-01-01

65

Study and Ranking of Determinants of Taenia solium Infections by Classification Tree Models.  

PubMed

Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is an important public health problem occurring mainly in developing countries. This work aimed to study the determinants of human T. solium infections in the Eastern province of Zambia and rank them in order of importance. A household (HH)-level questionnaire was administered to 680 HHs from 53 villages in two rural districts and the taeniasis and cysticercosis status determined. A classification tree model (CART) was used to define the relative importance and interactions between different predictor variables in their effect on taeniasis and cysticercosis. The Katete study area had a significantly higher taeniasis and cysticercosis prevalence than the Petauke area. The CART analysis for Katete showed that the most important determinant for cysticercosis infections was the number of HH inhabitants (6 to 10) and for taeniasis was the number of HH inhabitants > 6. The most important determinant in Petauke for cysticercosis was the age of head of household > 32 years and for taeniasis it was age < 55 years. The CART analysis showed that the most important determinant for both taeniasis and cysticercosis infections was the number of HH inhabitants (6 to 10) in Katete district and age in Petauke. The results suggest that control measures should target HHs with a high number of inhabitants and older individuals. PMID:25404073

Mwape, Kabemba E; Phiri, Isaac K; Praet, Nicolas; Dorny, Pierre; Muma, John B; Zulu, Gideon; Speybroeck, Niko; Gabriël, Sarah

2015-01-01

66

Sequence Analysis and Molecular Characterization of Wnt4 Gene in Metacestodes of Taenia solium  

PubMed Central

Wnt proteins are a family of secreted glycoproteins that are evolutionarily conserved and considered to be involved in extensive developmental processes in metazoan organisms. The characterization of wnt genes may improve understanding the parasite's development. In the present study, a wnt4 gene encoding 491amino acids was amplified from cDNA of metacestodes of Taenia solium using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Bioinformatics tools were used for sequence analysis. The conserved domain of the wnt gene family was predicted. The expression profile of Wnt4 was investigated using real-time PCR. Wnt4 expression was found to be dramatically increased in scolex evaginated cysticerci when compared to invaginated cysticerci. In situ hybridization showed that wnt4 gene was distributed in the posterior end of the worm along the primary body axis in evaginated cysticerci. These findings indicated that wnt4 may take part in the process of cysticerci evagination and play a role in scolex/bladder development of cysticerci of T. solium. PMID:24850959

Hou, Junling; Luo, Xuenong; Wang, Shuai; Yin, Cai; Zhang, Shaohua; Zhu, Xueliang; Dou, Yongxi

2014-01-01

67

Immunodiagnosis of human cysticercosis (Taenia solium) with antigens purified by monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies were generated from mice immunized with scolex protein antigen of Cysticercus cellulosae. Three monoclonal antibodies specific for cysticercal antigens, which did not show any cross-reactivity with Taenia solium or Taenia saginata antigens, were selected. Each monoclonal antibody coupled to Sepharose could purify one antigen, which appeared as a single band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. When antigens purified by monoclonal antibodies were used to detect antibody in serum samples taken from patients with cysticercosis, taeniasis, and other parasitic infections in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, cross-reactivity was observed until a serum dilution of 1:128 was reached. Since serum samples from unexposed subjects showed positive reactions until a dilution of 1:64 was reached, we chose a discriminative dilution (1:128) above which no cross-reaction was observed. The percent positive serum samples from cysticercosis patients was 100% by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with any of the antigens purified by monoclonal antibodies. Images PMID:3611310

Nascimento, E; Tavares, C A; Lopes, J D

1987-01-01

68

Comparative evaluation of purified Taenia solium glycoproteins and crude metacestode extracts by immunoblotting for the serodiagnosis of human T. solium cysticercosis.  

PubMed Central

A lentil-lectin purified glycoprotein (LL-Gp) and a crude saline extract of Taenia solium metacestodes were compared for the immunodiagnosis of human cysticercosis by immunoblotting. The LL-Gp preparation was 95% sensitive for antibodies against a range of seven antigens with molecular masses of 50 to 13 kDa, whereas the sensitivity of the crude saline extract for the detection of antibodies against two major polypeptide molecules (26 and 8 kDa) was 91%. Specificity was 100% with both sets of diagnostic antigens. Affinity-purified antibodies against the 26-kDa molecule from the crude saline extract recognized the 24-kDa diagnostic region in the LL-Gp-purified extract and vice versa, suggesting that the antigens had common epitopes recognized by cysticercotic sera. In addition, in a preliminary community study of 115 randomly selected people from Bali (Indonesia), seroprevalence by immunoblot assay varied from 7.8% (with the crude saline antigen extract) to 9.6% (with the LL-Gp-purified extract). The results of this study demonstrate that both antigenic preparations are applicable for the immunodiagnosis of T. solium cysticercosis. The crude T. solium metacestode antigen extract was as specific as the purified LL-Gp T. solium metacestode extract and simpler to produce but slightly less sensitive. PMID:9302208

Rodriguez-Canul, R; Allan, J C; Fletes, C; Sutisna, I P; Kapti, I N; Craig, P S

1997-01-01

69

Two Epitopes Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Confer Protection against Murine T. crassiceps Cysticercosis along with a Prominent T1 Response  

PubMed Central

Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigens KETc1 and KETc12 have been shown to induce high level of protection against experimental murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis, an experimental model successfully used to test candidate antigens for use in vaccination against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, KETc1 and KETc12 were chemically synthesized in linear form. Immunization with KETc1 induced 66.7 to 100% protection against murine cysticercosis, and immunization with KETc12 induced 52.7 to 88.1% protection. The elicited immune response indicated that both peptides contain at least one B-cell epitope (as demonstrated by their ability to induce specific antibodies) and one T-cell epitope that strongly stimulated the proliferation of T cells primed with either the free peptide or total cysticercal T. crassiceps antigens. The high percentage of spleen cells expressing inflammatory cytokines points to the likelihood of a T1 response being involved in protection. The protective capacity of the peptides and their presence in all developmental stages of T. solium point to these two epitopes as strong candidates for inclusion in a polyepitopic synthetic vaccine against T. solium pig cysticercosis. PMID:11179354

Toledo, Andrea; Fragoso, Gladis; Rosas, Gabriela; Hernández, Marisela; Gevorkian, Goar; López-Casillas, Fernando; Hernández, Beatriz; Acero, Gonzalo; Huerta, Mirna; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

2001-01-01

70

Visualization and 3D Reconstruction of Flame Cells of Taenia solium (Cestoda)  

PubMed Central

Background Flame cells are the terminal cells of protonephridial systems, which are part of the excretory systems of invertebrates. Although the knowledge of their biological role is incomplete, there is a consensus that these cells perform excretion/secretion activities. It has been suggested that the flame cells participate in the maintenance of the osmotic environment that the cestodes require to live inside their hosts. In live Platyhelminthes, by light microscopy, the cells appear beating their flames rapidly and, at the ultrastructural, the cells have a large body enclosing a tuft of cilia. Few studies have been performed to define the localization of the cytoskeletal proteins of these cells, and it is unclear how these proteins are involved in cell function. Methodology/Principal Findings Parasites of two different developmental stages of T. solium were used: cysticerci recovered from naturally infected pigs and intestinal adults obtained from immunosuppressed and experimentally infected golden hamsters. Hamsters were fed viable cysticerci to recover adult parasites after one month of infection. In the present studies focusing on flame cells of cysticerci tissues was performed. Using several methods such as video, confocal and electron microscopy, in addition to computational analysis for reconstruction and modeling, we have provided a 3D visual rendition of the cytoskeletal architecture of Taenia solium flame cells. Conclusions/Significance We consider that visual representations of cells open a new way for understanding the role of these cells in the excretory systems of Platyhelminths. After reconstruction, the observation of high resolution 3D images allowed for virtual observation of the interior composition of cells. A combination of microscopic images, computational reconstructions and 3D modeling of cells appears to be useful for inferring the cellular dynamics of the flame cell cytoskeleton. PMID:21412407

Valverde-Islas, Laura E.; Arrangoiz, Esteban; Vega, Elio; Robert, Lilia; Villanueva, Rafael; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Willms, Kaethe; Zepeda-Rodríguez, Armando; Fortoul, Teresa I.; Ambrosio, Javier R.

2011-01-01

71

Molecular approaches to Taenia asiatica.  

PubMed

Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica are taeniid tapeworms that cause taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in intermediate host animals. Taeniases remain an important public health concerns in the world. Molecular diagnostic methods using PCR assays have been developed for rapid and accurate detection of human infecting taeniid tapeworms, including the use of sequence-specific DNA probes, PCR-RFLP, and multiplex PCR. More recently, DNA diagnosis using PCR based on histopathological specimens such as 10% formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and stained sections mounted on slides has been applied to cestode infections. The mitochondrial gene sequence is believed to be a very useful molecular marker for not only studying evolutionary relationships among distantly related taxa, but also for investigating the phylo-biogeography of closely related species. The complete sequence of the human Taenia tapeworms mitochondrial genomes were determined, and its organization and structure were compared to other human-tropic Taenia tapeworms for which complete mitochondrial sequence data were available. The multiplex PCR assay with the Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915 primers will be useful for differential diagnosis, molecular characterization, and epidemiological surveys of human Taenia tapeworms. PMID:23467738

Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S

2013-02-01

72

Molecular Approaches to Taenia asiatica  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica are taeniid tapeworms that cause taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in intermediate host animals. Taeniases remain an important public health concerns in the world. Molecular diagnostic methods using PCR assays have been developed for rapid and accurate detection of human infecting taeniid tapeworms, including the use of sequence-specific DNA probes, PCR-RFLP, and multiplex PCR. More recently, DNA diagnosis using PCR based on histopathological specimens such as 10% formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and stained sections mounted on slides has been applied to cestode infections. The mitochondrial gene sequence is believed to be a very useful molecular marker for not only studying evolutionary relationships among distantly related taxa, but also for investigating the phylo-biogeography of closely related species. The complete sequence of the human Taenia tapeworms mitochondrial genomes were determined, and its organization and structure were compared to other human-tropic Taenia tapeworms for which complete mitochondrial sequence data were available. The multiplex PCR assay with the Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915 primers will be useful for differential diagnosis, molecular characterization, and epidemiological surveys of human Taenia tapeworms. PMID:23467738

Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu

2013-01-01

73

Genetics of the pig tapeworm in Madagascar reveal a history of human dispersal and colonization  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An intricate history of human dispersal and geographic colonization has strongly affected the distribution of obligate parasites circulating among people. Among these parasites, the pig tapeworm Taenia solium occurs throughout the world as the causative agent of cysticercosis, one of the most serio...

74

Relationship between Serum Antibodies and Taenia solium Larvae Burden in Pigs Raised in Field Conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Serological tests have been used for the diagnosis of Taenia solium infection in pigs. However, those serological results do not necessarily correlate with the actual infection burden after performing pig necropsy. This study aimed to evaluate the Electro Immuno Transfer Blot (EITB) seropositivity with infection burden in naturally infected pigs. Methodology/Principal Findings In an endemic area of Peru, 476 pigs were sampled. Seroprevalence was 60.5±4.5% with a statistically higher proportion of positive older pigs (>8 months) than young pigs. The logistic model showed that pigs >8 month of age were 2.5 times more likely to be EITB-positive than ?8 months. A subset of 84 seropositive pigs were necropsied, with 45.2% (38/84) positive to 1–2 bands, 46.4% (39/84) to 3 bands, and 8.3% (7/84) to 4+ bands. 41 out of 84 positive pigs were negative to necropsy (48.8%) and 43 (51%) had one or more cysts (positive predictive value). Older pigs showed more moderate and heavy infection burdens compared to younger pigs. In general, regardless of the age of the pig, the probability of having more cysts (parasite burden) increases proportionally with the number of EITB bands. Conclusions/Significance The probability of being necropsy-positive increased with the number of bands, and age. Therefore, the EITB is a measure of exposure rather than a test to determine the real prevalence of cysticercosis infection. PMID:23658848

Gavidia, Cesar M.; Verastegui, Manuela R.; Garcia, Hector H.; Lopez-Urbina, Teresa; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Pan, William; Gilman, Robert H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

2013-01-01

75

Efficacy and Safety of Anthelmintics Tested against Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Pigs  

PubMed Central

Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE) in 1993, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemotherapy of infected pigs. Different drugs have been tested on porcine cysticercosis with varying efficacies. These include flubendazole, fenbendazole, albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, oxfendazole, praziquantel, and nitazoxanide. This review summarises available information on the efficacies and adverse effects shown by these drugs in pigs. Oxfendazole has shown to be effective for the control of porcine cysticercosis; however, it needs to be integrated with other control approaches. There is a need for standardised guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics against porcine cysticercosis, and more efficacy studies are needed since the conclusions so far are based on a limited number of studies using few infected pigs. PMID:23936558

Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Johansen, Maria Vang

2013-01-01

76

Efficacy and safety of anthelmintics tested against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs.  

PubMed

Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE) in 1993, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemotherapy of infected pigs. Different drugs have been tested on porcine cysticercosis with varying efficacies. These include flubendazole, fenbendazole, albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, oxfendazole, praziquantel, and nitazoxanide. This review summarises available information on the efficacies and adverse effects shown by these drugs in pigs. Oxfendazole has shown to be effective for the control of porcine cysticercosis; however, it needs to be integrated with other control approaches. There is a need for standardised guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics against porcine cysticercosis, and more efficacy studies are needed since the conclusions so far are based on a limited number of studies using few infected pigs. PMID:23936558

Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Johansen, Maria Vang

2013-01-01

77

Molecular Characterization and Diagnostic Value of Taenia solium Low-Molecular-Weight Antigen Genes  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by infection with the larvae of Taenia solium is an important cause of neurological disease worldwide. In order to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for this infection using recombinant proteins, we carried out molecular cloning and identified four candidates as diagnostic antigens (designated Ag1, Ag1V1, Ag2, and Ag2V1). Except for Ag2V1, these clones could encode a 7-kDa polypeptide, and Ag2V1 could encode a 10-kDa polypeptide. All of the clones were very similar. Except for Ag2V1, recombinant proteins were successfully expressed using an Escherichia coli expression system. Immunoblot analysis of NCC patient sera detected recombinant proteins, but because reactivity to recombinant Ag1 was too weak, Ag1 was not suitable as an immunodiagnostic antigen. So, Ag1V1 and Ag2 were chosen as ELISA antigens, and the Ag1V1/Ag2 chimeric protein was expressed. Of 49 serum samples from NCC patients confirmed to be seropositive by immunoblot analysis, 44 (89.7%) were positive by ELISA. No assays of serum samples from patients with other parasitic infections recognized the Ag1V1/Ag2 chimeric protein. The Ag1V1/Ag2 chimeric protein obtained in this study had a high value for differential immunodiagnosis. PMID:11101577

Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Ikejima, Takashi; Piao, Xian Zhi; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira

2000-01-01

78

Identification and quantification of host proteins in the vesicular fluid of porcine Taenia solium cysticerci.  

PubMed

The host-parasite relationship in cestode infections is complex. One feature of this bidirectional molecular communication is the uptake of host proteins by the parasite. Here we describe the presence of several host proteins in the vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci dissected from the central nervous system and the skeletal muscle of naturally infected pigs. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis we compared the protein patterns of vesicular fluids of cysticerci vs. the sera of cysticercotic pigs. We found that the vesicular fluids of both groups of cysts showed 17 protein spots matching with the pig's sera spots. After mass spectrometry sequencing of these spots, five host proteins were identified: hemoglobin, albumin, serpin A3-8, haptoglobin, rho GTPase-activating protein 36-like. Three of the 17 spots corresponded to host protein fragments: hemoglobin, albumin and serpin A3-8. IgG heavy and light chains were also identified by Western blot using a specific antibody. Quantitative estimations indicated that the host proteins represented 11-13% of the protein content in the vesicular fluids. We also calculated the relative abundance of these host proteins in the vesicular fluids; all were represented in similar relative abundances as in host sera. This suggests that uptake of host proteins by cysticerci proceeds through an unspecific mechanism such as non-specific fluid pinocytosis. PMID:24768954

Navarrete-Perea, José; Moguel, Bárbara; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Bobes, Raúl J; Laclette, Juan P

2014-08-01

79

Field evaluation of urine antigen detection for diagnosis of Taenia solium cysticercosis.  

PubMed

(Neuro)cysticercosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by infection with Taenia solium metacestode larvae. Existing immunodiagnostic techniques detect antibodies and circulating antigens (Ag) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Blood/CSF collection is an invasive procedure associated with blood-borne infections and is often not well accepted by communities. Detection of circulating Ag in urine has been suggested as an alternative, however this has been evaluated in clinical settings only. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of a urine Ag-ELISA under field conditions. Paired serum and urine samples were obtained from participants in endemic areas of Ecuador (n=748) and Zambia (n=690) and were subjected to a monoclonal antibody-based Ag-ELISA. Calculation of positive and negative agreement indices (AI) showed better agreement in the negative direction both for Ecuadorian and Zambian samples (AI of 93.1 and 86.8, respectively). Using a Bayesian approach to determine the test characteristics, similar sensitivities were obtained for serum and urine Ag detection, whereas a decreased specificity was determined for the urine Ag-ELISA with a lower specificity (78.6%) for Zambian samples than for Ecuadorian samples (88.4%). This study indicates a higher specificity for the serum test under field conditions and promotes further research to improve the urine test. PMID:21862093

Mwape, K E; Praet, N; Benitez-Ortiz, W; Muma, J B; Zulu, G; Celi-Erazo, M; Phiri, I K; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, R; Dorny, P; Gabriël, S

2011-10-01

80

Cytokine expression at the anchor site in experimental Taenia solium infection in hamsters.  

PubMed

The establishment of Taenia solium adult parasite in the human intestine causes taeniosis. Importantly, the immunological mechanisms occurring at the interface between the parasite and its host are not fully known. The development of experimental animal models has facilitated the understanding of the host-parasite relationship. In this study we standardized a quantitative RT-PCR method for analyzing hamster messenger RNA for interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and interleukins (IL): IL-4 IL-10, IL-12 and IL-13. This method was then used to evaluate the local cytokine response elicited against the adult parasite at the attachment site in the intestine of infected hamsters. The results showed an intense IFN-? response, as well as an up-regulation of IL-4 as early as three days post-infection, permanence of IL-10 until the end of the experiment and down regulation of IL-12. These data are in agreement with a bias toward a Th-2 response as the infection progresses. PMID:24439768

Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Vaughan, Gilberto; Mendlovic, Fela; Vergara-Castañeda, Arely; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Alonso, Monica; Avila, Guillermina; Flisser, Ana

2014-03-01

81

Protein and antigen diversity in the vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci dissected from naturally infected pigs.  

PubMed

Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a health threat for humans and pigs living in developing countries, for which there is neither a flawless immunodiagnostic test nor a totally effective vaccine. Suspecting of individual diversity of hosts and parasites as possible sources of the variations of the parasite loads among cysticercotic animals and of the limited success of such immunological applications as well as, we explored and measured both in nine cases of naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis. For this purpose, 2-Dimensional IgG immunoblots were performed by reacting the sera of each cysticercotic pig with the antigens contained in the vesicular fluid (VF) of their own cysticerci. We found an unexpectedly large diversity among the proteins and antigens contained in each of the nine VFs. Also diverse were the serum IgG antibody responses of the nine pigs, as none of their 2D- immunoblot images exhibited the same number of spots and resembled each other in only 6.3% to 65.3% of their features. So large an individual immunological diversity of the cysticercal antigens and of the infected pigs´ IgG antibody response should be taken into account in the design of immunological tools for diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis and should also be considered as a possibly significant source of diversity in Taenia solium´s infectiveness and pathogenicity. PMID:22110381

Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Larralde, Carlos; Morales, Julio; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro

2011-01-01

82

Protein and Antigen Diversity in the Vesicular Fluid of Taenia Solium Cysticerci Dissected from Naturally Infected Pigs  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a health threat for humans and pigs living in developing countries, for which there is neither a flawless immunodiagnostic test nor a totally effective vaccine. Suspecting of individual diversity of hosts and parasites as possible sources of the variations of the parasite loads among cysticercotic animals and of the limited success of such immunological applications as well as, we explored and measured both in nine cases of naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis. For this purpose, 2-Dimensional IgG immunoblots were performed by reacting the sera of each cysticercotic pig with the antigens contained in the vesicular fluid (VF) of their own cysticerci. We found an unexpectedly large diversity among the proteins and antigens contained in each of the nine VFs. Also diverse were the serum IgG antibody responses of the nine pigs, as none of their 2D- immunoblot images exhibited the same number of spots and resembled each other in only 6.3% to 65.3% of their features. So large an individual immunological diversity of the cysticercal antigens and of the infected pigs´ IgG antibody response should be taken into account in the design of immunological tools for diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis and should also be considered as a possibly significant source of diversity in Taenia solium´s infectiveness and pathogenicity. PMID:22110381

Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Larralde, Carlos; Morales, Julio; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro

2011-01-01

83

Serodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis using antigenic components of Taenia solium metacestodes derived from the unbound fraction from jacalin affinity chromatography  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to analyse Taenia solium metacestode antigens that were derived from the unbound fraction of jacalin affinity chromatography and subsequent tert-octylphenoxy poly (oxyethylene) ethanol Triton X-114 (TX-114) partitioning in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis (NCC). Immunoassays were designed to detect T. solium-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA and immunoblot. Serum samples were collected from 132 individuals who were categorised as follows: 40 had NCC, 62 presented Taenia spp or other parasitic diseases and 30 were healthy individuals. The jacalin-unbound (Junbound) fraction presented higher sensitivity and specificity rates than the jacalin-bound fraction and only this fraction was subjected to subsequent TX-114 partitioning, resulting in detergent (DJunbound) and aqueous (AJunbound) fractions. The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were 85% and 84.8% for Junbound, 92.5% and 93.5% for DJunboundand 82.5% and 82.6% for AJunbound. By immunoblot, the DJunboundfraction showed 100% sensitivity and specificity and only serum samples from patients with NCC recognised the 50-70 kDa T. solium-specific components. We conclude that the DJunboundfraction can serve as a useful tool for the differential immunodiagnosis of NCC by immunoblot. PMID:23778661

Machado, Gleyce Alves; de Oliveira, Heliana Batista; Gennari-Cardoso, Margareth Leitão; Mineo, José Roberto; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

2013-01-01

84

Evaluation of an IgG-ELISA strategy using Taenia solium metacestode somatic and excretory–secretory antigens for diagnosis of neurocysticercosis revealing biological stage of the larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) is complicated because of the variability in clinical presentations and course of the disease where viability of parasite is a major determinant. The present study describes evaluation of ELISAs using Taenia solium metacestode somatic and excretory–secretory (ES) antigens for detection of anti-T. solium metacestode IgG antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). And results of the

Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan Sahu; Subhash Chandra Parija; Sunil K. Narayan; Debendra Kumar

2009-01-01

85

Neurocysticercosis: detection of Taenia solium DNA in human cerebrospinal fluid using a semi-nested PCR based on HDP2.  

PubMed

Human neurocysticercosis (NC) is caused by Taenia solium larvae lodged in the central nervous system. This disease is usually diagnosed by radiology but the results are not always clear-cut and so immunological assays are often also used. A semi-nested PCR, based on the non-coding HDP2 sequence of T. saginata, has now been developed for detecting DNA from T. solium cysticerci and confirming NC. This PCR, which amplifies a 171-bp T. solium product, allowed the specific detection of just 174 attograms of T. solium DNA. The efficacy of the PCR was tested using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from neurological patients, including 46 confirmed Mexican cases of NC and 32 patients from non-endemic Spain. Eighteen of the confirmed cases [including 10 (71%) of the 14 with vesicular extraparenchymal cysticerci and four (17%) of the 24 with damaged cysticerci] and two (33%) of the six patients with 'uncertain' diagnosis (in whom a diagnosis of NC could not be established by radiological and immunological studies) were found PCR-positive. The 36 patients known to have neurological problems other than NC were found PCR-negative. The HDP2 PCR offers a new tool in the diagnosis of NC and in exploring the pathogenesis of this serious disease. PMID:18510812

Hernández, M; Gonzalez, L M; Fleury, A; Saenz, B; Parkhouse, R M E; Harrison, L J S; Garate, T; Sciutto, E

2008-06-01

86

Evaluation of an immunodot blot technique for the detection of antibodies against Taenia solium larval antigens.  

PubMed

Immunodiagnostic tests represent an important tool for diagnosis of cysticercosis, the disease caused by cysticerci of Taenia solium. Accurate diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) requires costly neuroimaging techniques (magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography), which are seldom affordable for people in endemic countries. Hence, new low-cost diagnostic methods offering good sensitivity and specificity are needed. Here, we studied four immunodiagnostic tests immunodot blot Tsol-p27, a commercial ELISA, and Western blot Tsol-p27/TsolHSP36, and compared them with a commercial enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) that we regarded as the gold standard method. The analyzed serum samples were obtained from 160 patients: 94 epileptics suspected of NCC, six individuals confirmed NCC-positive, and 60 with positive (30) or negative (30) serology for Chagas diseases. Of the 100 serum samples from epileptic patients, 13 were positive and 87 negative by EITB. Compared to Western blot Tsol-p27, immunodot blot Tsol-p27 offered similar specificity (97.8% vs. 95.6%) but better sensitivity (86.7% vs. 76.4%). The ELISA was similar to the immunodot blot Tsol-p27 regarding both sensitivity and specificity. Western blot TsolHSP36 provided the lowest sensitivity (61.9%) and specificity (86.1%). None of the antibodies in the serum samples from the Chagas control groups were recognized by immunodot blot Tsol-p27. Our results indicate that the immunodot blot Tsol-p27 provides good sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, considering the simplicity and low cost of this test, it might be preferable as a diagnostic method in poorly equipped laboratories in endemic countries. PMID:22215187

Salazar-Anton, Fernando; Tellez, Aleyda; Lindh, Johan

2012-06-01

87

Preliminary evaluation of Community-Led Total Sanitation for the control of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Katete District of Zambia.  

PubMed

Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. It is associated with poor sanitary practices, free-range pig husbandry and lack of disease awareness in endemic communities. A comparative research was conducted with pre and post-intervention assessments in nine villages to evaluate Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) as an intervention measure for the control of porcine cysticercosis in Katete District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. Blood samples were collected from pigs for circulating antigen detection and a questionnaire focused on the household was administered to a total of 153 respondents whose pigs were examined (64 pre-intervention, 89 post-intervention), in order to obtain information on general demographic characteristics, pig husbandry practices, sanitation practices and associated knowledge and awareness of T. solium infections. The first sampling was conducted prior to the implementation of the CLTS and second sampling eight months after triggering of CLTS in the selected villages. A total of 379 pig serum samples were examined using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA to detect T. solium cysticercosis, 104 pre-intervention and 275 post-intervention, of which 14 (13.5%) and 45 (16.4%) were positive, respectively. Wald test p-values were computed to assess significant differences in the variables of interest mentioned above for the pre and post CLTS. The research revealed that CLTS as a control measure did not significantly improve T. solium infections in pigs. The research also revealed that the sanitation practices and awareness of cysticercosis did not change. It is recommended that a longer term evaluation be undertaken when the villages have been declared open defaecation free. In addition, the research recommends that health education, mass drug treatment and pig vaccination be incorporated, as an essential component of prevention and control programmes for T. solium infections. PMID:25591408

Bulaya, Carol; Mwape, Kabemba E; Michelo, Charles; Sikasunge, Chummy S; Makungu, Chitwambi; Gabriel, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Isaac K

2015-01-30

88

Taenia solium disease in humans and pigs: an ancient parasitosis disease rooted in developing countries and emerging as a major health problem of global dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews current knowledge on human and porcine cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium. It highlights the conditions favorable for its prevalence and transmission, as well as current trends in research on its natural history, epidemiology, immunopathology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Our opinions on the most urgent needs for further research are also presented.

Edda Sciutto; Gladis Fragoso; Agnes Fleury; Juan Pedro Laclette; Julio Sotelo; Aline Aluja; Laura Vargas; Carlos Larralde

2000-01-01

89

Incidence of Human Taenia solium Larval Infections in an Ecuadorian Endemic Area: Implications for Disease Burden Assessment and Control  

PubMed Central

Background Human cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease causing severe health disorders and even death. While prevalence data become available worldwide, incidence rate and cumulative incidence figures are lacking, which limits the understanding of the Taenia solium epidemiology. Methodology/Principal findings A seroepidemiological cohort study was conducted in a south-Ecuadorian community to estimate the incidence rate of infection with and the incidence rate of exposure to T. solium based on antigen and antibody detections, respectively. The incidence rate of infection was 333.6 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: [8.4–1,858] per 100,000 person-years) contrasting with a higher incidence rate of exposure 13,370 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: [8,730–19,591] per 100,000 person-years). The proportion of infected individuals remained low and stable during the whole study year while more than 25% of the population showed at least one antibody seroconversion/seroreversion during the same time period. Conclusions/Significance Understanding the transmission of T. solium is essential to develop ad hoc cost-effective prevention and control programs. The estimates generated here may now be incorporated in epidemiological models to simulate the temporal transmission of the parasite and the effects of control interventions on its life cycle. These estimates are also of high importance to assess the disease burden since incidence data are needed to make regional and global projections of morbidity and mortality related to cysticercosis. PMID:24852050

Coral-Almeida, Marco; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Richar; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; García, Héctor Hugo; Rodríguez, Silvia; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Benítez-Ortiz, Washington; Dorny, Pierre; Praet, Nicolas

2014-01-01

90

Phylogenetic relationships within Echinococcus and Taenia tapeworms (Cestoda: Taeniidae): an inference from nuclear protein-coding genes.  

PubMed

The family Taeniidae of tapeworms is composed of two genera, Echinococcus and Taenia, which obligately parasitize mammals including humans. Inferring phylogeny via molecular markers is the only way to trace back their evolutionary histories. However, molecular dating approaches are lacking so far. Here we established new markers from nuclear protein-coding genes for RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and DNA polymerase delta (pold). Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of the concatenated gene sequences allowed us to reconstruct phylogenetic trees for taeniid parasites. The tree topologies clearly demonstrated that Taenia is paraphyletic and that the clade of Echinococcus oligarthrus and Echinococcusvogeli is sister to all other members of Echinococcus. Both species are endemic in Central and South America, and their definitive hosts originated from carnivores that immigrated from North America after the formation of the Panamanian land bridge about 3 million years ago (Ma). A time-calibrated phylogeny was estimated by a Bayesian relaxed-clock method based on the assumption that the most recent common ancestor of E. oligarthrus and E. vogeli existed during the late Pliocene (3.0 Ma). The results suggest that a clade of Taenia including human-pathogenic species diversified primarily in the late Miocene (11.2 Ma), whereas Echinococcus started to diversify later, in the end of the Miocene (5.8 Ma). Close genetic relationships among the members of Echinococcus imply that the genus is a young group in which speciation and global radiation occurred rapidly. PMID:21907295

Knapp, Jenny; Nakao, Minoru; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Okamoto, Munehiro; Saarma, Urmas; Lavikainen, Antti; Ito, Akira

2011-12-01

91

The Taenia saginata homologue of the major surface antigen of Echinococcus spp. is immunogenic and 97% identical to its Taenia solium homologue.  

PubMed

The TEG-Tsag gene of Taenia saginata is homologous to the genes expressing the two major surface antigens of Echinococcus spp. (EM10 and EG10). Surface antigens of parasites are logical candidates for vaccines, and in this paper we demonstrate that cattle vaccinated with the recombinant TEG-Tsag protein, either used singly or in conjunction with the recombinant HP6-Tsag protein, the major 18 kDa surface/secreted antigen of T. saginata oncospheres, produce excellent antibody responses to both these recombinant proteins. Thus TEG-Tsag may have utility as a vaccine and also as a diagnostic tool for bovine cysticercosis. In addition, as we now demonstrate a 97% homology between TEG-Tsag and its Taenia solium homologue, TEG-Tsol, this latter molecule may have similar potential in the control of human and porcine cysticercosis. The TEG molecule is characterized by an N-terminal FERM domain and a C-terminal ERM domain which are found in a number of cytoskeletal-associated proteins located at the interface between the plasma membrane and the cytoskeleton and in proteins that interact with lipid membranes. The FERM domain is also postulated to bind to adhesion proteins, in a PIP2-regulated fashion, providing a link between cytoskeletal signals and membrane dynamics. Thus TEG protein may play a role in tegument function and interaction with the host. PMID:17674048

González, Luis Miguel; Ferrer, Elizabeth; Spickett, Andrea; Michael, Lynne M; Vatta, Adriano F; Gárate, Teresa; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E

2007-11-01

92

Use of expressed sequence tags as an alternative approach for the identification of Taenia solium metacestode excretion/secretion proteins  

PubMed Central

Background Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a zoonotic helminth infection mainly found in rural regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. In endemic areas, diagnosis of cysticercosis largely depends on serology, but these methods have their drawbacks and require improvement. This implies better knowledge of the proteins secreted and excreted by the parasite. In a previous study, we used a custom protein database containing protein sequences from related helminths to identify T. solium metacestode excretion/secretion proteins. An alternative or complementary approach would be to use expressed sequence tags combined with BLAST and protein mapping to supercontigs of Echinococcus granulosus, a closely related cestode. In this study, we evaluate this approach and compare the results to those obtained in the previous study. Findings We report 297 proteins organized in 106 protein groups based on homology. Additional classification was done using Gene Ontology information on biological process and molecular function. Of the 106 protein groups, 58 groups were newly identified, while 48 groups confirmed previous findings. Blast2GO analysis revealed that the majority of the proteins were involved in catalytic activities and binding. Conclusions In this study, we used translated expressed sequence tags combined with BLAST and mapping strategies to both confirm and complement previous research. Our findings are comparable to recent studies on other helminth genera like Echinococcus, Schistosoma and Clonorchis, indicating similarities between helminth excretion/secretion proteomes. PMID:23742691

2013-01-01

93

In Vitro Analysis of Albendazole Sulfoxide Enantiomers Shows that (+)-(R)-Albendazole Sulfoxide Is the Active Enantiomer against Taenia solium  

PubMed Central

Albendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used in the treatment of neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with Taenia solium cysts. However, drug levels of its active metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), are erratic, likely resulting in decreased efficacy and suboptimal cure rates in NCC. Racemic albendazole sulfoxide is composed of ABZSO (+)-(R)- and (?)-(S) enantiomers that have been shown to differ in pharmacokinetics and activity against other helminths. The antiparasitic activities of racemic ABZSO and its (+)-(R)- and (?)-(S) enantiomers against T. solium cysts were evaluated in vitro. Parasites were collected from naturally infected pigs, cultured, and exposed to the racemic mixture or to each enantiomer (range, 10 to 500 ng/ml) or to praziquantel as a reference drug. The activity of each compound against cysts was assayed by measuring the ability to evaginate and inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and parasite antigen release. (+)-(R)-ABZSO was significantly more active than (?)-(S)-ABZSO in suppressing the release of AP and antigen into the supernatant in a dose- and time-dependent manner, indicating that most of the activity of ABZSO resides in the (+)-(R) enantiomer. Use of this enantiomer alone may lead to increased efficacy and/or less toxicity compared to albendazole. PMID:23229490

Paredes, Adriana; de Campos Lourenço, Tiago; Marzal, Miguel; Rivera, Andrea; Dorny, Pierre; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H.; Cass, Quezia B.

2013-01-01

94

Crystal Structure of Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase from Taenia Solium Reveals Metal-mediated Self-assembly  

SciTech Connect

Taenia solium is the cestode responsible for porcine and human cysticercosis. The ability of this parasite to establish itself in the host is related to its evasion of the immune response and its antioxidant defence system. The latter includes enzymes such as cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. In this article, we describe the crystal structure of a recombinant T. solium Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, representing the first structure of a protein from this organism. This enzyme shows a different charge distribution at the entrance of the active channel when compared with human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, giving it interesting properties that may allow the design of specific inhibitors against this cestode. The overall topology is similar to other superoxide dismutase structures; however, there are several His and Glu residues on the surface of the protein that coordinate metal ions both intra- and intermolecularly. Interestingly, one of these ions, located on the {beta}2 strand, establishes a metal-mediated intermolecular {beta}-{beta} interaction, including a symmetry-related molecule. The factors responsible for the abnormal protein-protein interactions that lead to oligomerization are still unknown; however, high metal levels have been implicated in these phenomena, but exactly how they are involved remains unclear. The present results suggest that this structure could be useful as a model to explain an alternative mechanism of protein aggregation commonly observed in insoluble fibrillar deposits.

A Hernandez-Santoyo; A Landa; E Gonzalez-Mondragon; M Pedraza-Escalona; R Parra-Unda; A Rodriguez-Romero

2011-12-31

95

Further evaluation of the synthetic peptide vaccine S3Pvac against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs in an endemic town of Mexico.  

PubMed

Taenia solium cysticercosis is a parasitic disease frequently affecting human health and the pig industry in many developing countries. A synthetic peptide vaccine (designated S3Pvac) against porcine cysticercosis has been developed previously as an aid to interrupt transmission and has been shown to be effective. The results of the present study support the effectiveness of the vaccine under endemic field conditions. However, given the time-frame of the vaccination trial, no changes in the local levels of transmission were detectable before and after vaccination using sentinel pigs. Thus, this investigation shows the limited usefulness of single vaccination as the sole means of interrupting Taenia solium transmission in an endemic region. PMID:16948875

Sciutto, E; Morales, J; Martínez, J J; Toledo, A; Villalobos, M N; Cruz-Revilla, C; Meneses, G; Hernández, M; Díaz, A; Rodarte, L F; Acero, G; Gevorkian, G; Manoutcharian, K; Paniagua, J; Fragoso, G; Fleury, A; Larralde, R; De Aluja, A S; Larralde, C

2007-01-01

96

TsAg5, a Taenia solium cysticercus protein with a marginal trypsin-like activity in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis is an endemic parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium larva. Although the mechanism of infection is not completely understood, it is likely driven by proteolytic activity that degrades the intestinal wall to facilitate oncosphere penetration and further infection. We analyzed the publicly available Taenia solium EST/DNA library and identified two contigs comprising a full-length cDNA fragment very similar to E. granulosus Ag5 protein. The Taenia solium cDNA sequence included a proteolytic trypsin-like-domain in the C-terminal region, and a thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain in the N-terminal region. Both the trypsin-like and adherence domains were expressed independently as recombinant proteins in bacterial systems. TsAg5 showed marginal trypsin-like activity and high sequence similarity to Ag5. The purified antigens were tested in a Western immunoblot assay to diagnose human neurocysticercosis. The sensitivity of the trypsin-like-domain was 96.36% in patients infected with extraparenchymal cysts, 75.44% in patients infected with multiple cysts, and 39.62% in patients with a single cyst. Specificity was 76.70%. The thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain was not specific for neurocysticercosis. PMID:21893105

Rueda, Analiz; Sifuentes, Cecilia; Gilman, Robert H.; Gutiérrez, Andrés H.; Piña, Ruby; Chile, Nancy; Carrasco, Sebastián; Larson, Sandra; Mayta, Holger; Verástegui, Manuela; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gutiérrez-Correa, Marcel; García, Héctor H.; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko

2011-01-01

97

Management of a chest-wall soft-tissue tumor caused by an infection with the larval tapeworm pathogen Taenia crassiceps.  

PubMed

A chest-wall lesion of an immunocompetent patient was initially suspicious for a malignant tumor. Histopathological and polymerase chain reaction examinations revealed an infection with the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia crassiceps. Curative resection of the tumorous lesion was performed. Treatment options for immunocompromised patients and patients without known immune defect are discussed, because most of the infections occur in immunocompromised individuals. PMID:24914004

Roesel, Christian; Welter, Stefan; Stamatis, Georgios; Theegarten, Dirk; Tappe, Dennis

2014-09-01

98

Improved diagnosis as an aid to better surveillance of Taenia solium cysticercosis, a potential public health threat to Papua New Guinea.  

PubMed

Taenia solium cysticercosis has been recognized as a public health problem in Indonesian Irian Jaya since its unfortunate introduction in a number of infected pigs imported from Bali. From its original point of introduction in 1971, the infection has spread from the Wissel Lakes area to other places within Irian Jaya. The present situation at the border between Irian Jaya and Papua New Guinea (PNG) is difficult to assess accurately but, in light of the flow of refugees and the traditional rights of movement of people with their pigs in the border area, PNG populations are now at risk. Government health officers and veterinarians in PNG are well aware of this threat and have been watching closely for transmission of Taenia solium into PNG. A rigorous survey of Irianese refugees at the border and surrounding areas in PNG using recently developed immunodiagnostic procedures such as the EITB (enzyme immunoelectrotransfer blot) for detecting human and pig cysticercosis and the dipstick ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for identifying T. solium carriers, coupled with careful assessment of medical history and clinical and stool examination, is, however, required. Such a study would allow evaluation of the prevalence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Irian Jayan refugees residing in camps in PNG. The study would also determine the extent to which the parasite has spread easterly and, importantly, whether cysticercosis/taeniasis has crossed the border and is endemic in PNG, thereby constituting a potentially serious public health problem. PMID:9522870

McManus, D P

1995-12-01

99

Genetic variation in the Cytb gene of human cerebral Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from clinically and radiologically heterogeneous patients with neurocysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous parasitic disease caused by the establishment of larval Taenia solium in the human central nervous system. Host and/or parasite variations may be related to this observed heterogeneity. Genetic differences between pig and human-derived T. solium cysticerci have been reported previously. In this study, 28 cysticerci were surgically removed from 12 human NC patients, the mitochondrial gene that encodes cytochrome b was amplified from the cysticerci and genetic variations that may be related to NC heterogeneity were characterised. Nine different haplotypes (Ht), which were clustered in four haplogroups (Hg), were identified. Hg 3 and 4 exhibited a tendency to associate with age and gender, respectively. However, no significant associations were found between NC heterogeneity and the different T. solium cysticerci Ht or Hg. Parasite variants obtained from patients with similar NC clinical or radiological features were genetically closer than those found in groups of patients with a different NC profile when using the Mantel test. Overall, this study establishes the presence of genetic differences in the Cytb gene of T. solium isolated from human cysticerci and suggests that parasite variation could contribute to NC heterogeneity. PMID:24271046

Palafox-Fonseca, Héctor; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Bobes, Raúl José; Govezensky, Tzipe; Piñero, Daniel; Texco-Martínez, Laura; Fleury, Agnès; Proaño, Jefferson; Cárdenas, Graciela; Hernández, Marisela; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

2013-01-01

100

Lights and shadows of the Taenia asiatica life cycle and pathogenicity.  

PubMed

Humans are definitive hosts of two well-known species of the Taenia genus, Taenia solium (the pig tapeworm) and Taenia saginata (the cattle tapeworm). In the 1990s, a third species, Taenia asiatica, was discovered, sharing features with the other two since the adult morphology is similar to that of T. saginata, but its life cycle is like that of T. solium. Human taeniasis usually is asymptomatic or displays mild symptoms, and only T. solium can cause other sometimes serious disorders when humans accidentally ingest the eggs and develop the larval stage in different organs (cysticercosis). In this review, we expose what we currently know (lights) and what we do not yet know (shadows) about the life cycle and pathogenicity of T. asiatica. Concerning its life cycle, the main uncertainty is whether humans can act as intermediate hosts of this species. We also suggest that due to its small size and location in pigs, the cysticerci probably escape veterinary inspection becoming a silent parasite. Concerning pathogenicity, it is still not known if T. asiatica can cause human liver cysticercosis, taking into account its principal hepatic tropism in pigs. To answer all these questions it would be essential to perform sensitive as well as specific diagnostic techniques for T. asiatica in humans and pigs. Currently, only molecular methods are able to determine the Taenia species, since morphology and immunology are useless, but unfortunately although largely used in research those methods are not employed in routine diagnosis. PMID:24470994

Galán-Puchades, Maria Teresa; Fuentes, Màrius Vicent

2013-07-01

101

The genomes of four tapeworm species reveal adaptations to parasitism.  

PubMed

Tapeworms (Cestoda) cause neglected diseases that can be fatal and are difficult to treat, owing to inefficient drugs. Here we present an analysis of tapeworm genome sequences using the human-infective species Echinococcus multilocularis, E. granulosus, Taenia solium and the laboratory model Hymenolepis microstoma as examples. The 115- to 141-megabase genomes offer insights into the evolution of parasitism. Synteny is maintained with distantly related blood flukes but we find extreme losses of genes and pathways that are ubiquitous in other animals, including 34 homeobox families and several determinants of stem cell fate. Tapeworms have specialized detoxification pathways, metabolism that is finely tuned to rely on nutrients scavenged from their hosts, and species-specific expansions of non-canonical heat shock proteins and families of known antigens. We identify new potential drug targets, including some on which existing pharmaceuticals may act. The genomes provide a rich resource to underpin the development of urgently needed treatments and control. PMID:23485966

Tsai, Isheng J; Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Holroyd, Nancy; Garciarrubio, Alejandro; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Brooks, Karen L; Tracey, Alan; Bobes, Raúl J; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Aslett, Martin; Beasley, Helen; Bennett, Hayley M; Cai, Jianping; Camicia, Federico; Clark, Richard; Cucher, Marcela; De Silva, Nishadi; Day, Tim A; Deplazes, Peter; Estrada, Karel; Fernández, Cecilia; Holland, Peter W H; Hou, Junling; Hu, Songnian; Huckvale, Thomas; Hung, Stacy S; Kamenetzky, Laura; Keane, Jacqueline A; Kiss, Ferenc; Koziol, Uriel; Lambert, Olivia; Liu, Kan; Luo, Xuenong; Luo, Yingfeng; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Nichol, Sarah; Paps, Jordi; Parkinson, John; Pouchkina-Stantcheva, Natasha; Riddiford, Nick; Rosenzvit, Mara; Salinas, Gustavo; Wasmuth, James D; Zamanian, Mostafa; Zheng, Yadong; Cai, Xuepeng; Soberón, Xavier; Olson, Peter D; Laclette, Juan P; Brehm, Klaus; Berriman, Matthew

2013-04-01

102

The genomes of four tapeworm species reveal adaptations to parasitism  

PubMed Central

Summary Tapeworms cause debilitating neglected diseases that can be deadly and often require surgery due to ineffective drugs. Here we present the first analysis of tapeworm genome sequences using the human-infective species Echinococcus multilocularis, E. granulosus, Taenia solium and the laboratory model Hymenolepis microstoma as examples. The 115-141 megabase genomes offer insights into the evolution of parasitism. Synteny is maintained with distantly related blood flukes but we find extreme losses of genes and pathways ubiquitous in other animals, including 34 homeobox families and several determinants of stem cell fate. Tapeworms have species-specific expansions of non-canonical heat shock proteins and families of known antigens; specialised detoxification pathways, and metabolism finely tuned to rely on nutrients scavenged from their hosts. We identify new potential drug targets, including those on which existing pharmaceuticals may act. The genomes provide a rich resource to underpin the development of urgently needed treatments and control. PMID:23485966

Sánchez-Flores, Alejandro; Brooks, Karen L.; Tracey, Alan; Bobes, Raúl J.; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Aslett, Martin; Beasley, Helen; Bennett, Hayley M.; Cai, Xuepeng; Camicia, Federico; Clark, Richard; Cucher, Marcela; De Silva, Nishadi; Day, Tim A; Deplazes, Peter; Estrada, Karel; Fernández, Cecilia; Holland, Peter W. H.; Hou, Junling; Hu, Songnian; Huckvale, Thomas; Hung, Stacy S.; Kamenetzky, Laura; Keane, Jacqueline A.; Kiss, Ferenc; Koziol, Uriel; Lambert, Olivia; Liu, Kan; Luo, Xuenong; Luo, Yingfeng; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Nichol, Sarah; Paps, Jordi; Parkinson, John; Pouchkina-Stantcheva, Natasha; Riddiford, Nick; Rosenzvit, Mara; Salinas, Gustavo; Wasmuth, James D.; Zamanian, Mostafa; Zheng, Yadong; Cai, Jianping; Soberón, Xavier; Olson, Peter D.; Laclette, Juan P.; Brehm, Klaus; Berriman, Matthew

2014-01-01

103

Complete mitochondrial genomes of Taenia multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis: additional molecular markers for a tapeworm genus of human and animal health significance  

PubMed Central

Background Mitochondrial genomes provide a rich source of molecular variation of proven and widespread utility in molecular ecology, population genetics and evolutionary biology. The tapeworm genus Taenia includes a diversity of tapeworm parasites of significant human and veterinary importance. Here we add complete sequences of the mt genomes of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis, to a data set of 4 published mtDNAs in the same genus. Seven complete mt genomes of Taenia species are used to compare and contrast variation within and between genomes in the genus, to estimate a phylogeny for the genus, and to develop novel molecular markers as part of an extended mitochondrial toolkit. Results The complete circular mtDNAs of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis were 13,693, 13,492 and 13,387 bp in size respectively, comprising the usual complement of flatworm genes. Start and stop codons of protein coding genes included those found commonly amongst other platyhelminth mt genomes, but the much rarer initiation codon GTT was inferred for the gene atp6 in T. pisiformis. Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNAs offered novel estimates of the interrelationships of Taenia. Sliding window analyses showed nad6, nad5, atp6, nad3 and nad2 are amongst the most variable of genes per unit length, with the highest peaks in nucleotide diversity found in nad5. New primer pairs capable of amplifying fragments of variable DNA in nad1, rrnS and nad5 genes were designed in silico and tested as possible alternatives to existing mitochondrial markers for Taenia. Conclusions With the availability of complete mtDNAs of 7 Taenia species, we have shown that analysis of amino acids provides a robust estimate of phylogeny for the genus that differs markedly from morphological estimates or those using partial genes; with implications for understanding the evolutionary radiation of important Taenia. Full alignment of the nucleotides of Taenia mtDNAs and sliding window analysis suggests numerous alternative gene regions are likely to capture greater nucleotide variation than those currently pursued as molecular markers. New PCR primers developed from a comparative mitogenomic analysis of Taenia species, extend the use of mitochondrial markers for molecular ecology, population genetics and diagnostics. PMID:20649981

2010-01-01

104

Genetics of the Pig Tapeworm in Madagascar Reveal a History of Human Dispersal and Colonization  

PubMed Central

An intricate history of human dispersal and geographic colonization has strongly affected the distribution of human pathogens. The pig tapeworm Taenia solium occurs throughout the world as the causative agent of cysticercosis, one of the most serious neglected tropical diseases. Discrete genetic lineages of T. solium in Asia and Africa/Latin America are geographically disjunct; only in Madagascar are they sympatric. Linguistic, archaeological and genetic evidence has indicated that the people in Madagascar have mixed ancestry from Island Southeast Asia and East Africa. Hence, anthropogenic introduction of the tapeworm from Southeast Asia and Africa had been postulated. This study shows that the major mitochondrial haplotype of T. solium in Madagascar is closely related to those from the Indian Subcontinent. Parasitological evidence presented here, and human genetics previously reported, support the hypothesis of an Indian influence on Malagasy culture coinciding with periods of early human migration onto the island. We also found evidence of nuclear-mitochondrial discordance in single tapeworms, indicating unexpected cross-fertilization between the two lineages of T. solium. Analyses of genetic and geographic populations of T. solium in Madagascar will shed light on apparently rapid evolution of this organism driven by recent (<2,000 yr) human migrations, following tens of thousands of years of geographic isolation. PMID:25329310

Yanagida, Tetsuya; Carod, Jean-François; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Hoberg, Eric P.; Ito, Akira

2014-01-01

105

Molecular and morphological characterization of the tapeworm Taenia hydatigena (Pallas, 1766) in sheep from Iran.  

PubMed

Although Taenia hydatigena is one of the most prevalent taeniid species of livestock, very little molecular genetic information exists for this parasite. Up to 100 sheep isolates of T. hydatigena were collected from 19 abattoirs located in the provinces of Tehran, Alborz and Kerman. A calibrated microscope was used to measure the larval rostellar hook lengths. Following DNA extraction, fragments of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) and 12S rRNA genes were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction method and the amplicons were subjected to sequencing. The mean total length of large and small hooks was 203.4 ?m and 135.9 ?m, respectively. Forty CO1 and 39 12S rRNA sequence haplotypes were obtained in the study. The levels of pairwise nucleotide variation between individual haplotypes of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes were determined to be between 0.3-3.4% and 0.2-2.1%, respectively. The overall nucleotide variation among all the CO1 haplotypes was 9.7%, and for all the 12S rRNA haplotypes it was 10.1%. A significant difference was observed between rostellar hook morphometry and both CO1 and 12S rRNA sequence variability. A significantly high level of genetic variation was observed in the present study. The results showed that the 12S rRNA gene is more variable than CO1. PMID:24103709

Rostami, S; Salavati, R; Beech, R N; Babaei, Z; Sharbatkhori, M; Baneshi, M R; Hajialilo, E; Shad, H; Harandi, M F

2015-03-01

106

PET Reveals Inflammation around Calcified Taenia solium Granulomas with Perilesional Edema  

PubMed Central

Objective Neurocysticercosis, an infection with the larval form of the tapeworm, Taeniasolium, is the cause of 29% of epilepsy in endemic regions. Epilepsy in this population is mostly associated with calcified granulomas; at the time of seizure recurrence 50% of those with calcifications demonstrate transient surrounding perilesional edema. Whether edema is consequence of the seizure, or a result of host inflammation directed against parasite antigens or other processes is unknown. To investigate whether perilesional edema is due to inflammation, we imaged a marker of neuroinflammation, translocater protein (TSPO), using positron emission tomography (PET) and the selective ligand 11C-PBR28. Methods In nine patients with perilesional edema, degenerating cyst or both, PET findings were compared to the corresponding magnetic resonance images. Degenerating cysts were also studied because unlike perilesional edema, degenerating cysts are known to have inflammation. In three of the nine patients, changes in 11C-PBR28 binding were also studied over time. 11C-PBR28 binding was compared to the contralateral un-affected region. Results 11C-PBR28 binding increased by a mean of 13% in perilesional edema or degenerating cysts (P = 0·0005, n = 13 in nine patients). Among these 13 lesions, perilesional edema (n=10) showed a slightly smaller increase of 10% compared to the contralateral side (P = 0·005) than the three degenerating cysts. In five lesions with perilesional edema in which repeated measurements of 11C-PBR28 binding were done, increased binding lasted for 2-9 months. Conclusions Increased TSPO in perilesional edema indicates an inflammatory etiology. The long duration of increased TSPO binding after resolution of the original perilesional edema and the pattern of periodic episodes is consistent with intermittent exacerbation from a continued baseline presence of low level inflammation. Novel anti-inflammatory measures may be useful in the prevention or treatment of seizures in this population. PMID:24058514

Fujita, Masahiro; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Zoghbi, Sami S.; Ferraris Araneta, Maria Desiree; Hong, Jinsoo; Pike, Victor W.; Innis, Robert B.; Nash, Theodore E.

2013-01-01

107

Isolation of a 14 kDa antigen from Taenia solium cyst fluid by HPLC and its evaluation in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis.  

PubMed

A fraction with a major band of 14kDa was obtained from crude cyst fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci by 2-step chromatography. A first fraction isolated by gel filtration (Sephacryl S-300 high resolution) was purified using an anion exchange column (Mono Q HR 5/5) on high performance liquid chromatography. Evaluation of the analytic sensitivity of this fraction (F3) was carried out in an antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ab-ELISA-F3) using serum samples from pigs experimentally infected with different doses of T. solium eggs. The cross-reactivity of F3 was evaluated with serum samples from pigs that were naturally or experimentally infected with Taenia hydatigena, Taenia saginata asiatica, Fasciola hepatica, Trichinella spiralis, Metastrongylus apri, Trypanosoma congolense and Sarcoptes scabiei, and with serum samples of rabbits hyper-immunised with metacestode cyst fluid of T. hydatigena and T. solium. Antibody titres of lightly or heavily infected pigs differed in their kinetics. However, the increase in F3-specific antibodies could not be related to the infection level. Analysis of the specificity of the F3 showed that serum samples of pigs infected with other parasites did not recognise this antigen. Cross-reaction with T. hydatigena occurred in ELISA using cyst fluid as antigen, but the F3 antigen fraction was not recognized by rabbit hyper-immune serum samples to T. hydatigena. Evaluation of the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the Ab-ELISA-F3 was done by a non-parametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis using 66 serum samples from Zambian village pigs. The total number of cysticerci of these pigs was determined by dissection (28 pigs harboured T. solium cysticerci and 38 were negative at dissection). In addition, 58 serum samples from Cameroonian pigs (28 pigs from cysticercosis-free farms and 30 pigs with cysticerci at tongue inspection) were used in a separate ROC analysis. The results from the ROC analysis yielded a low diagnostic value (area under ROC curve=0.48) with the sera from the Zambian pigs while a relatively high diagnostic value was obtained with the sera from Cameroonian pigs (area under ROC curve=0.78). The main factor contributing to a low diagnostic value based on the Zambian serum samples seemed to be the false-positive reactions that were likely caused by the occurrence of transient antibodies in the non-infected animals. PMID:17101161

Assana, E; Kanobana, K; Tume, C B; Zoli, P A; Nguekam; Geerts, S; Berkvens, D; Dorny, P

2007-06-01

108

The highly antigenic 53/25 kDa Taenia solium protein fraction with cathepsin-L like activity is present in the oncosphere/cysticercus and induces non-protective IgG antibodies in pigs.  

PubMed

Cathepsin L-like proteases are secreted by several parasites including Taenia solium. The mechanism used by T. solium oncospheres to degrade and penetrate the intestine and infect the host is incompletely understood. It is assumed that intestinal degradation is driven by the proteolytic activity of enzymes secreted by the oncosphere. Blocking the proteolytic activity by an antibody response would prevent the oncosphere penetration and further infection. Serine and cysteine proteases including chymotrypsin, trypsin, elastase, and cathepsin L, are secreted by T. solium and Taenia saginata oncospheres when cultured in vitro, being potential vaccine candidates. However, the purification of a sufficient quantity of proteases secreted by oncospheres to conduct a vaccine trial is costly and lengthy. A 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like fraction partially purified from T. solium cyst fluid was described previously as an important antigen for immunodiagnostics. In this study we found that this antigen is present in the T. solium oncosphere and is also secreted by the cysticercus. This protein fraction was tested for its ability to protect pigs against an oral challenge with T. solium oncospheres in a vaccine trial. IgG antibodies against the 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like protein fraction were elicited in the vaccinated animals but did not confer protection. PMID:22119017

Zimic, Mirko; Pajuelo, Mónica; Gilman, Robert H; Gutiérrez, Andrés H; Rueda, Luis D; Flores, Myra; Chile, Nancy; Verástegui, Manuela; Gonzalez, Armando; García, Héctor H; Sheen, Patricia

2012-01-15

109

The highly antigenic 53/25 kDa Taenia solium protein fraction with cathepsin-L like activity is present in the oncosphere/cysticercus and induces non-protective IgG antibodies in pigs  

PubMed Central

Cathepsin L-like proteases are secreted by several parasites including Taenia solium. The mechanism used by T. solium oncospheres to degrade and penetrate the intestine and infect the host is incompletely understood. It is assumed that intestinal degradation is driven by the proteolytic activity of enzymes secreted by the oncosphere. Blocking the proteolytic activity by an antibody response would prevent the oncosphere penetration and further infection. Serine and cysteine proteases including chymotrypsin, trypsin, elastase, and cathepsin L, are secreted by T. solium and Taenia saginata oncospheres when cultured in vitro, being potential vaccine candidates. However, the purification of a sufficient quantity of proteases secreted by oncospheres to conduct a vaccine trial is costly and lengthy. A 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like fraction partially purified from T. solium cyst fluid was described previously as an important antigen for immunodiagnostics. In this study we found that this antigen is present in the T. solium oncosphere and is also secreted by the cysticercus. This protein fraction was tested for its ability to protect pigs against an oral challenge with T. solium oncospheres in a vaccine trial. IgG antibodies against the 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like protein fraction were elicited in the vaccinated animals but did not confer protection. PMID:22119017

Zimic, Mirko; Pajuelo, Mónica; Gilman, Robert H.; Gutiérrez, Andrés H.; Rueda, Luis D.; Flores, Myra; Chile, Nancy; Verástegui, Manuela; Gonzalez, Armando; García, Héctor H.; Sheen, Patricia

2011-01-01

110

Anti-Taenia solium metacestodes antibodies in serum from blood donors from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1995.  

PubMed

Serological survey was performed to detect IgG antibodies anti-Taenia solium metacestodes in blood donors of Hemocentro Regional de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 1133 sera from blood donors coming from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area were analyzed by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Specific IgG antibodies were found in 5.6% of the studied population, showing differences in the positive rates according to their origin: Araguari (13.5%), Tupaciguara (5.0%), Monte Alegre de Minas (4.8%) and Uberlândia (4.7%). The results indicate the probable endemicity of cysticercosis in this population. PMID:12219116

Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela de Paula; Machado, Eleuza Rodrigues; Arantes, Sílvio César de Freitas; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

2002-01-01

111

Utility of a Protein Fraction with Cathepsin L-Like Activity Purified from Cysticercus Fluid of Taenia solium in the Diagnosis of Human Cysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis, an endemic parasitic disease in most developing countries, is caused by Taenia solium and compromises the human central nervous system. Cathepsin L-like proteases are secreted by several parasites including T. solium and constitute important antigens for immunodiagnostics. A protein fraction with cathepsin L-like activity was purified from the cysticercus fluid by size exclusion and ion exchange chromatography. Cathepsin L-like activity was measured fluorometrically by detecting the hydrolysis of the fluorogenic substrate Z-Phe-Arg-AMC. The purified protein fraction included antigens of 53 and 25 kD that were tested in a Western immunoblot and in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of human cysticercosis. The sensitivity of the Western immunoblot was 96% for patients infected with multiple cysts and 78% for patients with a single cyst. Specificity was 98%. The sensitivity of the ELISA was 98% in patients with multiple cysts and 84% in patients with a single cyst. Specificity was 92.7%. PMID:19478259

Zimic, Mirko; Pajuelo, Mónica; Rueda, Daniel; López, César; Arana, Yanina; Castillo, Yesenia; Calderón, Maritza; Rodriguez, Silvia; Sheen, Patricia; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Gonzales, Armando; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.

2009-01-01

112

Release of glycoprotein (GP1) from the tegumental surface of Taenia solium by phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens suggests a novel protein-anchor to membranes.  

PubMed

In order to explore how molecules are linked to the membrane surface in larval Taenia solium, whole cysticerci were incubated in the presence of phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens (PLC). Released material was collected and analyzed in polyacrylamide gels with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Two major bands with apparent molecular weights of 180 and 43 kDa were observed. Western blot of released material and localization assays in cysticerci tissue sections using antibodies against five known surface glycoproteins of T. solium cysticerci indicated that only one, previously called GP1, was released. Similar localization studies using the lectins wheat-germ-agglutinin and Concanavalin A showed that N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetylneuraminic, sialic acid, alphamethyl-D-mannoside, D-manose/glucose, and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues are abundantly present on the surface. On the other hand, we find that treatment with PLC releases molecules from the surface; they do not reveal Cross Reacting Determinant (CRD), suggesting a novel anchor to the membrane for the glycoprotein GP1. PMID:20130782

Landa, Abraham; Willms, Kaethe; Laclette, Juan Pedro

2010-01-01

113

Taenia solium: the complex interactions, of biological, social, geographical and commercial factors, involved in the transmission dynamics of pig cysticercosis in highly endemic areas.  

PubMed

If a programme for the control of pig cysticercosis is to be effective it has to be based on good data on the local epidemiology of Taenia solium. In 2002-2003, in a cross-sectional study of pig cysticercosis in the Mexican state of Morelos, 1747 pigs that had been born and reared in rural areas of the state were checked for T. solium infection by tongue inspection. The prevalence of cysticercosis in the pigs was found to vary from 0% to 30% according to the municipality from which the pigs came. Although prevalence appeared to be unaffected by the socio-economic status of the municipality, it was relatively high in areas that lacked latrines, and in pigs that were castrated, pregnant and/or of the native (rather than an imported) breed. The results of questionnaire-based interviews with pig owners revealed that most (64.5%) of the rural pigs, whether infected or not, are slaughtered and consumed within the locality where they were reared. The other pigs are sold at low prices to organised traffickers who take the uninspected pigs to neighbouring urban areas for sale. The observed complexity in the factors affecting the transmission of T. solium to the pigs of Morelos state calls for an intervention strategy of matching complexity, initially targeted at those villages with the highest prevalences of pig cysticercosis. The road transport of pigs needs to be better regulated, and the vaccination and genetic improvement of the rural pigs, and delaying the castration of the boars, should all be considered. PMID:16492360

Morales, J; Martínez, J J; Garcia-Castella, J; Peña, N; Maza, V; Villalobos, N; Aluja, A S; Fleury, A; Fragoso, G; Larralde, C; Sciutto, E

2006-03-01

114

Evolution, molecular epidemiology and perspectives on the research of taeniid parasites with special emphasis on Taenia solium.  

PubMed

Human cysticercosis is known since old historical times in Greece and China; however, human infections by tapeworms have accompanied human beings for more that hundred thousand years. The disease is tightly bound to poverty and lack of hygiene, and has been eradicated in developed countries, but continues being a public health problem in developing countries of Latin-American, Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, and is also remerging in a number of non endemic countries. It is considered a neglected disease. Here we revise a number of key scientific contributions on taeniid biology that open new avenues for more effective approaches to the control of cysticercosis. The evolution of flatworms and class Cestoda is analyzed, with special emphasis on the emergence of taeniid parasites and the colonization of the human species by tapeworms. The complex molecular host-parasite interplay in this relationship as result of co-evolution between two distantly related organisms. The relevant host and parasite's factors, in the prospect of identifying species-specific molecular markers useful in epidemiological studies carried out in endemic countries. The new possibilities arising with the characterization of the genomes for several species of tapeworms, including a deeper understanding of these organisms, as well as improved tools for diagnosis, vaccination and drug treatment. The need to revise the current control and management strategies for this tropical neglected disease. PMID:24560729

Bobes, Raúl J; Fragoso, Gladis; Fleury, Agnès; García-Varela, Martín; Sciutto, Edda; Larralde, Carlos; Laclette, Juan P

2014-04-01

115

Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)  

PubMed Central

The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments. PMID:21787386

2011-01-01

116

Immunoblot Patterns of Taenia asiatica Taeniasis  

PubMed Central

Differential diagnosis of Taenia asiatica infection from other human taeniases by serology has been tested. An enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) was applied to subjected human sera and tapeworm materials. Thirty-eight proteins reactive to serum IgG were observed between 121 and 10 kDa in adult worms, and more than 22 serum-reactive components between 97 kDa and 21.5 kDa were observed in eggs of T. asiatica. Antigens of adult T. asiatica revealed immunoblot bands between 120 and 21.5 kDa against T. asiatica infected sera. Antigens of adult Taenia saginata revealed 110-100, 66, 58-56, and 46 kDa immunoblot bands against T. asiatica infected sera. Antigens of adult Taenia solium also revealed 99-97, 68-66, and 46 kDa bands against T. asiatica infected sera. The immunoblot band of 21.5 kDa exhibited specificity to T. asiatica. PMID:19290097

Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu

2009-01-01

117

Immunological variation in Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis: measurement on the variation of the antibody immune response of naturally infected pigs against antigens extracted from their own cysticerci and from those of different pigs.  

PubMed

Although it is widely assumed that both antigen and host immunological variability are involved in the variable intensity of natural porcine infections by Taenia solium (T. solium) cysticercis and success of immunodiagnostic tests vaccines, the magnitude of such combined variability has not been studied or measured at all. In this paper we report statistical data on the variability of the antibody response of naturally infected pigs against the antigens extracted from the vesicular fluids of their own infecting cysts (variance within pigs) and against antigen samples extracted from cysts of other cysticercotic pigs (variance among pigs). The variation between pigs was greater than the inter-pigs variations, which suggests that a concomitant immunity process prevents the establishment of cysts coming from a subsequent challenge. In so doing, we found that there is not a single antigenic band that was recognized by all hosts and that antigens varied among the cysts within the same pigs as well as among pigs. Our results may be valuable for the improvement of immunodiagnostic tests and of effective vaccines against naturally acquired porcine T. solium cysticercosis. PMID:23953147

Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Larralde, Carlos

2013-10-18

118

Geographic Correlation between Tapeworm Carriers and Heavily Infected Cysticercotic Pigs  

PubMed Central

Background Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. Sustainable community-based interventions are urgently needed to control transmission of the causative parasite, Taenia solium. We examined the geospatial relationship between live pigs with visible cysticercotic cysts on their tongues and humans with adult intestinal tapeworm infection (taeniasis) in a rural village in northern Peru. The objective was to determine whether tongue-positive pigs could indicate high-risk geographic foci for taeniasis to guide targeted screening efforts. This approach could offer significant benefit compared to mass intervention. Methods We recorded geographic coordinates of all village houses, collected stool samples from all consenting villagers, and collected blood and examined tongues of all village pigs. Stool samples were processed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens indicative of active taeniasis; serum was processed by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot for antibodies against T. solium cysticercosis (EITB LLGP) and T. solium taeniasis (EITB rES33). Findings Of 548 pigs, 256 (46.7%) were positive for antibodies against cysticercosis on EITB LLGP. Of 402 fecal samples, 6 (1.5%) were positive for the presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens. The proportion of coproantigen-positive individuals differed significantly between residents living within 100-meters of a tongue-positive pig (4/79, 5.1%) and residents living >100 meters from a tongue-positive pig (2/323, 0.6%) (p?=?0.02). The prevalence of taeniasis was >8 times higher among residents living within 100 meters of a tongue-positive pig compared to residents living outside this range (adjusted PR 8.1, 95% CI 1.4–47.0). Conclusions Tongue-positive pigs in endemic communities can indicate geospatial foci in which the risk for taeniasis is increased. Targeted screening or presumptive treatment for taeniasis within these high-risk foci may be an effective and practical control intervention for rural endemic areas. PMID:23285305

O'Neal, Seth E.; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Diaz, Andre; Rodriguez, Silvia; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

2012-01-01

119

Molecular evidence of host influences on the evolution and spread of human tapeworms.  

PubMed

The taeniasis/cysticercosis complex is included in the list of neglected zoonotic diseases by the World Health Organization due to its significant impact on public health in tropical areas. Cysticercosis is still endemic in many regions of Asia, Africa and Latin America. Long absent in Europe and in other developed countries, cysticercosis has recently re-emerged in the United States and Canada, due to immigration, travel and local transmission. This has encouraged the use of molecular data to understand better the influence of animal and human hosts on the emergence and spread of Taenia species. The increasing number of mitochondrial sequences now available from human tapeworms and recent advances in computational tools has enabled reconstruction of the biogeography and evolutionary history of these organisms. New molecular data have provided insights into the biogeography of T. solium, T. asiatica and T. saginata. A Bayesian statistical framework using variable evolutionary rates from lineage to lineage has allowed an improved timescale analysis of human tapeworms. The dates of divergence obtained were compared to the timing of evolutionary events in the history of their hosts, based on the hypothesis that Taenia spp. and their hosts share a common history. Herein, we review changes in the definitive and secondary hosts and human interactions that underlie the differentiation and evolution of tapeworms. Species diversification of Taenia seems to be closely linked with the evolution of intermediate hosts in response to climatic events during the Pleistocene. Different genotypes of T. solium emerged when European and Asian wild boar Sus spp. populations diverged. Taenia saginata emerged when wild cattle Bos primigenius evolved and when zebu Bos indicus and taurine Bos taurus ancestors separated. Humans through migrations and later with the development of farming and animal husbandry may have had a significant impact on the spread and diversification of tapeworms. Migrations of Homo erectus from Africa to Asia and later of Homo sapiens facilitated the diversification and dispersal of T. solium and T. saginata populations. The development of animal husbandry, making Sus scrofa and Bos taurus preferential intermediate hosts, led to the worldwide distribution of parasites. New molecular data combined with an innovative dating method allow us to explain the ways in which ancient human migrations promoted the emergence and spread of taeniasis and cysticercosis around the world. Another intriguing phenomenon explained better by our approach is the influence of human settlement on the spread of these parasites in recently inhabited areas. The diverse nature of T. solium currently observed in Madagascar may correspond to multiple imports of the parasite during Austronesian migrations, while in Mexico a recent influence of humans during the colonial period is more likely. Human activities, especially food preparation and husbandry methods, remain responsible for the transmission and persistence of these parasites. PMID:22321512

Michelet, Lorraine; Dauga, Catherine

2012-08-01

120

Detailed Transcriptome Description of the Neglected Cestode Taenia multiceps  

PubMed Central

Background The larval stage of Taenia multiceps, a global cestode, encysts in the central nervous system (CNS) of sheep and other livestock. This frequently leads to their death and huge socioeconomic losses, especially in developing countries. This parasite can also cause zoonotic infections in humans, but has been largely neglected due to a lack of diagnostic techniques and studies. Recent developments in next-generation sequencing provide an opportunity to explore the transcriptome of T. multiceps. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained a total of 31,282 unigenes (mean length 920 bp) using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and a new Trinity de novo assembler without a referenced genome. Individual transcription molecules were determined by sequence-based annotations and/or domain-based annotations against public databases (Nr, UniprotKB/Swiss-Prot, COG, KEGG, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, InterPro and Pfam). We identified 26,110 (83.47%) unigenes and inferred 20,896 (66.8%) coding sequences (CDS). Further comparative transcripts analysis with other cestodes (Taenia pisiformis, Taenia solium, Echincoccus granulosus and Echincoccus multilocularis) and intestinal parasites (Trichinella spiralis, Ancylostoma caninum and Ascaris suum) showed that 5,100 common genes were shared among three Taenia tapeworms, 261 conserved genes were detected among five Taeniidae cestodes, and 109 common genes were found in four zoonotic intestinal parasites. Some of the common genes were genes required for parasite survival, involved in parasite-host interactions. In addition, we amplified two full-length CDS of unigenes from the common genes using RT-PCR. Conclusions/Significance This study provides an extensive transcriptome of the adult stage of T. multiceps, and demonstrates that comparative transcriptomic investigations deserve to be further studied. This transcriptome dataset forms a substantial public information platform to achieve a fundamental understanding of the biology of T. multiceps, and helps in the identification of drug targets and parasite-host interaction studies. PMID:23049872

Wu, Xuhang; Fu, Yan; Yang, Deying; Zhang, Runhui; Zheng, Wanpeng; Nie, Huaming; Xie, Yue; Yan, Ning; Hao, Guiying; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

2012-01-01

121

Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Taenia asiatica has made a remarkable journey through the scientific literature of the past 50 years, starting with the paradoxical observation of high prevalences of T. saginata-like tapeworms in non-beef consuming populations, to the full description of its mitochondrial genome. Experimental studies conducted in the 1980s and 1990s have made it clear that the life cycle of T. asiatica is comparable to that of T. saginata, except for pigs being the preferential intermediate host and liver the preferential location of the cysts. Whether or not T. asiatica can cause human cysticercosis, as is the case for Taenia solium, remains unclear. Given the specific conditions needed to complete its life cycle, in particular the consumption of raw or poorly cooked pig liver, the transmission of T. asiatica shows an important ethno-geographical association. So far, T. asiatica has been identified in Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, south-central China, Vietnam, Japan and Nepal. Especially this last observation indicates that its distribution is not restricted to South-East-Asia, as was thought so far. Indeed, the molecular tools developed over the last 20 years have made it increasingly possible to differentiate T. asiatica from other taeniids. Such tools also indicated that T. asiatica is related more closely to T. saginata than to T. solium, feeding the debate on its taxonomic status as a separate species versus a subspecies of T. saginata. Furthermore, the genetic diversity within T. asiatica appears to be very minimal, indicating that this parasite may be on the verge of extinction. However, recent studies have identified potential hybrids between T. asiatica and T. saginata, reopening the debate on the genetic diversity of T. asiatica and its status as a separate species. PMID:24450957

Ale, Anita; Victor, Bjorn; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

2014-01-01

122

Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Taenia asiatica has made a remarkable journey through the scientific literature of the past 50 years, starting with the paradoxical observation of high prevalences of T. saginata-like tapeworms in non-beef consuming populations, to the full description of its mitochondrial genome. Experimental studies conducted in the 1980s and 1990s have made it clear that the life cycle of T. asiatica is comparable to that of T. saginata, except for pigs being the preferential intermediate host and liver the preferential location of the cysts. Whether or not T. asiatica can cause human cysticercosis, as is the case for Taenia solium, remains unclear. Given the specific conditions needed to complete its life cycle, in particular the consumption of raw or poorly cooked pig liver, the transmission of T. asiatica shows an important ethno-geographical association. So far, T. asiatica has been identified in Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, south-central China, Vietnam, Japan and Nepal. Especially this last observation indicates that its distribution is not restricted to South-East-Asia, as was thought so far. Indeed, the molecular tools developed over the last 20 years have made it increasingly possible to differentiate T. asiatica from other taeniids. Such tools also indicated that T. asiatica is related more closely to T. saginata than to T. solium, feeding the debate on its taxonomic status as a separate species versus a subspecies of T. saginata. Furthermore, the genetic diversity within T. asiatica appears to be very minimal, indicating that this parasite may be on the verge of extinction. However, recent studies have identified potential hybrids between T. asiatica and T. saginata, reopening the debate on the genetic diversity of T. asiatica and its status as a separate species. PMID:24450957

2014-01-01

123

Traveling Tapeworm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this "gross" activity (on pages 34-46), learners make a life-size model of a human digestive tract, and follow the life of a beef tapeworm as it makes its way through. In Part One, learners color, cut out, and assemble the parts of the digestive system, including full-length small and large intestines. In Part Two, learners cut out pictures of the stages of tapeworm development, and tape them within the model. A beef tapeworm life cycle diagram helps put the human host period within a larger system.

Museum, University O.; Nebraska Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development

2001-01-01

124

Development of an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay using two baculovirus expressed recombinant antigens for diagnosis of Taenia solium taeniasis.  

PubMed

Taeniasis diagnosis is an important step in the control and elimination of both cysticercosis and taeniasis. We report the development of 2 serological taeniasis diagnostic tests using recombinant antigens rES33 and rES38 expressed by baculovirus in insect cells in an EITB format. In laboratory testing with defined sera from nonendemic areas, rES33 has a sensitivity of 98% (n = 167) and a specificity of 99% (n = 310) (J index: 0.97); rES38 has a sensitivity of 99% (n = 146) and a specificity of 97% (n = 275) (J index: 0.96). Independent field testing in Peru showed 97% (n = 203) of the taeniasis sera were positive with rES33, and 100% of the nontaeniasis sera (n = 272) were negative with rES33; 98% (n = 198) of taeniasis sera were positive with rES38, and 91% (n = 274) of the nontaeniasis sera were negative with rES38. Among the Peruvian sera tested, 17 of 26 Peruvian Taenia saginata sera were false positive with rES38 test. Both tests were also examined with cysticercosis sera, with a positive rate ranging from 21% to 46%. rES33 and rES38 tests offer sensitive and specific diagnosis of taeniasis and easy sample collection through finger sticks that can be used in large-scale studies. They are currently being used in cysticercosis elimination programs in Peru. PMID:17539427

Levine, Min Z; Lewis, Melissa M; Rodriquez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A; Khan, Azra; Lin, Sehching; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzales, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W

2007-04-01

125

Taenia asiatica: the Most Neglected Human Taenia and the Possibility of Cysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Not only Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, but also Taenia asiatica infects humans. The last species is not included in the evaluation of the specificity of the immunodiagnostic techniques for taeniasis/cysticercosis. There is currently no specific immunodiagnostic method for T. asiatica available. Therefore, due to the fact that molecular techniques (the only tool to distinguish the 3 Taenia species) are normally not employed in routine diagnostic methods, the 2 questions concerning T. asiatica (its definite geographic distribution and its ability to cause human cysticercosis), remain open, turning T. asiatica into the most neglected agent of human taeniasis-cysticercosis. PMID:23467406

2013-01-01

126

Taenia asiatica: the most neglected human Taenia and the possibility of cysticercosis.  

PubMed

Not only Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, but also Taenia asiatica infects humans. The last species is not included in the evaluation of the specificity of the immunodiagnostic techniques for taeniasis/cysticercosis. There is currently no specific immunodiagnostic method for T. asiatica available. Therefore, due to the fact that molecular techniques (the only tool to distinguish the 3 Taenia species) are normally not employed in routine diagnostic methods, the 2 questions concerning T. asiatica (its definite geographic distribution and its ability to cause human cysticercosis), remain open, turning T. asiatica into the most neglected agent of human taeniasis-cysticercosis. PMID:23467406

Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Fuentes, Mario V

2013-02-01

127

Molecular identification of Taenia spp. In the Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the E...

128

A New Parasiticidal Compound in T. solium Cysticercosis  

PubMed Central

The effect of 16?-bromoepiandrosterone (EpiBr), a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) analogue, was tested on the cysticerci of Taenia solium, both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro treatment of T. solium cultures with EpiBr reduced scolex evagination, growth, motility, and viability in dose- and time-dependent fashions. Administration of EpiBr prior to infection with T. solium cysticerci in hamsters reduced the number and size of developed taenias in the intestine, compared with controls. These effects were associated to an increase in splenocyte proliferation in infected hamsters. These results leave open the possibility of assessing the potential of this hormonal analogue as a possible antiparasite drug, particularly in cysticercosis and taeniosis. PMID:23509732

Hernández-Bello, Romel; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Cervantes-Rebolledo, Claudia; Dowding, Charles; Frincke, James; Reading, Chris; Morales-Montor, Jorge

2013-01-01

129

Cysticercosis  

MedlinePLUS

... a parasite called Taenia solium ( T. solium ), a pork tapeworm that creates cysts in different areas in ... after a bowel movement. Risk factors include eating pork, fruits, and vegetables contaminated with T. solium as ...

130

Laboratory diagnosis of Taenia asiatica in humans and animals.  

PubMed

Taenia asiatica is a recently described species known to cause intestinal teniasis in humans and cysticercosis in animals. This species has close morphological resemblance to Taenia saginata and has a life cycle resembling Taenia solium, hence has been posing diagnostic dilemma and had been the reason for its comparatively late discovery. Recent diagnostic tools such as serological and molecular techniques have thrown light on its exact prevalence in the endemic countries. Hence introduction of utilization of these techniques in addition to the routine morphological analysis would be helpful in diagnosis of T. asiatica infections and early implementation of preventive measures. PMID:24470995

Parija, Subhash Chandra; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol

2013-07-01

131

Laboratory diagnosis of Taenia asiatica in humans and animals  

PubMed Central

Taenia asiatica is a recently described species known to cause intestinal teniasis in humans and cysticercosis in animals. This species has close morphological resemblance to Taenia saginata and has a life cycle resembling Taenia solium, hence has been posing diagnostic dilemma and had been the reason for its comparatively late discovery. Recent diagnostic tools such as serological and molecular techniques have thrown light on its exact prevalence in the endemic countries. Hence introduction of utilization of these techniques in addition to the routine morphological analysis would be helpful in diagnosis of T. asiatica infections and early implementation of preventive measures. PMID:24470995

Parija, Subhash Chandra; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol

2013-01-01

132

Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland.  

PubMed

Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland. In total, 135 tapeworms from 72 lynx were subjected to molecular identification based on sequences of 2 mtDNA regions, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes. Available morphological characters of the rostellar hooks and strobila were compared. Two species of Taenia were found: T. laticollis (127 samples) and an unknown Taenia sp. (5 samples). The latter could not be identified to species based on mtDNA, and the rostellar hooks were short relative to those described among other Taenia spp. recorded in felids from the Holarctic region. In the phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences, T. laticollis was placed as a sister species of T. macrocystis, and the unknown Taenia sp. was closely related to T. hydatigena and T. regis. Our analyses suggest that these distinct taeniid tapeworms represent a putative new species of Taenia. The only currently recognized definitive host is L. lynx and the intermediate host is unknown. PMID:23347590

Lavikainen, A; Haukisalmi, V; Deksne, G; Holmala, K; Lejeune, M; Isomursu, M; Jokelainen, P; Näreaho, A; Laakkonen, J; Hoberg, E P; Sukura, A

2013-04-01

133

[Teniasis in a child with finding of Taenia saginata proglottids in the school environment: a case report].  

PubMed

We describe a case of teniasis in a child, associated to the finding of Taenia proglottids in a classroom of a primary school in the area of Cuneo (Local Health Unit Cn-1, Piedmont Region, Italy). Several proglottids had been repeatedly found by cleaners on the bookbox of several schooldesks in the same classroom. Laboratory investigation was able to identify Taenia saginata proglottids and cooperation of the local Public Health Unit with the school management allowed to identify and treat the affected child. Laboratory investigation was crucial to exclude a Taenia solium infection, which should have had important public health implications. In fact, infection among humans can follow the ingestion of Taenia solium eggs and in this case larval forms in several tissues can occur (cysticercosis). Moreover the disease can be particularly severe when cysticerci invade the brain, causing seizures and hydrocephalia. PMID:19653450

Dutto, M; Giovanetti, F; Pellegrino, A

2009-01-01

134

Molecular identification of Taenia specimens after long-term preservation in formalin.  

PubMed

The majority of Taenia tapeworm specimens in the museum collections are usually kept in a formalin fixative for permanent preservation mainly for use in morphological examinations. This study aims to improve Taenia tapeworm identification even of one preserved in formalin for a maximum of 81 years. Taenia tapeworms were collected by the parasite collection unit of the Swiss Natural History Museum and from units in Indonesia, Japan and Korea. A small amount of formalin-fixed tissue (100 mg) was crushed in liquid nitrogen and then soaked in a Tris-EDTA buffer for 3-5h. The sample was then digested in SDS and proteinase K (20 mg/ml) for 3-5h at 56 °C. After the addition of proteinase K (20mg/ml), SDS and hexadecyl-trimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB), incubation was continued for another 3h at 65 °C. A maximum yield of genomic DNA was obtained from this additional step and the quality of genomic DNA obtained with this extraction method seemed to be independent of the duration of storage time in the formalin fixative. The molecular identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed by using PCR and DNA sequences corresponding to position 80-428 of cox1 gene. T. asiatica was detected in the isolates of Indonesia, Japan and Korea. Improvements in the genomic DNA extraction method from formalin fixed museum collections will help in the molecular identification of parasites. PMID:21163367

Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Heon; Eom, Keeseon S

2011-06-01

135

Application of Taenia saginata metacestodes as an alternative antigen for the serological diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis.  

PubMed

Serological tests are an important tool for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC), the disease caused by Taenia solium metacestodes. The aim of the present research was to test the application of Taenia saginata metacestodes as an alternative antigen for use in the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Western blotting (WB) tests compared with the metacestodes antigen of T. solium in serum samples. The samples were obtained from 130 individuals: 20 from patients with definitive NCC, Group 1; 18 from individuals infected by Taenia sp., Group 2; 40 from individuals infected by various parasites, Group 3; and 40 from healthy individuals, Group 4. The sensitivity of IFAT, ELISA, and WB using antigen obtained from T. solium applied to the patients of Group 1 yielded results of 85, 95, and 95%, respectively, for the three tests. When the tests were conducted using T. saginata metacestodes, results were 75, 80, and 85%, respectively. The specificity of IFAT, ELISA, and WB using antigen obtained from T. solium yielded results of 94.9, 88.8, and 93.9%. When the tests were conducted using T. saginata metacestodes, results were 95.9, 88.8, and 93.6%, respectively. No statistical differences for sensitivity or specificity among the antigens were found. In conclusion, the results indicated that T. saginata metacestodes can be used as an alternative antigen for NCC diagnosis. PMID:17510761

Oliveira, Heliana B; Machado, Gleyce A; Cabral, Dagmar D; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

2007-09-01

136

Antigens from Taenia crassiceps cysticerci used in complement fixation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and western blot (immunoblot) for diagnosis of neurocysticercosis.  

PubMed Central

Antigens from Taenia solium cysticerci for the immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis are scarce and difficult to obtain. We studied the reliability of antigens from Taenia crassiceps cysticerci as a substitute for those from T. solium in three diagnostic tests: complement fixation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blot (immunoblot). Precision rates of the three tests of 93, 99, and 96%, respectively, were found. Cysticerci from T. crassiceps can be easily obtained in large quantities and can be effectively used for the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis. PMID:8586728

Garcia, E; Ordoñez, G; Sotelo, J

1995-01-01

137

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for differentiation and rapid detection of Taenia species.  

PubMed

Rapid detection and differentiation of Taenia species are required for the control and prevention of taeniasis and cysticercosis in areas where these diseases are endemic. Because of the lower sensitivity and specificity of the conventional diagnosis based on microscopical examination, molecular tools are more reliable for differential diagnosis of these diseases. In this study, we developed and evaluated a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for differential diagnosis of infections with Taenia species with cathepsin L-like cysteine peptidase (clp) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) genes. LAMP with primer sets to the cox1 gene could differentiate between three species, and LAMP with primer sets to the clp gene could differentiate Taenia solium from Taenia saginata/Taenia asiatica. Restriction enzyme digestion of the LAMP products from primer set Tsag-clp allowed the differentiation of Taenia saginata from Taenia asiatica. We demonstrated the high specificity of LAMP by testing known parasite DNA samples extracted from proglottids (n = 100) and cysticerci (n = 68). LAMP could detect one copy of the target gene or five eggs of T. asiatica and T. saginata per gram of feces, showing sensitivity similar to that of PCR methods. Furthermore, LAMP could detect parasite DNA in all taeniid egg-positive fecal samples (n = 6). Due to the rapid, simple, specific, and sensitive detection of Taenia species, the LAMP assays are valuable tools which might be easily applicable for the control and prevention of taeniasis and cysticercosis in countries where these diseases are endemic. PMID:19005142

Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira

2009-01-01

138

Molecular identification of species of Taenia causing bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Bovine cysticercosis causing damage to the beef industry is closely linked to human taeniasis due to Taenia saginata. In African countries, Taenia spp. from wildlife are also involved as possible sources of infections in livestock. To identify the aetiological agents of bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia, cysticerci were collected from 41 cattle slaughtered in the eastern and central areas during 2010-2012. A single cysticercus per animal was subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, and the resultant sequence was compared with those of members of the genus Taenia. Although 38 out of 41 cysticerci (92.7%) were identified as T. saginata, three samples (7.3%) showed the hitherto unknown sequences of Taenia sp., which is distantly related to Taenia solium, Taenia arctos and Taenia ovis. Old literatures suggest it to be Taenia hyaenae, but morphological identification of species could not be completed by observing only the larval samples. PMID:23452760

Hailemariam, Z; Nakao, M; Menkir, S; Lavikainen, A; Iwaki, T; Yanagida, T; Okamoto, M; Ito, A

2014-09-01

139

Geographical Distribution of Taenia asiatica and Related Species  

PubMed Central

Geographical information of Taenia asiatica is reviewed together with that of T. solium and T. saginata. Current distribution of T. asiatica was found to be mostly from Asian countries: the Republic of Korea, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Thailand. Molecular genotypic techniques have found out more countries with T. asiatica from Japan, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Specimens used in this paper were collected from around the world and mostly during international collaboration projects of Korean foundations for parasite control activities (1995-2009) in developing countries. PMID:19885327

Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Rim, Han-Jong

2009-01-01

140

A digest of elasmobranch tapeworms.  

PubMed

This review brings together decades of work on elasmobranch tapeworms. The field has advanced significantly over the past 20 yr, with an emphasis on the discovery and description of novel taxa, and the establishment of phylogenetic frameworks for individual orders and their interrelationships. Tapeworms parasitizing elasmobranchs represent 9 orders and include 977 species and 201 genera-over 250 species and 50 genera are new within the last 2 decades. The 9 orders are treated individually, highlighting recent assessments of phylogenetic relationships informed by molecular sequence data. All but the "Tetraphyllidea" are monophyletic. Although much remains to be learned about their interrelationships, existing phylogenetic hypotheses suggest that elasmobranch tapeworms have played a key role in the evolution of the cestodes of essentially all other vertebrate groups. The apical organ is a defining feature (i.e., a synapomorphy) of a clade consisting of acetabulate taxa and Litobothriidea. Novel hook amino acid composition data support the independent origin of hooks in the various groups of hooked tapeworms. Cestode records exist for representatives of most of the major groups of elasmobranchs, however skates (Rajiformes) and catsharks ("Scyliorhinidae") are particularly neglected in terms of species sampled. The majority of tapeworm species are extremely host-specific exhibiting species-specific (i.e., oioxenous) associations with their hosts. Rapid advancements in elasmobranch taxonomy, with over 300 of the 1,200 species appearing new in the past 20 yr, signal the need for careful attention to be paid to host identifications; such identifications are best documented using a combination of specimen, photographic, and molecular data. Above the species level, many cestode taxa are restricted to host orders, families, or even genera. Documentation of these affiliations allows robust predictions to be made regarding the cestode faunas of unexplored elasmobranchs. Trypanorhynchs are the notable exceptions. Life cycles remain poorly known. Recent applications of molecular methods to larval identifications have reinvigorated this area of research. Tapeworms are more diverse in elasmobranchs of tropical and subtropical waters, but they occur globally not only at the poles and in deep waters, but also in freshwaters of South America and Southeast Asia. The cestode faunas of batoids are much more speciose and complex than those of sharks. The faunas of deeper water sharks are particularly depauperate. The tapeworms of elasmobranchs and their hosts are now among the most well documented host-parasite systems in existence. This system has not yet reached its potential as a resource for investigations of basic ecological and evolutionary principles. PMID:24845052

Caira, Janine N; Jensen, Kirsten

2014-08-01

141

Effects of high pressure processing on hatching of eggs of the zoonotic rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta.  

PubMed

High hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) is an effective non-thermal treatment to remove pathogens from a variety of food and food products. It has been extensively examined using prokaryotic organisms but has had limited study on eukaryotic organisms. Treatment using HPP has been shown to be effective in inactivating nematode larvae in food and Ascaris suum eggs. Nothing is known on the efficacy of HPP on tapeworm cysts or eggs. Eggs of important zoonotic tapeworms including Echinococcus and Taenia spp. can potentially contaminate water and food intended for human consumption. The present study examined the efficacy of HPP on the viability of Hymenolepis diminuta eggs. Efficacy of HPP treatment was measured using an egg hatch assay in two experiments. One thousand unhatched H. diminuta eggs in Hanks balanced salt solution were packaged in sealable bags and exposed to 100-600megapascals (MPa; 1MPa=10atm=147psi) for 60s in a commercial HPP unit. Positive (no HPP) and negative (No HPP but frozen/thawed) controls were examined in each experiment. None of the HPP untreated and frozen eggs (negative controls) were able to hatch or exclude trypan blue when placed in the hatching solution in experiment 1 or 2. HPP untreated and nonfrozen eggs (positive controls) hatched and excluded trypan blue; 75% were positive in experiment 1 and 80% were positive in experiment 2. No hatched eggs were observed when they were exposed to 300-600MPa for 60s. Treatment at 400MPa and above caused rupturing of the oncosphere. Results from this study indicate that HPP is a possible method to inactivate tapeworm eggs and that the susceptibility of tapeworm eggs to HPP is similar to or greater than that of nematode eggs or tissue larvae. PMID:21131130

Merwad, A M A; Mitchell, S M; Zajac, A M; Flick, G J; Lindsay, D S

2011-03-10

142

[Developmental stages of Taenia krabbei Moniez, 1879 (Cysticercus tarandi) in deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) in Czechoslovakia].  

PubMed

The breast and shoulder-blade muscles of a roe (Caprelous capreolus L.), shot in a hunting district in western Bohemia, were found to contain cysticerci with morphological characters and size corresponding to those of Cysticercus tarandi, which is a developmental stage of the tapeworm Taenia krabbei Moniez, 1879. The surface as well as deeper layers of muscle contained one to two cysticerci per 100 cm2 of area. The authors describe the larvocysts and histological changes in the site where the micro-organisms were found. The cysticerci are discussed as to the species to which they belong. PMID:96571

Kolár, Z; Zajícek, D; Lávicka, M

1978-04-01

143

Molecular identification of Taenia serialis coenurosis in a wild Ethiopian gelada (Theropithecus gelada).  

PubMed

Since morphological identification of a larval Taeniid in geladas (Theropithecus gelada) has produced inconsistent results, genetic information is pivotal for species identification. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from a coenurus in a wild gelada were compared to published sequences from multiple Taeniid species, confirming the identification of this parasite as Taenia serialis. A demographic analysis finds age to be a strong predictor of coenuri. Tapeworms rarely employ primates as intermediate hosts, and the presence of T. serialis in a wild gelada population may indicate a substantial ecological shift in this parasite's life cycle. PMID:24050944

Schneider-Crease, India A; Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Jarvey, Julie C; Bergman, Thore J

2013-11-15

144

Development of the S3Pvac vaccine against murine Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis: a historical review.  

PubMed

Our work of the last 25 yr was concerned with the development of a vaccine aimed to prevent porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis and was based on cross-reacting Taenia crassiceps antigens that had proved protective against experimental intraperitoneal murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis (EIMTcC). In recent times the efficacy of the vaccine has been considered in need of confirmation, and the use of EIMTcC has been questioned as a valid tool in screening for vaccine candidates among the many antigens possibly involved. A review of our work divided in 2 parts is presented at this point, the first dealing with EIMTcC and the second with porcine T. solium cysticercosis (presented in this issue). Herein, we revise our results using EIMTcC as a measure of the protective capacity of T. crassiceps complex antigen mixtures, of purified native antigens, and of S3Pvac anti-cysticercosis vaccine composed by 3 protective peptides: GK-1, KETc1, and KETc12 either synthetic or recombinantly expressed and collectively or separately, by diverse delivery systems when administered at different doses and by different routes. Statistical analyses of the data lead confidently to the strong inference that S3Pvac is indeed an effective vaccine against EIMTcC via specific and non-specific mechanisms of protection. PMID:23409920

Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Hernández, Marisela; Rosas, Gabriela; Martínez, José J; Fleury, Agnès; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Aluja, Aline; Larralde, Carlos

2013-08-01

145

Taenia saginata in Europe.  

PubMed

In spite of the EU directives that regulate meat inspection for bovine cysticercosis, Taenia saginata is still present in Europe and causes economic losses due to condemnation, refrigeration and downgrading of infected carcasses. The main reasons for this persistence include the low sensitivity of current meat inspection protocols, the dissemination and survival of eggs in the environment and cattle husbandry systems, which allow grazing on pastures and drinking from water streams. It is assumed that water streams and surface water are potentially contaminated with T. saginata eggs. Furthermore, current wastewater management not only fails to halt, but rather contributes to the dissemination of eggs in the environment. Here, the authors discuss an integrated approach for control of this food-borne zoonosis, as well as the potential use of serological methods as a way of improving detection of bovine cysticercosis. PMID:17706360

Dorny, P; Praet, N

2007-10-21

146

Taenia spp. infections in wildlife in the Bangweulu and Kafue flood plains ecosystems of Zambia.  

PubMed

Taenia spp. have an indirect life cycle, cycling between a definitive and an intermediate host with zoonotic species causing public health problems in many developing countries. During the course of 2 separate surveys in Zambia (2004 and 2009), the presence of Taenia larval stages (cysticerci) was examined in Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis), Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithermani) and other wildlife species from the Kafue and Bangweulu flood plains. Examinations involved post-mortem inspection and serum specific antigen detection. The recovered cysts from seven carcasses were characterised using PCR and DNA sequence analysis. The overall proportion of infection in wildlife on post-mortem examination was 19.0% (95% CI: 9.1-29.0%). The proportion of infected wildlife based on post-mortem examinations in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 28.6% (95% CI: 13.3-43.9%), while the seroprevalence was estimated at 25.0% (95% CI: 2.9-47.1%). The seroprevalence for cattle in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 61.5% (95% CI: 42.0-81.0%) while that of Kafue lechwe in the same ecosystem was estimated at 66.6% (95% CI: 45.6-85.7%). Infection rates were higher in Kafue lechwe than in Black lechwe suggesting differences in the exposure patterns. The sequencing results indicated that none of the recovered cysts were either Taenia solium or Taenia saginata. We therefore conclude they most likely belong to a less studied (wildlife) Taenia species that requires further characterisation. PMID:25090953

Muma, J B; Gabriël, S; Munyeme, M; Munang'andu, H M; Victor, B; Dorny, P; Nalubamba, K S; Siamudaala, V; Mwape, K E

2014-09-15

147

Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and dingo/domestic dog hybrids), as sylvatic hosts for Australian Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis.  

PubMed

Foxes (n = 499), shot during vertebrate pest control programs, were collected in various sites in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA). Wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and their hybrids with domestic dogs) (n = 52) captured also as part of vertebrate pest control programs were collected from several sites in the ACT and NSW. The intestine from each fox and wild dog was collected, and all Taenia tapeworms identified morphologically were collected and identified to species based on the DNA sequence of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rrnS) gene. Taenia species were recovered from 6.0% of the ACT/NSW foxes, 5.1% of WA foxes and 46.1% of ACT/NSW wild dogs. Taenia ovis was recovered from two foxes, 1/80 from Jugiong, NSW and 1/102 from Katanning, WA. We confirm from rrnS sequences the presence of T. ovis in cysts from hearts and diaphragms and T aenia hydatigena in cysts from livers of sheep in Australia. T. ovis was not recovered from any of the wild dogs examined but T. hydatigena were recovered from 4(8.3%) wild dogs and a single fox. With foxes identified as a definitive host for T. ovis in Australia, new control strategies to stop transmission of T. ovis to sheep need to be adopted. PMID:25161904

Jenkins, David J; Urwin, Nigel A R; Williams, Thomas M; Mitchell, Kate L; Lievaart, Jan J; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa

2014-08-01

148

Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and dingo/domestic dog hybrids), as sylvatic hosts for Australian Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis  

PubMed Central

Foxes (n = 499), shot during vertebrate pest control programs, were collected in various sites in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA). Wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and their hybrids with domestic dogs) (n = 52) captured also as part of vertebrate pest control programs were collected from several sites in the ACT and NSW. The intestine from each fox and wild dog was collected, and all Taenia tapeworms identified morphologically were collected and identified to species based on the DNA sequence of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rrnS) gene. Taenia species were recovered from 6.0% of the ACT/NSW foxes, 5.1% of WA foxes and 46.1% of ACT/NSW wild dogs. Taenia ovis was recovered from two foxes, 1/80 from Jugiong, NSW and 1/102 from Katanning, WA. We confirm from rrnS sequences the presence of T. ovis in cysts from hearts and diaphragms and Taeniahydatigena in cysts from livers of sheep in Australia. T.ovis was not recovered from any of the wild dogs examined but T. hydatigena were recovered from 4(8.3%) wild dogs and a single fox. With foxes identified as a definitive host for T. ovis in Australia, new control strategies to stop transmission of T. ovis to sheep need to be adopted. PMID:25161904

Jenkins, David J.; Urwin, Nigel A.R.; Williams, Thomas M.; Mitchell, Kate L.; Lievaart, Jan J.; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa

2014-01-01

149

Tapeworms of quails (Coturnix coturnix) in Egypt.  

PubMed

The intestines of 150 grey quails (Coturnix coturnix) were examined at postmortem, for tapeworms infestation. Two species of cestodes were collected Raillietina echinobothrida and Choanotaenia infundibulum. The prevalence, average number of worms per bird and their morphology were reported. Its worth to mention that quail was found to be a new host for R. echinobothrida. PMID:2708868

Otify, Y Z

1989-06-01

150

Identification of Taenia sp. in a natural human mummy (third century BC) from the Chehrabad salt mine in Iran.  

PubMed

Tapeworm eggs from the genus Taenia sp. were identified during the study of mummy remains dated to 2,286 ± 28 BP from the Chehrabad salt mine in northwestern Iran. The presence of tapeworm in this salt mine provides paleopathological information. Moreover, it brings new information on ancient diet, indicating the consumption of raw or undercooked meat. Cultural aspects as well as archaeozoological data are discussed in order to try to detail meat consumption. Paleoparasitological data are rare in the Middle East, and this case study presents the first recovery of parasites in ancient Iran. It constitutes the earliest evidence of ancient intestinal parasites in this country and contributes to the knowledge of gastrointestinal pathogens in the Near East. PMID:23240712

Nezamabadi, M; Mashkour, M; Aali, A; Stöllner, Th; Le Bailly, M

2013-06-01

151

Evaluation of recombinant HP6-Tsag, an 18 kDa Taenia saginata oncospheral adhesion protein, for the diagnosis of cysticercosis.  

PubMed

With the objective of providing inexpensive and reproducible assays for the detection of antibodies indicating exposure to Taenia saginata and Taenia solium, we have evaluated the diagnostic utility of the T. saginata oncosphere adhesion protein (HP6-Tsag), expressed in baculovirus (HP6-Bac) and bacteria (HP6-GST [glutathione S-transferase]), employing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and sera from T. saginata infected cattle, T. solium infected pigs and serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from clinically defined T. solium neurocysticercosis (NCC) patients. The two recombinant proteins were antigenic in all three systems, with the signal to background ratio of the HP6-Bac ELISA slightly higher than that for the HP6-GST ELISA. Assay performance in cattle was similar to previously described peptide-based ELISA assays, although NCC sample sensitivity/specificity was marginally better. The sensitivity of the HP6-Bac and HP6-GST ELISAs was close for active human NCC (77.4 and 80.6% for serum and 76.9 and 73.1% for CSF samples, respectively). In inactive human NCC, however, the sensitivity of the HP6-Bac ELISA was almost twice that of the HP6-GST ELISA. Because peptides are relatively expensive and recombinant proteins are simple and economical to produce, the latter may provide useful reagents for antibody detection in countries with endemic cysticercosis/NCC. PMID:17351832

Ferrer, Elizabeth; González, Luís Miguel; Martínez-Escribano, José Angel; González-Barderas, María Eugenia; Cortéz, María Milagros; Dávila, Iris; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E; Gárate, Teresa

2007-08-01

152

Saline extract of Taenia saginata metacestodes as an alternative antigen for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis in human cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed

The aim of the present research was to test the application of Taenia saginata metacestodes as an alternative antigen for use in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western Blotting (WB) tests compared with the use of metacestodes antigen of Taenia solium in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. The samples were obtained from 35 patients with definitive neurocysticercosis (NCC)-group 1-and 44 patients with other neurological disorders (control)-group 2. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA, using antigen obtained from T. solium, applied to the patients of group 1 yielded results of 100%. When the tests were conducted using T. saginata metacestodes, results were 100% and 93.2%, respectively. The 47-52-, 64-68-, and 70-kDa antigens showed high frequencies in CSF samples from patients with NCC when WB was conducted with both antigens. The results indicate that T. saginata metacestodes can be used as an alternative antigen for the diagnosis of human NCC in CSF samples. PMID:19247689

Oliveira, Heliana B; Machado, Gleyce A; Gonçalves-Pires, Maria do Rosário F; Moura, Leandro P; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

2009-07-01

153

Prevalence and Treatment of Tapeworms in Horses  

PubMed Central

A study was initiated to determine the prevalence of tapeworms in horses in Southern Ontario and to investigate the efficacy of pyrantel pamoate, niclosamide and mebendazole. Fecal samples were taken from 580 horses of various breeds, ages and sexes in 24 locations and Anoplocephala perfoliata was found in 13.6%. This was regarded as a minimum, the true rate being probably significantly higher and the reasons for this are discussed. A brief review of the life cycle and effects of tapeworms in horses and a comparison of two flotation techniques for the diagnosis of A. perfoliata eggs in feces is given. Pyrantel pamoate, niclosamide and mebendazole were compared for efficacy in field and critical trials. In field trials, pyrantel base and niclosamide at 6.6 and 50 mg/kg respectively were found to be effective, but in critical trials their efficacy was poor, 15 and 5.6% respectively. These anthelmintics at these dose rates caused only an elimination of the terminal egg bearing segments and were without significant effect on the entire tapeworm. When pyrantel base was administered at 13.2 and 19.8 mg/kg (twice and three times the therapeutic dose rate for nematodes respectively) the efficacy was 97.8 and 100%. It would appear that pyrantel pamoate administered at 13.2 mg pyrantel base/kg is an effective therapeutic dose for tapeworms in horses. Further dose titration studies are needed for niclosamide. Mebendazole was without effect at up to four (35.2 mg/kg) times the therapeutic dose for nematodes. PMID:487360

Slocombe, J. O. D.

1979-01-01

154

Taeniasis/cysticercosis in a Tibetan population in Sichuan Province, China.  

PubMed

The results of a preliminary survey of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Yajiang County, Ganze Tibetan Prefecture in southwest Sichuan Province, China, indicated a very high prevalence of taeniasis (22.5%), with Taenia saginata as the dominant species. There was also a significant occurrence of late-onset epilepsy (8.5% prevalence and 16.4% seropositive for Taenia solium antibodies) attributable in large part to probable neurocysticercosis caused by T. solium. The poor sanitation and hygiene in this Tibetan community likely contributed to a high risk of human cysticercosis despite a low level of T. solium taeniasis (actually no T. solium carriers were detected amongst the 21 proven Taenia carriers). In addition, three taeniasis cases were confirmed by DNA genotyping as Taenia asiatica, which is the first report of this tapeworm in Tibetans, the first report for Sichuan Province and only the third report for mainland China. PMID:17166477

Li, Tiaoying; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira; Chen, Xingwang; Qiu, Dongchuan; Qiu, Jiamin; Sato, Marcello O; Wandra, Toni; Bradshaw, Helen; Li, Li; Yang, Yun; Wang, Qian

2006-12-01

155

Taeniases and cysticercosis in Indonesia: past and present situations.  

PubMed

The main aim of this study is to overview the past and present situations of human taeniases and cysticercosis in Indonesia and including future perspectives. Through joint projects from 1996, we have confirmed the occurrence of Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) in Bali, of Taenia solium (pork tapeworm) mainly in Papua and sporadically in Bali, and of Taenia asiatica in North Sumatra. These taeniases were caused through eating uncooked pork and pig viscera for T. solium and T. asiatica, respectively, and beef for T. saginata. The distribution of these tapeworms in Indonesia is basically highly restricted by the traditional cultural and religious backgrounds in each island. T. saginata is relatively common in Bali although people consume pork 'lawar' more than beef 'lawar'. Taeniases due to T. saginata or T. asiatica and T. solium and cysticercosis due to T. solium have also been sporadically reported in some other islands. Among these species, T. solium is exceptional since humans can be infected not only by larval stages (cysticerci) in pork but also by eggs released from human tapeworm carriers. Cysticercosis has been confirmed in Indonesia in humans, pigs and even dogs. PMID:23965293

Wandra, Toni; Ito, Akira; Swastika, Kadek; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro

2013-11-01

156

Ick! Tapeworm Infecting Man's Brain Yields Genetic Secrets  

MedlinePLUS

... As reported Nov. 21 in the journal Genome Biology , the tapeworm was removed from the brain of ... that have not been sequenced before." SOURCE: Genome Biology , news release, Nov. 20, 2014 HealthDay Copyright (c) ...

157

Serodiagnosis of Human Cysticercosis by Using Antigens from Vesicular Fluid of Taenia crassiceps Cysticerci  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis (NC), caused by the presence of Taenia solium metacestodes in tissues, is a severe parasitic infection of the central nervous system with universal distribution. To determine the efficiency of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot with antigens of T. crassiceps vesicular fluid (Tcra) compared to standard techniques (indirect immunofluorescence test [IFT] and complement fixation test [CFT]) using T. solium cysticerci (Tso) for the serodiagnosis of NC, we studied serum samples from 24 patients with NC, 30 supposedly healthy individuals, 76 blood bank donors, 45 individuals with other non-NC parasitoses, and 97 samples from individuals screened for cysticercosis serology (SC). The sensitivity observed was 100% for ELISA-Tso and ELISA-Tcra, 91.7% for the IFT, and 87.5% for the CFT. The specificity was 90% for ELISA-Tso, 96.7% for ELISA-Tcra, 50% for IFT, and 63.3% for CFT. The efficiency was highest for ELISA-Tcra, followed by ELISA-Tso, IFT, and CFT. Of the 23 samples from SC group, which were reactive to ELISA-Tso and/or ELISA-Tcra, only 3 were positive to immunblot-Tcra (specific peptides of 14- and 18-kDa) and to glycoprotein peptides purified from Tcra antigen (gp-Tcra), showing the low predictive value of ELISA for screening. None of the samples from the remaining groups showed specific reactivity in immunoblot-Tcra. These results demonstrate that ELISA-Tcra can be used as a screening method for the serodiagnosis of NC and support the need for specific tests for confirmation of the results. The immunoblot can be used as a confirmatory test both with Tcra and gp-Tcra, with the latter having an advantage in terms of visualization of the results. PMID:11687454

Bueno, Ednéia C.; Snege, Miriam; Vaz, Adelaide J.; Leser, Paulo G.

2001-01-01

158

9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle. 311.23 Section 311.23 Animals...Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, carcasses of cattle affected with lesions of cysticercus...

2011-01-01

159

Treatment with dehydroepiandrosterone in vivo and in vitro inhibits reproduction, growth and viability of Taenia crassiceps metacestodes.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to explore the effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the establishment, growth and reproduction of the metacestode stage of the tapeworm Taenia crassiceps, both in vivo and in vitro. Administration of DHEA prior to infection in mice of both sexes reduced the parasite load by 50% compared with untreated mice. This protective effect was not associated with the immune response, since there was no effect of DHEA treatment on mRNA levels of IL-2, IFN-gamma, IL-4 or IL-10. DHEA treatment of infected mice increased androgen receptor expression in splenocytes of both sexes. Moreover, in vitro treatment of T. crassiceps with DHEA reduced reproduction, motility and viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Results indicate that DHEA has strong negative direct modulatory effects on murine cysticercosis. We suggest the use of hormonal-analogues for protective purposes as a therapeutic approach to prevent murine cysticercosis. PMID:18082750

Vargas-Villavicencio, José Antonio; Larralde, Carlos; Morales-Montor, Jorge

2008-06-01

160

Tapeworms as a cause of intestinal disease in horses.  

PubMed

Until recently, the equine tapeworm Anoplocephala perfoliata was difficult to diagnose and considered to be of questionable pathogenicity. Here, Chris Proudman and Sandy Trees describe recent advances in the immunodiagnosis of this parasite that have facilitated epidemiological studies. These studies suggest that A. perfoliata may be an important cause of intestinal disease in the horse and demonstrate a dose-response relationship between infection intensity and risk of disease. If tapeworm infection is a risk factor for ileocaecal colic, the identification and treatment of infected individuals would be a rational approach to disease prevention. PMID:10322338

Proudman, C J; Trees, A J

1999-04-01

161

Usefulness of serological ELISA assay for Taenia saginata to detect naturally infected bovines.  

PubMed

Bovine cysticercosis, a cosmopolitan disease caused by Taenia saginata, leads to economic losses due to carcass devaluation at slaughter. Sanitary inspection at slaughterhouses, the routine diagnostic method in Brazil, lacks the necessary sensitivity to detect the mildly infected cattle that are typically encoutered in Brazil. In this study we have tested cattle sera from animals diagnosed as positive and negative by veterianry inspection for (1) anti-parasite antibodies using metacestodes antigens (T. solium vesicular fluid and T. saginata secretions) and (2) the HP10 secreted antigen of viable metacestodes. The cut-off values were calculated by ROC curve for intense and mild infections conditions, and by the classical method ( for negative samples). The sensitivity and specificity of these diagnostic tests were different depending on the assumed cut-off value and, importantly, whether the infection was mild or intense. In spite of these observations, however, such ELISA assays for serum antibodies and parasite antigens constitute an important tool for epidemiological porposes, and in establishing priorities for the control of bovine cysticercosis. PMID:23802239

Paulan, Silvana de Cássia; Gonzáles, Rutilia Marisela Hernándes; Peralta, Laura Adalid; Vicentini-Oliveira, Josy Campanhã; Biondi, Germano Francisco; Conde, Edda Sciuto; Parkhouse, Robert Michael Evans; Nunes, Cáris Maroni

2013-01-01

162

Substance P signaling contributes to granuloma formation in Taenia crassiceps infection, a murine model of cysticercosis.  

PubMed

Cysticercosis is an infection with larval cysts of the cestode Taenia solium. Through pathways that are incompletely understood, dying parasites initiate a granulomatous reaction that, in the brain, causes seizures. Substance P (SP), a neuropeptide involved in pain-transmission, contributes to inflammation and previously was detected in granulomas associated with dead T. crassiceps cysts. To determine if SP contributes to granuloma formation, we measured granuloma-size and levels of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 within granulomas in T. crassiceps-infected wild type (WT) mice and mice deficient in SP-precursor (SPP) or the SP-receptor (neurokinin 1, NK1). Granuloma volumes of infected SPP- and NK1-knockout mice were reduced by 31 and 36%, respectively, compared to WT mice (P < .05 for both) and produced up to 5-fold less IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 protein. Thus, SP signaling contributes to granuloma development and proinflammatory cytokine production in T. crassiceps infection and suggests a potential role for this mediator in human cystercercosis. PMID:20150970

Garza, Armandina; Tweardy, David J; Weinstock, Joel; Viswanathan, Balaji; Robinson, Prema

2010-01-01

163

Substance P Signaling Contributes to Granuloma Formation in Taenia crassiceps Infection, a Murine Model of Cysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis is an infection with larval cysts of the cestode Taenia solium. Through pathways that are incompletely understood, dying parasites initiate a granulomatous reaction that, in the brain, causes seizures. Substance P (SP), a neuropeptide involved in pain-transmission, contributes to inflammation and previously was detected in granulomas associated with dead T. crassiceps cysts. To determine if SP contributes to granuloma formation, we measured granuloma-size and levels of IL-1?, TNF-?, and IL-6 within granulomas in T. crassiceps-infected wild type (WT) mice and mice deficient in SP-precursor (SPP) or the SP-receptor (neurokinin 1, NK1). Granuloma volumes of infected SPP- and NK1-knockout mice were reduced by 31 and 36%, respectively, compared to WT mice (P < .05 for both) and produced up to 5-fold less IL-1?, TNF-?, and IL-6 protein. Thus, SP signaling contributes to granuloma development and proinflammatory cytokine production in T. crassiceps infection and suggests a potential role for this mediator in human cystercercosis. PMID:20150970

Garza, Armandina; Tweardy, David J.; Weinstock, Joel; Viswanathan, Balaji; Robinson, Prema

2010-01-01

164

Tapeworm identification in the fat sand rat (Psammomys obesus obesus).  

PubMed

The identification of a tapeworm (Rodentolepis nana, formerly named Hymenolepis nana) infection in a research breeding colony of sand rats (Psammomys obesus obesus) was complicated because of the unexpected long length (< 150 mm) of the worms. Other morphologic features that were consistent with this identification included the number (24), size (16 mm), and shape of the hooks on the rostellum. No evidence of intermediate hosts was found in the colony. Previous surveys of natural populations of sand rats had not identified this tapeworm. However, a detailed search of the literature revealed that variation in the size of R. nana had been reported, thus supporting the final identification of the tapeworm. R. nana is important and interesting because of its zoonotic potential and because it is the only tapeworm that is able to infect its definitive host without use of an intermediate host. This report is presented to help clarify the ambiguity found in the laboratory animal literature about the differences in the size of R. nana among rodent species used in research. PMID:11703052

Gruber, H E; Johnson, T L; Kinsella, J M; Greiner, E C; Gordon, B E

2001-11-01

165

Interrelationships and Evolution of the Tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interrelationships of the tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) were examined by use of small (SSU) and large (LSU) subunit ribosomal DNA sequences and morphological characters. Fifty new complete SSU sequences were added to 21 sequences previously determined, and 71 new LSU (D1–D3) sequences were determined for the complementary set of taxa representing each of the major lineages of cestodes as currently understood.

Peter D. Olson; D. Timothy J. Littlewood; Rodney A. Bray; Jean Mariaux

2001-01-01

166

The emergence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Eastern and Southern Africa as a serious agricultural problem and public health risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pig production has increased significantly in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region during the past decade, especially in rural, resource-poor, smallholder communities. Concurrent with the increase in smallholder pig keeping and pork consumption, there have been increasing reports of porcine cysticercosis in the ESA region. This article reviews the findings concerning the presence and impact of porcine cysticercosis in

Isaac K. Phiri; Helena Ngowi; Sonia Afonso; Elizabeth Matenga; Mathias Boa; Samson Mukaratirwa; Samuel Githigia; Margaret Saimo; Chummy Sikasunge; Ndichu Maingi; George W. Lubega; Ayub Kassuku; Lynne Michael; Seter Siziya; Rosina C. Krecek; Emilia Noormahomed; Manuela Vilhena; Pierre Dorny; A. Lee Willingham III

2003-01-01

167

Validation of meat inspection results for Taenia saginata cysticercosis by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism.  

PubMed

Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage (cysticercus) of the human tapeworm Taenia saginata. Infected cattle is an important food safety issue besides an economic concern. Humans get infected by eating raw or undercooked meat containing viable cysticerci. Visual meat inspection of bovines is the only public health measure implemented to control transmission to humans, but it lacks sensitivity and objectivity. It may underestimate the prevalence of the disease by a factor 3 to 10. Furthermore, the success of the method depends on the expertise of the meat inspector as well as on the stage of development of the cysticerci. The focus of this study was to develop and explore the usefulness of a PCR assay as an objective alternative to evaluate the meat inspector's visual inspection results. Hereto, a PCR was developed for the detection of T. saginata DNA in muscle lesions. Based on the laboratory classification of lesions, almost 97% of viable cysts were confirmed by PCR, while for dead cysts, the percentage was approximately 73%. Taken together, these data demonstrate the difficulties of visual meat inspection and their objective interpretation, emphasizing the need to improve current assays to strengthen the control of bovine cysticercosis. PMID:17265888

Geysen, Dirk; Kanobana, Kirezi; Victor, Bjorn; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Richar; De Borchgrave, Jean; Brandt, Jef; Dorny, Pierre

2007-01-01

168

ABSENCE OF THE SP/SP RECEPTOR CIRCUITRY IN THE SP PRECURSOR KNOCKOUT MICE OR SP-RECEPTOR, NEUROKININ (NK1) KNOCKOUT MICE LEADS TO AN INHIBITED CYTOKINE RESPONSE IN GRANULOMAS ASSOCIATED WITH MURINE TAENIA CRASSICEPS INFECTION  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis, caused by the cestode Taenia solium, is the most common parasitic infection of the human central nervous system that leads to seizures. Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis in mice is an experimental model for Taenia solium cysticercosis. Similar to the human infection, live parasites cause little or no granulomatous inflammation. Dying parasites initiate a granulomatous reaction. The neuropeptide, Substance P (SP), stimulates Th1 cytokine production. In the current studies, we determined if absence of SP/SP receptor circuitry in the SP precursor, preprotachykinin knockout or SP-receptor, neurokinin (NK1) knockout mice, affected granuloma cytokine production. We hence compared the levels of Th1 cytokines, IL-2 and IFN-?, and levels of Th2/immunoregulatory cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10, by ELISA in T. crassiceps-induced granulomas derived from infected C57BL/6 wild type (WT) versus SP-Precursor knockout and NK1 knockout mice. We found that mean levels of IL-2, IFN-?, IL-4, and IL-10 in infected, WT-derived granulomas were significantly higher than those of granulomas derived from infected SP-Precursor knockout or the NK1 receptor knockout mice. Levels of Th2/immunoregulatory cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10, were higher in early stage granulomas (histologically-staged on basis of evidence of parasite remnants) versus late stage granulomas (no parasite-remnants) of both knockouts, whereas the reverse was noted in WT-derived granulomas. These studies established that the absence of an SP/SP receptor circuitry in the SP precursor knockout mice or NK1 receptor knockout led to an inhibited cytokine response. PMID:18576810

Garza, Armandina; Weinstock, Joel; Robinson, Prema

2008-01-01

169

Isolation of polymorphic microsatellite loci from the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two microsatellites were isolated from a genomic library of Echinococcus multilocularis. The microsatellites, designated EMms1 and EMms2, consist of tandem repeats of CAC-trinucleotide unit. Southern blot hybridization suggests that each of them is a single locus. Using fox-derived wild tapeworms (N=104), PCR-amplification of microsatellites was performed to assess the usefulness of these loci. We found four alleles of EMms1 and

Minoru Nakao; Yasuhito Sako; Akira Ito

2003-01-01

170

Identification of Loci Controlling Restriction of Parasite Growth in Experimental Taenia crassiceps Cysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Human neurocysticercosis (NC) caused by Taenia solium is a parasitic disease of the central nervous system that is endemic in many developing countries. In this study, a genetic approach using the murine intraperitoneal cysticercosis caused by the related cestode Taenia crassiceps was employed to identify host factors that regulate the establishment and proliferation of the parasite. A/J mice are permissive to T. crassiceps infection while C57BL/6J mice (B6) are comparatively restrictive, with a 10-fold difference in numbers of peritoneal cysticerci recovered 30 days after infection. The genetic basis of this inter-strain difference was explored using 34 AcB/BcA recombinant congenic strains derived from A/J and B6 progenitors, that were phenotyped for T. crassiceps replication. In agreement with their genetic background, most AcB strains (A/J-derived) were found to be permissive to infection while most BcA strains (B6-derived) were restrictive with the exception of a few discordant strains, together suggesting a possible simple genetic control. Initial haplotype association mapping using >1200 informative SNPs pointed to linkages on chromosomes 2 (proximal) and 6 as controlling parasite replication in the AcB/BcA panel. Additional linkage analysis by genome scan in informative [AcB55xDBA/2]F1 and F2 mice (derived from the discordant AcB55 strain), confirmed the effect of chromosome 2 on parasite replication, and further delineated a major locus (LOD?=?4.76, p<0.01; peak marker D2Mit295, 29.7 Mb) that we designate Tccr1 (T. crassiceps cysticercosis restrictive locus 1). Resistance alleles at Tccr1 are derived from AcB55 and are inherited in a dominant fashion. Scrutiny of the minimal genetic interval reveals overlap of Tccr1 with other host resistance loci mapped to this region, most notably the defective Hc/C5 allele which segregates both in the AcB/BcA set and in the AcB55xDBA/2 cross. These results strongly suggest that the complement component 5 (C5) plays a critical role in early protective inflammatory response to infection with T. crassiceps. PMID:22206032

Fortin, Anny; Sciutto-Conde, Edda; Fragoso-González, Gladis; Gros, Philippe; Aguilar-Delfin, Irma

2011-01-01

171

Taenia saginata metacestode antigenic fractions without affinity to concanavalin A are an important source of specific antigens for the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis.  

PubMed

Taenia saginata metacestode antigens have been constituted a useful alternative antigen for neurocysticercosis (NC) serodiagnosis, particularly due to an increasing difficulty to obtain Taenia solium homologous antigen. Cross-reactivity with Echinococcus granulosus infection occurs in homologous and heterologous antigens and could be avoided by using different purified methods. The present study evaluated antigen fractions obtained from saline extracts of T. saginata metacestodes purified by affinity chromatography with jacalin or concanavalin A (ConA) lectins to detect IgG antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot analysis to diagnose human NC. Serum samples were collected from 142 individuals: 40 of them were diagnosed with NC, 62 presented Taenia sp. and other parasites, and 40 were apparently healthy individuals. The jacalin- and ConA-unbound fractions demonstrated sensitivity and specificity higher than those of bound fractions. Among unbound fractions, ConA demonstrated statistically higher sensitivity and specificity by ELISA (90% and 93.1%, respectively). By immunoblot assay, the 64- to 68-kDa component from the ConA-unbound fraction showed 100% sensitivity and specificity, making this component suitable for use as a specific antigen for diagnosis of NC. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the relevance of using the unbound ConA fraction of T. saginata metacestodes to diagnose NC. In conclusion, the results obtained herein clearly demonstrate that antigenic fractions without affinity to ConA, obtained from T. saginata metacestodes, are an important source of specific peptides and are efficient in the diagnosis of NC when tested by immunoblot assay. PMID:20130125

Oliveira, Heliana B; Machado, Gleyce A; Mineo, José R; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

2010-04-01

172

9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...  

...transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms...transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms...shall be condemned. (b) In the case of sheep carcasses affected with tapeworm...

2014-01-01

173

9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms...transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms...shall be condemned. (b) In the case of sheep carcasses affected with tapeworm...

2013-01-01

174

Salmon Aquaculture and Transmission of the Fish Tapeworm  

E-print Network

Aquaculture of salmon constitutes a rapidly growing worldwide industry with an expanding globalized market (1,2). Although this industry has several economic benefits, according to recent reports it is also accompanied by effects that are detrimental to human and animal health and the environment (1,2). Aquaculture has been implicated in the transmission of infectious diseases. For example, in caged fish aquaculture, bacterial and parasitic diseases can be transmitted to wild fish (1,2). Furthermore, aquaculture-raised fish may be susceptible to the microorganisms and parasites of wild fish (1,3). However, in spite of the accepted fact that parasitic worms can be transmitted to humans by free-ranging fish (4), until recently, few examples have been reported of pathogens that could be transmitted to humans directly by the products and subproducts of salmon aquaculture. I discuss here information indicating that salmon aquaculture may be involved in expanding the range of fish tapeworm infections in nature and to humans. Several recent publications report outbreaks of human cases of infection by the fish tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum in Brazil (5–9). These infections have been epidemiologically linked to consumption of raw salmon produced by the aquaculture industry in southern Chile, thousands of miles away (5–9). Infections by D. latum have been detected in several cities in Brazil (5–9), and in a tourist who traveled there from Europe (10). These cases of diphyllobothriasis are noteworthy because this parasite was totally unknown to clinicians and parasitologists in Brazil, where it does not appear to have an endemic life cycle (5–9). D. latum is transmitted to humans by plerocercoid larvae present in fish meat and visceral organs (www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx). D. latum and the closely related sea gull tapeworm, D. dendriticum, have well-established endemic life cycles in a series of glacial lakes that dot Region XIX and Region X in northern Chilean Patagonia.

Felipe C. Cabello

175

Current Status of Human Taeniasis in Lao People's Democratic Republic  

PubMed Central

Human taeniasis was investigated in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) between 2000 and 2011 as part of the nation's helminthiasis survey. A total of 55,038 inhabitants, including 29,846 school children, were examined using the Kato-Katz and scotch-tape anal swab method, and morphological observation of adult worms. Molecular identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed by multiplex PCR or DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. Taenia eggs were present at a rate of 1.5% (845/55,038) in the subject population. Adult tapeworms were identified as T. solium or T. saginata by analyzing the collectable stool specimens (n=126). Three specimens identified as T. solium were found in Luang Prabang, while the remaining 123 specimens, which were T. saginata, were found in Bokeo, Bolikhamxay, Champasak, Houaphan, Khammouane, Luang Namta, Luang Prabang, Oudomxay, Phongsaly, Saysomboune, Saravane, Savannakhet, Xayaboury, Xekong, Xieng Khouang Province, and Vientiane Municipality. PMID:23710098

Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Yun, Cheong-Ha; Rim, Han-Jong; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Banouvong, Virasack; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay

2013-01-01

176

A solitary facial nodular swelling - A case report of intramuscular cysticercosis in buccinator muscle  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium, the larvae of pork tapeworm can cause the parasitic infection known as cysticercosis. It is commonly seen in developing countries. The condition rarely involves orofacial region and represents a difficulty in clinical diagnosis. We present a case report of a healthy middle aged female patient who had a painless swelling on right side of face. The ultrasound examination revealed an intramuscular cysticercosal cyst.

Dysanoor, Sujatha; Pol, Jyoti

2013-01-01

177

Development and field evaluation of a new serological test for Taenia saginata cysticercosis.  

PubMed

Cattle infected with the tapeworm cyst, Taenia saginata metacestode (synonym: Cysticercus bovis) are a source of human infection if affected beef is eaten raw or undercooked. Control measures targeted at individual cattle rather than all animals in a T. saginata-exposed herd should help reduce costs and alleviate current constraints associated with managing an outbreak. To that end, we have developed a reliable diagnostic test for use in live animals that would enable veterinary regulators to focus disease control strategies. The test detects bovine anti-T. saginata immunoglobulin G1 antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) which relies on the excretory-secretory antigens of T. saginata. Animals were inoculated with 10, 100 or 1000 viable T. saginata eggs in order to simulate the parasite burden of field-infected animals (parasite load=1-86; n=28). By testing sera obtained from the inoculated animals 84 days post-inoculation, test sensitivity was estimated to be 92.9% (95% confidence interval or CI=83.4-100.0%). Another 17 animals inoculated with 5000 or 10,000 viable eggs of T. saginata and shown to harbour metacestodes at post-mortem, all tested positive in the ELISA. Test specificity estimated from a herd of field animals with no historical, epidemiological, or post-mortem evidence of infection was 90.6% (95% CI=87.0-94.2%; n=256 field cattle). Using the test on samples (n=347) from a T. saginata-infected feedlot, the Bayesian approach estimate of seroprevalence was 4.6% (95% probability intervals=0.5-10.3%). The test performance characteristics of the ELISA suggest that it will be adequate for field application in bovine cysticercosis outbreaks. PMID:20083357

Ogunremi, Oladele; Benjamin, Jane

2010-04-19

178

Development of a biomolecular assay for postmortem diagnosis of Taenia saginata Cysticercosis.  

PubMed

Bovine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of the human tapeworm Taenia saginata. According to European data on meat inspection, the prevalence ranges from 0.007% to 6.8%, but the real prevalence is considered to be at least 10 times higher. Laboratory confirmation of the etiological agent is based on gross, stereomicroscopic, and histological examination of submitted specimens. False identifications may occur, possibly because of death and degeneration of cysts, or because taeniid larvae and other tissue parasites, such as Sarcocystis spp., may cause similar macroscopic morphological lesions. Therefore, tests that can warrant sure identification of taeniid lesions and calcified cysts in the muscle are needed. The focus of our study was to develop a suitable postmortem test that could be applied on putative lesions by T. saginata cysticerci, as ambiguously diagnosed after routine meat inspection. In particular, we proposed a biomolecular assay targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). For developing the polymerase chain reaction assay, viable cysts of Cysticercus bovis (n?=?10) were used as positive reference samples, and those of Echinococcus granulosus (n?=?3), Cysticercus tenuicollis (n?=?3), and Sarcocystis spp. (n?=?4) as reference negative controls. Further, to evaluate the applicability of the proposed assay, 171 samples of bovine muscular tissue, obtained from local slaughterhouses and containing lesions recognized as T. saginata cysticerci by macroscopic examination, were tested. The proposed test confirmed the diagnosis at postmortem inspection in 94.7% (162/171) of samples. In conclusion, the assay developed in this study, amplifying a short fragment from the mitochondrial gene COI, showed to be suitable for samples containing both viable and degenerating T. saginata cysticerci, yielding an unequivocal diagnosis. PMID:20618079

Chiesa, Francesco; Dalmasso, Alessandra; Bellio, Alberto; Martinetti, Manuela; Gili, Stefano; Civera, Tiziana

2010-10-01

179

A case of taeniasis diagnosed postpartum.  

PubMed

A case of postpartum taeniasis will be discussed along with the pathophysiology, proper treatment, potential risks, and prevention of taeniasis infections to the pregnant mother, her infant, and her family members. Taenia spp. infections are relatively rare in developed societies. Increasing immigration to developed countries and an expanding role of medical aid in developing countries will lead to an increase in the number of taeniasis cases seen by medical providers. Taenia solium and T. saginata are the most common species and can be differentiated by proglottids (a segment of a tapeworm containing both male and female reproductive organs) or scolex (the head of a tapeworm which attaches to the intestine of the definitive host). Both carry different risks when considering autoinfection and transmission. Cystercercosis caused by T. solium is a risk for neonates and is cause for immediate treatment of the mother. A 23-year-old new mother, originally from Ethiopia, passed T. strobili shortly after giving birth. Her pregnancy was complicated by limited prenatal care. She did not experience any symptoms related to tapeworm infection. The patient received treatment with praziquantel. With a possible future increase in the number of cases seen by health care providers, understanding the risks of Taenia sp. infection is important as proper treatment and education are needed to halt the life cycle of the tapeworm before more serious infection ensues. PMID:23707843

Noss, Matthew R; Gilmore, Katherine; Wittich, Arthur C

2013-04-01

180

Immunoregulation by Taenia crassiceps and Its Antigens  

PubMed Central

Taenia crassiceps is a cestode parasite of rodents (in its larval stage) and canids (in its adult stage) that can also parasitize immunocompromised humans. We have studied the immune response elicited by this helminth and its antigens in mice and human cells, and have discovered that they have a strong capacity to induce chronic Th2-type responses that are primarily characterized by high levels of Th2 cytokines, low proliferative responses in lymphocytes, an immature and LPS-tolerogenic profile in dendritic cells, the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and, specially, alternatively activated macrophages. We also have utilized the immunoregulatory capabilities of this helminth to successfully modulate autoimmune responses and the outcome of other infectious diseases. In the present paper, we review the work of others and ourselves with regard to the immune response induced by T. crassiceps and its antigens, and we compare the advances in our understanding of this parasitic infection model with the knowledge that has been obtained from other selected models. PMID:23484125

Peón, Alberto N.; Espinoza-Jiménez, Arlett; Terrazas, Luis I.

2013-01-01

181

Taenia saginata: production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against Taenia saginata metacestode antigens.  

PubMed

Cysticercosis is a major cause of economic loss in bovine production due to meat condemnation. Chemotherapy is being used in Brazilian cattle and a diagnostic test to improve the treatment program is desired. We produced monoclonal antibodies against crude (TAEB) and cyst fluid (TAEF) Taenia saginata metacestode antigens using immunized BALB/c mice. After cell fusion, 10 TAEB and nine TAEF hybrids were selected and cloned resulting in 18 IgG(1) and 32 IgM TAEB clones, and 9 IgG(1) and 9 IgM TAEF clones. Ascites was produced and Western blot testing was performed resulting in reactivity to protein fractions of low molecular weight (<18kDa), 43, 55, 66 and 100kDa. The indirect immunofluorescence test, with one monoclonal antibody against crude and one against cyst fluid antigens, recognized antigenic fractions of both the scolex and the bladder wall of metacestodes from naturally infected bovine. PMID:20542032

Vicentini-Oliveira, Josy Campanhã; Golim, Marjorie A; de Cássia Paulan, Silvana; Biondi, Germano Francisco; Rossi-Ferreira, Rosana; Deffune, Elenice; Nunes, Cáris Maroni

2010-12-01

182

An endemic Taenia from South America: validation of T. Talicei Dollfus, 1960 (Cestoda: Taeniidae) with characterization of metacestodes and adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Taeniid tapeworms are characteristic parasites in both domesticated and wild carnivores and life cycles are completed through predator-prey associations with rodent, lagomorph or ungulate intermediate hosts that harbor infective larvae. Globally these tapeworms contribute to morbidity and mortality ...

183

Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in the desert southwestern United States.  

PubMed

The Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea) is an introduced fish parasite in the southwestern United States and is often considered a serious threat to native desert fishes. Determining the geographic distribution of nonnative fish parasites is important for recovery efforts of native fishes. We examined 1,140 individuals belonging to nine fish species from southwestern U.S. streams and springs between January 2005 and April 2007. The Asian fish tapeworm was present in the Gila River, Salt River, Verde River, San Pedro River, Aravaipa Creek, and Fossil Creek, Arizona, and in Lake Tuendae at Zzyzx Springs and Afton Canyon of the Mojave River, California. Overall prevalence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Arizona fish populations was 19% (range = 0-100%) and varied by location, time, and fish species. In California, the prevalence, abundance, and intensity of the Asian fish tapeworm in Mohave tui chub Gila bicolor mohavensis were higher during warmer months than during cooler months. Three new definitive host species--Yaqui chub G. purpurea, headwater chub G. nigra, and longfin dace agosia chrysogaster--were identified. Widespread occurrence of the Asian fish tapeworm in southwestern U.S. waters suggests that the lack of detection in other systems where nonnative fishes occur is due to a lack of effort as opposed to true absence of the parasite. To limit further spread of diseases to small, isolated systems, we recommend treatment for both endo- and exoparasites when management actions include translocation of fishes. PMID:21413512

Archdeacon, Thomas P; Iles, Alison; Kline, S Jason; Bonar, Scott A

2010-12-01

184

Systematics of the Eucestoda: advances toward a new phylogenetic paradigm, and observations on the early diversification of tapeworms and vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary relationships of the Eucestoda have received intense but sporadic attention over the past century. Since 1996, the landscape has dramatically changed with respect to our knowledge of the phylogenetic relationships among the tapeworms. The 2nd International Workshop for Tapeworm Systematics (IWTS) held in Lincoln, Nebraska in October of that year provided the catalyst for development of novel hypotheses for

Eric P. Hoberg; Scott L. Gardner; Ronald A. Campbell

1999-01-01

185

Data on the prevalence of tapeworm infestations in horses in The Netherlands.  

PubMed

The prevalence of tapeworm infestations was investigated in 70 horses slaughtered in the period February 1994-July 1994. Most horses were half-breed, young (1.5-3 years), and in good condition. They were bought for slaughter by dealers on local markets, and their treatment history was therefore unknown. Tapeworm infestations were seen in 16 horses (23%). Fifteen (21%) had an infection with Anoplocephala perfoliata. One horse had a single specimen of Paranoplocephala mamillana. The average number of A. perfoliata was 45 and the highest number was 508. PMID:8903145

Borgsteede, F H; van Beek, G

1996-09-01

186

Effect of heat treatment on viability of Taenia hydatigena eggs.  

PubMed

Effects of heat treatments on activation and infectivity of Taenia hydatigena eggs were assessed. Eggs containing oncospheres were used for in vitro and in vivo studies to determine the response to 5min of heat treatment, ranging from room temperature (22°C) to 60°C. The study demonstrated 99.47% and 100% reduction in oncosphere activation or infectivity after 5min of heat treatment at 60°C and 57.38°C under in vitro and in vivo conditions, respectively. Similar results between the two approaches indicted the appropriateness of the in vitro methods to identify oncosphericidal treatments of practical significance. Similar heat treatments may also be effective against Taenia saginata and help to reduce occurrence of beef cysticercosis. PMID:23333617

Buttar, Birpal S; Nelson, Mark L; Busboom, Jan R; Hancock, Dale D; Walsh, Douglas B; Jasmer, Douglas P

2013-04-01

187

Inexpensive anti-cysticercosis vaccine: S3Pvac expressed in heat inactivated M13 filamentous phage proves effective against naturally acquired Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis.  

PubMed

In search of reducing vaccine production costs', a recombinant M13 phage version of the anti-cysticercosis tripeptide vaccine (S3Pvac) was developed. The efficacy of S3Pvac-Phage vs. placebo was evaluated in a randomized trial that included 1,047 rural pigs in 16 villages of Central Mexico. Three to five months after vaccination 530 pigs were examined by tongue inspection. At 5-27 months of age, 331 pigs (197 vaccinated/134 controls) were inspected at necropsy. Vaccination reduced 70% the frequency of tongue cysticercosis and, based on necropsy, 54% of muscle-cysticercosis and by 87% the number of cysticerci. PMID:18440675

Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Manoutcharian, Karen; Hernández, Marisela; Fleury, Agnes; Gevorkian, Goar; Acero, Gonzalo; Blancas, Abel; Toledo, Andrea; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Maza, Victor; Quet, Fabrice; Bonnabau, Henri; de Aluja, Aline S; Fragoso, Gladis; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

2008-06-01

188

Investigation of an outbreak of tapeworm-associated colic in a training yard.  

PubMed

A novel serological assay which measures IgG(T) specific for a 12/13 kDa protein of the equine tapeworm Anoplocephala perfoliata was used as part of a colic outbreak investigation. A training/rehabilitation yard for Thoroughbreds and Arabs was found to have an increasing incidence of colic over a 5 year period, culminating in a peak incidence of 1.15 episodes/horse year at risk. Four animals suffered from ileal impaction colic which necessitated surgical management. A case-control study design suggested a strong association between tapeworm infection and colic, with evidence of a dose-response relationship. Intervention, in the form of anticestode anthelminthics, coincided with a decrease in the incidence of colic and a fall in anti-12/13 kDa IgG(T) antibody levels of 8 horses monitored post-treatment. This study demonstrates that anthelminthic regimens, using exclusively ivermectin, may lead to an increase in tapeworm infection intensity which may in turn lead to an increased incidence of colic. Furthermore, it provides support to the hypothesis that the risk of ileal impaction colic and spasmodic colic increases with tapeworm infection intensity. The practical application of the anti-12/13 kDa IgG(T) ELISA is demonstrated by this study. PMID:11202380

Proudman, C J; Holdstock, N B

2000-06-01

189

The effect of herbivore faeces on the edaphic mite community: implications for tapeworm transmission.  

PubMed

Oribatid mites may be of epidemiological and medical importance because several species have been shown to serve as intermediate hosts for anoplocephalid tapeworms of wild and domestic animals. Despite their economic and conservation significance, relatively few studies examined factors influencing the effective number of oribatid mites that can serve as intermediate hosts. We examined variation in the structure of the edaphic arthropod community in functionally different territory parts of the Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota latirostris), a known definitive host of a prevalent anoplocephalid tapeworm, Ctenotaenia marmotae. We used a field experiment to test whether the abundance of oribatid mites in marmot pastures is affected by the presence of fresh herbivore faeces. We found that the abundance of soil and litter dwelling oribatid mites in marmot pastures did not change shortly after faeces addition. In contrast, numbers of other predominant soil-litter and phoretic microarthropods increased after faeces addition. The abundance of the two predominant phoretic mites colonizing the faeces was inversely related to the abundance of oribatid mites. In contrast, the abundance of a ubiquitous soil-litter mesostigmatid mite was a positive function of oribatid numbers. Although absolute numbers of oribatid mites did not change after faeces addition, our study suggests that, depending on soil quality or type, the probability of tapeworm egg ingestion by oribatid mites can be reduced due to increased interspecific prey-predatory and trophic interactions. Latrine site selection in Alpine marmots is consistent with a reduced probability of tapeworm transmission by oribatids. PMID:24114339

Václav, Radovan; Kalúz, Stanislav

2014-03-01

190

Novel praziquantel treatment regime for controlling asian tapeworm infections in pond-reared fish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus achelognathii is an intestinal fish parasite that is nonnative to but widespread throughout the southwestern United States. Praziquantel is an anthelminthic drug commonly used to treat fish for Asian tapeworm; however, it does not kill tapeworm eggs, so the water in ponds used for fish rearing must be exchanged after treatment. Our objective was to determine whether a system containing both an intermediate copepod host and a definitive fish host for Asian tapeworm could be treated without exchanging the water by using a follow-up treatment for any tapeworms that developed from eggs released before or during the first treatment. Here, we have described a new praziquantel treatment regimen to control Asian tapeworm infections in freshwater-reared fish. To evaluate the efficacy of this regimen, we stocked 50 red shiners Cyprinella lutrensis and an intermediate copepod host, Cyclops vernalis, into each of six pond mesocosms containing artificial macrophytes, sand, and gravel to simulate natural pools and provide suitable substrate for the copepod's life history. The test fish population had been naturally infected with B. achelognathii and had an initial infection prevalence of 14% and an infection intensity of 2.14 ± 2.19 (mean ± SD) worms per fish. Three mesocosms were treated twice, each with 2.5 mg/L praziquantel; 19 d passed between treatments to allow for possible reinfection to occur. After a 2.5-month posttreatment period to allow any remaining tapeworms to reestablish themselves, we killed and dissected all of the remaining fish. No worms were found in treated fish; however, the control group had an infection prevalence of 18 ± 6% and an infection intensity of 3.45 ± 2.1 worms per fish. Based on these results, we concluded that the praziquantel treatment regime administered was efficacious and suggest testing it on a larger scale. We caution that praziquantel has not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use on fish but can be used legally in some situations.

Iles, Alison C.; Archdeacon, Thomas P.; Bonar, Scott A.

2012-01-01

191

New multiplex PCR method for the simultaneous diagnosis of the three known species of equine tapeworm.  

PubMed

Although several techniques exist for the detection of equine tapeworms in serum and feces, the differential diagnosis of tapeworm infection is usually based on postmortem findings and the morphological identification of eggs in feces. In this study, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for the simultaneuos detection of Anoplocephala magna, Anoplocephala perfoliata and Anoplocephaloides mamillana has been developed and validated. The method simultaneously amplifies hypervariable SSUrRNA gene regions in the three tapeworm species in a single reaction using three pairs of primers, which exclusively amplify the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) in each target gene. The method was tested on three types of sample: (a) 1/10, 1/100, 1/500, 1/1000, 1/2000 and 1/5000 dilutions of 70ng of genomic DNA of the three tapeworm species, (b) DNA extracted from negative aliquots of sediments of negative control fecal samples spiked with 500, 200, 100, 50 and 10 eggs (only for A. magna and A. perfoliata; no A. mamillana eggs available) and (c) DNA extracted from 80, 50, 40, 30, 10 and 1 egg per 2?l of PCR reaction mix (only for A. magna and A. perfoliata; no A. mamillana eggs available). No amplification was observed against the DNA of Gasterophilus intestinalis, Parascaris equorum and Strongylus vulgaris. The multiplex PCR method emerged as specific for the three tapeworms and was able to identify as few as 50 eggs per fecal sample and as little as 0.7ng of control genomic DNA obtained from the three species. The method proposed is able to differentiate infections caused by the two most frequent species A. magna or A. perfoliata when the eggs are present in feces and is also able to detect mixed infections by the three cestode species. PMID:25498328

Bohórquez, G Alejandro; Luzón, Mónica; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Meana, Aránzazu

2015-01-15

192

Insights using a molecular approach into the life cycle of a tapeworm infecting great white sharks.  

PubMed

The great white shark Carcharodon carcharias Linnaeus, 1758 is a versatile and fierce predator (and responsible for many shark attacks on humans). This apex predator feeds on a wide range of organisms including teleosts, other elasmobranchs, cephalopods, pinnipeds, and cetaceans. Although much is known about its diet, no trophic links have been empirically identified as being involved in the transmission of its tapeworm parasites. Recently, the use of molecular tools combined with phylogenetics has proven useful to identify larval and immature stages of marine tapeworms; utilization of the technique has been increasing rapidly. However, the usefulness of this approach remains limited by the availability of molecular data. Here, I employed gene sequence data from the D2 region of the large subunit of ribosomal DNA to link adults of the tapeworm Clistobothrium carcharodoni Dailey and Vogelbein, 1990 (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) to larvae for which sequence data for this gene are available. The sequences from the adult tapeworms were genetically identical (0% sequence divergence) to those available on GenBank for "SP" 'small' Scolex pleuronectis recovered from the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus). This study is the first to provide empirical evidence linking the trophic interaction between great white sharks and cetaceans as a definitive route for the successful transmission of a tetraphyllidean tapeworm. Using the intensity of infection data from this shark and from cetaceans as proxies for the extent of predation, I estimate that this individual shark would have consumed between 9 to 83 G. griseus , fresh, dead, or both, in its lifetime. PMID:21506792

Randhawa, Haseeb S

2011-04-01

193

21 CFR 520.903d - Febantel-praziquantel paste.  

...stenocephala ), whipworms (Trichuris vulpis ), ascarids (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina ), and tapeworms (Dipylidium...removal of hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme ), ascarids (Toxocara cati ) and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia...

2014-04-01

194

21 CFR 520.903d - Febantel-praziquantel paste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...stenocephala ), whipworms (Trichuris vulpis ), ascarids (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina ), and tapeworms (Dipylidium...removal of hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme ), ascarids (Toxocara cati ) and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia...

2011-04-01

195

21 CFR 520.903d - Febantel-praziquantel paste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...stenocephala ), whipworms (Trichuris vulpis ), ascarids (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina ), and tapeworms (Dipylidium...removal of hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme ), ascarids (Toxocara cati ) and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia...

2012-04-01

196

21 CFR 520.903d - Febantel-praziquantel paste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...stenocephala ), whipworms (Trichuris vulpis ), ascarids (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina ), and tapeworms (Dipylidium...removal of hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme ), ascarids (Toxocara cati ) and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia...

2013-04-01

197

Cysticerci of Taenia mustelae in the fox squirrel.  

PubMed

The liver of a fox squirrel (Sciurus niger rufiventer) contained many clear, spherical cysts approximately 1 mm in diameter throughout the parenchyma. On dissection, most of these exhibited a dense, white area with four muscular suckers at a single point on the bladder. Based on the size of the organisms, the characteristically tiny hooks on the scolex and the location of the cysts in this host, the parasites were identified as cysticerci of Taenia mustelae. This is the first report in this host. The parasites were surrounded by an intense inflammatory response consisting primarily of lymphocytes mixed with some eosinophils, and early deposition of fibrous connective tissue. PMID:2338737

Langham, R F; Rausch, R L; Williams, J F

1990-04-01

198

First record of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in Honduras, Central America  

PubMed Central

This paper provides the first report of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, in Honduras. The cestode was found in Profundulus portillorum (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae), which represents a new host record, and which is a member of a genus faced with a variety of conservation challenges, now potentially complicated by the presence of this pathogenic cestode. Nearly complete sequence data from the ITS-1 5.8S and ITS-2 regions corroborate the determination based on morphological characteristics. Several species of carp were introduced to Honduras for aquaculture purposes in the early 1980s and the presence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Honduras may be related to these introductions. In addition, this report documents the currently known geographical distribution of this parasite in Central America, first recorded from Panamá and now from Honduras. PMID:25654444

Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Matamoros, Wilfredo A.; Kreiser, Brian R.; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F.

2015-01-01

199

Tapeworms of rock dove and domestic chicken in Taif area, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to identify the tapeworms that parasitize the rock dove Columba livia palastinae and domestic chicken Gallus gallus domesticus in Taif governorate, Saudi Arabia. A total of 115 rock doves and 105 domestic chicken have been examined. Birds were brought in from the wells and farms inside and outside the city of Taif. In rock doves, the percentage of infection was recorded as Cotugnia digonopora 5.21%, Hymenolepis carioca 10.43%, Raillietina echinobothrida 27.82%, Raillietina tetragona 22.6%. The prevalence of infection recorded in Municipal chicken with different types of tapeworms was Cotugnia digonopora 7.61%, Choanotaenia infundibulum 12.38%, Amoebotaenia sphenoides 7.61%, Raillietina echinobothrida 11.42%, Raillietina tetragona 8.57%, Raillietina (Paroniella) kashiwarensis 4.76%. The overall percentage of infected rock pigeons Columba livia palastinae with tapeworms was 66.1% while the percentage of infected chicken Gallus gallus domestica was 52.3%. The study defined and described this species as classification keys in place. PMID:23469626

Zahrani, Mohammad R; Ashour, Ameen A; Shobrak, M Y

2012-12-01

200

Position of Larval Tapeworms, Polypocephalus sp., in the Ganglia of Shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus  

PubMed Central

Parasites that invade the nervous system of their hosts have perhaps the best potential to manipulate their host’s behavior, but how they manipulate the host, if they do at all, could depend on their position within the host’s nervous system. We hypothesize that parasites that live in the nervous system of their host will be randomly distributed if they exert their influence through non-specific effects (i.e., general pathology), but that their position in the nervous system will be non-random if they exert their influence by targeting specific neural circuits. We recorded the position of larval tapeworms, Polypocephalus sp., in the abdominal ganglia of white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus. Tapeworms are more common within ganglia than in the section of the nerve cord between ganglia, even though the nerve cord has a greater volume than the ganglia. The tapeworms are also more abundant in the periphery of the ganglia. Because most synaptic connections are within the central region of the ganglion, such positioning may represent a trade-off between controlling the nervous system and damaging it. PMID:24820854

Carreon, Nadia; Faulkes, Zen

2014-01-01

201

Parasites in Kentucky Thoroughbreds at necropsy: emphasis on stomach worms and tapeworms.  

PubMed

A total of 363 Thoroughbreds (62 males, 292 females, and 9 geldings), 1 to 26 years of age, were examined at necropsy for internal parasites for about a 12-month period from February 1981 through February 1982. Emphasis was on examining the stomach for nematodes and the small intestine and cecum for tapeworms. Parasites recovered from the stomach and infection rates were: Habronema spp--immature (24%), H muscae--adult (38%), Draschia megastoma--immature (13%), D megastoma--adult (62%), and Trichostrongylus axei--adult (4%); lesions caused by D megastoma were found upon gross observation in 58% of the stomachs. The tapeworm, Anoplocephala perfoliata, was recovered from 54% of the horses; A magna was not found. There was no obvious difference in infection rates of the stomach worms and tapeworms according to age or sex of the horses. Seasonal differences were apparent only for immature Habronema spp and immature D megastoma for which infection rates began increasing in June, peaking in October, and declining thereafter. Presence of 4 additional species of parasites was recorded, but only a cursory examination was made for them. These were the large strongyles, Strongylus vulgaris, S edentatus, and S equinus, from the cecum and a filariid, Setaria spp (probably S equina), from the abdominal cavity, for which recovery rates from the horses were 8%, 8%, 1%, and 7%, respectively. PMID:6869991

Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Drudge, J H; Swerczek, T W; Crowe, M W

1983-05-01

202

Genetic Variation and Population Genetics of Taenia saginata in North and Northeast Thailand in relation to Taenia asiatica  

PubMed Central

Taenia saginata is the most common human Taenia in Thailand. By cox1 sequences, 73 isolates from four localities in north and northeast were differentiated into 14 haplotypes, 11 variation sites and haplotype diversity of 0.683. Among 14 haplotypes, haplotype A was the major (52.1%), followed by haplotype B (21.9%). Clustering diagram of Thai and GenBank sequences indicated mixed phylogeny among localities. By MJ analysis, haplotype clustering relationships showed paired-stars-like network, having two main cores surrounded by minor haplotypes. Tajima's D values were significantly negative in T. saginata world population, suggesting population expansion. Significant Fu's Fs values in Thai, as well as world population, also indicate that population is expanding and may be hitchhiking as part of selective sweep. Haplotype B and its dispersion were only found in populations from Thailand. Haplotype B may evolve and ultimately become an ancestor of future populations in Thailand. Haplotype A seems to be dispersion haplotype, not just in Thailand, but worldwide. High genetic T. saginata intraspecies divergence was found, in contrast to its sister species, T. asiatica; among 30 samples from seven countries, its haplotype diversity was 0.067, while only 2 haplotypes were revealed. This extremely low intraspecific variation suggests that T. asiatica could be an endangered species. PMID:23864933

Anantaphruti, Malinee; Thaenkham, Urusa; Kusolsuk, Teera; Maipanich, Wanna; Saguankiat, Surapol; Pubampen, Somjit; Phuphisut, Orawan

2013-01-01

203

Psychiatric manifestations of neurocysticercosis in paediatric patients  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis is the most frequent parasitic disease of the central nervous system and is caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia solium, in which the human being becomes the parasite’s intermediary host. The disease has a worldwide distribution, with a marked prevalence in underdeveloped or developing. However, this disease is rare in children, which is attributed to the long incubation period of the disease, ranging from several months up to 30 years. For this reason, very few cases are found in infants at the age of preschoolers, while most frequently cases are found in children between the ages of 6 and 16. PMID:22892232

Tejado, Laura de Anta; Pozo, Kazuhiro Tajima; Palomino, Camila Bayón; de Dios de Vega, José Luis

2012-01-01

204

Detection of human taeniases in Tibetan endemic areas, China.  

PubMed

Detection of taeniasis carriers of Taenia solium is essential for control of cysticercosis in humans and pigs. In the current study, we assessed the positive detection rate of a self-detection tool, stool microscopy with direct smear and coproPCR for taeniasis carriers in endemic Tibetan areas of northwest Sichuan. The self-detection tool through questioning about a history of proglottid expulsion within the previous one year showed an overall positive detection rate of more than 80% for Taenia saginata, T. solium and T. asiatica. The positive detection rate was similar for T. saginata and T. solium. In 132 taeniid tapeworm carriers, 68 (51·5%) were detected by microscopy and 92 (69·7%) were diagnosed by coproPCR. A combination of microscopy and coproPCR increased the positive detection rate to 77·3%. There remained 10 cases (7·6%) coproPCR negative but microscopy positive. Due to the high cost and complicated process, coproPCR is required for the identification of Taenia species only when necessary, though it had a significant higher positive detection rate than microscopy. Combined use of self-detection and stool microscopy are recommended in community-based mass screening for taeniases in this Tibetan area or in other situation-similar endemic regions. PMID:23866973

Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Wang, Hao; Long, Changping; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehir; Wu, Yunfei; Giraudoux, Patrick; Raoul, Francis; Nkouawa, Agathe; Nakao, Minoru; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira

2013-11-01

205

Advances in diagnosis and spatial analysis of cysticercosis and taeniasis.  

PubMed

Human cysticercosis, caused by accidental ingestion of eggs of Taenia solium, is one of the most pathogenic helminthiases and is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases. Controlling the life-cycle of T. solium between humans and pigs is essential for eradication of cysticercosis. One difficulty for the accurate detection and identification of T. solium species is the possible co-existence of two other human Taenia tapeworms (T. saginata and T. asiatica, which do not cause cysticercosis in humans). Several key issues for taeniasis/cysticercosis (T/C) evidence-based epidemiology and control are reviewed: (1) advances in immunological and molecular tools for screening of human and animals hosts and identification of Taenia species, with a focus on real-time detection of taeniasis carriers and infected animals in field community screenings, and (2) spatial ecological approaches that have been used to detect geospatial patterns of case distributions and to monitor pig activity and behaviour. Most recent eco-epidemiological studies undertaken in Sichuan province, China, are introduced and reviewed. PMID:23985371

Raoul, Francis; Li, Tiaoying; Sako, Yasuhito; Chen, Xingwang; Long, Changping; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Wu, Yunfei; Nakao, Minoru; Okamoto, Munehiro; Craig, Philip S; Giraudoux, Patrick; Ito, Akira

2013-11-01

206

An immunoblot for detection of Taenia saginata cysticercosis.  

PubMed

Control measures to prevent human infections with the food-borne zoonotic helminth Taenia saginata are currently based on meat inspection, which shows rather low diagnostic sensitivity. To develop an immunoblot for detection of T. saginata-infected cattle, crude proteins of T. saginata cysts were extracted and separated with SDS-PAGE. The cyst antigens showed ten protein bands ranging from 260 to 14 kDa. T. saginata cyst proteins 260, 150, 130, 67, 60, 55, 50, and 23 kDa were immunoreactive with known positive sera of T. saginata-infected cattle but cross-reacted with sera from Echinocccus granulosus-infected ruminants. By contrast, 14- and 18-kDa cyst proteins reacted specifically with T. saginata-positive sera and thus might be potential candidates for the development of a T. saginata-specific immunoassay. Proteins of E. granulosus cysts and Taenia hydatigena cysts were also extracted and separated with SDS-PAGE. E. granulosus cysts revealed 11 protein bands ranging from 260 to 23 kDa. E. granulosus protein 60 kDa was immunoreactive with E. granulosus-positive sera only. The cyst of T. hydatigena showed 11 protein bands ranging from 290 to 14 kDa. The protein band 35 kDa showed cross-reaction with positive sera from both T. saginata- and E. granulosus-infected animals. A protein of 67 kDa was present in all three tested cestode species and was the major antigenic protein detected by sera of T. saginata- and E. granulosus-infected animals. Therefore, this protein represents a potential vaccine candidate against both cysticercosis and cystic echinococcosis in cattle. PMID:23483261

Abuseir, Sameh; Nagel-Kohl, Uschi; Wolken, Sonja; Strube, Christina

2013-05-01

207

Quantitative trait loci for susceptibility to tapeworm infection in the red flour beetle.  

PubMed Central

Parasites have profound effects on host ecology and evolution, and the effects of parasites on host ecology are often influenced by the magnitude of host susceptibility to parasites. Many parasites have complex life cycles that require intermediate hosts for their transmission, but little is known about the genetic basis of the intermediate host's susceptibility to these parasites. This study examined the genetic basis of susceptibility to a tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta) in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) that serves as an intermediate host in its transmission. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping experiments were conducted with two independent segregating populations using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. A total of five QTL that significantly affected beetle susceptibility were identified in the two reciprocal crosses. Two common QTL on linkage groups 3 and 6 were identified in both crosses with similar effects on the phenotype, and three QTL were unique to each cross. In one cross, the three main QTL accounted for 29% of the total phenotypic variance and digenic epistasis explained 39% of the variance. In the second cross, the four main QTL explained 62% of the variance and digenic epistasis accounted for only 5% of the variance. The actions of these QTL were either overdominance or underdominance. Our results suggest that the polygenic nature of beetle susceptibility to the parasites and epistasis are important genetic mechanisms for the maintenance of variation within or among beetle strains in susceptibility to tapeworm infection. PMID:14668384

Zhong, Daibin; Pai, Aditi; Yan, Guiyun

2003-01-01

208

Validity of the bear tapeworm Diphyllobothrium ursi (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidae) based on morphological and molecular markers.  

PubMed

The bear tapeworm Diphyllobothrium ursi is described based upon the morphology of adult tapeworms recovered from the brown bear (Ursus arctos middendorffi) and larval plerocercoids found in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) from Kodiak Island in Alaska in 1952. However, in 1987 D. ursi was synonymized with Diphyllobothrium dendriticum, and the taxonomic relationship between both species has not subsequently been revised. In this study mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) sequences of holotype and paratype D. ursi specimens that had been preserved in a formalin-acetic acid-alcohol solution since the time the species was initially described approximately 60 yr ago were analyzed. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the cox1 sequences revealed that D. ursi is more closely related to D. dendriticum than it is to Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense and Diphyllobothrium latum. In addition to molecular evidence, differences in the life cycle and ecology of the larval plerocercoids between D. ursi and D. dendriticum also suggest that D. ursi is a distinct species, separate from D. dendriticum and D. nihonkaiense, and also possibly from D. latum . PMID:22663179

Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Muto, Maki; Yamada, Minoru; Arizono, Naoki; Rausch, Robert L

2012-12-01

209

Suppression of the tapeworm order Pseudophyllidea (Platyhelminthes: Eucestoda) and the proposal of two new orders, Bothriocephalidea and Diphyllobothriidea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudophyllidea van Beneden in Carus, 1863, a well recognised order of tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Eucestoda), is suppressed because it is composed of two phylogenetically unrelated groups, for which the new names Bothriocephalidea and Diphyllobothriidea are proposed. The new orders differ from each other in the following characters: (i) position of the genital pore: on the dorsal, dorso-lateral or lateral aspects and

R. Kuchta; T. Scholz; J. Brabec; R. A. Bray

2008-01-01

210

Efficacy of 6-, 12-, and 24-h praziquantel bath treatments against Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in grass carp  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Praziquantel is an effective antihelmintic that has been used in dogs and cats as a de-wormer. It has also been used successfully against tapeworms and trematodes in fish. The current study tested the efficacy of praziquantel bath treatments at various concentrations (0.187, 0.375, 0.75, 1.5, 3.0,...

211

Taenia coenurus in the orbit of a chinchilla.  

PubMed

A 4-year old, male intact, captive-bred chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) was presented due to progressive exophthalmos of the right eye over a 5-month period. Ophthalmic examination revealed exophthalmos with dorsal displacement of the right globe. Retropulsion was decreased and a fluctuant, subcutaneous mass could be palpated posterior and dorsal to the central aspect of the zygomatic bone. Transdermal ultrasonography revealed a fluid-filled mass consistent with a cyst located within the ventral right orbit. Computed tomography demonstrated dorsal displacement of the globe, lateral displacement of the zygomatic arch, and numerous mineral-dense foci within the lumen of the cyst. The cyst was removed en bloc by ventral transpalpebral orbitotomy. Histopathology revealed a single capsulated cyst with multiple invaginated protoscolices, characterized by a prominent scolex with refractile hooklets, suckers, and abundant calcareous corpuscles consistent with a Taenia coenurus. Exophthalmos resolved with surgical therapy and there was no evidence of recurrence or postoperative complications over a period of 2 years. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of an orbital cyst of parasitic origin in a chinchilla. PMID:17204129

Holmberg, Bradford J; Hollingsworth, Steven R; Osofsky, Anna; Tell, Lisa A

2007-01-01

212

Taenia taeniaeformis: colonic hyperplasia in heavily infected rats.  

PubMed

Only one study previously mentioned the involvement of colon during Taenia taeniaeformis larvae infection in rats with inconsistent occurrence of lesions. Present study aimed to determine the consistency of histopathologic changes in colonic epithelia, and the proliferation of mucosal cells through BrdU and PCNA immunohistochemistry. Results demonstrated that crypt hyperplasia of the colon was found in all infected rats, although variable in degree even in a single tissue section. Cystic cavities were frequently seen in severely hyperplastic mucosa. Proliferative zone lengths were significantly increased and PCNA positive cells were observed throughout the colonic crypt lengths at 9 but not at 6 weeks post infection. Cell proliferation involving the major types of cells in the epithelial colon was also increased in infected rats at 9 weeks post infection, with labeling indices significantly greater than the control rats throughout the BrdU time course labeling. Findings suggested that massive increases in epithelial cells and depth of colonic crypts were due to a remarkable increase in cell proliferation. The study concluded that enteropathy in the colon during T. taeniaeformis infection could be consistently observed in heavily infected rats. PMID:18793638

Lagapa, Jose Trinipil; Oku, Yuzaburo; Kamiya, Masao

2008-12-01

213

Clinical trials of efficacy of praziquantel horse paste 9% against tapeworms and its safety in horses.  

PubMed

The aim of this study with horses and a few ponies naturally infected with tapeworms was to confirm in clinical trials the efficacy and safety of a praziquantel horse paste 9%. The field trials were conducted in 1997 and 1998 in Canada, France, Germany and New Zealand. A secondary aim of the study in Canada was to determine if a 24h post-treatment fecal sample provides the best estimate of the prevalence of tapeworms in horses when using a fecal examination technique. Fecal samples were taken from each of 1062 animals at least three times pre-treatment (PRT). In Canada, fecal samples were examined using the Cornell-Wisconsin centrifugal flotation technique, and in France, Germany and New Zealand using a centrifugation/flotation technique. In each trial, the animals were randomized into two treatment groups: praziquantel horse paste 9% at 1mg/kg body weight (BW) and untreated. Fecal samples were taken from each animal nine times post-treatment and over a period of 5 weeks. In Canada, a fecal sample was taken also at 24h after treatment. Personnel examining the samples were "blinded" to treatment groups. On the day of treatment, each treated animal was examined for adverse reactions to the paste 10min after treatment and then hourly for 4h. Thereafter, each animal was examined once daily for 5 weeks. In Canada, Germany and New Zealand, the only tapeworm egg found was Anoplocephala perfoliata. In France, A. perfoliata was the most common species and a few animals had A. magna and Paranoplocephala mamillana. The prevalence of A. perfoliata among animals sampled in Canada, France, Germany and New Zealand was 51.8, 34.4, 13.1 and 26.2%, respectively. A total of 248 animals were treated with the praziquantel paste and all except one accepted it readily. There were 292 animals completing the study, 219 treated and 73 untreated. In Canada, Germany and New Zealand, the efficacy of the praziquantel horse paste 9% against A. perfoliata was 100%. In France, the efficacy against A. perfoliata, A. magna and P. mamillana was 90.9, 100 and 100%, respectively. The best estimate of prevalence for A. perfoliata in a herd was derived from fecal samples taken 24h after treatment. At 24h, 22 of 23 treated horses were positive, whereas on any day pre-treatment fewer horses were positive. Adverse reactions observed were mild to moderate colic and in only two treated horses. PMID:17101225

Slocombe, J Owen D; Heine, Josef; Barutzki, Dieter; Slacek, Brigitte

2007-03-31

214

Multiplex PCR for Differential Identification of Broad Tapeworms (Cestoda: Diphyllobothrium) Infecting Humans?  

PubMed Central

The specific identification of broad tapeworms (genus Diphyllobothrium) infecting humans is very difficult to perform by morphological observation. Molecular analysis by PCR and sequencing represents the only reliable tool to date to identify these parasites to the species level. Due to the recent spread of human diphyllobothriosis in several countries, a correct diagnosis has become crucial to better understand the distribution and the life cycle of human-infecting species as well as to prevent the introduction of parasites to disease-free water systems. Nevertheless, PCR and sequencing, although highly precise, are too complicated, long, and expensive to be employed in medical laboratories for routine diagnostics. In the present study we optimized a cheap and rapid molecular test for the differential identification of the most common Diphyllobothrium species infecting humans (D. latum, D. dendriticum, D. nihonkaiense, and D. pacificum), based on a multiplex PCR with the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene of mitochondrial DNA. PMID:20592146

Wicht, Barbara; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Scholz, Tomáš; Ito, Akira; Jiménez, Juan A.; Brabec, Jan

2010-01-01

215

The inability of tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta and fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum to metabolize praziquantel.  

PubMed

Biotransformation enzymes can, to a certain extent, protect parasitic worms against the toxic effects of anthelmintics and can contribute to drug-resistance development. The objective of our work was (1) to find and identify phase I and II metabolites of the anthelmintic praziquantel (PZQ) formed by the lancet fluke (Dicrocoelium dendriticum) and the rat tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta) and (2) to compare PZQ metabolites in helminths with PZQ biotransformation in rat as host species. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS) was used for this purpose. During in vitro incubations, mitochondria-like and microsomes-like fractions (prepared from homogenates of adult worms or from rat liver homogenate) were incubated with 10 and 100 ?M PZQ. Liquid/liquid extraction was used for samples during in vitro experiments. In the ex vivo study, living D. dendriticum and H. diminuta adults were incubated in RPMI-1640 medium in the presence of 50 nM or 100 nM PZQ for 24h. After incubation, the worms were removed from the medium and homogenized. Homogenates of worms, medium from the incubation of worms or rat hepatocytes and rat urine (collected during 24h after oral PZQ administration) were separately extracted using solid-phase extraction. The results showed that both D. dendriticum and H. diminuta enzymatic systems are not able to metabolize PZQ. On the other hand, thirty one different phase I and four phase II PZQ metabolites were detected in rat samples using UHPLC/MS/MS analyses. These results show that our experimental helminths, as the members of tapeworm and fluke groups of parasites, are not able to deactivate PZQ, and that the biotransformation enzymes of the studied helminths do not contribute to PZQ-resistance. PMID:21996005

Vok?ál, Ivan; Jirásko, Robert; Jedli?ková, Veronika; Bártíková, Hana; Skálová, Lenka; Lamka, Ji?í; Hol?apek, Michal; Szotáková, Barbora

2012-04-30

216

Prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in French cattle in 2010.  

PubMed

Bovine cysticercosis is a foodborne disease caused by the cestode Taenia saginata with cattle as the intermediate host and humans as the final host. This disease is responsible for direct financial losses for farmers. It is also economically important because human infestation through raw or undercooked meat consumption can have a negative impact on the confidence the consumer has in the food industry. This study aimed to determine the apparent and true prevalence of bovine cysticercosis in France and describe the locations of identified cysticercosis lesions. The study sample included 4,564,065 cattle slaughtered in 2010 in France, among which 6491 were detected as harbouring cysticercosis lesions using the current EU meat inspection process. The overall apparent prevalence (including both viable and degenerated cysticerci) was estimated at 0.142% [0.142-0.143]. The true overall prevalence defined as the estimation of the prevalence after taking into account the sensitivity of meat inspection (detection fraction) was 1.23% [0.83-1.93]. The true prevalence of cattle with at least one viable cysticercus was 0.113% [0.076-0.189]. Taking into account both our results and those of a previous study on the prevalence of human cysticercosis in France, we estimated that one carcass could infest an average of 8-20 individuals. The spatial distribution of viable cysticerci showed that the highest apparent prevalence was found in eastern France. This study, the largest survey ever conducted on bovine cysticercosis in France, indicated a low but spatially heterogeneous prevalence of the parasite among the cattle population. Considering French eating habits, according to which it is not uncommon to consume undercooked meat, the possibility of humans being infested even though viable cysticerci are not detected during meat inspection is high. Increasing the detection sensitivity of meat inspection through the use of a risk-based meat inspection procedure should improve prevention of human infestation. PMID:24655724

Dupuy, Céline; Morlot, Claire; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Mas, Michel; Grandmontagne, Claude; Gilli-Dunoyer, Pascale; Gay, Emilie; Callait-Cardinal, Marie-Pierre

2014-06-16

217

A glance at Taenia saginata infection, diagnosis, vaccine, biological control and treatment.  

PubMed

The Taenia saginata taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a cosmopolitan zoonosis of great medical, veterinary and economic importance where humans play an important role as the carrier of adult stage and cattle as carrier of the larval stage of the parasite. Here we reviewed aspects concerning diagnosis, vaccine development, biological control and treatment of the disease. PMID:20701576

Silva, Claudio V; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

2010-10-01

218

Four Cases of Taenia saginata Infection with an Analysis of COX1 Gene  

PubMed Central

Human taeniases had been not uncommon in the Republic of Korea (=Korea) until the 1980s. The prevalence decreased and a national survey in 2004 revealed no Taenia egg positive cases. However, a subsequent national survey in 2012 showed 0.04% (10 cases) prevalence of Taenia spp. eggs suggesting its resurgence in Korea. We recently encountered 4 cases of Taenia saginata infection who had symptoms of taeniasis that included discharge of proglottids. We obtained several proglottids from each case. Because the morphological features of T. saginata are almost indistinguishable from those of Taenia asiatica, molecular analyses using the PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) were performed to identify the species. The PCR-RFLP patterns of all of the 4 specimens were consistent with T. saginata, and the cox1 gene sequence showed 99.8-100% identity with that of T. saginata reported previously from Korea, Japan, China, and Cambodia. All of the 4 patients had the history of travel abroad but its relation with contracting taeniasis was unclear. Our findings may suggest resurgence of T. saginata infection among people in Korea. PMID:24623887

Cho, Jaeeun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lim, Hyemi; Kim, Min-Jae; Yooyen, Thanapon; Lee, Dongmin; Eom, Keeseon S.; Shin, Eun-Hee

2014-01-01

219

PAIR BONDING IN THE FEMALE ZEBRA FINCH: A POTENTIAL ROLE FOR THE NUCLEUS TAENIAE  

E-print Network

PAIR BONDING IN THE FEMALE ZEBRA FINCH: A POTENTIAL ROLE FOR THE NUCLEUS TAENIAE L. A. SVEC,a * K--Male and female zebra finches are highly social and form pair bonds typically associated with reproduction). Zebra finches form strong pair bonds prior to reproduction. They are formed in 2­14 days, can

Wade, Juli

220

First record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in muskoxen from Greenland.  

PubMed

A first record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) from the Kangerlussuaq population in West Greenland suggests that introduced muskoxen now contributes to the transmission of this parasite in addition to previous observations from caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Muskoxen and caribou are the only wild ungulates in Greenland. PMID:21955737

Raundrup, Katrine; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

2012-03-23

221

The inhibitory innervation of the taenia of the guinea-pig caecum  

PubMed Central

1. The inhibitory innervation of the taenia of the guinea-pig caecum has been studied, after blocking the responses to stimulation of excitatory cholinergic nerves with atropine. 2. Stimulation of the perivascular nerves supplying the taenia caused relaxations. These nerves had properties which were typical of sympathetic post-ganglionic adrenergic nerves. The relaxations caused by stimulation were maximal at frequencies of stimulation above 30 pulses/sec and they were abolished by bretylium, guanethidine and 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide (DMPP). 3. The taenia is also innervated by intramural inhibitory nerves with their cell bodies in Auerbach's plexus. These nerves can be excited by electrical stimulation of the taenia or by the application of ganglion-stimulating drugs. 4. The intramural inhibitory nerves have different properties from sympathetic adrenergic nerves. Relaxations in response to stimulation were maximal with frequencies of stimulation of about 5 pulses/sec and they were not blocked by bretylium, guanethidine or DMPP. 5. Preganglionic cholinergic fibres in the caecal wall make synaptic connexions with the intramural inhibitory neurones. 6. The role of the intramural inhibitory neurones in intestinal activity and their possible connexions with the central nervous system have been discussed. PMID:5942999

Burnstock, G.; Campbell, G.; Rand, M. J.

1966-01-01

222

[Morpho-functional changes of cloacal bursa of the herring gull in experimental infection with gull tapeworm].  

PubMed

Using the methods of light microscopy, the quantitative changes in the cells of the cloacal bursa of herring gull (Larus argentatus mongolicus) chicks were studied during experimental infection with gull-tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum. The area of the follicles within the bursa and the number of eosinophils in the infected chicks were found to increase. In the follicles the number of blast cells and large lymphocytes was elevated. The reduction of small lymphocytes and plasma cells numbers in the infected gulls may be due to a slower cell cycle or cell migration into the inflammatory focus. Overall, the changes in the bursa indicate the suppression of the B-link of the host immune system in tapeworm invasion. PMID:22724332

Fomina, A S; Pronina, S V

2012-01-01

223

Spathebothriidea: survey of species, scolex and egg morphology, and interrelationships of a non-segmented, relictual tapeworm group (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda).  

PubMed

Tapeworms of the order Spathebothriidea Wardle et McLeod, 1952 (Cestoda) are reviewed. Molecular data made it possible to assess, for the first time, the phylogenetic relationships of all genera and to confirm the validity of Bothrimonus Duvernoy, 1842, Diplocotyle Krabbe, 1874 and Didymobothrium Nybelin, 1922. A survey of all species considered to be valid is provided together with new data on egg and scolex morphology and surface ultrastructure (i.e. microtriches). The peculiar morphology of the members of this group, which is today represented by five effectively monotypic genera whose host associations and geographical distribution show little commonality, indicate that it is a relictual group that was once diverse and widespread. The order potentially represents the earliest branch of true tapeworms (i.e. Eucestoda) among extant forms. PMID:25185404

Kuchta, Roman; Pearson, Rebecca; Scholz, Tomás; Ditrich, Oleg; Olson, Peter D

2014-08-01

224

A description of Cinclotaenia georgievi n. sp. (Cestoda: Dilepididae), a tapeworm from the dipper Cinclus cinclus (L.) (Passeriformes: Cinclidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cinclotaenia sp., described originally by Georgiev & Genov (1985) from the dipper Cinclus cinclus (L.) in Bulgaria, has recently been identified from the same host in the Carpathian Mountains in the Slovak Republic. This tapeworm is considered to be a new species, which is named C. georgievi n. sp. It is characterised by: a scolex armed with 23-27 (predominantly 24-26) hooks

Jozef K. Macko; Marta Špakulová

2002-01-01

225

Tapeworm Khawia sinensis: review of the introduction and subsequent decline of a pathogen of carp, Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

The Asian tapeworm Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) is a large-sized (body length up to 11.5 cm) monozoic (unsegmented) parasite of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) that may cause mortality of young fish (fry). Since the 1960s, this cestode successfully colonized a large part of Europe, including the British Isles, North America and Japan. However, a review of published records provides evidence that the tapeworm K. sinensis, invasive parasite of carp, has become less common during the last two decades. Decline of K. sinensis may have been related to the recent introduction of another invasive tapeworm, the caryophyllidean Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 to Europe. Other factors that may have caused that K. sinensis is much less common than previously are also briefly discussed. A comparison of K. sinensis from feral and cultured carp, published to date, with those recently found for the first time in wild populations of carp in Slovakia did not reveal any marked differences in their morphology or measurements. PMID:19520514

Oros, Mikulás; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Scholz, Tomás

2009-10-14

226

The activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes and the biotransformation of selected anthelmintics in the model tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta.  

PubMed

The drug-metabolizing enzymes of some helminths can deactivate anthelmintics and therefore partially protect helminths against these drugs' toxic effect. The aim of our study was to assess the activity of the main drug-metabolizing enzymes and evaluate the metabolism of selected anthelmintics (albendazole, flubendazole, mebendazole) in the rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta, a species often used as a model tapeworm. In vitro and ex vivo experiments were performed. Metabolites of the anthelmintics were detected and identified by HPLC with spectrofluorometric or mass-spectrometric detection. The enzymes of H. diminuta are able to reduce the carbonyl group of flubendazole, mebendazole and several other xenobiotics. Although the activity of a number of oxidation enzymes was determined, no oxidative metabolites of albendazole were detected. Regarding conjugation enzymes, a high activity of glutathione S-transferase was observed. A methyl derivative of reduced flubendazole was the only conjugation metabolite identified in ex vivo incubations of H. diminuta with anthelmintics. The results revealed that H. diminuta metabolized flubendazole and mebendazole, but not albendazole. The biotransformation pathways found in H. diminuta differ from those described in Moniezia expanza and suggest the interspecies differences in drug metabolism not only among classes of helminths, but even among tapeworms. PMID:22309895

Bártíková, Hana; Vok?ál, Ivan; Skálová, Lenka; Kubí?ek, Vladimír; Firbasová, Jana; Briestenský, David; Lamka, Ji?í; Szotáková, Barbora

2012-05-01

227

Orders out of chaos--molecular phylogenetics reveals the complexity of shark and stingray tapeworm relationships.  

PubMed

Novel molecular data are presented to resolve the long-standing issue of the non-monophyly of the elasmobranch-hosted tapeworm order Tetraphyllidea relative to the other acetabulate eucestode orders. Bayesian inference analyses of various combinations of full ssrDNA, and full or partial lsrDNA (D1-D3), sequence data, which included 134 species representing 97 genera across the 15 eucestode orders, were conducted. New ssrDNA data were generated for 82 species, partial lsrDNA data for 53 species, and full lsrDNA data for 29 species. The monophyly of each of the elasmobranch-hosted orders Cathetocephalidea, Litobothriidea, Lecanicephalidea and Rhinebothriidea was confirmed, as was the non-monophyly of the Tetraphyllidea. Two relatively stable groups of tetraphyllidean taxa emerged and are hereby designated as new orders. The Onchoproteocephalidea n. ord. is established to recognise the integrated nature of one undescribed and 10 described genera of hook-bearing tetraphyllideans, previously placed in the family Onchobothriidae, with the members of the order Proteocephalidea. The Phyllobothriidea n. ord. is established for a subset of 12 non-hooked genera characterised by scoleces bearing four bothridia each with an anterior accessory sucker; most parasitise sharks and have been assigned to the Phyllobothriidae at one time or another. Tentative ordinal placements are suggested for eight additional genera; placements for the remaining tetraphyllidean genera have not yet emerged. We propose that these 17 genera remain in the "Tetraphyllidea". Among these, particularly labile across analyses were Anthobothrium, Megalonchos, Carpobothrium, Calliobothrium and Caulobothrium. The unique association of Chimaerocestus with holocephalans, rather than with elasmobranchs, appears to represent a host-switching event. Both of the non-elasmobranch hosted clades of acetabulate cestodes (i.e. Proteocephalidea and Cyclophyllidea and their kin) appear to have had their origins with elasmobranch cestodes. Across analyses, the sister group to the clade of "terrestrial" cestode orders was found to be an elasmobranch-hosted genus, as was the sister to the freshwater fish- and tetrapod-hosted Proteocephalidea. Whilst further data are required to resolve outstanding nomenclatural and phylogenetic issues, the present analyses contribute significantly to an understanding of the evolutionary radiation of the entire Cestoda. Clearly, elasmobranch tapeworms comprise the backbone of cestode phylogeny. PMID:24275646

Caira, Janine N; Jensen, Kirsten; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Olson, Peter D; Littlewood, D Timothy J

2014-01-01

228

Age, season and spatio-temporal factors affecting the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis and Taenia taeniaeformis in Arvicola terrestris.  

E-print Network

??Taenia taeniaeformis and Echinococcus multilocularis both infect the water vole Arvicola terrestris. We investigated the effect of age, spatio-temporal and season-related factors on the prevalence… (more)

Burlet, Pierre Edouard

2011-01-01

229

The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa.  

PubMed

The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa was held in Asahikawa Medical University, Japan on 15 and 16 Feb 2011. This meeting was fully supported by the Asian Science and Technology Strategic Cooperation Promotion Programs sponsored by the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education Japan (MEXT) for 3 years from 2010 to Akira Ito. A total of 24 researchers from 9 countries joined together and discussed the present situation and problems towards the control of cestode zoonoses. As the meeting was simultaneously for the establishment of joint international, either bilateral or multilateral collaboration projects, the main purposes were directed to 1) how to detect taeniasis/cysticercosis infected patients, 2) how to differentiate Taenia solium from two other human Taenia species, T. saginata and T. asiatica, 3) how to evaluate T. asiatica based on the evidence of hybrid and hybrid-derived adult tapeworms from Thailand and China, 4) how to evaluate T. solium and T. hyaenae and other Taenia species from the wild animals in Ethiopia, and 5) how to detect echinococcosis patients and 6) how to differentiate Echinococcus species worldwide. Such important topics are summarized in this meeting report. PMID:21693001

Ito, Akira; Okamoto, Munehiro; Li, Tiaoying; Wandra, Toni; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Swastika, Kadek I; Dekumyoy, Paron; Kusolsuk, Teera; Davvajav, Abmed; Davaasuren, Anu; Dorjsuren, Temuulen; Mekonnen, Sissay M; Negasi, Zerihun H; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Lavikainen, Antti J; Nkouawa, Agathe; Mohammadzadeh, Tahereh

2011-01-01

230

Taeniasis/cysticercosis in Papua (Irian Jaya), Indonesia.  

PubMed

Reports showed that an important parasitic zoonotic disease caused by Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica is found endemic in several areas of Indonesia including Papua, Bali and North Sumatra. At present it is known that the highest prevalence of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Indonesia, caused by T. solium is among the indigenous communities in Papua (formerly Irian Jaya). In the early 1970s, 8-9% of stool samples from the Enarotali hospital, Paniai District (Irian Jaya) were found positive with Taenia eggs. The samples were from members of the Ekari (Kapauku) ethnic group. Stool samples from the Moni ethnic group, living east of surrounding lakes, were egg negative. Cysticerci of T. solium were discovered in pigs. During the years 1973-1976 cases of burns increased and were ultimately found to be primarily associated with epileptic seizures induced by neurocysticercosis cases. Among 257 cases of burns, 88 cases (62.8%) were suffering from epileptic seizures before or during hospitalization. In the year 1981 T. solium seropositive persons were mostly (16%) found in the endemic Obano village. In 1997 the parasite was discovered in Jayawijaya District, which is located approximately 250 km east of Paniai District. During 1991-1995, a local health center in Assologaima, Jayawijaya District reported 1120 new cases with burns and a further 293 new cases of epileptic seizures among 15,939 inhabitants. The histopathologic appearance and mitochondrial DNA analysis found the cysts to be similar to those of T. solium from other regions of the world. Sensitive and specific serological diagnostic methods were used and improved. Cysticerci were detected in dogs, as well as in pigs. A coproantigen test for detection of adult tapeworms in patients was carried out. Medical treatment with praziquantel for taeniasis and albendazole for cysticercosis (with prednisone and sodium phenytoin treatment in cases with neurocysticercosis) was undertaken. Lifestyle, religion, and socioeconomic aspects are important issues in the perpetuation and enhancing the endemicity of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis in Papua, Indonesia. PMID:16376603

Margono, Sri S; Wandra, Toni; Swasono, Meutia F; Murni, Sri; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira

2006-01-01

231

Neurocysticercosis.  

PubMed

Cysticercosis, an infection caused by the cystic larvae of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, is one of the most frequent parasitic infections of the human nervous system (neurocysticercosis). It is endemic in most of Latin America, the sub-Saharan Africa, and vast parts of Asia, including the Indian subcontinent. It has also been increasingly diagnosed in developed countries because of migration of people from endemic zones and exposure in travelers. The life cycle involves the development of the adult tapeworm in the human small intestine (after ingesting infected pork with cysts) and larval infection in pig tissues (after ingesting human stools containing the eggs of the tapeworm). Humans get infected by the fecal-oral route, most often from a direct contact with an asymptomatic Taenia carrier. Most common clinical presentations are seizures (particularly late-onset seizures), chronic headaches, and intracranial hypertension. However, cysticerci can locate anywhere in the human nervous system, thus potentially causing almost any neurological syndrome and making clinical diagnosis a difficult task. Neuroimaging is the main diagnostic tool, and specific serology confirms the diagnosis and helps to define the diagnosis when images are unclear. Factors such as location (extraparenchymal versus intraparenchymal), number, size and evolutive stage of the parasites determine the clinical manifestations, therapeutic approach, and prognosis. Management includes symptomatic drugs (analgesics, antiepileptic drugs, anti-inflammatory agents) and in many cases cysticidal drugs, either albendazole or praziquantel. In recent years, efforts have focused on transmission control and potential elimination in endemic regions. PMID:23829921

Del Brutto, Oscar H; Garcia, Hector H

2013-01-01

232

Molecular Detection and Characterization of Goat Isolate of Taenia hydatigena in Turkey  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to provide molecular detection and characterization of the goat isolate of Taenia hydatigena from Ankara province of Turkey. For this purpose, PCR amplification of small subunit ribosomal RNA (rrnS) and partial sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (mt-CO1) genes were performed in a one-month-old dead goat. According to rrnS-PCR results, parasites were identified as Taenia spp., and partial sequence of mt-CO1 gene was corresponding to T. hydatigena. At the end of the study, we concluded that molecular tools can be used to define species of parasites in cases where the key morphologic features cannot be detected. Nucleotide sequence data of Turkish goat isolate of T. hydatigena was submitted to GenBank for other researchers interested in this subject. By this study, molecular detection and characterization of T. hydatigena was done for the first time in Turkey. PMID:22500144

Utuk, Armagan Erdem; Piskin, Fatma Cigdem

2012-01-01

233

Molecular detection and characterization of goat isolate of Taenia hydatigena in Turkey.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to provide molecular detection and characterization of the goat isolate of Taenia hydatigena from Ankara province of Turkey. For this purpose, PCR amplification of small subunit ribosomal RNA (rrnS) and partial sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (mt-CO1) genes were performed in a one-month-old dead goat. According to rrnS-PCR results, parasites were identified as Taenia spp., and partial sequence of mt-CO1 gene was corresponding to T. hydatigena. At the end of the study, we concluded that molecular tools can be used to define species of parasites in cases where the key morphologic features cannot be detected. Nucleotide sequence data of Turkish goat isolate of T. hydatigena was submitted to GenBank for other researchers interested in this subject. By this study, molecular detection and characterization of T. hydatigena was done for the first time in Turkey. PMID:22500144

Utuk, Armagan Erdem; Piskin, Fatma Cigdem

2012-01-01

234

Cerebral coenurosis in a cat caused by Taenia serialis: neurological, magnetic resonance imaging and pathological features.  

PubMed

CLINICAL SUMMARY: A 4-year-old Birman cat was presented with marked obtundation and non-ambulatory tetraparesis. Two well-demarcated, intra-axial T2-hyperintense, T1-hypointense structures, which did not contrast enhance, were evident on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Histopathology of the structures revealed metacestodes that were morphologically indicative of larval stages of Taenia species. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of a fragment within the 12S rRNA gene confirmed the subspecies as Taenia serialis. PRACTICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of MRI findings of cerebral coenurosis caused by T serialis in a cat. Early MRI should be considered an important part of the diagnostic work-up for this rare clinical disease, as it will help guide subsequent treatment and may improve the prognosis. PMID:22918847

Jull, Philip; Browne, Elizabeth; Boufana, Belgees S; Schöniger, Sandra; Davies, Emma

2012-09-01

235

Sperm ultrastructure of Taenia mustelae (Cestoda, Taeniidae), an intestinal parasite of the weasel, Mustela nivalis (Carnivora)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper describes the ultrastructure of spermatozoa of Taenia mustelae as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. The mature spermatozoon of this tenid is filiform, tapered at both ends, and lacks mitochondrion. It is capped by an apical cone of electron-dense material and presents a single helical crest-like body 75-nm thick. The axoneme is of the 9+‘1’ pattern of trepaxonematan

JORDI MIQUEL; CONSOL HIDALGO; CARLOS FELIU; BERNARD MARCHAND

2000-01-01

236

Results of an artificial feeding of eggs of Taenia saginata Goeze, 1782 to various beetle species.  

PubMed

We confirmed in experiments with four beetle species--Carabus granulatus L., Pterostichus vulgaris (L.), Aphodius fimetarius (L.) and A. luridus (L.)--that these can carry and disseminate eggs of Taenia saginata. The eggs pass the digestive tract of these beetle species. Difficulties in entering the digestive tube proper have been explained by the presence of filtrating and triturating organs in the mouth parts of the beetles. PMID:568099

Bílý, S; St?rba, J; Dyková, I

1978-01-01

237

Increased Resistance to Taenia crassiceps Murine Cysticercosis in Qa2 Transgenic Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously reported important differences in resistance to Taenia crassiceps murine cysticercosis between BALB\\/c substrains. It was suggested that resistance might correlate with expression of the nonclassic class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Qa-2 antigen; BALB\\/cAnN is Qa-2 negative and highly susceptible to T. crassiceps, whereas BALB\\/cJ expresses Qa-2 and is highly resistant. In this study, we investigated the role

GLADIS FRAGOSO; EDMUNDO LAMOYI; ANDREW MELLOR; CIRO LOMELI; MARISELA HERNANDEZ; EDDA SCIUTTO

238

Basic and applied problems in developmental biology and immunobiology of cestode infections: Hymenolepis, Taenia and Echinococcus.  

PubMed

Differentiation and development of parasites, including longevity in host animals, are thought to be governed by host-parasite interactions. In this review, several topics on the developmental biology of cestode infections are discussed from immunobiological perspective with a focus on Hymenolepis, Taenia and Echinococcus infections. The basic premise of this review is that 'differentiation and development of cestodes' are somehow affected by host immune responses with an evolutionary history. PMID:25521516

Ito, A

2015-02-01

239

Murine autoimmune arthritis is exaggerated by infection with the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta.  

PubMed

Infection with helminth parasites triggers strong and stereotypic immune responses in humans and mice, which can protect against specific experimentally-induced autoimmune diseases. We have shown that infection with the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, confers a protective effect on FCA-induced joint inflammation. Here, we investigated the effect of a prophylactic infection with H. diminuta on the K/BxN-serum model of polyarthritis in BALB/c mice. Mice were infected with 10 cysticercoids of H. diminuta by oral gavage and 8 days later arthritis was induced by i.p. injection of K/BxN arthritogenic serum. Joint swelling and pain measurements were recorded throughout a 13 day time course. At necropsy, joints and blood serum were collected. K/BxN-treated mice developed joint inflammation in the front paws, hind paws and knees as shown by increased swelling, mechanical allodynia and myeloperoxidase activity. Mice infected with H. diminuta had more severe disease, with increased eosinophil peroxidase activity in their paws and greater inflammatory infiltrate and synovitis in the knee joints. Hymenolepis diminuta-infected mice displayed significant increases in serum levels of C5a and mast cell protease-1 compared with K/BxN-serum only treatment, the latter being indicative of mast cell activation. In contrast to the protective effect of infection with H. diminuta in FCA-induced monoarthritis, infection with this helminth exacerbated K/BxN serum-induced polyarthritis in BALB/c mice. This correlated with increases in C5a and mast cell activation: factors critical in the development of K/BxN-induced arthritis. Thus, while data accumulate from animal models showing that infection with helminth parasites may be beneficial for a variety of auto-inflammatory diseases, our findings demonstrate the potential for helminths to exacerbate disease. Hence care is needed when helminth therapy is translated into a clinical setting. PMID:23583716

Graepel, Rabea; Leung, Gabriella; Wang, Arthur; Villemaire, Michelle; Jirik, Frank R; Sharkey, Keith A; McDougall, Jason J; McKay, Derek M

2013-06-01

240

Tapeworm Infection Reduces Epithelial Ion Transport Abnormalities in Murine Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis  

PubMed Central

The rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta was used to test the hypothesis that helminth infection could modulate murine colitis. Mice were infected with five H. diminuta cysticercoids, and colitis was evoked via free access to 4% (wt/vol) dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-containing drinking water for 5 days. BALB/c mice were either infected with H. diminuta and 7 days later exposed to DSS (prophylactic strategy) or started on DSS and infected with H. diminuta 48 h later (treatment strategy). Naive and H. diminuta-only-infected mice served as controls. On autopsy, colonic segments were processed for histological examination and myeloperoxidase (MPO) measurement or mounted in Ussing chambers for assessment of epithelial ion transport. Cytokines (gamma interferon [IFN-?], interleukin 12 [IL-12], and IL-10) were measured in serum and colonic tissue homogenates. DSS treatment resulted in reduced ion responses (indicated by short-circuit current [Isc]) to electrical nerve stimulation, the cholinergic agonist carbachol, and the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin compared to controls. H. diminuta infection, either prophylactic or therapeutic, caused a significant (P < 0.05) amelioration of these DSS-induced irregularities in stimulated ion transport. In contrast, the histopathology (i.e., mixed immune cell infiltrate, edema, and ulcerative damage) and elevated MPO levels that accompany DSS colitis were unaffected by concomitant H. diminuta infection. Similarly, there were no significant differences in levels of IFN-?, IL-12, or IL-10 in serum or tissue from any of the treatment groups at the time of autopsy. We suggest that abolishment of colitis-induced epithelial ion transport abnormalities by H. diminuta infection provides proof-of-principle data and speculate that helminth therapy may provide relief of disease symptoms in colitis. PMID:11401981

Reardon, Colin; Sanchez, Ana; Hogaboam, Cory M.; McKay, Derek M.

2001-01-01

241

Tapeworm infection is a significant risk factor for spasmodic colic and ileal impaction colic in the horse.  

PubMed

The association between the equine intestinal tapeworm Anoplocephala perfoliata and specific types of intestinal disease was investigated by matched case-control study using coprological and serological diagnosis. We have previously shown that the host IgG(T) response to 12/13 kDa antigens of A. perfoliata correlates well with infection intensity, therefore this antibody response was used to investigate the risk of colic at different levels of parasite infection intensity. One hundred and three spasmodic colic cases with an equal number of controls matched for age, breed and gender, and 20 ileal impaction cases each with 2 similarly matched controls were obtained. Cases of spasmodic colic were much more likely (odds ratio = 8.0) to be associated with A. perfoliata infection detected coprologically than controls. Serological diagnosis revealed an increasing risk of spasmodic colic with increasing infection intensity. Calculation of an aetiological fraction suggests that 22% of spasmodic colic cases in this study were tapeworm associated. No significant association was found between colic and strongyle egg count. Conditional logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the relationship between colic and A. perfoliata infection intensity was not confounded by strongyle egg count and there was a linear relationship between infection intensity and the log-odds of spasmodic colic. For cases of ileal impaction, a strong association was found between colic and A. perfoliata as diagnosed by coprological means (odds ratio of 34.0). Serological diagnosis also revealed a strong association that increased with higher levels of infection intensity (odds ratio = 26.0). The aetiological fraction for the ileal impaction data suggests that 81% of the ileal impaction cases in this study were tapeworm associated. This study concludes that A. perfoliata is a significant risk factor for spasmodic colic and ileal impaction colic in the horse; and that the risk of spasmodic colic increases with infection intensity. PMID:9622319

Proudman, C J; French, N P; Trees, A J

1998-05-01

242

Expression and motor functional roles of voltage-dependent type 7 K(+) channels in the human taenia coli.  

PubMed

Voltage-dependent type 7 K(+) (KV7 or KCNQ) channels modulate the excitability of neurons and muscle cells. The aims of the present study were to investigate the motor effects of KV7 channel modulators and the expression of KV7 channels in the human taenia coli. The effects of KV7 channel modulators on the muscle tone of human taenia coli strips were investigated under nonadrenergic non-nitrergic conditions by organ bath studies. Gene expression and tissue localisation of channels were studied by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Under basal conditions, the KV7 channel blocker XE-991 induced concentration-dependent contractions, with mean EC50 and Emax of 18.7 ?M and 30.5% respectively of the maximal bethanechol-induced contraction, respectively. The KV7 channel activators retigabine and flupirtine concentration-dependently relaxed the taenia coli, with mean EC50s of 19.2 ?M and 29.9 ?M, respectively. Retigabine also relaxed bethanechol-precontracted strips, with maximal relaxations of 79.2% of the bethanecol-induced precontraction. The motor effects induced by the KV7 channel modulators were not affected by tetrodotoxin or ?-conotoxin GVIA. XE-991 greatly reduced retigabine- and flupirtine-induced relaxations. Transcripts encoded by all KCNQ genes were detected in the taenia coli, with KCNQ4 showing the highest expression levels. KV7.4 channels were clearly visualised by immunohistochemistry in colonic epithelium, circular muscle layer and taenia coli. KV7 channels appear to contribute to the resting muscle tone of the human taenia coli. In addition, KV7 channel activators significantly relax the taenia coli. Thus, they could be useful therapeutic relaxant agents for colonic motor disorders. PMID:24120659

Adduci, Alice; Martire, Maria; Taglialatela, Maurizio; Arena, Vincenzo; Rizzo, Gianluca; Coco, Claudio; Currò, Diego

2013-12-01

243

Conflict between morphology and molecular data: a case of the genus Caryophyllaeus (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), monozoic tapeworms of cyprinid fishes.  

PubMed

Molecular analysis of an extensive specimen collection of morphologically distinct tapeworms of the genus Caryophyllaeus Gmelin, 1790 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of cyprinid fishes in the Palaearctic Region, brought evidence of host-related plasticity in critical morphological characters widely used for species circumscription and classification of these tapeworms. The results obtained here do not support the traditionally used morphological concept of species-defining characters of the order Caryophyllidea Carus, 1863, especially due to high morphological plasticity of the scolex and the anterior end of the body. Several morphotypes within both Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) and Caryophyllaeus brachycollis Janiszewska, 1953 generally corresponding to different hosts and geographical regions, were recognised likely suggesting host- and geography-related intraspecific morphological variability. Genetic data confirmed euryxenous host specificity of both species, most profoundly C. laticeps, but did not support the existence of cryptic species. In fact, some of the fish hosts may harbour both of the congeneric species including several of their respective morphotypes. The pattern of morphological and genetic divergence observed in both cestode species studied indicates a scenario of possible host range extensions and subsequent parasite diversification. If molecular sequence variability and host-related morphological polymorphism are confirmed in other groups of monozoic cestodes, it may complicate species identification and straightforward classification of these parasites. PMID:25185405

Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Brabec, Jan; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Oros, Mikulás; Scholz, Tomás

2014-08-01

244

Molecular Characterization of Taenia multiceps Isolates from Gansu Province, China by Sequencing of Mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit 1  

PubMed Central

A total of 16 Taenia multiceps isolates collected from naturally infected sheep or goats in Gansu Province, China were characterized by sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The complete cox1 gene was amplified for individual T. multiceps isolates by PCR, ligated to pMD18T vector, and sequenced. Sequence analysis indicated that out of 16 T. multiceps isolates 10 unique cox1 gene sequences of 1,623 bp were obtained with sequence variation of 0.12-0.68%. The results showed that the cox1 gene sequences were highly conserved among the examined T. multiceps isolates. However, they were quite different from those of the other Taenia species. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete cox1 gene sequences revealed that T. multiceps isolates were composed of 3 genotypes and distinguished from the other Taenia species. PMID:23710087

Li, Wen Hui; Jia, Wan Zhong; Qu, Zi Gang; Xie, Zhi Zhou; Luo, Jian Xun; Yin, Hong; Sun, Xiao Lin; Blaga, Radu

2013-01-01

245

Molecular characterization of Taenia multiceps isolates from Gansu Province, China by sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1.  

PubMed

A total of 16 Taenia multiceps isolates collected from naturally infected sheep or goats in Gansu Province, China were characterized by sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The complete cox1 gene was amplified for individual T. multiceps isolates by PCR, ligated to pMD18T vector, and sequenced. Sequence analysis indicated that out of 16 T. multiceps isolates 10 unique cox1 gene sequences of 1,623 bp were obtained with sequence variation of 0.12-0.68%. The results showed that the cox1 gene sequences were highly conserved among the examined T. multiceps isolates. However, they were quite different from those of the other Taenia species. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete cox1 gene sequences revealed that T. multiceps isolates were composed of 3 genotypes and distinguished from the other Taenia species. PMID:23710087

Li, Wen Hui; Jia, Wan Zhong; Qu, Zi Gang; Xie, Zhi Zhou; Luo, Jian Xun; Yin, Hong; Sun, Xiao Lin; Blaga, Radu; Fu, Bao Quan

2013-04-01

246

First report of Taenia acinonyxi (Ortlopp, 1938) in Acinonyx jubatus venaticus from Iran  

PubMed Central

The Asian cheetah is known as Iranian panther. A four years old female cheetah was killed in a road accident by a truck in Abbas Abad (Biarjamand) County around Shahrood City in Semnan Province, central part of Iran. Two days after the accident the carcass of animal was autopsied and only five cestodes were obtained from its intestine. In inspection of other organs no other helminth was observed. Cestod samples were fixed and stained by carmine acid. Characterization of the cestodes using morphological standard key, identified the cestodes as Taenia acinonyxi. PMID:22347321

Hosseini, SH; Youssefi, MR; Mobedi, I; Hosseini, SM; Zaheri, BA

2011-01-01

247

First report of Taenia acinonyxi (Ortlopp, 1938) in Acinonyx jubatus venaticus from Iran.  

PubMed

The Asian cheetah is known as Iranian panther. A four years old female cheetah was killed in a road accident by a truck in Abbas Abad (Biarjamand) County around Shahrood City in Semnan Province, central part of Iran. Two days after the accident the carcass of animal was autopsied and only five cestodes were obtained from its intestine. In inspection of other organs no other helminth was observed. Cestod samples were fixed and stained by carmine acid. Characterization of the cestodes using morphological standard key, identified the cestodes as Taenia acinonyxi. PMID:22347321

Hosseini, Sh; Youssefi, Mr; Mobedi, I; Hosseini, Sm; Zaheri, Ba

2011-12-01

248

A review of taeniasis and cysticercosis in the Lao People's Democratic Republic.  

PubMed

Taeniasis and cysticercosis are important but underreported parasitic zoonoses in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). Reports of human and pig cysticercosis are rather limited and based largely on anecdotal evidence. To date, no structured surveys of disease prevalence or incidence have been reported. However, one unpublished pilot survey of pig cysticercosis in a slaughterhouse in northern Laos estimated prevalence to be 1.7%, without speciation of parasite cysts. Over the past 20 years, nine surveys of intestinal helminthic infection have been conducted; the prevalence of human taeniasis ranged from 0 to 14.0%. The study designs and sample sizes varied greatly, however a high degree of spatial and age variation in taeniasis prevalence was evident. These results are however inconclusive as the species of tapeworm infecting the people was not determined. To further our knowledge of taeniasis and cysticercosis in Lao PDR, structured community-based surveys in high-risk areas are required in combination with the use of sensitive and specific diagnostic tests capable of identifying the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. This will enable the development and implementation of control measures that are both appropriate and sustainable if T. solium is shown to be a public health threat. PMID:18501666

Conlan, James; Khounsy, Syseng; Inthavong, Phouth; Fenwick, Stanley; Blacksell, Stuart; Thompson, R C Andrew

2008-09-01

249

[The reaction of the bursa and thymus eosinophils in the herring gull after the experimental infection with gull-tapeworm].  

PubMed

Using the methods of light microscopy, eosinophil topography, quantitative and qualitative changes (degranulation level of and a cationic protein content) were studied in the thymus and bursa of 36 herring gull nestlings Larus argentatus mongolicus (Suskin, 1925) 2 weeks after experimental infestation with gull-tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Nitsch, 1824). Eosinophils in the thymus were located in trabecules, mainly close to the blood vessels, thymic (Hassall's) corpuscles and also directly inside them, while in the bursa they were found within the internodular space. As compared with the control bird counts, relative eosinophil count in the birds with an average invasion intensity was increased 3.8 times in the thymus and 2.5 times in the bursa. In birds with high invasion intensity, these counts were increased 4 times in the thymus and 1.2 times in the bursa. PMID:21500430

Fomina, A S; Pronina, S V

2010-01-01

250

21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus ); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala ); ascarids (Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina ); and whipworms (Trichuris vulpis ) and for the removal and control of tapeworm...

2011-04-01

251

21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus ); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala ); ascarids (Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina ); and whipworms (Trichuris vulpis ) and for the removal and control of tapeworm...

2013-04-01

252

21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus ); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala ); ascarids (Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina ); and whipworms (Trichuris vulpis ) and for the removal and control of tapeworm...

2012-04-01

253

21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.  

...Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus ); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala ); ascarids (Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina ); and whipworms (Trichuris vulpis ) and for the removal and control of tapeworm...

2014-04-01

254

Neurocysticercosis.  

PubMed

Cysticercosis is a helmenthic infection involving pigs and man. Most cases of cysticercosis occur in developing countries. The disease is very rare in Islamic countries, as moslems are supposed to abstain from eating pork meat. In the last 10 years, reports of cysticercosis among moslems were published. Imigrants from endemic countries, who work as housemaids and food handlers played a role in transmitting the disease. Man becomes a definitive host if he ingests insufficiently cooked pork meat, which contains viable Iarvae of Taenia Solium or cysticerci. Neurocysticercosis denotes presence of a Taenia Solium larva cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) in the brain parenchyma, meninges, or ventricular spaces. Neuroimaging by computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are the best procedures to diagnose neurocysticercosis. Serological tests (EITB) or ELISA) are not sensitive as more than 50% of patients with neurocysticercosis have negative serology. Alpendazole and praziquentel are the most effective antihelmenthic drugs. Prevention of the disease and its complications as epilepsy is the management corner stone. A single dose of praziquentel for every emigrant from endemic areas will eradicate the adult tapeworm and reduce the incidence of neurocysticercosis. Physicians in moslem countries should be aware about the disease not only among immigrants but among moslems. We reviewed the available information about the disease epidemiologically, clinically, radiologically, laboratory tests, and methods of prevention. PMID:24185216

Hamad, A E; Fawzi, M F

2001-01-01

255

Neurocysticercosis: a review.  

PubMed

Neuroysticercosis is the most common helminthic infection of the nervous system, and a leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The disease occurs when humans become intermediate hosts of Taenia solium by ingesting its eggs from contaminated food or, most often, directly from a taenia carrier by the fecal-to-oral route. Cysticerci may be located in brain parenchyma, subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or spinal cord, causing pathological changes that are responsible for the pleomorphism of neurocysticercosis. Seizures are the most common clinical manifestation, but many patients present with focal deficits, intracranial hypertension, or cognitive decline. Accurate diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is possible after interpretation of clinical data together with findings of neuroimaging studies and results of immunological tests. The introduction of cysticidal drugs have changed the prognosis of most patients with neurocysticercosis. These drugs have shown to reduce the burden of infection in the brain and to improve the clinical course of the disease in most patients. Further efforts should be directed to eradicate the disease through the implementation of control programs against all the interrelated steps in the life cycle of T. solium, including human carriers of the adult tapeworm, infected pigs, and eggs in the environment. PMID:22312322

Del Brutto, Oscar H

2012-01-01

256

Successful immunization of naturally reared pigs against porcine cysticercosis with a recombinant oncosphere antigen vaccine  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium causes cysticercosis in pigs and taeniasis and neurocysticercosis in humans. Oncosphere antigens have proven to be effective as vaccines to protect pigs against an experimental infection with T. solium. A pair-matched vaccination trial field, using a combination of two recombinant antigens, TSOL16 and TSOL18, was undertaken in rural villages of Peru to evaluate the efficacy of this vaccine under natural conditions. Pairs of pigs (n = 137) comprising one vaccinated and one control animal, were allocated to local villagers. Animals received two vaccinations with 200 ?g of each of TSOL16 and TSOL18, plus 5 mg Quil-A. Necropsies were performed 7 months after the animals were distributed to the farmers. Vaccination reduced 99.7% and 99.9% (p < 0.01) the total number of cysts and the number of viable cysts, respectively. Immunization with the TSOL16–TSOL18 vaccines has the potential to control T. solium transmission in areas where the disease is endemic, reducing the source for tapeworm infections in humans. PMID:22541797

Jayashi, César M.; Kyngdon, Craig T.; Gauci, Charles G.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

2012-01-01

257

Is the human-infecting Diphyllobothrium pacificum a valid species or just a South American population of the holarctic fish broad tapeworm, D. latum?  

PubMed

Using ITS2 gene sequences, the validity of the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium pacificum (Nybelin, 1931), infecting humans on the Pacific coast of South America and in Japan, was assessed. ITS2 sequences of this cestode differed markedly (sequence similarity 79.0-80.2%) from those of the most common human-infecting cestode, the broad fish tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum (L.), as well as other four species of Diphyllobothrium, including potential human parasites (D. cordatum, D. dendriticum, and D. lanceolatum) and two species of Spirometra (sequence similarity 77.5-81.9%). Interspecific sequence similarity between all but one (D. pacificum) species was 86.1-99.6%, whereas individual isolates of D. dendriticum and D. ditremum exhibited intraspecific sequence similarity of 97.0-98.0% and 98.2-99.9%, respectively. Phylogenetic trees constructed from ITS2 sequences show a markedly distant position of D. pacificum from other species analyzed and also indicate the possible paraphyly of Spirometra. PMID:16896138

Skeríková, Andrea; Brabec, Jan; Kuchta, Roman; Jiménez, Juan A; García, Hector H; Scholz, Tomás

2006-08-01

258

Rare Case of Disseminated Cysticercosis and Taeniasis in a Japanese Traveler after Returning from India  

PubMed Central

We report disseminated cysticercosis concurrent with taeniasis in a 31-year-old male Japanese, who had visited India three times and stayed for 1 month each time during the previous 1 year. The patient presented increasing numbers of subcutaneous nodules and expelled proglottids, although numerous cysts were also found in the brain in imaging findings, though no neurological symptoms were observed. Histopathological and serological findings strongly indicated cysticercosis. We found taeniid eggs in his stool by microscopic examination and revealed them as the Indian haplotype of Taenia solium by mitochondrial DNA analysis. We concluded that disseminated cysticercosis was caused by the secondary autoinfection with eggs released from the tapeworm carrier himself. After confirming the absence of adult worms in the intestine by copro-polymerase chain reaction, the patient was successfully treated with albendazole at a dose of 15 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Subcutaneous and intracranial lesions had completely disappeared by the end of the treatment period. PMID:23629930

Kobayashi, Ken-ichiro; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Nishiguchi, Takeshi; Isoda, Kenichi; Kokubo, Yasumasa; Ando, Katsuhiko; Katurahara, Masaki; Sako, Yasuhito; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Ito, Akira; Iwabuchi, Sentaro; Ohnishi, Kenji

2013-01-01

259

Jacalin-unbound fraction of Taenia saginata in immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis in human cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate jacalin-bound fraction (JBF) and jacalin-unbound fraction (JUF) of the total saline extract from Taenia saginata metacestodes for human neurocysticercosis (NC) immunodiagnosis in cerebrospinal fluid. Total extract, JBF, and JUF were separated by affinity chromatography using Sepharose(®)-jacalin and were tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting (WB) to detect immunoglobulin G. In ELISA test, JUF showed the higher diagnostic efficiency and specificity indexes, 92% and 100%, respectively. In WB, 5 immunodominant proteins (39-42, 47-52, 64-68, 70, and 75 kDa) were detected when using JUF. In conclusion, the results achieved demonstrate that JUF, obtained from T. saginata metacestodes, are an important source of specific peptides and are efficient in the diagnosis of NC. PMID:20846809

da Silva Nunes, Daniela; da Silva Ribeiro, Vanessa; Manhani, Marianna Nascimento; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

2010-11-01

260

Seroprevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in the federal state of Lower Saxony in Germany.  

PubMed

Based on ELISA results from randomly selected serum samples taken from 128 cattle from different administrative and urban districts in the federal state of Lower Saxony in Germany a seroprevalence estimate of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in this area was derived. This estimate was subsequently used to calculate the sample size required in an epidemiological study to determine the actual prevalence of this infection in the cattle population (n = 2 604 767) in this federal state. The sample size was calculated as 1518 and the samples were collected according to the distribution of cattle among the 48 administrative and urban districts in Lower Saxony. The samples were tested with an evaluated antibody ELISA. The results showed a positive antibody titre rate of 8.83% from the total tested samples. PMID:21038810

Abuseir, Sameh; Nagel-Kohl, Uschi; Probst, Dieter; Kühne, Michael; Epe, Christian; Doherr, Marcus G; Schnieder, Thomas

2010-01-01

261

Taenia multiceps brain cyst removal in two wild Nubian ibex (Capra nubianas).  

PubMed

Two wild adult Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana) were captured and admitted to the Hebrew University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with various neurologic signs, including alerted mentation, head tilt, and pathologic nystagmus. The lesion in the central nervous system was localized to the forebrain in one ibex and to the cerebellum of the other. Both ibex's were diagnosed with brain cyst using computed tomography (CT). Craniectomy was performed to remove the cysts, and both animals returned to their natural environment after a rehabilitation period. Parasitologic examination revealed cysts of Taenia multiceps coenurus. This is the first report to describe the neurologic signs, CT findings, surgical procedure, and follow-up postsurgery information in wild Capra nubiana. PMID:24712185

Merbl, Yael; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael; Chai, Orit; Chamisha, Yael; Anglister, Nili; King, Roni; Horowitz, Igal; Aizenberg, Zahi; Shamir, Merav H

2014-03-01

262

Studies on the properties of malic enzyme and malate dehydrogenase from Taenia crassiceps (Zeder, 1800) cysticerci.  

PubMed

It has been studied what type (or types) of malic enzyme is present in the mitochondria of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci. Only NADP-dependent malic enzyme (EC 1.1.1.40) was demonstrated. The method of isoelectric focusing was used for the detection of isoenzymes of malic enzyme and malate dehydrogenase in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of T. crassiceps cysticerci. The mitochondria contain 5 isoenzymes of malic enzyme and 5 isoenzymes of malate dehydrogenase. The cytoplasm contains 7 isoenzymes of malic enzyme (3 of them are identical with those from the mitochondria) and 7 isoenzymes of malate dehydrogenase (5 of them are identical with those from the mitochondria). pI values of all isoenzymes were assessed. PMID:3428763

Zenka, J; Kopácek, P; Vokurková, N

1987-01-01

263

Effects of dipyridamole on the smooth muscle cells of the guinea-pig's taenia coli.  

PubMed

Effects of dipyridamole on the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig's taenia coli were studied using the single and double sucrose gap method. Dipyridamole (10(-5) M) affected neither the non-adrenergic inhibitory junction potential, elicited by field stimulation, nor the membrane hyperpolarization induced with ATP applied exogenously, but did potentiate the accompanying relaxations. The muscle spike activity was reduced by dipyridamole without affecting the membrane potential or the membrane resistance. Carbachol induced a depolarization of the muscle cell membrane and thus a contraction of the muscle. Dipyridamole did not modify the membrane potential change produced by carbachol but decreased the size and time course of the contraction. From these results it is concluded that dipyridamole does not potentiate non-adrenergic relaxations by interfering with the neuromuscular transmission, which has been assumed to be purinergic. PMID:962429

Jager, L P

1976-05-01

264

A mouse air pouch model for evaluating the immune response to Taenia crassiceps infection.  

PubMed

The experimental system of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci infection in BALB/c mice is considered to be the most representative model of cysticercosis. In our work, mice were sacrificed 7 and 30days after infection, and pouch fluid was collected to determine the number of accumulated cells and the concentrations of IFN?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and nitric oxide. The injection of 50 nonbudding cysticerci into normal mouse dorsal air pouches induced a high level of IFN? and nitric oxide production relative to the parasite load. The air pouch provides a convenient cavity that allows studying the cellular immunological aspects of the T. crassiceps parasite. The nonbudding cysticerci recovered from the air pouches contained cells that can reconstitute complete cysts in the peritoneal cavity of mice. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the air pouch model is an alternative tool for the evaluation of the immune characteristics of T. crassiceps infection. PMID:24378477

Gaspar, Emanuelle B; Sakai, Yuriko I; Gaspari, Elizabeth De

2014-02-01

265

Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. Nematotaeniidae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea), a tapeworm parasite of Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758) (Amphibia: Bufonidae).  

PubMed

The family Nematotaeniidae, tapeworms commonly found in the small intestines of amphibians and reptiles, includes 27 recognised species distributed among four genera: Bitegmen Jones, Cylindrotaenia Jewell, Distoichometra Dickey and Nematotaenia Lühe. The taxonomy of these cestodes is poorly defined, due in part to the difficulties of observing many anatomical traits. This study presents and describes a new genus and species of nematotaeniid parasite found in cane toads (Rhinella marina) from eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The cestodes were collected during the necropsy of 20 hosts captured in the urban area of Belém, Pará. The specimens were fixed and processed for light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. Samples were also collected for molecular analyses. The specimens presented a cylindrical body, two testes and paruterine organs. However, they could not be allocated to any of the four existing nematotaeniid genera due to the presence of two each of dorsal compact medullary testes, cirri, cirrus pouches, genital pores, ovaries and vitelline glands per mature segment. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. is the first nematotaeniid studied using Historesin analysis, SEM and 3D reconstruction, and it is the second taxon for which molecular data have been deposited in GenBank. PMID:22012220

Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Soares, Maurílio José; Gonçalves, Evonnildo Costa; Vallinoto, Antonio Carlos Rosário; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento dos

2011-09-01

266

A description of Cinclotaenia georgievi n. sp. (Cestoda: Dilepididae), a tapeworm from the dipper Cinclus cinclus (L.) (Passeriformes: Cinclidae).  

PubMed

Cinclotaenia sp., described originally by Georgiev & Genov (1985) from the dipper Cinclus cinclus (L.) in Bulgaria, has recently been identified from the same host in the Carpathian Mountains in the Slovak Republic. This tapeworm is considered to be a new species, which is named C. georgievi n. sp. It is characterised by: a scolex armed with 23-27 (predominantly 24-26) hooks in two rows; hooks 30.5-36 microm long, with a blade 10-13.5 microm long and resembling in shape the diorchoid hooks of hymenolepidids; irregularly alternating genital pores with simple genital atria; a slightly conical cirrus armed by small spines of up to 3 microm in length; 24-51 testes posterior to a bi-alate, branched ovary; a gravid uterus filled with egg packets; and eggs with filaments. C. georgievi n. sp. differs from the closely-related C. tarnogradskii (Dinnik, 1927) in the slightly higher number of rostellar hooks, which have longer blades, and a larger cirrus. PMID:12023564

Macko, Jozef K; Spakulová, Marta

2002-05-01

267

Complete Sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta: Gene arrangements indicate that platyhelminths are eutrochozoans  

SciTech Connect

Using ''long-PCR'' we have amplified in overlapping fragments the complete mitochondrial genome of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) and determined its 13,900 nucleotide sequence. The gene content is the same as that typically found for animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) except that atp8 appears to be lacking, a condition found previously for several other animals. Despite the small size of this mtDNA, there are two large non-coding regions, one of which contains 13 repeats of a 31 nucleotide sequence and a potential stem-loop structure of 25 base pairs with an 11-member loop. Large potential secondary structures are identified also for the non-coding regions of two other cestode mtDNAs. Comparison of the mitochondrial gene arrangement of H. diminuta with those previously published supports a phylogenetic position of flatworms as members of the Eutrochozoa, rather than being basal to either a clade of protostomes or a clade of coelomates.

von Nickisch-Rosenegk, Markus; Brown, Wesley M.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

2001-01-01

268

Update on the distribution of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, in the U.S. and Canada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The documented range of the invasive and potentially pathogenic Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934 in the United States and Canada is updated based on examination of museum depositions and original field collections. Gravid specimens of B. acheilognathi were collected from the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Rafinesque in Peter Lake, at the University of Notre Dame Environmental Research Center (UNDERC) Land o' Lakes, Wisconsin. A single immature specimen of the parasite was collected from a white bass, Morone chrysops (Rafinesque) in Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. This is the first record of B. acheilognathi in Canada and extends its northern range in the interior of the continent by more than 600 miles over the last documented record. The previous record of B. acheilognathi in Canada, from the northern pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus oregonensis in British Columbia, is a misidentification of Eubothrium tulipai. Examination of selected records of intestinal cestodes from native cyprinids, in the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology (HWML, n = 9) collection and in the United States National Parasite Collection (USNPC, n = 8), provided evidence of the parasite in Nebraska and possibly in the upper Colorado River basin. Introductions into Wisconsin-Michigan were due to the stocking of golden shiners, whereas the source of the introduction in Manitoba remains unknown.

Choudhury, A.; Charipar, E.; Nelson, P.; Hodgson, J.R.; Bonar, S.; Cole, Rebecca A.

2006-01-01

269

Development of microsatellite markers in Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), monozoic fish tapeworm, using next-generation sequencing approach.  

PubMed

Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas 1781) (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) is a monozoic tapeworm of cyprinid fishes with a distribution area that includes Europe, most of the Palaearctic Asia and northern Africa. Broad geographic distribution, wide range of definitive fish hosts and recently revealed high morphological plasticity of the parasite, which is not in an agreement with molecular findings, make this species to be an interesting model for population biology studies. Microsatellites (short tandem repeat (STR) markers), as predominant markers for population genetics, were designed for C. laticeps using a next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach. Out of 165 marker candidates, 61 yielded PCR products of the expected size and in 25 of the candidates a declared repetitive motif was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. After the fragment analysis, six loci were proved to be polymorphic and tested for heterozygosity, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the presence of null alleles on 59 individuals coming from three geographically widely separated populations (Slovakia, Russia and UK). The number of alleles in particular loci and populations ranged from two to five. Significant deficit of heterozygotes and the presence of null alleles were found in one locus in all three populations. Other loci showed deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the presence of null alleles only in some populations. In spite of relatively low polymorphism and the potential presence of null alleles, newly developed microsatellites may be applied as suitable markers in population genetic studies of C. laticeps. PMID:25482859

Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Minárik, Gabriel; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Mikulí?ek, Peter; Oravcová, Alexandra; Pálková, Lenka; Hanzelová, Vladimíra

2014-12-01

270

Creep after loading in the relaxed and contracted smooth muscle ( Taenia coli of the guinea pig) under various osmotic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Experiments to investigate the creep phenomena of the taenia coli were performed in hypotonic (207 mosm) and hypertonic (447 or 463 mosm) media, in the relaxed (Ca2+-depletion+verapamil) as well as in the contracted (K2SO4-depolarized) state. They were compared with earlier results in isotonic media. The samples were standardized with respect to their volume (weight) before the beginning of the experiment.2.Neither

K. Greven; K. H. Rudolph; B. Hohorst

1976-01-01

271

Challenges for control of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Indonesia.  

PubMed

Taeniasis/cysticercosis has been reported from several provinces of Indonesia: Papua (=former Irian Jaya), Bali, North Sumatra, East Nusa Tenggara, South East Sulawesi, Lampung, North Sulawesi, Jakarta, West Kalimantan, and East Java. The highest level of endemicity of taeniasis/cysticercosis has been found in Papua. Recent surveys in Jayawijaya District of Papua in 2000 and 2001 showed that 5 of 58 local people (8.6%) harbored the adult tapeworm, Taenia solium, whereas 44 of 96 people (45.8%), 50 of 71 pigs (70.4%), and 7 of 64 local dogs (10.9%) were seropositive for T. solium cysticercosis. Current surveys in Bali and Samosir District, North Sumatra during 2002-2005 revealed that Taenia saginata taeniasis has increased in incidence whereas T. solium cysticercosis is now rather rare compared to one-two decades ago in Bali. Taenia asiatica taeniasis is still common in Samosir District. Data from other provinces of Indonesia are very limited or unavailable. Control of these diseases is not a priority in the health or veterinary services, neither at central or local government levels. However, limited efforts toward control of the diseases have been implemented such as training of health personnel, community education on disease prevention, and provision of anthelminthics. A working group for control of the disease in Indonesia and an international collaboration have been established among Ministry of Health, Indonesia; University of Indonesia; and Asahikawa Medical College, Asahikawa, Japan since 1996. Future goals include implementation of active case finding (active surveillance) and treatment of tapeworm carriers, sustainable public health education, establishment of a system to check the quality of beef/pork and determine the distribution of infected animals and strengthening of laboratory capacity. Efforts to motivate provinces and districts should be implemented in developing the strategic plan to control of the disease. Given the considerable differences in cultures, religions, levels of education, socio-economic levels, daily habits and behaviour etc., control programmes must be adapted to the local situations. PMID:16380290

Suroso, Thomas; Margono, Sri S; Wandra, Toni; Ito, Akira

2006-01-01

272

Excitatory purinergic neurotransmission in smooth muscle of guniea-pig taenia caeci  

PubMed Central

Non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) inhibitory neurotransmission has been an area of intense interest in gut motor physiology, whereas excitatory NANC neurotransmission has received less attention. In order to further explore excitatory NANC neurotransmission, we performed conventional intracellular recordings from guinea-pig taenia caeci smooth muscle. Tissue was perfused with oxygenated Krebs solution at 35°C and nerve responses evoked by either oral or aboral nerve stimulation (NS) (4 square wave pulses, 0.3 ms duration, 20 Hz). Electrical activity was characterized by slow waves upon which one to three action potentials were superimposed. Oral NS evoked an inhibitory junction potential (IJP) at either the valley or peak of the slow wave. Application of nifedipine (1 ?m) abolished slow waves and action potentials, but membrane potential flunctuations (1–3 mV) and IJPs remained unaffected. Concomitant application of apamin (300 nm), a small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel blocker, converted the IJP to an EJP that was followed by slow IJP. Further administration of NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, 200 ?m), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, abolished the slow IJP without affecting the EJP, implying that the slow IJP is due to nitrergic innervation. The EJP was abolished by tetrodotoxin (1 ?m), but was not significantly affected by atropine (3 ?m) and guanethidine (3 ?m) or hexamethonium (500 ?m). Substance P (SP, 1 ?m) desensitization caused slight attenuation of the EJP, but the EJP was abolished by desensitization with ?,?-methylene ATP (50 ?m), a P2 purinoceptor agonist that is more potent than ATP at the P2X receptor subtype, suramin (100 ?m), a non-selective P2 purinoceptor antagonist, and pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2?,4?-disulphonic acid (PPADS, 100 ?m), a selective P2X purinoceptor antagonist. In contrast, the EJP was unaffected by MRS-2179 (2 ?m), a selective P2Y1 receptor antagonist. Aboral NS evoked an apamin- and l-NAME-sensitive IJP, but virtually no NANC EJP. These data suggest the presence of polarized excitatory purinergic neurotransmission in guinea-pig taenia caeci, which appears to be mediated by P2X purinoceptors, most likely the P2X1 subtype. PMID:15677692

Zhang, Yong; Paterson, William G

2005-01-01

273

Diffusion and distribution of dimethyl sulphoxide in the isolated guinea-pig taenia coli  

PubMed Central

1. The diffusion of the cryoprotective non-electrolyte dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) in the isolated guinea-pig taenia coli at 37, 25 and 0° C has been studied using [35S]DMSO. 2. Within 1 hr after immersion at 37° C in Krebs solution containing 20% (w/v) DMSO and trace amounts of [35S]DMSO, the non-electrolyte was distributed uniformly throughout a volume equivalent to the total initial water content of the muscle. 3. The kinetics of efflux of [35S]DMSO from muscles at constant volume were analysed on the basis of two models: one incorporated radial diffusion in extracellular fluid with simultaneous permeation into the cells, the other involved only radial diffusion in homogeneous cylinders of tissue having no internal barriers to diffusion; the former was found to give a better representation of the efflux kinetics. 4. If it was assumed that the rate of diffusion of DMSO in the extracellular space of taenia coli was the same as that in the bathing medium, the values of the extracellular space and the permeability of smooth muscle to DMSO, obtained from the analysis of the efflux kinetics, were 454 ± 19 ml./kg and 2·36 ± 0·05 × 10-6 cm sec-1 at 37° C. 5. The activation energy for the transfer of DMSO across the surface of the cell was estimated to be 6·0 kcal/mole at 37° C, 6·6 kcal/mole at 25° C and 11·6 kcal/mole at 0° C, indicating either that the equivalent pore radius of the cells decreased with temperature or that the cell permeability represented the sum of two fluxes, one through the aqueous pores of the cell and the other through the lipid phase of the cell membrane, each with a different energy of activation. 6. A net flux of water across the surface of the cells, superimposed on the efflux of DMSO, markedly affected the rate of diffusion of the non-electrolyte out of the whole tissue; however, it was considered that an analysis of the efflux kinetics was not possible under these conditions. 7. These results provide a basis for methods which will be used to investigate the possibility of preserving tissue in unfrozen aqueous media at sub-zero temperatures. PMID:5499041

Elford, B. C.

1970-01-01

274

Floriparicapitus, a new genus of lecanicephalidean tapeworm (Cestoda) from sawfishes (Pristidae) and guitarfishes (Rhinobatidae) in the Indo-West Pacific.  

PubMed

Floriparicapitus n. gen. (Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea), with Floriparicapitus euzeti n. gen., n. sp. as its type, is erected to house 3 new tapeworm species and 2 known species that are transferred to the new genus, all parasitizing sawfishes and guitarfishes (order Rhinopristiformes) in Indo-Pacific waters. The new genus differs from the 21 valid lecanicephalidean genera in its possession of a large scolex bearing a laterally expanded apical organ in the form of a rugose sheet in combination with a cirrus conspicuously armed with spinitriches and 3 pairs of excretory vessels. It most closely resembles Lecanicephalum, but differs conspicuously in its possession of 3, rather than 1, pair of excretory vessels. Two new species are described from sawfishes: Floriparicapitus euzeti n. sp., from Pristis clavata and Floriparicapitus juliani n. sp. from Pristis pristis, both from Australia. Floriparicapitus plicatilis n. sp. is described from the guitarfish Glaucostegus typus in Australia and the guitarfish Glaucostegus thouin in Malaysian Borneo. Two species formerly assigned to Cephalobothrium are transferred to the new genus; Floriparicapitus variabilis ( Southwell, 1911 ) n. comb. from the sawfish Anoxypristis cuspidata in Sri Lanka and Floriparicapitus rhinobatidis ( Subhapradha, 1955 ) n. comb. from the guitarfish Glaucostegus granulatus in India. The species from guitarfish differ conspicuously from those parasitizing sawfish in their possession of only 4 ( F. plicatilis n. sp.) or 5 (F. rhinobatidis n. comb.) testes per proglottid versus 9 or more in the 3 sawfish-parasitizing species. The latter 3 species differ from one another in scolex width, acetabular size, number of proglottids, and cirrus sac size. As it stands, the new genus appears to be restricted to a subclade of the Rhinopristiformes consisting of the sawfishes and species of Glaucostegus. PMID:24842294

Cielocha, Joanna J; Jensen, Kirsten; Caira, Janine N

2014-08-01

275

Multiple isotope analyses of the pike tapeworm Triaenophorus nodulosus reveal peculiarities in consumer-diet discrimination patterns.  

PubMed

Previous studies of dietary isotope discrimination have led to the general expectation that a consumer will exhibit enriched stable isotope levels relative to its diet. Parasite-host systems are specific consumer-diet pairs in which the consumer (parasite) feeds exclusively on one dietary source: host tissue. However, the small numbers of studies previously carried out on isotopic discrimination in parasite-host (?XP-HT) systems have yielded controversial results, showing some parasites to be isotopically depleted relative to their food source, while others are enriched or in equilibrium with their hosts. Although the mechanism for these deviations from expectations remains to be understood, possible influences of specific feeding niche or selection for only a few nutritional components by the parasite are discussed. ?XP-HT for multiple isotopes (?13C, ?15N, ?34S) were measured in the pike tapeworm Triaenophorus nodulosus and two of its life-cycle fish hosts, perch Perca fluviatilis and pike Esox lucius, within which T. nodulosus occupies different feeding locations. Variability in the value of ?XP-HT calculated for the parasite and its different hosts indicates an influence of feeding location on isotopic discrimination. In perch liver ?XP-HT was relatively more negative for all three stable isotopes. In pike gut ?XP-HT was more positive for ?13C, as expected in conventional consumer-diet systems. For parasites feeding on pike gut, however, the ?15N and ?34S isotope values were comparable with those of the host. We discuss potential causes of these deviations from expectations, including the effect of specific parasite feeding niches, and conclude that ?XP-HT should be critically evaluated for trophic interactions between parasite and host before general patterns are assumed. PMID:24451479

Behrmann-Godel, J; Yohannes, E

2015-03-01

276

[Electron microscope investigation of bacteria associated with the tegument of the tapeworm species Eubothrium rugosum, a parasite of the intestine of burbot].  

PubMed

Bacteria associated with the tegument of the tapeworm species Eubothrium rugosum (Cestoda, Pseudophyllidea) parasitizing the intestine of burbot (Lota lota) were studied using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Three morphological types of the bacteria were revealed. Bacteria of the first type are localized between microtrichia and fit to them closely. Bacteria of the second (gram-positive) and third (gram-negative) types are localized over microtrichia of the tegument and do not attach to the surface. Physiological functions of the bacteria are discussed. PMID:16134784

Poddubnaia, L G

2005-01-01

277

An epidemiological survey on the determination of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Iran, using a PCR assay.  

PubMed

Bovine cysticercosis caused by Taenia saginata is a zoonotic disease affirming routine inspection measures for the postmortem detection of cysticerci (cysts) in beef destined for human consumption. Detection is based on gross examination of traditional carcase predilection sites; although there is evidence to suggest that examination of other sites may offer improvements in sensitivity. In the current study, a biomolecular-based assay was employed to confirm and differentiate T saginata cysticercosis from other comparable parasitic infection in cattle carcases. Out of 7371 cattle carcases routinely inspected, 72 (0.97 per cent) were initially detected, from which 57 (79.16 per cent), 11(15.27 per cent) and 4 (5.55 per cent) were recorded in masseter muscle, heart and diaphragm, respectively. The PCR assay was also conducted to confirm different stages of the cysts, being able to detect the cyst, and to discriminate its various degenerative stages with other parasitic structures. The technique was proposed as a reliable tool to differentiate the cysticerci and, thus, could be used in further epidemiological studies as there was no difference in view of negative PCR results in lesions found by routine inspection. PMID:23571031

Hosseinzadeh, S; Setayesh, A; Shekarforoush, S S; Fariman, S H

2013-04-27

278

Visual diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercosis during meat inspection: is it unequivocal?  

PubMed

A total of 267 cysts were collected from March to December 2004 from two main abattoirs in northern Germany. The cysts were classified by the usual organoleptic methods during meat inspection as Cysticercus bovis. The reported prevalence of cysticercosis in the abattoirs was 0.48 and 1.08%, respectively. The cysts were examined macroscopically for description of their morphology and constituents and classified as viable or degenerating (dead). The DNA was extracted from these cysts and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for evaluation of the detection methods used and to make certain that the cysts did indeed belong to C. bovis, as indicated at the slaughterhouses. Two sets of primers were used with different sensitivity levels. The first, HDP1, was able to detect 200 fg of Taenia saginata DNA and 100 pg of C. bovis DNA. The other primer set, HDP2, was able to detect 1 pg of T. saginata DNA and 1 ng of C. bovis DNA. No more than 52.4% of the samples tested positive for C. bovis in the PCR using both primers, while 20% of the viable cysts and 49.2% of the degenerating cysts tested negative with both primers. PMID:16583204

Abuseir, S; Epe, C; Schnieder, T; Klein, G; Kühne, M

2006-09-01

279

Depressed T-cell proliferation associated with susceptibility to experimental Taenia crassiceps infection.  

PubMed Central

Peritoneal infection with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci of naturally resistant (C57BL/10J and C57BL/6J) and susceptible (BALB/cAnN) mice induces a cellular immune depression. T-cell proliferation in response to concanavalin A (ConA) or anti-CD3 was significantly depressed in infected mice of all strains tested. However, in resistant mice, the diminished response to ConA was transient and animals recovered normal responsiveness at day 40, whereas susceptible mice remained suppressed throughout the 40 days of the experiment. In contrast, the proliferative response to anti-CD3 was lower in infected mice than in noninfected controls regardless of differences in natural susceptibility of the strains. Intraperitoneal injection of mice with a parasite extract also induced a depression of the response to ConA, although not as strong as that produced by the parasite itself. This depression is not due to direct effects by parasite antigens over host lymphocytes, as proliferation is not affected by the presence of cysticercal antigens added in vitro. Diminished interleukin-2 production during the parasitosis accounts at least in part for the diminished responses to ConA. A primary infection favors parasite establishment after a second challenge, pointing to the relevance of the immunodepression in generating a host environment favorable to the parasite. PMID:7768609

Sciutto, E; Fragoso, G; Baca, M; De la Cruz, V; Lemus, L; Lamoyi, E

1995-01-01

280

Increased Resistance to Taenia crassiceps Murine Cysticercosis in Qa-2 Transgenic Mice  

PubMed Central

We previously reported important differences in resistance to Taenia crassiceps murine cysticercosis between BALB/c substrains. It was suggested that resistance might correlate with expression of the nonclassic class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Qa-2 antigen; BALB/cAnN is Qa-2 negative and highly susceptible to T. crassiceps, whereas BALB/cJ expresses Qa-2 and is highly resistant. In this study, we investigated the role of Qa-2 in mediating resistance to cysticercosis by linkage analysis and infection of Qa-2 transgenic mice. In BALB/cAnN × (C57BL/6J × BALB/cAnN)F1 and BALB/cAnN × (BALB/cJ × BALB/cAnN)F1 backcrosses, the expression of Qa-2 antigen correlated with resistance to cysticercosis. Significantly fewer parasites were recovered from infected Qa-2 transgenic male and female mice than from nontransgenic mice of similar genetic background. These results clearly demonstrate that the Qa-2 MHC antigen is involved in resistance to T. crassiceps cysticercosis. PMID:9453638

Fragoso, Gladis; Lamoyi, Edmundo; Mellor, Andrew; Lomelí, Ciro; Hernández, Marisela; Sciutto, Edda

1998-01-01

281

Nerve-mediated excitation of the taenia of the guinea-pig caecum  

PubMed Central

1. A study was made of the responses of the isolated taenia of the guinea-pig caecum to stimulation of the intramural nerves. 2. Four types of response are described, made up of a contraction and/or a relaxation occurring during stimulation and an after-contraction occurring when stimulation is stopped. 3. A delayed relaxation which sometimes occurred at the end of stimulation is also described. 4. Atropine usually abolished the contractions occurring during stimulation. After-contractions either appeared or were increased in amplitude in the presence of atropine, and delayed relaxations were abolished. 5. The anti-cholinesterase drug neostigmine could convert the response during stimulation from a relaxation to a contraction. After-contractions were often abolished by neostigmine and delayed relaxations appeared. 6. It is concluded that the contractions which occurred during stimulation were mediated by cholinergic nerves. The after-contraction appears to be a rebound phenomenon, following the hyperpolarization of the muscle caused by stimulation of the inhibitory nerves. It is suggested that the delayed relaxation is caused by the effects of persisting inhibitory transmitter substance on cells which do not undergo rebound excitation. PMID:5965889

Campbell, G.

1966-01-01

282

Taenia taeniaeformis: fate and proliferation of mucosal cells during gastric hyperplasia in larvae infected rats.  

PubMed

Fate and proliferation of gastric mucosal cells during hyperplasia of Taenia taeniaeformis eggs inoculated Wistar rats were investigated using PCNA immunohistochemistry, BrdU labeling and other histopathologic staining techniques. Results revealed marked cell proliferation in gastric corpus and antral mucosa of infected rats as evidenced by increased lengths of proliferative zones and indices of BrdU labeling. The gastropathy in corpus was characterized by massive accumulation of precursors, neck and intermediate cells following significant decreases in numbers of parietal and zymogenic cells. Gastropathy in antrum was described with significant increases in precursors and mucous cells. Our results suggested that T. taeniaeformis-induced gastric hyperplasia was initiated by depletion of parietal cells presumably due to the cestode's ES products. As a result, there was inhibition of zymogenic cell differentiation due to the disruption of normal development pathways of gastric mucosal lineages. These sequences of events were considered to cause the increase in cell proliferation and accumulation of intermediate cells resulting to the hyperplastic lesions. PMID:18226813

Lagapa, J T; Oku, Y; Nonaka, N; Kamiya, M

2008-04-01

283

Taenia crassiceps Infection Does Not Influence the Development of Experimental Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

It was previously reported by our group that infection with Taenia crassiceps reduces incidence and severity of inflammatory and autoimmune experimental diseases like type 1 diabetes and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In this research, we set out to study whether infection with T. crassiceps would affect the development of experimental rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We found that mice infected with the parasite and induced with experimental RA showed similar clinical scores as the noninfected experimental RA group; systemic cytokines were not affected while anti-CII Abs were higher in the infected group. Histological evaluation showed damage in both infected and noninfected experimental RA-induced groups and although some surface molecules such as PDL-2 and MR which are associated with immunomodulatory mechanisms were upregulated in the infected and RA-induced group as compared to the noninfected RA group, they did not exert any changes in the outcome of experimental RA. Thus, we determined that infection with T. crassiceps does not influence the outcome of experimental RA. PMID:23509709

Ortiz-Flores, Aaxin M.; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Calleja, Elsa A.; Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; Juárez, Imelda; Terrazas, Luis I.

2013-01-01

284

Determination of the efficacy of pyrantel pamoate at the therapeutic dose rate against the tapeworm Anoplocephala perfoliata in equids using a modification of the critical test method.  

PubMed

A total of 59 equids (54 horses and five Shetland ponies) were treated with pyrantel pamoate once, at the dose rate of approximately 6.6 mg base kg-1, during the period November 1985-January 1988. The drug was administered as a paste formulation (51 equids) intraorally or as a suspension formulation by stomach tube (eight equids). The purpose of treatment was to evaluate the activity of pyrantel pamoate (at the therapeutic dose rate) for removal of the tapeworm, Anoplocephala perfoliata, by a modified (24-h) critical test. The presence or absence of tapeworms was not determined for the equids before treatment. Twenty-three (39%) of the 59 treated equids were found to be infected with A. perfoliata (from one to 180 specimens per infected equid) at necropsy. Removals varied from 67 to 100% (average 88%) for the 18 infected equids treated with the paste formulation. For the five infected equids treated with the suspension, removals were 58-100% (average 75%). The combined average removal of A. perfoliata for both formulations was 87%. Two abnormal (triradiate) specimens of A. perfoliata were recovered; one from each of two different equids. PMID:2728327

Lyons, E T; Drudge, J H; Tolliver, S C; Swerczek, T W; Collins, S S

1989-04-01

285

[Effect of gamma-interferon on hepatic granuloma formation in mice infected by cysticerci of Taenia saginata asiatica].  

PubMed

Immunohistochemical streptavidin biotin-peroxidase complex method was used to investigate the effect of gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma) on the hepatic granuloma formation and liver fibrosis in mice infected with Taenia saginata in Duyun area of Guizhou Province. The results reveal contrary relation between the level of IFN-gamma in the liver and the degree of liver fibrosis (p<0.01). The injection of IFN-gamma considerably decreased (p<0.01) the area and size of granuloma (p<0.01). PMID:17361828

Li, Pu; Bao, Huai-en; Rong, Ju-quan; Shen, Zhen-hua; Dang, Rong-min; He, Xiao-fei; Wu, Rong; Jiang, Shui

2006-10-01

286

Reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Denmark after 60+ years.  

PubMed

The present report describes the reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei in a roe deer from Denmark after more than 60 years. The cysticerci were isolated from the thigh muscle of the deer, and the diagnosis was based on histostological analysis, morphology of the rostellar-hooks as well as molecular typing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) gene. The exact definitive host was not revealed in this report, but domestic dogs may play a role of the definitive host in the area. This finding is of concern to hunters and deer meat producers, since the infected meat is usually condemned due to esthetic reasons. PMID:23298567

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Holm, Elisabeth; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Ståhl, Marie; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

2013-09-01

287

The prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in the Matabeleland Provinces of Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

Records were collected for Taenia saginata cysticercosis infections in cattle slaughtered at the Cold Storage Company Abattoir in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, between January 2006 and December 2007. The cattle were drawn from the two Matabeleland provinces in the dry western and southern parts of the country. A total of 86,080 cattle were slaughtered during the period. The average prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis was found to be 1.6% (n = 1 364) with Matabeleland North having a higher prevalence of 2.8% (n = 629) and Matabeleland South 1.2% (n = 735). There were no significant seasonal differences (p > 0.05) in incidences of T. saginata cysticercosis during the study although numerically, the prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis was higher in the wet season. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis in different age classes of cattle slaughtered. Of the infected carcasses, a great proportion of these had live cysts (1.4%) while few had dead cysts (0.2%). Most of the cattle condemned were below the age of 2 years and some were full adults (p < 0.05). There was a significant association between farm type (p < 0.05) and prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis with most infections being observed in the communal farming system. Though the prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis appears to be low, there is a need to conscientize the farmers to avoid losses due to carcasses condemnation at slaughter houses which will have a negative financial impact to the individual farmer. There is also a need to investigate such cases even further to reduce zoonotic consequences due to the undetected cases in communal areas. PMID:24429809

Sungirai, Marvelous; Masaka, Lawrence; Mbiba, Clifton

2014-04-01

288

Preferential infection sites of Cysticercus bovis in cattle experimentally infected with Taenia saginata eggs.  

PubMed

The preferential sites of infection of Cysticercus bovis were evaluated in the skeletal muscle and entrails of 25 cattle that were experimentally infected with Taenia saginata (2×10(4) eggs). Two other animals were not inoculated (control). Ninety days after inoculation, all the cattle were euthanized. The carcasses were deboned and dissected into 26 anatomical sections (masseter muscles, brain, tongue, esophagus, heart, diaphragm, lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen, top sirloin butt, bottom sirloin butt, outside round, top (inside) round, transversus abdominus, top sirloin cap, strip loin, full tenderloin, eye of round, knuckle, shoulder clod, foreshank, shank, chuck, back ribs, and tail muscles). The dissected tissues were sliced into 5mm sections. From the 25 cattle, 9258 C. bovis (cysticerci) were recovered; 75.02% (6946) of these were recovered from skeletal muscles and 24.98% (2312) from the entrails. A high parasitism level was found in the shoulder clod (12.55%), heart (11.02%), liver (9.48%), masseter muscles (8.51%), chuck (8.25%), strip loin and full tenderloin (7.26%), knuckle (6.63%), and back ribs (5.53%), totaling 69.23% (5738) of all of the detected cysticerci. On the other hand, there was a low C. bovis parasitism level in the brain, spleen, tail muscles, kidneys, esophagus, and diaphragm, representing just 3.9% of the total number of cysticerci. Given these results, we conclude that specific skeletal musculature regions, such as the shoulder blade, chuck, strip loin and full tenderloin, knuckle, back ribs and top round, which are not officially examined in many countries, are effective sites to efficiently screen C. bovis infection. To date, these regions have not been considered as preferential sites of C. bovis infection. Based on our work, however, these regions deserve greater attention from health inspectors because they contained a greater number of Cysticercus than the other regions of carcasses that are parasitized by T. saginata larvae. PMID:20493507

Lopes, Welber D Z; Santos, Thaís R; Soares, Vando E; Nunes, Jorge L N; Mendonça, Rafael P; de Lima, Roberto C A; Sakamoto, Cláudio A M; Costa, Gustavo H N; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Oliveira, Gilson P; Costa, Alvimar J

2011-02-01

289

Genetic Diversity of Taenia asiatica from Thailand and Other Geographical Locations as Revealed by Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit 1 Sequences  

PubMed Central

Twelve 924 bp cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mitochondrial DNA sequences from Taenia asiatica isolates from Thailand were aligned and compared with multiple sequence isolates from Thailand and 6 other countries from the GenBank database. The genetic divergence of T. asiatica was also compared with Taenia saginata database sequences from 6 different countries in Asia, including Thailand, and 3 countries from other continents. The results showed that there were minor genetic variations within T. asiatica species, while high intraspecies variation was found in T. saginata. There were only 2 haplotypes and 1 polymorphic site found in T. asiatica, but 8 haplotypes and 9 polymorphic sites in T. saginata. Haplotype diversity was very low, 0.067, in T. asiatica and high, 0.700, in T. saginata. The very low genetic diversity suggested that T. asiatica may be at a risk due to the loss of potential adaptive alleles, resulting in reduced viability and decreased responses to environmental changes, which may endanger the species. PMID:23467439

Thaenkham, Urusa; Watthanakulpanich, Dorn; Phuphisut, Orawan; Maipanich, Wanna; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Pubampen, Somjit; Sanguankiat, Surapol

2013-01-01

290

The action of lanthanum and D600 on the calcium exchange in the smooth muscle cells of the guinea-pig taenia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calcium distribution in smooth muscle cells of the taenia coli has been studied with a method based on the action of lanthanum ions. La3+-ions make it possible to separate the extracellular calcium from the cellular calcium by their high affinity for extracellular calcium binding sites and by their blocking action on the transmembrane calcium movements. Using this method the

C. J. Mayer; C. van Breemen; R. Casteels

1972-01-01

291

Epidemiology of cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis.  

PubMed

Within the genus Taenia, three species are human parasites: T. solium, T. saginata and a new uncommon species, T. asiatica, described recently in Asia. T. saginata and T. solium live as adult tapeworms in human intestines, where they cause taeniasis. T. saginata is widely present worldwide, in all regions where cattle are bred. T. solium is endemic in many countries where livestock and consumption of pigs are common. Cattle and pigs become infected by ingesting eggs emitted by humans into the environment and serve as the respective intermediate hosts of these helminths and host larval forms, or metacestodes or cysticerci. Cysticerci develop into adult worms in the human intestines after a person has eaten contaminated raw or undercooked meat. In the T. solium, eggs are also human contaminants. Humans, like swine, can develop cysticercosis after ingesting eggs with water or contaminated food, or via dirty hands. The clinical manifestations of cysticercosis are highly variable both in kind and in severity. The period between initial infection and the onset of symptoms can also vary. The clinical expression of cysticercosis is generally dependent on the number, size and location of the cysts, as well as the host immune response to the parasite. The preferred locations are the muscles, subcutaneous tissues, central nervous system (CNS), and eyes. Subcutaneous and muscular forms are often asymptomatic. Severe cysticercosis is due to larvae located in human CNS - neurocysticercosis. The World Health Organization (WHO) lists neurocysticercosis as a neglected tropical disease. It estimates that about 50 million people worldwide have neurocysticercosis in the world and that it causes about 50,000 deaths each year. Its most frequent clinical manifestations are seizures, intracranial hypertension, neurological deficits, and sometimes psychiatric manifestations. It is also responsible for more than 50% of the cases of late-onset epilepsy in developing countries. The T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis complex is endemic in many developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Although T. solium had virtually disappeared in developed countries due to industrialization, improved methods of husbandry, and health checks, cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis are diagnosed anew in North America, Europe and Australia due to increased immigration from endemic areas. Cysticercosis is considered an eradicable disease. Although theoretically feasible, this concept has been replaced by projects to control and reduce the impact of cysticercosis on human health (through mass treatment of people, veterinary control of pigs, improved farming techniques, and health education). PMID:25296005

Bouteille, B

2014-10-01

292

Adding resolution to ordinal level relationships of tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) with large fragments of mtDNA.  

PubMed

The construction of a stable phylogeny for the Cestoda, indicating the interrelationships of recognised orders and other major lineages, has proceeded iteratively since the group first received attention from phylogenetic systematists. Molecular analyses using nuclear ribosomal RNA gene fragments from the small (ssrDNA) and large (lsrDNA) subunits have been used to test competing evolutionary scenarios based on morphological data but could not arbitrate between some key conflicting hypotheses. To the ribosomal data, we have added a contiguous fragment of mitochondrial (mt) genome data (mtDNA) of partial nad1-trnN-trnP-trnI-trnK-nad3-trnS-trnW-cox1-trnT-rrnL-trnC-partial rrnS, spanning 4034-4447 bp, where new data for this region were generated for 18 species. Bayesian analysis of mtDNA and rDNA as nucleotides, and where appropriate as amino acids, demonstrated that these two classes of genes provide complementary signal across the phylogeny. In all analyses, except when using mt amino acids only, the Gyrocotylidea is sister group to all other Cestoda (Nephroposticophora), and Amphilinidea forms the sister group to the Eucestoda. However, an earliest-diverging position of Amphilinidea is strongly supported in the mt amino acid analysis. Amphilinidea exhibit a unique tRNA arrangement (nad1-trnI-trnL2-trnP-trnK-trnV-trnA-trnN-nad3), whereas Gyrocotylidea shares that of the derived lineages, providing additional evidence of the uniqueness of amphilinid genes and genomes. The addition of mtDNA to the rDNA genes supported the Caryophyllidea as the sister group to (Spathebothriidea+remaining Eucestoda), a hypothesis consistently supported by morphology. This relationship suggests a history of step-wise evolutionary transitions from simple monozoic, unsegmented tapeworms to the more familiar polyzoic, externally segmented (strobilate) forms. All our data partitions recovered Haplobothriidea as the sister group to Diphyllobothriidae. The sister-group relationship between Diphyllidea and Trypanorhyncha, as previously established using rDNA, is not supported by the mt data, although it is supported by the combined mt and rDNA analysis. With regards to the more derived taxa, in all except the mt amino acid analysis, the following topology is supported: (Bothriocephalidea (Litobothriidea (Lecanicephalidea (Rhinebothriidea (Tetraphyllidea, (Acanthobothrium, Proteocephalidea), (Nippotaeniidea, Mesocestoididae, Tetrabothriidea, Cyclophyllidea)))))), where the Tetraphyllidea are paraphyletic. Evidence from the mt data provides strong (nucleotides) to moderate (amino acids) support for Tetraphyllidea forming a group to the inclusion of Proteocephalidea, with the latter consistently forming the sister group to Acanthobothrium. The interrelationships among Nippotaeniidea, Mesocestoididae, Tetrabothriidea and Cyclophyllidea remain ambiguous and require further systematic attention. Mitochondrial and nuclear rDNA data provide conflicting signal for certain parts of the cestode tree. In some cases mt data offer results in line with morphological evidence, such as the interrelationships of the early divergent lineages. Also, Tetraphyllidea, although remaining paraphyletic with the inclusion of the Proteocephalidea, does not include the most derived cestodes; a result which has consistently been obtained with rDNA. PMID:22406529

Waeschenbach, Andrea; Webster, B L; Littlewood, D T J

2012-06-01

293

Distribution of Taenia saginata cysticerci in tissues of experimentally infected cattle.  

PubMed

Bovine cysticercosis caused by Taenia saginata is a zoonotic disease warranting routine inspection measures for the postmortem detection of cysticerci (cysts) in beef destined for human consumption. Detection is based on gross examination of traditional carcass predilection sites, although there is evidence to suggest that examination of other sites may offer improvements in sensitivity. In order to evaluate the efficacy of current inspection protocols, this study determined the distribution and number of cysticerci in the tissues of experimentally infected cattle. Forty-two commercial beef cattle were divided into five groups of 5-12 animals each and inoculated with either 10,000, 5000, 1000, 100 or 10 T. saginata eggs. At time points ranging from 47 to 376 days post-inoculation (DPI), 10 animals inoculated with 5000 eggs were killed and the carcasses partitioned into 31 tissue sites. These consisted of the traditionally inspected tissue sites of heart, masseter and pterygoid muscles, tongue, oesophagus, and diaphragm (membranous and crura); as well as non-traditional sites of lung, liver and an additional 20 individual muscles or muscle groups. After performing the Canadian Food inspection Agency's (CFIA) routine inspection protocol for cysticerci on traditional tissue sites, tissues from all sites were cut into approximately 0.5 cm thick slices and the total number of parasitic cysts and cyst density (number of cysts/g of tissue) determined for each site. Traditional sites were similarly evaluated for the remaining 32 animals killed between 117 and 466 DPI. Sites were ranked based on cyst density. Infection was confirmed in 37 animals, of which only 20 were detected by routine inspection, and of which 7 harboured no cysts in traditional sites. For the animals in which additional non-traditional sites were evaluated, none yielded higher cyst densities than those traditionally inspected. When only traditional sites (for all animals) were compared, the heart ranked highest overall, although it was not significantly different from the masseter muscle, and was the most frequently affected site. The traditional site of oesophagus was one of the least rewarding of all sites for detection of cysticerci. The heart was confirmed as the preferred site for detection of bovine cysticercosis based on high cyst density and frequency of infection, and greater visibility of gross lesions due to the early inflammatory response in cardiac muscle. More extensive examination of the heart is recommended to improve detection of infected animals. PMID:19524368

Scandrett, Brad; Parker, Sarah; Forbes, Lorry; Gajadhar, Alvin; Dekumyoy, Paron; Waikagul, Jitra; Haines, Deborah

2009-10-14

294

Inward current in single smooth muscle cells of the guinea pig taenia coli  

PubMed Central

Using the tight-seal voltage-clamp method, the ionic currents in the enzymatically dispersed single smooth muscle cells of the guinea pig taenia coli have been studied. In a physiological medium containing 3 mM Ca2+, the cells are gently tapering spindles, averaging 201 (length) x 8 microns (largest diameter in center of cell), with a volume of 5 pl. The average cell capacitance is 50 pF, and the specific membrane capacitance 1.15 microF/cm2. The input impedance of the resting cell is 1-2 G omega. Spatially uniform voltage-control prevails after the first 400 microseconds. There is much overlap of the inward and outward currents, but the inward current can be isolated by applying Cs+ internally to block all potassium currents. The inward current is carried by Ca2+. Activation begins at approximately -30 mV, maximum ICa occurs at +10-+20 mV, and the reversal potential is approximately +75 mV. The Ca2+ channel is permeable to Sr2+ and Ba2+, and to Cs+ moving outwards, but not to Na+ moving inwards. Activation and deactivation are very rapid at approximately 33 degrees C, with time-constants of less than 1 ms. Inactivation has a complex time course, resolvable into three exponential components, with average time constants (at 0 mV) of 7, 45, and 400 ms, which are affected differently by voltage. Steady- state inactivation is half-maximal at -30 mV for all components combined, but -36 mV for the fast component and -26 and -23 mV for the other two components. The presence of multiple forms of Ca2+ channel is inferred from the inactivation characteristics, not from activation properties. Recovery of the fast channel occurs with a time-constant of 72 ms (at +10 mV). Ca2+ influx during an action potential can transfer approximately 9 pC of charge, which could elevate intracellular Ca2+ concentration adequately for various physiological functions. PMID:2539433

1989-01-01

295

Heat production in chemically skinned smooth muscle of guinea-pig taenia coli.  

PubMed Central

1. The rate of heat production of chemically skinned guinea-pig taenia coli smooth muscle at 25 degrees C was measured using microcalorimetric techniques. 2. Muscle strips were mounted isometrically and incubated in solutions containing MgATP (3.2 mM) and phosphocreatine (PCr, 12 mM), pH 6.9. Activation was obtained by the injection of Ca2+ into the sample compartment of the calorimeter. 3. The heat production rate of the resting preparation (pCa 9) was 0.40 +/- 0.03 mW g-1 wet weight (n = 23). During maximal activation (pCa 4.8) the heat rate increased to 1.12 +/- 0.07 mW g-1 (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 15). With stepwise increase in [Ca2+] from pCa 9 to 4.8 the energetic cost of force maintenance tended to increase at higher [Ca2+]. 4. After activation by Ca2+, the heat production rate reached its maximum while force was still increasing. 5. Changing ionic strength from 90 to 150 mM had no effect on either basal or activated heat rate. Oligomycin, amphotericin B and the adenylate kinase inhibitor Ap5A had no effect on the basal heat rate. 6. Exchanging ATP in the incubation medium for inosine triphosphate (ITP) reduced the force and heat production after injection of Ca2+. The basal heat production was not lowered when ATP was exchanged for ITP. 7. The observed enthalpy change for PCr splitting at 25 degrees C (pH 6.9, ionic strength 90 mM) was -28 +/- 3 kJ mol-1 (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 9). After correction for the phosphate equilibrium, buffer reactions, and Mg2+ binding to PCr and HPO42-, the net enthalpy change is calculated to be -39 +/- 3 kJ mol-1. 8. Heat production in the skinned smooth muscle consists of one basal component present in relaxed muscle, and one component associated with contraction. The nature of the basal heat production is unclear but does not seem to involve turnover of phosphate on the myosin light chains. The increase in the energetic tension cost with increasing activation by Ca2+ has implications for the understanding of the contractile mechanism in smooth muscle. PMID:1804969

Lönnbro, P; Hellstrand, P

1991-01-01

296

Sex differences in frass production and weight change in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) infected with cysticercoids of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda)  

PubMed Central

In their intermediate host, parasites alter aspects of host physiology including waste production and body weight. Further, this alteration may differ between female and male hosts. To study this, a beetle (Tenebrio molitor)-tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta) system was used. Infected and uninfected male and female beetles were individually housed in vials without food. Each beetle's weight change and frass production were measured over 24 h periods at 3, 7, 12 and 16 days post-infection. Treatment (infection) had no effect on weight change, but males lost more weight than females. Further, infected females produced more frass than control females. Males on the day of infection had a higher food intake than females. These results suggest that males will be more exposed to infection than females and could explain why males had a higher median cysticercoid infection level. PMID:17119613

Shea, John F.

2005-01-01

297

Sex differences in frass production and weight change in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) infected with cysticercoids of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda).  

PubMed

In their intermediate host, parasites alter aspects of host physiology including waste production and body weight. Further, this alteration may differ between female and male hosts. To study this, a beetle (Tenebrio molitor)-tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta) system was used. Infected and uninfected male and female beetles were individually housed in vials without food. Each beetle's weight change and frass production were measured over 24 h periods at 3, 7, 12 and 16 days post-infection. Treatment (infection) had no effect on weight change, but males lost more weight than females. Further, infected females produced more frass than control females. Males on the day of infection had a higher food intake than females. These results suggest that males will be more exposed to infection than females and could explain why males had a higher median cysticercoid infection level. PMID:17119613

Shea, John F

2005-01-01

298

Neurocysticercosis.  

PubMed

Known as a disease of swine in ancient civilizations, cysticercosis is currently considered the most common helminthic infection of the nervous system, and a leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The disease occurs when humans become intermediate hosts of the tapeworm Taenia solium by ingesting its eggs from contaminated food or, most often, directly from a Taenia carrier by the fecal-oral route. Once in the human intestine, Taenia eggs evolve to oncospheres that, in turn, cross the intestinal wall and lodge in human tissues - especially the nervous system - where cysticerci develop. The brain is a hostile environment in which parasites attempt to escape the immune surveillance while the host is trying to drive out the infection. In some cases, cysticerci are destroyed by this immunological attack, while in others, parasites may live unchanged for years. Cysticerci may be located in brain parenchyma, subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or spinal cord, causing a myriad of pathologic changes that are the main changes responsible for the clinical pleomorphism of neurocysticercosis. Seizures are the most common clinical manifestation of the disease, but some patients present with focal deficits, intracranial hypertension, or cognitive decline. With the exception of cystic lesions showing the scolex as an eccentric nodule, neuroimaging findings of neurocysticercosis are nonspecific and may be seen in other diseases of the nervous system. Likewise, immune diagnostic tests have been faced with problems related to poor sensitivity or specificity. Accurate diagnosis is possible after interpretation of clinical data together with findings of neuroimaging studies and results of immunologic tests, in a proper epidemiologic scenario. The introduction of cysticidal drugs has changed the prognosis of neurocysticercosis. Praziquantel and albendazole have been shown to reduce the burden of infection in the brain (as seen on neuroimaging studies) and to improve the clinical course of the disease in most patients. Further efforts should be directed towards eradicating this disease through the implementation of control programs for all the interrelated steps in the life cycle of T. solium, including human carriers of the adult tapeworm, infected pigs, and eggs in the environment. PMID:24365429

Del Brutto, Oscar H

2014-01-01

299

Preferential growth of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in female mice holds across several laboratory mice strains and parasite lines.  

PubMed

A retrospective study of our 14-yr records on experimental Taenia crassiceps (ORF(fast) line) cysticercosis (n = 1,198) shows that in 16 of 17 different mice strains, female mice are more frequently infected and carry larger individual parasite loads than males. However, sexual differences in parasite loads significantly varies between strains in relation to their different genetic backgrounds (BALB > C57Bl = OTHERS > C3H). The coefficient of variation in all female mice is significantly smaller than that of all males, an indication of males' more potent, but erratically effective, restraint of cysticercus growth. Similar positive growth bias for female mice is shown by other lines of cysticerci, i.e., HYG(slow) and WFU(slow). These results contravene the usual expectation of female hosts being more resistant than males to parasite infections, and they point to the multiple factors that combined determine sex related differences of mice to experimental cysticercosis infection. PMID:18564762

Fragoso, G; Meneses, G; Sciutto, E; Fleury, A; Larralde, C

2008-04-01

300

[Effects of dachengqi decoction and rhubarb on cellular electrical activities in smooth muscle of the guinea-pig taenia coli].  

PubMed

The effects of Dachengqi decoction (DCQ) and Rhubarb (Rb) on spontaneous cellular electrical activities of guinea-pig's taenia coli has been studied by intracellular microelectrode technique. DCQ and Rb could both improve depolarization of cell membrane, speed up the burst of slow wave potential (when drug concentration was 1%, P > 0.05; 10% or 20%, P < 0.05), which was dose dependent. At the same concentration, the effects of Rb were more significant than that of DCQ. These results suggested that DCQ and Rb enhanced directly the cellular electrical excitability so as to strengthen the contraction of colon, is one of the mechanisms of these drugs in cellular level on diarrhea action. The ionic basis of the effects might be that DCQ and Rb reduced the K+conductance of cell membrane in rest state. PMID:8499733

Yang, W X; Jin, Z G; Tian, Z S

1993-01-01

301

The distribution of chloride ions in the smooth muscle cells of the guinea-pig's taenia coli.  

PubMed

1. The intracellular Cl concentration of taenia coli cells, determined by an analytical procedure and by an extrapolation procedure, has a value between 60 and 73 m-mole/l. cell water.2. This concentration is too high to be explained by a passive distribution. The discrepancy could be due to a binding of Cl in the intracellular or extracellular compartment or to an active uptake of Cl by the cells.3. Determination of the activity coefficient for Cl in homogenates of smooth muscle did not support the hypothesis of binding of Cl ions.4. The efflux of (36)Cl from taenia coli cells was not affected by foreign anions. After 1 hr exposure to a Cl-free solution, the tissues contained less than 1 m-mole of Cl/kg wet wt., even if Cl had been replaced by a slowly penetrating anion. Because the intracellular cation concentration remained constant, it has to be assumed that new anionic groups can be formed in the cells.5. The intracellular Cl concentration decreases during exposure to ouabain or to K-free solution. The uptake seems therefore to be linked to the uptake of K through the Na pump.6. Exposure to K-free solution increases the K permeability of the membrane. Under the same experimental conditions the Cl permeability of the membrane increases as long as K is leaking out of the cells.7. The anions in the external solution exert an important influence on the K permeability of the membrane. NO(3) and I cause a small increase of the permeability and large anions such as benzenesulphonate, propionate or pyroglutamate cause a pronounced decrease of this permeability. PMID:5579636

Casteels, R

1971-04-01

302

Neurocysticercosis in a 2-year-old boy infected at home.  

PubMed

A 2-year-old boy presented with seizures and two parenchymal brain ring-enhancing lesions. Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis was confirmed by positive serology and response to albendazole therapy. The patients's mother was a Taenia solium carrier, who had most likely infected the child through the fecal-oral route. Household contacts should always be investigated in children with neurocysticercosis. Proper identification and treatment of Taenia solium carriers will reduce the risk of further spread of the disease. PMID:22943549

Del Brutto, Oscar H

2012-05-01

303

Experimental infection of the endangered bonytail chub (Gila elegans) with the Asian fish tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi): impacts on survival, growth, and condition  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, a tapeworm known to be pathogenic to some fish species, has become established in the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha Miller, 1964) in Grand Canyon, USA, following the tapeworm's introduction into the Colorado River system. The potential impact of this tapeworm on humpback chub was studied by exposing the closely related bonytail chub (Gila elegans Baird and Girard, 1853) to the parasite under a range of conditions that included potential stressors of humpback chub in their natal waters, such as abrupt temperature change and a limited food base. Survival of infected fish under low food rations was considerably lower than that of control fish, and mortality of infected fish began 20days earlier. Growth of infected fish was significantly reduced, and negative changes in health condition indices were found. No significant negative impacts were revealed from the synergistic effects between temperature shock and infection. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi does present a potential threat to humpback chub in Grand Canyon and should be considered, along with conventional concerns involving altered flow regimes and predation, when management decisions are made concerning conservation of this endangered species.// Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, un ver plat connu comme pathog??ne pour certaines esp??ces de poissons, s'est associ?? au A (Gila cypha Miller, 1964), une esp??ce menac??e du Grand Canyon, ??.-U., apr??s l'introduction du ver dans le r??seau hydrographique du Colorado. Nous avons ??tudi?? l'impact potentiel de ce ver plat sur le m??n?? bossu en exposant l'esp??ce proche Gila elegans Baird et Girard, 1853 au parasite sous une gamme de conditions qui incluent les facteurs potentiels de stress des m??n??s bossus dans leurs cours d'eau d'origine, tels que les changements abrupts de temp??rature et des ressources alimentaires limit??es. La survie des poissons infect??s dans des conditions de nourriture limit??e est substantiellement r??duite par comparaison aux poissons t??moins et la mortalit?? des poissons infect??s d??bute 20 jours plus t?'t. La croissance des poissons infect??s est significativement r??duite et il y a des changements n??gatifs dans les indicateurs des conditions de sant??. Il n'y a pas d'impact n??gatif significatif apparent des effets de synergie du choc thermique et de l'infection. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi est donc une menace potentielle pour le m??n?? bossu dans le Grand Canyon et il devra ??tre pris en consid??ration, au m??me titre que les pr??occupations habituelles au sujet de la modification du r??gime des eaux et de la pr??dation, lorsque des d??cisions seront prises au sujet de la conservation de cette esp??ce menac??e.

Hansen, S.P.; Choudhury, A.; Heisey, D.M.; Ahumada, J.A.; Hoffnagle, T.L.; Cole, R.A.

2006-01-01

304

Pharmacological effects of isopolar phosphonate analogues of ATP on P2-purinoceptors in guinea-pig taenia coli and urinary bladder.  

PubMed Central

Isopolar methylene phosphonate analogues of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were synthesized and tested on the guinea-pig isolated taenia coli (where ATP causes relaxation) and urinary bladder (where ATP causes contraction), to see if restoration of the electronegativity of the methylene linkage would enhance pharmacological potency. The compounds used were the dichloromethylene and difluoromethylene analogues of adenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-methylene)triphosphonate (AMP-PCP), L-adenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-methylene)triphosphonate (L-AMP-PCP) and 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-methylene)-triphosphonate (2-methylthio-AMP-PCP). The order of potency of the analogues depended on the tissue, and was independent of the nature of the purine or ribose moieties. None of the analogues was degraded by ectonucleotidases on either tissue. In the taenia coli the order of potency for relaxation was difluoromethylene greater than or equal to dichloromethylene greater than methylene, and this reflected the order of electronegativity of the analogues. The isopolar analogues of L-AMP-PCP were inactive in the taenia coli. In the bladder the order of potency for contraction was difluoromethylene greater than or equal to methylene greater than dichloromethylene, suggesting that electronegativity is of lesser importance here. The isopolar analogues of L-AMP-PCP were active in this tissue. The differences between the two tissues in the order of potency for these non-degradable analogues supports suggestions that P2-purinoceptors in the taenia coli (P2Y) are different from those in the bladder (P2X). The isopolar analogues of L-AMP-PCP, like L-AMP-PCP itself, were selective agonists at the P2X-purinoceptor. PMID:3580709

Cusack, N. J.; Hourani, S. M.; Loizou, G. D.; Welford, L. A.

1987-01-01

305

Neurocysticercosis causing sudden death: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an acute case of a native man from Bolivia suffered from cephalalgia which rapidly worsened and ended in his sudden and unexpected death. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was obtained. Features demonstrated on brain MRI scan were consistent with a diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC). An autopsy showed the presence of intraventricular Taenia solium (T. solium) cysts

Martinez Fernanda; Seley Celeste; Marchesi Liliana; Fontanarossa Victoria; Rodriguez Dominique; Troncoso Alcides

2010-01-01

306

Fatal infection with Taenia martis metacestodes in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in an Italian zoological garden.  

PubMed

A case of fatal infection caused by larval forms of Taenia martis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in the Rome zoological garden is described. The animal, living in a semi-natural pen with other 15 conspecific individuals and being fed with fresh fruit and vegetables, yoghurt and eggs, was transported to the Istituto Zooprofilattico of Rome for post-mortem examination. The anamnesis included, ten days before the death, apathy, lack of appetite, abdominal distension and diarrhoea. A severe exudative fibrinous-purulent peritonitis with numerous adhesions between the abdominal wall and the bowel loops was detected. After intestine removal, two free and viable, 4 cm long, whitish, leaf-like parasitic forms were pinpointed. Macroscopic examination of the two parasites allowed their identification as larval stages of cestodes, identified via molecular analysis as T. martis metacestodes. This report represents the first record of T. martis infection in the host species and in a zoological garden and for the pathological relevance of the infection. PMID:24928170

De Liberato, Claudio; Berrilli, Federica; Meoli, Roberta; Friedrich, Klaus G; Di Cerbo, Pilar; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Eleni, Claudia

2014-10-01

307

Arrhythmic Song Exposure Increases ZENK Expression in Auditory Cortical Areas and Nucleus Taeniae of the Adult Zebra Finch  

PubMed Central

Rhythm is important in the production of motor sequences such as speech and song. Deficits in rhythm processing have been implicated in human disorders that affect speech and language processing, including stuttering, autism, and dyslexia. Songbirds provide a tractable model for studying the neural underpinnings of rhythm processing due to parallels with humans in neural structures and vocal learning patterns. In this study, adult zebra finches were exposed to naturally rhythmic conspecific song or arrhythmic song. Immunohistochemistry for the immediate early gene ZENK was used to detect neural activation in response to these two types of stimuli. ZENK was increased in response to arrhythmic song in the auditory association cortex homologs, caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) and caudomedial mesopallium (CMM), and the avian amygdala, nucleus taeniae (Tn). CMM also had greater ZENK labeling in females than males. The increased neural activity in NCM and CMM during perception of arrhythmic stimuli parallels increased activity in the human auditory cortex following exposure to unexpected, or perturbed, auditory stimuli. These auditory areas may be detecting errors in arrhythmic song when comparing it to a stored template of how conspecific song is expected to sound. CMM may also be important for females in evaluating songs of potential mates. In the context of other research in songbirds, we suggest that the increased activity in Tn may be related to the value of song for assessing mate choice and bonding or it may be related to perception of arrhythmic song as aversive. PMID:25259620

Lampen, Jennifer; Jones, Katherine; McAuley, J. Devin; Chang, Soo-Eun; Wade, Juli

2014-01-01

308

Phage-displayed peptides as capture antigens in an innovative assay for Taenia saginata-infected cattle.  

PubMed

Bovine cysticercosis is detected during the routine post mortem examination of carcasses by visual inspection (knife and eye method). However, the sensitivity of this procedure is several times lower than immunoassays, even when it is performed by qualified professionals. In the present study, a new generation capture antigens were screened from a phage display peptide library using antibodies from Taenia saginata-infected animals. Eight phage clones were selected, and one, Tsag 3 (VHTSIRPRCQPRAITPR), produced similar results to the T. saginata metacestode crude antigen (TsCa) when used as a capture antigen in an ELISA. The phage-displayed peptides competed with TsCa for binding sites, reducing the reactivity by approximately 30 %. Alanine scanning indicated that proline, arginine, and serine are important residues for antibody binding. Tsag 1 (HFYQITWLPNTFPAR), the most frequent affinity-selected clone, and Tsag 6 (YRWPSTPSASRQATL) shared similarity with highly conserved proteins from the Taeniidae family with known immunogenicity. Due to their epitopic or mimotopic properties, these affinity-selected phages could contribute to the rational design of an ante mortem immunodiagnosis method for bovine cysticercosis, as well as an epitope-based vaccine to interrupt the taeniosis/cysticercosis complex. PMID:25081558

Fogaça, Rafaela L; Capelli-Peixoto, Janaína; Yamanaka, Isabel B; de Almeida, Rodrigo P M; Muzzi, João Carlos D; Borges, Mariangela; Costa, Alvimar J; Chávez-Olortegui, Carlos; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Alvarenga, Larissa M; de Moura, Juliana

2014-11-01

309

Purification and characterization of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci thioredoxin: insight into thioredoxin-glutathione-reductase (TGR) substrate recognition.  

PubMed

Thioredoxin (Trx) is an oxidoreductase central to redox homeostasis in cells and is involved in the regulation of protein activity through thiol/disulfide exchanges. Based on these facts, our goal was to purify and characterize cytosolic thioredoxin from Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, as well as to study its behavior as a substrate of thioredoxin-glutathione reductase (TGR). The enzyme was purified >133-fold with a total yield of 9.7%. A molecular mass of 11.7kDa and a pI of 4.84 were measured. Native electrophoresis was used to identify the oxidized and reduced forms of the monomer as well as the presence of a homodimer. In addition to the catalytic site cysteines, cysticerci thioredoxin contains Cys28 and Cys65 residues conserved in previously sequenced cestode thioredoxins. The following kinetic parameters were obtained for the substrate of TGR: a Km of 3.1?M, a kcat of 10s(-1) and a catalytic efficiency of 3.2×10(6)M(-1)s(-1). The negative patch around the ?3-helix of Trx is involved in the interaction with TGR and suggests variable specificity and catalytic efficiency of the reductase toward thioredoxins of different origins. PMID:25523293

Martínez-González, J J; Guevara-Flores, A; Rendón, J L; Sosa-Peinado, A; Del Arenal Mena, I P

2015-04-01

310

Extraction of nucleic acids from ancient formalin- and ethanol-preserved specimens of the tapeworm Bertiella studeri: which method works best?  

PubMed

In this study we show that intact DNA can be recovered from both alcohol- and formalin-preserved specimens of the parasitic tapeworm Bertiella studeri for >1 yr after the original fixation and can be successfully amplified and quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Three different DNA extraction techniques on formalin- and alcohol-fixed material were evaluated to determine which is best suited for obtaining DNA of sufficient yield and purity to be used in downstream applications such as RT-PCR. These techniques included a first organic extraction procedure with an extensive washing step based on a glycine-containing buffer, a second organic extraction procedure that omits the glycine-containing buffer and halves the number of washes in organic solvents, and a third procedure that involves the use of a silica-based DNA binding column from Qiagen(©). The quality of extracted DNA was first examined by agarose gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining and the concentrations were evaluated by OD260. We then used an RT-PCR Applied Biosystems TaqMan® Fluorogenic 5' Nuclease Gene Expression Assay based on the detection of a universal eukaryotic 18S rRNA gene sequence to evaluate the efficiency of the 3 methods. Here we report that, first, the use of a silica column-based DNA extraction technique results in the maximum yield of DNA, on average 55% higher than for the organic extraction methods; second, the use of glycine as a formaldehyde-binding agent in the washing buffer does not necessarily result in a better DNA yield and; third, specimens preserved in ethanol result in significantly higher yields of amplifiable DNA than do specimens preserved in formalin. We, therefore, strongly recommend the use of ethanol as the appropriate fixative if specimens are to be used for molecular work. This is the first report of DNA extraction from preserved specimens of Bertiella studeri. PMID:23234306

Taleb-Hossenkhan, Nawsheen; Bhagwant, Suress; Gourrege, Noelle

2013-06-01

311

Distribution of Taenia saginata metacestodes: a comparison of routine meat inspection and carcase dissection results in experimentally infected calves.  

PubMed

A comparison of techniques for detecting the presence of Cysticercus bovis in bovine carcasses was made by using carcass dissection and routine beef inspection guidelines. In the study, 28 calves were used after they were tested and found to be negative for the presence of anti-C. bovis serum antibodies and were inoculated orally with aliquots containing 6×10(4) Taenia saginata eggs. One hundred and twenty days after inoculation, the animals were slaughtered and a post mortem evaluation was done following Brazilian Federal Beef Inspection guidelines. This routine meat inspection was able to identify 71·42% of the assessed infected carcasses as being parasitized. This result implies that 28·58% of the infected carcasses would have been released as fit for human consumption since they would have been considered as free of C. bovis infection when using this method for carcass assessment. Only 3·07% of the total 2311 metacestodes present in the carcasses were identified by the conventional procedures of sanitary inspection. The assessment of different parts of the carcasses showed high infestation rates in shoulder clod (14·37%), head (11·21%), neck+chuck roll (8·05%), heart (7·75%) and top (inside) round (7·18%) which, together, were responsible for housing 48·51% of all the cysts found in the 24 beef cuts assessed. These numbers contrasted to the low incidence of cysts found in organs such as tongue (3·12%), diaphragm (1·69%) and esophagus (1·60%) which are usually described as predilection sites for the parasite. PMID:21929881

Soares, V E; De Andrade Belo, M A; Rezende, P C B; Soccol, V T; Fukuda, R T; De Ooliveira, G P; Da Costa, A J

2011-07-01

312

Evaluation of a serological method for the detection of Taenia saginata cysticercosis using serum and meat juice samples.  

PubMed

Two peptides, HP6-2 and Ts45S-10, were used as antigens for the detection of antibodies against Taenia saginata cysticercosis in serum and meat juice samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positive control samples were obtained from animals experimentally infected (serum) and from animals naturally infected (meat juice). The two peptides and a pooled preparation of both peptides were evaluated, and their cut-off points with both sample categories were calculated. ELISA results from these different peptides were compared. Sensitivity and specificity of HP6-2 using serum were calculated as being 100 and 98%, respectively, showing to be higher than the values for the other antigens used. The average optical density (OD) value for negative samples was 0.646, whereas it was 1.702 for the positive control samples. This peptide was used to examine serum samples from animals with cysts and random field serum samples. For meat juice samples the pooled peptides showed the highest sensitivity and specificity, as they were 100 and 95%, respectively. The average OD values for the negative and the positive reference meat juice samples were 0.379 and 1.291, respectively. The optimal dilution of the meat juice samples for the ELISA was very low, as it was 1:20 using the pooled peptides, compared with 1:800 serum dilution using HP6-2. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a successful testing for T. saginata cysticercosis using meat juice. PMID:17216238

Abuseir, S; Kühne, M; Schnieder, T; Klein, G; Epe, C

2007-06-01

313

Distribution of Taenia saginata metacestodes: a comparison of routine meat inspection and carcase dissection results in experimentally infected calves  

PubMed Central

A comparison of techniques for detecting the presence of Cysticercus bovis in bovine carcasses was made by using carcass dissection and routine beef inspection guidelines. In the study, 28 calves were used after they were tested and found to be negative for the presence of anti-C. bovis serum antibodies and were inoculated orally with aliquots containing 6×104 Taenia saginata eggs. One hundred and twenty days after inoculation, the animals were slaughtered and a post mortem evaluation was done following Brazilian Federal Beef Inspection guidelines. This routine meat inspection was able to identify 71.42% of the assessed infected carcasses as being parasitized. This result implies that 28.58% of the infected carcasses would have been released as fit for human consumption since they would have been considered as free of C. bovis infection when using this method for carcass assessment. Only 3.07% of the total 2311 metacestodes present in the carcasses were identified by the conventional procedures of sanitary inspection. The assessment of different parts of the carcasses showed high infestation rates in shoulder clod (14.37%), head (11.21%), neck+chuck roll (8.05%), heart (7.75%) and top (inside) round (7.18%) which, together, were responsible for housing 48.51% of all the cysts found in the 24 beef cuts assessed. These numbers contrasted to the low incidence of cysts found in organs such as tongue (3.12%), diaphragm (1.69%) and esophagus (1.60%) which are usually described as predilection sites for the parasite. PMID:21929881

SOARES, V E; DE ANDRADE BELO, M A; REZENDE, P C B; SOCCOL, V T; FUKUDA, R T; DE OLIVEIRA, G P; DA COSTA, A J

2011-01-01

314

Morphological polymorphism in tapeworms: redescription of Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) and characterisation of its morphotypes from different fish hosts.  

PubMed

Recent morphological and molecular data have shown that one of the most common parasites of freshwater fish in the Palaearctic Region, the cestode Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (Eucestoda: Caryophyllidea), is highly polymorphic. Five distinct morphotypes of C. laticeps, largely corresponding to different fish hosts and representing separate, yet closely related genetic lineages, have been recognised and they are characterised in the present paper. Morphotype 1 from breams, Abramis brama (L.) (type-host) and Ballerus spp., corresponds to the original Taenia laticeps Pallas, 1781 and its neotype (paragenophore ex A. brama in Russia) is designated. This morphotype is characterised by a slender body and flabellate scolex. Morphotype 2 was found in the Macedonian vimba Vimba melanops (Heckel) and the vimba bream V. vimba (L.); it is typified by a more robust body, with most anterior extent of the vitelline follicles near the scolex and the cirrus-sac situated more anteriorly than in other morphotypes. Morphotype 3 is represented by worms from the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. that possess a cuneicrispitate scolex (having the form of a wedge with shallow indentations on anterior margin). Morphotype 4 from the common nase Chondrostoma nasus (L.) has a large, robust body and a wide scolex with numerous superficial grooves (wrinkles) in its anterior part. Morphotype 5 is represented by worms from the white-eye bream Ballerus sapa (Pallas); its typical characteristics are a festoon-like anterior margin of the scolex, the absence of vitelline follicles posterior to the cirrus-sac and the absence of a well-developed internal seminal vesicle. Discriminant analysis of 15 morphometric variables readily separated Morphotypes 3, 4 and 5 and confirmed the key discriminating power of traits related to the reproductive system, especially the terminal reproductive organs. Morphological polymorphism and the genetic divergence of different morphotypes of C. laticeps correspond to its wide spectrum of fish definitive hosts and a large distribution area that includes Europe, most of Palaearctic Asia and northern Africa. PMID:25655116

Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Oros, Mikuláš; Bar?ák, Daniel; Miklisová, Dana; Kirin, Diana; Scholz, Tomáš

2015-02-01

315

Force response to rapid length change during contraction and rigor in skinned smooth muscle of guinea-pig taenia coli.  

PubMed Central

1. Mechanical transients in fibre bundles of skinned smooth muscle of guinea-pig taenia coli at 21-22 degrees C were investigated by recording tension responses to length changes of up to 9%, complete within 0.3 ms. 2. The length-force relationship, recorded continuously during rapid stretch of a Ca(2+)-activated contracted muscle, was linear up to at least 2.5 times the isometric force, corresponding to a stretch of about 1%. The slope of the relationship (stiffness) increased with the velocity of stretch. 3. During rapid release (about 120 muscle lengths s-1) the length-force relationship was linear down to about 50% of the initial isometric force, reached at about 80 microseconds after the beginning of the release. At lower force the length-force relationship was concave upwards. The linear portion extrapolated to zero force at about -0.008 muscle lengths. In large releases the length-force plot approached the force baseline under an acute angle, and negative force was transiently exerted. 4. When the muscle was stretched back to the initial length after a shortening step, force transiently rose above the isometric force, but decayed back within a few milliseconds. Stiffness at the time of restretch was compared with that in the initial shortening step by plotting force vs. length, and was found to be decreased to 63% within 0.3 ms of a step to zero force. Stiffness decreased further with time at zero force, and after 256 ms was about 29% of the isometric value. 5. In rigor, caused by the introduction of ATP-free solution during the plateau of isometric contraction, fibre tension decreased to about 30% of the active tension, whereas stiffness relative to force increased; 82% of the initial stiffness in rigor was detected in a restretch immediately after a shortening step, decreasing to 59% at 256 ms. When the fibre was activated at suboptimal [Ca2+] to cause the same force as in rigor, stiffness was lower than in rigor and decreased more after a release. 6. After completion of a release-stretch cycle, stiffness was rapidly restored to the same value as in isometric contraction. Test stretches at different points in time after completion of the cycle revealed that most of the stiffness had been restored within 1 ms of the restretch, occurring concomitantly with a decay in force.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1798045

Arheden, H; Hellstrand, P

1991-01-01

316

New Insights in Cysticercosis Transmission  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium infection causes severe neurological disease in humans. Even though infection and exposure to swine cysticercosis is scattered throughout endemic villages, location of the tapeworm only explains some of the nearby infections and is not related to location of seropositive pigs. Other players might be involved in cysticercosis transmission. In this study we hypothesize that pigs that carry nematodes specific to dung beetles are associated with cysticercosis infection and/or exposure. We carried out a cross-sectional study of six villages in an endemic region in northern Peru. We euthanized all pigs (326) in the villages and performed necropsies to diagnose cysticercosis. For each pig, we counted cysticerci; measured anti-cysticercus antibodies; identified intestinal nematodes; tabulated distance to nearest human tapeworm infection; and recorded age, sex, productive stage, and geographic reference. For the purpose of this paper, we defined cysticercosis infection as the presence of at least one cysticercus in pig muscles, and cysticercosis exposure as seropositivity to anti-cysticercus antibodies with the presence of 0–5 cysticerci. Compared to pigs without nematode infections, those pigs infected with the nematode Ascarops strongylina were significantly associated with the presence of cysticerci (OR: 4.30, 95%CI: 1.83–10.09). Similarly, pigs infected with the nematode Physocephalus sexalatus were more likely to have cysticercosis exposure (OR: 2.21, 95%CI: 1.50–3.28). In conclusion, our results suggest that there appears to be a strong positive association between the presence of nematodes and both cysticercosis infection and exposure in pigs. The role of dung beetles in cysticercosis dynamics should be further investigated. PMID:25329903

Arriola, Carmen S.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A.; Lopez-Urbina, Maria T.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

2014-01-01

317

Budding of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in vitro is promoted by crowding in addition to hormonal, stress, and energy-related signals.  

PubMed

Taenia crassiceps cysticerci (cysts) reproduce by budding. The cysts' production of buds was measured in vitro to explore parasite and environmental-related factors involved in the extreme individual variation in parasite loads of inbred mice. Cysts were placed in in vitro culture for 10 days at initial parasite densities of 1, 5, 10 cysts/well in 1 ml of RPMI Medium 1640 without serum. Results showed that there is considerable intrinsic initial variation among inoculated cysts in their production of buds and that increasing parasite density (crowding) stimulates the overall production of buds and recruit into budding most of the cysts. Identical cultures were then subjected to various treatments such as heating and exposure to peroxide to induce stress, or to 17beta-estradiol, insulin, glucose, or insulin+glucose to supplement putatively limiting hormonal and energy resources. All treatments increased budding but the parasites' strong budding response to crowding alone overshadows the other treatments. PMID:20168999

Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Ostoa-Jacobo, Pedro; Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Bazúa, Silvana; Larralde, Carlos

2010-01-01

318

Budding of Taenia crassiceps Cysticerci In Vitro Is Promoted by Crowding in Addition to Hormonal, Stress, and Energy-Related Signals  

PubMed Central

Taenia crassiceps cysticerci (cysts) reproduce by budding. The cysts' production of buds was measured in vitro to explore parasite and environmental-related factors involved in the extreme individual variation in parasite loads of inbred mice. Cysts were placed in in vitro culture for 10 days at initial parasite densities of 1, 5, 10 cysts/well in 1?ml of RPMI Medium 1640 without serum. Results showed that there is considerable intrinsic initial variation among inoculated cysts in their production of buds and that increasing parasite density (crowding) stimulates the overall production of buds and recruit into budding most of the cysts. Identical cultures were then subjected to various treatments such as heating and exposure to peroxide to induce stress, or to 17ß-estradiol, insulin, glucose, or insulin+glucose to supplement putatively limiting hormonal and energy resources. All treatments increased budding but the parasites' strong budding response to crowding alone overshadows the other treatments. PMID:20168999

Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Ostoa-Jacobo, Pedro; Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Bazúa, Silvana; Larralde, Carlos

2010-01-01

319

Antiparasitic treatment of cerebral cysticercosis: lessons and experiences from China.  

PubMed

Cysticercosis is a tropical disease caused by infection with the larval stage of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Humans and pigs acquire cysticercosis by ingesting T. solium eggs shed in the feces of humans with taeniasis (i.e., infected with an adult intestinal tapeworm). Cerebral cysticercosis occurs when the cysts of T. solium develop within the central nervous system, and it is the primary cause of illness in T. solium infection. Currently, cerebral cysticercosis is endemic worldwide, and it is a leading cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. However, it is now increasingly detected in developed countries due to the immigration of T. solium carriers from the endemic areas. The antiparasitic treatment of cerebral cysticercosis remains controversial till now. In China, except a few cases who conform to the contraindicated criteria of antiparasitic therapy, most cerebral cysticercosis patients with symptoms and signs are given etiological treatment. This paper reviews the antiparasitic therapy of cerebral cysticercosis in China during the past several decades. Praziquantel treatment with different regimens has been used, and various efficacies are achieved. In the early stage, unsatisfactory therapeutic efficacy was achieved due to small doses and short treatment courses. Afterwards, the therapeutic efficacy became increasingly remarkable in both adults and children with the increases in dosage and courses. Albendazole also presents activity against cysticercosis with slow and moderate action, and it has been widely used in the treatment of the infection. The comparison between praziquantel and albendazole treatments showed that the immediate and short-term effects of albendazole treatment were better than those of praziquantel treatment, but similar mid- and long-term efficacies were observed following albendazole and praziquantel treatments. The combination of albendazole and praziquantel treatments can increase the therapeutic efficacy, and now, from the massive clinical practices, most of Chinese clinical specialists propose the combination therapy of albendazole and praziquantel for cerebral cysticercosis with simultaneous administration of steroids, especially in the first course. In addition, administration of praziquantel at a high dose can become a diagnostic treatment for suspected cerebral cysticercosis and serve as a supplement of the currently available diagnostic methods, such as diagnoses based on the clinical features, immunology, CT and MRI imaging, etc., in some atypical cerebral cysticercosis patients. Praziquantel and albendazole treatments have some adverse reactions, and to control these adverse effects, all the cerebral cysticercosis patients should be treated in hospital. According to the type of cerebral cysticercosis, especially for intracranial hypertension type and meningocephalitis type, the dosages of anti-cysticercus drugs need to follow a gradually increasing pattern. During the period of anti-cysticercosis treatments, steroids and/or dehydrating agents need be administered which can alleviate the intracranial hypertension and so on. Traditional Chinese medicines have been also used in the treatment of cerebral cysticercosis and achieve satisfactory outcomes. However, the compound prescription of traditional Chinese medicines is very complex, and the effective components are not fully clear. Some cerebral cysticercosis patients with very high intracranial tension could not receive antiparasitic treatment immediately, and surgical treatment is required. Chinese surgeons also achieve some successful experiences, but not all the cysticercus can be removed completely during the surgery. Therefore, antiparasitic drugs are still needed after the operation. The rehabilitative treatment is supplementary in the therapy of cerebral cysticercosis. In China, the rehabilitative treatment of cerebral cysticercosis is still at the initial stage. These lessons and experiences in China can be shared with medical staff and researchers from other countries where the disease is endemic. PMI

Wu, Wei; Jia, Fengju; Wang, Wei; Huang, Yixin; Huang, Yong

2013-08-01

320

Taenia saginata metacestode antigenic fractions obtained by ion-exchange chromatography: potential source of immunodominant markers applicable in the immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to fractionate and partially characterize fractions obtained from the total saline extract (SE) of Taenia saginata metacestodes after ion-exchange procedure in carboxymethyl sepharose (CM) and diethylaminoethyl sepharose (DEAE) resins, as a source of antigenic markers applicable in the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC). For IgG detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting, 140 serum samples were analyzed: 45 from patients with NCC (G1), 50 from patients with other parasitic infections (G2), and 45 from healthy individuals. Sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), area under curve (AUC), and likelihood ratios (LR) were calculated. CM S2 and DEAE S2 fractions provided high diagnostic values (Se 88.8% and 93.4%; Sp 93.7% and 92.6%; AUC 0.965 and 0.987; LR+ 14.07 and 12.67; LR- 0.11 and 0.07, respectively). In conclusion, CM S2 and DEAE S2 fractions are important sources of specific peptides, with high efficiency to diagnose NCC. PMID:23433713

Nunes, Daniela da Silva; Gonzaga, Henrique Tomaz; Ribeiro, Vanessa da Silva; da Cunha, Jair Pereira; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

2013-05-01

321

Anti-oxidant activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase enzymes in skeletal muscles from slaughter cattle infected with Taenia saginata.  

PubMed

It is known that highly reactive oxygene species produced during normal cellular metabolism represent a powerful effector mechanism against parasites. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) belong to the main defense anti-oxidants that prevent the formation of new free radical species. The aim of this study was to assess the activities of SOD and GPx in cattle tissues infected with Taenia saginata. We observed a statistically significant increase in the SOD and GPx activities (p=0.00003, 0.00008, respectively, Student's t-test) in skeletal muscles infected with T. saginata in spectrophotometric analysis. With the use of western blot technique, SOD synthesis stimulation has appeared in the host tissues containing cysticerci in contrast with the control samples. There was no statistically significant increase in the GPx band intensity observed in the studied samples in comparison to controls (Gene Tools Version 4.01 program). These results support the significance of anti-oxidant processes in host defense mechanism during parasitic infections. PMID:21272584

?uszczak, Joanna; Ziaja-So?tys, Marta; Rzymowska, Jolanta

2011-06-01

322

Receptor for catecholamines responding to catechol which potentiates voltage-dependent calcium current in single cells from guinea-pig taenia caeci.  

PubMed

1. Single isolated cells were obtained from the taenia of the guinea-pig's caecum by enzymic digestion and held under voltage clamp. The effects of various catecholamines, sympathomimetics and related compounds were tested for their ability to potentiate the voltage-dependent calcium current (ICa) evoked in these cells by a depolarizing step. 2. ICa was potentiated by up to 60% by isoprenaline, adrenaline, and noradrenaline which were equipotent. The EC50 for isoprenaline was about 40 nM. 3. The racemic mixtures of the optical isomers of isoprenaline, adrenaline, and noradrenaline, and (+)-isoprenaline, were equipotent with the (-)-isomers of these drugs. Dopamine, L-dopa, and catechol were equipotent with these catecholamines. 4. Removal or substitution of one or more of the hydroxy groups of the catechol moiety, as in phenylephrine, salbutamol, procaterol, methoxamine, terbutaline, BRL 37344, ICI 215001 or tyramine substantially reduced efficacy and/or potency. 5. The adrenoceptor blockers propranolol, phentolamine, dihydroergotamine, atenolol, CGP 20712A and ICI 118551, or the dopamine receptor blockers, haloperidol or flupenthixol, did not block the potentiating action of catechol or the catecholamines. 6. The receptor activated by catecholamines to increase ICa we suggest should be called a C-receptor in view of its sensitivity to catechol. It may arise by enzymic modification of a conventional adrenoceptor but its transduction also involves a novel mechanism which might indicate that it is present in the muscle cells before enzyme treatment. PMID:8032602

Muraki, K; Bolton, T B; Imaizumi, Y; Watanabe, M

1994-04-01

323

Receptor for catecholamines responding to catechol which potentiates voltage-dependent calcium current in single cells from guinea-pig taenia caeci.  

PubMed Central

1. Single isolated cells were obtained from the taenia of the guinea-pig's caecum by enzymic digestion and held under voltage clamp. The effects of various catecholamines, sympathomimetics and related compounds were tested for their ability to potentiate the voltage-dependent calcium current (ICa) evoked in these cells by a depolarizing step. 2. ICa was potentiated by up to 60% by isoprenaline, adrenaline, and noradrenaline which were equipotent. The EC50 for isoprenaline was about 40 nM. 3. The racemic mixtures of the optical isomers of isoprenaline, adrenaline, and noradrenaline, and (+)-isoprenaline, were equipotent with the (-)-isomers of these drugs. Dopamine, L-dopa, and catechol were equipotent with these catecholamines. 4. Removal or substitution of one or more of the hydroxy groups of the catechol moiety, as in phenylephrine, salbutamol, procaterol, methoxamine, terbutaline, BRL 37344, ICI 215001 or tyramine substantially reduced efficacy and/or potency. 5. The adrenoceptor blockers propranolol, phentolamine, dihydroergotamine, atenolol, CGP 20712A and ICI 118551, or the dopamine receptor blockers, haloperidol or flupenthixol, did not block the potentiating action of catechol or the catecholamines. 6. The receptor activated by catecholamines to increase ICa we suggest should be called a C-receptor in view of its sensitivity to catechol. It may arise by enzymic modification of a conventional adrenoceptor but its transduction also involves a novel mechanism which might indicate that it is present in the muscle cells before enzyme treatment. PMID:8032602

Muraki, K.; Bolton, T. B.; Imaizumi, Y.; Watanabe, M.

1994-01-01

324

Taeniasis and cysticercosis in Bali and North Sumatra, Indonesia.  

PubMed

It has been reported that three human Taenia species are distributed in Indonesia: Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata. T. asiatica is well known in North Sumatra, especially on Samosir island in Lake Toba. T. solium and T. saginata are known from Bali. T. solium is most serious public health issue in Papua (former Irian Jaya). In this report, we briefly review the present situation of these three human Taenia species mainly in Bali and North Sumatra. For community based epidemiological survey, we have adopted and applied questionnaire, microscopic observation of eggs, coproantigen tests, coproDNA tests, mitochondrial DNA analysis and morphology for isolated specimens, serology for cysticercosis and taeniasis. For detection of taeniasis cases of both T. saginata and T. asiatica, questionnaire by expert doctors is perfect to detect worm carriers. Corpoantigen test developed for detection of taeniasis of T. solium is also highly reliable to detect taeniasis carriers in the community. Epidemiological data from these two islands 2002-2005 are reviewed with backgrounds of historical culture, religions and customs. PMID:16376140

Wandra, Toni; Depary, A A; Sutisna, Putu; Margono, Sri S; Suroso, Thomas; Okamoto, Munehiro; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira

2006-01-01

325

[Evaluation of epidemiological situation of cestode infections in Poland in the years 1997-2006 on the basis of data from san-epid stations].  

PubMed

Between 1997-2006, 3,523 intestinal cestode infections were registered in Poland. Among them 2,748 were caused by Taenia saginata, 41 by T. solium, 533 by Taenia species, 20 by Hymenolepis nana, 5 by Hymenolepis diminuta, 11 by Diphyllobothrium latum, 3 by Dipylidium caninum. Moreover, 350 cases of cystic echinococcosis and 8 cases of cysticercosis were also registered. The obtained results confirmed decreasing frequency of intestinal cestodoses in Poland. PMID:21473070

Waloch, Maria; Sobolewska, Alicja; Dzbe?ski, Tadeusz H

2010-01-01

326

Strategies of statistical image analysis of 2D immunoblots: the case of IgG response in experimental Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis.  

PubMed

A procedure is described to measure the diversity and enrich the meaning and usefulness of the information contained in 2D immunoblot images of the reaction between a complex mixture of parasite antigens and the complex set of antibodies usually present in the sera of infected individual hosts. The procedure and results are illustrated by the experimental infection of 30 mice (three strains, both sexes, 5 mice in each strain x sex combination) with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, thirty days after the challenge. The exercise revealed a significant positive correlation of parasite loads with the hosts' IgG response, in association with their genetic background and less clearly with their sex, all in the midst of a remarkable diversity of both response variables among individual mice. After superimposing a 10 x 10 grid upon the 2D immunoblots some 10% of the positive grid-cells (those who had at least one spot) were positively correlated, suggesting shared epitopes between different antigen spots and/or similar factors controlling different antibody-producing cell clones. Also, a significant correlation was found between many of the positive grid-cells with high values of [Sigma]parasites, but none with low. Thus, the procedure provided many clues for the selection of antigen spots useful to improve immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis and weakened the inclusion of any as vaccine candidate(s). However, some 16 antigen spots were shared almost exclusively by the resistant strains and could relate to protection. The procedure here illustrated may be used in other infections to assess and identify the relevance of antibodies in diagnosis and prevention, as well as provides a measurement of the expected diversity in the hosts' antibody response to the pathogen and of the possible relations between the individual responses towards different antigens contained in the mixture. PMID:19800348

Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Ostoa-Jacobo, Pedro; Larralde, Carlos

2009-12-31

327

Calcium-induced increase in membrane permeability in the guinea-pig taenia coli: evidence for involvement of a sodium-calcium exchange mechanism.  

PubMed Central

1. High-Na tissues exposed to a Na-free solution with dimethyldiethanol ammonium chloride (DDA) or sucrose replacing Na, develop an increase in membrane permeability to small ions and molecules such as Na, K, sucrose and CoEDTA. 2. The increase in permeability only occurs when the Na gradient across the cell membrane is reversed, and is not due to damaging effects of the Na-free solution. It does not occur in normal or high-K tissues, and 15 mM-[Na]0 is enough to prevent the permeability change in high-Na tissues. 3. Tissues with increased permeability maintain high levels of Ca and the increased permeability does not occur in Ca-free solutions, or in solutions containing 5 mM-La3+. The rate of development of membrane leakiness depends on the level of extracellular Ca. 4. Tissues exposed to iodoacetic acid (IAA) and dinitrophenol (DNP) also develop a membrane leakiness, dependent on extracellular Ca and blocked by La3+. 5. The time taken for development of the increase in membrane permeability in metabolically inhibited tissues can be affected by the Na gradient. With no gradient, or a slightly reversed gradient the membrane break-down occurs more rapidly. 6. It is concluded that the increase in permeability is caused by an increase in internal Ca ions, and that the Na gradient as well as the levels of ATP are important in controlling Ca movements. 7. Tension recordings also support the some form of Na--Ca exchange mechanism operating in the taenia, and this mechanism is not completely blocked by La3+ ions, although they suppress the break-down in membrane permeability. PMID:633162

Brading, A F

1978-01-01

328

Neurocysticercosis in a European traveler returning from India primarily suspected as neoplasia.  

PubMed

A woman with a history of cured breast cancer and multiple trips to India presented with a cervical nodule. Primarily suspected as metastasis of breast cancer, histopathology, however, showed the scolex of Taenia solium. Although the patient was neurologically asymptomatic neuroimaging showed multiple cysts. During treatment with praziquantel, albendazole, and dexamethason the patient developed seizures. PMID:23992578

Salzer, Helmut J F; Hoenigl, Martin; Valentin, Thomas; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Krause, Robert

2013-01-01

329

Human neurocysticercosis: immunological features involved in the host's susceptibility to become infected and to develop disease.  

PubMed

Human neurocysticercosis (NC) is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous disease caused by the establishment of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. Herein, the immunological and endocrinological features involved in resistance to infection and severe forms of the disease are reviewed, and their clinical relevance is discussed. PMID:23542217

Sciutto, Edda; Cárdenas, Graciela; Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Fragoso, Gladis; Larralde, Carlos; Fleury, Agnes

2013-06-01

330

Genes encoding homologous antigens in taeniid cestode parasites  

PubMed Central

Recombinant vaccine antigens are being evaluated for their ability to protect livestock animals against cysticercosis and related parasitic infections. Practical use of some of these vaccines is expected to reduce parasite transmission, leading to a reduction in the incidence of neurocysticercosis and hydatid disease in humans. We recently showed that an antigen (TSOL16), expressed in Escherichia coli, confers high levels of protection against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs, which provides a strategy for control of T. solium parasite transmission. Here, we discuss the characteristics of this antigen that may affect the utility of TSOL16 and related antigens for development as recombinant vaccines. We also report that genes encoding antigens closely related to TSOL16 from T. solium also occur in other related species of parasites. These highly homologous antigens have the potential to be used as vaccines and may provide protection against related species of Taenia that cause infection in other hosts. PMID:23090389

Gauci, Charles; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

2013-01-01

331

Historic of therapeutic efficacy of albendazol sulphoxide administered in different routes, dosages and treatment schemes, against Taenia saginata cysticercus in cattle experimentally infected.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to notify the history of albendazole sulphoxide (ALB-SO) and albendazole (ALBZ) efficacy against Taenia saginata cysticercus (Cysticercus bovis) parasitizing experimentally infected bovines. A total of 11 efficacy trials were performed between the years of 2002 and 2010. In order to perform these trials, animals were individually inoculated with 2×10(4) eggs of T. saginata in each study's day zero (D0). For every trial, a positive control group (untreated infected animals) and a negative control group (animals that were neither infected nor treated) were used. ALB-SO or ALB were administered in the different dosages, in different days of treatments. In a last study with this formulation, this active principle was administered orally, mixed with the mineral supplement, on the 60th DPI, in a dosage of 30mg/kg. In all trials, on the 100th DPI, all animals were euthanized and submitted to the sequenced slicing of 26 anatomical segments (fragments of approximately five millimeters) for the survey of T. saginata cysticercus. With the obtained results it is possible to verify that in the first trials, conducted in 2002, ALB-SO reached, independently of dosage and treatment scheme, efficacies superior to 98% (arithmetic means). The trials conducted in 2005 (2.5mg/kg on the 30th, 60th, and 90th DPI) obtained values of efficacy all inferior to 60%. In 2008, the trials with 2.5 and 7.7mg/kg demonstrated efficacy values inferior to 40%, for both dosages and treatment schemes (30th/60th/90th DPI and 60th DPI). When this formulation was administered orally on the dosage of 30mg/kg on the 60th DPI, the efficacy against T. saginata cysticercus reached 88.28%. ALB administered orally showed efficacy values of 0.0%, 29.88% and 28.64% in the dosages of 5, 10 and 15mg/kg, respectively, using the treatment schemes described above for each dosage. Based on the results of these trials, conducted in an eight year period (2002-2010) using the sequenced slicing method for evaluating the efficacy of the aforementioned formulations against T. saginata cysticercus, it is possible to observe that, amongst the few molecules used in the chemotherapic treatment against T. saginata larvae, ALB-SO, administered in varied routes, dosages and treatment schemes, the studies conducted in 2008, 2009, and 2010, have a low therapeutic efficacy against C. bovis in Brazil, while ALBZ had insignificant efficacy values against T. saginata larvae parasitizing experimentally infected bovines. However, future studies using molecular biology will be necessary to assess whether the difference on the efficacy of the ALB-SO can be related to strain or another specific factor. PMID:24309372

Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Soares, Vando Edésio; Nunes, Jorge Luis N; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Buzzulini, Carolina; Pereira, João Carlos Melo; Felippelli, Gustavo; Soccol, Vanette Thomaz; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José

2014-02-01

332

Current Status of Taeniasis in Thailand  

PubMed Central

Taeniasis is prevalent in all regions of Thailand, except the South. Infections were more frequently found in males than females of any age from 7-83 years. Taenia saginata is the most common species throughout the country. Taenia asiatica was reported only in the province of Kanchanaburi in the Central region. Co-infections, with Taenia solium and T. asiatica or T. solium and T. saginata, were found. Hybridization between T. asiatica and T. saginata is evidence that co-infection is never found between these 2 species. Finding more than 1 worm in a single patient was not entirely rare. Genetic variation was found without correlation to its geographic distribution in T. saginata, whereas no variation was found in T. asiatica. PMID:23467328

2013-01-01

333

Glutathione transferases in the tapeworm Moniezia expansa.  

PubMed Central

Four forms of GSH transferase were resolved from Moniezia expansa cytosol by GSH-Sepharose affinity chromatography and chromatofocusing in the range pH 6-4, and the presence of isoenzymes was further suggested by analytical isoelectric focusing. The four GSH transferase forms in the cestode showed no clear biochemical relationship to any one mammalian GSH transferase family. The N-terminal of the major GSH transferase form showed sequence homology with the Mu and Alpha family GSH transferases. The major GSH transferase appeared to bind a number of commercially available anthelmintics but did not appear to conjugate the compounds with GSH. The major GSH transferase efficiently conjugated members of the trans-alk-2-enal and trans,trans-alka-2,4-dienal series, established secondary products of lipid peroxidation. Images Fig. 3. PMID:2590177

Brophy, P M; Southan, C; Barrett, J

1989-01-01

334

[Tapeworm fauna of gallinaceans (Galliformes) of Vietnam].  

PubMed

131 specimens of 3 species of Galliformes from Vietnam were investigated (Gallus gallus dom., G. g. jaboruillei, Francolinus pintadeanus and Lophora nycthemerus). In them 9 species of cestodes were found as follows: Davainea proglottina (Davainea, 1860), Cotugnia digonopora (Pasquale, 1890), Raillietina tetragona (Molin, 1858), R. echinobothrida (Megnin, 1880), Skrjabinia cesticillus (Molin, 1858), Paroniella tinguiana Tubangui et Masilungan, 1937, Amoebotaenia cuneata (Linstow, 1872), Echinolepis carioca (Magalhaes, 1898), Dilepidoides bauchei (Joyeux, 1924). In domestic hens there were found all 9 species of cestodes while in wild Galliformes--only 7, which are mentioned for them for the first time. PMID:733321

Nguen Thi, K y; Dubinina, M N

1978-01-01

335

Comparison of the histological methods in the diagnostic of deer cysticercosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Histochemical methods for the detection and diagnosis of the developmental stages of the canine tapeworm, from the genus Taenia found in the heart and lungs of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) hunted in Eastern Slovakia, is presented here. Detailed morphology of cysticerci (Cysticercus spp.), based on microscopic and histochemical analysis is described. For confirmation and demonstration

M. Goldová; Š. Tóth; V. Letková; J. Mojžišová; I. Kožarová; M. Pomfy

2008-01-01

336

Human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea: hidden or gone?  

PubMed

History and current status of human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea, due to Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, and Taenia saginata, are briefly reviewed. Until the 1980s, human taeniasis had been quite common in various localities of Korea. A study from 1924 reported 12.0% egg prevalence in fecal examinations. Thereafter, the prevalence of Taenia spp. ranged from 3% to 14% depending on the time and locality. Jeju-do, where pigs were reared in a conventional way, was the highest endemic area of taeniasis. An analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 genes of 68 taeniasis cases reported from 1935 to 2005 in Korea by a research group revealed the relative occurrence of the 3 Taenia spp. as follows: T. solium (4.4%), T. asiatica (75.0%), and T. saginata (20.6%). However, national surveys on intestinal helminths conducted every 5 years on randomly selected people revealed that the Taenia egg prevalence dropped from 1.9% in 1971 to 0.02% in 1997 and finally to 0.0% in 2004. With the exception of 3 egg-positive cases reported in 2008 and 2 worm-proven cases in 2011, no more cases have been officially recorded. Based on these surveys and also on other literature, it can be concluded that taeniasis has virtually disappeared from Korea, although a few sporadic cases may remain hidden. Human cysticercosis is also expected to disappear within a couple of decades in Korea. PMID:23467688

Chai, Jong-Yil

2013-02-01

337

Human Taeniasis in the Republic of Korea: Hidden or Gone?  

PubMed Central

History and current status of human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea, due to Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, and Taenia saginata, are briefly reviewed. Until the 1980s, human taeniasis had been quite common in various localities of Korea. A study from 1924 reported 12.0% egg prevalence in fecal examinations. Thereafter, the prevalence of Taenia spp. ranged from 3% to 14% depending on the time and locality. Jeju-do, where pigs were reared in a conventional way, was the highest endemic area of taeniasis. An analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 genes of 68 taeniasis cases reported from 1935 to 2005 in Korea by a research group revealed the relative occurrence of the 3 Taenia spp. as follows: T. solium (4.4%), T. asiatica (75.0%), and T. saginata (20.6%). However, national surveys on intestinal helminths conducted every 5 years on randomly selected people revealed that the Taenia egg prevalence dropped from 1.9% in 1971 to 0.02% in 1997 and finally to 0.0% in 2004. With the exception of 3 egg-positive cases reported in 2008 and 2 worm-proven cases in 2011, no more cases have been officially recorded. Based on these surveys and also on other literature, it can be concluded that taeniasis has virtually disappeared from Korea, although a few sporadic cases may remain hidden. Human cysticercosis is also expected to disappear within a couple of decades in Korea. PMID:23467688

2013-01-01

338

Current Status of Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Several reports on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam show that they are distributed in over 50 of 63 provinces. In some endemic areas, the prevalence of taeniasis was 0.2-12.0% and that of cysticercosis was 1.0-7.2%. The major symptoms of taeniasis included fidgeted anus, proglottids moving out of the anus, and proglottids in the feces. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis in humans included subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headach, impaired vision, and memory loss. The species identification of Taenia in Vietnam included Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium based on combined morphology and molecular methods. Only T. solium caused cysticercosis in humans. Praziquantel was chosen for treatment of taeniasis and albendazole for treatment of cysticercosis. The infection rate of cysticercus cellulosae in pigs was 0.04% at Hanoi slaughterhouses, 0.03-0.31% at provincial slaughterhouses in the north, and 0.9% in provincial slaughterhouses in the southern region of Vietnam. The infection rate of cysticercus bovis in cattle was 0.03-2.17% at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Risk factors investigated with regard to transmission of Taenia suggested that consumption of raw meat (eating raw meat 4.5-74.3%), inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some endemic areas, and use of untreated human waste as a fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam, although this remains to be validated. PMID:24850954

Le, Thanh Hoa; Lien, Phan Thi Huong; Eom, Keeseon S.

2014-01-01

339

Current status of taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam.  

PubMed

Several reports on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam show that they are distributed in over 50 of 63 provinces. In some endemic areas, the prevalence of taeniasis was 0.2-12.0% and that of cysticercosis was 1.0-7.2%. The major symptoms of taeniasis included fidgeted anus, proglottids moving out of the anus, and proglottids in the feces. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis in humans included subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headach, impaired vision, and memory loss. The species identification of Taenia in Vietnam included Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium based on combined morphology and molecular methods. Only T. solium caused cysticercosis in humans. Praziquantel was chosen for treatment of taeniasis and albendazole for treatment of cysticercosis. The infection rate of cysticercus cellulosae in pigs was 0.04% at Hanoi slaughterhouses, 0.03-0.31% at provincial slaughterhouses in the north, and 0.9% in provincial slaughterhouses in the southern region of Vietnam. The infection rate of cysticercus bovis in cattle was 0.03-2.17% at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Risk factors investigated with regard to transmission of Taenia suggested that consumption of raw meat (eating raw meat 4.5-74.3%), inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some endemic areas, and use of untreated human waste as a fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam, although this remains to be validated. PMID:24850954

Van De, Nguyen; Le, Thanh Hoa; Lien, Phan Thi Huong; Eom, Keeseon S

2014-04-01

340

Immunoblot evaluation of the 100 and 130 kDa antigens in camel hydatid cyst fluid for the serodiagnosis of human cystic echinococcosis in Libya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two high molecular weight antigens with molecular masses approximately 100 kDa and 130 kDa were identified by immunoblotting camel hydatid cyst fluid, with 94% sensitivity in sera from surgically confirmed Libyan cystic echinococcosis cases. 40% of sera from surgically confirmed alveolar echinococcosis cases cross-reacted with the 100 and 130 kDa antigens, as did 5·3% of sera from human Taenia solium

M. K. Shambesh; P. S. Craig; A. M. Gusbi; E. F. Echtuish; H. Wen

1995-01-01

341

Production of biologically active recombinant annexin B1 with enhanced stability via a tagging system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annexin B1 is a novel Ca2+-dependent phospholipid-binding protein from metacestodes of Taenia solium and has been shown to have many potential biomedical applications. Although annexin B1 has been produced successfully in\\u000a Escherichia coli, the purified protein has poor stability at room temperature, which has hindered our attempts to further study its structure–function\\u000a relationship. To increase the stability of the protein,

Yi Zhang; Tao Zheng; Yue Wang; Yingjun Guo; Feixiang Ding; Mingyu Fei; Huixian Cui; Shuhan Sun

2010-01-01

342

Neurocysticercosis is still prevalent in Mexico.  

PubMed

In this work, we report the published cases of human and porcine cysticercosis, as well as Taenia solium taeniasis diagnosed in Mexico during the last 10 years. Numerical data allow us to state that this disease remains as a public health problem in our country. Whereas efficient tools have been developed for the diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis, we strongly recommend further measures allowing the control and eventual eradication of this parasite in Mexico. PMID:23318900

Fleury, Agnès; Sciutto, Edda; Larralde, Carlos

2012-01-01

343

Taeniasis/cysticercosis in Bali, Indonesia.  

PubMed

Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are found in humans in Bali, Indonesia. During a field survey of 660 people in Bali from 2002-2009 of taeniasis/cysticercosis cases using mitochondrial DNA confirmation of the species, we detected 80 cases of T. saginata taeniasis, 2 dual T. saginata/T. solium infections with T. solium metacestodes in the brain and 12 neurocysticercosis (NCC) cases at Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar. Although the prevalence of NCC in Bali is low, sporadic cases are still present. There is no Taenia asiatica in Bali. We summarize here the field survey findings of taeniasis, including 1 dual infection with taeniasis and cysticercosis in 2007, and the reason why there are no T. asiatica cases and we describe 3 NCC cases admitted to Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar, Bali in 2004. Diagnosis was based on anamnesis, clinical examination, including CT Scan, histopathological, serological and mitochondrial DNA examinations. In order to prevent unexpected symptomatic NCC after treatment with praziquantel, we recommend introducing a rapid test to confirm taeniasis carriers and cysticercosis cases as a tool for real time diagnosis. PMID:22299461

Wandra, Toni; Sudewi, A A Raka; Swastika, I Kadek; Sutisna, Putu; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Yulfi, Hemma; Darlan, Dewi Masyithah; Kapti, I Nengah; Samaan, Gina; Sato, Marcello Otake; Okamoto, Munehiro; Sako, Yasuhito; Ito, Akira

2011-07-01

344

Multi-test analysis and model-based estimation of the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercus infection in naturally infected dairy cows in the absence of a 'gold standard' reference test.  

PubMed

The diagnostic values of seven serological tests (ELISAs) and of the obligatory European Union-approved routine visual meat inspection for the detection of Taenia saginata cysticercosis were investigated. A total of 793 slaughtered dairy cows were selected in three European Union approved abattoirs in Switzerland, an endemic area (apparent prevalence by enhanced meat inspection up to 4.5%) with typically low parasite burdens. ELISAs based on a somatic larval antigen, isoelectric focused somatic larval antigen, larval excretory/secretory antigens, peptide HP6-2, peptide Ts45S-10, pooled peptide solution and a monoclonal antibody antigen capture assay were initially screened. As there is no perfect diagnostic 'gold standard' reference test, the obligatory meat inspection and four selected serological tests were further analysed using Bayesian inference to estimate the "true" prevalence and the diagnostic test sensitivities and specificities. The ELISA for specific antibody detection based on excretory/secretory antigens showed highest sensitivity and specificity with 81.6% (95% credible interval: 70-92) and 96.3% (95% credible interval: 94-99), respectively. The Bayesian model estimated the specificity of the ELISA, based on the synthetic peptide Ts45S-10 as 55.2% (95% credible interval: 46-65) and sensitivity as 84.7% (95% credible interval: 82-88). The sensitivity of the ELISA based on mAbs, detecting circulating antigen, was 14.3% (95% credible interval: 9-23) with a specificity of 93.7% (95% credible interval: 92-96). The diagnostic sensitivity of the obligatory standard European Union meat inspection procedure for the detection of T. saginata cysticercus infection at the abattoir was estimated to be 15.6% (95% credible interval: 10-23). Based on these data, the modelled prevalence of cysticercosis in dairy cows presented at abattoirs in Switzerland was estimated to be 16.5% (95% credible interval: 13-21). These cattle also had a high prevalence of infection with Dicrocoelium dendriticum (60.8%) and Fasciola hepatica (13.5%). PMID:23831108

Eichenberger, R M; Lewis, F; Gabriël, S; Dorny, P; Torgerson, P R; Deplazes, P

2013-09-01

345

Molecular and serological survey on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand.  

PubMed

A community-based field survey on taeniasis and cysticercosis was performed in two villages in Thong Pha Phum District, Kanchanaburi Province, central Thailand, where 3 Taenia species, T. solium, T. saginata and T. asiatica, are sympatrically occurring. Four (0.6%) out of 667 stool samples were egg-positive for Taenia sp. by Kato-Katz technique. Three out of those four persons and other three persons who were Taenia egg-negative but having a recent (<1 year) history of discharging worms in stool were treated with niclosamide. One Taenia egg-positive woman was not treated because of severe ascites. After treatment, three persons expelled long strobilae with scolices and two persons expelled strobilae without scolex. One Taenia egg-positive person did not expel any worms post-treatment. Among 5 persons, four expelled a single worm, whereas one expelled multiple worms, may be 6 worms but not confirmed by detection of scolices. One scolex was armed with hooklets, whereas 2 others did not. Multiplex PCR of 10 expelled proglottids (including 6 estimated worms from one patient) revealed that one sample was T. solium, one T. saginata, and 8 T. asiatica. A total of 159 residents agreed to receive a serological test for cysticercosis. By ELISA using partially purified glycoprotein antigen, 9 cases, 5 and 4 from villages A and B respectively, were found to be sero-positive. The five and an additional sample on the border line from village A were evaluated using confirmative immunoblot using recombinant chimeric antigen. Among the six samples, four including the border line sample were confirmed to be cysticercosis by immunoblotting. One of the 4 persons had neurological symptoms with nodular lesions in the brain by computed tomography. These 4 confirmed or suspected cysticercosis cases were free of T. solium worms, but two of them including confirmed NCC case had a past (>1 year) history of expelling proglottids in the stool. PMID:20380891

Anantaphruti, Malinee T; Okamoto, Munehiro; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Saguankiat, Surapol; Kusolsuk, Teera; Sato, Megumi; Sato, Marcello O; Sako, Yasuhito; Waikagul, Jitra; Ito, Akira

2010-09-01

346

Taeniasis in Mongolia, 2002-2006.  

PubMed

Survey on secondary data of taeniasis/cysticercosis was carried out in Mongolia in 2002-2006. A total of 118 taeniid proglottids, a diphyllobothriid segment, and 59 serum samples from 118 taeniasis cases were collected at National Center for Communicable Diseases, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. In 2006, 14 serum samples were collected from local people who had histories of epileptic seizures in Selenge Province where pig husbandry was the main business. The 118 proglottids were confirmed to be Taenia saginata by mitochondrial DNA analysis using cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and cytochrome b genes. T. saginata taeniasis was widely distributed at least in 10 of 21 provinces. No variation in the nucleotide sequences of the two genes was observed among T. saginata isolates from Mongolia. There was no evidence of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis or Taenia asiatica taeniasis. A diphyllobothriid segment was confirmed to be Diphyllobothrium latum by mitochondrial DNA analysis. PMID:17690409

Myadagsuren, Narankhajid; Davaajav, Abmed; Wandra, Toni; Sandar, Tsogtsaikhan; Ichinkhorloo, Purevdorj; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Sato, Marcello O; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira

2007-08-01

347

Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis, toxocariasis and cysticercosis in a rural settlement, São Paulo State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background The goal of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Toxocara spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Taenia solium metacestode infection and determine some of the associated risk factors for people living in the Dona Carmen settlement, Pontal of Paranapanema, São Paulo, Brazil. Methods Serum samples from 194 subjects were tested and participants answered a questionnaire. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system based on Toxocara spp. excretory-secretory antigens obtained from the cultured second-stage larvae of Toxocara canis or vesicular fluid (VF) antigen from Taenia crassiceps metacestode was used to detect anti-Toxocara spp. IgG and IgE and anti-T. solium metacestode, respectively. For cysticercosis, the reactive ELISA samples were assayed by Western blotting using 18 kDa and 14 kDa proteins purified from VF. For T. gondii-specific IgG and IgM antibodies, anti-SAG-1, GRA-1, and GRA-7 epitope specificity was determined by ELISA. Results Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies were found in 102/194 individuals (52.6%) with increased infections in females (P ?=? 0.02) and those with ?US$300 monthly income (P ?=? 0.01). Positive IgM antibodies were detected in 21/194 individuals (10.8%). Antibodies specific to Toxocara spp. were found in 28/194 subjects (14.4%). All the individuals with Toxocara spp. also had T. gondii-specific IgG antibodies. Taenia solium metacestode antibodies were detected in 11 subjects (5.7%), but none were reactive based on Western blotting. Conclusion In spite of environmental, educational, and socioeconomic factors favoring parasite infection, the seropositivity rates of T. gondii, Toxocara spp., and T. solium metacestode-specific IgG antibodies are similar to the rates found in studies conducted in different populations in Brazil. PMID:23683335

Prestes-Carneiro, Luiz Euribel; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Ferreira, Antonio Walter; Araujo, Patricia Regina; Troiani, Charlene; Zago, Sueli Cristina; Kaiahara, Marcia; Sasso, Leticia; Iha, Alberto; Vaz, Adelaide

2013-01-01

348

Tapeworm infection resulting from pork eaten at a wedding banquet.  

PubMed

Forty-five people who had attended a wedding banquet were examined by means of both Avidin-Biotin Peroxidase Complex-ELISA (ABC-ELISA) and Kato stool thick smear technic. The results revealed that the positive rates with ABC-ELISA were 15.56% (7/45) and Kato Katz 0.62% (1/161). There was a significant difference between the two positive rates (p < 0.005). Six people at the wedding had taeniasis and 4 of them also had cysticercosis. Local people have no habit of eating uncooked pork, but at this banquet the meat from an infected cysticerci pig was used for preparing dishes for the wedding feast and the cold dishes were contaminated by the bladder worms as the result of using the same chopping block. PMID:9656342

Zhao, Z F; Guo, H; Huang, X X

1997-01-01

349

Thymus dependence of tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta) elimination from mice.  

PubMed Central

Although normal mice eliminated the lumen-dwelling intestinal cestode Hymenolepis diminuta by day 21 post-cysticercoid inoculation, congenitally thymus-deficient (nude) mice maintained their work burdens. Nude mice grafted with thymus glands or injected with thymus cells eliminated their worms. PMID:1205624

Isaak, D D; Jacobson, R H; Reed, N D

1975-01-01

350

Immunodiagnosis of porcine cysticercosis: identification of candidate antigens through immunoproteomics.  

PubMed

Cysticercosis, caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, is a zoonotic disease affecting pigs and humans that is endemic to developing countries in Latin America, Africa and South East Asia. The prevalence of infection in pigs, the intermediate host for T. solium, has been used as an indicator for monitoring disease transmission in endemic areas. However, accurate and specific diagnostic tools for porcine cysticercosis remain to be established. Using proteomic approaches and the T. solium genome sequence, seven antigens were identified as specific for porcine cysticercosis, namely, tropomyosin 2, alpha-1 tubulin, beta-tubulin 2, annexin B1, small heat-shock protein, 14-3-3 protein, and cAMP-dependent protein kinase. None of these proteins were cross-reactive when tested with sera from pigs infected with Ascaris spp., Cysticercus tenuicollis and hydatid cysts of Echinococcus spp. or with serum from a Taenia saginata-infected cow. Comparison with orthologues, indicated that the amino acid sequences of annexin B1 and cAMP-dependent protein kinase possessed highly specific regions, which might make them suitable candidates for development of a specific diagnostic assay for porcine cysticercosis. PMID:24161749

Diaz-Masmela, Yuliet; Fragoso, Gladis; Ambrosio, Javier R; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Rosas, Gabriela; Estrada, Karel; Carrero, Julio César; Sciutto, Edda; Laclette, Juan P; Bobes, Raúl J

2013-12-01

351

[Studies On Phosphatase Activity In Some Parasitic Helminths  

PubMed

In order to obtain some informations on the nature and relative activity of the phosphatases present in various helminths, biochemical studies have been made in thirteen kinds of worm parasites including the adults and larvae (Fasciola hepatica, Eurytrema pancreaticum, Paramphistomum sp., Taenia solium, Taenia pisiformis, Dipylidium caninum, Diphyllobothrium mansoni, Cysticercus cellulosae, Cysticercus fasciolaris and Sparganum). A comparison based on the analysis of pH-activity curves was made among these helminths. The worm materials were mostly obtained alive from an abattoir and removed from the organs or tissues of the animal hosts naturally infected. Sparganum and Cysticercus cellulosae, however, are collected from the subcutaneous tissue of the patients by surgical removal. The worms thoroughly washed were weighed and transferred with 0.1 M Tris buffer to a chilled glass grinder (Capacity; 15 ml) and homogenized in the cold. The homogenate was centrifuged at 5000 RPM for 30 minutes. The supernatant was pipetted off for determination of the phosphatase activity. Incubation mixtures consisted of 1 ml substrate, 1 ml buffer and 0.5ml extract. The buffers used were Tris (Hydroxymethyl) aminomethane and citric acid monohydrate and the substrate was paranitrophenyl phosphate (1 gm/25 ml). These mixtures were incubated at the temperature of 37 degrees C for 30 minutes in water bath. The absorbance or transferance of mixture was determined colorimetrically by "Spectronic 20 "spectrophotometer at 410 nm against a distilled water blank. The amount of phenol liberated was then calculated from a standard curve using phenol solutions. Controls consisted of unincubated mixtures. The results were deducted from this experiment. The phosphatase activity occurred over all parasitic helminths used in this experiment. In trematodes, pH-activity curves have demonstrated two peaks of phosphatase activity in Fasciola hepatica and Paramphistomum species. However the acid phosphatase activity was predominantly found and the alkaline phosphatase activity was found distinctly to be low in all three species. In Eurytrema pancreaticum, the pH-activity curves displayed two peaks in acid phosphatase activity, one at pH 5.0 and the other pH 9.0. In cestodes, both alkaline and acid phosphatase activity displayed the pH optima 5.0 and 9.0 to 10.0 in the adult tapeworms. However, major activity in the adults is due to the alkaline phosphtases. In contrast to the adults, Cysticercus and sparganum showed the higher activity in acid phosphatases which predominates in the larvae. In all cases of nematodes, the pH optimum for acid phosphatase was 4.0 to 6.0. A preponderance of acid phosphatase activity was shown in the extract of intestine of Ascaris lumbricoides. The aspect that phosphatases are correlated with phosphorylated passage of substances through the cuticle of helminths and may also be involved in carbohydrate metabolism is discussed. PMID:12913552

Park, Chung Jai; Seo, Byong Seol

1967-12-01

352

Vaccines against cysticercosis.  

PubMed

Taenia solium cysticercosis is a major parasitic disease that seriously and frequently affects human health and economy in undeveloped countries. Since pigs are an indispensable intermediate host, it is conceivable to curb transmission by reducing pig cysticercosis through their effective vaccination. This article reviews current knowledge on the development vaccines against porcine cysticercosis. It highlights the development of several versions of S3Pvac aimed to increase effectiveness, reduce costs and increase feasibility by novel delivery systems and alternative routes of administration. PMID:18393905

Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S; Hernández, Marisela; Rosas, Gabriela; Larralde, Carlos

2008-01-01

353

Neurocysticercosis case with tuberculoma-like epithelioid granuloma strongly suspected by serology and confirmed by mitochondrial DNA  

PubMed Central

An Indian woman with multiple and nodular cerebral lesions presenting epithelioid granulomas was diagnosed as suspected malignant tumours and the biopsy was carried at local hospital in Japan. The specimen was pathologically diagnosed as tuberculoma. However, due to her nationality, the authors suspected it to be neurocysticercosis (NCC) and carried out serology and applied mitochondrial DNA analysis of Taenia solium. These diagnostic tools revealed it as NCC radiologically and pathologically mimicking central nervous tuberculomas. Molecular confirmation of NCC cases is strongly recommended when we can get the biopsy specimens. PMID:22689556

Maeda, Takuya; Ito, Akira; Sako, Yasuhito; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Oyaizu, Naoki; Odawara, Takashi; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Fujii, Takeshi

2011-01-01

354

The acute encephalitic phase of neurocysticercosis: computed tomographic manifestations.  

PubMed

Brain infestation by Cysticercus cellulosae, the larval form of Taenia solium, is a common disorder in Mexico and other Latin American countries, Asia, Africa, and some Eastern European countries. Recent immigration has caused an increase in the number of cases of neurocysticercosis in the United States. This work describes the acute encephalitic form of neurocysticercosis in 26 cases. The clinicopathologic and neuroradiologic manifestations are discussed with particular emphasis on the use of computed tomography as a main diagnosis modality which demonstrates multiple diffuse (85%) or localized (15%) enhancing nodules associated with severe edema. PMID:6402903

Rodriguez-Carbajal, J; Salgado, P; Gutierrez-Alvarado, R; Escobar-Izquierdo, A; Aruffo, C; Palacios, E

1983-01-01

355

Veterinary public health activities at FAO: cysticercosis and echinococcosis.  

PubMed

In many developing and transition countries, parasitic zoonoses such as cysticercosis and echinococcosis cause serious human suffering and considerable losses in agricultural and human productivity, thus posing a significant hindrance to their development. Although, effective and reliable tools for the diagnosis, prevention and control of parasitic zoonoses are now available, their implementation has not always been successful in many countries. This is primarily due to the lack of awareness on the presence or impact of the causing parasites (Taenia saginata, Taenia solium and Echinococcus spp.). In addition, often the needed intersectorial cooperation, resource management and political commitment for their control are (also) absent. FAO's regular programme has established a global network of professionals directly involved in zoonotic and food-borne diseases. The network provides a basic framework for the spread of information related to the diagnosis, prevention and control of major zoonotic diseases including cysticercosis and echinococcosis. PMID:16343986

Eddi, Carlos; Katalin, de Balogh; Juan, Lubroth; William, Amanfu; Andrew, Speedy; Daniela, Battaglia; Joseph, Domenech

2006-01-01

356

Helminth parasites of wild foxes ( Vulpes vulpes L.) in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the helminth fauna of wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in The Netherlands, material was collected from 139 foxes. The following parasites were found. Cestodes:Taenia spp. 53.3%,Hymenolepis spp. 1.5%; Trematodes:Alaria alata 10.9%,Cryptocotyle lingua 3.6%,Euparyphium melis 1.5%,Apophallus donicus 0.7%; Nematodes:Toxocara canis 73.7%,Uncinaria stenocephala 59.9%,Capillaria aerophila 46.8%,C. plica 23.5%,Molineus patens 5.1%,Crenosoma vulpis 4.5%,Strongyloides spp. 0.7%. The tapewormsMesocestoides spp. andEchinococcus spp. were not

F. H. M. Borgsteede

1984-01-01

357

PHYLOGENY OF TAENIA: SPECIES DEFINITIONS AND ORIGINS OF HUMAN PARASITES.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phylogeny is fundamental as it constrains explanations about history and forms our foundation for recognizing and diagnosing species. In the absence of such a framework taxonomists historically relied on intuitive processes, personal judgment and authority, often embracing a typological view of spec...

358

Chemotherapy and Drug Resistance in Schistosomiasis,Fascioliasis and Tapeworm Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is estimated that nearly 400 million humans are infected with trematode or cestode parasites (Table 1, (1)). Nearly half\\u000a of the infections are caused by two species of schistosome (blood fl ukes), Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium and most of this chapter will therefore be concerned with these parasites, and praziquantel (PZQ), the principal drug being\\u000a used against them.

Michael J. Doenhoff; Gerald C. Coles; Livia Pica-Mattoccia; Katherine Wheatcroft-Francklow

359

9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...lesions in at least two of the usual inspection sites, namely the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus...examination, including examination of, but not limited to, the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication,...

2012-01-01

360

9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.  

...lesions in at least two of the usual inspection sites, namely the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus...examination, including examination of, but not limited to, the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication,...

2014-01-01

361

Immunogenic activity of the fish tapeworm Pterobothrium heteracanthum (Trypanorhyncha: Pterobothriidae) in BALB/c mice.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to verify the immunogenicity of Pterobothrium heteracanthum (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) crude protein extract (PH-CPE) in BALB/c mice. The parasites were obtained from Micropogonias furnieri (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae). Groups of six mice were each immunized with 10, 50 or 100 ?g of PH-CPE, on days 0 and 35. Both specific IgG and IgE responses were developed after immunization. The immunoblot assay revealed that specific IgG recognizes PH-CPE proteins with two molecular weight ranges, 60-75 and 30-40 kDa, and that IgE recognizes larger proteins over 120 kDa. This appears to be the first report on the immunogenicity of metacestodes within the Pterobothriidae and that PH-CPE is a potential inducer of a specific IgE response. PMID:24299909

Mattos, D P B G; Verícimo, M A; Lopes, L M S; São Clemente, S C

2015-03-01

362

Controlling parasites, understanding practices: the biosocial complexity of a One Health intervention for neglected zoonotic helminths in northern Lao PDR.  

PubMed

A parasitological survey in northern Lao PDR showed a remote ethnic minority village to be hyper-endemic for Taenia solium, a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) that impacts human and pig health. An intervention combining human Mass Drug Administration (MDA) with porcine vaccination and antihelmintic treatment was then implemented, targeting both T. solium and other soil-transmitted helminths. To understand the biosocial complexity of this integrated One Health intervention, we conducted a rapid ethnographic study exploring the transmission dynamics of T. solium and locally acceptable long-term control options. Informed by two years of project work in the village, this included six focus group discussions, 35 semi-structured interviews, a latrine survey, a school-based education meeting, participant observation and many unstructured interviews conducted over two weeks in October 2013. We found that risk behaviours were mediated by various social determinants including limited market access, interrelationships between alcohol, ancestral sacrifices and the consumption of raw pork, seasonal variations and poor latrine coverage. Only sixteen percent of households had latrines, attributed to the unacceptability of dry latrines, lack of water access, poor building techniques and poverty. Whilst women could explain T. solium transmission, most men and children could not, revealing that distributed posters/leaflets relied too heavily on text and ambiguous images. Compliance with MDA was high due to trust between project staff and village leaders. However understandings of pharmacology, minor side effects, human migration and children's fear of worms may lead to resistance in future programmes. Our research highlights the complexities of controlling T. solium and other soil-transmitted helminths in a remote ethnic minority village and the need to integrate biomedical and participatory approaches. Although we showcase the heuristic value of using rapid ethnography to inform intervention strategies as part of a One Health/NTD agenda, we also identify several possible paradoxes and conundrums in embedding locally-grounded biosocial analysis into NTD programmes. These need to be acknowledged and negotiated by multidisciplinary teams. PMID:25261615

Bardosh, Kevin; Inthavong, Phouth; Xayaheuang, Sivilai; Okello, Anna L

2014-11-01

363

Immunological and molecular diagnosis of cysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis, the infection with the larval stage of Taenia solium, is a cause of neurological symptoms including seizures, affecting the quality of life of patients and their families. Diagnosis focuses on brain imaging and serological tests are mostly used as confirmatory tools. Most cases, however, occur in poor endemic areas, where both kinds of diagnostic tools are poorly available. Development of point of care diagnostic tests is one of the most important priorities for cysticercosis researches today. The ideal point of care test would require detection of viable cysticercosis and hopefully identify cases with severe or progressive forms of neurocysticercosis, leading to referral of the patient for specialized medical attention. This manuscript describes the evolution of the serological diagnosis of cysticercosis over time, and the characteristics of the most common currently available tools, their advantages and disadvantages, and their potential use in future diagnostic tests. PMID:23265553

Rodriguez, Silvia; Wilkins, Patricia; Dorny, Pierre

2012-01-01

364

Efficacy of Diverse Antiparasitic Treatments for Cysticercosis in the Pig Model  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium cysticercosis infects pigs and humans. Because antiparasitic treatment for human cysticercosis has sub-optimal efficacy, alternative regimes are needed. Seven antiparasitic regimens were tested in 42 naturally infected pigs with cysticercosis, and compared with prednisone alone (n = 6) or no treatment (n = 6). The numbers of viable cysts in muscles and in the brain were examined after necropsy and were significantly decreased in pigs receiving combined albendazole plus praziquantel, albendazole alone, or oxfendazole. Pigs receiving praziquantel alone and nitazoxanide had numerous surviving cysts. Control (untreated) pigs and prednisone-treated pigs had many more viable cysts, suggesting no effect. Combined albendazole plus praziquantel, and oxfendazole, showed a strong cysticidal effect and provide suitable alternative treatments to be further explored for their use for treatment of human neurocysticercosis. PMID:22855760

Gonzalez, Armando E.; Bustos, Javier A.; Jimenez, Juan A.; Rodriguez, Mary L.; Ramirez, Mercy G.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.

2012-01-01

365

Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States: Cysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal and preventable neglected parasitic infection caused by the larval form of Taenia solium. Patients with symptomatic disease usually have signs and symptoms of neurocysticercosis, which commonly manifest as seizures or increased intracranial pressure. Although there are many persons living in the United States who emigrated from highly disease-endemic countries and there are foci of autochthonous transmission of the parasite in the United States, little is known about burden and epidemiology of the disease in this country. In addition, despite advances in the diagnosis and management of neurocysticercosis, there remain many unanswered questions. Improving our understanding and management of neurocysticercosis in the United States will require improved surveillance or focused prospective studies in appropriate areas and allocation of resources towards answering some of the key questions discussed in this report. PMID:24808248

Cantey, Paul T.; Coyle, Christina M.; Sorvillo, Frank J.; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Starr, Michelle C.; Nash, Theodore E.

2014-01-01

366

Computed tomography in neurocysticercosis.  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis is a major public health problem in developing countries. Before computed tomography became available its diagnosis was very restricted and the conventional diagnostic methods were unreliable. It also was frequently necessary to submit patients to costly and dangerous surgical procedures to confirm the precise nature of the disease. One hundred and seventy-one patients with neurocysticercosis were evaluated by computed tomography. The diagnostic findings of the different types of lesions produced by the larva of the parasite (Taenia solium) in the central nervous system, and the advantages of CT in the diagnosis of this clinical entity are described, as well as the main signs and symptoms of the patients referred for examination. The effect of corticosteroids in the acute stages of the disease and the changes they provoke in the CT images are described. Images PMID:6644318

Minguetti, G; Ferreira, M V

1983-01-01

367

Two novel Mesocestoides vogae fatty acid binding proteins--functional and evolutionary implications.  

PubMed

This work describes two new fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) identified in the parasite platyhelminth Mesocestoides vogae (syn. corti). The corresponding polypeptide chains share 62% identical residues and overall 90% similarity according to CLUSTALX default conditions. Compared with Cestoda FABPs, these proteins share the highest similarity score with the Taenia solium protein. M. vogae FABPs are also phylogenetically related to the FABP3/FABP4 mammalian FABP subfamilies. The native proteins were purified by chromatographical procedures, and apparent molecular mass and isoelectric point were determined. Immunolocalization studies determined the localization of the expression of these proteins in the larval form of the parasite. The genomic exon-intron organization of both genes is also reported, and supports new insights on intron evolution. Consensus motifs involved in splicing were identified. PMID:18076655

Alvite, Gabriela; Canclini, Lucía; Corvo, Ileana; Esteves, Adriana

2008-01-01

368

Neurocysticercosis.  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system. Varied clinical manifestations occur, due to deposition of larvae of the parasite Taenia solium in cerebral parenchyma, meninges, spinal cord, muscles, eyes and skin. The diagnosis of neurocysticercosis can be made with a fairly high degree of accuracy with the help of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Serological tests and histopathological examination of subcutaneous nodules provide additional support in establishing the diagnosis. The anticysticercal drugs albendazole and praziquantel have been extensively used, and found to be effective for all types of neurocysticercosis. However, recently controversy has been raised about their safety, and long-term clinical usefulness. Preventive health measures, such as provision of safe drinking water and excretion disposal, still offer the best ways to manage this disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9799883

Garg, R. K.

1998-01-01

369

Neurocysticercosis in a 14-year-old boy in Italy: An unexpected case  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by larvae of Taenia solium. It represents the most common cause of neurological disease in children living in developing countries. In recent years, NCC is increasingly being diagnosed also in high-socioeconomic countries, mainly due to the high rate of immigration. We describe a case of a 14-year-old Ecuadorian boy living in Italy, who experienced a generalized tonic-clonic seizure and was diagnosed with NCC. The boy was successfully managed with anticonvulsant, anticysticercal and anti-inflammatory treatment. With the present case we would like to emphasize the importance of considering NCC as a possible cause of non febrile seizures in children living in developed countries, particularly in those immigrated from an endemic region or had a long-term stay in an area of high prevalence.

Giacomet, Vania; Penagini, Francesca; Erba, Paola; Di Nello, Francesca; Nannini, Pilar; Pisanelli, Stefania; Ramponi, Giulia; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

2013-01-01

370

Hydrocephalus and Neurocysticercosis: Cases Illustrative of Three Distinct Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Background Cysticercosis is the most frequent parasitic infection of the nervous system. Most lesions are intracranial, and spinal involvement is rare. We describe here in two cases of neurocysticercosis (NCC) in the brain and one in the spinal cord that illustrate three distinct mechanisms leading to symptomatic acute hydrocephalus. Case Report Hydrocephalus was related to intracranial NCC in two of them. In the first case the hydrocephalus was due to an extensive arachnoiditis to the craniocervical junction, while in the second it was caused by obstruction of Magendie's foramen in the fourth ventricle by the scolex of Taenia solium. For the third patient, hydrocephalus revealed cysticercosis of the cauda equina due to the scolex. Conclusions NCC should be considered as a possible diagnosis for patients suffering from hydrocephalus when they originate from or have traveled in endemic areas, MRI of the spine is mandatory to search for intraspinal lesions. PMID:25324888

Faillot, Thierry

2014-01-01

371

The relationship between neurocysticercosis and epilepsy: an endless debate.  

PubMed

Neurocysticercosis (NC), or cerebral infection with Taenia solium, is an important public health problem worldwide. Among the neurological sequelae of NC, seizures have been described as the most common symptom. Acute symptomatic seizures often result from degeneration of a viable cyst; however, not all of these patients with acute or provoked seizures will develop epilepsy (i.e., recurrent unprovoked seizures). Because of the high prevalence of epilepsy and NC, a causal, as well as incidental relationship between the two may exist. The epileptogenicity of calcified cysts as well as the potential association between NC and hippocampal sclerosis necessitates future research. Antihelminthic treatment of NC results in disappearance of viable cysts in about one-third of patients with parenchymal disease, but a reduction in seizure recurrence has not been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials. Prevention is critical to reduce the burden of seizure and epilepsy related to NC. PMID:24863516

Carpio, Arturo; Romo, Matthew L

2014-05-01

372

Cysticercosis Involving Muscle of Mastication: A Review and Report of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis is a parasitic infection caused by the larval stages of the parasitic cestode, Taenia solium. It is a common disease in developing countries where it is also endemic. The central nervous system (CNS) is the most important primary site of infection and the disease can present with solitary or multiple space occupying lesions. Cases of cysticercosis presenting as isolated muscle mass (pseudotumours) without involvement of the CNS have also been recently described in the literature. We present two cases who presented to us with pain, swelling, and tenderness involving the temporalis muscle along with trismus. Ultrasonography and MRI findings were suggestive of cysticercosis involving the temporalis muscle which resolved after the albendazole therapy. PMID:24396612

Singh, Sarbjeet; Sreenivasan, V.; Garg, Kanika; Wazir, Nikhel Dev; Rajput, Jaspal Singh; Sandhu Virk, Pawandeep

2013-01-01

373

Effective Production and Purification of the Glycosylated TSOL18 Antigen, Which Is Protective against Pig Cysticercosis?  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium metacestodes is a worldwide public health problem. Important progress in the development of effective and practical vaccines against this disease has been made. In this study, the promising T. solium oncospheral vaccine candidate named TSOL18 antigen was produced in a 5-liter fermentor. During the process of fermentation, the pH of the culture was always kept below 5.0, and in order to prevent foaming, an antifoam agent was added. In addition, the oxygen content of the culture was constantly kept at >50% in our experiment. A high level of the glycosylated protein (2.5 g/liter) was obtained, and the protein was easily purified by gel chromatography. Vaccination trials showed that the recombinant TSOL18 antigen induced 94 and 100% reductions in metacestode burdens in vaccinated pigs, obviously higher than the 89% reduction in pigs immunized with cysticercus crude extracts in trial 1. These are very promising results in the development of an efficient tool to control cysticercosis in Asia. PMID:18070907

Cai, Xuepeng; Yuan, Gailing; Zheng, Yadong; Luo, Xuenong; Zhang, Shaohua; Ding, Juntao; Jing, Zhizhong; Lu, Chengping

2008-01-01

374

Effective production and purification of the glycosylated TSOL18 antigen, which is protective against pig cysticercosis.  

PubMed

Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium metacestodes is a worldwide public health problem. Important progress in the development of effective and practical vaccines against this disease has been made. In this study, the promising T. solium oncospheral vaccine candidate named TSOL18 antigen was produced in a 5-liter fermentor. During the process of fermentation, the pH of the culture was always kept below 5.0, and in order to prevent foaming, an antifoam agent was added. In addition, the oxygen content of the culture was constantly kept at >50% in our experiment. A high level of the glycosylated protein (2.5 g/liter) was obtained, and the protein was easily purified by gel chromatography. Vaccination trials showed that the recombinant TSOL18 antigen induced 94 and 100% reductions in metacestode burdens in vaccinated pigs, obviously higher than the 89% reduction in pigs immunized with cysticercus crude extracts in trial 1. These are very promising results in the development of an efficient tool to control cysticercosis in Asia. PMID:18070907

Cai, Xuepeng; Yuan, Gailing; Zheng, Yadong; Luo, Xuenong; Zhang, Shaohua; Ding, Juntao; Jing, Zhizhong; Lu, Chengping

2008-02-01

375

Axenomycins, New Cestocidal Antibiotics  

PubMed Central

Axenomycins are a new group of macrolide antibiotics isolated from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces lisandri n.sp. They exhibit anthelmintic activity against tapeworms (Cestoda). Three different fractions, A, B, and D, have been obtained, the most active fraction being axenomycin D. The activities of the axenomycin complex and axenomycin D against Hymenolepis nana in mice, Taenia pisiformis, Dipylidium caninum, and Diphyllobothrium sp. in dogs, and Moniezia expansa, M. benedeni, and Avitellina centripunctata in lambs were studied in experimentally and naturally infected animals. Axenomycins were effective and well tolerated by the oral route. Worm reduction rates after a single oral dose were 90 to 100% with 5 to 10 mg of axenomycin D/kg and 50 to 100% with 20 mg of axenomycin complex/kg. PMID:4790622

Bruna, C. Della; Ricciardi, M. L.; Sanfilippo, A.

1973-01-01

376

Rapid Molecular Identification of Human Taeniid Cestodes by Pyrosequencing Approach  

PubMed Central

Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica are causative agents of taeniasis in humans. The difficulty of morphological identification of human taeniids can lead to misdiagnosis or confusion. To overcome this problem, several molecular methods have been developed, but use of these tends to be time-consuming. Here, a rapid and high-throughput pyrosequencing approach was developed for the identification of three human taeniids originating from various countries. Primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of the three Taenia species were designed. Variations in a 26-nucleotide target region were used for identification. The reproducibility and accuracy of the pyrosequencing technology was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. This technique will be a valuable tool to distinguish between sympatric human taeniids that occur in Thailand, Asia and Pacific countries. This method could potentially be used for the molecular identification of the taeniid species that might be associated with suspicious cysts and lesions, or cyst residues in humans or livestock at the slaughterhouse. PMID:24945530

Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Intapan, Pewpan M.; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Tourtip, Somjintana; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Maleewong, Wanchai

2014-01-01

377

Cysticercus Antigens in Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples from Patients with Neurocysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Antigens were detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with neurocysticercosis (NC) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using polyclonal sera of rabbit anti-Taenia solium cysticerci (anti-Tso) and anti- Taenia crassiceps cysticerci vesicular fluid (anti-Tcra or anti-Tcra <30 kDa). A group of NC patients (n = 174) were studied (NC), including 40 patients in different phases of the disease. ELISAs carried out with the anti-Tso, anti-Tcra, and anti-Tcra <30 kDa showed sensitivities of 81.2, 90, and 95.8% and specificities of 82, 98, and 100%, respectively. The 14- and 18-kDa low-molecular-weight peptides were only detected in CSF samples from patients with NC by immunoblotting with anti-Tso and anti-Tcra sera. Because of the importance of the diagnosis and prognosis of cysticercosis, the detection of antigens may contribute as an additional marker to the study and clarification of the parasite-host relationship. PMID:11526181

Pardini, Alessandra Xavier; Vaz, Adelaide José; Machado, Luis Dos Ramos; Livramento, José Antônio

2001-01-01

378

Neurocysticercosis in infants and toddlers: report of seven cases and review of published patients.  

PubMed

Neurocysticercosis in infants and toddlers has received little attention in the literature, and little is known about the mechanisms of disease acquisition and clinical forms of presentation of the disease in this age group. All patients aged ?3 years with neurocysticercosis evaluated at Hospital-Clínica Kennedy, Guayaquil, over a 22-year period were included in this study. Their household contacts were screened to detect Taenia solium carriers, which may represent the source of infection. A literature search on neurocysticercosis in infants and toddlers was also performed to compare personal cases with those described elsewhere. A total of 25 infants and toddlers with neurocysticercosis were included (seven from our institution and 18 from the literature). All patients had seizures as the primary manifestation of the disease, and neuroimaging studies showed one or two parenchymal brain cysticerci in the colloidal stage in 88% of patients. The source of infection was investigated in 11 houses, including the seven households of the present series, and only four of the 18 reported in the literature. A Taenia carrier was found in five (45%) of these households, including three from the present series and two from the literature. A sizable proportion of infants and toddlers with neurocysticercosis have been infected at home. Compulsory search of Taenia carriers among household contacts will allow the detection of the potential source of infection and will reduce further spread of the disease. The search must not be limited to family members, but also extended to domestic employees who are in daily contact with the children. PMID:23668866

Del Brutto, Oscar H

2013-06-01

379

The Fringed Tapeworm (Thysanosoma actinioides) as a Parasite of the Rocky Mountain Elk in Yellowstone National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-mortem examination of 181 elk (Cervus canadensis nelsoni) from the northern Yellowstone Park herd in 1967-68 revealed that 41% were infected with Thysanosoma actinioides. Infections occurred in all age classes of animals from seven areas in the Yellowstone, Gardner and Lamar drainages in the northern section of the Park. Prevalence of the parasite was higher in calves and yearlings than

RICHARD H. JACOBSON; DAVID E. WORLEY; KENNETH R. GREER

380

Immunoepidemiology of the equine tapeworm Anoplocephala perfoliata: age-intensity profile and age-dependency of antibody subtype responses.  

PubMed

The equine intestinal cestode Anoplocephala perfoliata has been the subject of recent epidemiological and immunological studies because of its suspected association with intestinal disease in the horse. We have previously shown that the IgG(T) subtype antibody response to the 12/13 kDa component of the parasite excretory/secretory (E/S) antigen is positively correlated with parasite intensity. In this study, we utilize that correlation to examine the changes in natural infection intensity with age. Infection intensity based on IgG(T) responses showed a triphasic age-dependency pattern with peak mean worm burden in the 6 months-2 years age group, falling to a lower plateau level from 3 to 15 years, and rising again in older age groups. Anti-E/S total IgG was found to have a convex age-dependency curve, with maximal response in the 6 months-2 years old age group. IgG(a) showed a triphasic response similar to the age-intensity profile of IgG(T); IgG(c) showed steadily increasing levels of antibody with age. The IgG(b) age-dependency profile was intermediate between IgG(a) and IgG(c). Age-specific correlation coefficients between anti-12/13 kDa IgG(T) (as a measure of infection intensity) and IgG(a) and IgG(b) revealed statistically significant values for many age groups. The relative importance of exposure to infection and the development of acquired immunity as determinants of the observed age-intensity pattern is considered. PMID:9011079

Proudman, C J; Holmes, M A; Sheoran, A S; Edwards, S E; Trees, A J

1997-01-01

381

Added resolution among ordinal level relationships of tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) with complete small and large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The addition of large subunit ribosomal DNA (lsrDNA) to small subunit ribosomal DNA (ssrDNA) has been shown to add resolution to phylogenies at various taxonomic levels for a diversity of phyla. We added nearly complete lsrDNA (4057–4593bp) sequences to ssrDNA (1940–2228bp) for 26 ingroup and 3 outgroup taxa in an attempt to provide an improved ordinal phylogeny for the Cestoda.

Andrea Waeschenbach; Bonnie L. Webster; Rodney A. Bray; D. T. J. Littlewood

2007-01-01

382

9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

If parasites are found to be distributed in a carcass in such a manner or to be of such character that their removal and the removal of the lesions caused by them is impracticable, no part of the carcass shall be passed for human...

2010-01-01

383

9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

If parasites are found to be distributed in a carcass in such a manner or to be of such character that their removal and the removal of the lesions caused by them is impracticable, no part of the carcass shall be passed for human...

2011-01-01

384

THE CONTROL OF FISH PARASITES AND THE ERADICATION OF ASIAN TAPEWORM INFECTIONS IN GRASS CARP USING PRAZIQUANTEL BATH TREATMENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are few studies on the control of fish parasites and even fewer effective or accepted methods for the direct or indirect control of these parasites. When parasite eradication from fish stocks is the goal, the probability for success is very low. Condition of host, life cycle of parasite, wate...

385

Arrhythmic Song Exposure Increases ZENK Expression in Auditory Cortical Areas and Nucleus Taeniae of the Adult  

E-print Network

is positively correlated with language and literacy skill [1]. Moreover, children with specific language Abstract Rhythm is important in the production of motor sequences such as speech and song. Deficits in rhythm processing have been implicated in human disorders that affect speech and language processing

Wade, Juli

386

Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunoassay for serological diagnosis of cysticercosis.  

PubMed Central

We evaluated a commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) from LMD Laboratories, Inc., Carlsbad, Calif., for the detection of antibodies in serum to the cysticercus of Taenia solium. The ELISA was performed on 308 serum samples; 198 from a pool of healthy individuals, 42 from patients who had antibodies against a variety of parasites other than T. solium, and 68 from patients suspected of having cysticercosis. All of these 68 specimens were tested both by the ELISA and by an immunoblot method (enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay [EITB]) developed at the Parasitic Serology Laboratory of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Twenty-seven of the 68 serum samples from patients suspected of having cysticercosis were positive by both EITB and ELISA, while 31 were negative by both assays. ELISA results for three and two samples were considered false positive and false negative, respectively, when compared with the results of EITB. Results for an additional five samples were considered equivocal but were technically positive because their optical density readings were slightly above the cutoff value. Three of the 198 serum samples from the bank of serum samples from healthy individuals were also false positive by ELISA (the EITB result for the samples was negative). Six other serum samples from healthy individuals which had equivocal results and the five serum samples from patients with equivocal results were EITB negative. Serum samples containing antibodies against Echinococcus spp. frequently cross-reacted with the cysticercus ELISA antigen (13 of 16 specimens), but serum samples with antibodies against other parasites did not (2 of 26 specimens); all of these serum samples were EITB negative. The commercially available ELISA that we describe is a simple and rapid test. Considering all 308 specimens, the ELISA had a specificity of 93% (when samples with equivocal results were considered negative) or 89% (when samples with equivocal results were considered positive); the sensitivity was 93%. PMID:8586686

Sloan, L; Schneider, S; Rosenblatt, J

1995-01-01

387

Exposure to Multiple Parasites Is Associated with the Prevalence of Active Convulsive Epilepsy in Sub-Saharan Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Epilepsy is common in developing countries, and it is often associated with parasitic infections. We investigated the relationship between exposure to parasitic infections, particularly multiple infections and active convulsive epilepsy (ACE), in five sites across sub-Saharan Africa. Methods and Findings A case-control design that matched on age and location was used. Blood samples were collected from 986 prevalent cases and 1,313 age-matched community controls and tested for presence of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium falciparum, Taenia solium and HIV. Exposure (seropositivity) to Onchocerca volvulus (OR?=?1.98; 95%CI: 1.52–2.58, p<0.001), Toxocara canis (OR?=?1.52; 95%CI: 1.23–1.87, p<0.001), Toxoplasma gondii (OR?=?1.28; 95%CI: 1.04–1.56, p?=?0.018) and higher antibody levels (top tertile) to Toxocara canis (OR?=?1.70; 95%CI: 1.30–2.24, p<0.001) were associated with an increased prevalence of ACE. Exposure to multiple infections was common (73.8% of cases and 65.5% of controls had been exposed to two or more infections), and for T. gondii and O. volvulus co-infection, their combined effect on the prevalence of ACE, as determined by the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), was more than additive (T. gondii and O. volvulus, RERI?=?1.19). The prevalence of T. solium antibodies was low (2.8% of cases and 2.2% of controls) and was not associated with ACE in the study areas. Conclusion This study investigates how the degree of exposure to parasites and multiple parasitic infections are associated with ACE and may explain conflicting results obtained when only seropositivity is considered. The findings from this study should be further validated. PMID:24875312

Kamuyu, Gathoni; Bottomley, Christian; Mageto, James; Lowe, Brett; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Noh, John C.; Nutman, Thomas B.; Ngugi, Anthony K.; Odhiambo, Rachael; Wagner, Ryan G.; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth; Masanja, Honorati; Osier, Faith H. A.; Odermatt, Peter; Newton, Charles R.

2014-01-01

388

The spatial ecology of free-ranging domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) in western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background In many parts of the developing world, pigs are kept under low-input systems where they roam freely to scavenge food. These systems allow poor farmers the opportunity to enter into livestock keeping without large capital investments. This, combined with a growing demand for pork, especially in urban areas, has led to an increase in the number of small-holder farmers keeping free range pigs as a commercial enterprise. Despite the benefits which pig production can bring to a household, keeping pigs under a free range system increases the risk of the pig acquiring diseases, either production-limiting or zoonotic in nature. This study used Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to track free range domestic pigs in rural western Kenya, in order to understand their movement patterns and interactions with elements of the peri-domestic environment. Results We found that these pigs travel an average of 4,340?m in a 12?hr period and had a mean home range of 10,343?m2 (range 2,937–32,759?m2) within which the core utilisation distribution was found to be 964?m2 (range 246–3,289?m2) with pigs spending on average 47% of their time outside their homestead of origin. Conclusion These are the first data available on the home range of domestic pigs kept under a free range system: the data show that pigs in these systems spend much of their time scavenging outside their homesteads, suggesting that these pigs may be exposed to infectious agents over a wide area. Control policies for diseases such as Taenia solium, Trypanosomiasis, Trichinellosis, Toxoplasmosis or African Swine Fever therefore require a community-wide focus and pig farmers require education on the inherent risks of keeping pigs under a free range system. The work presented here will enable future research to incorporate movement data into studies of disease transmission, for example for the understanding of transmission of African Swine Fever between individuals, or in relation to the life-cycle of parasites including Taenia solium. PMID:23497587

2013-01-01

389

21 CFR 520.1198 - Ivermectin and praziquantel paste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...treatment and control of: (i) Tapeworms—Anoplocephala perfoliata ; Large strongyles (adults)—Strongylus...microfilariae, Onchocerca sp. (ii) Tapeworms—Anoplocephala perfoliata ; Large Strongyles...

2010-04-01

390

Use of Oxfendazole to Control Porcine Cysticercosis in a High-Endemic Area of Mozambique  

PubMed Central

A randomized controlled field trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a single oral dose of 30 mg/kg of oxfendazole (OFZ) treatment for control of porcine cysticercosis was conducted in 4 rural villages of Angónia district, north-western Mozambique. Two hundred and sixteen piglets aged 4 months were selected and assigned randomly to OFZ treatment or control groups. Fifty-four piglets were treated at 4 months of age (T1), while another 54 piglets were treated at 9 months of age (T2) and these were matched with 108 control pigs from the same litters and raised under the same conditions. Baseline data were collected on the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis using antigen ELISA (Ag-ELISA), as well as knowledge and practices related to Taenia solium transmission based on questionnaire interviews and observations. All animals were followed and re-tested for porcine cysticercosis by Ag-ELISA at 9 and 12 months of age when the study was terminated. Overall prevalence at baseline was 5.1% with no significant difference between groups. At the end of the study, 66.7% of the controls were found positive, whereas 21.4% of the T1 and 9.1% of the T2 pigs were positive, respectively. Incidence rates of porcine cysticercosis were lower in treated pigs as compared to controls. Necropsy of 30 randomly selected animals revealed that viable cysts were present in none (0/8) of T2 pigs, 12.5% (1/8) of T1 pigs and 42.8% (6/14) of control pigs. There was a significant reduction in the risk of T. solium cysticercosis if pigs were treated with OFZ either at 4 months (OR?=?0.14; 95% CI: 0.05–0.36) or at 9 months of age (OR?=?0.05; 95% CI: 0.02–0.16). Strategic treatment of pigs in endemic areas should be further explored as a means to control T. solium cysticercosis/taeniosis. PMID:22666509

Pondja, Alberto; Neves, Luís; Mlangwa, James; Afonso, Sónia; Fafetine, José; Willingham, Arve Lee; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang

2012-01-01

391

Granuloma cytokines in murine cysticercosis.  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis, caused by Taenia solium, is one of the most common causes of seizures worldwide. The symptoms result from granulomatous inflammation associated with dying cyst forms of the parasite. Although the invasive larvae can be killed by immune serum plus complement, immunity to the cyst stage depends on a cellular response. This dichotomous immune response is reminiscent of the extremes of the immune response associated with T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokine profiles. To characterize the cytokine response in cysticercosis, granulomas were removed from the peritoneal cavity of mice infected with Taenia crassiceps cysts and examined for cytokine message by in situ hybridization using 35S-labeled RNA probes. The granulomas were staged based on histologic appearance of the degenerating parasite. Message for gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) was identified by light microscopy in 11 of the 12 granulomas, and interleukin-2 (IL-2) message was identified in 9 of the 12. By laser scanning confocal microscopy, significantly increased IFN-gamma and IL-2 pixel intensity was identified in nearly all of the granulomas from early histologic stages. Message for IL-4 was seen in 6 of the 12 granulomas. Only granulomas with complete destruction of the parasite architecture displayed more than minimal amounts of IL-4 message by light microscopy, and only 2 of 12 granulomas had IL-4 pixel intensity significantly above background. Only minimal amounts of IL-10 message were detected in 4 of 11 granulomas. Thus, early granulomas in cysticercosis are predominantly associated with a Th1 response, whereas later granulomas, in which parasite destruction is complete, have a mixture of Th1 and IL-4. The Th1 response appears to play an important role both in the pathogenesis of disease as well as in the clearing of the parasites, with IL-4 involved in downregulation of the initial response. PMID:9199468

Robinson, P; Atmar, R L; Lewis, D E; White, A C

1997-01-01

392

Strategies for optimal expression of vaccine antigens from Taeniid cestode parasites in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Investigations were undertaken into optimizing the expression of Cestode parasite vaccine antigens in the bacterium, Escherichia coli to levels sufficient for mass production. A strategy to genetically engineer the antigens and improve their expression in E. coli was investigated. Plasmid constructs encoding truncated parasite antigens were prepared, leading to removal of N and C-terminal hydrophobic domains of the antigens. This approach was found to be an effective strategy for improving expression of the TSOL18 recombinant antigen of Taenia solium in E. coli. Clear demonstration that plasmid construct modification can be used to significantly improve heterologous expression in E. coli was shown for the EG95 antigen of Echinococcus granulosus. Removal of hydrophobic stretches of amino acids from the N and C termini of EG95 by genetic manipulation led to a substantial change in expression of the protein from an insoluble to a soluble form. The data demonstrate that the occurrence of hydrophobic regions in the antigens are a major feature that hindered their expression in E. coli. It was also shown that retaining a minimal protein domain (a single fibronectin type III domain) led to high level expression of functional protein that is antigenic and host protective. Two truncated antigens were combined from two species of parasite (EG95NC? from E. granulosus and Tm18N? from Taenia multiceps) and expressed as a single hybrid antigen in E. coli. The hybrid antigens were expressed at a high level and retained antigenicity of their respective components, thereby simplifying production of a multi-antigen vaccine. The findings are expected to have an impact on the preparation of recombinant Cestode vaccine antigens using E. coli, by increasing their utility and making them more amenable to large-scale production. PMID:21222242

Gauci, Charles; Jenkins, David; Lightowlers, Marshall W

2011-07-01

393

Intestinal helminths of golden jackals and red foxes from Tunisia.  

PubMed

Forty wild canids including 31 golden jackals (Canis aureus Linné, 1758) and 9 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linné, 1758) collected between 2008 and 2011 in the northeast, northwest and center of Tunisia were necropsied and examined for intestinal helminth parasites. All jackals and foxes were found infected with a prevalence rate of 95% for cestodes, 82.5% for nematodes and 7.5% for acanthocephalans. A total of twelve helminth species were recorded in red foxes: cestodes, Dipylidium caninum (55.6%), Diplopylidium noelleri (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes lineatus (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes litteratus (33%), Mesocestoïdes corti (22%); nematodes, Ancylostoma caninum (11%), Uncinaria stenocephala (44%), Spirura rytipleurites (11%), Trichuris vulpis (33%), Pterygodermatites affinis (67%), Oxynema linstowi (33%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (22%). The fifteen recovered helminth species in jackals were Echinococcus granulosus (9.7%), D. caninum (16%), D. noelleri (16%), M. lineatus (74%), M. litteratus (23%), M. corti (12.9%), Taenia pisiformis (3.2%), Taenia spp. (19%), Toxocara canis (16%), Toxascaris leonina (6.5%), A. caninum (9.7%), U. stenocephala (68%), P. affinis (6.5%), O. linstowi (3.2%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (3.2%). This is the first report on the presence of P. affinis, D. noelleri and O. linstowi in Tunisia. E. granulosus was found in young jackals, aged less than 4 years old, with a higher abundance in females (8.9 worms). M. lineatus presented the highest mean intensity of 231.86 and 108.8 tapeworms respectively in jackals and foxes. Canids from the northwest region had the highest prevalence (77.5%) and highest intensity (243.7) of helminth species compared to those from the northeast and central areas. U. stenocephala and O. linstowi had the highest mean intensity for nematodes in both jackals and foxes at 14.3 and 88 worms respectively. PMID:24938826

Lahmar, Samia; Boufana, Belgees; Ben Boubaker, Sarra; Landolsi, Faouzi

2014-08-29

394

Neurocysticercosis: A disease of neglect  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a neglected tropical disease caused by larval forms of the parasite Taenia solium lodging in central nervous system (CNS). There is a huge morbidity and debilitation due to CNS manifestations of NCC in developing and underdeveloped regions of the globe, mainly Asian, African and Latin American countries. It is the cause of epilepsy in about 1% of the population of endemic countries and is the underlying etiology in about 15-50% persons with epilepsy, depending upon the geographical region. There is no perfect diagnostic method and the diagnosis relies on a combination of clinical, radio-imaging, immunologic and epidemiologic data. Treatment includes anti-parasitic treatment by cysticidal drugs and management of associated symptoms and complications. The disease is eradicable and control depends on an integrated and coordinated involvement of international bodies like the World Health Organization along with scientific institutions and political and administrative strata of the endemic countries to provide the essential tools such as adequate sanitation, live-stock management, health education and improved socio-economic conditions. PMID:24470993

Mewara, Abhishek; Goyal, Kapil; Sehgal, Rakesh

2013-01-01

395

Prevalence case-control study of epilepsy in three Burkina Faso villages  

PubMed Central

Purpose To estimate the association between the prevalence of epilepsy and potential risk factors in three Burkina Faso villages. Methods Three villages were selected based on local reports of high numbers of epilepsy cases and pig-rearing practices. One person aged 7 or older was selected at random from all households of selected concessions for epilepsy screening and blood sampling. Epilepsy was confirmed by a physician using the ILAE definition. The cross-sectional associations between epilepsy and selected factors and sero-response to the antigens of Taenia solium were estimated using a Bayesian hierarchical logistic regression. Prevalence odds ratios (POR) and their 95% Credible Intervals (95%BCI) were estimated. Results Of 888 individuals interviewed, 39 of 70 screened positive were confirmed to have epilepsy for a lifetime prevalence of 4.5% (95%CI: 3.3–6.0). The prevalence of epilepsy was associated with a positive reaction to cysticercosis Ag-ELISA serology (POR=3.1, 95% BCI= 1.0;8.3), past pork consumption (POR=9.7, 95% BCI=2.5;37.9), and being salaried or a trader compared to a farmer or housewife (POR=2.9, 95% BCI= 1.2;6.4). Discussion Several factors were associated with prevalent epilepsy, with Ag-ELISA suggesting the presence of neurocysticercosis. The association of epilepsy and some occupations may reflect differences in local attitudes toward epilepsy and should be further explored. PMID:22289127

Nitiéma, Pascal; Carabin, Hélène; Hounton, Sennen; Cowan, Linda D; Ganaba, Rasmané; Kompaoré, C; Millogo, Athanase

2012-01-01

396

Genome mining offers a new starting point for parasitology research.  

PubMed

Parasites including helminthes, protozoa, and medical arthropod vectors are a major cause of global infectious diseases, affecting one-sixth of the world's population, which are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality important and remain impediments to economic development especially in tropical countries. Prevalent drug resistance, lack of highly effective and practical vaccines, as well as specific and sensitive diagnostic markers are proving to be challenging problems in parasitic disease control in most parts of the world. The impressive progress recently made in genome-wide analysis of parasites of medical importance, including trematodes of Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni; nematodes of Brugia malayi, Loa loa, Necator americanus, Trichinella spiralis, and Trichuris suis; cestodes of Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, and Taenia solium; protozoa of Babesia bovis, B. microti, Cryptosporidium hominis, Eimeria falciformis, E. histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Leishmania braziliensis, L. donovani, L. major, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, Trichomonas vaginalis, Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi; and medical arthropod vectors of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles darlingi, A. sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, have been systematically covered in this review for a comprehensive understanding of the genetic information contained in nuclear, mitochondrial, kinetoplast, plastid, or endosymbiotic bacterial genomes of parasites, further valuable insight into parasite-host interactions and development of promising novel drug and vaccine candidates and preferable diagnostic tools, thereby underpinning the prevention and control of parasitic diseases. PMID:25563615

Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao; Zhang, Limei; Ji, Pengyu; Cai, Yifeng; Luo, Shiqi; Wang, Hongxi; Li, Hao

2015-02-01

397

An epidemiological study of familial neurocysticercosis in an endemic Mexican community.  

PubMed

Neurocysticercosis (NC) caused by Taenia solium is a frequent parasitic disease of the central nervous system. It is highly endemic in many developing countries, where many people are exposed but few become infected. Here, the relevance of age, gender, and genetic and exposure factors on NC susceptibility was studied in 649 inhabitants of a rural community of Mexico. Endemicity was confirmed by the high prevalence of pig cysticercosis (32.8%) and human seroprevalence (43.8%). Human NC cases were diagnosed by computerised tomography scans. A questionnaire to evaluate risk factors was applied and familial relationships between participants were registered. An overall NC frequency of 9.1% (59/649) was found. NC frequency increased with age but did not associate with gender. Most NC cases were asymptomatic. None of the evaluated risk factors were associated with NC. No familial aggregation was detected when studying all cases, although a significant relationship between mother and child in cases with multiple parasites was found. These findings point to the fact that human NC in high exposure conditions is not simply related to exposure factors and they do not support the participation of a major gene in single-cyst NC. Rather, our results point to a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors involved in NC. PMID:16316671

Fleury, A; Morales, J; Bobes, R J; Dumas, M; Yánez, O; Piña, J; Carrillo-Mezo, R; Martínez, J J; Fragoso, G; Dessein, A; Larralde, C; Sciutto, E

2006-06-01

398

Detection of HP10 antigen in serum for diagnosis and follow?up of subarachnoidal and intraventricular human neurocysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Neurocysticercosis (NC), a parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium, may be either asymptomatic or show a mild to severe clinical picture with intracranial hypertension. The most severe form of the disease is caused when viable cysticerci are localised in the ventricles or in subarachnoidal cisterns at the base of the skull. Detection of the secreted metacestode antigen HP10 in cerebrospinal fluid is a sensitive and specific method for the diagnosis of these severe NC cases. Objective and methods To evaluate the validity of HP10 antigen detection ELISA when applied to serum, using paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples from 116 radiologically and clinically characterised NC patients. Results The HP10 antigen assay exhibited a similarly high sensitivity in identifying severe NC cases from sera (84.8%) and CSF (91.3%). In contrast, HP10 antigen was rarely detected in asymptomatic or mild NC cases (3 of 57). Importantly, the HP10 antigen assay applied to serum showed high specificity (94%) when used in 126 serum samples of non?NC subjects from an endemic community with a confirmed coproparasitological diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections. Finally, the HP10 assay also proved to be of value in the follow?up of treated patients. Conclusion This study confirms that detection of the metacestode HP10 antigen in serum is a useful tool for diagnosis and follow?up of patients with severe forms of NC treated with cysticidal drugs. PMID:17337467

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