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1

Taenia solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroids and sex steroids in vitro.  

PubMed

Cysticercosis is a disease caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium cestodes that belongs to the family Taeniidae that affects a number of hosts including humans. Taeniids tapeworms are hermaphroditic organisms that have reproductive units called proglottids that gradually mature to develop testis and ovaries. Cysticerci, the larval stage of these parasites synthesize steroids. To our knowledge there is no information about the capacity of T. solium tapeworms to metabolize progesterone or other precursors to steroid hormones. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate if T. solium tapeworms were able to transform steroid precursors to corticosteroids and sex steroids. T. solium tapeworms were recovered from the intestine of golden hamsters that had been orally infected with cysticerci. The worms were cultured in the presence of tritiated progesterone or androstenedione. At the end of the experiments the culture media were analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The experiments described here showed that small amounts of testosterone were synthesized from (3)H-progesterone by complete or segmented tapeworms whereas the incubation of segmented tapeworms with (3)H-androstenedione, instead of (3)H-progesterone, improved their capacity to synthesize testosterone. In addition, the incubation of the parasites with (3)H-progesterone yielded corticosteroids, mainly deoxicorticosterone (DOC) and 11-deoxicortisol. In summary, the results described here, demonstrate that T. solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroid and sex steroid like metabolites. The capacity of T. solium tapeworms to synthesize steroid hormones may contribute to the physiological functions of the parasite and also to their interaction with the host. PMID:24793221

Valdez, R A; Jiménez, P; Fernández Presas, A M; Aguilar, L; Willms, K; Romano, M C

2014-09-01

2

The Hamster Model for Identification of Specific Antigens of Taenia solium Tapeworms  

PubMed Central

Humans acquire taeniasis by ingesting pork meat infected with Taenia solium cysticerci, which are the only definitive hosts of the adult stage (tapeworm) and responsible for transmitting the human and porcine cysticercosis. Hence, detection of human tapeworm carriers is a key element in the development of viable strategies to control the disease. This paper presents the identification of specific antigens using sera from hamsters infected with T. solium tapeworms analyzed by western blot assay with crude extracts (CEs) and excretion-secretion antigens (E/S Ag) obtained from T. solium cysticerci and tapeworms and extracts from other helminthes as controls. The hamster sera infected with T. solium tapeworms recognized specific bands of 72, 48, 36, and 24?kDa, in percentages of 81, 81, 90, and 88%, respectively, using the T. solium tapeworms E/S Ag. The antigens recognized by these hamster sera could be candidates to improve diagnosis of human T. solium taeniasis. PMID:22253530

Ochoa-Sanchez, Alicia; Jimenez, Lucia; Landa, Abraham

2011-01-01

3

Mini review on chemotherapy of taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Asia, and a case report with 20 tapeworms in China.  

PubMed

A 43-year-old Tibetan woman living in northwest Sichuan, China, confirmed to be a taeniasis carrier of Taenia solium was treated with pumpkin seeds combined with Areca nut extract in October 2009. All 20 tapeworms except one without scolex were expelled under good conditions. She was free of secondary cysticercosis within one year follow up. Although the first choice for treatment of taeniasis is still praziquantel, it may often cause serious side effect on asymptomatic cysticercosis cases to suddenly become symptomatic within a half day of the treatment. Therefore, the problems in treatment of taeniasis and/or cysticercosis in Asia are briefly overviewed, since other platyhelminthic diseases including schistosomiasis, opisthorchiasis etc. are more common and praziquantel is strongly recommended for mass treatment of these trematodiases with no idea on the co-infection with eggs of T. solium which cause asymptomatic cysticercosis. PMID:23959481

Ito, A; Li, T; Chen, X; Long, C; Yanagida, T; Nakao, M; Sako, Y; Okamoto, M; Wu, Y; Raoul, F; Giraudoux, P; Craig, P S

2013-06-01

4

Ultrastructure of smooth muscle, gap junctions and glycogen distribution in Taenia solium tapeworms from experimentally infected hamsters.  

PubMed

Taenia solium adults were grown in hamsters infected by feeding them with cysticerci from pig carcasses. Viable strobilae were collected from the hamster duodenum 20-60 days post-infection, fixed and processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fourteen strobilae were cut into pieces and embedded in individual blocks. Sections, stained with toluidine blue, were then photographed by light microscopy. Over 1,200 TEM images were obtained from selected blocks. Maturing proglottids exhibited a dense myofilament lattice of connecting fibers, each contained in sarcoplamsic extensions of myocytons and emitting cytoplasmic processes loosely attached to other cells, structures characterized as myocyton-myofilament-pseudopod units, which are interpreted as structures involved in the transport of cells and membrane-bound-glycogen from the germinative tissues to mature proglottids. Densely packed membrane-bound glycogen particles were found between the tegumentary cytons of the neck tissue, and as single-stranded particles between the tegumentary cytons of mature proglottids. These were wrapped around cell bodies in the parenchyma of maturing proglottids and as thin cytoplasmic strands between the testicular lobules of mature proglottids. A large number of cell-to-cell adhesions were identified as gap junctions connected to glycogen strands. We suggest that these are involved in the transport of glucose to differentiating tissues. PMID:12632169

Willms, Kaethe; Robert, Lilia; Caro, José Antonio

2003-03-01

5

Taenia saginata and Taenia solium: reciprocal models.  

PubMed

Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are of such close taxonomic relationship that each can be regarded as a model for the other. In these particular species the only available hosts are either humans or large domesticated animals. This has imposed severe safety and/or economic restrictions on the extent of the experimental work which could be attempted. Furthermore, there is a limit to the relevance of work with less closely related species such as Taenia ovis, Taenia taeniaeformis and Taenia pisiformis with their differing host species, larval forms and locations within the intermediate host tissue. However, the application of both monoclonal antibody based and modern molecular biological techniques to the T. solium and T. saginata systems does much to overcome or circumvent some of the problems. Thus advances made in the analysis, diagnosis or immuno-prophylaxis of one of these species are at least potentially both of direct and immediate or indirect benefit to the work on the other species. PMID:2488993

Harrison, L J; Parkhouse, R M

1989-01-01

6

Isolation and characterization of species-specific DNA probes from Taenia solium and Taenia saginata and their use in an egg detection assay.  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis results from ingestion of the eggs of the tapeworm Taenia solium. Reduction of the incidence of human and swine cysticercosis requires identification and treatment of individuals who carry the adult tapeworm. T. solium and Taenia saginata eggs cannot be differentiated on the basis of morphology; thus, in order to improve existing methods for the diagnosis of taeniasis, we have developed highly sensitive, species-specific DNA probes which differentiate T. solium and T. saginata. Recombinant clones containing repetitive DNA sequences which hybridize specifically with genomic DNAs from either species were isolated and characterized. T. solium-specific DNA sequences contained complete and truncated forms of a tandemly repeated 158-bp DNA sequence. An unrelated T. saginata DNA sequence was also characterized and shown to encode a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene. T. solium- and T. saginata-specific DNA probes did not hybridize in dot blot assays either with genomic DNA from the platyhelminths Taenia hydatigena, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia taeniaeformis, Echinococcus granulosus, and Schistosoma mansoni or with genomic DNA from other eukaryotes, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, Cryptosporidium parvum, Entamoeba histolytica, Trypanosoma gambiense, Trypanosoma brucei, and Giardia lamblia, Caenorhabditis elegans, and human DNA. By using these T. solium and T. saginata DNA probes, a rapid, highly sensitive and specific dot blot assay for the detection of T. solium eggs was developed. PMID:7615742

Chapman, A; Vallejo, V; Mossie, K G; Ortiz, D; Agabian, N; Flisser, A

1995-01-01

7

High prevalence of Taenia solium cysticerosis in a village community of Bas-Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cysticercosis results from tissue infection with the larval stage of the pig tapeworm Taenia solium. Infection of the brain may cause neurocysticercosis, the most frequent cause of acquired epilepsy in developing countries. Information on human cysticercosis in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is scarce and outdated. We believe this is the first reported study on human cysticercosis and epilepsy

Kirezi Kanobana; Nicolas Praet; Constantin Kabwe; Pierre Dorny; Philippe Lukanu; Joule Madinga; Patrick Mitashi; Mirjam Verwijs; Pascal Lutumba; Katja Polman

2011-01-01

8

Sympatric Distribution of Three Human Taenia Tapeworms Collected between 1935 and 2005 in Korea  

PubMed Central

Taeniasis has been known as one of the prevalent parasitic infections in Korea. Until recently, Taenia saginata had long been considered a dominant, and widely distributed species but epidemiological profiles of human Taenia species in Korea still remain unclear. In order to better understand distribution patterns of human Taenia tapeworms in Korea, partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cox1 and ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) were determined, along with morphological examinations, on 68 Taenia specimens obtained from university museum collections deposited since 1935. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-preserved specimens. Phylogenetic relationships among the genotypes (cox1 haplotype) detected in this study were inferred using the neighbor-joining method as a tree building method. Morphological and genetic analyses identified 3 specimens as T. solium, 51 specimens as T. asiatica, and 14 specimens as T. saginata. Our results indicate that all 3 Taenia tapeworms are sympatrically distributed in Korea with T. asiatica dominating over T. saginata and T. solium. PMID:19127329

Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Heon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Rim, Han-Jong

2008-01-01

9

Redescription of Taenia solium Linnaeus, 1758 and Taenia saginata Goeze, 1782  

Microsoft Academic Search

Having redescribed the two species Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, it has been established that T. solium is not so rare as is usually supposed. The apparent scarcity is often due to a mis-identification of the proglottids of T. saginata. The apparent greater frequency of T. saginata can be explained insomuch that gravid proglottids of this species are voided spontaneously

Anna Verster; JEAN G. BAER

1967-01-01

10

Proteomic study of activated Taenia solium oncospheres.  

PubMed

Taenia solium cysticerci are a major cause of human seizures and epilepsy in the world. In the gastrointestinal tract of infected individuals, taeniid eggs release the oncospheres, which are then activated by intestinal stimuli, getting ready to penetrate the gut wall and reach distant locations where they transform in cysticerci. Information about oncospheral molecules is scarce, and elucidation of the oncosphere proteome could help understanding the host-parasite relationship during the first steps of infection. In this study, using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, we could identify a set of oncospheral proteins involved in adhesion, protein folding, detoxification and proteolysis, among others. In addition, we have characterized one of the identified molecules, the parasite 14-3-3, by immunoblot and immunolocalization. The identification of these oncospheral proteins represents the first step to elucidate their specific roles in the biology of the host-parasite relationship. PMID:20144663

Santivañez, S J; Hernández-González, A; Chile, N; Oleaga, A; Arana, Y; Palma, S; Verastegui, M; Gonzalez, A E; Gilman, R; Garcia, H H; Siles-Lucas, M

2010-05-01

11

Differentiating Taenia solium and Taenia saginata Infections by Simple Hematoxylin-Eosin Staining and PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis  

PubMed Central

Species-specific identification of human tapeworm infections is important for public health purposes, because prompt identification of Taenia solium carriers may prevent further human cysticercosis infections (a major cause of acquired epilepsy). Two practical methods for the differentiation of cestode proglottids, (i) routine embedding, sectioning, and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and (ii) PCR with restriction enzyme analysis (PCR-REA), were tested on samples from 40 individuals infected with T. solium (n = 34) or Taenia saginata (n = 6). Microscopic examination of HE staining of sections from 24 cases, in which conserved proglottids were recovered, clearly revealed differences in the number of uterine branches. Distinct restriction patterns for T. solium and T. saginata were observed when the PCR products containing the ribosomal 5.8S gene plus internal transcribed spacer regions were digested with either AluI, DdeI, or MboI. Both HE histology and PCR-REA are useful techniques for differentiating T. solium from T. saginata. Importantly, both techniques can be used in zones of endemicity. HE histology is inexpensive and is currently available in most regions of endemicity, and PCR-REA can be performed in most hospital centers already performing PCR without additional equipment or the use of radioactive material. PMID:10618076

Mayta, H.; Talley, A.; Gilman, R. H.; Jimenez, J.; Verastegui, M.; Ruiz, M.; Garcia, H. H.; Gonzalez, A. E.

2000-01-01

12

Differential diagnosis of Taenia saginata and Taenia solium with DNA probes.  

PubMed

A size selected genomic DNA library was constructed using DNA extracted from Taenia saginata. The DNA was digested using the restriction enzyme EcoR1 under star conditions and the 2-4 kbase fraction, selected following sucrose density-gradient separation, was cloned in the bacteriophage lambda gt 10. A panel of cestode DNAs including Taenia saginata, Taenia solium, Taenia taeniaeformis, Taenia crassiceps, Echinococcus granulosus and DNAs of bovine, porcine and human origin were used in conjunction with hybridization analysis to identify two recombinant bacteriophages. The first probe, designated HDP1, reacted specifically with T. saginata DNA. The second, designated HDP2, reacted with DNA from both T. saginata and T. solium but not the other DNA samples and thus provided a general reagent for positive identification of fragments of Taenia spp. proglottides of human faecal origin. If used in conjunction the two DNA probes allow positive identification of T. saginata. In the clinical situation it is important to be able to distinguish T. saginata and T. solium infections and DNA probes such as these may be useful in such differentiation. PMID:2141926

Harrison, L J; Delgado, J; Parkhouse, R M

1990-06-01

13

Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Japan  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases is increasing in Japan, the current situation is not clear. This is largely because taeniasis and cysticercosis are not notifiable conditions in Japan and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of T. solium infections in Japan conducted in the last 15 years. Herein, we provide an overview of the status of T. solium infection in Japan over the past 35 years and point out the potential risks to Japanese society. PMID:22248435

2012-01-01

14

Characterization of glutathione S-transferase of Taenia solium.  

PubMed

A Taenia solium glutathione-S-transferase fraction (SGSTF) was isolated from a metacestode crude extract by affinity chromatography on reduced glutathione (GSH)-sepharose. The purified fraction displayed a specific glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity of 2.8 micromol/min/mg and glutathione peroxidase selenium-independent activity of 0.22 micromol/min/mg. Enzymatic characterization of the fraction suggested that the activity was closer to the mammalian mu-class GSTs. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, gel filtration, and enzyme activity analysis showed that the fraction was composed of a major band of Mr = 26 kd and that the active enzyme was dimeric. Immunohistochemical studies using specific antibodies against the major 26-kd band of the SGSTF indicated that GST protein was present in the tegument, parenchyma, protonephridial, and tegumentary cytons of the T. solium metacestode. Antibodies generated against the SGSTF tested in western blot showed cross-reactivity against GSTs purified from Taenia saginata, T. taeniaeformis, and T. crassiceps, but did not react with GSTs from Schistosoma mansoni, or mice, rabbit, and pig liver tissue. Furthermore, immunization of mice with SGSTF reduced the metacestode burden up to 74.2%. Our findings argue in favor of GST having an important role in the survival of T. solium in its hosts. PMID:10386436

Vibanco-Pérez, N; Jiménez, L; Merchant, M T; Landa, A

1999-06-01

15

Corticosteroid withdrawal precipitates perilesional edema around calcified Taenia solium cysts.  

PubMed

Calcified Taenia solium granulomas are the focus of repeated episodes of perilesional edema and seizures in 50% of persons with calcifications, history of seizures, and a positive serology for cysticercosis. The pathophysiology is unclear but recent studies suggest the edema is caused by inflammation. We report two new cases and four other published cases where cessation of corticosteroids appeared to result in recurrence or new appearance of perilesional edema around calcifications. This suggests that perilesional edema is an immune-mediated phenomenon. PMID:24002482

Mejia, Rojelio; Nash, Theodore E

2013-11-01

16

A Cross-Sectional Study of Taenia solium in a Multiple Taeniid-Endemic Region Reveals Competition May be Protective  

PubMed Central

We conducted cross-sectional surveys for taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans, pigs, and dogs in four northern provinces of Laos. Human cysticercosis and taeniasis prevalence was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4–3.0%) and 8.4% (95% CI = 6.9–9.9%), respectively. Eating uncooked beef, being male, province of residence, age, and ethnicity were significant risk factors for taeniasis and only province of residence was a significant risk factor for cystiercosis. Thirty-five human tapeworms were recovered during the survey and 33 (94.3%) and 2 (5.7%) were identified as Taenia saginata and T. solium, respectively. Maximum-likelihood adjusted prevalence of T. solium and T. hydatigena in pigs was 4.2% (95% CI = 0.5–7.9%) and 55.9% (95% CI = 47.5–64.3%), respectively, and T. hydatigena taeniasis in dogs was 4.8% (95% CI = 0.0–11.3%). Taenia hydatigena and T. saginata were the most prevalent taeniids in the respective pig and human populations and together may suppress T. solium transmission. PMID:22855759

Conlan, James V.; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Dorny, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Elliot, Aileen; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R. C. Andrew

2012-01-01

17

Evaluating the Efficacy of Teaching Methods Regarding Prevention of Human Epilepsy Caused by Taenia solium Neurocysticercosis in Western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium neurocysticercosis is a major cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. A questionnaire was administered to 282 Kenyan farmers, followed by a workshop, a second questionnaire, one-on-one training, and a third questionnaire. People who attended workshops were more likely to know how T. solium causes epilepsy in humans in the third visit than the second (P = 0.001). The likelihood that farmers would tether their pigs 100% of the time, limiting exposure to tapeworm eggs, increased after the first (P < 0.001) and second visits (P < 0.001). Farmers were more likely to have heard of Cysticercus cellulosae in the second (P = 0.001) and third visits (P = 0.007), and to know how pigs acquire infection in the second (P = 0.03) and third visits (P = 0.003). Farmers with at least a grade 8 education were more likely to know how T. solium is transmitted to humans in the second (P = 0.001) and third visits (P = 0.009), and were more likely to understand the relationship between epilepsy and T. solium in the second (P = 0.03) and third visits (P = 0.03). Grade 8 education may enhance learning from written material. Workshops followed by individual on-farm training enhanced knowledge acquisition and behavior changes. Training local government extension workers contributed to the sustainability of this project. PMID:20348512

Wohlgemut, Jared; Dewey, Cate; Levy, Mike; Mutua, Florence

2010-01-01

18

Regional status, epidemiology and impact of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Western and Central Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In West Africa, Taenia solium cysticercosis in both pigs and man has been reported in Benin, Burkina-Faso, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Senegal and Togo, and although official data are lacking, T. solium is anticipated to be present in most of the pig-raising regions of other West African countries as well. In some regions of Nigeria, the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and

André Zoli; Oliver Shey-Njila; Emmanuel Assana; Jean-Pierre Nguekam; Pierre Dorny; Jef Brandt; Stanny Geerts

2003-01-01

19

Immunolocalization of TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A, the successful protective peptides against porcine cysticercosis, in Taenia solium oncospheres  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium life cycle includes humans as definitive hosts and pigs as intermediate hosts. One of the measures to stop the life cycle of this parasite is by vaccination of pigs. In experiments performed in pigs with TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A, two recombinant T. solium proteins, 99.5% and 97.0% protection was induced, respectively. The purpose of this paper was to localize these antigens in all stages of the parasite (adult worms, oncospheres and cysticerci) by immunofluorescence, with the use of antibodies against TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A that were obtained from the pigs used in the vaccination experiment. Results show that TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A are expressed on the surface of T. solium oncospheres and not in tapeworms or cysticerci, indicating that they are stage-specific antigens. This, therefore, might explain the high level of protection these antigens induce against pig cysticercosis. PMID:21211050

2011-01-01

20

Ring-Screening to Control Endemic Transmission of Taenia solium  

PubMed Central

Background Taenia solium is a major cause of preventable epilepsy in developing nations. Screening and treatment of human intestinal stage infection (taeniasis) within high-risk foci may reduce transmission and prevent epilepsy by limiting human exposure to infective eggs. We piloted a ring-strategy that involves screening and treatment for taeniasis among households located nearby pigs heavily-infected with the larval stage (cysticercosis). These pigs mark areas of increased transmission and can be identified by tongue examination. Methodology We selected two villages in northern Peru for a controlled prospective interventional cohort pilot study. In the intervention village (1,058 residents) we examined the tongues of all pigs every 4 months for nodules characteristic of cysticercosis. We then screened all residents living within 100-meters of any tongue-positive pig using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Taenia antigens in stool. Residents with taeniasis were treated with niclosamide. In both the intervention and control (753 residents) we measured incidence of exposure by sampling the pig population every 4 months for serum antibodies against cysticercosis using enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot. Principal Findings Baseline seroincidence among pigs born during the study was 22.6 cases per 100 pigs per-month (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.0–30.0) in the intervention and 18.1 (95% CI 12.7–25.9) in the control. After one year we observed a 41% reduction in seroincidence in the intervention village compared to baseline (incidence rate ratio 0.59, 95% CI 0.41–0.87) while the seroincidence in the control village remained unchanged. At study end, the prevalence of taeniasis was nearly 4 times lower in the intervention than in the control (prevalence ratio 0.28, 95% CI 0.08–0.91). Conclusions/Significance Ring-screening reduced transmission of T. solium in this pilot study and may provide an effective and practical approach for regions where resources are limited. However, this strategy requires validation in larger populations over a greater period of time. PMID:25210748

O'Neal, Seth E.; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gavidia, Cesar; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

2014-01-01

21

Differential diagnosis of Taenia saginata and Taenia solium infections: from DNA probes to polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was the rapid and easy differential diagnosis of Taenia saginata and T. solium. First, a T. saginata size-selected genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (gDNA) library was constructed in the vector lambda gt10 using the 2-4 kb fraction from the parasite DNA digested with EcoR1, under 'star' conditions. After differential screening of the library and hybridization analysis with DNA from T. saginata, T. solium, T. taeniaeformis, T. crassiceps, and Echinococcus granulosus (bovine, porcine, and human), 2 recombinant phages were selected. They were designated HDP1 and HDP2. HDP1 reacted specifically with T. saginata DNA, and HDP2 recognized DNA from both T. saginata and T. solium. The 2 DNA probes were then sequenced and further characterized. HDP1 was a repetitive sequence with a 53 bp monomeric unit repeated 24 times in direct tandem along the 1272 bp fragment, while the 3954 bp HDP2 was not a repetitive sequence. Using the sequencing data, oligonucleotides were designed and used in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The 2 selected oligonucleotides from probe HDP1 (PTs4F1 and PTs4R1) specifically amplified gDNA from T. saginata, but not T. solium or other related cestodes, with a sensitivity of < 10 pg of T. saginata gDNA, about the quantity of DNA in one taeniid egg. The 3 oligonucleotides selected from the HDP2 sequence (PTs7S35F1, PTs7S35F2, and PTs7S35R1) allowed the differential amplification of gDNA from T. saginata, T. solium and E. granulosus in a multiplex PCR, again with a sensitivity of < 10 pg. These diagnostic tools have immediate application in the differential diagnosis of T. solium and T. saginata in humans and in the diagnosis of dubious cysts in the slaughterhouse. We also hope to apply them to epidemiological surveys of, for example, soil and water in endemic areas. PMID:12055846

González, Luis Miguel; Montero, Estrella; Sciutto, Edda; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E; Garate, Teresa

2002-04-01

22

Development and Evaluation of a Magnetic Immunochromatographic Test To Detect Taenia solium, Which Causes Taeniasis and Neurocysticercosis in Humans?  

PubMed Central

Taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a frequent parasitic infection of the human brain in most of the world. Rapid and simple screening tools to identify taeniasis and cysticercosis cases are needed for control programs, mostly to identify tapeworm carriers which are the source of infection and need to be treated, or as tools for point-of-care case detection or confirmation. These screening assays should be affordable, reliable, rapid, and easy to perform. Immunochromatographic tests meet these criteria. To demonstrate proof of principle, we developed and evaluated two magnetic immunochromatographic tests (MICTs) for detection of human Taenia solium taeniasis antibodies (ES33-MICT) and neurocysticercosis antibodies (T24-MICT). These assays detected stage-specific antibodies by using two recombinant proteins, rES33 for detection of taeniasis antibodies and rT24H for detection of cysticercosis antibodies. The sensitivity and specificity of the ES33-MICT to detect taeniasis infections were 94.5% and 96%, respectively, and those of the T24-MICT to detect cases of human cysticercosis with two or more viable brain cysts were 93.9% and 98.9%, respectively. These data provide proof of principle that the ES33- and T24-MICTs provide rapid and suitable methods to identify individuals with taeniasis and cysticercosis. PMID:20181766

Handali, Sukwan; Klarman, Molly; Gaspard, Amanda N.; Dong, X. Fan; LaBorde, Ronald; Noh, John; Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Wilkins, Patricia P.

2010-01-01

23

Cerebellar Cysticercosis Caused by Larval Taenia crassiceps Tapeworm in Immunocompetent Woman, Germany  

PubMed Central

Human cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps tapeworm larvae involves the muscles and subcutis mostly in immunocompromised patients and the eye in immunocompetent persons. We report a successfully treated cerebellar infection in an immunocompetent woman. We developed serologic tests, and the parasite was identified by histologic examination and 12s rDNA PCR and sequencing. PMID:24274258

Ntoukas, Vasileios; Tappe, Dennis; Pfütze, Daniel; Simon, Michaela

2013-01-01

24

Immune responses to viable and degenerative metacestodes of Taenia solium in naturally infected swine.  

PubMed

Neurocysticercosis, caused by the larvae of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, is the most common helminth infection of the CNS in humans worldwide. There is no existing animal model of neurocysticercosis that resembles human infection. To overcome this limitation, swine (the natural intermediate host of the parasite) may be a suitable model. The immune response associated with different stages of the parasite larva (metacestode) has not yet been explored. Therefore, we investigated the immune response to various stages of the metacestode (cyst) in the brain and muscles of naturally infected swine. Swine with neurocysticercosis (n = 10) and healthy controls (n = 10), as confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging, were included in this study. The animals were sacrificed, and the tissues containing viable or degenerative metacestods in the brain and infected muscles were collected and subjected to reverse transcriptase-PCR and ELISA to determine the expression of different cytokines (IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-4 IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10). Higher expression of IL-10 was found to be associated with viable cysts. Degenerating cysts displayed significantly increased levels of IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8, whereas calcified cysts had elevated levels of IL-4, IL-10, TNF-? and IL-6. The present study indicated a strong regulatory (IL-10) and Th1 cytokine response in viable and degenerating cysts, respectively, whereas calcified cysts had a mixed anti-inflammatory (IL-4), regulatory (IL-10) and pro-inflammatory (TNF-? and IL-6) response. Thus, Th1 and Th2 immune response operate in the vicinity of metacestodes and the type of immune response may be responsible for disease severity. PMID:24184156

Singh, Aloukick K; Prasad, Kashi N; Prasad, Amit; Tripathi, Mukesh; Gupta, Rakesh K; Husain, Nuzhat

2013-12-01

25

Spatial Distribution of Taenia solium Porcine Cysticercosis within a Rural Area of Mexico  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is clustered or widely dispersed in a limited rural area, a spatial analysis of rural porcine cysticercosis was applied to 13 villages of the Sierra de Huautla in Central Mexico. Clustering of cases in specific households would indicate tapeworm carriers in the vicinity, whereas their dispersal would suggest that the ambulatory habits of both humans and pigs contribute to the spread of cysticercosis. A total of 562 pigs were included in this study (August–December 2003). A global positioning system was employed in order to plot the geographic distribution of both cysticercotic pigs and risk factors for infection within the villages. Prevalence of pig tongue cysticercosis varied significantly in sampled villages (p?=?0.003), ranging from 0% to 33.3% and averaging 13.3%. Pigs were clustered in households, but no differences in the clustering of cysticercotic and healthy pigs were found. In contrast, the presence of pigs roaming freely and drinking stagnant water correlated significantly with porcine cysticercosis (p?=?0.07), as did the absence of latrines (p?=?0.0008). High prevalence of porcine cysticercosis proves that transmission is still quite common in rural Mexico. The lack of significant differentiation in the geographical clustering of healthy and cysticercotic pigs weakens the argument that focal factors (e.g., household location of putative tapeworm carriers) play an important role in increasing the risk of cysticercosis transmission in pigs. Instead, it would appear that other wide-ranging biological, physical, and cultural factors determine the geographic spread of the disease. Extensive geographic dispersal of the risk of cysticercosis makes it imperative that control measures be applied indiscriminately to all pigs and humans living in this endemic area. PMID:18846230

Morales, Julio; Martinez, Jose Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S.; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

2008-01-01

26

[Evaluation of the impact of a control program against taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium)].  

PubMed

Objetive. The impact of a control program is evaluated to eventually eradicate taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium) based on education and vaccination of pigs. Materials and methods. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was estimated using tongue inspection, ultrasound and determination of antibodies, before and three years after the application in three regions of the state of Guerrero. Results. A significant reduction in the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis of 7 to 0.5% and 3.6 to 0.3% estimated by tongue examination or ultrasound respectively (p<0.01) and a no significant decrease in seroprevalence from 17.7 to 13.3% were observed. Conclusions. The reduction of the prevalence of taeniasis-cysticercosis establishes the program's effectiveness in preventing infection. The sustained presence of antibodies, compatible with contact of Taenia solium or other related helminths, underlines the importance of maintaining interventions to achieve eradication. PMID:25272177

de Aluja, Aline S; Suárez-Marín, Raúl; Sciutto-Conde, Edda; Morales-Soto, Julio; Martínez-Maya, José Juan; Villalobos, Nelly

2014-06-01

27

Molecular Characterization and Diagnostic Value of Taenia solium Low-Molecular-Weight Antigen Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by infection with the larvae of Taenia solium is an important cause of neurological disease worldwide. In order to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for this infection using recombinant proteins, we carried out molecular cloning and identified four candidates as diagnostic antigens (designated Ag1, Ag1V1, Ag2, and Ag2V1). Except for Ag2V1, these clones could encode a

YASUHITO SAKO; MINORU NAKAO; TAKASHI IKEJIMA; XIAN ZHI PIAO; KAZUHIRO NAKAYA; AKIRA ITO

2000-01-01

28

Helminth antigens ( Taenia solium, Taenia crassiceps, Toxocara canis, Schistosoma mansoni and Echinococcus granulosus) and cross-reactivities in human infections and immunized animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helminth antigens were investigated in the search for accessible heterologous antigens capable to discriminate different helminthiases, by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the immunoblot assay (IB). Antigens used were: Taenia solium cysticercus total saline (Tso); Taenia crassiceps cysticercus vesicular fluid (Tcra-VF); T. crassiceps cysticercus glycoproteins (Tcra-GP and Tcra-(18-14)-GP); Toxocara canis larva excretory-secretory (TES); Schistosoma mansoni adult total saline

M. M. I. Ishida; G. Rubinsky-Elefant; A. W. Ferreira; S. Hoshino-Shimizu; A. J. Vaz

2003-01-01

29

Control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis: past practices and new possibilities.  

PubMed

Neurocysticercosis continues to be a major health burden on humans living in many regions of the world, despite the availability of highly effective taeniacides and identification of the cause, Taenia solium, as being potentially eradicable. Several T. solium control trials have been undertaken, generally achieving limited success and none that has been fully documented has achieved what was demonstrated to be a sustainable level of disease control. Pigs act as intermediate hosts for T. solium and two new control tools have become available for application in pigs - single-dose oxfendazole treatment of porcine cysticercosis and the TSOL18 vaccine. Three potential intervention scenarios for pigs are compared for control of cysticercosis, using either oxfendazole or vaccination. A control scenario involving vaccination plus oxfendazole treatment delivered at 4 monthly intervals was predicted to achieve the best outcome, with no pigs slaughtered at 12 months of age having viable T. solium cysticerci. Now that new control tools are available, there are opportunities to concentrate research attention on evaluation of novel control scenarios leading to the implementation of effective and sustainable control programmes and a reduction in the global burden of neurocysticercosis. PMID:23947762

Lightowlers, Marshall W

2013-11-01

30

Protection of pigs against Taenia solium cysticercosis by immunization with novel recombinant antigens.  

PubMed

Recombinant antigens from the oncosphere stage of the parasite Taenia solium were expressed in Escherichia coli. The TSOL16, TSOL45-1A and TSOL45-1B recombinant antigens, each consisting of fibronectin type III (FnIII) domain S, were produced as fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and maltose binding protein (MBP). Groups of pigs were immunized twice with the GST fusions of the antigens and boosted a third time with the MBP fusions prior to receiving a challenge infection with T. solium eggs. The TSOL16 antigen was found to be capable of inducing high levels of immunity in pigs against a challenge infection with T. solium. Immunological investigations identified differences in immune responses in the pigs vaccinated with the various antigens. The results demonstrate that the TSOL16 antigen could be a valuable adjunct to current porcine vaccination approaches and may allow the further development of new vaccination strategies against T. solium cysticercosis. PMID:22521850

Gauci, Charles G; Jayashi, César M; Gonzalez, Armando E; Lackenby, Julia; Lightowlers, Marshall W

2012-06-01

31

Epidemiology and Management of Cysticercosis and Taenia solium Taeniasis in Europe, Systematic Review 1990-2011  

PubMed Central

Background Cysticercosis is caused by the invasion of human or pig tissues by the metacestode larval stage of Taenia solium. In Europe, the disease was endemic in the past but the autochthonous natural life cycle of the parasite is currently completed very rarely. Recently, imported cases have increased in parallel to the increased number of migrations and international travels. The lack of specific surveillance systems for cysticercosis leads to underestimation of the epidemiological and clinical impacts. Objectives To review the available data on epidemiology and management of cysticercosis in Europe. Methods A review of literature on human cysticercosis and T. solium taeniasis in Europe published between 1990–2011 was conducted. Results Out of 846 cysticercosis cases described in the literature, 522 cases were autochthonous and 324 cases were imported. The majority (70.1%) of the autochthonous cases were diagnosed in Portugal from 1983 and 1994. Imported cases of which 242 (74.7%) diagnosed in migrants and 57 (17.6%) in European travellers, showed an increasing trend. Most of imported cases were acquired in Latin America (69.8% of migrants and 44.0% of travellers). The majority of imported cases were diagnosed in Spain (47.5%), France (16.7%) and Italy (8.3%). One third of neurosurgical procedures were performed because the suspected diagnosis was cerebral neoplasm. Sixty eight autochthonous and 5 imported T. solium taeniasis cases were reported. Conclusions Cysticercosis remains a challenge for European care providers, since they are often poorly aware of this infection and have little familiarity in managing this disease. Cysticercosis should be included among mandatory reportable diseases, in order to improve the accuracy of epidemiological information. European health care providers might benefit from a transfer of knowledge from colleagues working in endemic areas and the development of shared diagnostic and therapeutic processes would have impact on the quality of the European health systems. Key words: cysticercosis, neurocysticercosis, Taenia solium, taeniasis, Europe, travellers, migrants. PMID:23922733

Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartalesi, Filippo; Bruno, Elisa; Munoz, Jose; Buonfrate, Dora; Nicoletti, Alessandra; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Pozio, Edoardo; Bartoloni, Alessandro

2013-01-01

32

Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Human Taenia Solium Infections in Mbozi District, Mbeya Region, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis is emerging as a serious public health and economic problem in many developing countries. This study was conducted to determine prevalence and risk factors of human T. solium infections in Mbeya Region, Tanzania. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 13 villages of Mbozi district in 2009. Sera of 830 people (mean 37.9±11.3 years (SD); 43% females) were tested for circulating cysticerci antigen (Ag-ELISA) and antibody (Ab-ELISA). A subset of persons found seropositive by Ag-ELISA underwent computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain for evidence of neurocysticercosis. Stool samples from 820 of the same participants were tested for taeniosis by copro-antigens (copro-Ag-ELISA) and formol-ether concentration technique. Cases of T. solium taeniosis were confirmed serologically by EITB assay (rES38). A questionnaire was used for identification of risk factors. Active cysticercosis by positive Ag-ELISA was found in 139 (16.7%) persons while anti-cysticercal antibodies were detected in 376 (45.3%) persons by Ab-ELISA. Among 55 persons positive for Ag-ELISA undergoing CT scan, 30 (54.6%) were found to have structures in the brain suggestive of neurocysticercosis. Using faecal analysis, 43 (5.2%) stool samples tested positive for taeniosis by copro-Ag-ELISA while Taenia eggs were detected in 9 (1.1%) stool samples by routine coprology. Antibodies specifically against adult T. solium were detected in 34 copro-Ag-ELISA positive participants by EITB (rES38) indicating T. solium taeniosis prevalence of 4.1%. Increasing age and hand washing by dipping in contrast to using running water, were found associated with Ag-ELISA seropositivity by logistic regression. Gender (higher risk in females) and water source were risk factors associated with Ab-ELISA seropositivity. Reported symptoms of chronic severe headaches and history of epileptic seizures were found associated with positive Ag-ELISA (p?0.05). Conclusion The present study indicates T. solium infection in humans is highly endemic in the southern highlands of Tanzania. PMID:23516650

Mwanjali, Gloria; Kihamia, Charles; Kakoko, Deodatus Vitalis Conatus; Lekule, Faustin; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Willingham, Arve Lee

2013-01-01

33

Cloning, characterization and functional expression of Taenia solium 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

The 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17?-HSD) are key enzymes involved in the formation (reduction) and inactivation (oxidation) of sex steroids. Several types have been found in vertebrates including fish, as well as in invertebrates like Caenorhabditis elegans, Ciona intestinalis and Haliotis diversicolor supertexta. To date limited information is available about this enzyme in parasites. We showed previously that Taenia solium cysticerci are able to synthesize sex steroid hormones in vitro when precursors are provided in the culture medium. Here, we identified a T. solium 17?-HSD through in silico blast searches in the T. solium genome database. This coding sequence was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into the pcDNA 3.1(+) expression vector. The full length cDNA contains 957bp, corresponding to an open reading frame coding for 319 aa. The highest identity (84%) at the protein level was found with the Echinococcus multilocularis 17?-HSD although significant similarities were also found with other invertebrate and vertebrate 17?-HSD sequences. The T. solium Tsol-17?HSD belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) protein superfamily. HEK293T cells transiently transfected with Tsol17?-HSD induced expression of Tsol17?-HSD that transformed (3)H-androstenedione into testosterone. In contrast, (3)H-estrone was not significantly transformed into estradiol. In conclusion, T. solium cysticerci express a 17?-HSD that catalyzes the androgen reduction. The enzyme belongs to the short chain dehydrogenases/reductase family and shares motifs and activity with the type 3 enzyme of some other species. PMID:24698785

Aceves-Ramos, A; de la Torre, P; Hinojosa, L; Ponce, A; García-Villegas, R; Laclette, J P; Bobes, R J; Romano, M C

2014-07-01

34

Taenia solium Oncosphere Adhesion to Intestinal Epithelial and Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells In Vitro?  

PubMed Central

The specific mechanisms underlying Taenia solium oncosphere adherence and penetration in the host have not been studied previously. We developed an in vitro adhesion model assay to evaluate the mechanisms of T. solium oncosphere adherence to the host cells. The following substrates were used: porcine intestinal mucosal scrapings (PIMS), porcine small intestinal mucosal explants (PSIME), Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO cells), epithelial cells from ileocecal colorectal adenocarcinoma (HCT-8 cells), and epithelial cells from colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cells). CHO cells were used to compare oncosphere adherence to fixed and viable cells, to determine the optimum time of oncosphere incubation, to determine the role of sera and monolayer cell maturation, and to determine the effect of temperature on oncosphere adherence. Light microscopy, scanning microscopy, and transmission microscopy were used to observe morphological characteristics of adhered oncospheres. This study showed in vitro adherence of activated T. solium oncospheres to PIMS, PSIME, monolayer CHO cells, Caco-2 cells, and HCT-8 cells. The reproducibility of T. solium oncosphere adherence was most easily measured with CHO cells. Adherence was enhanced by serum-binding medium with >5% fetal bovine serum, which resulted in a significantly greater number of oncospheres adhering than the number adhering when serum at a concentration less than 2.5% was used (P < 0.05). Oncosphere adherence decreased with incubation of cells at 4°C compared with the adherence at 37°C. Our studies also demonstrated that T. solium oncospheres attach to cells with elongated microvillus processes and that the oncospheres expel external secretory vesicles that have the same oncosphere processes. PMID:17698575

Verastegui, Manuela; Gilman, Robert H.; Arana, Yanina; Barber, Dylan; Velasquez, Jeanette; Farfan, Marilu; Chile, Nancy; Kosek, Jon C.; Kosek, Margaret; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando

2007-01-01

35

Impairment of the inflammatory reaction on implanted Taenia solium metacestodes in mice by a T. solium RNA-peptide: a scanning electron microscopy study.  

PubMed

Inhibition of inflammation by a Taenia solium RNA-peptide (metacestode factor, MF) was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Viable (96%) T. solium metacestodes obtained from a naturally infected pig were dissected and implanted in treated and control mice, removed at 6 and 12 days postimplantation (p.i.), and studied by SEM. At day 6, metacestodes in control mice showed vigorous inflammation, whereas in mice treated with MF they were apparently intact with exiguous inflammation. Mice immunized with T. solium metacestode antigens showed a moderate inflammation; those treated with both MF and T. solium antigens presented scanty inflammation. At day 12, metacestodes presented copious inflammation and severe damage to the sucker tissues in mice immunized with T. solium; in mice treated with either MF or MF and T. solium antigens there was only discrete inflammation. These observations illustrate the central role of MF in the inhibition of the early events leading to the parasite's destruction by means of an inflammatory response. PMID:9521005

Molinari, J L; Tato, P; Rodríguez, D; Solano, S; Rubio, M; Sepúlveda, J

1998-01-01

36

Infection with versus Exposure to Taenia solium: What Do Serological Test Results Tell Us?  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium cysticercosis is an endemic zoonosis in many developing countries. Serological tests are the most appropriate diagnostic tools to understand the transmission dynamics of the parasite, but the performances of these methods in such a setting are not known. A south Ecuadorian human population living in an endemic area was tested using three common serological tests. Because none of them is a gold standard, a Bayesian Latent Class analysis was used to estimate the test characteristics. Two definitions of a case were considered to differentiate between prevalence of current infection and prior exposure to the parasite. Differences between the performances of the same test in function of the definition of a case were observed. This study shows that test results and prior information should be interpreted carefully in a Bayesian analysis framework, particularly when the latter is based on clinical studies. PMID:20682891

Praet, Nicolas; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Richar; Speybroeck, Niko; Ahounou, Serge; Benitez-Ortiz, Washington; Berkvens, Dirk; Hul, Anke Van; Barrionuevo-Samaniego, Margoth; Saegerman, Claude; Dorny, Pierre

2010-01-01

37

Some risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis in semi-intensively raised pigs in Zuru, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in live pigs and at post mortem was determined in the Zuru area of Kebbi State, Nigeria. Prevalence rates of 5.85% (n = 205) and 14.40% (n = 118), respectively, were obtained from live pigs examined by lingual palpation and post-mortem examination. There was a significant (p<0.05) association between sex and infectivity for meat inspection and a positive non-significant (p>0.05) relationship between age and infectivity. Human taeniosis was assessed by direct microscopy of stool samples from volunteers; a prevalence of 8% (n = 50) was obtained. Environmental (soil, water and water from washed vegetables) samples were analysed; one of the water samples and some soil samples were positive for taeniid ova. Of the pig-rearing households that responded to the questionnaire survey 93% (n = 100) allow their pigs to scavenge freely around residential areas and refuse dumps, 2% had epileptic patients and over 80% did not have knowledge on how T. solium infection is acquired and its public health significance. To obtain baseline data for effective control and possible eradication, there is the need for a serological and epidemiological survey of this significant parasitic zoonosis in the study area and other parts of Nigeria where pigs are reared and/or pork is consumed. PMID:20391368

Gweba, Moses; Faleke, Olufemi O; Junaidu, Abdulkadir; Fabiyi, Joseph P; Fajinmi, Akinyemi O

2010-01-01

38

Complete mitochondrial genomes of Taenia multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis: additional molecular markers for a tapeworm genus of human and animal health significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial genomes provide a rich source of molecular variation of proven and widespread utility in molecular ecology, population genetics and evolutionary biology. The tapeworm genus Taenia includes a diversity of tapeworm parasites of significant human and veterinary importance. Here we add complete sequences of the mt genomes of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis, to a data set

Wan-Zhong Jia; Hong-Bin Yan; Ai-Jiang Guo; Xing-Quan Zhu; Yu-Chao Wang; Wan-Gui Shi; Hao-Tai Chen; Fang Zhan; Shao-Hua Zhang; Bao-Quan Fu; D Timothy J Littlewood; Xue-Peng Cai

2010-01-01

39

Efficacy of ivermectin and oxfendazole against Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs.  

PubMed

Smallholder semi-confined pig production is a fast growing practice in sub-Saharan Africa with an unfortunate outcome of high prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses. The widely used anthelmintic for control of endo and ecto-parasites in pigs in the area is ivermectin at a recommended dose of 0.3mg/kg. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety in pigs after subcutaneous injection of ivermectin (IVM, 0.3mg/kg) and orally administration of oxfendazole (OFZ, 30mg/kg) in treatment of porcine cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs. A total of 61 pigs with T. solium cysticercosis (38 males and 23 females) as identified by tongue palpation with age ranging from 3 to 24 months were recruited. The pigs were stratified based on sex, age and number of cysts on the tongue and randomly allocated to IVM, OFZ and control groups. Three days before treatment and two weeks after treatment faecal samples and skin scrapings were taken to establish the burden of endo- and ectoparasites, respectively and the effect of the treatment. No adverse effect was observed in any of the treatment groups throughout the study period. Half of the pigs from each group were slaughtered at week four and the remaining half at week twelve post treatment. The IVM treatment group had no significant effect (p=0.224) on T. solium cysts viability in comparison to the control group. Significant effect on cysts viability was observed in the OFZ treated group (p<0.001) compared to IVM and control groups in all muscle tissues. Regarding to brain cysts, neither of the drugs was efficacious. Ivermectin and OFZ treatments significantly reduced (p<0.001) the faecal egg count of Ascaris suum, strongyles and Trichuris suis two weeks after treatment. At slaughter, Oesophagostomum dentatum, Ascarops strongylina and Physocephalus sexalatus were recovered from pigs in the IVM treated and in the control groups. Ivermectin was 100% effective in control of Sarcoptes scabiei. In conclusion, IVM at a single dose of 0.3mg/kg was efficacious against ectoparasites but did not effectively cure pigs from T. solium cysticercosis or nematodes. Oxfendazole, on the other hand, killed all nematodes and muscle cysts, but did not have any effect on ectoparasites. A combination of the two drugs would be a most useful treatment option for control of pig parasitoses in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:23806569

Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Leifsson, Pall S; Johansen, Maria Vang

2013-10-01

40

Visualization and 3D Reconstruction of Flame Cells of Taenia solium (Cestoda)  

PubMed Central

Background Flame cells are the terminal cells of protonephridial systems, which are part of the excretory systems of invertebrates. Although the knowledge of their biological role is incomplete, there is a consensus that these cells perform excretion/secretion activities. It has been suggested that the flame cells participate in the maintenance of the osmotic environment that the cestodes require to live inside their hosts. In live Platyhelminthes, by light microscopy, the cells appear beating their flames rapidly and, at the ultrastructural, the cells have a large body enclosing a tuft of cilia. Few studies have been performed to define the localization of the cytoskeletal proteins of these cells, and it is unclear how these proteins are involved in cell function. Methodology/Principal Findings Parasites of two different developmental stages of T. solium were used: cysticerci recovered from naturally infected pigs and intestinal adults obtained from immunosuppressed and experimentally infected golden hamsters. Hamsters were fed viable cysticerci to recover adult parasites after one month of infection. In the present studies focusing on flame cells of cysticerci tissues was performed. Using several methods such as video, confocal and electron microscopy, in addition to computational analysis for reconstruction and modeling, we have provided a 3D visual rendition of the cytoskeletal architecture of Taenia solium flame cells. Conclusions/Significance We consider that visual representations of cells open a new way for understanding the role of these cells in the excretory systems of Platyhelminths. After reconstruction, the observation of high resolution 3D images allowed for virtual observation of the interior composition of cells. A combination of microscopic images, computational reconstructions and 3D modeling of cells appears to be useful for inferring the cellular dynamics of the flame cell cytoskeleton. PMID:21412407

Valverde-Islas, Laura E.; Arrangoiz, Esteban; Vega, Elio; Robert, Lilia; Villanueva, Rafael; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Willms, Kaethe; Zepeda-Rodriguez, Armando; Fortoul, Teresa I.; Ambrosio, Javier R.

2011-01-01

41

Two Epitopes Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Confer Protection against Murine T. crassiceps Cysticercosis along with a Prominent T1 Response  

PubMed Central

Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigens KETc1 and KETc12 have been shown to induce high level of protection against experimental murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis, an experimental model successfully used to test candidate antigens for use in vaccination against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, KETc1 and KETc12 were chemically synthesized in linear form. Immunization with KETc1 induced 66.7 to 100% protection against murine cysticercosis, and immunization with KETc12 induced 52.7 to 88.1% protection. The elicited immune response indicated that both peptides contain at least one B-cell epitope (as demonstrated by their ability to induce specific antibodies) and one T-cell epitope that strongly stimulated the proliferation of T cells primed with either the free peptide or total cysticercal T. crassiceps antigens. The high percentage of spleen cells expressing inflammatory cytokines points to the likelihood of a T1 response being involved in protection. The protective capacity of the peptides and their presence in all developmental stages of T. solium point to these two epitopes as strong candidates for inclusion in a polyepitopic synthetic vaccine against T. solium pig cysticercosis. PMID:11179354

Toledo, Andrea; Fragoso, Gladis; Rosas, Gabriela; Hernandez, Marisela; Gevorkian, Goar; Lopez-Casillas, Fernando; Hernandez, Beatriz; Acero, Gonzalo; Huerta, Mirna; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

2001-01-01

42

Efficacy and Safety of Anthelmintics Tested against Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Pigs  

PubMed Central

Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE) in 1993, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemotherapy of infected pigs. Different drugs have been tested on porcine cysticercosis with varying efficacies. These include flubendazole, fenbendazole, albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, oxfendazole, praziquantel, and nitazoxanide. This review summarises available information on the efficacies and adverse effects shown by these drugs in pigs. Oxfendazole has shown to be effective for the control of porcine cysticercosis; however, it needs to be integrated with other control approaches. There is a need for standardised guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics against porcine cysticercosis, and more efficacy studies are needed since the conclusions so far are based on a limited number of studies using few infected pigs. PMID:23936558

Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Johansen, Maria Vang

2013-01-01

43

Cytokine expression at the anchor site in experimental Taenia solium infection in hamsters.  

PubMed

The establishment of Taenia solium adult parasite in the human intestine causes taeniosis. Importantly, the immunological mechanisms occurring at the interface between the parasite and its host are not fully known. The development of experimental animal models has facilitated the understanding of the host-parasite relationship. In this study we standardized a quantitative RT-PCR method for analyzing hamster messenger RNA for interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and interleukins (IL): IL-4 IL-10, IL-12 and IL-13. This method was then used to evaluate the local cytokine response elicited against the adult parasite at the attachment site in the intestine of infected hamsters. The results showed an intense IFN-? response, as well as an up-regulation of IL-4 as early as three days post-infection, permanence of IL-10 until the end of the experiment and down regulation of IL-12. These data are in agreement with a bias toward a Th-2 response as the infection progresses. PMID:24439768

Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Vaughan, Gilberto; Mendlovic, Fela; Vergara-Castañeda, Arely; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Alonso, Monica; Avila, Guillermina; Flisser, Ana

2014-03-01

44

Diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) binding fraction from Taenia solium metacestode improves the neurocysticercosis serodiagnosis.  

PubMed

Neurocysticercosis (NC) is one of the most important diseases caused by parasites affecting the central nervous system. We fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-sepharose resin the total saline extract (S) from Taenia solium metacestodes and evaluated obtained fractions (DEAE S1 and DEAE S2) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, n?=?123) and immunoblotting (IB, n?=?22) to detect human NC in serum. Diagnostic parameters were established by ROC and TG ROC curves for ELISA tests. IB was qualitatively analyzed. S and DEAE S1 presented sensitivity of 87. 5% and DEAE S2 90%. The best specificity was observed for DEAE S2 (90.4%). In IB, using DEAE S2 samples from NC patients presented bands of 20-25, 43-45, 55-50, 60-66, 82, 89, and 140 kDa. The great diagnostic parameters reached by DEAE S2 suggest the potential applicability of this fraction in NC immunodiagnosis. PMID:24777340

Ribeiro, Vanessa da S; Nunes, Daniela da S; Gonzaga, Henrique T; da Cunha-Junior, Jair P; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

2014-07-01

45

Efficacy and safety of anthelmintics tested against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs.  

PubMed

Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE) in 1993, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemotherapy of infected pigs. Different drugs have been tested on porcine cysticercosis with varying efficacies. These include flubendazole, fenbendazole, albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, oxfendazole, praziquantel, and nitazoxanide. This review summarises available information on the efficacies and adverse effects shown by these drugs in pigs. Oxfendazole has shown to be effective for the control of porcine cysticercosis; however, it needs to be integrated with other control approaches. There is a need for standardised guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics against porcine cysticercosis, and more efficacy studies are needed since the conclusions so far are based on a limited number of studies using few infected pigs. PMID:23936558

Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Johansen, Maria Vang

2013-01-01

46

Evaluation of an immunodot blot technique for the detection of antibodies against Taenia solium larval antigens.  

PubMed

Immunodiagnostic tests represent an important tool for diagnosis of cysticercosis, the disease caused by cysticerci of Taenia solium. Accurate diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) requires costly neuroimaging techniques (magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography), which are seldom affordable for people in endemic countries. Hence, new low-cost diagnostic methods offering good sensitivity and specificity are needed. Here, we studied four immunodiagnostic tests immunodot blot Tsol-p27, a commercial ELISA, and Western blot Tsol-p27/TsolHSP36, and compared them with a commercial enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) that we regarded as the gold standard method. The analyzed serum samples were obtained from 160 patients: 94 epileptics suspected of NCC, six individuals confirmed NCC-positive, and 60 with positive (30) or negative (30) serology for Chagas diseases. Of the 100 serum samples from epileptic patients, 13 were positive and 87 negative by EITB. Compared to Western blot Tsol-p27, immunodot blot Tsol-p27 offered similar specificity (97.8% vs. 95.6%) but better sensitivity (86.7% vs. 76.4%). The ELISA was similar to the immunodot blot Tsol-p27 regarding both sensitivity and specificity. Western blot TsolHSP36 provided the lowest sensitivity (61.9%) and specificity (86.1%). None of the antibodies in the serum samples from the Chagas control groups were recognized by immunodot blot Tsol-p27. Our results indicate that the immunodot blot Tsol-p27 provides good sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, considering the simplicity and low cost of this test, it might be preferable as a diagnostic method in poorly equipped laboratories in endemic countries. PMID:22215187

Salazar-Anton, Fernando; Tellez, Aleyda; Lindh, Johan

2012-06-01

47

Incidence of Human Taenia solium Larval Infections in an Ecuadorian Endemic Area: Implications for Disease Burden Assessment and Control  

PubMed Central

Background Human cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease causing severe health disorders and even death. While prevalence data become available worldwide, incidence rate and cumulative incidence figures are lacking, which limits the understanding of the Taenia solium epidemiology. Methodology/Principal findings A seroepidemiological cohort study was conducted in a south-Ecuadorian community to estimate the incidence rate of infection with and the incidence rate of exposure to T. solium based on antigen and antibody detections, respectively. The incidence rate of infection was 333.6 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: [8.4–1,858] per 100,000 person-years) contrasting with a higher incidence rate of exposure 13,370 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: [8,730–19,591] per 100,000 person-years). The proportion of infected individuals remained low and stable during the whole study year while more than 25% of the population showed at least one antibody seroconversion/seroreversion during the same time period. Conclusions/Significance Understanding the transmission of T. solium is essential to develop ad hoc cost-effective prevention and control programs. The estimates generated here may now be incorporated in epidemiological models to simulate the temporal transmission of the parasite and the effects of control interventions on its life cycle. These estimates are also of high importance to assess the disease burden since incidence data are needed to make regional and global projections of morbidity and mortality related to cysticercosis. PMID:24852050

Coral-Almeida, Marco; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Richar; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Rodriguez, Silvia; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Benitez-Ortiz, Washington; Dorny, Pierre; Praet, Nicolas

2014-01-01

48

Serologic Diagnosis of Human Taenia solium Cysticercosis by Using Recombinant and Synthetic Antigens in QuickELISA(TM)  

PubMed Central

Diagnosis of Taenia solium cysticercosis is an important component in the control and elimination of cysticercosis and taeniasis. New detection assays using recombinant and synthetic antigens originating from the lentil lectin-purified glycoproteins (LLGPs) of T. solium cysticerci were developed in a QuickELISA™ format. We analyzed a panel of 474 serum samples composed of 108 serum samples from donors with two or more viable cysts, 252 serum samples from persons with other parasitic infections, and 114 serum samples from persons with no documented illnesses. The sensitivities and specificities of T24H QuickELISA™, GP50 QuickELISA™, and Ts18var1 QuickELISA™ were 96.3% and 99.2%, 93.5% and 98.6%, and 89.8% and 96.4%, respectively, for detecting cases with multiple, viable cysts. T24H QuickELISA™ performs best among the three assays, and has sensitivity and specificity values comparable to those of the LLGP enzyme-linked immunosorbent blot. The QuickELISA™ are simple, rapid quantitative methods for detecting antibodies specific for T. solium cysticerci antigens. PMID:21460015

Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Handali, Sukwan; Hancock, Kathy; Pattabhi, Sowmya; Kovalenko, Victor A.; Levin, Andrew; Rodriguez, Silvia; Lin, Sehching; Scheel, Christina M.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.

2011-01-01

49

Effects of larval tapeworm (Taenia taeniaeformis) infection on reproductive functions in male and female host rats.  

PubMed

This report examined the effects of larval tapeworm infection on the reproductive functions in both male and female host rats. Female rats were matched by age, then randomly assigned to control and treatment groups (infected with larval tapeworms). Estrous cycles were determined by vaginal smear with 95% of the control group exhibiting 4-day normal cyclicity and only 55% of the treated group exhibiting normal cycles. Female fertility was then evaluated for the normally cycling rats based on the percentage of successful matings on the evening of proestrus, number of implantation sites on Day 8 of pregnancy, and number of pups born at term. The normally cycling rats exhibited 96% successful mating, 12.95 +/- 1.80 implantation sites, and 11.20 +/- 1.80 pups born. Five months after larval tapeworm infection, the fertility parameters were decreased to 79%, 9.10 +/- 1.20, and 7.50 +/- 1.50, respectively. The control females were then used in a study of male fertility after larval tapeworm infection employing the same parameters used to test female fertility. At the onset of the study, control groups exhibited 95% successful mating, 12.50 +/- 1.50 implantation sites, and 11.60 +/- 1.60 pups born at full term. After the 5-month infection period, the parameters were substantially reduced to 29%, 6.20 +/- 0.80 implantation sites, and 5.10 +/- 0.80 pups, respectively. Average testosterone concentrations in serum and testis from control male rats were 8.80 +/- 0.95 ng/ml and 3.88 +/- 0.25 ng/mg protein, respectively. After the 5-month infection period, these levels were reduced to 2.47 +/- 0.31 ng/ml and 1.28 +/- 0.12 ng/mg protein, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2311716

Lin, Y C; Rikihisa, Y; Kono, H; Gu, Y

1990-04-01

50

Management of a chest-wall soft-tissue tumor caused by an infection with the larval tapeworm pathogen Taenia crassiceps.  

PubMed

A chest-wall lesion of an immunocompetent patient was initially suspicious for a malignant tumor. Histopathological and polymerase chain reaction examinations revealed an infection with the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia crassiceps. Curative resection of the tumorous lesion was performed. Treatment options for immunocompromised patients and patients without known immune defect are discussed, because most of the infections occur in immunocompromised individuals. PMID:24914004

Roesel, Christian; Welter, Stefan; Stamatis, Georgios; Theegarten, Dirk; Tappe, Dennis

2014-09-01

51

Mitochondrial genes and genomes support a cryptic species of tapeworm within Taenia taeniaeformis.  

PubMed

Taenia taeniaeformis is a globally distributed cestode, which uses felids as definitive and rodents as intermediate hosts. The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of T. taeniaeformis from Germany (Tt-GER) was sequenced, and compared with that of another isolate from China (GenBank NC_014768; Tt-CHN), both taken from cats. Analysis of the two mtDNAs indicated that the isolates are significantly different from one another with 12.6% and 9.9% nucleotide and amino acid divergence between them, for concatenated protein-coding genes; overall difference based on a pairwise nucleotide alignment of complete mtDNAs was 11.8%. A phylogenetic analysis based on the 12 protein-coding genes of all available taeniid mtDNAs confirmed the two T. taeniaeformis isolates as sister taxa (likely separate species) and early divergent members of the genus, as suggested previously by morphology. Phylogenetic analysis of published fragments of mt genes rrnS, cox1 and nad1, which represent multiple geographic isolates of T. taeniaeformis also resolve two distinct clades that at present do not seem to be geographically isolated. Mean pairwise (nucleotide) differences between the two clades of T. taeniaeformis were approximately 11%, 10% and 13% in partial rrnS (182bp), cox1 (371bp) and nad1 (459bp) genes, respectively. Differences between entire mtDNAs and partial mt genes of the two T. taeniaeformis isolates are of a similar magnitude between established taeniid sister species. Tt-CHN differs from all other Taenia mtDNAs in lacking a short (?69bp) non-coding region between trnY and trnL1. Partial mt fragment analysis highlighted likely misidentifications of T. taeniaeformis on GenBank. PMID:22569565

Jia, Wanzhong; Yan, Hongbin; Lou, Zhongzi; Ni, Xingwei; Dyachenko, Viktor; Li, Hongmin; Littlewood, D Timothy J

2012-09-01

52

Improved diagnosis as an aid to better surveillance of Taenia solium cysticercosis, a potential public health threat to Papua New Guinea.  

PubMed

Taenia solium cysticercosis has been recognized as a public health problem in Indonesian Irian Jaya since its unfortunate introduction in a number of infected pigs imported from Bali. From its original point of introduction in 1971, the infection has spread from the Wissel Lakes area to other places within Irian Jaya. The present situation at the border between Irian Jaya and Papua New Guinea (PNG) is difficult to assess accurately but, in light of the flow of refugees and the traditional rights of movement of people with their pigs in the border area, PNG populations are now at risk. Government health officers and veterinarians in PNG are well aware of this threat and have been watching closely for transmission of Taenia solium into PNG. A rigorous survey of Irianese refugees at the border and surrounding areas in PNG using recently developed immunodiagnostic procedures such as the EITB (enzyme immunoelectrotransfer blot) for detecting human and pig cysticercosis and the dipstick ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for identifying T. solium carriers, coupled with careful assessment of medical history and clinical and stool examination, is, however, required. Such a study would allow evaluation of the prevalence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Irian Jayan refugees residing in camps in PNG. The study would also determine the extent to which the parasite has spread easterly and, importantly, whether cysticercosis/taeniasis has crossed the border and is endemic in PNG, thereby constituting a potentially serious public health problem. PMID:9522870

McManus, D P

1995-12-01

53

Complete mitochondrial genomes of Taenia multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis: additional molecular markers for a tapeworm genus of human and animal health significance  

PubMed Central

Background Mitochondrial genomes provide a rich source of molecular variation of proven and widespread utility in molecular ecology, population genetics and evolutionary biology. The tapeworm genus Taenia includes a diversity of tapeworm parasites of significant human and veterinary importance. Here we add complete sequences of the mt genomes of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis, to a data set of 4 published mtDNAs in the same genus. Seven complete mt genomes of Taenia species are used to compare and contrast variation within and between genomes in the genus, to estimate a phylogeny for the genus, and to develop novel molecular markers as part of an extended mitochondrial toolkit. Results The complete circular mtDNAs of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis were 13,693, 13,492 and 13,387 bp in size respectively, comprising the usual complement of flatworm genes. Start and stop codons of protein coding genes included those found commonly amongst other platyhelminth mt genomes, but the much rarer initiation codon GTT was inferred for the gene atp6 in T. pisiformis. Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNAs offered novel estimates of the interrelationships of Taenia. Sliding window analyses showed nad6, nad5, atp6, nad3 and nad2 are amongst the most variable of genes per unit length, with the highest peaks in nucleotide diversity found in nad5. New primer pairs capable of amplifying fragments of variable DNA in nad1, rrnS and nad5 genes were designed in silico and tested as possible alternatives to existing mitochondrial markers for Taenia. Conclusions With the availability of complete mtDNAs of 7 Taenia species, we have shown that analysis of amino acids provides a robust estimate of phylogeny for the genus that differs markedly from morphological estimates or those using partial genes; with implications for understanding the evolutionary radiation of important Taenia. Full alignment of the nucleotides of Taenia mtDNAs and sliding window analysis suggests numerous alternative gene regions are likely to capture greater nucleotide variation than those currently pursued as molecular markers. New PCR primers developed from a comparative mitogenomic analysis of Taenia species, extend the use of mitochondrial markers for molecular ecology, population genetics and diagnostics. PMID:20649981

2010-01-01

54

The genomes of four tapeworm species reveal adaptations to parasitism  

PubMed Central

Summary Tapeworms cause debilitating neglected diseases that can be deadly and often require surgery due to ineffective drugs. Here we present the first analysis of tapeworm genome sequences using the human-infective species Echinococcus multilocularis, E. granulosus, Taenia solium and the laboratory model Hymenolepis microstoma as examples. The 115-141 megabase genomes offer insights into the evolution of parasitism. Synteny is maintained with distantly related blood flukes but we find extreme losses of genes and pathways ubiquitous in other animals, including 34 homeobox families and several determinants of stem cell fate. Tapeworms have species-specific expansions of non-canonical heat shock proteins and families of known antigens; specialised detoxification pathways, and metabolism finely tuned to rely on nutrients scavenged from their hosts. We identify new potential drug targets, including those on which existing pharmaceuticals may act. The genomes provide a rich resource to underpin the development of urgently needed treatments and control. PMID:23485966

Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Brooks, Karen L.; Tracey, Alan; Bobes, Raul J.; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Aslett, Martin; Beasley, Helen; Bennett, Hayley M.; Cai, Xuepeng; Camicia, Federico; Clark, Richard; Cucher, Marcela; De Silva, Nishadi; Day, Tim A; Deplazes, Peter; Estrada, Karel; Fernandez, Cecilia; Holland, Peter W. H.; Hou, Junling; Hu, Songnian; Huckvale, Thomas; Hung, Stacy S.; Kamenetzky, Laura; Keane, Jacqueline A.; Kiss, Ferenc; Koziol, Uriel; Lambert, Olivia; Liu, Kan; Luo, Xuenong; Luo, Yingfeng; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Nichol, Sarah; Paps, Jordi; Parkinson, John; Pouchkina-Stantcheva, Natasha; Riddiford, Nick; Rosenzvit, Mara; Salinas, Gustavo; Wasmuth, James D.; Zamanian, Mostafa; Zheng, Yadong; Cai, Jianping; Soberon, Xavier; Olson, Peter D.; Laclette, Juan P.; Brehm, Klaus; Berriman, Matthew

2014-01-01

55

Genetic variation in the Cytb gene of human cerebral Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from clinically and radiologically heterogeneous patients with neurocysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous parasitic disease caused by the establishment of larval Taenia solium in the human central nervous system. Host and/or parasite variations may be related to this observed heterogeneity. Genetic differences between pig and human-derived T. solium cysticerci have been reported previously. In this study, 28 cysticerci were surgically removed from 12 human NC patients, the mitochondrial gene that encodes cytochrome b was amplified from the cysticerci and genetic variations that may be related to NC heterogeneity were characterised. Nine different haplotypes (Ht), which were clustered in four haplogroups (Hg), were identified. Hg 3 and 4 exhibited a tendency to associate with age and gender, respectively. However, no significant associations were found between NC heterogeneity and the different T. solium cysticerci Ht or Hg. Parasite variants obtained from patients with similar NC clinical or radiological features were genetically closer than those found in groups of patients with a different NC profile when using the Mantel test. Overall, this study establishes the presence of genetic differences in the Cytb gene of T. solium isolated from human cysticerci and suggests that parasite variation could contribute to NC heterogeneity. PMID:24271046

Palafox-Fonseca, Hector; Zuniga, Gerardo; Bobes, Raul Jose; Govezensky, Tzipe; Pinero, Daniel; Texco-Martinez, Laura; Fleury, Agnes; Proano, Jefferson; Cardenas, Graciela; Hernandez, Marisela; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

2013-01-01

56

Genetics of the Pig Tapeworm in Madagascar Reveal a History of Human Dispersal and Colonization  

PubMed Central

An intricate history of human dispersal and geographic colonization has strongly affected the distribution of human pathogens. The pig tapeworm Taenia solium occurs throughout the world as the causative agent of cysticercosis, one of the most serious neglected tropical diseases. Discrete genetic lineages of T. solium in Asia and Africa/Latin America are geographically disjunct; only in Madagascar are they sympatric. Linguistic, archaeological and genetic evidence has indicated that the people in Madagascar have mixed ancestry from Island Southeast Asia and East Africa. Hence, anthropogenic introduction of the tapeworm from Southeast Asia and Africa had been postulated. This study shows that the major mitochondrial haplotype of T. solium in Madagascar is closely related to those from the Indian Subcontinent. Parasitological evidence presented here, and human genetics previously reported, support the hypothesis of an Indian influence on Malagasy culture coinciding with periods of early human migration onto the island. We also found evidence of nuclear-mitochondrial discordance in single tapeworms, indicating unexpected cross-fertilization between the two lineages of T. solium. Analyses of genetic and geographic populations of T. solium in Madagascar will shed light on apparently rapid evolution of this organism driven by recent (<2,000 yr) human migrations, following tens of thousands of years of geographic isolation. PMID:25329310

Yanagida, Tetsuya; Carod, Jean-Francois; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Hoberg, Eric P.; Ito, Akira

2014-01-01

57

Lights and shadows of the Taenia asiatica life cycle and pathogenicity  

PubMed Central

Humans are definitive hosts of two well-known species of the Taenia genus, Taenia solium (the pig tapeworm) and Taenia saginata (the cattle tapeworm). In the 1990s, a third species, Taenia asiatica, was discovered, sharing features with the other two since the adult morphology is similar to that of T. saginata, but its life cycle is like that of T. solium. Human taeniasis usually is asymptomatic or displays mild symptoms, and only T. solium can cause other sometimes serious disorders when humans accidentally ingest the eggs and develop the larval stage in different organs (cysticercosis). In this review, we expose what we currently know (lights) and what we do not yet know (shadows) about the life cycle and pathogenicity of T. asiatica. Concerning its life cycle, the main uncertainty is whether humans can act as intermediate hosts of this species. We also suggest that due to its small size and location in pigs, the cysticerci probably escape veterinary inspection becoming a silent parasite. Concerning pathogenicity, it is still not known if T. asiatica can cause human liver cysticercosis, taking into account its principal hepatic tropism in pigs. To answer all these questions it would be essential to perform sensitive as well as specific diagnostic techniques for T. asiatica in humans and pigs. Currently, only molecular methods are able to determine the Taenia species, since morphology and immunology are useless, but unfortunately although largely used in research those methods are not employed in routine diagnosis. PMID:24470994

Galan-Puchades, Maria Teresa; Fuentes, Marius Vicent

2013-01-01

58

Isolation of a 14 kDa antigen from Taenia solium cyst fluid by HPLC and its evaluation in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis.  

PubMed

A fraction with a major band of 14kDa was obtained from crude cyst fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci by 2-step chromatography. A first fraction isolated by gel filtration (Sephacryl S-300 high resolution) was purified using an anion exchange column (Mono Q HR 5/5) on high performance liquid chromatography. Evaluation of the analytic sensitivity of this fraction (F3) was carried out in an antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ab-ELISA-F3) using serum samples from pigs experimentally infected with different doses of T. solium eggs. The cross-reactivity of F3 was evaluated with serum samples from pigs that were naturally or experimentally infected with Taenia hydatigena, Taenia saginata asiatica, Fasciola hepatica, Trichinella spiralis, Metastrongylus apri, Trypanosoma congolense and Sarcoptes scabiei, and with serum samples of rabbits hyper-immunised with metacestode cyst fluid of T. hydatigena and T. solium. Antibody titres of lightly or heavily infected pigs differed in their kinetics. However, the increase in F3-specific antibodies could not be related to the infection level. Analysis of the specificity of the F3 showed that serum samples of pigs infected with other parasites did not recognise this antigen. Cross-reaction with T. hydatigena occurred in ELISA using cyst fluid as antigen, but the F3 antigen fraction was not recognized by rabbit hyper-immune serum samples to T. hydatigena. Evaluation of the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the Ab-ELISA-F3 was done by a non-parametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis using 66 serum samples from Zambian village pigs. The total number of cysticerci of these pigs was determined by dissection (28 pigs harboured T. solium cysticerci and 38 were negative at dissection). In addition, 58 serum samples from Cameroonian pigs (28 pigs from cysticercosis-free farms and 30 pigs with cysticerci at tongue inspection) were used in a separate ROC analysis. The results from the ROC analysis yielded a low diagnostic value (area under ROC curve=0.48) with the sera from the Zambian pigs while a relatively high diagnostic value was obtained with the sera from Cameroonian pigs (area under ROC curve=0.78). The main factor contributing to a low diagnostic value based on the Zambian serum samples seemed to be the false-positive reactions that were likely caused by the occurrence of transient antibodies in the non-infected animals. PMID:17101161

Assana, E; Kanobana, K; Tume, C B; Zoli, P A; Nguekam; Geerts, S; Berkvens, D; Dorny, P

2007-06-01

59

The highly antigenic 53/25 kDa Taenia solium protein fraction with cathepsin-L like activity is present in the oncosphere/cysticercus and induces non-protective IgG antibodies in pigs  

PubMed Central

Cathepsin L-like proteases are secreted by several parasites including Taenia solium. The mechanism used by T. solium oncospheres to degrade and penetrate the intestine and infect the host is incompletely understood. It is assumed that intestinal degradation is driven by the proteolytic activity of enzymes secreted by the oncosphere. Blocking the proteolytic activity by an antibody response would prevent the oncosphere penetration and further infection. Serine and cysteine proteases including chymotrypsin, trypsin, elastase, and cathepsin L, are secreted by T. solium and Taenia saginata oncospheres when cultured in vitro, being potential vaccine candidates. However, the purification of a sufficient quantity of proteases secreted by oncospheres to conduct a vaccine trial is costly and lengthy. A 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like fraction partially purified from T. solium cyst fluid was described previously as an important antigen for immunodiagnostics. In this study we found that this antigen is present in the T. solium oncosphere and is also secreted by the cysticercus. This protein fraction was tested for its ability to protect pigs against an oral challenge with T. solium oncospheres in a vaccine trial. IgG antibodies against the 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like protein fraction were elicited in the vaccinated animals but did not confer protection. PMID:22119017

Zimic, Mirko; Pajuelo, Monica; Gilman, Robert H.; Gutierrez, Andres H.; Rueda, Luis D.; Flores, Myra; Chile, Nancy; Verastegui, Manuela; Gonzalez, Armando; Garcia, Hector H.; Sheen, Patricia

2011-01-01

60

Release of Glycoprotein (GP1) from the Tegumental Surface of Taenia solium by Phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens Suggests a Novel Protein-Anchor to Membranes  

PubMed Central

In order to explore how molecules are linked to the membrane surface in larval Taenia solium, whole cysticerci were incubated in the presence of phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens (PLC). Released material was collected and analyzed in polyacrylamide gels with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Two major bands with apparent molecular weights of 180 and 43?kDa were observed. Western blot of released material and localization assays in cysticerci tissue sections using antibodies against five known surface glycoproteins of T. solium cysticerci indicated that only one, previously called GP1, was released. Similar localization studies using the lectins wheat-germ-agglutinin and Concanavalin A showed that N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetylneuraminic, sialic acid, ?methyl-D-mannoside, D-manose/glucose, and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues are abundantly present on the surface. On the other hand, we find that treatment with PLC releases molecules from the surface; they do not reveal Cross Reacting Determinant (CRD), suggesting a novel anchor to the membrane for the glycoprotein GP1. PMID:20130782

Landa, Abraham; Willms, Kaethe; Laclette, Juan Pedro

2010-01-01

61

Structural and biochemical studies of a recombinant 25.5 kDa glutathione transferase of Taenia solium metacestode (rTs25GST1-1).  

PubMed

In this work, we studied a recombinant mu-class glutathione transferase of 25.5 kDa from Taenia solium metacestode (rTs25GST1-1) that follows Michaelis–Menten kinetics with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). The kinetic parameters obtained for rTs25GST1-1 with CDNB and GSH were V(max) =12.04 ?mol/min/mg and K(m)=1.38 mM, and V(max) =10.20 ?mol/min/mg and K(m)=0.90, respectively. The optimal activity was found at pH 8 in the 37-40 °C temperature range. Circular dichroism studies for rTs25GST1-1 at different pH showed that it maintains a typical ?-helix structure between pH 6.5-7.5, but loses it between pH 8 and 8.5. Thermal CD assays showed rTs25GST1-1 barely changed its secondary structure. Unfolding/refolding assays showed that rTs25GST1-1 retained its structure up to 40 °C without loss of its activity. Additionally, exposure of rTs25GST1-1 to cumene hydroperoxide did not produce significant changes in its structure and only affected 50% of its activity. PMID:23959386

Roldan, Aramis; Torres-Rivera, Anayetzin; Landa, Abraham

2013-11-01

62

Fish tapeworm  

MedlinePLUS

Fish tapeworm is an infection with a parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ), is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

63

Molecular evidence of host influences on the evolution and spread of human tapeworms.  

PubMed

The taeniasis/cysticercosis complex is included in the list of neglected zoonotic diseases by the World Health Organization due to its significant impact on public health in tropical areas. Cysticercosis is still endemic in many regions of Asia, Africa and Latin America. Long absent in Europe and in other developed countries, cysticercosis has recently re-emerged in the United States and Canada, due to immigration, travel and local transmission. This has encouraged the use of molecular data to understand better the influence of animal and human hosts on the emergence and spread of Taenia species. The increasing number of mitochondrial sequences now available from human tapeworms and recent advances in computational tools has enabled reconstruction of the biogeography and evolutionary history of these organisms. New molecular data have provided insights into the biogeography of T. solium, T. asiatica and T. saginata. A Bayesian statistical framework using variable evolutionary rates from lineage to lineage has allowed an improved timescale analysis of human tapeworms. The dates of divergence obtained were compared to the timing of evolutionary events in the history of their hosts, based on the hypothesis that Taenia spp. and their hosts share a common history. Herein, we review changes in the definitive and secondary hosts and human interactions that underlie the differentiation and evolution of tapeworms. Species diversification of Taenia seems to be closely linked with the evolution of intermediate hosts in response to climatic events during the Pleistocene. Different genotypes of T. solium emerged when European and Asian wild boar Sus spp. populations diverged. Taenia saginata emerged when wild cattle Bos primigenius evolved and when zebu Bos indicus and taurine Bos taurus ancestors separated. Humans through migrations and later with the development of farming and animal husbandry may have had a significant impact on the spread and diversification of tapeworms. Migrations of Homo erectus from Africa to Asia and later of Homo sapiens facilitated the diversification and dispersal of T. solium and T. saginata populations. The development of animal husbandry, making Sus scrofa and Bos taurus preferential intermediate hosts, led to the worldwide distribution of parasites. New molecular data combined with an innovative dating method allow us to explain the ways in which ancient human migrations promoted the emergence and spread of taeniasis and cysticercosis around the world. Another intriguing phenomenon explained better by our approach is the influence of human settlement on the spread of these parasites in recently inhabited areas. The diverse nature of T. solium currently observed in Madagascar may correspond to multiple imports of the parasite during Austronesian migrations, while in Mexico a recent influence of humans during the colonial period is more likely. Human activities, especially food preparation and husbandry methods, remain responsible for the transmission and persistence of these parasites. PMID:22321512

Michelet, Lorraine; Dauga, Catherine

2012-08-01

64

Traveling Tapeworm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this "gross" activity (on pages 34-46), learners make a life-size model of a human digestive tract, and follow the life of a beef tapeworm as it makes its way through. In Part One, learners color, cut out, and assemble the parts of the digestive system, including full-length small and large intestines. In Part Two, learners cut out pictures of the stages of tapeworm development, and tape them within the model. A beef tapeworm life cycle diagram helps put the human host period within a larger system.

Museum, University O.; Nebraska Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development

2001-01-01

65

Detailed Transcriptome Description of the Neglected Cestode Taenia multiceps  

PubMed Central

Background The larval stage of Taenia multiceps, a global cestode, encysts in the central nervous system (CNS) of sheep and other livestock. This frequently leads to their death and huge socioeconomic losses, especially in developing countries. This parasite can also cause zoonotic infections in humans, but has been largely neglected due to a lack of diagnostic techniques and studies. Recent developments in next-generation sequencing provide an opportunity to explore the transcriptome of T. multiceps. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained a total of 31,282 unigenes (mean length 920 bp) using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and a new Trinity de novo assembler without a referenced genome. Individual transcription molecules were determined by sequence-based annotations and/or domain-based annotations against public databases (Nr, UniprotKB/Swiss-Prot, COG, KEGG, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, InterPro and Pfam). We identified 26,110 (83.47%) unigenes and inferred 20,896 (66.8%) coding sequences (CDS). Further comparative transcripts analysis with other cestodes (Taenia pisiformis, Taenia solium, Echincoccus granulosus and Echincoccus multilocularis) and intestinal parasites (Trichinella spiralis, Ancylostoma caninum and Ascaris suum) showed that 5,100 common genes were shared among three Taenia tapeworms, 261 conserved genes were detected among five Taeniidae cestodes, and 109 common genes were found in four zoonotic intestinal parasites. Some of the common genes were genes required for parasite survival, involved in parasite-host interactions. In addition, we amplified two full-length CDS of unigenes from the common genes using RT-PCR. Conclusions/Significance This study provides an extensive transcriptome of the adult stage of T. multiceps, and demonstrates that comparative transcriptomic investigations deserve to be further studied. This transcriptome dataset forms a substantial public information platform to achieve a fundamental understanding of the biology of T. multiceps, and helps in the identification of drug targets and parasite-host interaction studies. PMID:23049872

Wu, Xuhang; Fu, Yan; Yang, Deying; Zhang, Runhui; Zheng, Wanpeng; Nie, Huaming; Xie, Yue; Yan, Ning; Hao, Guiying; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

2012-01-01

66

Unusual colonoscopy finding: Taenia saginata proglottid  

PubMed Central

Infection with tapeworms is a major problem in many parts of the world. Patients may be asymptomatic or have a significant morbidity depending on the species. Infection with Taenia species is sometimes found by expulsion of eggs or proglottids in stool. Species specific diagnosis of Taenia is difficult, but possible. We present a case of Taenia saginata incidentally discovered, and risk factors for transmission, diagnosis, symptoms, and treatment. PMID:17907306

Patel, Nayan M; Tatar, Eric L

2007-01-01

67

Quantitative screening for anticestode drugs based on changes in baseline enzyme secretion by Taenia crassiceps.  

PubMed

Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with the larval stage of the Taenia solium tapeworm, is responsible for an estimated one-third of adult-onset epilepsy cases in regions of the world where it is endemic. Currently, anthelmintic drugs used for treatment of NCC are only partially effective, and there is, therefore, a pressing need for new therapeutic agents. Discovery of new anthelmintics with activity against T. solium has been limited by the lack of suitable sensitive assays that allow high-throughput screening. Using an in vitro culture system with Taenia crassiceps metacestodes, we demonstrate that changes in secretion of parasite-associated alkaline phosphatase (AP) and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) can be used to detect and quantify anthelmintic effects of praziquantel (PZQ), a drug with activity against T. solium. We applied two enzyme release assays to screen for anti-T. crassiceps activity in nonconventional antiparasitic drugs and demonstrate that nitazoxanide and artesunate induced release of both AP and PGI in differing time- and dose-related patterns. Furthermore, imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor previously reported to have parasiticidal activity against Schistosoma mansoni, also induced release of both AP and PGI in a dose-dependent manner, similar in pattern to that observed with the other anthelmintics. We also evaluated release of ATP into cyst supernatants as an indicator of drug effects but did not see any differences between treated and untreated cysts. These data provide the basis for rapid and quantitative screening assays for testing for anthelmintic activity in candidate anticestode agents. PMID:23229489

Mahanty, Siddhartha; Madrid, Elise M; Nash, Theodore E

2013-02-01

68

Taenia asiatica: the Most Neglected Human Taenia and the Possibility of Cysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Not only Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, but also Taenia asiatica infects humans. The last species is not included in the evaluation of the specificity of the immunodiagnostic techniques for taeniasis/cysticercosis. There is currently no specific immunodiagnostic method for T. asiatica available. Therefore, due to the fact that molecular techniques (the only tool to distinguish the 3 Taenia species) are normally not employed in routine diagnostic methods, the 2 questions concerning T. asiatica (its definite geographic distribution and its ability to cause human cysticercosis), remain open, turning T. asiatica into the most neglected agent of human taeniasis-cysticercosis. PMID:23467406

2013-01-01

69

A New Parasiticidal Compound in T. solium Cysticercosis  

PubMed Central

The effect of 16?-bromoepiandrosterone (EpiBr), a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) analogue, was tested on the cysticerci of Taenia solium, both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro treatment of T. solium cultures with EpiBr reduced scolex evagination, growth, motility, and viability in dose- and time-dependent fashions. Administration of EpiBr prior to infection with T. solium cysticerci in hamsters reduced the number and size of developed taenias in the intestine, compared with controls. These effects were associated to an increase in splenocyte proliferation in infected hamsters. These results leave open the possibility of assessing the potential of this hormonal analogue as a possible antiparasite drug, particularly in cysticercosis and taeniosis. PMID:23509732

Hernández-Bello, Romel; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Cervantes-Rebolledo, Claudia; Dowding, Charles; Frincke, James; Reading, Chris; Morales-Montor, Jorge

2013-01-01

70

A new parasiticidal compound in T. solium cysticercosis.  

PubMed

The effect of 16?-bromoepiandrosterone (EpiBr), a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) analogue, was tested on the cysticerci of Taenia solium, both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro treatment of T. solium cultures with EpiBr reduced scolex evagination, growth, motility, and viability in dose- and time-dependent fashions. Administration of EpiBr prior to infection with T. solium cysticerci in hamsters reduced the number and size of developed taenias in the intestine, compared with controls. These effects were associated to an increase in splenocyte proliferation in infected hamsters. These results leave open the possibility of assessing the potential of this hormonal analogue as a possible antiparasite drug, particularly in cysticercosis and taeniosis. PMID:23509732

Hernández-Bello, Romel; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Cervantes-Rebolledo, Claudia; Dowding, Charles; Frincke, James; Reading, Chris; Morales-Montor, Jorge

2013-01-01

71

NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences compared for members of the genus Taenia (Cestoda).  

PubMed

Nine members of the genus Taenia (Taenia taeniaeformis, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia ovis, Taenia multiceps, Taenia serialis, Taenia saginata, Taenia solium and the Asian Taenia) were characterised by their mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 gene sequences and their genetic relationships were compared with those derived from the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequence data. The extent of inter-taxon sequence difference in NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (approximately 5.9-30.8%) was usually greater than in cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (approximately 2.5-18%). Although topology of the phenograms derived from NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequence data differed, there was concordance in that T. multiceps, T. serialis (of canids), T. saginata and the Asian Taenia (of humans) were genetically most similar, and those four members were genetically more similar to T. ovis and T. solium than they were to T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis (of canids) or T. taeniaeformis (of cats). The NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 sequence data may prove useful in studies of the systematics and population genetic structure of the Taeniidae. PMID:10961852

Gasser, R B; Zhu, X; McManus, D P

1999-12-01

72

Serodiagnosis of Human Cysticercosis by Using Antigens from Vesicular Fluid of Taenia crassiceps Cysticerci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurocysticercosis (NC), caused by the presence of Taenia solium metacestodes in tissues, is a severe para- sitic infection of the central nervous system with universal distribution. To determine the efficiency of enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot with antigens of T. crassiceps vesicular fluid (Tcra) compared to standard techniques (indirect immunofluorescence test (IFT) and complement fixation test (CFT)) using

EDNEIA C. BUENO; MIRIAM SNEGE; ADELAIDE J. VAZ; PAULO G. LESER

2001-01-01

73

Annotation of the Transcriptome from Taenia pisiformis and Its Comparative Analysis with Three Taeniidae Species  

PubMed Central

Background Taenia pisiformis is one of the most common intestinal tapeworms and can cause infections in canines. Adult T. pisiformis (canines as definitive hosts) and Cysticercus pisiformis (rabbits as intermediate hosts) cause significant health problems to the host and considerable socio-economic losses as a consequence. No complete genomic data regarding T. pisiformis are currently available in public databases. RNA-seq provides an effective approach to analyze the eukaryotic transcriptome to generate large functional gene datasets that can be used for further studies. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, 2.67 million sequencing clean reads and 72,957 unigenes were generated using the RNA-seq technique. Based on a sequence similarity search with known proteins, a total of 26,012 unigenes (no redundancy) were identified after quality control procedures via the alignment of four databases. Overall, 15,920 unigenes were mapped to 203 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Through analyzing the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and axonal guidance pathways, we achieved an in-depth understanding of the biochemistry of T. pisiformis. Here, we selected four unigenes at random and obtained their full-length cDNA clones using RACE PCR. Functional distribution characteristics were gained through comparing four cestode species (72,957 unigenes of T. pisiformis, 30,700 ESTs of T. solium, 1,058 ESTs of Eg+Em [conserved ESTs between Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis]), with the cluster of orthologous groups (COG) and gene ontology (GO) functional classification systems. Furthermore, the conserved common genes in these four cestode species were obtained and aligned by the KEGG database. Conclusion This study provides an extensive transcriptome dataset obtained from the deep sequencing of T. pisiformis in a non-model whole genome. The identification of conserved genes may provide novel approaches for potential drug targets and vaccinations against cestode infections. Research can now accelerate into the functional genomics, immunity and gene expression profiles of cestode species. PMID:22514598

Yang, Deying; Fu, Yan; Wu, Xuhang; Xie, Yue; Nie, Huaming; Chen, Lin; Nong, Xiang; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yan, Ning; Zhang, Runhui; Zheng, Wanpeng; Yang, Guangyou

2012-01-01

74

Epsiprantel, a new tapeworm remedy. Preliminary efficacy studies in dogs and cats.  

PubMed

The anthelmintic potential of epsiprantel, 2-(cyclohexylcarbonyl)-4-oxo-1,2,3,4,6,7,8,12b-octahydropyrazin [2,1-a] [2]benzapine, was revealed using the tapeworms Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis in the cat, and Taenia pisiformis and T. hydatigena in the dog. Subsequent controlled tests in cats demonstrated oral efficacy of 100% against D. caninum with a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg. Although consistently 100% effective against T. taeniaeformis at 5 mg/kg, a single worm was found in one cat treated at 7.5 mg/kg. In experimental infections of Taenia pisiformis in dogs, 100% activity was achieved from a single oral dose of 1 mg/kg. No adverse reaction or drug-associated toxicity were observed at dose levels used. PMID:2775987

Manger, B R; Brewer, M D

1989-01-01

75

Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in wolves ( Canis lupus), brown bears ( Ursus arctos) and cervids from North Europe and Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taenia tapeworms of Finnish and Swedish wolves (Canis lupus) and Finnish brown bears (Ursus arctos), and muscle cysticerci of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus), Alaskan Grant's caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) and Alaskan moose (Alces americanus) were identified on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of a 396bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Two species were

Antti Lavikainen; Sauli Laaksonen; Kimberlee Beckmen; Antti Oksanen; Marja Isomursu; Seppo Meri

2011-01-01

76

Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

77

Encysted Tenia solium larva of oral cavity: Case report with review of literature  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis is caused by the larvae of the pig tapeworm, Tenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare event and is often a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. We report a 12-year-old girl who presented with a single, painless, nodule on the lower lip that was diagnosed as cysticercosis. Current literature on the clinical presentations, investigations, and treatment of the condition has been reviewed in this article. We have also proposed a set of criteria for the diagnosis of oral cysticercosis. PMID:23230370

Krishnamoorthy, Bhuvana; Suma, Gundareddy N; Dhillon, Manu; Srivastava, Siddharth; Sharma, Manisha Lakhanpal; Malik, Sangeeta Singh

2012-01-01

78

Taenia taeniaeformis: immunoperoxidase localization of metacestode culture product(s) in hyperplastic gastric mucosa.  

PubMed

Rats infected with the hepatic metacestode Taenia taeniaeformis develop an extraordinary gastric hyperplasia. Indirect immunoperoxidase staining localized larval in vitro excretory secretory product specifically in the supranuclear cytoplasm of the epithelial cells lining the pits and glands in the hyperplastic gastric mucosa. The accumulation of this substance in the stomach epithelial cells may be relevant to the gastric hyperplasia induced by tapeworm infection. PMID:3082661

Rikihisa, Y; Lin, Y C; Walton, A

1986-04-01

79

Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in wolves (Canis lupus), brown bears (Ursus arctos) and cervids from North Europe and Alaska.  

PubMed

Taenia tapeworms of Finnish and Swedish wolves (Canis lupus) and Finnish brown bears (Ursus arctos), and muscle cysticerci of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus), Alaskan Grant's caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) and Alaskan moose (Alces americanus) were identified on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of a 396 bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Two species were found from wolves: Taenia hydatigena and Taenia krabbei. The cysticerci of reindeer, caribou and one moose also represented T. krabbei. Most of the cysticercal specimens from Alaskan moose, however, belonged to an unknown T. krabbei-like species, which had been reported previously from Eurasian elks (Alces alces) from Finland. Strobilate stages from two bears belonged to this species as well. The present results suggest that this novel Taenia sp. has a Holarctic distribution and uses Alces spp. as intermediate and ursids as final hosts. PMID:21571090

Lavikainen, Antti; Laaksonen, Sauli; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Oksanen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Meri, Seppo

2011-09-01

80

Characterization of the Taenia spp HDP2 sequence and development of a novel PCR-based assay for discrimination of Taenia saginata from Taenia asiatica  

PubMed Central

A previously described Taenia saginata HDP2 DNA sequence, a 4-kb polymorphic fragment, was previously used as the basis for developing PCR diagnostic protocols for the species-specific discrimination of T. saginata from T. solium and for the differentiation of T. saginata from T. asiatica. The latter was shown subsequently to lack the required specificity, so we undertook genetic studies of the HDP2 sequence from T. saginata and T. asiatica to determine why, and to develop a novel HDP2-PCR protocol for the simultaneous unambiguous identification of human taeniids. Sequencing and further analysis of the HDP2 DNA fragments of 19 Asiatic isolates of T. saginata and T. asiatica indicated that the HDP2 sequences of both species exhibited clear genomic variability, due to polymorphic variable fragments, that could correspond to the non-transcribed region of ribosomal DNA. This newly observed polymorphism allowed us to develop a novel, reproducible and reliable HDP2-PCR protocol which permitted the simultaneous discrimination of all T. saginata and T. asiatica isolates examined. This species-specific identification was based on, and facilitated by, the clear size difference in amplicon profiles generated: fragments of 1300 bp, 600 bp and 300 bp were produced for T. asiatica, amplicons of 1300 bp and 300 bp being obtained for T. saginata. Control T. solium samples produced one amplicon of 600 bp with the HDP2-PCR protocol. The assay has the potential to prove useful as a diagnostic tool in areas such as South East Asia where T. saginata, T. asiatica and T. solium coexist. PMID:20540755

2010-01-01

81

Taenia eggs in a stabilization pond system with poor hydraulics: concern for human cysticercosis?  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to compare the removal of Taenia eggs to the removal of Ascaris eggs in a wastewater stabilization pond system consisting of three ponds in series, where the hydraulic residence time distribution has been characterized via a tracer study supported by computational fluid dynamics modeling. Despite a theoretical hydraulic retention time of 30 days, the peak dye concentration was measured in the effluent of the first pond after only 26 hours. The smaller-sized Taenia eggs were detected in higher concentrations than Ascaris eggs in the raw wastewater. Ascaris eggs were not detected in the pond system effluent, but 45 Taenia eggs/L were detected in the system effluent. If some of these eggs were of the species Taenia solium, and if the treated wastewater were used for the irrigation of crops for human consumption, farmers and consumers could potentially be at risk for neurocysticercosis. Thus, limits for Taenia eggs in irrigation water should be established, and precautions should be taken in regions where pig taeniasis is endemic. The results of this study indicate that the theoretical hydraulic retention time (volume/flow) of a pond is not always a good surrogate for helminth egg removal. PMID:24355860

Verbyla, Matthew E; Oakley, Stewart M; Lizima, Louis A; Zhang, Jie; Iriarte, Mercedes; Tejada-Martinez, Andres E; Mihelcic, James R

2013-01-01

82

First report of Taenia arctos (Cestoda: Taeniidae) from grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in North America.  

PubMed

The cestode Taenia arctos was found at necropsy in the small intestine of a grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and a black bear (Ursus americanus) from Kananaskis Country in southwestern Alberta, Canada. The autolysis of the tapeworm specimens precluded detailed morphological characterization of the parasites but molecular analysis based on mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene confirmed their identity as T. arctos. This is the first report of T. arctos from definitive hosts in North America. Its detection in Canadian grizzly and black bears further supports the Holarctic distribution of this tapeworm species and its specificity for ursids as final hosts. Previously, T. arctos was unambiguously described at its adult stage in brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos) from Finland, and as larval stages in Eurasian elk (Alces alces) from Finland and moose (Alces americanus) from Alaska, USA. Given the morphological similarity between T. arctos and other Taenia species, the present study underlines the potential for misidentification of tapeworm taxa in previous parasitological reports from bears and moose across North America. The biogeographical history of both definitive and intermediate hosts in the Holarctic suggests an ancient interaction between U. arctos, Alces spp., and T. arctos, and a relatively recent host-switching event in U. americanus. PMID:24382413

Catalano, Stefano; Lejeune, Manigandan; Verocai, Guilherme G; Duignan, Pádraig J

2014-04-01

83

Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and dingo/domestic dog hybrids), as sylvatic hosts for Australian Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis.  

PubMed

Foxes (n = 499), shot during vertebrate pest control programs, were collected in various sites in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA). Wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and their hybrids with domestic dogs) (n = 52) captured also as part of vertebrate pest control programs were collected from several sites in the ACT and NSW. The intestine from each fox and wild dog was collected, and all Taenia tapeworms identified morphologically were collected and identified to species based on the DNA sequence of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rrnS) gene. Taenia species were recovered from 6.0% of the ACT/NSW foxes, 5.1% of WA foxes and 46.1% of ACT/NSW wild dogs. Taenia ovis was recovered from two foxes, 1/80 from Jugiong, NSW and 1/102 from Katanning, WA. We confirm from rrnS sequences the presence of T. ovis in cysts from hearts and diaphragms and T aenia hydatigena in cysts from livers of sheep in Australia. T. ovis was not recovered from any of the wild dogs examined but T. hydatigena were recovered from 4(8.3%) wild dogs and a single fox. With foxes identified as a definitive host for T. ovis in Australia, new control strategies to stop transmission of T. ovis to sheep need to be adopted. PMID:25161904

Jenkins, David J; Urwin, Nigel A R; Williams, Thomas M; Mitchell, Kate L; Lievaart, Jan J; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa

2014-08-01

84

Failure to protect calves against Taenia saginata using antigens prepared from in vitro cultivation of the larval stage.  

PubMed

Calves were vaccinated intramuscularly against the tapeworm Taenia saginata using excretory/secretory (ES) antigens from short and long term periods of in vitro cultivation of the larval stage of the parasite, four weeks before challenge with 5000 T saginata onchospheres. Neither immunisation regime employed afforded significant protection against challenge. It was considered that this may have been due to a reduction in concentration of, or detrimental effects to, potential immunogens during vaccine production. Elucidation of the nature of the protective ES antigens necessary for standardization of the technique has yet to be achieved in helminths. PMID:7255898

Mitchell, G B; Armour, J

1980-11-01

85

[Investigation on Taenia sp. infection in Midu County of Yunnan Province].  

PubMed

The current status and species of Taenia sp. were investigated in Midu County by sedimentation method to examine eggs of Taenia sp. in stool, questionnairing as well as deworming by areca-pumpkin seeds in October-December, 2010. The infection rate of Taenia sp. was 15.7% (65/414). Among the positives, it was fairly high in the age groups of 40- and 50-, being 24% (21/85) and 26% (15/57), respectively. 26 cases with positive stool examination and 47 cases with a history of discharging proglottids were treated. Adult worms were collected from all 26 egg positive cases and 23 persons discharging proglottids. The highest number of adult worms expelled was 11 in a woman, 2 worms from another villager, but only one worm each from all other cases. 15 tapeworms with scolex and mature proglottids were examined and morphologically identified as T. asiatia. The high prevalence was related to the residents' dietetic habits (eg. eating raw pork and liver) , behaviour (eg. defecating in field) , and the egg-contaminated environment (eg. by untreated feces). PMID:22908811

Fang, Wen; Liu, Hong-Kun; Li, Ke-Rong; Luo, Hua; Xu, Xin; Chen, Feng; Li, Rong; Liu, Ji-Bing; Huang, Ming-Hao; Li, Su-Mei

2012-04-30

86

Ick! Tapeworm Infecting Man's Brain Yields Genetic Secrets  

MedlinePLUS

... As reported Nov. 21 in the journal Genome Biology , the tapeworm was removed from the brain of ... that have not been sequenced before." SOURCE: Genome Biology , news release, Nov. 20, 2014 HealthDay Copyright (c) ...

87

Taenia taeniaeformis: inhibition of metacestode development in the rat by gossypol.  

PubMed

The effect of gossypol, a polyphenolic compound, on developing Taenia taeniaeformis larvae in the rat liver was examined. Five groups of rats were used. In group 1, subcutaneous injection of gossypol at 10 mg/kg was started 5 days prior to administration of tapeworm eggs. In group 2, gossypol injections were started 5 days after administration of eggs. Groups 3 and 4 were infected and noninfected rats, respectively, which received the vehicle (10% ethyl alcohol in 0.85% NaCl) only. Group 5 rats were noninfected but received gossypol. From each group, 5 rats were killed on days 7, 12, and 22 of infection, respectively. The number and size of larvae and the size of the livers were much less in rats gossypol injected 5 days before infection than those in the vehicle-treated group. Administration of gossypol 5 days after infection resulted in less inhibition. The size and the thickness of the fibrous capsule around larvae of the gossypol-treated rats were much smaller than those of the control-infected group. The actively developing larvae excrete or secrete a sulfated glycosaminoglycan which is specifically stained with alcian blue. There was much more alcian blue-positive substance around the larvae and the capsule of the control-infected liver compared to the gossypol-treated infected animal. The percentage body weight of the spleen was significantly greater in the gossypol-treated rats in both infected and noninfected groups. These results suggest that gossypol may directly inhibit tapeworm larval development or that elimination of the tapeworm may be resulted from gossypol-induced stimulation of host cell-mediated immunity. PMID:3956677

Rikihisa, Y; Lin, Y C

1986-04-01

88

The complete mitochondrial genomes of three cestode species of Taenia infecting animals and humans.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences provide useful markers for investigating population genetic structures, systematics and phylogenetics of organisms. Although Taenia multiceps, T. hydatigena, and T. taeniaeformis are common taeniid tapeworms of ruminants, pigs, dogs, or cats, causing significant economic losses, no published study on their mt genomes is available. The complete mt genomes of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena, and T. taeniaeformis were amplified in two overlapping fragments and then sequenced. The sizes of the entire mt genome were 13700 bp for T. multiceps, 13489 bp for T. hydatigena, and 13647 bp for T. taeniaeformis. Each of the three genomes contains 36 genes, consisting of 12 genes for proteins, 2 genes for rRNA, and 22 genes for tRNA, which are the same as the mt genomes of all other cestode species studied to date. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T. The contents of A+T of the complete genomes are 71.3% for T. multiceps, 70.8% for T. hydatigena, and 73.0% for T. taeniaeformis. The AT bias had a significant effect on both the codon usage pattern and amino acid composition of proteins. T. multiceps and T. hydatigena had two noncoding regions, but T. taeniaeformis had only one. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes revealed that T. multiceps, T. hydatigena, and T. taeniaeformis were more closely related to the other members of the Taenia genus, consistent with results of previous morphological and molecular studies. The present study determined the complete mt genome sequences for three Taenia species of animal and human health significance, providing useful markers for studying the systematics, population genetics, and molecular epidemiology of these cestode parasites of animals and humans. PMID:20922482

Liu, Guo-Hua; Lin, Rui-Qing; Li, Ming-Wei; Liu, Wei; Liu, Yi; Yuan, Zi-Guo; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Zhang, Kou-Xing; Zhu, Xing-Quan

2011-04-01

89

Pathogenesis and Neuropsychological Sequelae in Cysticercosis: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cysticercosis is a disease that occurs via the dissemination of the larvae form of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium to various organ systems, including the central nervous system. Sequelae may include seizures and neuropsychological impairment. The present case study involves a 45-year-old Caucasian female executive diagnosed with neurocysticercosis. Evaluation methods consisted of neuropsychological and electrophysiological assessment. Both neuropsychological evaluation and

Patricia A. Pimental; Rhonda Siegel; Mia M. Gregor

2009-01-01

90

Fish tapeworm infections (diphyllobothriasis) in Canada, particularly British Columbia.  

PubMed Central

Although the risk of diphyllobothriasis is generally low in Canada, fish tapeworm infections seem to have become more frequent in recent years. This increase is probably a consequence of the growing popularity of raw or inadequately cooked ethnic fish dishes or of a preference for lightly cooked fish, especially salmon. Only freshwater fish become infected with the larvae, but not everyone may realize that salmon can acquire the parasites before they leave their native lakes and rivers for the sea. If fish known to be sources of the tapeworms are to be eaten raw they should first be well frozen or salted to kill the larvae. Physicians should regard fish tapeworm infection as a notifiable disease. In Canada niclosamide, the drug of choice, is available from the manufacturer on a patient-by-patient basis. PMID:6713334

Ching, H. L.

1984-01-01

91

Transmission dynamics of Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis in sheep in uruguay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A base-line survey was carried out on the transmission dynamics of Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis in sheep in the Department of Florida, Uruguay. Mean life expectancy at birth of the sheep population in this Department was estimated at 3.5 and 4.8 years for male and female sheep, respectively. Both intensity and prevalence of E. granulosus infection increased

P. A. Cabrera; G. Haran; U. Benavidez; S. Valledor; G. Perera; S. Lloyd; M. A. Gemmell; M. Baraibar; A. Morana; J. Maissonave; M. Carballo

1995-01-01

92

Isolation of polymorphic microsatellite loci from the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two microsatellites were isolated from a genomic library of Echinococcus multilocularis. The microsatellites, designated EMms1 and EMms2, consist of tandem repeats of CAC-trinucleotide unit. Southern blot hybridization suggests that each of them is a single locus. Using fox-derived wild tapeworms (N=104), PCR-amplification of microsatellites was performed to assess the usefulness of these loci. We found four alleles of EMms1 and

Minoru Nakao; Yasuhito Sako; Akira Ito

2003-01-01

93

Is the prevalence of Taenia taeniaeformis in Microtus arvalis dependent on population density?  

PubMed

Populations of common voles Microtus arvalis were studied as hosts of the tapeworm Taenia taeniaeformis during a 14-yr survey. They were monitored in spring, summer, and autumn in a pastoral ecosystem in eastern France. A total of 7,574 voles were sampled during 2 multiannual population fluctuations. A third fluctuation was sampled during the increase phase only. Overall prevalence was lowest in summer (0.6%), increased by 3 times in autumn (1.5%) and a further 5 times in spring (7.8%). Analysis of prevalence, based on 7,384 voles, by multiple logistic regression revealed that extrinsic factors such as season and intrinsic factors such as host age and host density have a combined effect. In the longer term, host age and host density were positively associated with prevalence in summer. Host density was strongly associated with autumn prevalence. There was no association between the fluctuation phase and prevalence. The study shows that a long timescale (here a multiannual survey) is necessary to demonstrate the positive effect of host density on the prevalence of this indirectly transmitted parasite. The demonstration of this relationship depends on the rodents being intermediate rather than definitive hosts. PMID:14740902

Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Giraudoux, Patrick; Quéré, Jean-Pierre; Ashford, Richard William; Delattre, Pierre

2003-12-01

94

Tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Cestoda)--Neglected or Emerging Human Parasite?  

PubMed Central

Background A total number of 14 valid species of Diphyllobothrium tapeworms have been described in literature to be capable of causing diphyllobothriosis, with D. latum being the major causative agent of all human infections. However, recent data indicate that some of these infections, especially when diagnosed solely on the basis of morphology, have been identified with this causative agent incorrectly, confusing other Diphyllobothrium species with D. latum. Another widely distributed species, D. dendriticum, has never been considered as a frequent parasite of man, even though it is found commonly throughout arctic and subarctic regions parasitizing piscivorous birds and mammals. Recent cases of Europeans infected with this cestode called into question the actual geographic distribution of this tapeworm, largely ignored by medical parasitologists. Methodology and Results On the basis of revision of more than 900 available references and a description and revision of recent European human cases using morphological and molecular (cox1) data supplemented by newly characterized D. dendriticum sequences, we updated the current knowledge of the life-cycle, geographic distribution, epidemiological status, and molecular diagnostics of this emerging causal agent of zoonotic disease of man. Conclusions The tapeworm D. dendriticum represents an example of a previously neglected, probably underdiagnosed parasite of man with a potential to spread globally. Recent cases of diphyllobothriosis caused by D. dendriticum in Europe (Netherlands, Switzerland and Czech Republic), where the parasite has not been reported previously, point out that causative agents of diphyllobothriosis and other zoonoses can be imported throughout the world. Molecular tools should be used for specific and reliable parasite diagnostics, and also rare or non-native species should be considered. This will considerably help improve our knowledge of the distribution and epidemiology of these human parasites. PMID:24386497

Kuchta, Roman; Brabec, Jan; Kubackova, Petra; Scholz, Tomas

2013-01-01

95

Identification of Loci Controlling Restriction of Parasite Growth in Experimental Taenia crassiceps Cysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Human neurocysticercosis (NC) caused by Taenia solium is a parasitic disease of the central nervous system that is endemic in many developing countries. In this study, a genetic approach using the murine intraperitoneal cysticercosis caused by the related cestode Taenia crassiceps was employed to identify host factors that regulate the establishment and proliferation of the parasite. A/J mice are permissive to T. crassiceps infection while C57BL/6J mice (B6) are comparatively restrictive, with a 10-fold difference in numbers of peritoneal cysticerci recovered 30 days after infection. The genetic basis of this inter-strain difference was explored using 34 AcB/BcA recombinant congenic strains derived from A/J and B6 progenitors, that were phenotyped for T. crassiceps replication. In agreement with their genetic background, most AcB strains (A/J-derived) were found to be permissive to infection while most BcA strains (B6-derived) were restrictive with the exception of a few discordant strains, together suggesting a possible simple genetic control. Initial haplotype association mapping using >1200 informative SNPs pointed to linkages on chromosomes 2 (proximal) and 6 as controlling parasite replication in the AcB/BcA panel. Additional linkage analysis by genome scan in informative [AcB55xDBA/2]F1 and F2 mice (derived from the discordant AcB55 strain), confirmed the effect of chromosome 2 on parasite replication, and further delineated a major locus (LOD?=?4.76, p<0.01; peak marker D2Mit295, 29.7 Mb) that we designate Tccr1 (T. crassiceps cysticercosis restrictive locus 1). Resistance alleles at Tccr1 are derived from AcB55 and are inherited in a dominant fashion. Scrutiny of the minimal genetic interval reveals overlap of Tccr1 with other host resistance loci mapped to this region, most notably the defective Hc/C5 allele which segregates both in the AcB/BcA set and in the AcB55xDBA/2 cross. These results strongly suggest that the complement component 5 (C5) plays a critical role in early protective inflammatory response to infection with T. crassiceps. PMID:22206032

Fortin, Anny; Sciutto-Conde, Edda; Fragoso-Gonzalez, Gladis; Gros, Philippe; Aguilar-Delfin, Irma

2011-01-01

96

EFFECTS OF ASIAN TAPEWORM, MOSQUITOFISH, AND FOOD RATION ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF MOHAVE TUI CHUB  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF ASIAN TAPEWORM, MOSQUITOFISH, AND FOOD RATION ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF MOHAVE TUI CHUB, for providing me with the opportunity to study desert fishes, and the rest of my committee, Bill Matter

Bonar, Scott A.

97

Sex reversal of Cobitis taenia L. ( Osteichthyes , fam. Cobitidae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riassunto Una popolazione diCobitis taenia, specie considerata sinora gonocorica, é risultata essere ermafrodita non bilanciato cioé con alta variabilità sessuale, comprendente ermafroditi successivi proterandrici e femmine. La presenza di maschi puri non é stata ancora dimostrata.

E. Lodi

1967-01-01

98

Immunoregulation by Taenia crassiceps and Its Antigens  

PubMed Central

Taenia crassiceps is a cestode parasite of rodents (in its larval stage) and canids (in its adult stage) that can also parasitize immunocompromised humans. We have studied the immune response elicited by this helminth and its antigens in mice and human cells, and have discovered that they have a strong capacity to induce chronic Th2-type responses that are primarily characterized by high levels of Th2 cytokines, low proliferative responses in lymphocytes, an immature and LPS-tolerogenic profile in dendritic cells, the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and, specially, alternatively activated macrophages. We also have utilized the immunoregulatory capabilities of this helminth to successfully modulate autoimmune responses and the outcome of other infectious diseases. In the present paper, we review the work of others and ourselves with regard to the immune response induced by T. crassiceps and its antigens, and we compare the advances in our understanding of this parasitic infection model with the knowledge that has been obtained from other selected models. PMID:23484125

Peon, Alberto N.; Espinoza-Jimenez, Arlett; Terrazas, Luis I.

2013-01-01

99

Intraspecific variation of isoenzymes in Taenia taeniaeformis.  

PubMed

The technique of isoenzyme electrophoresis was applied to Japanese wild populations of Taenia taeniaeformis (isolated from Norway rats) and three laboratory reared isolates (KRN isolated from a Malaysian Norway rat, BMM from a Belgian house mouse and ACR from a Japanese gray red-backed vole). The average heterozygosities of Japanese wild populations were fairly small and total genetic variability was 0.0499. The genetic make-up of T. taeniaeformis in Norway rats was rather uniform in the whole of Japan. In KRN isolate, each of all 10 loci examined possessed the allele which was predominant in Japanese wild populations. Similarly, each of 9 loci in BMM isolate possessed the same alleles, but one of 2 alleles at HK locus was different from that in the others. T. taeniaeformis parasitizing house mice and rats were considered to be genetically closely related to each other. In ACR isolate, 7 out of 10 loci possessed different alleles from those in the other populations. It was considered that ACR isolate was genetically distant and its phylogenetic origin in Japan should be different from worms parasitizing Norway rats. PMID:7622329

Okamoto, M; Ito, A; Kurosawa, T; Oku, Y; Kamiya, M; Agatsuma, T

1995-02-01

100

Seasonal occurrence of the tapeworm Proteocephalus longicollis and its transmission from copepod intermediate host to fish.  

PubMed

Seasonal occurrence in terms of prevalence, intensity of infection, abundance and density of the tapeworm Proteocephalus longicollis (Zeder, 1800) and its transmission between its intermediate host (Cyclops abyssorum prealpinus) and definitive host (common whitefish, Coregonus lavaretus) in Lake Annecy, an oligotrophic lake in the western part of the Alps, France, were studied in the period of 1998-2000. A copepod Cyclops abyssorum prealpinus (Kiefer, 1939), the dominant species among planktonic crustaceans in the lake, served as the only intermediate host for this parasite. Infection with plerocercoids was higher in adult copepods (predominantly females) than in copepodite stages IV and V. The prevalence rate of 25% found in C. abyssorum prealpinus females in June 1998 represents a unique infection rate of intermediate hosts with fish tapeworms in natural conditions. The final host, the common whitefish Coregonus lavaretus (L.), was heavily infected with P. longicollis throughout the year (prevalence 90%; mean abundance 40.3; maximum intensity of infection more than 500 tapeworms per fish); immature tapeworms predominated in all samples (P<0.01). Transmission of tapeworm larvae from copepods to the common whitefish took place most intensively in summer and autumn, and depended on seasonal changes in the density of the C. abyssorum prealpinus population, infection of this copepod with plerocercoids and their density in the lake. In addition, transmission efficiency also seems to be determined by the longevity of tapeworm larvae in the intermediate host, timing of predation of the fish host and rapid development of the parasite within this host during the summer period. Overall transmission potential of P. longicollis was low, with only about 9% of juvenile specimens reaching maturity in common whitefish. PMID:12910414

Hanzelová, V; Gerdeaux, D

2003-09-01

101

The effect of herbivore faeces on the edaphic mite community: implications for tapeworm transmission.  

PubMed

Oribatid mites may be of epidemiological and medical importance because several species have been shown to serve as intermediate hosts for anoplocephalid tapeworms of wild and domestic animals. Despite their economic and conservation significance, relatively few studies examined factors influencing the effective number of oribatid mites that can serve as intermediate hosts. We examined variation in the structure of the edaphic arthropod community in functionally different territory parts of the Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota latirostris), a known definitive host of a prevalent anoplocephalid tapeworm, Ctenotaenia marmotae. We used a field experiment to test whether the abundance of oribatid mites in marmot pastures is affected by the presence of fresh herbivore faeces. We found that the abundance of soil and litter dwelling oribatid mites in marmot pastures did not change shortly after faeces addition. In contrast, numbers of other predominant soil-litter and phoretic microarthropods increased after faeces addition. The abundance of the two predominant phoretic mites colonizing the faeces was inversely related to the abundance of oribatid mites. In contrast, the abundance of a ubiquitous soil-litter mesostigmatid mite was a positive function of oribatid numbers. Although absolute numbers of oribatid mites did not change after faeces addition, our study suggests that, depending on soil quality or type, the probability of tapeworm egg ingestion by oribatid mites can be reduced due to increased interspecific prey-predatory and trophic interactions. Latrine site selection in Alpine marmots is consistent with a reduced probability of tapeworm transmission by oribatids. PMID:24114339

Václav, Radovan; Kalúz, Stanislav

2014-03-01

102

Seasonal occurrence of the tapeworm Proteocephalus longicollis and its transmission from copepod intermediate host to fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal occurrence in terms of prevalence, intensity of infection, abundance and density of the tapeworm Proteocephalus longicollis (Zeder, 1800) and its transmission between its intermediate host ( Cyclops abyssorum prealpinus) and definitive host (common whitefish, Coregonus lavaretus) in Lake Annecy, an oligotrophic lake in the western part of the Alps, France, were studied in the period of 1998–2000. A copepod

V. Hanzelova ´; D. Gerdeaux

2003-01-01

103

Intestinal obstruction caused by Taenia taeniaeformis infection in a cat.  

PubMed

An adult domestic shorthair (DSH) cat was presented with acute vomiting, anorexia, lethargy, and dyspnea. The cat's clinical status worsened over 24 hours with conservative medical management. An exploratory celiotomy was performed. Acute intestinal obstruction resulting from infection with Taenia (T.) taeniaeformis was diagnosed. Surgical removal of the cestodes via multiple enterotomies resolved the obstruction. This paper reports, for the first time, small intestinal obstruction caused by T. taeniaeformis infection in a cat. PMID:19258422

Wilcox, Rebbecca S; Bowman, Dwight D; Barr, Stephen C; Euclid, James M

2009-01-01

104

Avaliação de frações antigênicas da forma metacestódea de Taenia saginata no imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose humana.  

E-print Network

??A utilização de metacestódeos de Taenia saginata como antígeno alternativo constitui uma importante ferramenta no sorodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose humana (NC). A reatividade cruzada com indivíduos… (more)

Heliana Batista de Oliveira

2008-01-01

105

Solid lipid nanoparticle suspension enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of praziquantel against tapeworm  

PubMed Central

Hydatid disease caused by tapeworm is an increasing public health and socioeconomic concern. In order to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of praziquantel (PZQ) against tapeworm, PZQ-loaded hydrogenated castor oil solid lipid nanoparticle (PZQ-HCO-SLN) suspension was prepared by a hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. The stability of the suspension at 4°C and room temperature was evaluated by the physicochemical characteristics of the nanoparticles and in-vitro release pattern of the suspension. Pharmacokinetics was studied after subcutaneous administration of the suspension in dogs. The therapeutic effect of the novel formulation was evaluated in dogs naturally infected with Echinococcus granulosus. The results showed that the drug recovery of the suspension was 97.59% ± 7.56%. Nanoparticle diameter, polydispersivity index, and zeta potential were 263.00 ± 11.15 nm, 0.34 ± 0.06, and ?11.57 ± 1.12 mV, respectively and showed no significant changes after 4 months of storage at both 4°C and room temperature. The stored suspensions displayed similar in-vitro release patterns as that of the newly prepared one. SLNs increased the bioavailability of PZQ 5.67-fold and extended the mean residence time of the drug from 56.71 to 280.38 hours. Single subcutaneous administration of PZQ-HCO-SLN suspension obtained enhanced therapeutic efficacy against tapeworm in infected dogs. At the dose of 5 mg/kg, the stool-ova reduction and negative conversion rates and tapeworm removal rate of the suspension were 100%, while the native PZQ were 91.55%, 87.5%, and 66.7%. When the dose reduced to 0.5 mg/kg, the native drug showed no effect, but the suspension still got the same therapeutic efficacy as that of the 5 mg/kg native PZQ. These results demonstrate that the PZQ-HCO-SLN suspension is a promising formulation to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of PZQ. PMID:22072873

Xie, Shuyu; Pan, Baoliang; Shi, Baoxin; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Ming; Zhou, Wenzhong

2011-01-01

106

Position of Larval Tapeworms, Polypocephalus sp., in the Ganglia of Shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus  

PubMed Central

Parasites that invade the nervous system of their hosts have perhaps the best potential to manipulate their host’s behavior, but how they manipulate the host, if they do at all, could depend on their position within the host’s nervous system. We hypothesize that parasites that live in the nervous system of their host will be randomly distributed if they exert their influence through non-specific effects (i.e., general pathology), but that their position in the nervous system will be non-random if they exert their influence by targeting specific neural circuits. We recorded the position of larval tapeworms, Polypocephalus sp., in the abdominal ganglia of white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus. Tapeworms are more common within ganglia than in the section of the nerve cord between ganglia, even though the nerve cord has a greater volume than the ganglia. The tapeworms are also more abundant in the periphery of the ganglia. Because most synaptic connections are within the central region of the ganglion, such positioning may represent a trade-off between controlling the nervous system and damaging it. PMID:24820854

Carreon, Nadia; Faulkes, Zen

2014-01-01

107

Is the tapeworm able to affect tissue Pb-concentrations in white rat?  

PubMed

The effect of gastrointestinal helminths on Pb accumulation in the host body is ambiguous. A laboratory experiment with Rattus norvegicus/Hymenolepis diminuta model was conducted to determine Pb toxicokinetics in a terrestrial host-parasite system. The ET-AAS or ICP-OES techniques were used to determine Pb concentrations (CPb) in both tapeworms and host tissues (kidney, liver, bone, testes, muscle and intestinal wall). Concerning the entire host-parasite system, the highest CPb were detected in H. diminuta. Rat kidneys and bone were the only two tissues whose mean Pb levels were lower in parasitized animals than they were in non-infected subjects after both levels of exposure. At low Pb exposure, parasitization slightly changed the Pb toxicokinetics in the host body. However, with respect to tissue at the same exposure level, no significant differences were detected between the parasitized and non-parasitized animals and no significant correlations were found between CPb in tapeworms and those of host tissues. The results of this study indicate that H. diminuta does not protect rat from elevated Pb exposure even if tapeworm accumulates a higher portion of ingested Pb dose compared with that of the most Pb-loaded host soft tissue. The portion of Pb dose accumulated in H. diminuta correlates positively with parasite biomass. PMID:24709293

?adková, Zuzana; Miholová, Daniela; Száková, Ji?ina; Válek, Petr; Jankovská, Ivana; Langrová, Iva

2014-05-01

108

21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.  

...tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus ); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum...and for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii) Limitations....

2014-04-01

109

21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus ); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum...and for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii) Limitations...

2010-04-01

110

21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus ); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum...and for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii) Limitations...

2012-04-01

111

21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus ); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum...and for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii) Limitations...

2013-04-01

112

21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus ); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum...and for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii) Limitations...

2011-04-01

113

Cysticerci of Taenia mustelae in the fox squirrel.  

PubMed

The liver of a fox squirrel (Sciurus niger rufiventer) contained many clear, spherical cysts approximately 1 mm in diameter throughout the parenchyma. On dissection, most of these exhibited a dense, white area with four muscular suckers at a single point on the bladder. Based on the size of the organisms, the characteristically tiny hooks on the scolex and the location of the cysts in this host, the parasites were identified as cysticerci of Taenia mustelae. This is the first report in this host. The parasites were surrounded by an intense inflammatory response consisting primarily of lymphocytes mixed with some eosinophils, and early deposition of fibrous connective tissue. PMID:2338737

Langham, R F; Rausch, R L; Williams, J F

1990-04-01

114

Spatial and Temporal Distribution of the Asian Fish Tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea) in the Rio Grande (Río Bravo del Norte)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent collections of the Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in the Rio Grande have raised concern about the potential impacts on Rio Grande endemic and imperiled fishes. The objectives of this study were to determine distribution and definitive hosts of the Asian fish tapeworm within the Rio Grande drainage and to quantify occurrences and abundances. In total, 1,992 fish spanning

Megan G. Bean; Timothy H. Bonner

2010-01-01

115

Genetic Variation and Population Genetics of Taenia saginata in North and Northeast Thailand in relation to Taenia asiatica  

PubMed Central

Taenia saginata is the most common human Taenia in Thailand. By cox1 sequences, 73 isolates from four localities in north and northeast were differentiated into 14 haplotypes, 11 variation sites and haplotype diversity of 0.683. Among 14 haplotypes, haplotype A was the major (52.1%), followed by haplotype B (21.9%). Clustering diagram of Thai and GenBank sequences indicated mixed phylogeny among localities. By MJ analysis, haplotype clustering relationships showed paired-stars-like network, having two main cores surrounded by minor haplotypes. Tajima's D values were significantly negative in T. saginata world population, suggesting population expansion. Significant Fu's Fs values in Thai, as well as world population, also indicate that population is expanding and may be hitchhiking as part of selective sweep. Haplotype B and its dispersion were only found in populations from Thailand. Haplotype B may evolve and ultimately become an ancestor of future populations in Thailand. Haplotype A seems to be dispersion haplotype, not just in Thailand, but worldwide. High genetic T. saginata intraspecies divergence was found, in contrast to its sister species, T. asiatica; among 30 samples from seven countries, its haplotype diversity was 0.067, while only 2 haplotypes were revealed. This extremely low intraspecific variation suggests that T. asiatica could be an endangered species. PMID:23864933

Anantaphruti, Malinee; Thaenkham, Urusa; Kusolsuk, Teera; Maipanich, Wanna; Saguankiat, Surapol; Pubampen, Somjit; Phuphisut, Orawan

2013-01-01

116

Validity of the bear tapeworm Diphyllobothrium ursi (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidae) based on morphological and molecular markers.  

PubMed

The bear tapeworm Diphyllobothrium ursi is described based upon the morphology of adult tapeworms recovered from the brown bear (Ursus arctos middendorffi) and larval plerocercoids found in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) from Kodiak Island in Alaska in 1952. However, in 1987 D. ursi was synonymized with Diphyllobothrium dendriticum, and the taxonomic relationship between both species has not subsequently been revised. In this study mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) sequences of holotype and paratype D. ursi specimens that had been preserved in a formalin-acetic acid-alcohol solution since the time the species was initially described approximately 60 yr ago were analyzed. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the cox1 sequences revealed that D. ursi is more closely related to D. dendriticum than it is to Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense and Diphyllobothrium latum. In addition to molecular evidence, differences in the life cycle and ecology of the larval plerocercoids between D. ursi and D. dendriticum also suggest that D. ursi is a distinct species, separate from D. dendriticum and D. nihonkaiense, and also possibly from D. latum . PMID:22663179

Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Muto, Maki; Yamada, Minoru; Arizono, Naoki; Rausch, Robert L

2012-12-01

117

Update on the Human Broad Tapeworm (Genus Diphyllobothrium), Including Clinical Relevance  

PubMed Central

Summary: Tapeworms (Cestoda) continue to be an important cause of morbidity in humans worldwide. Diphyllobothriosis, a human disease caused by tapeworms of the genus Diphyllobothrium, is the most important fish-borne zoonosis caused by a cestode parasite. Up to 20 million humans are estimated to be infected worldwide. Besides humans, definitive hosts of Diphyllobothrium include piscivorous birds and mammals, which represent a significant zoonotic reservoir. The second intermediate hosts include both freshwater and marine fish, especially anadromous species such as salmonids. The zoonosis occurs most commonly in countries where the consumption of raw or marinated fish is a frequent practice. Due to the increasing popularity of dishes utilizing uncooked fish, numerous cases of human infections have appeared recently, even in the most developed countries. As many as 14 valid species of Diphyllobothrium can cause human diphyllobothriosis, with D. latum and D. nihonkaiense being the most important pathogens. In this paper, all taxa from humans reported are reviewed, with brief information on their life history and their current distribution. Data on diagnostics, epidemiology, clinical relevance, and control of the disease are also summarized. The importance of reliable identification of human-infecting species with molecular tools (sequences of mitochondrial genes) as well as the necessity of epidemiological studies aimed at determining the sources of infections are pointed out. PMID:19136438

Scholz, Tomáš; Garcia, Hector H.; Kuchta, Roman; Wicht, Barbara

2009-01-01

118

Description of Hymenolepis microstoma (Nottingham strain): a classical tapeworm model for research in the genomic era  

PubMed Central

Background Hymenolepis microstoma (Dujardin, 1845) Blanchard, 1891, the mouse bile duct tapeworm, is a rodent/beetle-hosted laboratory model that has been used in research and teaching since its domestication in the 1950s. Recent characterization of its genome has prompted us to describe the specific strain that underpins these data, anchoring its identity and bringing the 150+ year-old original description up-to-date. Results Morphometric and ultrastructural analyses were carried out on laboratory-reared specimens of the 'Nottingham' strain of Hymenolepis microstoma used for genome characterization. A contemporary description of the species is provided including detailed illustration of adult anatomy and elucidation of its taxonomy and the history of the specific laboratory isolate. Conclusions Our work acts to anchor the specific strain from which the H. microstoma genome has been characterized and provides an anatomical reference for researchers needing to employ a model tapeworm system that enables easy access to all stages of the life cycle. We review its classification, life history and development, and briefly discuss the genome and other model systems being employed at the beginning of a genomic era in cestodology. PMID:21194465

2010-01-01

119

Taenia taeniaeformis: inactivation of metacestodes by gossypol in vitro.  

PubMed

Gossypol, a natural biphenyl compound inhibits Taenia taeniaeformis metacestode development in vivo. In this paper, the direct effect of gossypol on metacestodes was examined. Within 24 hr of incubation at 37 degrees C in greater than or equal to 10(-5) M gossypol, shedding of the tegument from the surface of the metacestodes was observed. There was a significant decrease in [3H]thymidine uptake by T. taeniaeformis in greater than or equal to 10(-5)M gossypol. In addition, NADH lactate dehydrogenase activity of metacestodes was significantly inhibited in greater than or equal to 10(-5) M gossypol. Thus, gossypol has a direct inhibitory effect on T. taeniaeformis metacestodes in vitro. PMID:2373186

Rikihisa, Y; Lin, Y C; Garber, P L; Gu, Y

1990-08-01

120

Update on the Distribution of the Invasive Asian Fish Tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, in the U.S. and Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The documented range of the invasive and potentiallypathogenicAsianfish tapeworm,Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934 in the United States and Canada is updated based on examination of museum depo- sitions and original field collections. Gravid specimens of B. acheilognathi were collected from the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Rafinesque in Peter Lake, at the University of Notre Dame Environmental Research Center (UNDERC) Land o'

Anindo Choudhury; Elizabeth Charipar; Patrick Nelson; James R. Hodgson; Scott Bonar; Rebecca A. Cole

2006-01-01

121

Lead concentrations in Hymenolepis diminuta adults and Taenia taeniaeformis larvae compared to their rat hosts (Rattus norvegicus) sampled from the city of Cairo, Egypt.  

PubMed

Concentrations of lead, determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, were compared between the cestodes Hymenolepis diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis and its host rat (Rattus norvegicus). Rats were sampled at 2 sites, which differed in respect to lead pollution as quantified from road dust, adjacent to the city of Cairo, Egypt. Comparing lead levels among host tissues and the parasites the significantly highest accumulation was found in H. diminuta, followed by rat kidney and larvae of T. taeniaeformis. Calculation of bioconcentration factors showed that H. diminuta contained 36-, 29-, 6- and 6-fold higher lead levels than intestinal wall, liver, kidney and larvae of T. taeniaeformis, at the more polluted site. At the less contaminated site lead bioconcentration factors for H. diminuta were found to be 87, 87 and 11 referred to intestine, liver and kidney of the host. Due to a high variability of the lead concentrations in H. diminuta it was not possible to indicate differences in metal pollution between both sampling sites. This variability may be influenced by different age structures of cestode infrapopulations. It is likely that younger worms contain lower metal levels than older worms due to a shorter exposure period. Thus, it is necessary to standardize the sampling of worms which should be used for indication purposes. Due to a lack of adequate sentinel species in terrestrial habitats more studies are required to validate and standardize the use of helminths as accumulation bioindicators in order to obtain mean values with low standard deviations. The host-parasite system rat-H. diminuta appears to be a useful and promising bioindication system at least for lead in urban ecosystems as rats as well as the tapeworm are globally distributed and easily accessible. PMID:14653537

Sures, B; Scheible, T; Bashtar, A R; Taraschewski, H

2003-11-01

122

Neurocysticercosis presenting as acute psychosis: a rare case report from rural India.  

PubMed

Neurocysticercosis, caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia solium, is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system. Its clinical manifestations are varied, non specific and pleomorphic, depending on multiple factors. Seizures are the commonest presentation of neurocysticercosis. In this communication we describe an interesting case of multiple neurocysticercosis in a young presenting with psychiatric manifestations. He responded well to steroid and antipsychotic treatment. This case highlights an uncommon presentation of neurocysticercosis and significance of early recognizing this reversible cause will avoid delay in treatment. PMID:24309884

Verma, Archana; Kumar, Alok

2013-12-01

123

Cysticercosis of deltoid muscle.  

PubMed

Cysticercosis is a disease caused by tapeworm Taenia solium. It is commonly found in developing countries, but reports of its frequent occurrences even in developed countries due to immigrants from infected areas are widely reported. When cysticercosis affects the brain, the condition is commonly called neurocysticercosis however, sporadic cases of solitary intramuscular cysticercosis have been reported in the literature. We present a case of solitary cysticercosis in the right deltoid muscle in a 25-year-old woman who presented with a painful swelling on the right shoulder. The diagnosis was established by MRI and targetedultrasonography. Surgical removal of a cyst followed by 2?weeks of albendazole treatment resolved the symptoms. PMID:25312891

Chaudhary, Sanjeev

2014-01-01

124

[Original procreation or generational change? The investigation of cysticercus and tapeworms].  

PubMed

The doctrine of the abiogenesis postulated the origin of human and animal intestinal worms from "not complete digested ingesta". Indeed Peter Simon Pallas (1741-1811) defined already 1760 in his dissertation that endoparasitic worms reproduce themselves by eggs. But he characterised the nature of cysticercus as "pathologically degenerated tail bladder". In 1856 Rudolf Leuckart (1822-1898) paraphrased the alternation of generation with "marvellous metamorphoses and peculiar form of development". The Dane Johannes Japetus Smith Steenstrup (1813-1897) recognised finally the principle of the alternation of generation and Gottlob Friedrich Heinrich Küchenmeister (1821-1890), a physician at the Saxon city Zittau realised the special correlation between the alternate and end host of tapeworms. Both, Leuckart and Küchenmeister proved their insights by animal and human experimentations. PMID:17243446

Geus, A

2007-01-01

125

Intraspecific variation of Taenia taeniaeformis as determined by various criteria.  

PubMed

The intraspecific variation of four laboratory-reared isolates of Taenia taeniaformis the SRN and KRN isolates from Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, captured in Japan and Malaysia, respectively; the BMM isolated from a house mouse, Mus musculus, captured in Belgium; and the ACR isolate from a gray red-backed vole, Clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae, captured in Japan was examined by various criteria. Eggs of each of the four isolates were orally inoculated into several species of intermediate host. They were most infective to the rodent species from which the original metacestode of each isolate had been isolated in the field, and only the ACR isolate was infective to the gray red-backed vole. Although little difference was found between the SRN, KRN, and BMM isolates by the other criteria, including the morphology of rostellar hooks, the protein composition of the metacestode, and restriction endonuclease analysis of DNA, the ACR isolate was clearly different from the others. It was considered that the ACR isolate was independent as a strain distinct from the other three isolates. PMID:7731915

Azuma, H; Okamoto, M; Oku, Y; Kamiya, M

1995-01-01

126

[Morpho-functional changes of cloacal bursa of the herring gull in experimental infection with gull tapeworm].  

PubMed

Using the methods of light microscopy, the quantitative changes in the cells of the cloacal bursa of herring gull (Larus argentatus mongolicus) chicks were studied during experimental infection with gull-tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum. The area of the follicles within the bursa and the number of eosinophils in the infected chicks were found to increase. In the follicles the number of blast cells and large lymphocytes was elevated. The reduction of small lymphocytes and plasma cells numbers in the infected gulls may be due to a slower cell cycle or cell migration into the inflammatory focus. Overall, the changes in the bursa indicate the suppression of the B-link of the host immune system in tapeworm invasion. PMID:22724332

Fomina, A S; Pronina, S V

2012-01-01

127

Spathebothriidea: survey of species, scolex and egg morphology, and interrelationships of a non-segmented, relictual tapeworm group (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda).  

PubMed

Tapeworms of the order Spathebothriidea Wardle et McLeod, 1952 (Cestoda) are reviewed. Molecular data made it possible to assess, for the first time, the phylogenetic relationships of all genera and to confirm the validity of Bothrimonus Duvernoy, 1842, Diplocotyle Krabbe, 1874 and Didymobothrium Nybelin, 1922. A survey of all species considered to be valid is provided together with new data on egg and scolex morphology and surface ultrastructure (i.e. microtriches). The peculiar morphology of the members of this group, which is today represented by five effectively monotypic genera whose host associations and geographical distribution show little commonality, indicate that it is a relictual group that was once diverse and widespread. The order potentially represents the earliest branch of true tapeworms (i.e. Eucestoda) among extant forms. PMID:25185404

Kuchta, Roman; Pearson, Rebecca; Scholz, Tomás; Ditrich, Oleg; Olson, Peter D

2014-08-01

128

In search of mitochondrial markers for resolving the phylogeny of cyclophyllidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda) — a test study with Davaineidae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most species rich order of tapeworms is the Cyclophyllidea and prior to wide-scale sampling of these worms for phylogenetics,\\u000a we wished to develop reliable PCR primers that would capture fragments of mitochondrial (mt) DNA with phylogenetic utility\\u000a across the order. Nuclear ribosomal RNA gene sequences are well-established and valuable markers for resolving flatworm interrelationships\\u000a spanning a wide range of

D. Timothy J. Littlewood; Andrea Waeschenbach; Pavel N. Nikolov

2008-01-01

129

Investigation of an outbreak of Taenia saginata cysts (cysticercus bovis) in dairy cattle from two farms.  

PubMed

The paper describes the epidemiological investigation carried out on two dairy farms with cattle infected with Taenia saginata cysts. On the first affected farm it was estimated using Bayesian techniques that approximately 65% of 1400 mixed-age cattle were infected with Taenia saginata cysts. The investigation aimed to determine potential exposure pathways of cattle to Taenia saginata with a view to finding the human source of infection and to describe the epidemiology of the outbreak on the affected farms. In order to determine potential exposure pathways, investigation was centred on how feed or water could have been contaminated with eggs. The plausibility of pathways was determined by examining the spatial and temporal association between factors related to the pathway and the prevalence of infection in cattle strata. We describe the investigation carried out on affected farms. PMID:21130574

McFadden, A M J; Heath, D D; Morley, C M; Dorny, P

2011-03-10

130

A superoxide dismutase of metacestodes of Taenia taeniaeformis.  

PubMed

Superoxide dismutase was purified from Taenia taeniaeformis metacestodes by sequential ion exchange chromatography on quaternary-amino-ethyl-cellulose, gel filtration chromatography on ACA 44 and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, followed by chromatofocusing on polybuffer exchanger 94. This isolation procedure resulted in the detection of a single protein-staining band on alkaline gels, coincident with enzyme activity. We have, however, detected what appear to be two peaks of enzyme activity within this single protein-staining band. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using gradient slab gels and analysis under reducing conditions, resulted in the detection of only one protein at an apparent Mr of 16,600, while analysis under non-reducing conditions, gave a single protein of an apparent Mr of 64,000. The isoelectric point of the purified protein is 6.6. Boiling for 3 min completely destroyed the enzyme, whereas incubation for 2 h at 37 degrees C resulted in the loss of 56% of the enzymic activity. Incubation with 10 mM KCN resulted in 83% inhibition of the enzyme. We have detected up to 168 U ml-1 of enzyme activity in the cyst fluid surrounding the parasite in situ. This is the first instance in which any parasite superoxide dismutase has been purified to apparent homogeneity. Parasite-mediated enzymic destruction of superoxide anion can not only protect against oxygen toxicity as a result of normal parasite respiratory processes but also may serve as yet another mechanism used by tissue-dwelling parasites to evade host immunologic attack. PMID:3960056

Leid, R W; Suquet, C M

1986-03-01

131

Immune Destruction of Larval Taenia crassiceps in Mice  

PubMed Central

Immune destruction of larval Taenia crassiceps was examined by first injecting BALB/cJ mice subcutaneously with larval buds and 30 to 60 days later challenging the mice with larvae injected into the peritoneal cavity. The larvae injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) secondarily are killed by host cells that completely encase the larvae in a thick sheath. The peritoneal exudate cells and the cytokines they produced were characterized by flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). No changes in percentage of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B1 cells, or macrophages were detected in the peritoneal cavities of mice that were killing larvae compared to mice with a primary 7-day infection i.p. Both RT-PCR and ELISA demonstrated a decrease in cytokines including gamma interferon (IFN-?), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and IL-10 in mice that were killing the larvae compared to control mice infected for 30 to 60 days i.p. alone, although there was little difference compared to mice infected for 7 days i.p. alone. Serum cytokine levels in mice that were killing the larvae showed a decrease in IFN-? and IL-4, an increase in IL-10 when compared to mice infected for 30 to 60 days i.p. alone, and increases in all cytokines compared to mice infected for 7 days i.p. alone. Inhibition of nitric oxide production did not significantly affect the number or the viability of larvae in the peritoneal cavity of mice that were killing larvae during secondary infection. PMID:10768922

Mooney, K. A.; Spolski, R. J.; See, E. J.; Kuhn, R. E.

2000-01-01

132

A new combination and a new species of onchobothriid tapeworm (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae) from triakid sharks.  

PubMed

A new combination and a new species of onchobothriid tapeworm are described from triakid sharks. We found Platybothrium xiamenensis Wang & Yang, 2001 and Erudituncus musteli (Yamaguti, 1952) from Hemitriakis japanica (Müller & Henle). Based on the morphology of the hooks P. xiamenensis is transferred to the genus Erudituncus Healy, Scholz & Caira, 2001. The specimens studied by us differ from the original description in the number of proglottids and testes and in the size of the cirrus-sac. However, we consider them conspecific with E. xiamenensis due to the consistent hook morphology and laciniations in both descriptions and believe the differences reflect intraspecific variation. The type-host of E. xiamenensis was reported as Mustelus griseus Pietschmann. However, in the present study, this parasite was found only in H. japanica and never in M. griseus although many specimens of the latter host were examined. This suggests that the type-host in the original description has probably been misidentified. We found another undescribed species in M. griseus, Calliobothrium shirozame n. sp., which is distinguished from the congeners by having a unique combination of the number of laciniations: four in the cephalic peduncle, six in the immature proglottids and four in the mature proglottids. PMID:24711114

Kurashima, Akira; Shimizu, Toshiya; Mano, Nobuhiro; Ogawa, Kazuo; Fujita, Toshihiko

2014-05-01

133

Molecular phylogeny of the genus Taenia (Cestoda: Taeniidae): proposals for the resurrection of Hydatigera Lamarck, 1816 and the creation of a new genus Versteria.  

PubMed

The cestode family Taeniidae generally consists of two valid genera, Taenia and Echinococcus. The genus Echinococcus is monophyletic due to a remarkable similarity in morphology, features of development and genetic makeup. By contrast, Taenia is a highly diverse group formerly made up of different genera. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest the paraphyly of Taenia. To clarify the genetic relationships among the representative members of Taenia, molecular phylogenies were constructed using nuclear and mitochondrial genes. The nuclear phylogenetic trees of 18S ribosomal DNA and concatenated exon regions of protein-coding genes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and DNA polymerase delta) demonstrated that both Taenia mustelae and a clade formed by Taenia parva, Taenia krepkogorski and Taenia taeniaeformis are only distantly related to the other members of Taenia. Similar topologies were recovered in mitochondrial genomic analyses using 12 complete protein-coding genes. A sister relationship between T. mustelae and Echinococcus spp. was supported, especially in protein-coding gene trees inferred from both nuclear and mitochondrial data sets. Based on these results, we propose the resurrection of Hydatigera Lamarck, 1816 for T. parva, T. krepkogorski and T. taeniaeformis and the creation of a new genus, Versteria, for T. mustelae. Due to obvious morphological and ecological similarities, Taenia brachyacantha is also included in Versteria gen. nov., although molecular evidence is not available. Taenia taeniaeformis has been historically regarded as a single species but the present data clearly demonstrate that it consists of two cryptic species. PMID:23428901

Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Iwaki, Takashi; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Konyaev, Sergey; Oku, Yuzaburo; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

2013-05-01

134

Neurocysticercosis.  

PubMed

Neurocysticercosis, the most common helminthic infection of the nervous system, is a major cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The disease occurs when humans become intermediate hosts of the tapeworm Taenia solium after ingesting its eggs by contagion from an asymptomatic Taenia carrier. Within the nervous system, parasites may locate in brain parenchyma, subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or spinal cord, causing several pathological changes that are responsible for the clinical pleomorphism of the disease. Seizures are the most common clinical manifestation, but a sizable proportion of patients develop focal deficits, intracranial hypertension, or cognitive decline. Preoperative diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is possible after proper integration of data from neuroimaging studies and immunological tests. Cysticidal drugs (albendazole and praziquantel) have changed the prognosis of most patients with neurocysticercosis. The use of these drugs has shown to reduce the parasite load within the central nervous system and to improve the clinical prognosis of the disease in many cases. Future studies should focus on disease eradication through the implementation of control programs against all the interrelated steps in the life cycle of T solium, including human carriers of the adult tapeworm, infected pigs, and eggs in the environment. PMID:25360206

Del Brutto, Oscar H

2014-10-01

135

Neurocysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis, the most common helminthic infection of the nervous system, is a major cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The disease occurs when humans become intermediate hosts of the tapeworm Taenia solium after ingesting its eggs by contagion from an asymptomatic Taenia carrier. Within the nervous system, parasites may locate in brain parenchyma, subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or spinal cord, causing several pathological changes that are responsible for the clinical pleomorphism of the disease. Seizures are the most common clinical manifestation, but a sizable proportion of patients develop focal deficits, intracranial hypertension, or cognitive decline. Preoperative diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is possible after proper integration of data from neuroimaging studies and immunological tests. Cysticidal drugs (albendazole and praziquantel) have changed the prognosis of most patients with neurocysticercosis. The use of these drugs has shown to reduce the parasite load within the central nervous system and to improve the clinical prognosis of the disease in many cases. Future studies should focus on disease eradication through the implementation of control programs against all the interrelated steps in the life cycle of T solium, including human carriers of the adult tapeworm, infected pigs, and eggs in the environment. PMID:25360206

2014-01-01

136

First record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in muskoxen from Greenland.  

PubMed

A first record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) from the Kangerlussuaq population in West Greenland suggests that introduced muskoxen now contributes to the transmission of this parasite in addition to previous observations from caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Muskoxen and caribou are the only wild ungulates in Greenland. PMID:21955737

Raundrup, Katrine; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

2012-03-23

137

Four cases of Taenia saginata infection with an analysis of COX1 gene.  

PubMed

Human taeniases had been not uncommon in the Republic of Korea (=Korea) until the 1980s. The prevalence decreased and a national survey in 2004 revealed no Taenia egg positive cases. However, a subsequent national survey in 2012 showed 0.04% (10 cases) prevalence of Taenia spp. eggs suggesting its resurgence in Korea. We recently encountered 4 cases of Taenia saginata infection who had symptoms of taeniasis that included discharge of proglottids. We obtained several proglottids from each case. Because the morphological features of T. saginata are almost indistinguishable from those of Taenia asiatica, molecular analyses using the PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) were performed to identify the species. The PCR-RFLP patterns of all of the 4 specimens were consistent with T. saginata, and the cox1 gene sequence showed 99.8-100% identity with that of T. saginata reported previously from Korea, Japan, China, and Cambodia. All of the 4 patients had the history of travel abroad but its relation with contracting taeniasis was unclear. Our findings may suggest resurgence of T. saginata infection among people in Korea. PMID:24623887

Cho, Jaeeun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lim, Hyemi; Kim, Min-Jae; Yooyen, Thanapon; Lee, Dongmin; Eom, Keeseon S; Shin, Eun-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil

2014-02-01

138

Murine autoimmune arthritis is exaggerated by infection with the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta.  

PubMed

Infection with helminth parasites triggers strong and stereotypic immune responses in humans and mice, which can protect against specific experimentally-induced autoimmune diseases. We have shown that infection with the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, confers a protective effect on FCA-induced joint inflammation. Here, we investigated the effect of a prophylactic infection with H. diminuta on the K/BxN-serum model of polyarthritis in BALB/c mice. Mice were infected with 10 cysticercoids of H. diminuta by oral gavage and 8 days later arthritis was induced by i.p. injection of K/BxN arthritogenic serum. Joint swelling and pain measurements were recorded throughout a 13 day time course. At necropsy, joints and blood serum were collected. K/BxN-treated mice developed joint inflammation in the front paws, hind paws and knees as shown by increased swelling, mechanical allodynia and myeloperoxidase activity. Mice infected with H. diminuta had more severe disease, with increased eosinophil peroxidase activity in their paws and greater inflammatory infiltrate and synovitis in the knee joints. Hymenolepis diminuta-infected mice displayed significant increases in serum levels of C5a and mast cell protease-1 compared with K/BxN-serum only treatment, the latter being indicative of mast cell activation. In contrast to the protective effect of infection with H. diminuta in FCA-induced monoarthritis, infection with this helminth exacerbated K/BxN serum-induced polyarthritis in BALB/c mice. This correlated with increases in C5a and mast cell activation: factors critical in the development of K/BxN-induced arthritis. Thus, while data accumulate from animal models showing that infection with helminth parasites may be beneficial for a variety of auto-inflammatory diseases, our findings demonstrate the potential for helminths to exacerbate disease. Hence care is needed when helminth therapy is translated into a clinical setting. PMID:23583716

Graepel, Rabea; Leung, Gabriella; Wang, Arthur; Villemaire, Michelle; Jirik, Frank R; Sharkey, Keith A; McDougall, Jason J; McKay, Derek M

2013-06-01

139

DNA Differential Diagnosis of Human Taeniid Cestodes by Base Excision Sequence Scanning Thymine-Base Reader Analysis with Mitochondrial Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are well-known parasites of medical and economic importance, causing cysticercosis in pigs and cattle and taeniasis in humans. T. solium is also an organism severely pathogenic to humans, causing fatal neuro- cysticercosis when cysticerci, the larval stage of T. solium, de- velop in the central nervous system. In recent years, this dis- ease has been

Hiroshi Yamasaki; Minoru Nakao; Yasuhito Sako; Kazuhiro Nakaya; Marcello Otake Sato; Wulamu Mamuti; Munehiro Okamoto; Akira Ito

2002-01-01

140

Age, season and spatio-temporal factors affecting the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis and Taenia taeniaeformis in Arvicola terrestris.  

E-print Network

??Taenia taeniaeformis and Echinococcus multilocularis both infect the water vole Arvicola terrestris. We investigated the effect of age, spatio-temporal and season-related factors on the prevalence… (more)

Burlet, Pierre Edouard

2011-01-01

141

Molecular Detection and Characterization of Goat Isolate of Taenia hydatigena in Turkey  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to provide molecular detection and characterization of the goat isolate of Taenia hydatigena from Ankara province of Turkey. For this purpose, PCR amplification of small subunit ribosomal RNA (rrnS) and partial sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (mt-CO1) genes were performed in a one-month-old dead goat. According to rrnS-PCR results, parasites were identified as Taenia spp., and partial sequence of mt-CO1 gene was corresponding to T. hydatigena. At the end of the study, we concluded that molecular tools can be used to define species of parasites in cases where the key morphologic features cannot be detected. Nucleotide sequence data of Turkish goat isolate of T. hydatigena was submitted to GenBank for other researchers interested in this subject. By this study, molecular detection and characterization of T. hydatigena was done for the first time in Turkey. PMID:22500144

Utuk, Armagan Erdem; Piskin, Fatma Cigdem

2012-01-01

142

Spatial and temporal distribution of the Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea) in the Rio Grande (Río Bravo del Norte).  

PubMed

Recent collections of the Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in the Rio Grande have raised concern about the potential impacts on Rio Grande endemic and imperiled fishes. The objectives of this study were to determine distribution and definitive hosts of the Asian fish tapeworm within the Rio Grande drainage and to quantify occurrences and abundances. In total, 1,992 fish spanning 11 families were collected and examined for Asian fish tapeworms in the Rio Grande and the Pecos and Devils rivers. The parasite was collected from red shiners Cyprinella lutrensis, Tamaulipas shiners Notropis braytoni, sand shiners N. stramineus, river carpsuckers Carpiodes carpio, plains killifish Fundulus zebrinus, western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis, blue suckers Cycleptus elongatus, blacktail shiners Cyprinella venusta, proserpine shiners Cyprinella proserpina, and Manantial roundnose minnow Dionda argentosa, with the latter four species being new host records. Monthly collections of red shiners from Big Bend National Park exhibited prevalence levels above 15% in January-March and December and below 10% during April-June and October. With over 50% of the Rio Grande icthyofauna in Texas considered imperiled, the occurrence and pathological effects of the Asian fish tapeworm in combination with reduced water quantity and quality and increased habitat fragmentation are of concern for these taxa. PMID:21192548

Bean, Megan G; Bonner, Timothy H

2010-09-01

143

Observations on the Plerocercoid Stage of the Tapeworm Ligula in Three Species of Fish from the Lower Crooked River of Central Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tapeworms in the genus Ligula are cosmopolitan parasites whose plerocercoid stages are found worldwide in fishes of the families Cyprinidae and Catostomidae. Examination of chiselmouth Acrocheilus alutaceus, northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis, and bridgelip sucker Catostomus columbianus revealed the presence of Ligula in the lower Crooked River system of central Oregon. This represents the first report of Ligula intestinalis in two

Kristy L. Groves; Barbara A. Shields

2001-01-01

144

Sperm ultrastructure of Taenia mustelae (Cestoda, Taeniidae), an intestinal parasite of the weasel, Mustela nivalis (Carnivora)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper describes the ultrastructure of spermatozoa of Taenia mustelae as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. The mature spermatozoon of this tenid is filiform, tapered at both ends, and lacks mitochondrion. It is capped by an apical cone of electron-dense material and presents a single helical crest-like body 75-nm thick. The axoneme is of the 9+‘1’ pattern of trepaxonematan

JORDI MIQUEL; CONSOL HIDALGO; CARLOS FELIU; BERNARD MARCHAND

2000-01-01

145

A proposal to declare neurocysticercosis an international reportable disease.  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis is an infection of the nervous system caused by Taenia solium. It is the most important human parasitic neurological disease and a common cause of epilepsy in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, representing enormous costs for anticonvulsants, medical resources and lost production. Neurocysticercosis is a human-to-human infection, acquired by the faecal-enteric route from carriers of intestinal T. solium, most often in areas with deficient sanitation. Intestinal tapeworms cause few symptoms, but adult taeniae carried by humans release large numbers of infective eggs and are extremely contagious. Ingestion of poorly cooked pig meat infested with T. solium larvae results in intestinal taeniosis but not neurocysticercosis. With a view to hastening the control of taeniosis and neurocysticercosis we propose that neurocysticercosis be declared an international reportable disease. New cases of neurocysticercosis should be reported by physicians or hospital administrators to their health ministries. An epidemiological intervention could then be launched to interrupt the chain of transmission by: (1) searching for, treating and reporting the sources of contagion, i.e. human carriers of tapeworms; (2) identifying and treating other exposed contacts; (3) providing health education on parasite transmission and improvement of hygiene and sanitary conditions; and (4) enforcing meat inspection policies and limiting the animal reservoir by treatment of pigs. We believe that the first step required to solve the problem of neurocysticercosis is to implement appropriate surveillance mechanisms under the responsibility of ministries of health. Compulsory notification also has the major advantage of providing accurate quantification of the incidence and prevalence of neurocysticercosis at regional level, thus permitting the rational use of resources in eradication campaigns. PMID:10812740

Roman, G.; Sotelo, J.; Del Brutto, O.; Flisser, A.; Dumas, M.; Wadia, N.; Botero, D.; Cruz, M.; Garcia, H.; de Bittencourt, P. R.; Trelles, L.; Arriagada, C.; Lorenzana, P.; Nash, T. E.; Spina-Franca, A.

2000-01-01

146

The development of acquired immunity to tapeworms and progress towards active immunization, with special reference to Echinococcus spp  

PubMed Central

An assessment is made of the present state of knowledge on acquired immune responses developed by the intermediate and definitive hosts to tapeworm infections. From this evaluation, some gaps in knowledge and some of the problems associated with the development of practical immunization techniques are described. The principal conclusion reached is that absolute resistance to the larval stage can be acquired and resistance to a number of cestode species can be artificially induced in a number of hosts. Thus, research directed towards isolation and characterization of the functional antigens may lead to the development of vaccines for use in public health programmes, such as for the control of echinococcosis, as well as for improving the present status of meat hygiene in regions where cysticercosis, for example, exists. PMID:4883063

Gemmell, M. A.; Soulsby, E. J. L.

1968-01-01

147

[The reaction of the bursa and thymus eosinophils in the herring gull after the experimental infection with gull-tapeworm].  

PubMed

Using the methods of light microscopy, eosinophil topography, quantitative and qualitative changes (degranulation level of and a cationic protein content) were studied in the thymus and bursa of 36 herring gull nestlings Larus argentatus mongolicus (Suskin, 1925) 2 weeks after experimental infestation with gull-tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Nitsch, 1824). Eosinophils in the thymus were located in trabecules, mainly close to the blood vessels, thymic (Hassall's) corpuscles and also directly inside them, while in the bursa they were found within the internodular space. As compared with the control bird counts, relative eosinophil count in the birds with an average invasion intensity was increased 3.8 times in the thymus and 2.5 times in the bursa. In birds with high invasion intensity, these counts were increased 4 times in the thymus and 1.2 times in the bursa. PMID:21500430

Fomina, A S; Pronina, S V

2010-01-01

148

Attachment site specificity and the tapeworm assemblage in the spiral intestine of the blue shark (Prionace glauca).  

PubMed

The parasite assemblage in the scroll-type spiral intestine of 24 specimens of the blue shark Prionace glauca collected off of Montauk, Long Island, New York was investigated. When opened with a longitudinal incision to the right of the ventral blood vessels, the internal mucosal spiral of the spiral intestine of the blue shark could be unrolled into a flat sheet of double-sided mucosal tissue. Attachment sites and parasite assemblages were studied on both sides of the sheet in 12 sharks and on either the inside or the outside of the sheet in 12 additional sharks. Assemblages within host individuals were composed of up to 4 species of tetraphyllidean cestodes including the onchobothriid Platybothrium auriculatum, and the phyllobothriids, Prosobothrium armigerum. Paraorygmatobothrium prionacis, and Anthobothrium laciniatum. Each individual shark hosted 1-4 tapeworm species (mean = 3.7 +/- 0.65). The 12 sharks in which both sides of the mucosal scroll were examined hosted 156-2,382 (mean = 929.1 +/- 818) individual tapeworms. The assemblage consisted of 4 core species. Sharks were not found to host all of the possible combinations of species in their assemblages; the most common combination (17 out of 24 individuals) was the occurrence of all 4 parasite species. A chi-square test revealed no evidence that the 4 species did not occur independently. Regression revealed a significant relationship between shark total length and spiral intestine area. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) revealed a significant difference between the surface areas of the 2 sides of the mucosal sheet when shark total length was taken into account.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7707188

Curran, S; Caira, J N

1995-04-01

149

Isotopic discrimination of stable isotopes of nitrogen (?15N) and carbon (?13C) in a host-specific holocephalan tapeworm.  

PubMed

During the past decade, parasites have been considered important components of their ecosystems since they can modify food-web structures and functioning. One constraint to the inclusion of parasites in food-web models is the scarcity of available information on their feeding habits and host-parasite relationships. The stable isotope approach is suggested as a useful methodology to determine the trophic position and feeding habits of parasites. However, the isotopic approach is limited by the lack of information on the isotopic discrimination (ID) values of parasites, which is pivotal to avoiding the biased interpretation of isotopic results. In the present study we aimed to provide the first ID values of ?(15)N and ?(13)C between the gyrocotylidean tapeworm Gyrocotyle urna and its definitive host, the holocephalan Chimaera monstrosa. We also test the effect of host body size (body length and body mass) and sex of the host on the ID values. Finally, we illustrate how the trophic relationships of the fish host C. monstrosa and the tapeworm G. urna could vary relative to ID values. Similar to other studies with parasites, the ID values of the parasite-host system were negative for both isotopic values of N (??(15)N = - 3.33 ± 0.63‰) and C (??(13)C = - 1.32 ± 0.65‰), independent of the sex and size of the host. By comparing the specific ID obtained here with ID from other studies, we illustrate the importance of using specific ID in parasite-host systems to avoid potential errors in the interpretation of the results when surrogate values from similar systems or organisms are used. PMID:23452719

Navarro, J; Albo-Puigserver, M; Coll, M; Saez, R; Forero, M G; Kutcha, R

2014-09-01

150

Molecular Characterization of Taenia multiceps Isolates from Gansu Province, China by Sequencing of Mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit 1  

PubMed Central

A total of 16 Taenia multiceps isolates collected from naturally infected sheep or goats in Gansu Province, China were characterized by sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The complete cox1 gene was amplified for individual T. multiceps isolates by PCR, ligated to pMD18T vector, and sequenced. Sequence analysis indicated that out of 16 T. multiceps isolates 10 unique cox1 gene sequences of 1,623 bp were obtained with sequence variation of 0.12-0.68%. The results showed that the cox1 gene sequences were highly conserved among the examined T. multiceps isolates. However, they were quite different from those of the other Taenia species. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete cox1 gene sequences revealed that T. multiceps isolates were composed of 3 genotypes and distinguished from the other Taenia species. PMID:23710087

Li, Wen Hui; Jia, Wan Zhong; Qu, Zi Gang; Xie, Zhi Zhou; Luo, Jian Xun; Yin, Hong; Sun, Xiao Lin; Blaga, Radu

2013-01-01

151

Vaccination with recombinant oncosphere antigens reduces the susceptibility of sheep to infection with Taenia multiceps.  

PubMed

Taenia multiceps is a cestode parasite, the larval stage of which encysts in the brain of sheep, goats and cattle causing an often fatal condition. The parasite also causes zoonotic infections in humans. Homologues of the recombinant oncosphere vaccine antigens from Taenia ovis and other Taenia species were identified in T. multiceps. Sequencing of the associated T. multiceps genes and cloning of the encoding mRNA has revealed conserved features in the genes and proteins. The T. multiceps oncosphere proteins, designated Tm16 and Tm18, contain a predicted secretory signal and fibronectin type III domain. The recombinant Tm16 and Tm18 proteins were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins with GST. The antigens, formulated with Quil A adjuvant, were tested in a vaccine trial in sheep. The antigens stimulated immunity in sheep against challenge infection with T. multiceps eggs. Five of nine control sheep died due to a challenge infection with T. multiceps whereas none of 20 vaccinated animals died as a result of the parasite challenge (P=0.001). In addition, vaccination with the Tm16 protein, or Tm16 plus Tm18, induced significant protection against the number of parasites encysting in the brain as a result of the challenge infection (P=0.023, P=0.015, respectively). No clear relationship was apparent between the level of specific serum antibody in vaccinated animals and either the presence or absence of parasites or the number of parasites that occurred in some of the vaccinated animals. We believe this study is the first description of recombinant vaccine-related investigations for T. multiceps. The recombinant oncosphere antigens identified may allow development of effective vaccination strategies against T. multiceps infection in sheep. They raise the potential for the development of a combined vaccine with the Echinococcus granulosus EG95 antigen for prevention of T. multiceps as well as preventing the transmission of cystic hydatid disease. PMID:18160069

Gauci, Charles; Vural, Gulay; Oncel, Taraneh; Varcasia, Antonio; Damian, Veronica; Kyngdon, Craig T; Craig, Philip S; Anderson, Garry A; Lightowlers, Marshall W

2008-07-01

152

First report of Taenia acinonyxi (Ortlopp, 1938) in Acinonyx jubatus venaticus from Iran  

PubMed Central

The Asian cheetah is known as Iranian panther. A four years old female cheetah was killed in a road accident by a truck in Abbas Abad (Biarjamand) County around Shahrood City in Semnan Province, central part of Iran. Two days after the accident the carcass of animal was autopsied and only five cestodes were obtained from its intestine. In inspection of other organs no other helminth was observed. Cestod samples were fixed and stained by carmine acid. Characterization of the cestodes using morphological standard key, identified the cestodes as Taenia acinonyxi. PMID:22347321

Hosseini, SH; Youssefi, MR; Mobedi, I; Hosseini, SM; Zaheri, BA

2011-01-01

153

Vaccination with hatched but non-activated, non-viable oncospheres of Taenia taeniaeformis in rats.  

PubMed

The usefulness of hatched but non-activated oncospheres as a candidate vaccine was evaluated using a Taenia taeniaeformis/rat system, since preparation of these oncospheres in vitro is known to be very simple. The findings were: (1) rats vaccinated with non-viable oncospheres became completely resistant to challenge infection; (2) intra-venous injection was the most effective to induce complete resistance; (3) a single oncosphere was sufficient to induce complete resistance in infected rats, whereas approximately 50 and 500 non-viable oncospheres were required to evoke strong and complete resistance, respectively, in vaccinated rats. The usefulness of non-viable oncospheres without adjuvant is discussed. PMID:8354864

Ito, A; Hashimoto, A

1993-06-01

154

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnostic detection of Taenia saginata copro-antigens in humans.  

PubMed

An immunodiagnostic sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of soluble Taenia saginata antigens in stool samples (copro-antigens) of infected humans, using affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies obtained from rabbits hyperimmunized with excretory/secretory antigens derived from T. saginata maintained in vitro. Investigation of operating characteristics showed very low cross-reactivity with crude antigens from helminths other than Taenia, including Dipylidium caninum and Diphyllobothrium latum. The specificity of the assay was 95% when testing stool samples from 100 persons who were either infected with Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworms, Enterobius vermicularis or Hymenolepis nana, or who had no intestinal helminthosis detected. Analysis of diagnostic sensitivity demonstrated that in 85% of 34 samples from 23 untreated persons with intestinal T. saginata infection (selected by previous proglottid and/or egg detection) copro-antigens were detected by the T. saginata ELISA. In the same samples, Taenia eggs were detected in 62%. Only 41% of the samples reacted positively in a heterologous T. hydatigena ELISA. Post-treatment control revealed a high concentration of T. saginata copro-antigens for 1-4 d after administration of niclosamide or praziquantel, and negative values 9-17 d after treatment. The Taenia copro-antigens remained detectable by ELISA even after storage of untreated faeces at 25 degrees C for at least 5 d. PMID:1719664

Deplazes, P; Eckert, J; Pawlowski, Z S; Machowska, L; Gottstein, B

1991-01-01

155

Taenia crassiceps : Fatty acids oxidation and alternative energy source in in vitro cysticerci exposed to anthelminthic drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cysticerci metabolic studies demonstrate alternative pathways responsible for its survival, such as energy sources, fatty acids oxidation and excretion of ?-hydroxybutirate, which indicates the capability of energy production from proteins. The aim of this study was to detect alternative metabolic pathways for energy production and its end products in Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in vitro exposed to praziquantel and albendazole, in

Marina Clare Vinaud; Cirlane Silva Ferreira; Ruy de Souza Lino Junior; José Clecildo Barreto Bezerra

2009-01-01

156

First study of vitellogenesis of the broad fish tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum (Cestoda, Diphyllobothriidea), a human parasite with extreme fecundity.  

PubMed

In the present study, the process of vitellogenesis of one of the most prolific organisms, the broad tapeworm, Diphyllobothrium latum, the causative agent of human diphyllobothriosis, was studied for the first time using transmission electron microscopy. Cytochemical staining with periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate for detection of glycogen was applied. Starting from the periphery toward the center of the vitelline follicle four stages of vitellocytes are differentiated: immature vitellocytes, early maturing vitellocytes, advanced maturing and mature vitellocytes. Differentiation into mature vitellocytes involves the formation of shell globule clusters containing shell globules, large amount of saturated lipid droplets and glycogen. A peculiar ultrastructural feature of D. latum vitellogenesis is the presence of lamellar bodies in the cytoplasm of mature vitellocytes. This feature is similar to that present in the closely related caryophyllideans and spathebothriideans. Despite the great similarity observed in the embryonic development of diphylobothriideans, caryophyllideans and spathebothriideans, and the fact that their vitellocytes share a feature not reported from other cestode groups, there are substantial differences in the morphology of vitelline clusters, types, amount and localization of their nutritive reserves. PMID:25025756

Yoneva, Aneta; Kuchta, Roman; Scholz, Tomáš

2014-12-01

157

Retarded gastric acid secretion in rats infected with larval Taenia taeniaeformis.  

PubMed

The influence of hepatic larval Taenia taeniaeformis infection on gastric acid secretory activity and gastric mucosal integrity was investigated. After 12 weeks of infection with 2,000 T. taeniaeformis eggs, the gastric pH values of control and infected rats were 4.1+/-0.6 (mean +/- SD) and 8.4+/-0.2, respectively. There was no difference in the basal acid secretion between control (1.7+/-0.7 micro Eq.H(+)/15 min) and infected (1.9+/-0.3) rats. However, infected rats failed to respond to histamine stimulation, the maximum acid output level being 2.8+/-0.4 in the infected rats, compared to 12.9+/-3.3 in control rats. Larval T. taeniaeformis infection resulted in the suppression of gastric acid secretion leading to hypergastrinemia. PMID:12172822

Oku, Y; Yamanouchi, T; Matsuda, K; Abella, J A C; Ooi, H K; Ohtsubo, R; Goto, Y; Kamiya, M

2002-09-01

158

Effect of ultraviolet radiation on the infectivity of Taenia taeniaeformis eggs.  

PubMed

The effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the infectivity of Taenia taeniaeformis eggs was observed. The eggs were exposed to various UV doses and orally inoculated to rats. The number of cysts and lesions decreased dose-dependently, and neither cyst nor lesion was observed from rats infected with eggs exposed to a total dose of 2,880 mJ/cm2 or more. For evaluation of protective role of embryophore against UV radiation, the onchospheres with/without embryophore were exposed to UV radiation. Remarkably lower numbers of cyst and lesions were observed in rats inoculated with eggs which were exposed to a total dose of 30 mJ/cm2 or more after removal of embryophore. These results suggested an importance of the protective function of the embryophore in the protection against UV radiation. PMID:9308292

Konno, K; Oku, Y; Sakai, H; Kamiya, M

1997-08-01

159

Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta).  

PubMed

Subcutaneous and intraperitoneal cysticercosis due to Taenia crassiceps was diagnosed in a 5-yr-old male ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) in the Madrid Zoo-Aquarium (Madrid, Spain). Under laparoscopic examination, several septated fibrous cystic structures and numerous masses of small transparent vesicles (ca. 3 mm in diameter) were observed subcutaneously and inside the peritoneal cavity. Most of the structures were extirpated but, after 2 days of postsurgical intensive care, the animal died. The loss of body weight of the animal after surgical extirpation (566 g) represented 22% of the total weight (body weight before mass removal, 2582 g). The vesicles were identified under light microscopic examination as cysticerci and by molecular diagnosis as Cysticercus longicollis, the larval form of T. crassiceps. The present report represents the first detection of T. crassiceps in the prosimian genus Lemur. PMID:20597227

Luzón, Mónica; de la Fuente-López, Concepción; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Fernández-Morán, Jesús; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco

2010-06-01

160

[The influence of Taenia taeniaeformis larval infection on morphometrical parameters of muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus)].  

PubMed

An investigation aimed to check the influence of Taenia taeniaeformis larvae on morphometrical parameters of muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) was carried. A total of 30 animals were hunted down in upper Vistula river basin in south Poland, then measured, weighed and dissected. Statistical comparison were done using U Mann-Whitney test. T. taeniaeformis larvae--cysticercus fasciolaris was found in the liver of 24 muskrats (80%). Significant differences between infected and non infected animals are reported, as regards their body mass, total length, abdomen circumference (p < 0.01) and also in body length (total minus tail length), head length, or chest and neck circumference (p < 0.05). The effect of infection on both muskrat condition and the presence of adult cestodes in definitive hosts are discussed. PMID:20707301

Kowal, Jerzy; Nosa?, Pawe?; Adamczyk, Ireneusz; Korna?, S?awomir; Wajdzik, Marek; Tomek, Andrzej

2010-01-01

161

Scanning electron microscopic observations of Cysticercus fasciolaris (=Taenia taeniaeformis) after treatment of mice with mebendazole.  

PubMed

The time-related topographical changes in mature cysticerci of Taenia taeniaformis induced after medication of infected mice with 250 ppm of mebendazole are described. The changes included the gradual disappearance of microtriches and progressive degeneration of the tegment resulting in an irregular surface with grooves, holes, and craterlike structures. Host cells adhered to the altered areas and the number of these cells increased when more severe changes became apparent. Finally the necrotized cysticerci, which lost their tegument completely, were almost entirely covered with adhesive host cells. A difference in the time sequence of the reported changes occurred between the scolex, the pseudoproglottids, and the bladder. This difference in susceptibility towards the drug between the three parts of the parasite in relation to the morphology of their microtrichous covering is discussed. PMID:660379

Verheyen, A; Vanparijs, O; Borgers, M; Thienpont, D

1978-06-01

162

Lipid and protein composition of the surface tegument from larvae of Taenia taeniaeformis.  

PubMed

A tegumental fraction from fully developed larvae of Taenia taeniaeformis was recovered by low speed centrifugation following incubation of the parasites in a 0.1% solution of digitonin. Scanning electron microscopy of the parasite carcass revealed no surface microtrichs, and transmission electron microscopy indicated that the subtegumental layer was undamaged. The tegumental fraction, judging from the distribution of 3H-Concanavalin A, was enriched for surface components, exhibited low succinic dehydrogenase activity, and an electron microscopic examination of the pellet showed a slightly expanded but intact distal tegumental layer. The fraction, which made up 3.0% of the dry weight of the parasite, consisted of 52% protein and 32% lipid. Thirty-three proteins, ranging in Mr from 9,000 to 276,000 daltons, were detected after sodium dodecyl sulfate solubilization and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Seven of these proteins were glycoproteins. Cholesterol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and glycosphingolipids were the major lipids. PMID:6470883

Mills, G L; Coley, S C; Williams, J F

1984-04-01

163

Taenia multiceps brain cyst removal in two wild Nubian ibex (Capra nubianas).  

PubMed

Two wild adult Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana) were captured and admitted to the Hebrew University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with various neurologic signs, including alerted mentation, head tilt, and pathologic nystagmus. The lesion in the central nervous system was localized to the forebrain in one ibex and to the cerebellum of the other. Both ibex's were diagnosed with brain cyst using computed tomography (CT). Craniectomy was performed to remove the cysts, and both animals returned to their natural environment after a rehabilitation period. Parasitologic examination revealed cysts of Taenia multiceps coenurus. This is the first report to describe the neurologic signs, CT findings, surgical procedure, and follow-up postsurgery information in wild Capra nubiana. PMID:24712185

Merbl, Yael; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael; Chai, Orit; Chamisha, Yael; Anglister, Nili; King, Roni; Horowitz, Igal; Aizenberg, Zahi; Shamir, Merav H

2014-03-01

164

Ovicidal activity of different concentrations of Pochonia chlamydosporia chlamydospores on Taenia taeniaeformis eggs.  

PubMed

Three concentrations of chlamydospores of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (1000, 10,000 and 20,000 per Petri dish) were evaluated in vitro on Taenia taeniaeformis eggs. Chlamydospores at each concentration were cultured in two different media: 2% water-agar (2%WA) and 2% corn-meal-agar (2%CMA). Taenia taeniaeformis eggs were plated in each chlamydospore concentration in 2%WA and 2%CMA (treated groups) and without fungus (control group). Eggs were removed from each Petri dish at intervals of 7, 14 and 21 days and classified according to ovicidal activity (type 1, type 2 and type 3 effects). Plates containing 2%CMA showed the highest percentages for type 3 effect (81.3%) on the 21st day of observation. A difference (P < 0.01) between the media 2%WA and 2%CMA for type 1 effect was observed only at a concentration of 1000 chlamydospores on the 7th day. There were differences (P < 0.01) between 2%WA and 2%CMA on the 14th and 21st days, at the concentration of 20,000 chlamydospores, for type 1 and type 3 effects. Regression curves for type 3 effect in 2%WA and 2%CMA at the tested concentrations showed higher ovicidal activity with increasing chlamydospore concentrations. Results indicate that, at concentrations of 1000, 10,000 and 20,000 per Petri dish, chlamydospores of P. chlamydosporia effectively destroyed T. taeniaeformis eggs and can be considered a potential biological control agent for this cestode. PMID:20338078

Braga, F R; Silva, A R; Carvalho, R O; Araújo, J V; Pinto, P S A

2011-03-01

165

Neurocysticercosis: a short review and presentation of a Scandinavian case.  

PubMed

Cysticercosis is a disease entity caused by the larval form (Cysticercus cellulosae) of the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium). When man becomes the intermediate host, cysticercal cysts can develop in various organs. Neurocysticercosis, i.e. cysticercosis of the central nervous system, can lead to a broad range of neurological disturbances. The disease is usually confined to geographical regions where sanitation is poor but can occur among immigrants or travellers from such regions. Due to increased travel and immigration the disease may appear in non-endemic areas. We describe a recent case of neurocysticercosis in a 28-year-old Danish woman, who had been travelling in the Far East. She was successfully treated with praziquantel. A short review of the literature is given as the knowledge of the diagnosis and treatment of the disease has increased greatly in the last decade. PMID:1509231

Hansen, N J; Hagelskjaer, L H; Christensen, T

1992-01-01

166

Floriparicapitus, a new genus of lecanicephalidean tapeworm (Cestoda) from sawfishes (Pristidae) and guitarfishes (Rhinobatidae) in the Indo-West Pacific.  

PubMed

Floriparicapitus n. gen. (Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea), with Floriparicapitus euzeti n. gen., n. sp. as its type, is erected to house 3 new tapeworm species and 2 known species that are transferred to the new genus, all parasitizing sawfishes and guitarfishes (order Rhinopristiformes) in Indo-Pacific waters. The new genus differs from the 21 valid lecanicephalidean genera in its possession of a large scolex bearing a laterally expanded apical organ in the form of a rugose sheet in combination with a cirrus conspicuously armed with spinitriches and 3 pairs of excretory vessels. It most closely resembles Lecanicephalum, but differs conspicuously in its possession of 3, rather than 1, pair of excretory vessels. Two new species are described from sawfishes: Floriparicapitus euzeti n. sp., from Pristis clavata and Floriparicapitus juliani n. sp. from Pristis pristis, both from Australia. Floriparicapitus plicatilis n. sp. is described from the guitarfish Glaucostegus typus in Australia and the guitarfish Glaucostegus thouin in Malaysian Borneo. Two species formerly assigned to Cephalobothrium are transferred to the new genus; Floriparicapitus variabilis ( Southwell, 1911 ) n. comb. from the sawfish Anoxypristis cuspidata in Sri Lanka and Floriparicapitus rhinobatidis ( Subhapradha, 1955 ) n. comb. from the guitarfish Glaucostegus granulatus in India. The species from guitarfish differ conspicuously from those parasitizing sawfish in their possession of only 4 ( F. plicatilis n. sp.) or 5 (F. rhinobatidis n. comb.) testes per proglottid versus 9 or more in the 3 sawfish-parasitizing species. The latter 3 species differ from one another in scolex width, acetabular size, number of proglottids, and cirrus sac size. As it stands, the new genus appears to be restricted to a subclade of the Rhinopristiformes consisting of the sawfishes and species of Glaucostegus. PMID:24842294

Cielocha, Joanna J; Jensen, Kirsten; Caira, Janine N

2014-08-01

167

[Electron microscope investigation of bacteria associated with the tegument of the tapeworm species Eubothrium rugosum, a parasite of the intestine of burbot].  

PubMed

Bacteria associated with the tegument of the tapeworm species Eubothrium rugosum (Cestoda, Pseudophyllidea) parasitizing the intestine of burbot (Lota lota) were studied using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Three morphological types of the bacteria were revealed. Bacteria of the first type are localized between microtrichia and fit to them closely. Bacteria of the second (gram-positive) and third (gram-negative) types are localized over microtrichia of the tegument and do not attach to the surface. Physiological functions of the bacteria are discussed. PMID:16134784

Poddubnaia, L G

2005-01-01

168

[Fine structure of the bladder tegument of Taenia saginata metacercaria with reference to establishment in the final host].  

PubMed

The ultrastructure of the bladder tegument of the metacestode of Taenia saginata, with considerations on the establishment in the definitive host. The tegument surface of invaginated Taenia saginata metacestodes was demonstrated by scanning electron micrograph. The tegument is folded irregularly and its surface is amplified by the presence of microtriches, 44-45 microtriches/micron 2. The microtriches are about 500 nm long and have an absorptive function. Likely, form and sensity of microtriches turn out a capillary attraction that plays an important role in contact with surface (finger, tongue and duodenum of man, instrumentarium , glass, plastics). This opinion is supported by scanning electron micrograph of the surface of finger-tips, of the tongue and the duodenum of man. PMID:6721245

Engelbrecht, H

1984-03-01

169

Scanning electron microscope and histological studies of rare triradiate forms of Taenia pisiformis from dogs in Cairo.  

PubMed

Of 5,404 domestic dogs examined for normal and abnormal Taenia pisiformis in Cairo, Egypt, one dog contained 3 triradiate specimens while 3,569 harboured one or more normal cestodes. The study revealed a ratio of one triradiate to 5,620 normal adult worms in the parasite population and a prevalence of 0.02% for the triradiate forms. Polyradiate forms are far less common in this large survey than has been indicated in previous reports. PMID:1578153

Rashed, R M; Lewis, J W; Whitfield, P J

1992-04-01

170

Molecular identification of Taenia mustelae cysts in subterranean rodent plateau zokors (Eospalax baileyi).  

PubMed

Cestode larvae spend one phase of their two-phase life cycle in the viscera of rodents, but cases of cestodes infecting subterranean rodents have only been rarely observed. To experimentally gain some insight into this phenomenon, we captured approximately 300 plateau zokors (Eospalax baileyi), a typical subterranean rodent inhabiting the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and examined their livers for the presence of cysts. Totally, we collected five cysts, and using a mitochondrial gene (cox1) and two nuclear genes (pepck and pold) as genetic markers, we were able to analyze the taxonomy of the cysts. Both the maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods showed that the cysts share a monophyly with Taenia mustelae, while Kimura 2-parameter distances and number of different sites between our sequences and T. mustelae were far less than those found between the examined sequences and other Taeniidae species. These results, alongside supporting paraffin section histology, imply that the cysts found in plateau zokors can be regarded as larvae of T. mustelae, illustrating that zokors are a newly discovered intermediate host record of this parasite. PMID:25017751

Zhao, Fang; Ma, Jun-Ying; Cai, Hui-Xia; Su, Jian-Ping; Hou, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Tong-Zuo; Lin, Gong-Hua

2014-07-18

171

Ultrasonographic and serologic studies of experimental cysticercosis in rats infected with Taenia taeniaeformis.  

PubMed

Rats experimentally infected with Taenia taeniaeformis were followed-up until 14 weeks post inoculation with eggs (PIE) by hepatic ultrasonographic (US) image and serum antibody response analyses. Parasitic cysts could be imaged as small (2 mm in diameter) anechoic areas with or without a parenthesis-like echogenic small line from two weeks PIE. Immunoblot analysis using antigens from oncospheres (TtO), 30-day-old (TtM-30) and 300-day-old metacestodes (TtM-300) revealed that: (1) these three different developmental stages showed their own unique patterns suggesting the presence of stage-specific antigens; (2) faint IgM antibody responses to some components of TtO and TtM-30 or TtM-300 could be detected from one and two weeks PIE, respectively, and (3) IgG responses to some major components of both TtO and TtM-300, and TtM-30 were easily detected from four and five weeks PIE onwards, respectively. Both TtO and TtM (especially TtM-300) appeared to be highly useful for detection of antibody responses in experimentally infected rats. Due to the easiness in preparation of antigens, fully developed metacestodes may be the best candidate antigens for serodiagnosis. These results strongly suggest that both US image and antibody analyses using antigens from fully developed metacestodes are useful for detection of the early stage of cysticercosis in laboratory animal model. PMID:9568613

Ito, A; Sakakibara, Y; Ma, L; Asano, K; Takiguchi, M; Yasuda, J; Hashimoto, A

1998-03-01

172

Studies on stage-specific immunity against Taenia taeniaeformis metacestodes in mice.  

PubMed

The possible existence of stage-specific immune responses to Taenia taeniaeformis infection was investigated in C3H/He mice vaccinated with antigens prepared from either the oncosphere or metacestode stages. Mice were immunized twice, 2 weeks apart, with antigen in Freund's complete adjuvant. Two weeks after the second immunization they were challenged with 250 T. taeniaeformis eggs and killed day 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45 and 60 after infection. Gross examination of the livers revealed marked differences between oncosphere (TtO) and metacestode (TtM) vaccinated mice. Very few metacestodes were found in the first group but most of those that evaded the initial host attack developed like the cysts found in the control group. In contrast, many degenerating metacestodes were found in the TtM vaccinated group. In a subsequent experiment groups of mice were vaccinated with varying doses of either TtO or TtM to determine whether the qualitative differences observed above were due to antigen dose effects. However, varying antigen doses gave the same results. These data show that vaccination with oncospheres generates an immune response capable of killing invading larvae soon after infection whereas vaccination with TtM results in larvae being killed at a later stage, suggesting that there are stage-specific, host-protective antigens. PMID:2970614

Bøgh, H O; Rickard, M D; Lightowlers, M W

1988-05-01

173

Depressed T-cell proliferation associated with susceptibility to experimental Taenia crassiceps infection.  

PubMed Central

Peritoneal infection with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci of naturally resistant (C57BL/10J and C57BL/6J) and susceptible (BALB/cAnN) mice induces a cellular immune depression. T-cell proliferation in response to concanavalin A (ConA) or anti-CD3 was significantly depressed in infected mice of all strains tested. However, in resistant mice, the diminished response to ConA was transient and animals recovered normal responsiveness at day 40, whereas susceptible mice remained suppressed throughout the 40 days of the experiment. In contrast, the proliferative response to anti-CD3 was lower in infected mice than in noninfected controls regardless of differences in natural susceptibility of the strains. Intraperitoneal injection of mice with a parasite extract also induced a depression of the response to ConA, although not as strong as that produced by the parasite itself. This depression is not due to direct effects by parasite antigens over host lymphocytes, as proliferation is not affected by the presence of cysticercal antigens added in vitro. Diminished interleukin-2 production during the parasitosis accounts at least in part for the diminished responses to ConA. A primary infection favors parasite establishment after a second challenge, pointing to the relevance of the immunodepression in generating a host environment favorable to the parasite. PMID:7768609

Sciutto, E; Fragoso, G; Baca, M; De la Cruz, V; Lemus, L; Lamoyi, E

1995-01-01

174

Adoptive transfer of protection to Taenia taeniaeformis infection in rats with immune spleen cells.  

PubMed

The effector mechanism of the protection against re-infection with eggs of Taenia taeniaeformis was evaluated in rats by analysing protection dynamics against an ongoing primary infection. Immune spleen cells were prepared from F344 donor rats 10 days after oral inoculation with 200 eggs and used for adoptive transfer experiments. When F344 recipient rats were injected intravenously with immune spleen cells (2 x 10(8)) from 2 to 48 h after a primary egg inoculation, there was a statistically significant reduction in the number of metacestodes recovered at day 30 of the infection. The highest protection figures were obtained in rats given immune cells at 12 or 24 h of the primary infection. The maximum reduction induced with immune cells was 92% when they were injected at 12 h of the ongoing infection. It is strongly suggested that the vulnerable stage of the parasite damaged by immune spleen cells is the initial stage of infection (oncosphere and post-oncosphere stages in the liver within 2 days, especially between 12 and 24 h). PMID:8070960

Asano, K; Ito, A; Ikeda, K; Okamoto, K

1994-05-01

175

Phenotypic changes in hepatic mast cells accumulating around the metacestodes of Taenia taeniaeformis in rats.  

PubMed

Staining properties, kinetics and degranulation of the hepatic mast cells (HMC) accumulating around the metacestodes of Taenia taeniaeformis in the liver of rats were studied. Two different types of HMC, designated as Type I and Type II, could be classified according to histochemical properties and response to compound 48/80. Type I cells resembled mucosal mast cells (MMC), whereas Type II did not. HMC, mostly Type I, were observed from day 14 postinfection (PI), while Type II were seen only from day 28 PI. On day 28 PI, Type II represented a transitional staining pattern between MMC and connective tissue mast cells (CTMC). The ratio of Type II to Type I increased gradually with the course of infection and was about 1 to 1 on day 70 PI. At this time, most of the HMC that constituted Type II as well as CTMC could be stained with berberine sulfate. While the phenotypic change of HMC to CTMC was found in the middle and inner capsular layers, most of the HMC in the outer capsular layer maintained the phenotype of MMC. The present results suggest that hepatic mast cells increased as the MMC phenotype, then showed the heterogeneity in which the transitional form of mast cells emerged followed by the appearance of the CTMC type. PMID:1705806

Ishiwata, K; Oku, Y; Kamiya, M; Ohbayashi, M

1991-02-01

176

Gastric hyperplasia and parietal cell loss in Taenia taeniaeformis inoculated immunodeficient mice.  

PubMed

Immunodeficient mice were studied to determine their suitability as models in investigating the role of Taenia taeniaeformis larval products in the development of gastric hyperplasia. Recombinant active gene 2 (RAG2)-deficient and severe combined immune-deficient (SCID) mice were studied as candidate animal models. RAG2-deficient mice inoculated orally with T. taeniaeformis eggs developed gastric hyperplasia with alcian blue-periodic acid-Schiff-positive cell proliferation similar to those of rats. SCID mice inoculated with different doses and routes of T. taeniaeformis in vitro-hatched oncospheres and those orally inoculated with eggs resulted also in different degrees of gastric hyperplasia. Influence of inoculation forms of parasite, doses and routes of inoculation on initiation of hyperplastic gastropathy was suggested to be dependent on number and size of developed larvae. Both RAG2-deficient and SCID mice with hyperplastic mucosa were observed with significant loss of parietal cells. Apparent decrease in parietal cell number was observed in SCID mice at 2 weeks after intraperitoneal inoculation with oncospheres before hyperplastic lesions developed. Earliest occurrence of gastric hyperplasia in SCID mice was observed at 3 weeks after oral inoculation of in vitro-hatched oncospheres, sooner than orally inoculated rats. The results suggested that these immunodeficient mice could be used as animal models to study factors involved in T. taeniaeformis-induced gastric mucous cell hyperplasia. PMID:11880230

Lagapa, Jose Trinipil; Konno, Kenjiro; Oku, Yuzaburo; Nonaka, Nariaki; Ito, Mamoru; Kamiya, Masao

2002-03-01

177

Inhibition of equine neutrophil chemotaxis and chemokinesis by a Taenia taeniaeformis proteinase inhibitor, taeniaestatin.  

PubMed

Taeniaestatin, a recently isolated Taenia taeniaeformis proteinase inhibitor, was used to inhibit equine neutrophil migration. Taeniaestatin itself was not chemotactic when used as a chemotactic factor but taeniaestatin did inhibit neutrophil chemokinesis when tested in a Zigmond-Hirsch checkerboard assay. A dose-dependent inhibition of both chemokinesis and chemotaxis was observed when zymosan activated bovine sera (ZABS) was used as the chemotactic factor. This inhibition was greater than 95% when 5 mu of taeniaestatin was present on both the cell and chemotactic factor side of the chambers. Equine neutrophils gave dose- and time-dependent migration responses to purified bovine C5a with an ED50 of 1.04 X 10(-7)M. Taeniaestatin inhibited the C5a-mediated chemotactic and chemokinetic neutrophil responses (51% using 1 mu and greater than 95% with 5 mu of taeniaestatin). The inhibition of leucocyte motility by taeniaestatin was reversible and without cytotoxicity at the highest doses of taeniaestatin tested. PMID:3574975

Leid, R W; Grant, R F; Suquet, C M

1987-03-01

178

Histopathology and physiopathology of gastric mucous hyperplasia in rats heavily infected with Taenia taeniaeformis.  

PubMed

Rats heavily infected with larval Taenia taeniaeformis show hyperplasia of the gastric mucosa accompanied by mucous cell proliferation, increase in the level of intragastric pH and hypergastrinemia. Sixty one rats were divided into 2 groups designed as infected (36 rats) and control (25 rats) group. These rats were examined with time course of the infection histopathologically and physiopathologically, during 14-112 days postinfection (DPI). In the infected rats, gastric mucosal hyperplasia began to be observed at 56 DPI, and the structural disturbance of zymogenic units in the corpus and mucous units in the antrum had increased with time. However, the degree of these changes in the antrum was weaker than those in the corpus. Alcianblue and/or PAS-positive cells increased in their numbers with time, and 4 types of cells other than typical surface mucous cell and mucous neck cell were observed by electron-microscopy. However, zymogenic and parietal cells decreased in their number after 56 DPI. Further, the infected rats showed changes in the serum concentration of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, glucose and total protein. Some similarities with Menetrier's disease were discussed. PMID:10342279

Konno, K; Abella, J A; Oku, Y; Nonaka, N; Kamiya, M

1999-04-01

179

In vitro uptake and autoradiographic localization of tritiated gossypol in Taenia taeniaeformis metacestodes.  

PubMed

Gossypol, a natural polyphenolic compound, induces growth-inhibitory and antiparasitic effects in Taenia taeniaeformis metacestodes in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the uptake and localization of [3H]-gossypol in this parasite. Metacestodes were incubated in 10(-5) M [3H]-gossypol at 37 degrees C. Parasites steadily took up tritium activity over the first 3 h of incubation, after which a plateau was maintained for the duration of the experiment. Tissue: medium radioactivity ratios revealed that intralarval tritium activity matched extralarval activity within 30 min of incubation and continued to increase with time. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis confirmed tissue incorporation of tritium activity that manifested as a single radioactive species. Autoradiography localized [3H]-gossypol to the tegument, calcareous corpuscles, and parenchyma over the first 2 h of incubation. By 6 h, parenchymal radioactivity had disappeared. T. taeniaeformis metacestodes rapidly take up and accumulate [3H]-gossypol in vitro. This accumulation is apparently selective for specific sites, which may have implications for gossypol's metacestocidal action. PMID:8327450

Kulp, S K; Rikihisa, Y; Lin, Y C; Moh, P P; Li, P K; Gu, Y

1993-01-01

180

Genetic Variation of Taenia Pisiformis Collected from Sichuan, China, Based on the Mitochondrial Cytochrome b gene  

PubMed Central

Taenia pisiformis is one of the most important parasites of canines and rabbits. T. pisiformis cysticercus (the larval stage) causes severe damage to rabbit breeding, which results in huge economic losses. In this study, the genetic variation of T. pisiformis was determined in Sichuan Province, China. Fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) (922 bp) gene were amplified in 53 isolates from 8 regions of T. pisiformis. Overall, 12 haplotypes were found in these 53 cytb sequences. Molecular genetic variations showed 98.4% genetic variation derived from intra-region. FST and Nm values suggested that 53 isolates were not genetically differentiated and had low levels of genetic diversity. Neutrality indices of the cytb sequences showed the evolution of T. pisiformis followed a neutral mode. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no correlation between phylogeny and geographic distribution. These findings indicate that 53 isolates of T. pisiformis keep a low genetic variation, which provide useful knowledge for monitoring changes in parasite populations for future control strategies. PMID:24039288

Yang, Deying; Ren, Yongjun; Fu, Yan; Xie, Yue; Nie, Huaming; Nong, Xiang; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong

2013-01-01

181

Histochemical and ultrastructural studies on the calcareous corpuscles and eggs of Taenia taeniaeformis and Dipylidium caninum.  

PubMed

Calcareous corpuscles were noticed by several previous workers to be present in larval and adult cestodes without knowing their function. However, nothing was mentioned in the available literature about distribution of these corpuscles and their density, structure and composition in different parts of the body of different cestodes. Hence, in the present work, a comparative study of their distribution, density, histochemical and ultrastructural characters in different parts of the body was performed in Taenia taeniaeformis and Dipylidium caninum. Due to the presence of the eggs in their gravid segments, their histochemical and ultrastructural characteristics were also studied. It was found that the size, location and density of the calcareous bodies were different in different body parts of the same and the other cestode. Histochemically, the main component of these corpuscles was calcium; while other constituents as polysaccharides, lipids, protrins and mucopolysaccharides were found in their outer rim. Ultrastructurally, they were quite similar in the two studied cestodes and different stages of their development were exhibited. Histochemically, the eggs of both cestodes were similar in their contents. However, some ultrastructural differences have been demonstrated particularly in relation to the size and shape of the rods in the embryophore and the structures in between the embryophore and onchosphere. PMID:21980787

Khalifa, Refaat M A; Mazen, Nawal A M; Marawan, Aziza M A; Thabit, Hasnaa T M

2011-08-01

182

Taenia crassiceps Infection Does Not Influence the Development of Experimental Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

It was previously reported by our group that infection with Taenia crassiceps reduces incidence and severity of inflammatory and autoimmune experimental diseases like type 1 diabetes and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In this research, we set out to study whether infection with T. crassiceps would affect the development of experimental rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We found that mice infected with the parasite and induced with experimental RA showed similar clinical scores as the noninfected experimental RA group; systemic cytokines were not affected while anti-CII Abs were higher in the infected group. Histological evaluation showed damage in both infected and noninfected experimental RA-induced groups and although some surface molecules such as PDL-2 and MR which are associated with immunomodulatory mechanisms were upregulated in the infected and RA-induced group as compared to the noninfected RA group, they did not exert any changes in the outcome of experimental RA. Thus, we determined that infection with T. crassiceps does not influence the outcome of experimental RA. PMID:23509709

Ortiz-Flores, Aaxin M.; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Calleja, Elsa A.; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Juarez, Imelda; Terrazas, Luis I.

2013-01-01

183

Oncospheral Penetration Glands and Secretory Blebs Are the Sources of Taenia ovis Vaccine Antigens? †  

PubMed Central

Taenia ovis is a cestode parasite infecting primarily sheep as intermediate hosts and dogs as definitive hosts. The first highly effective, recombinant vaccine against a parasitic organism was developed against T. ovis infection in sheep. Three separate host-protective antigens (To16, To18, and To45W) have been cloned from the oncosphere of the parasite. We localize these antigens in the oncosphere by using quantitative immunogold labeling and transmission electron microscopy. The three antigens were uniquely associated with penetration gland cells. The cytoplasm and secretory granules of both penetration gland type 1 and type 2 cells exhibited statistically significant levels of staining for each of the three antigens. The intensity of labeling of the penetration gland type 1 cell was approximately three to five times greater (P < 0.01) compared to the level of staining intensity seen in the penetration gland type 2 cell. In activated oncospheres, secretory blebs were found to contain granules with a structure similar to those observed in the penetration gland cells. The granules within the secretory blebs were shown to stain specifically for the presence of each of the three host-protective antigens. The absence of surface location of the T. ovis antigens suggests that the parasite may not be susceptible to vaccine-induced antibody- and complement-mediated attack until some postoncospheral development has occurred after infection of the intermediate host. PMID:20643854

Jabbar, Abdul; Crawford, Simon; Gauci, Charles G.; Walduck, Anna K.; Anderson, Garry A.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

2010-01-01

184

Caffeine and excitation-contraction coupling in the guinea pig taenia coli.  

PubMed

The effects of caffeine (0.2-10 mM) on the electrical and mechanical activities of guinea pig taenia coli were investigated with the double sucrose-gap method. Caffeine evoked a small tension with a latency of 20-30 sec, then phasic contraction developed and finally relaxation. The initial tension development also appeared in the Na-free solution without any marked changes in the membrane potential and membrane resistance. The phasic contraction disappeared in the Na-free solution. The relaxation in the presence of caffeine was accompanied by depolarization block of the spike generation. The minimum concentration of Ca ion needed to evoke the tension development by the caffeine was 10(-7)M. Caffeine also potentiated the twitch tension below a concentration of 5 mM either in the Na-free solution or at low temperature (5 degrees C). NO(3) (-) and Br(-) showed a similar response to caffeine on the potentiation of the twitch tension at low temperature. PMID:5549098

Ito, Y; Kuriyama, H

1971-04-01

185

Oestradiol and progesterone differentially alter cytoskeletal protein expression and flame cell morphology in Taenia crassiceps.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of oestradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) on cytoskeletal protein expression in the helminth Taenia crassiceps - specifically actin, tubulin and myosin. These proteins assemble into flame cells, which constitute the parasite excretory system. Total protein extracts were obtained from E2- and P4-treated T. crassiceps cysticerci and untreated controls, and analysed by one- and two-dimensional protein electrophoresis, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and videomicroscopy. Exposure of T. crassiceps cysticerci to E2 and P4 induced differential protein expression patterns compared with untreated controls. Changes in actin, tubulin and myosin expression were confirmed by flow cytometry of parasite cells and immunofluorescence. In addition, parasite morphology was altered in response to E2 and P4 versus controls. Flame cells were primarily affected at the level of the ciliary tuft, in association with the changes in actin, tubulin and myosin. We conclude that oestradiol and progesterone act directly on T. crassiceps cysticerci, altering actin, tubulin and myosin expression and thus affecting the assembly and function of flame cells. Our results increase our understanding of several aspects of the molecular crosstalk between host and parasite, which might be useful in designing anthelmintic drugs that exclusively impair parasitic proteins which mediate cell signaling and pathogenic reproduction and establishment. PMID:24879953

Ambrosio, Javier R; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Palacios-Arreola, M Isabel; Ruíz-Rosado, Azucena; Sánchez-Orellana, Pedro L; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Martínez-Velázquez, Nancy; Escobedo, Galileo; Ibarra-Coronado, Elizabeth G; Valverde-Islas, Laura; Morales-Montor, Jorge

2014-09-01

186

Sex differences in frass production and weight change in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) infected with cysticercoids of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda).  

PubMed

In their intermediate host, parasites alter aspects of host physiology including waste production and body weight. Further, this alteration may differ between female and male hosts. To study this, a beetle (Tenebrio molitor)-tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta) system was used. Infected and uninfected male and female beetles were individually housed in vials without food. Each beetle's weight change and frass production were measured over 24 h periods at 3, 7, 12 and 16 days post-infection. Treatment (infection) had no effect on weight change, but males lost more weight than females. Further, infected females produced more frass than control females. Males on the day of infection had a higher food intake than females. These results suggest that males will be more exposed to infection than females and could explain why males had a higher median cysticercoid infection level. PMID:17119613

Shea, John F

2005-01-01

187

Sex differences in frass production and weight change in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) infected with cysticercoids of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda)  

PubMed Central

In their intermediate host, parasites alter aspects of host physiology including waste production and body weight. Further, this alteration may differ between female and male hosts. To study this, a beetle (Tenebrio molitor)-tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta) system was used. Infected and uninfected male and female beetles were individually housed in vials without food. Each beetle's weight change and frass production were measured over 24 h periods at 3, 7, 12 and 16 days post-infection. Treatment (infection) had no effect on weight change, but males lost more weight than females. Further, infected females produced more frass than control females. Males on the day of infection had a higher food intake than females. These results suggest that males will be more exposed to infection than females and could explain why males had a higher median cysticercoid infection level. PMID:17119613

Shea, John F.

2005-01-01

188

Identification of neglected cestode Taenia multiceps microRNAs by illumina sequencing and bioinformatic analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide, but especially in developing countries, coenurosis of sheep and other livestock is caused by Taenia multiceps larvae, and zoonotic infections occur in humans. Infections frequently lead to host death, resulting in huge socioeconomic losses. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have important roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of a large number of animal genes by imperfectly binding target mRNAs. To date, there have been no reports of miRNAs in T. multiceps. Results In this study, we obtained 12.8 million high quality raw reads from adult T. multiceps small RNA library using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 796 conserved miRNA families (containing 1,006 miRNAs) from 170,888 unique miRNAs were characterized using miRBase (Release 17.0). Here, we selected three conserved miRNA/miRNA* (antisense strand) duplexes at random and amplified their corresponding precursors using a PCR-based method. Furthermore, 20 candidate novel miRNA precursors were verified by genomic PCR. Among these, six corresponding T. multiceps miRNAs are considered specific for Taeniidae because no homologs were found in other species annotated in miRBase. In addition, 181,077 target sites within T. multiceps transcriptome were predicted for 20 candidate newly miRNAs. Conclusions Our large-scale investigation of miRNAs in adult T. multiceps provides a substantial platform for improving our understanding of the molecular regulation of T. multiceps and other cestodes development. PMID:23941076

2013-01-01

189

Functional model for calcium mobilization in the depolarized isolated guinea-pig taenia coli.  

PubMed

The muscular response to pharmacological agents is directly dependent on intracellular ionic calcium (Ca2+) and is modulated by membrane permeability and cation-binding to subcellular organelles. The isometric contraction of the ventral guinea-pig taenia coli was registered in a bath with a Rich KCl-Ringer in the absence of Ca2+ and sodium (Na+) with or without EDTA or Sammarium (Sm3+). Our experimental sequence was based on alternate succession between the concentration-response-curves or decay-curves procedure to acetylcholine and barium (Ba2+) in the same preparation. It was found that a contracture elicited by barium ion was not significantly affected by inclusion of EDTA (.01 mM) or Sm3+ (.06 mM). Also, prior exposure of the depolarized muscle to acetylcholine did not affect the barium response. However, prior exposure of the muscle to acetylcholine sensitized the barium-induced contracture to the inhibitory actions of EDTA and Sm3+. Prior exposure of the muscle to barium ions strongly reduced the mechanical response to acetylcholine. In addition, tension recorded during an acetylcholine decay curve was observed to be reduced by EDTA and Sm3+, although some degree of tension could be elicited by acetylcholine even after the depolarized muscle had been exposed to EDTA or Sm3+ up to 70 min. The suggestion is put forward that barium ions mobilize intracellular stores of calcium which may be restored from calcium pools that are mobilized by acetylcholine, EDTA and Sm3+. Acetylcholine would be able to mobilize calcium ions from a firmly bound membrane store and additional less firmly bound membrane stores.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3129626

Pavan, C G; Turrin, M Q

1987-11-01

190

Neurocysticercosis.  

PubMed

Known as a disease of swine in ancient civilizations, cysticercosis is currently considered the most common helminthic infection of the nervous system, and a leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The disease occurs when humans become intermediate hosts of the tapeworm Taenia solium by ingesting its eggs from contaminated food or, most often, directly from a Taenia carrier by the fecal-oral route. Once in the human intestine, Taenia eggs evolve to oncospheres that, in turn, cross the intestinal wall and lodge in human tissues - especially the nervous system - where cysticerci develop. The brain is a hostile environment in which parasites attempt to escape the immune surveillance while the host is trying to drive out the infection. In some cases, cysticerci are destroyed by this immunological attack, while in others, parasites may live unchanged for years. Cysticerci may be located in brain parenchyma, subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or spinal cord, causing a myriad of pathologic changes that are the main changes responsible for the clinical pleomorphism of neurocysticercosis. Seizures are the most common clinical manifestation of the disease, but some patients present with focal deficits, intracranial hypertension, or cognitive decline. With the exception of cystic lesions showing the scolex as an eccentric nodule, neuroimaging findings of neurocysticercosis are nonspecific and may be seen in other diseases of the nervous system. Likewise, immune diagnostic tests have been faced with problems related to poor sensitivity or specificity. Accurate diagnosis is possible after interpretation of clinical data together with findings of neuroimaging studies and results of immunologic tests, in a proper epidemiologic scenario. The introduction of cysticidal drugs has changed the prognosis of neurocysticercosis. Praziquantel and albendazole have been shown to reduce the burden of infection in the brain (as seen on neuroimaging studies) and to improve the clinical course of the disease in most patients. Further efforts should be directed towards eradicating this disease through the implementation of control programs for all the interrelated steps in the life cycle of T. solium, including human carriers of the adult tapeworm, infected pigs, and eggs in the environment. PMID:24365429

Del Brutto, Oscar H

2014-01-01

191

Anthelmintic efficacy of febantel combined with praziquantel against Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Toxocara cati, and Taenia taeniaeformis in cats.  

PubMed

Forty cats, each harboring 2 or 3 parasitic infections (Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Toxocara cati, and/or Taenia taeniaeformis), were used to titrate the anthelmintic efficacy of a paste containing 3.4% febantel and 0.34% praziquantel. The cats were allotted into 4 groups (10 cats/group). For 3 consecutive days, the cats were given febantel/praziquantel at 5/0.5 mg/kg/day, 10/1 mg/kg/day, 15/1.5 mg/kg/day, or a blank paste vehicle (control) at 0.29 g/kg of body weight. The recommended dosage of 10 mg of febantel and 1 mg of praziquantel/kg cleared greater than or equal to 98% of the 3 helminth species. PMID:3767110

Arther, R G; Cox, D D

1986-09-01

192

Pharmacological effects of isopolar phosphonate analogues of ATP on P2-purinoceptors in guinea-pig taenia coli and urinary bladder.  

PubMed Central

Isopolar methylene phosphonate analogues of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were synthesized and tested on the guinea-pig isolated taenia coli (where ATP causes relaxation) and urinary bladder (where ATP causes contraction), to see if restoration of the electronegativity of the methylene linkage would enhance pharmacological potency. The compounds used were the dichloromethylene and difluoromethylene analogues of adenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-methylene)triphosphonate (AMP-PCP), L-adenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-methylene)triphosphonate (L-AMP-PCP) and 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-methylene)-triphosphonate (2-methylthio-AMP-PCP). The order of potency of the analogues depended on the tissue, and was independent of the nature of the purine or ribose moieties. None of the analogues was degraded by ectonucleotidases on either tissue. In the taenia coli the order of potency for relaxation was difluoromethylene greater than or equal to dichloromethylene greater than methylene, and this reflected the order of electronegativity of the analogues. The isopolar analogues of L-AMP-PCP were inactive in the taenia coli. In the bladder the order of potency for contraction was difluoromethylene greater than or equal to methylene greater than dichloromethylene, suggesting that electronegativity is of lesser importance here. The isopolar analogues of L-AMP-PCP were active in this tissue. The differences between the two tissues in the order of potency for these non-degradable analogues supports suggestions that P2-purinoceptors in the taenia coli (P2Y) are different from those in the bladder (P2X). The isopolar analogues of L-AMP-PCP, like L-AMP-PCP itself, were selective agonists at the P2X-purinoceptor. PMID:3580709

Cusack, N. J.; Hourani, S. M.; Loizou, G. D.; Welford, L. A.

1987-01-01

193

Age, season and spatio-temporal factors affecting the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis and Taenia taeniaeformis in Arvicola terrestris  

PubMed Central

Background Taenia taeniaeformis and the related zoonotic cestode Echinococcus multilocularis both infect the water vole Arvicola terrestris. We investigated the effect of age, spatio-temporal and season-related factors on the prevalence of these parasites in their shared intermediate host. The absolute age of the voles was calculated based on their eye lens weights, and we included the mean day temperature and mean precipitation experienced by each individual as independent factors. Results Overall prevalences of E. multilocularis and T. taeniaeformis were 15.1% and 23.4%, respectively, in 856 A. terrestris trapped in the canton Zürich, Switzerland. Prevalences were lower in young (? 3 months: E. multilocularis 7.6%, T. taeniaeformis 17.9%) than in older animals (>7 months: 32.6% and 34.8%). Only 12 of 129 E. multilocularis-infected voles harboured protoscoleces. Similar proportions of animals with several strobilocerci were found in T. taeniaeformis infected voles of <5 months and ?5 months of age (12.8% and 11.9%). Multivariate analyses revealed strong spatio-temporal variations in prevalences of E. multilocularis. In one trapping area, prevalences varied on an exceptional high level of 40.6-78.5% during the whole study period. Low temperatures significantly correlated with the infection rate whereas precipitation was of lower importance. Significant spatial variations in prevalences were also identified for Taenia taeniaeformis. Although the trapping period and the meteorological factors temperature and precipitation were included in the best models for explaining the infection risk, their effects were not significant for this parasite. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that, besides temporal and spatial factors, low temperatures contribute to the risk of infection with E. multilocularis. This suggests that the enhanced survival of E. multilocularis eggs under cold weather conditions determines the level of infection pressure on the intermediate hosts and possibly also the infection risk for human alveolar echincoccosis (AE). Therefore, interventions against the zoonotic cestode E. multilocularis by deworming foxes may be most efficient if conducted just before and during winter. PMID:21247427

2011-01-01

194

Bradykinin B2 receptors and coupling mechanisms in the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig taenia caeci.  

PubMed Central

1. In the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig taenia caeci, bradykinin produces a relaxation followed by a contraction. In the presence of hexamethonium and guanethidine, both these phases of the response were insensitive to tetrodotoxin (100 nM), omega-conotoxin GVIA (100 nM) and ibuprofen (1 microM), suggesting that they are due to a direct action on the smooth muscle. 2. The B1 receptor-selective agonist, [des-Arg9]-BK (1-100 microM), was inactive in the taenia caeci, and the B1 receptor-selective antagonist, [Leu8,des-Arg9]-BK (1-10 microM), did not inhibit either phase of the bradykinin-induced response. The B2 receptor-selective antagonist, D-Arg-[Hyp3,Thi5,D-Tic7,Oic8]-BK (Hoe 140) (30-300 nM), inhibited both the bradykinin-induced relaxation and contraction with a similar affinity (apparent pKB estimates of 8.5 +/- 0.1 and 8.4 +/- 0.1 respectively). 3. In a depolarizing high-K(+)-solution, bradykinin produced concentration-related contractions, though of diminished magnitude; but no relaxation was observed in such media. In Krebs solution, the Ca(2+)-activated K(+)-channel blocker, apamin (10 nM), abolished relaxant responses. These observations suggest that contraction results both from membrane potential-dependent, and membrane potential-independent, mechanisms; whereas relaxant responses result entirely from membrane potential-dependent mechanisms. Contractile responses obtained in the high K(+)-solution were inhibited by D-Arg-[Hyp3,Thi5,D-Tic7,Oic8]-BK with an apparent pKB value of 8.4 +/- 0.1. 4. In a Ca(2+)-free, EGTA-containing medium, relatively high concentrations of bradykinin (> 100 nM) produced transient contractions, suggesting that a component of the contractile response results from release of Ca2+ from an intracellular store.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7834214

Field, J L; Butt, S K; Morton, I K; Hall, J M

1994-01-01

195

Arrhythmic Song Exposure Increases ZENK Expression in Auditory Cortical Areas and Nucleus Taeniae of the Adult Zebra Finch.  

PubMed

Rhythm is important in the production of motor sequences such as speech and song. Deficits in rhythm processing have been implicated in human disorders that affect speech and language processing, including stuttering, autism, and dyslexia. Songbirds provide a tractable model for studying the neural underpinnings of rhythm processing due to parallels with humans in neural structures and vocal learning patterns. In this study, adult zebra finches were exposed to naturally rhythmic conspecific song or arrhythmic song. Immunohistochemistry for the immediate early gene ZENK was used to detect neural activation in response to these two types of stimuli. ZENK was increased in response to arrhythmic song in the auditory association cortex homologs, caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) and caudomedial mesopallium (CMM), and the avian amygdala, nucleus taeniae (Tn). CMM also had greater ZENK labeling in females than males. The increased neural activity in NCM and CMM during perception of arrhythmic stimuli parallels increased activity in the human auditory cortex following exposure to unexpected, or perturbed, auditory stimuli. These auditory areas may be detecting errors in arrhythmic song when comparing it to a stored template of how conspecific song is expected to sound. CMM may also be important for females in evaluating songs of potential mates. In the context of other research in songbirds, we suggest that the increased activity in Tn may be related to the value of song for assessing mate choice and bonding or it may be related to perception of arrhythmic song as aversive. PMID:25259620

Lampen, Jennifer; Jones, Katherine; McAuley, J Devin; Chang, Soo-Eun; Wade, Juli

2014-01-01

196

Phage-displayed peptides as capture antigens in an innovative assay for Taenia saginata-infected cattle.  

PubMed

Bovine cysticercosis is detected during the routine post mortem examination of carcasses by visual inspection (knife and eye method). However, the sensitivity of this procedure is several times lower than immunoassays, even when it is performed by qualified professionals. In the present study, a new generation capture antigens were screened from a phage display peptide library using antibodies from Taenia saginata-infected animals. Eight phage clones were selected, and one, Tsag 3 (VHTSIRPRCQPRAITPR), produced similar results to the T. saginata metacestode crude antigen (TsCa) when used as a capture antigen in an ELISA. The phage-displayed peptides competed with TsCa for binding sites, reducing the reactivity by approximately 30 %. Alanine scanning indicated that proline, arginine, and serine are important residues for antibody binding. Tsag 1 (HFYQITWLPNTFPAR), the most frequent affinity-selected clone, and Tsag 6 (YRWPSTPSASRQATL) shared similarity with highly conserved proteins from the Taeniidae family with known immunogenicity. Due to their epitopic or mimotopic properties, these affinity-selected phages could contribute to the rational design of an ante mortem immunodiagnosis method for bovine cysticercosis, as well as an epitope-based vaccine to interrupt the taeniosis/cysticercosis complex. PMID:25081558

Fogaça, Rafaela L; Capelli-Peixoto, Janaína; Yamanaka, Isabel B; de Almeida, Rodrigo P M; Muzzi, João Carlos D; Borges, Mariangela; Costa, Alvimar J; Chávez-Olortegui, Carlos; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Alvarenga, Larissa M; de Moura, Juliana

2014-11-01

197

Seasonal prevalence of Taenia taeniaeformis: relationship to age, sex, reproduction and abundance of an intermediate host (Peromyscus maniculatus).  

PubMed

Livers from 4,501 deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) collected from a weedy habitat in northeastern California during 48 consecutive monthly samplings were examined microscopically for Taenia taeniaeformis larva. Although there were pronounced seasonal fluctuations in host density, there were no significant annual or season-related differences in cestode intensities in adult deer mice. There were no significant differences in prevalences associated with sex of the host, nor were there significant changes in level of reproduction noted between infected and non-infected hosts. There were, however, significant differences in prevalences between young (1.2%) and adult (4.2%) hosts. Plausible mechanisms for this age-related difference in prevalence rates include (1) differential susceptibility due to the activity pattern of adult mice and/or (2) passive immunity in neonates as a result of colostrum- and/or transplacentally-transferred immunoglobulins and (3) capture of subadult animals before they had completed the period of highest susceptibility to T. taeniaeformis. Density of larvae per mouse liver was determined during a 21 mo consecutive period. The intensity of T. taeniaeformis larvae was not significantly different between the sexes of the adult mice. The larval stage showed an overdispersion pattern within the adult population. These results suggest that determinations of T. taeniaeformis abundances can be accurately made, at least in this P. maniculatus population, at any time of the year provided adjustment is made for the relative age structure of the host population. PMID:1548801

Theis, J H; Schwab, R G

1992-01-01

198

The role of OX22- helper T cells in protective immunity to reinfection with Taenia taeniaeformis in rats.  

PubMed

Spleen cells (SpC) and mesenteric lymph node cells (MLNC) from F344 donor rats actively immunized by oral inoculation with Taenia taeniaeformis eggs were syngeneically transferred into previously uninfected recipient rats by intravenous injection. Recipient rats were challenged with eggs after cell transfer. The degree of immunity was assessed by counting the number of growing metacestodes (MC) in the liver and compared with that in controls. Transfer of 2 x 10(8) SpC, obtained from donors immunized for ten or more (but not for three or five) days before cell transfer inhibited the establishment of most of MC. There were approximately 86-88% reductions in MC recoveries. SpC (2 x 10(8)) obtained from donors immunized for ten days inhibited the establishment of most of MC in recipient rats when transferred nought, two, or 24 h (but not 48 h) before egg challenge. Functional cells in the immune SpC were helper T cells W3/25+, OX8- and OX22-. However, immune MLNC obtained from donors immunized for three to ten days before cell transfer had no effect on transferring immunity. PMID:7877844

Asano, K; Ito, A; Okamoto, K

1993-12-01

199

Developmental and morphological characteristics of Taenia taeniaeformis (Batsch, 1786) in Clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae and Rattus norvegicus from different geographical locations.  

PubMed

Developmental and morphological characteristics of 3 isolates of Taenia taeniaeformis isolated from Clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae in Abuta (70 km southwest of Sapporo), Japan (isolate ACR), and from Rattus norvegicus in Sapporo, Japan (isolate SRN) and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (isolate KRN) were compared. Eggs of 3 isolates were administered to several species of rodents. Isolate ACR infected C. rufocanus bedfordiae, Apodemus speciosus, and Apodemus argenteus, but not rats or mice, whereas isolate SRN and isolate KRN were infective to rats, mice, A. speciosus, and A. argenteus, but not to C. rufocanus bedfordiae. The increase in cyst size of isolate ACR continued during the experimental period, whereas that of the other 2 isolates had ceased growing after 30 days postinfection. However, significant differences were observed in the length of the small rostellar hooks, number and distribution of testes, and the length of the cirrus sac between isolate ACR and the other 2 isolates. Thus it is suggested that isolate ACR is a distinct strain or even a new species. PMID:8195949

Iwaki, T; Nonaka, N; Okamoto, M; Oku, Y; Kamiya, M

1994-06-01

200

Rodent model for long-term maintenance and development of the viable cysticerci of Taenia saginata asiatica  

PubMed Central

Although oncospheres of Taenia saginata asiatica can develop into cysticerci in immunodeficiency, immunosuppressed, and normal mice, no detailed information on the development features of these cysticerci from SCID mice is available. In the present study, the tumor-like cyst was found in the subcutaneous tissues of each of 10 SCID mice after 38-244 days inoculation with 39,000 oncospheres of T. s. asiatica. These cysts weighed 2.0-9.6 gm and were 1.5-4.3 cm in diameter. The number of cysticerci were collected from these cysts ranged from 125 to 1,794 and the cysticercus recovery rate from 0.3% to 4.6%. All cysticerci were viable with a diameter of 1-6 mm and 9 abnormal ones each with 2 evaginated protoscoleces were also found. The mean length and width of scolex, protoscolex, and bladder were 477 × 558, 756 × 727, and 1,586 × 1,615 µm, respectively. The diameters of suckers and rostellum were 220 µm and 70 µm, respectively. All cysticerci had two rows of rostellar hooks. These findings suggest that the SCID mouse model can be employed as a tool for long-term maintenance of the biological materials for advanced studies of immunodiagnosis, vaccine development, and evaluation of cestocidal drugs which would be most benefit for the good health of the livestocks. PMID:11138316

Wang, I.C.; Chung, W.C.; Lu, S.C.

2000-01-01

201

Taenia taeniaeformis: inhibition of mitogen induced proliferation and interleukin-2 production in rat splenocytes by larval in vitro product.  

PubMed

Splenocytes from rats infected with Taenia taeniaeformis showed an early decreased proliferative response to the mitogen concanavalin A with larval growth. When larvae culture supernatant (in vitro product) was added to normal rat splenocytes, there was a decrease in the proliferative response to concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin. The ability of infected rat splenocytes to produce interleukin-2 was decreased with larval growth. Addition of in vitro product to culture medium significantly depressed interleukin-2 production by normal as well as infected rat spleen cells. Culturing normal rat splenocytes with in vitro product for 3 days induced a suppressor cell population. When these cultured cells were admixed with fresh normal rat splenocytes plus concanavalin A, the proliferative response of the fresh cells was significantly reduced. The present results suggest that in vitro product secreted by larvae in hepatic cysts causes subversion of the cellular immune response in the host. Induction of a suppressor cell population could suppress interleukin-2 production which may lead to the inhibition of differentiation and proliferation of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. PMID:2943603

Burger, C J; Rikihisa, Y; Lin, Y C

1986-10-01

202

Evaluation of spleen lymphocyte responsiveness to a T-cell mitogen during early infection with larval Taenia taeniaeformis.  

PubMed

The effect of taeniid infection on the in vitro cellular response of the host was investigated. Infections of Taenia taeniaeformis decreased the ability of spleen cells from susceptible C3H/He mice to respond to the T-cell mitogen concanavalin A (Con A) as early as 2 days postinfection (pi) reaching a suppression peak at day 12 pi. Similar experiments performed with spleen cells from infected BALB/c mice, resistant to the infection, revealed little or no suppression of Con A stimulation. The results suggested that susceptibility to the parasite may be due to its ability to induce a partial suppression of the host's immune system. The role of adherent splenocytes from infected C3H/He mice in the production of a deficient response to Con A during early infection was studied by coculturing experiments. These experiments demonstrated that adherent populations from infected mice did not play a direct role in the Con A-suppressor mechanisms. Concomitant with the suppressor activity an increased background proliferation was observed with nonstimulated splenocytes from C3H/He mice infected with T. taeniaeformis. Plasma from infected mice was able to suppress the response of normal spleen cells to Con A and to stimulate a proliferative response in cultured splenocytes from noninfected animals. The results suggest the presence of factors in the plasma of infected mice which may be modulating the immune response to the parasite. PMID:3495795

Letonja, T; Hammerberg, C; Schurig, G

1987-01-01

203

Arrhythmic Song Exposure Increases ZENK Expression in Auditory Cortical Areas and Nucleus Taeniae of the Adult Zebra Finch  

PubMed Central

Rhythm is important in the production of motor sequences such as speech and song. Deficits in rhythm processing have been implicated in human disorders that affect speech and language processing, including stuttering, autism, and dyslexia. Songbirds provide a tractable model for studying the neural underpinnings of rhythm processing due to parallels with humans in neural structures and vocal learning patterns. In this study, adult zebra finches were exposed to naturally rhythmic conspecific song or arrhythmic song. Immunohistochemistry for the immediate early gene ZENK was used to detect neural activation in response to these two types of stimuli. ZENK was increased in response to arrhythmic song in the auditory association cortex homologs, caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) and caudomedial mesopallium (CMM), and the avian amygdala, nucleus taeniae (Tn). CMM also had greater ZENK labeling in females than males. The increased neural activity in NCM and CMM during perception of arrhythmic stimuli parallels increased activity in the human auditory cortex following exposure to unexpected, or perturbed, auditory stimuli. These auditory areas may be detecting errors in arrhythmic song when comparing it to a stored template of how conspecific song is expected to sound. CMM may also be important for females in evaluating songs of potential mates. In the context of other research in songbirds, we suggest that the increased activity in Tn may be related to the value of song for assessing mate choice and bonding or it may be related to perception of arrhythmic song as aversive. PMID:25259620

Lampen, Jennifer; Jones, Katherine; McAuley, J. Devin; Chang, Soo-Eun; Wade, Juli

2014-01-01

204

Fatal infection with Taenia martis metacestodes in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in an Italian zoological garden.  

PubMed

A case of fatal infection caused by larval forms of Taenia martis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in the Rome zoological garden is described. The animal, living in a semi-natural pen with other 15 conspecific individuals and being fed with fresh fruit and vegetables, yoghurt and eggs, was transported to the Istituto Zooprofilattico of Rome for post-mortem examination. The anamnesis included, ten days before the death, apathy, lack of appetite, abdominal distension and diarrhoea. A severe exudative fibrinous-purulent peritonitis with numerous adhesions between the abdominal wall and the bowel loops was detected. After intestine removal, two free and viable, 4 cm long, whitish, leaf-like parasitic forms were pinpointed. Macroscopic examination of the two parasites allowed their identification as larval stages of cestodes, identified via molecular analysis as T. martis metacestodes. This report represents the first record of T. martis infection in the host species and in a zoological garden and for the pathological relevance of the infection. PMID:24928170

De Liberato, Claudio; Berrilli, Federica; Meoli, Roberta; Friedrich, Klaus G; Di Cerbo, Pilar; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Eleni, Claudia

2014-10-01

205

Expression and immunolocalisation of TpFABP as a candidate antigen for the serodiagnosis of rabbit Taenia pisiformis cysticercosis  

PubMed Central

The larval stage of Taenia pisiformis, also known as Cysticercus pisiformis, is the causative agent of cysticercosis and the cause of severe health problems in rabbits that negatively impacts on husbandry production. To date, there is no fast detection method to identify early infections in rabbits. In the present study, a new dot-ELISA-based on an endogenous antigen fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) was developed for the detection of cysticercosis, and its potential was then evaluated using test serum samples. Immunolocalisation showed that T. pisiformis FABP (TpFABP) localised to the parenchyma of the bladder wall of the cysticercus and perinuclear cytoplasm of parenchyma of the adult parasite. After cloning and expression, recombinant TpFABP (rTpFABP) protein was used for serodiagnosis of T. pisiformis infection in rabbits by dot-ELISA. The antibody was detected 14 days post-infection in rabbits experimentally infected with T. pisiformis. Based on the necropsy results, the sensitivity and specificity of 169 serum samples tested by rTpFABP dot-ELISA were found to be 98.2% (54/55) and 92.1% (105/114), respectively. These data suggest that the dot-ELISA developed in this study has potential for detection of T. pisiformis infection in rabbits. PMID:24325873

Yang, Deying; Chen, Lin; Xie, Yue; Wu, Xuhang; Nong, Xiang; Peng, Xi; Lai, Weimin; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

2013-01-01

206

Cloning and characterization of the fatty acid-binding protein gene from the protoscolex of Taenia multiceps.  

PubMed

Taenia multiceps (Cestoda: Taeniidae), a worldwide cestode parasite, is emerging as an important helminthic zoonosis due to serious or fatal central nervous system disease commonly known as coenurosis in domestic and wild ruminants including humans. Herein, a fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) gene was identified from transcriptomic data in T. multiceps. This gene, which contains a complete coding sequence, was amplified by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The corresponding protein, which was named TmFABP, had a molecular weight of 14 kDa, and subsequently was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli. The fusion protein was purified on Ni-NTA beads (Bio-Rad). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analyses showed that the purified recombinant protein caused immunogenicity. Immunohistochemical studies showed that TmFABP was expressed at the tegumental level in the protoscolices and in the cells between the body wall and parenchyma layer of the cestode. In sections from gravid proglottids, intense staining was detected in the uterus and eggs. Based on this, TmFABP could be switched on during differentiation of germinative layers to protoscoleces and from metacestodes to adult worms. Taken together, our results already reported for T. multiceps suggest the possibility of TmFABP developing a vaccine to control and prevent coenurosis. PMID:23474657

Nie, Hua-Ming; Xie, Yue; Fu, Yan; Yang, Ying-Dong; Gu, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Shu-Xian; Peng, Xi; Lai, Wei-Ming; Peng, Xue-Rong; Yang, Guang-You

2013-05-01

207

A New MAP Kinase Protein Involved in Estradiol-Stimulated Reproduction of the Helminth Parasite Taenia crassiceps  

PubMed Central

MAP kinases (MAPK) are involved in the regulation of cellular processes such as reproduction and growth. In parasites, the role of MAPK has been scarcely studied. Here, we describe the participation of an ERK-like protein in estrogen-dependent reproduction of the helminth parasite Taenia crassiceps. Our results show that 17?-estradiol induces a concentration-dependent increase in the bud number of in vitro cultured cysticerci. If parasites are also incubated in presence of an ERK-inhibitor, the stimulatory effect of estrogen is blocked. The expression of ERK-like mRNA and its corresponding protein was detected in the parasite. The ERK-like protein was over-expressed by all treatments. Nevertheless, a strong induction of phosphorylation of this protein was observed only in response to 17?-estradiol. Cross-contamination by host cells was discarded by flow cytometry analysis. Parasite cells expressing the ERK-like protein were exclusively located at the subtegument tissue by confocal microscopy. Finally, the ERK-like protein was separated by bidimensional electrophoresis and then sequenced, showing the conserved TEY activation motif, typical of all known ERK 1/2 proteins. Our results show that an ERK-like protein is involved in the molecular signalling during the interaction between the host and T. crassiceps, and may be considered as target for anti-helminth drugs design. PMID:20145710

Escobedo, Galileo; Soldevila, Gloria; Ortega-Pierres, Guadalupe; Chávez-Ríos, Jesús Ramsés; Nava, Karen; Fonseca-Liñán, Rocío; López-Griego, Lorena; Hallal-Calleros, Claudia; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Morales-Montor, Jorge

2010-01-01

208

Porcine cysticercosis and human neurocysticercosis: evidence-based research trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research indicates that roughly 50 000 humans die annually due to veterinary public health- food safety related issues of Taenia solium of pigs. However the exact socio-economic impact of T. solium is not fully understood and often appears to be conjecture due to conflicting and competing opinions among the policy makers and scientists. The aim of the study was

T. Songabe; E. K. Thobejane

209

21 CFR 520.580 - Dichlorophene and toluene.  

...Uncinaria stenocephala ); and as an aid in removing tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus granulosus ) from dogs and cats. (3) Limitations. Withhold solid foods and milk for at least 12 hours...

2014-04-01

210

21 CFR 520.580 - Dichlorophene and toluene.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Uncinaria stenocephala ); and as an aid in removing tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus granulosus ) from dogs and cats. (3) Limitations. Withhold solid foods and milk for at least 12 hours...

2013-04-01

211

21 CFR 520.1447 - Milbemycin oxime, lufenuron, and praziquantel tablets.  

...Ancylostoma caninum ), adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis ), and adult tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus multilocularis, and E. granulosus ) infections in dogs and puppies 2 pounds of body weight or greater and 6 weeks...

2014-04-01

212

21 CFR 520.1445 - Milbemycin oxime and praziquantel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Ancylostoma caninum ), adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis ), and adult tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus multilocularis, and E. granulosus ) infections in dogs and puppies 2 pounds of body weight or greater and 6 weeks...

2013-04-01

213

21 CFR 520.1447 - Milbemycin oxime, lufenuron, and praziquantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Ancylostoma caninum ), adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis ), and adult tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus multilocularis, and E. granulosus ) infections in dogs and puppies 2 pounds of body weight or greater and 6 weeks...

2012-04-01

214

21 CFR 520.1445 - Milbemycin oxime and praziquantel.  

...Ancylostoma caninum ), adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis ), and adult tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus multilocularis, and E. granulosus ) infections in dogs and puppies 2 pounds of body weight or greater and 6 weeks...

2014-04-01

215

21 CFR 520.1447 - Milbemycin oxime, lufenuron, and praziquantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Ancylostoma caninum ), adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis ), and adult tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus multilocularis, and E. granulosus ) infections in dogs and puppies 2 pounds of body weight or greater and 6 weeks...

2013-04-01

216

Taenia taeniaeformis: early inflammatory response around developing metacestodes in the liver of resistant and susceptible mice II. Histochemistry and cytochemistry.  

PubMed

Female BALB/cJ (resistant), C3H/HeJ (intermediate resistant), and C3H/HeDub (susceptible) inbred mice, 4-5 wk old, were infected with Taenia taeniaeformis. Liver sections were stained for the enzymes acid phosphatase, beta-glucuronidase, and peroxidase. Eosinophils present around the parasite were identified by the ethanolic Congo red method. Possible gross changes in lipid metabolism in the hepatocytes surrounding the parasite were investigated with the Sudan black B method. The results of observations made by light microscopy were: (1) beta-glucuronidase activity above background levels was observed only in the hepatocytes around the parasite in BALB/cJ mice at 4, 5, and 6 days postinfection (PI); no reaction was observed in the other 2 strains of mice studied; (2) acid phosphatase activity was very strong at 2, 3, and 4 in the 3 strains of mice while this reactivity was weak at 5 and 6 days PI; (3) the cytoplasm of the hepatocytes around the metacestode stained more heavily with Sudan black B than other hepatocytes; and (4) the presence of eosinophils appearing at 3 days PI around the parasite in all 3 strains of mice was demonstrated by staining with Sudan black B, the substrate of peroxidase, and Congo red. Infected C3H/HeJ and BALB/cJ mice had higher numbers of liver eosinophils than infected C3H/HeDub mice throughout the observation time. The present results suggest 2 conclusions: (1) a parasite-liver interaction occurs as is evident by hepatocyte changes in beta-glucuronidase activity and Sudan black B staining, and (2) resistance to the early stages of T. taeniaeformis is associated with the appearance of eosinophils. PMID:2443633

Letonja, T; Hammerberg, C

1987-10-01

217

Vaccination against Taenia taeniaeformis infection in rats using a recombinant protein and preliminary analysis of the induced antibody response.  

PubMed

Primary screening of a cDNA expression library of Taenia taeniaeformis oncospheres in lambda gt11 bacteriophage was carried out using rabbit anti-T, taeniaeformis oncosphere serum affinity-purified from oncosphere pellets. From approximately 1.6 x 10(5) plaques, 21 single clones that were positive with the affinity-purified antibodies were isolated. Sibling analysis revealed that 17 clones out of the 21 could be assigned to five different antigen families. Only family 1 was strongly recognized by a serum prepared in a rabbit against a partially purified host-protective oncosphere antigen fraction. The fragments of lambda DNA were inserted into a pGEX plasmid vector that encodes glutathione S-transferase (GST) of Schistosoma japonicum. Clones designated TtO-18, -49.53 (family 1), 46 (family 2), 15 (family 3), 40 (family 4) and 66 (family 5) were established as subclones in pGEX-1 plasmid vectors which produced GST fusion proteins. All GST fusion proteins were soluble and recognized by anti-GST and anti-TtO sera. Three vaccination experiments with these fusion proteins using specific-pathogen-free Wistar rats revealed that all three fusion proteins of family 1 were exclusively effective against T. taeniaeformis oncosphere challenge with approximately 95% and 91% reductions in cystic metacestode and total metacestode recoveries, respectively. Rats vaccinated with fusion proteins of family 1 produced antibodies which reacted with a 21-kDa oncosphere antigen component which appeared to be a major oncosphere stage-specific antigen. PMID:1826341

Ito, A; Bøgh, H O; Lightowlers, M W; Mitchell, G F; Takami, T; Kamiya, M; Onitake, K; Rickard, M D

1991-01-01

218

Modulation by GABA B and delta opioid receptors of neurally induced responses in isolated guinea-pig taenia coli and human colonic circular muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GABA-ergic and opioid modulation of neurally induced muscle responses was studied in isolated guinea-pig taenia coli and human colonic circular muscle, using identical field stimulation parameters (rectangular pulses of 0.5 ms duration, 9 V.cm–1 intensity, trains of 3 pulses at 0.5 Hz, repeated every 1\\/3\\/5 min).The stimulation-induced contractions were inhibited in both preparations by GABA and baclofen; the IC50 values in human colonic circular

Éva Makó; András Z Rónai; György Ádám; Gábor Juhász; László Ritter; Béla Lestár; Vincenzo Crunelli

2000-01-01

219

Jornal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial Avaliação de testes imunológicos para o diagnóstico da neurocisticercose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) has been made by association of neuroimaging studies and use of sensitive and specific serological assays. Objectives: Evaluating Elisa and Western blot (Wb) tests using a crude extract of Cysticercus cellulosae (Taenia solium) as antigen and a Wb test using a glycoprotein of Cysticercus longicollis (Taenia crassiceps) as antigen for the diagnosis of NCC.

Heloisa Werneck de Macedo; Regina Helena; Saramago Peralta; Armando Cipriano; Maria Rosa Sarmento; Adelaide José Vaz; José Mauro Peralta

220

Taenia arctos n. sp. (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Taeniidae) from its definitive (brown bear Ursus arctos Linnaeus) and intermediate (moose/elk Alces spp.) hosts.  

PubMed

Taenia arctos n. sp. (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Taeniidae) is described from the brown bear Ursus arctos Linnaeus (definitive host) and moose/elk Alces spp. (intermediate hosts) from Finland (type-locality) and Alaska, USA. The independent status of the new species and the conspecificity of its adults and metacestodes have been recently confirmed by the mtDNA sequence data of Lavikainen et al. (2011; Parasitology International, 60, 289-295). Special reference is given to morphological differences between the new species and T. krabbei Moniez, 1879 (definitive hosts primarily canines for the latter), both of which use the moose/elk (Alces spp.) as intermediate hosts (the latter also uses Rangifer and perhaps other northern ruminants), and between the new species and T. ursina Linstow, 1893, both of which use the brown bear U. arctos as a definitive host. New morphological data are also provided for adults and cysticerci of T. krabbei. The analysis includes potentially useful morphometric features that have not been previously applied to Taenia spp. PMID:22002024

Haukisalmi, Voitto; Lavikainen, Antti; Laaksonen, Sauli; Meri, Seppo

2011-11-01

221

Nitric oxide formation from glyceryl trinitrate by rabbit aortic strip: detection by rabbit taenia coli concurrent with vasorelaxation.  

PubMed Central

1. The purpose of the present study was to assay NO formation from GTN biotransformation by the rabbit aortic strip (RAS) at times concurrent with its vasorelaxation. Such an assay is an important test of the prodrug hypothesis where it is postulated that glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) is biotransformed to nitric oxide (NO), the active species that initiates vascular smooth muscle relaxation. To test such a hypothesis, we propose that a sample of smooth muscle, poorly responsive to GTN, yet sensitive to the effects of NO could be used to detect RAS production of NO from GTN. 2. Muscle strips of rabbit taenia coli (RTCS) and RAS in close apposition, were mounted in tissue baths, and muscle relaxation was recorded with isometric force transducers. Tissues were submaximally precontracted with 30-35 mM K+ depolarizing solution and exposed to increasing concentrations of GTN (0.1 nM-10 microM). 3. EC25 for GTN-induced relaxation of RTCS in the presence of RAS was significantly decreased to that for RTCS in the absence of RAS (5.9 +/- 3.0 x 10(-8) M and 5.5 +/- 3.7 x 10(-6) M, respectively). Mean maximal levels of GTN-induced relaxation of similarly precontracted RTCS also differed in the presence and absence of RAS, viz., 80.8 +/- 2.1% and 29.8 +/- 8.3% respectively. 4. RTCS was found to relax upon administration of NO gas bubbled through the incubation medium. Analysis of tissue bath medium revealed that the NO concentration to which RTCS was exposed attained a maximum of 33 nM. Relaxation of RTCS by NO gas was inhibited by 1 microM reduced haemoglobin. 5. For GTN-incubation with intestinal and vascular smooth muscle preparations, NO formation was greater with RAS compared to RTCS. Thus, in the two-issue bioassay, the RAS was the predominant source of NO formation from GTN.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7889309

Hussain, A S; Poklewska-Koziell, M; Brien, J F; Marks, G S; Nakatsu, K

1994-01-01

222

Evaluation of the efficacy of emodepside+praziquantel topical solution against cestode (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia taeniaeformis, and Echinococcus multilocularis) infections in cats.  

PubMed

Emodepside+praziquantel topical solution was developed to provide broad-spectrum anthelmintic activity against gastrointestinal parasites in cats. Eight controlled studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a topical solution of emodepside (3 mg/kg) and praziquantel (12 mg/kg) (Profender, BayerAG, Leverkusen, Germany) against feline infections with three species of cestodes. Studies featured naturally acquired infections of Dipylidium caninum or Taenia taeniaeformis, or experimental infections with Echinococcus multilocularis that were placebo-controlled, randomized and blinded. Cats were euthanatized and necropsied between 2 and 11 days after treatment, depending on the target parasite. The efficacy of emodepside+praziquantel topical solution was 100% against D. caninum and T. taeniaeformis, and 98.5- 100% against E. multilocularis. No significant systemic or local adverse reactions to treatment were noted in cats that received the combination. Topical treatment of cats with emodepside+praziquantel topical solution was safe and highly effective against cestode infections. PMID:16228273

Charles, S D; Altreuther, G; Reinemeyer, C R; Buch, J; Settje, T; Cruthers, L; Kok, D J; Bowman, D D; Kazacos, K R; Jenkins, D J; Schein, E

2005-10-01

223

Hyperplasia of gastric mucosa in donor rats orally infected with Taenia taeniaeformis eggs and in recipient rats surgically implanted with the larvae in the abdominal cavity.  

PubMed

Rats heavily infected with Taenia taeniaeformis larvae in the liver show a remarkable increase in their stomach weight, hyperplasia, and hypergastrinemia. However, it is unknown what causes these phenomena. Hence, as a preliminary study to investigate the importance of larval parasitism in the liver, two experiments were done. In the first experiment, 14 donor rats were orally inoculated with 3,000 T. taeniaeformis eggs. In the second experiment, 136-300 of the larvae obtained from the rats were surgically implanted into the abdominal cavity of 7 recipient rats. Gastrin levels and histopathological changes in the gastric mucosa were investigated. In all, 11 donor rats showed hypergastrinemia and hyperplasia, 5 recipient rats showed gastric mucosal hyperplasia accompanied by excessive mucous cell proliferation, and 2 recipient rats showed hypergastrinemia. These results suggest that parasitism of the liver by the larvae is not essential for the development of hyperplasia and that factors from the larvae might cause these phenomena. PMID:10344534

Konno, K; Oku, Y; Nonaka, N; Kamiya, M

1999-06-01

224

The role of the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Octodontidae) in the life cycle of Taenia taeniaeformis (Cestoda: Taeniidae) in urban environments.  

PubMed

This work is the first report of subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Octodontidae) as intermediate host of Taenia taeniaeformis in urban areas of Mar de Cobo (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina) and to experimentally reproduce in domestic dogs the adult stage of this parasite. Prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity of infection with T. taeniaeformis larvae in the liver and peritoneal cavity of C. talarum were 64%, 15.3 and 9.8, respectively. Ten adults of T. taeniaeformis were obtained from experimentally infected dogs. Information about the role of subterranean rodents in the life cycle of this parasite is also given. The above mentioned data indicate that T. taeniaeformis is a frequent parasite of this species of rodents, at least within the study area. Also explanations for the high prevalence of larval forms of this parasite in C. talarum populations are given. PMID:15158554

Rossin, Alejandra; Malizia, Ana I; Denegri, Guillermo M

2004-06-10

225

New Insights in Cysticercosis Transmission  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium infection causes severe neurological disease in humans. Even though infection and exposure to swine cysticercosis is scattered throughout endemic villages, location of the tapeworm only explains some of the nearby infections and is not related to location of seropositive pigs. Other players might be involved in cysticercosis transmission. In this study we hypothesize that pigs that carry nematodes specific to dung beetles are associated with cysticercosis infection and/or exposure. We carried out a cross-sectional study of six villages in an endemic region in northern Peru. We euthanized all pigs (326) in the villages and performed necropsies to diagnose cysticercosis. For each pig, we counted cysticerci; measured anti-cysticercus antibodies; identified intestinal nematodes; tabulated distance to nearest human tapeworm infection; and recorded age, sex, productive stage, and geographic reference. For the purpose of this paper, we defined cysticercosis infection as the presence of at least one cysticercus in pig muscles, and cysticercosis exposure as seropositivity to anti-cysticercus antibodies with the presence of 0–5 cysticerci. Compared to pigs without nematode infections, those pigs infected with the nematode Ascarops strongylina were significantly associated with the presence of cysticerci (OR: 4.30, 95%CI: 1.83–10.09). Similarly, pigs infected with the nematode Physocephalus sexalatus were more likely to have cysticercosis exposure (OR: 2.21, 95%CI: 1.50–3.28). In conclusion, our results suggest that there appears to be a strong positive association between the presence of nematodes and both cysticercosis infection and exposure in pigs. The role of dung beetles in cysticercosis dynamics should be further investigated. PMID:25329903

Arriola, Carmen S.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A.; Lopez-Urbina, Maria T.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

2014-01-01

226

New insights in cysticercosis transmission.  

PubMed

Taenia solium infection causes severe neurological disease in humans. Even though infection and exposure to swine cysticercosis is scattered throughout endemic villages, location of the tapeworm only explains some of the nearby infections and is not related to location of seropositive pigs. Other players might be involved in cysticercosis transmission. In this study we hypothesize that pigs that carry nematodes specific to dung beetles are associated with cysticercosis infection and/or exposure. We carried out a cross-sectional study of six villages in an endemic region in northern Peru. We euthanized all pigs (326) in the villages and performed necropsies to diagnose cysticercosis. For each pig, we counted cysticerci; measured anti-cysticercus antibodies; identified intestinal nematodes; tabulated distance to nearest human tapeworm infection; and recorded age, sex, productive stage, and geographic reference. For the purpose of this paper, we defined cysticercosis infection as the presence of at least one cysticercus in pig muscles, and cysticercosis exposure as seropositivity to anti-cysticercus antibodies with the presence of 0-5 cysticerci. Compared to pigs without nematode infections, those pigs infected with the nematode Ascarops strongylina were significantly associated with the presence of cysticerci (OR: 4.30, 95%CI: 1.83-10.09). Similarly, pigs infected with the nematode Physocephalus sexalatus were more likely to have cysticercosis exposure (OR: 2.21, 95%CI: 1.50-3.28). In conclusion, our results suggest that there appears to be a strong positive association between the presence of nematodes and both cysticercosis infection and exposure in pigs. The role of dung beetles in cysticercosis dynamics should be further investigated. PMID:25329903

Arriola, Carmen S; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Lopez-Urbina, Maria T; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H

2014-10-01

227

Ultrastructural study of the spermatozoon of Taenia taeniaeformis (Batsch, 1786) (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Taeniidae), an intestinal parasite of Felis catus from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain).  

PubMed

The ultrastructural characters of the mature spermatozoon of Taenia taeniaeformis are described by means of transmission electron microscopy. Materials were obtained from a naturally infected road-killed cat (Felis catus) from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain). The mature spermatozoon of T. taeniaeformis is a filiform cell, which is tapered at both extremities and lacks mitochondria. It is characterised by the presence of (1) a single spirallised crested body about 140 nm thick, (2) a single axoneme of the 9+'1' pattern of trepaxonematan Platyhelminthes, (3) a twisted (40 degrees ) layer of submembranous cortical microtubules, (4) a periaxonemal sheath surrounding the axoneme, (5) transverse intracytoplasmic walls and (6) a spirallised nucleus encircling the axoneme. The mature spermatozoon of T. taeniaeformis is also characterised by the presence of an apical cone in its anterior extremity and by the disorganisation of the axoneme in its posterior extremity. The ultrastructural characters of the mature spermatozoon of T. taeniaeformis are compared with those of other cestodes studied to date, with particular emphasis on other representatives of the family Taeniidae. PMID:19205741

Miquel, Jordi; Foronda, Pilar; Torres, Jordi; Swiderski, Zdzis?aw; Feliu, Carlos

2009-06-01

228

Stage-specific immunity to Taenia taeniaeformis infection in mice. A histological study of the course of infection in mice vaccinated with either oncosphere or metacestode antigens.  

PubMed

The course of Taenia taeniaeformis infection in mice previously vaccinated with antigens prepared from either oncosphere (TtO) or metacestode (TtM) was followed by histological examination of livers from mice killed at various times post-infection (p.i.). Distinctly different immune responses occurred in the two groups. Very few cysts were seen at any stage of infection in TtO-vaccinated mice and most of those which were present appeared histologically similar to cysts in control mice. In TtM-vaccinated mice many cysts were present from early in infection but histologically it was apparent that most were dying from 15 days p.i. because the tegument had lost its integrity, and degranulated polymorphonuclear leucocytes were present inside the parasites. These findings support earlier suggestions that stage-specific antigens are expressed in oncospheres and metacestodes. Parasites developing normally were surrounded by a halo of alcian blue staining amorphous acellular material. This material appeared to act as a barrier to attack by host inflammatory cells, and disappearance of this layer signalled death of the parasite. The possibility that the gut acted as a barrier to delay migration of oncospheres to the liver in vaccinated mice was investigated, but no evidence for this could be found. PMID:2320379

Bøgh, H O; Lightowlers, M W; Sullivan, N D; Mitchell, G F; Rickard, M D

1990-03-01

229

Hymenolepis nana: immunity against oncosphere challenge in mice previously given viable or non-viable oncospheres of H. nana, H. diminuta, H. microstoma and Taenia taeniaeformis.  

PubMed

When mice, previously given oral inoculation with viable oncospheres of the heterologous cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. microstoma, Taenia taeniaeformis) and the homologous one (H. nana), were challenged with oncospheres of H. nana 4 days after the primary inoculation, they showed strong and complete resistance to H. nana challenge, respectively. However, the resistance was not evoked in mice given either infective eggs of Toxocara canis or non-viable oncospheres of all cestode species examined. Congenitally athymic nude mice given viable oncospheres did not show any resistance to H. nana either. Eosinophil infiltration around cysticercoids of H. nana in the intestinal villi appeared to be more prominent in mice previously given viable oncospheres of H. diminuta than in mice given non-viable oncospheres or PBS only. Some of the eosinophils in the villus harboring cysticercoid(s) of H. nana invaded the epithelia in the former, whereas all eosinophils remained in the lamina propria in the latter. There was almost no eosinophil infiltration in nude mice. Microscopic observations revealed that oncospheres of H. diminuta, which require beetles as the intermediate host like H. microstoma, could invade the mouse intestinal tissue. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that the strong cross resistance to H. nana in mice, induced by oncospheres of all heterologous cestode species, is thymus-dependent and due to oncospheral invasion into the intestinal tissue of mice. PMID:1869358

Ito, A; Onitake, K; Sasaki, J; Takami, T

1991-04-01

230

Influence of geographical scale on the detection of density dependence in the host-parasite system, Arvicola terrestris and Taenia taeniaeformis.  

PubMed

Infection by the cestode Taenia taeniaeformis was investigated within numerous cyclic populations of the fossorial water vole Arvicola terrestris sampled during 4 years in Franche-Comté (France). The relative influence of different rodent demographic parameters on the presence of this cestode was assessed by considering (1) the demographic phase of the cycle; (2) density at the local geographical scale (<0.1 km2); (3) mean density at a larger scale (>10 km2). The local scale corresponded to the rodent population (intermediate host), while the large scale corresponded to the definitive host population (wild and feral cats). General linear models based on analyses of 1804 voles revealed the importance of local density but also of year, rodent age, season and interactions between year and season and between age and season. Prevalence was significantly higher in low vole densities than during local outbreaks. By contrast, the large geographical scale density and the demographic phase had less influence on infection by the cestode. The potential impacts of the cestode on the fitness of the host were assessed and infection had no effect on the host body mass, litter size or sexual activity of voles. PMID:16329763

Deter, J; Berthier, K; Chaval, Y; Cosson, J F; Morand, S; Charbonnel, N

2006-04-01

231

The calcium antagonistic effects of cyproheptadine on contraction, membrane electrical events and calcium influx in the guinea-pig taenia coli  

PubMed Central

1 The ability of cyproheptadine (Cph) to inhibit membrane translocation of calcium in smooth muscle was investigated by studying the drug's action on contraction, electrical activity and calcium influx in the guinea-pig taenia coli. 2 Cph ? 10-6M reduced the amplitude of normal spontaneous contractions and concurrently decreased the number of action potentials occurring with each slow-wave of depolarization (sucrose-gap recordings). These inhibitory effects of Cph were antagonized by increasing the medium [Ca] three fold to 7.68 mM. 3 Intracellular recordings showed that Cph ? 2 × 10-6M decreased the amplitude and extended the duration of the action potential. These effects were only partially reversible in normal medium whereas large overshooting action potentials were again seen in 7.68 mM Ca medium. 4 High frequency mechanical activity was produced by inclusion of veratridine 5 × 10-6M in the perfusate. Low concentrations of Cph (? 10-7M) reduced the amplitude of such contractions at a faster rate than they did normal spontaneous contractions. 5 At concentrations between 10-7 and 10-6M, Cph fully reduced the tonic component of contractions elicited in 112 mM isotonic KCl whilst having little or no effect on either (i) the initial phasic KCl contraction or (ii) the `repolarization contracture' normally produced on wash-out of the KCl or (iii) the spontaneous contractions before and after KCl treatment. In contrast, at Cph 2 × 10-6M, the repolarization contracture, as well as the isotonic KCl contraction, was totally blocked whereas spontaneous contractions were still unaffected. Progressively higher Cph concentrations inhibited all components of this contractile cycle. 6 Dose-response curves for the rate of drug-induced relaxation of tonic contractures produced in hypertonic 42.7 mM high-potassium medium, showed the calcium antagonistic potency of Cph to be intermediate between that of chlorpromazine and D600. The minimum Cph concentration for effect lay between 1 and 5 × 10-7M, and the effects of Cph 2 × 10-6M (approximately the ID50) were totally antagonized by 12.8 mM Ca. 7 By means of a lanthanum wash procedure, Cph ? 2 × 10-6M was found to decrease the 45Ca uptake occurring into strips of taenia coli in normal medium, although the maximum effect (at Cph 10-5M) amounted to only 25% inhibition of the uptake occurring into control strips (also found with D600). The increased uptake occurring in hypertonic 44.7 mM high-potassium medium was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by Cph 1 × 10-7M. 8 The results are consistent with an action of Cph in reducing the flow of Ca2+ through voltage-dependent Ca channels in the smooth muscle cell membrane. It is suggested that the interaction of Cph molecules with such sites is dependent upon membrane potential as well as drug concentration. PMID:6271323

Lowe, D.A.; Matthews, E.K.; Richardson, B.P.

1981-01-01

232

Taenia taeniaeformis: early inflammatory response around developing metacestodes in the liver of resistant and susceptible mice I. Identification of leukocyte response with monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed

Female BALB/cJ (resistant), C3H/HeJ (intermediate resistant), and C3H/HeDub (susceptible) inbred mice, 4-5 wk old, were infected with Taenia taeniaeformis. Liver sections were stained by an immunoperoxidase technique (avidin-biotin complex, ABC) for the differentiation antigens Lyt-1, Lyt-2, Mac-1, Mac-2, Mac-3, and B220. Binding of ABC to the cytoplasm of hepatocytes around the developing parasite was observed at 4 days postinfection (PI) in all 3 strains of mice, persisting in BALB/cJ and C3H/HeJ liver sections at 5 and 6 days PI, suggesting the presence of high concentrations of biotin, a fatty acid synthesis mediator. Two cell populations were labeled with B220 monoclonal antibodies: lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells. At 4 days PI the number of labeled PMN cells peaked in infected C3H/HeJ and BALB/cJ mice; however a low number of PMN cells were labeled in infected C3H/HeDub mice. Few lymphocytes bound the B220 antibody in either BALB/cJ, C3H/HeJ, or C3H/HeDub infected mice. The number of Mac-1+ cells detected in infected C3H/HeJ and BALB/cJ liver sections were similar whereas fewer Mac-1+ cells were present in infected C3H/HeDub mice. Mac-2+ cells appeared in high numbers around the growing parasite at 5 and 6 days PI in the liver of C3H/HeDub mice, but not in the liver of BALB/cJ mice. Mac-3+ cells followed a similar pattern to that of the cell population defined by Mac-2. Few Lyt-1+ and Lyt-2+ cells were detected around the parasite site in the 3 strains of mice.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3309243

Letonja, T; Hammerberg, C

1987-10-01

233

Cyanide-resistant respiration in Taenia crassiceps metacestode (cysticerci) is explained by the H2O2-producing side-reaction of respiratory complex I with O2.  

PubMed

The nature of the cyanide-resistant respiration of Taenia crassiceps metacestode was studied. Mitochondrial respiration with NADH as substrate was partially inhibited by rotenone, cyanide and antimycin in decreasing order of effectiveness. In contrast, respiration with succinate or ascorbate plus N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) was more sensitive to antimycin and cyanide. The saturation kinetics for O2 with NADH as substrate showed two components, which exhibited different oxygen affinities. The high-O2-affinity system (Km app=1.5 microM) was abolished by low cyanide concentration; it corresponded to cytochrome aa3. The low-O2-affinity system (Km app=120 microM) was resistant to cyanide. Similar O2 saturation kinetics, using succinate or ascorbate-TMPD as electron donor, showed only the high-O2-affinity cyanide-sensitive component. Horse cytochrome c increased 2-3 times the rate of electron flow across the cyanide-sensitive pathway and the contribution of the cyanide-resistant route became negligible. Mitochondrial NADH respiration produced significant amounts of H2O2 (at least 10% of the total O2 uptake). Bovine catalase and horse heart cytochrome c prevented the production and/or accumulation of H2O2. Production of H2O2 by endogenous respiration was detected in whole cysticerci using rhodamine as fluorescent sensor. Thus, the CN-resistant and low-O2-affinity respiration results mainly from a spurious reaction of the respiratory complex I with O2, producing H2O2. The meaning of this reaction in the microaerobic habitat of the parasite is discussed. PMID:15958286

del Arenal, I Patricia; Rubio, M Esther; Ramírez, Jorge; Rendón, Juan L; Escamilla, J Edgardo

2005-09-01

234

Analysis of immune lesions in neurocysticercosis patients: central nervous system response to helminth appears Th1-like instead of Th2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by the helminth Taenia solium is the most common parasitic infection of the human central nervous system (CNS) worldwide. Because clinical symptoms are associated with localized immunological responses in the brain, characterization of these responses are pivotal for understanding the pathogenesis of cysticercosis. Immunohistochemical analysis of brain specimens from several patients with cysticercosis revealed at least four

Blanca I Restrepo; Patricia Llaguno; Miguel A Sandoval; Jose A Enciso; Judy M Teale

1998-01-01

235

Factors Associated with the Prevalence of Circulating Antigens to Porcine Cysticercosis in Three Villages of Burkina Faso  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLittle is known about porcine cysticercosis in Burkina Faso. We conducted a pilot study to estimate the prevalence of antigens of Taenia solium cysticercosis and to identify associated factors in pigs of three villages in Burkina Faso, selected to represent different pig management practices: one village where pigs are allowed to roam freely (Batondo), one village where pigs are penned

Rasmané Ganaba; Nicolas Praet; Hélène Carabin; Athanase Millogo; Zékiba Tarnagda; Pierre Dorny; Sennen Hounton; Adama Sow; Pascal Nitiéma; Linda D. Cowan

2011-01-01

236

Control of echinococcosis and cysticercosis: a public health challenge to international cooperation in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echinococcosis, both cystic and alveolar, and Taenia solium cysticercosis are the most serious zoonotic cestodoses worldwide. Because of the emerging importance of these diseases in China, several international workshops and meetings were held in this country from 1998 to 2001. Based on round table discussions in Chengdu 2000, the proposal of a strategy to control echinococcosis and cysticercosis has been

Akira Ito; Carlo Urbani; Qiu Jiamin; Dominique A Vuitton; Qiu Dongchuan; David D Heath; Philip S Craig; Feng Zheng; Peter M Schantz

2003-01-01

237

Brain Granulomas in Neurocysticercosis Patients Are Associated with a Th1 and Th2 Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a common central nervous system (CNS) infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes. Despite the well-documented importance of the granulomatous response in the pathogenesis of this infection, there is limited information about the types of cells and cytokines involved. In fact, there has been limited characterization of human brain granulomas with any infectious agent. In the present study

BLANCA I. RESTREPO; JORGE I. ALVAREZ; JORGE A. CASTANO; LUIS F. ARIAS; MARGARITA RESTREPO; JUDITH TRUJILLO; CARLOS H. COLEGIAL; JUDY M. TEALE

2001-01-01

238

Estimating the Non-Monetary Burden of Neurocysticercosis in Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a major public health problem in many developing countries where health education, sanitation, and meat inspection infrastructure are insufficient. The condition occurs when humans ingest eggs of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, which then develop into larvae in the central nervous system. Although NCC is endemic in many areas of the world and is associated with considerable socio-economic losses, the burden of NCC remains largely unknown. This study provides the first estimate of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with NCC in Mexico. Methods DALYs lost for symptomatic cases of NCC in Mexico were estimated by incorporating morbidity and mortality due to NCC-associated epilepsy, and morbidity due to NCC-associated severe chronic headaches. Latin hypercube sampling methods were employed to sample the distributions of uncertain parameters and to estimate 95% credible regions (95% CRs). Findings In Mexico, 144,433 and 98,520 individuals are estimated to suffer from NCC-associated epilepsy and NCC-associated severe chronic headaches, respectively. A total of 25,341 (95% CR: 12,569–46,640) DALYs were estimated to be lost due to these clinical manifestations, with 0.25 (95% CR: 0.12–0.46) DALY lost per 1,000 person-years of which 90% was due to NCC-associated epilepsy. Conclusion This is the first estimate of DALYs associated with NCC in Mexico. However, this value is likely to be underestimated since only the clinical manifestations of epilepsy and severe chronic headaches were included. In addition, due to limited country specific data, some parameters used in the analysis were based on systematic reviews of the literature or primary research from other geographic locations. Even with these limitations, our estimates suggest that healthy years of life are being lost due to NCC in Mexico. PMID:22363827

Bhattarai, Rachana; Budke, Christine M.; Carabin, Hélène; Proaño, Jefferson V.; Flores-Rivera, Jose; Corona, Teresa; Ivanek, Renata; Snowden, Karen F.; Flisser, Ana

2012-01-01

239

Impaired pro-inflammatory cytokine production and increased Th2-biasing ability of dendritic cells exposed to Taenia excreted/secreted antigens: A critical role for carbohydrates but not for STAT6 signaling.  

PubMed

In cysticercosis, a parasitic disease caused by cestodes, the details of early interactions between parasite antigens and innate cells from the host are not well understood. In this study, the role of cestode-conditioned dendritic cells (DCs) in priming Th1 versus Th2 responses to bystander antigen was examined by using CD11c(+) DCs as antigen-presenting cells and naive CD4(+) DO11.10 lymphocytes specific to ovalbumin (OVA) as responding cells. No conventional maturation was induced in DCs exposed to Taenia crassiceps excreted/secreted antigens (TcES). The ability of TcES to affect Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated maturation and the pro-inflammatory response was analyzed by co-pulsing DCs with TcES and TLR ligands. DCs exposed to TcES blocked TLR4, TLR9 and Toxoplasma soluble antigen-induced phenotypic maturation. TcES-exposed DCs also blocked secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and alloreactive T cell proliferation, while preserving IL-10 production. DCs pulsed with TcES+OVA suppressed IFN-gamma, whereas they induced greater IL-4 production by CD4(+) DO11.10 cells. TcES with chemically-altered glycans failed to modulate TLR-mediated activation of DCs and their Th1-inhibitng ability, which was STAT6-independent. Our results reflect the capacity of TcES glyco-antigens to modulate Th1-type and inflammatory responses mediated through DC activation. PMID:20361966

Terrazas, César A; Gómez-García, Lorena; Terrazas, Luis I

2010-08-01

240

Human Taeniasis in the Republic of Korea: Hidden or Gone?  

PubMed Central

History and current status of human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea, due to Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, and Taenia saginata, are briefly reviewed. Until the 1980s, human taeniasis had been quite common in various localities of Korea. A study from 1924 reported 12.0% egg prevalence in fecal examinations. Thereafter, the prevalence of Taenia spp. ranged from 3% to 14% depending on the time and locality. Jeju-do, where pigs were reared in a conventional way, was the highest endemic area of taeniasis. An analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 genes of 68 taeniasis cases reported from 1935 to 2005 in Korea by a research group revealed the relative occurrence of the 3 Taenia spp. as follows: T. solium (4.4%), T. asiatica (75.0%), and T. saginata (20.6%). However, national surveys on intestinal helminths conducted every 5 years on randomly selected people revealed that the Taenia egg prevalence dropped from 1.9% in 1971 to 0.02% in 1997 and finally to 0.0% in 2004. With the exception of 3 egg-positive cases reported in 2008 and 2 worm-proven cases in 2011, no more cases have been officially recorded. Based on these surveys and also on other literature, it can be concluded that taeniasis has virtually disappeared from Korea, although a few sporadic cases may remain hidden. Human cysticercosis is also expected to disappear within a couple of decades in Korea. PMID:23467688

2013-01-01

241

Brain abscess in a recent immigrant.  

PubMed

A 7-year-old boy who has recently immigrated from India presented with two episodes of focal seizure over a 3-month period. A cranial magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a ring-enhancing lesion in his cerebral cortex. He was diagnosed with a pyogenic brain abscess following resection of the lesion and also had positive serology to Taenia solium (which causes neurocysticercosis). We briefly review these two diseases and discuss the important diagnostic issues. PMID:23252509

Britton, Philip N; Chaseling, Raymond

2013-03-01

242

Neurocysticercose de diagnostic tardif : à propos de deux cas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. – Neurocysticercosis is the most frequently encountered cerebral parasitic infection worldwide. It is due to infection of the central nervous system by Taenia solium larval form. According to the location of the cysts, parenchymal and extra-parenchymal forms may be identified, with different clinical expressions.Exegesis. – We report two cases of neurocysticercosis, one with typical parenchymal involvement and the second with extra-parenchymal involvement revealed

F Vandenbos; A Boscagli-Melaine; S Roth; V Mondain-Miton; P Paquis; M Gari-Toussaint; M. C Saint-Paul; N Montagne

2002-01-01

243

Comparison of biochemical and immunochemical properties of myosin II in taeniid parasites.  

PubMed

Type II myosins are highly conserved proteins, though differences have been observed among organisms, mainly in the filamentous region. Myosin isoforms have been identified in Taenia solium, a helminth parasite of public health importance in many developing countries. These isoforms are probably associated with the physiological requirements of each developmental stage of the parasite. In this paper we extend the characterization of myosin to several other Taenia species. Type II myosins were purified from the larvae (cysticerci) of Taenia solium, T. taeniaeformis and T. crassiceps and the adult stages of T. solium, T. taeniaeformis and T. saginata. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies against some of these myosins were specific at high dilutions but cross-reacted at low dilutions. ATPase activity was evaluated and kinetic values were calculated for each myosin. Homologous actin-myosin interactions increased both the affinity of myosin for ATP and the hydrolysis rate. The results indicate immunological and biochemical differences among taeniid myosins. This variability suggests that different isoforms are found not only in different taeniid species but also at different developmental stages. Further characterization of myosin isoforms should include determination of their amino acid composition. PMID:16733094

Cruz-Rivera, M; Reyes-Torres, A; Reynoso-Ducoing, O; Flisser, A; Ambrosio, J R

2006-07-01

244

Usefulness of pumpkin seeds combined with areca nut extract in community-based treatment of human taeniasis in northwest Sichuan Province, China.  

PubMed

Taeniasis refers to the infection with adult tapeworms of Taenia spp. in the upper small intestine of humans, which is also a cause of cysticercosis infection in either both humans and/or animals. Currently the most commonly applied anthelminthics for treatment of taeniasis are praziquantel and niclosamide. Praziquantel is very effective, but has the risk of induction of epileptic seizures or convulsions in carriers with asymptomatic concurrent neurocysticercosis. In contrast, niclosamide is safe and effective, but is not readily available in many endemic countries including China. In the current community-based study, we assessed the curative effect of either pumpkin seeds or areca nut extract alone in taeniasis, and also looked at synergistic effects of these two herb drugs on tapeworms. In the study group with the pumpkin seed/areca nut extract treatment, 91 (79.1%) of 115 suspected taeniasis cases (with a history of expulsion of proglottids within the previous one year) released whole tapeworms, four (3.5%) expelled incomplete strobila, and no tapeworms or proglottids were recovered in the remaining 20 cases. In these 115 persons, 45 were confirmed as taeniasis before treatment by microscopy and/or coproPCR. Forty (88.9%) of 45 confirmed cases eliminated intact worms following treatment. The mean time period for complete elimination of tapeworms in 91 taeniasis cases was 2 h (range 20 min to 8 h 30 min), and 89.0% (81) of 91 patients discharged intact worms within 3h after drug administration. In Control Group A with treatment of pumpkin seeds alone, 75.0% (9/12) of confirmed taeniasis cases expelled whole tapeworms, but the mean time period for complete elimination was about 14 h 10 min (range 3 h 20 min to 21 h 20 min), which was much longer than that (2 h) for the study group, whereas in Control Group B treated with areca nut extract alone, only 63.6% (7/11) of taeniasis cases discharged whole tapeworms, and the mean time period was 6 h 27 min (range 1-22 h). Mild side effects included nausea and dizziness in about 46.3% of patients with the pumpkin seeds/areca nut extract treatment, but all discomforts were transient and well tolerated. In conclusion, a synergistic effect of pumpkin seed and areca nut extract on Taenia spp. tapeworms was confirmed in the current study, primarily in producing an increased rate of effect on tapeworm expulsion (average time 2 h for combination vs 6-21 h for individual extracts). The pumpkin seed/areca combined treatment was indicated to be safe and highly effective (89%) for human taeniasis. PMID:22910218

Li, Tiaoying; Ito, Akira; Chen, Xingwang; Long, Changping; Okamoto, Munehiro; Raoul, Francis; Giraudoux, Patrick; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Xiao, Ning; Craig, Philip S

2012-11-01

245

Supplement 22, Part 6, Section A. Subject Headings: A-I, Parasite-Subject Catalogue, Subject Headings and Treatment  

E-print Network

fresh water crabs: Sarawak Ab S ? ? s s Rosencrans, M.; and Barak, J., 1969, N. York State Dental J., v. 35 (5), 271-273 Taenia solium in human, Cysticercus cellulo- sae with abscess formation excised from le- sion on mucosal surface of man's lip... absorption of 14c L-lysine and water ac- companied by an increase in tissue water content |nd in ^ecretion rate of mineral ions (Na and ? ) Absorption Chappell, L. ?., 1976, Parasitology, v. 73 (2), xxii [Abstract] Schistosoma, Fasciola, relative...

Zidar, Judith A.; Shaw, Judith H.; Hanfman, Deborah T.; Kirby, Margie D.; Rayburn, Jane D.; Edwards, Shirley J.; Hood, Martha W.

1979-01-01

246

Neurocysticercosis on 18F-FDG PET/MRI: co-registered Images.  

PubMed

This is a case of a 32-year-old female patient who presented with new onset partial complex seizures. MRI of the brain demonstrated a suspicious ring-enhancing lesion in the right temporal lobe. This finding was felt to be a primary brain malignancy or less likely an infectious process. (18)F-FDG PET of the brain was able to exclude malignancy and provided evidence to support neurocysticercosis in the mesial temporal lobe as the cause for the patient's seizures. Neurocysticercosis is a neurologic infection caused by Taenia solium. It is rare in the United States and difficult to diagnose. PMID:23579982

Jolepalem, Prashant; Wong, Ching-Yee Oliver

2014-01-01

247

Antigen-specific suppression of cultured lymphocytes from patients with neurocysticercosis  

PubMed Central

The biological parasite–host interactions involved in neurocysticercosis (NC) are of a complex nature. A lymphoproliferation assay was performed using mononuclear cells from 11 patients with NC, who were classified according to the alterations obtained by imaging examinations. Antigen extracts from the membrane and/or scolex of Taenia solium and from the vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps were used. Mononuclear cells from patients with NC showed antigen-specific suppression when compared with a control group. The patients presenting calcified cysts showed higher suppression when compared with patients in the active phase of disease. The antigen in the vesicular fluid of T. crassiceps seems to play a suppressor role in vitro, completely inhibiting cell proliferation induced by the mitogens phytohaemagglutinin, concanavalin A and pokeweed mitogen. PMID:11703375

Bueno, E C; Vaz, A J; Machado, L R; Livramento, J A; Avila, S L M; Ferreira, A W

2001-01-01

248

Helminth parasites of wild foxes ( Vulpes vulpes L.) in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the helminth fauna of wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in The Netherlands, material was collected from 139 foxes. The following parasites were found. Cestodes:Taenia spp. 53.3%,Hymenolepis spp. 1.5%; Trematodes:Alaria alata 10.9%,Cryptocotyle lingua 3.6%,Euparyphium melis 1.5%,Apophallus donicus 0.7%; Nematodes:Toxocara canis 73.7%,Uncinaria stenocephala 59.9%,Capillaria aerophila 46.8%,C. plica 23.5%,Molineus patens 5.1%,Crenosoma vulpis 4.5%,Strongyloides spp. 0.7%. The tapewormsMesocestoides spp. andEchinococcus spp. were not

F. H. M. Borgsteede

1984-01-01

249

9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...lesions in at least two of the usual inspection sites, namely the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus...examination, including examination of, but not limited to, the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication,...

2010-01-01

250

Spatial and Temporal Distribution of the Asian Fish Tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea) in  

E-print Network

), China, and the Amur River basin in Russia (Bauer and Hoffman 1976; Pool and Chubb 1985; Pool 1987 and Devils rivers. The parasite was collected from red shiners Cyprinella lutrensis, Tamaulipas shiners Notropis braytoni, sand shiners N. stramineus, river carpsuckers Carpiodes carpio, plains killifish

Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

251

9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.  

...heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus, tongue, and musculature exposed during normal dressing...heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus, tongue, and musculature exposed during normal...

2014-01-01

252

9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus, tongue, and musculature exposed during normal dressing...heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus, tongue, and musculature exposed during normal...

2011-01-01

253

9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus, tongue, and musculature exposed during normal dressing...heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus, tongue, and musculature exposed during normal...

2012-01-01

254

9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus, tongue, and musculature exposed during normal dressing...heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus, tongue, and musculature exposed during normal...

2013-01-01

255

The Efficacy of Extracts from Plants – Especially from Coconut and Onion – Against Tapeworms, Trematodes, and Nematodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Nematodes and cestodes are present in almost all animals and humans. These parasites spread to a considerable degree among\\u000a animals that are continuously grazing because in the case of nematodes, the eggs or larvae excreted in the feces leas to and\\u000a immediate subsequent infection when they are ingested orally with food. Infections also occur very simply in the case of

Heinz Mehlhorn; Gülendem Aksu; Katja Fischer; Bianca Strassen; Fathy Abdel Ghaffar; Khaled A. S. Al-Rasheid; Sven Klimpel

256

Contributions to the systematics, comparative morphology, and interrelationships of selected lecanicephalidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea)  

E-print Network

described for specimens collected from a butterfly ray, Gymnura micrura (Bloch & Schneider) (Myliobatiformes: Gymnuridae; as Pteroplatea micrura [Bloch & Schneider]), from Sri Lanka. This dissertation resurrects these three genera, recognizing them as valid...

Cielocha, Joanna J.

2013-05-31

257

Host parasite relationships of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and tapeworms of the genera Cittotaenia and Raillietina  

E-print Network

greater parasite loads than males. It was hypo- thesized that reproductive hormones of the host influenced. the host- parasite relationships of the nematodes. Few studies have been conducted on the relationship between sex and level of cestode... their individual data on the parasites of the v ti ' ' i t d tl, A~I*el r' . Of 700 specimens, trematodes infected 2. 5'/ of the specimens, cestodes 8. 5/ and nemstodes 78/. Dogiel (1966) attributed these differences to the predominantly herbivorous diet...

Gentner, Harry William

2012-06-07

258

Anthelmintic usage of extracts of Embelia schimperi from Tanzania.  

PubMed

Embelia schimperi Vatke, belonging to the family Myrsinaceae, is used among the traditional Masai people of Tanzania and Kenya since it is believed to eliminate adult Taenia saginata, the beef tapeworm. In the present study, the anthelmintic effect of an extract of the dried fruits of Embelia schimperi was studied in experimental parasite/rodent models. In two experiments, rats with 10 adult tapeworms of Hymenolepis diminuta were treated with a diammonium salt of embelin (DE), isolated from the fruits. Significant lower numbers and total worm biomass of Hymenolepis diminuta were observed in rats treated with 100 mg DE/kg. Furthermore, clear indications of the occurrence of destrobilation was observed in faeces after treatment and in 16% of the worms found at autopsy. The killing effect shown in vivo was corroborated by in vitro studies, which showed that all adult Hymenolepis diminuta were killed when incubated in a culture medium containing as little as 0.08 mg DE/ml. No significant in vivo effect of DE was observed against Hymenolepis microstoma, the trematode Echinostoma caproni and the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus in mice, although the worms could be killed in vitro. These results indicate that the crushed seeds of Embelia schimperi taken orally by the Masai people indeed have an anthelmintic effect against human intestinal tapeworms. PMID:8778505

Bøgh, H O; Andreassen, J; Lemmich, J

1996-01-01

259

Immunological and molecular diagnosis of cysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis, the infection with the larval stage of Taenia solium, is a cause of neurological symptoms including seizures, affecting the quality of life of patients and their families. Diagnosis focuses on brain imaging and serological tests are mostly used as confirmatory tools. Most cases, however, occur in poor endemic areas, where both kinds of diagnostic tools are poorly available. Development of point of care diagnostic tests is one of the most important priorities for cysticercosis researches today. The ideal point of care test would require detection of viable cysticercosis and hopefully identify cases with severe or progressive forms of neurocysticercosis, leading to referral of the patient for specialized medical attention. This manuscript describes the evolution of the serological diagnosis of cysticercosis over time, and the characteristics of the most common currently available tools, their advantages and disadvantages, and their potential use in future diagnostic tests. PMID:23265553

Rodriguez, Silvia; Wilkins, Patricia; Dorny, Pierre

2012-01-01

260

The relationship between neurocysticercosis and epilepsy: an endless debate.  

PubMed

Neurocysticercosis (NC), or cerebral infection with Taenia solium, is an important public health problem worldwide. Among the neurological sequelae of NC, seizures have been described as the most common symptom. Acute symptomatic seizures often result from degeneration of a viable cyst; however, not all of these patients with acute or provoked seizures will develop epilepsy (i.e., recurrent unprovoked seizures). Because of the high prevalence of epilepsy and NC, a causal, as well as incidental relationship between the two may exist. The epileptogenicity of calcified cysts as well as the potential association between NC and hippocampal sclerosis necessitates future research. Antihelminthic treatment of NC results in disappearance of viable cysts in about one-third of patients with parenchymal disease, but a reduction in seizure recurrence has not been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials. Prevention is critical to reduce the burden of seizure and epilepsy related to NC. PMID:24863516

Carpio, Arturo; Romo, Matthew L

2014-05-01

261

Neurocysticercosis presenting as focal hydrocephalus.  

PubMed

A 40-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of headache, nausea and vomiting, with generalised seizures for the past 15?days. On examination he had bilateral papilloedema, visual acuity was 6/6 in both eyes but perimetry showed right homonymous inferior quadrantanopia. His MRI showed numerous small cystic lesions with eccentric nodules, diffusely distributed in bilateral cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres. There was also focal hydrocephalus involving occipital and temporal horns of the left lateral ventricle leading to its selective dilation. Stool examination showed ova of Taenia solium. He was treated with albendazole, prednisone and sustained release sodium valproate for 1?month. His headache resolved and he is free of seizures. Repeat perimetry at 1?month also showed resolution of visual field defect. PMID:24962486

Malik, Azharuddin Mohammed; Shamim, Md Dilawez; Ahmad, Mehtab; Abdali, Nasar

2014-01-01

262

[Establishment of mouse model for Cysticercosis cellulosae].  

PubMed

Sixty mice were inoculated intravenously with 200-400 Taenia solium eggs collected from the gravid proglottides of the adult worm expelled from a taeniasis patient after pumpkin seed and areca treatment. The mice were killed and dissected 2 months after inoculation, and were found infected with Cysticercus cellulosae. These living cysticerci in muscles and lungs were elliptic in shape with diameters of 0.3-0.6 cm. The scolex was equipped with two rows of hooks and four typical suckers. When the cysticerci were hatched in gastric juice and bile for two hours at 37 degrees C the scoleces evaginated voluntarily. The results of this study suggest that the mouse can be used as an animal model for Cysticercus cellulosae. PMID:7720207

Yang, X; Xu, H; Cao, Z; Wang, W

1994-01-01

263

Hydrocephalus and Neurocysticercosis: Cases Illustrative of Three Distinct Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Background Cysticercosis is the most frequent parasitic infection of the nervous system. Most lesions are intracranial, and spinal involvement is rare. We describe here in two cases of neurocysticercosis (NCC) in the brain and one in the spinal cord that illustrate three distinct mechanisms leading to symptomatic acute hydrocephalus. Case Report Hydrocephalus was related to intracranial NCC in two of them. In the first case the hydrocephalus was due to an extensive arachnoiditis to the craniocervical junction, while in the second it was caused by obstruction of Magendie's foramen in the fourth ventricle by the scolex of Taenia solium. For the third patient, hydrocephalus revealed cysticercosis of the cauda equina due to the scolex. Conclusions NCC should be considered as a possible diagnosis for patients suffering from hydrocephalus when they originate from or have traveled in endemic areas, MRI of the spine is mandatory to search for intraspinal lesions.

Faillot, Thierry

2014-01-01

264

Efficacy of diverse antiparasitic treatments for cysticercosis in the pig model.  

PubMed

Taenia solium cysticercosis infects pigs and humans. Because antiparasitic treatment for human cysticercosis has sub-optimal efficacy, alternative regimes are needed. Seven antiparasitic regimens were tested in 42 naturally infected pigs with cysticercosis, and compared with prednisone alone (n = 6) or no treatment (n = 6). The numbers of viable cysts in muscles and in the brain were examined after necropsy and were significantly decreased in pigs receiving combined albendazole plus praziquantel, albendazole alone, or oxfendazole. Pigs receiving praziquantel alone and nitazoxanide had numerous surviving cysts. Control (untreated) pigs and prednisone-treated pigs had many more viable cysts, suggesting no effect. Combined albendazole plus praziquantel, and oxfendazole, showed a strong cysticidal effect and provide suitable alternative treatments to be further explored for their use for treatment of human neurocysticercosis. PMID:22855760

Gonzalez, Armando E; Bustos, Javier A; Jimenez, Juan A; Rodriguez, Mary L; Ramirez, Mercy G; Gilman, Robert H; Garcia, Hector H

2012-08-01

265

It isn't always caviar.  

PubMed

A 47-year-old HIV-positive woman presented with fever and a painful swollen right forearm. Clinical presentation and MRI were suggestive for a necrotising fasciitis. Surgical exploration revealed small transparent cystic bodies resembling white caviar, which were identified by their typical morphological features as larval stages (cysticerci) of Taenia crassiceps. Molecular methods, using sequence analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene, definitively confirmed T crassiceps. T crassiceps (Cestodea: Taeniidae) is a tapeworm found in the intestines of red foxes and dogs in the Northern Hemisphere. Human infections are rare and appear to depend on the host's immunocompetence. The eight published cases could not clarify the mode of infection but discuss ingestion of teniid eggs or penetration through a cutaneous wound. The optimal treatment remains unclear. We describe a detailed and successful treatment strategy including extensive surgical interventions, prolonged anthelmintic and antiretroviral treatment. PMID:24692370

Flammer Anikpeh, Yvonne; Grimm, Felix; Lindenblatt, Nicole; Zinkernagel, Annelies

2014-01-01

266

Primary axillary hydatid cyst.  

PubMed

Echinococcosis (hydatid disease) is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus (or Taenia echinococcus). The adult form of the parasite lives in the gut of the dog, while the intermediate hosts, where the tapeworm develops to larval stage are cats, cattle, pigs and humans(considered to be accidental intermediate hosts). The parasite has a worldwide distribution, but the endemic areas are Canada and Alaska, Australia, New Zealand, South America and the Mediterranean region. Hydatid cyst can grow many years before the symptoms and clinical signs appear. The liver and the lungs are the most affected organs, but primary location of the hydatid disease in the axilla is extremely rare. In our country we did not find any records of axillary hydatid disease, while the literature contains only 12 cases of axillary location. We present the case of a woman, 60 years old, with a primary axillary location of hydatid cyst, who underwent a total cystectomy. PMID:25149625

Mercu?, D; Andri?oiu, A; Tra?c?, Et; Silo?i, C; Resceanu, A; Mercu?, R

2014-01-01

267

Helminth parasites of wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes L.) in The Netherlands.  

PubMed

To study the helminth fauna of wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in The Netherlands, material was collected from 139 foxes. The following parasites were found. Cestodes: Taenia spp. 53.3%, Hymenolepis spp. 1.5%; Trematodes: Alaria alata 10.9%, Cryptocotyle lingua 3.6%, Euparyphium melis 1.5%, Apophallus donicus 0.7%; Nematodes: Toxocara canis 73.7%, Uncinaria stenocephala 59.9%, Capillaria aerophila 46.8%, C. plica 23.5%, Molineus patens 5.1%, Crenosoma vulpis 4.5%, Strongyloides spp. 0.7%. The tapeworms Mesocestoides spp. and Echinococcus spp. were not seen. No relationship was observed between worm burden and sex, time of year or place of origin. PMID:6741217

Borgsteede, F H

1984-01-01

268

[Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) as reservoir of parasites and source of zoonosis].  

PubMed

Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) as reservoir of parasites and source of zoonosis. This review presents data from Europe and Poland on the prevalence of helminth and protozoan parasites in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). The most common nematodes were geohelminths: Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis and Toxocara leonina. As concerning Trichinella genus T. britovi was found more often than T. spiralis. Among tapeworms the following species were recorded: Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia sp., and Echinococcus multilocularis. Detected cases of E. multilocularis together with an increase of fox population during last few years create a potential human risk of infection. The results of many studies indicate rare presence of trematodes (Alaria alata) and protozoan parasites (Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Leishmania spp., Eimeria spp.) in red foxes. PMID:16838621

Okulewicz, Anna; Hildebrand, Joanna; Okulewicz, Jerzy; Perec, Agnieszka

2005-01-01

269

A behavioral study of the beetle Tenebrio molitor infected with cysticercoids of the rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta.  

PubMed

The host-parasite relationship, Tenebrio molitor-Hymenolepis diminuta, was analyzed. The learning behavior of infected and uninfected (control) beetles in a T-maze was compared. The infected beetles moved much slower in the T-maze than the controls. The infected beetles reached the same level of learning as the controls. However, they needed more trials than the controls. The effect of the infection was already distinct after the first week and even higher after the second week. This indicates that the initial phase of infection caused stress in the beetles. Longer infection did not worsen their ability to learn. Thus, the parasites clearly changed the behavior of their intermediate host and probably made them more susceptible to their final host, the rat. PMID:16555097

Sheiman, I M; Shkutin, M F; Terenina, N B; Gustafsson, M K S

2006-06-01

270

[Fine structure of glial cells in the central nervous system of the tapeworm Grillotia erinaceus (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha)].  

PubMed

The problem of glial cells existing in parasitic and free living flatworms is correlated with organization of parenchyma in platyhelmintes. In the contrary to the widespread opinion that myelin-like envelopes and glial cells do not exist in the nervous system of parasitic flatworms, it has been shown by ultrastructural researches that Amphilina foliacea (Cestoda, Amphilinidea) has well developed glial cells and myelin-like envelopes in the ganglia and main cords, which include both glial cells and intercellular components. The aim of our research was to reveal and investigate in details structural components corresponding to the concept of the glial cell in the CNS of Grillotia erinaceus (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha). Three types of glial cells have been found. The first type is the fibroblast-like glial cells; cells locate in the cerebral ganglion, contain in cytoplasm and extract out fibrillar matrix, form desmosomes and have supporting function. The glial cells of the second type form myeline-like envelope of the giant axons and bulbar nerves in scolex and have laminar cytoplasm. These cells are numerous and exceed in number the neurons bodies into the nerve. The glial cells of the third type form multilayer envelopes in the main nerve cords; extra cellular fibers and gap-junctions take place between the layers. There are contacts between the glial cells of the third type and excretory epithelium but specialized contacts with neurons have been not found. The existing of glial cells in free living and parasitic flatworms is discussed. PMID:18727401

Biserova, N M

2008-01-01

271

An immunocytochemical, histochemical and ultrastructural study of the nervous system of the tapeworm Cyathocephalus truncatus (Cestoda, Spathebothriidea).  

PubMed

This study is the first detailed study of the organisation of the neuromuscular system of Cyathocephalus truncatus (Cestoda, Spathebothriidea). Five techniques have been used: (1) immunocytochemistry, (2) staining with TRITC-conjugated phalloidin, (3) NADPHdiaphorase histochemistry, (4) confocal scanning laser microscopy and (5) transmission electron microscopy. The patterns of nerves immunoreactive (IR) to antibodies towards serotonin (5-HT) and the invertebrate neuropeptide FMRFamide are described in relation to the musculature. The patterns of NADPHdiaphorase positive nerves and 5-HT-IR nerves are compared. The fine structure of the nervous system (NS) is described. The organisation of NS in the non-segmented, polyzoic C. truncatus differs clearly from that in the non-segmented, monozoic Caryophyllaeus laticeps and shows distinct similarities with the NS in pseudophyllidean cestodes. This supports the hypothesis that taxon Caryophyllidea and Spatheobothriidea form independent lineages within Eucestoda. PMID:18802724

Terenina, Nadezhda B; Poddubnaya, Larisa G; Tolstenkov, Oleg O; Gustafsson, Margaretha K S

2009-01-01

272

Floriparicapitus, a new genus of lecanicephalidean tapeworm (Cestoda) from sawfishes (Pristidae) and guitarfishes (Rhinobatidae) in the Indo-West Pacific  

E-print Network

sac size. As it stands, the new genus appears to be restricted to a subclade of the Rhinopristiformes consisting of the sawfishes and species of Glaucostegus. Powered by Editorial Manager® and ProduXion Manager® from Aries Systems Corporation 1 RH... of their distinctive, long rostrum bearing bilateral teeth. Their affinity for estuarine and freshwater habitats, coupled with their large size (up to 7 m in length and 1 metric ton in weight) has made them highly vulnerable, both to fishing pressure (as targets...

Cielocha, Joanna J.; Jensen, Kirsten; Caira, Janine N.

2013-01-01

273

The Fringed Tapeworm (Thysanosoma actinioides) as a Parasite of the Rocky Mountain Elk in Yellowstone National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-mortem examination of 181 elk (Cervus canadensis nelsoni) from the northern Yellowstone Park herd in 1967-68 revealed that 41% were infected with Thysanosoma actinioides. Infections occurred in all age classes of animals from seven areas in the Yellowstone, Gardner and Lamar drainages in the northern section of the Park. Prevalence of the parasite was higher in calves and yearlings than

RICHARD H. JACOBSON; DAVID E. WORLEY; KENNETH R. GREER

274

Sequential and concurrent exposure of flour beetles ( Tribolium confusum ) to tapeworms ( Hymenolepis diminuta ) and pesticide (diatomaceous earth).  

PubMed

The response of Tribolium confusum to sublethal levels of 2 environmental stressors was studied, i.e., parasitic infection represented by the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta , and a physical stressor represented by the natural pesticide diatomaceous earth (DE). These were applied sequentially (DE, then infection) to detect indirect or carryover effects of DE, and concurrently (DE applied immediately after exposure to parasites and DE presence maintained throughout the infection) to detect direct effects of DE. DE alone, but not parasitism alone, produced significant host mortality, and concurrent treatment with DE and parasitism did not increase mortality over DE alone. Parasite abundance was significantly higher following sequential, but not concurrent, DE exposure. Parasite abundance in mated hosts was significantly higher than in virgin hosts. Parasitic infection resulted in significantly fewer eggs retained in the oviduct of beetles, but there was no difference in the number of eggs that accumulated in the culture medium and no difference in the surface-seeking behavior of beetles. Mating status of beetles in all treatments, and DE exposure in concurrent treatments significantly increased their surface-seeking behavior. Concurrent exposure to DE also resulted in a 4- to 6-fold increase in host egg numbers that accumulated in the culture medium. Although DE exposure increased parasite numbers in the beetles, these 2 stressors otherwise appeared to act independently. PMID:22263651

Shostak, Allen W

2012-06-01

275

9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

If parasites are found to be distributed in a carcass in such a manner or to be of such character that their removal and the removal of the lesions caused by them is impracticable, no part of the carcass shall be passed for human...

2011-01-01

276

9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

If parasites are found to be distributed in a carcass in such a manner or to be of such character that their removal and the removal of the lesions caused by them is impracticable, no part of the carcass shall be passed for human...

2012-01-01

277

9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...  

If parasites are found to be distributed in a carcass in such a manner or to be of such character that their removal and the removal of the lesions caused by them is impracticable, no part of the carcass shall be passed for human...

2014-01-01

278

9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

If parasites are found to be distributed in a carcass in such a manner or to be of such character that their removal and the removal of the lesions caused by them is impracticable, no part of the carcass shall be passed for human...

2013-01-01

279

The Effects of Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen, and Asian Tapeworm Infection on Growth and Survival of the Topeka Shiner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Topeka shiner Notropis topeka is an endangered fish species, historically described as inhabiting cool, headwater prairie streams. However, Topeka shiners recently have been found in off-channel habitats with high temperatures and low concentrations of dissolved oxygen. In laboratory experiments to determine whether Topeka shiners can tolerate the conditions in these off-channel habitats for extended periods, we found that their

Jessica J. Koehle; Ira R. Adelman

2007-01-01

280

Rapid Molecular Identification of Human Taeniid Cestodes by Pyrosequencing Approach  

PubMed Central

Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica are causative agents of taeniasis in humans. The difficulty of morphological identification of human taeniids can lead to misdiagnosis or confusion. To overcome this problem, several molecular methods have been developed, but use of these tends to be time-consuming. Here, a rapid and high-throughput pyrosequencing approach was developed for the identification of three human taeniids originating from various countries. Primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of the three Taenia species were designed. Variations in a 26-nucleotide target region were used for identification. The reproducibility and accuracy of the pyrosequencing technology was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. This technique will be a valuable tool to distinguish between sympatric human taeniids that occur in Thailand, Asia and Pacific countries. This method could potentially be used for the molecular identification of the taeniid species that might be associated with suspicious cysts and lesions, or cyst residues in humans or livestock at the slaughterhouse. PMID:24945530

Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Intapan, Pewpan M.; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Tourtip, Somjintana; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Maleewong, Wanchai

2014-01-01

281

Rapid molecular identification of human taeniid cestodes by pyrosequencing approach.  

PubMed

Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica are causative agents of taeniasis in humans. The difficulty of morphological identification of human taeniids can lead to misdiagnosis or confusion. To overcome this problem, several molecular methods have been developed, but use of these tends to be time-consuming. Here, a rapid and high-throughput pyrosequencing approach was developed for the identification of three human taeniids originating from various countries. Primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of the three Taenia species were designed. Variations in a 26-nucleotide target region were used for identification. The reproducibility and accuracy of the pyrosequencing technology was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. This technique will be a valuable tool to distinguish between sympatric human taeniids that occur in Thailand, Asia and Pacific countries. This method could potentially be used for the molecular identification of the taeniid species that might be associated with suspicious cysts and lesions, or cyst residues in humans or livestock at the slaughterhouse. PMID:24945530

Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Tourtip, Somjintana; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Maleewong, Wanchai

2014-01-01

282

Recent advances in vaccination against cysticercosis.  

PubMed

Progress in recent research towards vaccination against cysticercosis is reviewed briefly. An antigen of Taenia ovis has recently been cloned using recombinant DNA techniques and this single defined recombinant molecule has been shown to induce high-level protection against challenge infection in sheep. Prospects for the application of this discovery in T. ovis for development of effective vaccines against infection with the metacestodes of other taeniid parasites are discussed. The extent and level of cross protection between different taeniid species is reviewed. Recent research results defining stage-specific immune responses against T. taeniaeformis in mice following immunization with oncosphere and metacestode antigens is discussed in relation to the potential development of cocktail vaccines. Such vaccines may be capable of protecting against initial infection and the killing of those parasites which might evade the early-phase immune responses. Recent advances in the development of a practical vaccine against Taenia ovis infection in sheep raise the realistic prospect of the development of a similar vaccine against other taeniid parasites including T. solium. Advances in the understanding of vaccination - induced immune responses against T. taeniaeformis infection in mice also indicate that effective immunization may be capable of eliminating the establishment of any viable metacestodes. PMID:2488992

Lightowlers, M W

1989-01-01

283

A simple method for collecting eggs of taeniid cestodes from fresh, frozen or ethanol-fixed segments.  

PubMed

A simple method was devised for collecting eggs of Taenia taeniaeformis and T. saginata. All gravid segments, either fresh or frozen or 70% ethanol-fixed, were gently scraped using a pestle on a 150 mesh stainless steel sieve. Eggs and tissue debris were washed out all together with mouse tonicity phosphate buffered saline (MTPBS) through the 150 mesh sieve into a glass beaker. Egg suspension with a huge amount of tissue debris in MTPBS was centrifuged 5 min at 3000 r.p.m. (x 1600 g) and the pellet of eggs and tissue debris was resuspended with 1 vol. of MTPBS and 2 vol. of Percoll (Pharmacia) and centrifuged 60 min at 3000 r.p.m. More than 90% of eggs sedimented in the pellet. The supernatant covered with tissue debris was decanted, and the egg pellet was resuspended and centrifuged several times with MTPBS to remove Percoll. It is suggested that this simple method may prove useful for preparation of eggs of biohazardous taeniid cestodes, such as Taenia solium and Echinococcus spp. PMID:7635631

Takemoto, Y; Negita, T; Ohnishi, K; Suzuki, M; Ito, A

1995-04-01

284

Increase of Membrane Conductance by Adrenaline in the Smooth Muscle of GuineaPig Taenia Coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) The double sucrose-gap method was used to record changes in membrane resistance in intestinal smooth muscle strips. (2) Adrenaline reduced the membrane resistance; it hyperpolarized the membrane and blocked spontaneous and evoked spikes. (3) When the membrane potential was shifted by applying conditioning current, the hyperpolarization produced by adrenaline was larger during depolarization and smaller during hyperpolarization. The hyperpolarization

Edith Bulbring; T. Tomita

1969-01-01

285

[Scanning electron microscopic representation of the tegument of the cysticercus of Taenia saginata].  

PubMed

By scanning electron microscopy we found heteromorph microtriches in the tegumental surface of the praeadult and its bladder. But this polymorphism is caused by three unimorph parts, namely the head region, the midbody and the bladder. The types of microtriches are heterogeneous in regard to the shape (from conical to cylindrical), the size (from 0.37 to 4.5 micron in length and 0.055 to 0.092 micron in diameter) and the density (from 6.3 to 25 microtriches/micron 2). An attempt was made to determine the relative increase in the tegumental surface of the cysticercus of T. saginata. The relation of actual surface area to a corresponding area without microtriches is OF = nA + 1/1 - nB. In this study, the factor of the increase in the tegumental surface (OF) ranged from the head region (6.3x) to the midbody (1.4x -1.7x) and the bladder (21x). By transmission electron microscopy fine threads were demonstrated in the apical surface of the microtriches. These fine threads raised the adhesive function of the microtriches in the course of the infection of the final host as well as in the migration in the digestive tract. A relation between shape, size and density of the microtriches and the body volume is postulated. PMID:3177940

Engelbrecht, H; Zokpé, I

1988-06-01

286

The spatial ecology of free-ranging domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) in western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background In many parts of the developing world, pigs are kept under low-input systems where they roam freely to scavenge food. These systems allow poor farmers the opportunity to enter into livestock keeping without large capital investments. This, combined with a growing demand for pork, especially in urban areas, has led to an increase in the number of small-holder farmers keeping free range pigs as a commercial enterprise. Despite the benefits which pig production can bring to a household, keeping pigs under a free range system increases the risk of the pig acquiring diseases, either production-limiting or zoonotic in nature. This study used Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to track free range domestic pigs in rural western Kenya, in order to understand their movement patterns and interactions with elements of the peri-domestic environment. Results We found that these pigs travel an average of 4,340?m in a 12?hr period and had a mean home range of 10,343?m2 (range 2,937–32,759?m2) within which the core utilisation distribution was found to be 964?m2 (range 246–3,289?m2) with pigs spending on average 47% of their time outside their homestead of origin. Conclusion These are the first data available on the home range of domestic pigs kept under a free range system: the data show that pigs in these systems spend much of their time scavenging outside their homesteads, suggesting that these pigs may be exposed to infectious agents over a wide area. Control policies for diseases such as Taenia solium, Trypanosomiasis, Trichinellosis, Toxoplasmosis or African Swine Fever therefore require a community-wide focus and pig farmers require education on the inherent risks of keeping pigs under a free range system. The work presented here will enable future research to incorporate movement data into studies of disease transmission, for example for the understanding of transmission of African Swine Fever between individuals, or in relation to the life-cycle of parasites including Taenia solium. PMID:23497587

2013-01-01

287

Granuloma cytokines in murine cysticercosis.  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis, caused by Taenia solium, is one of the most common causes of seizures worldwide. The symptoms result from granulomatous inflammation associated with dying cyst forms of the parasite. Although the invasive larvae can be killed by immune serum plus complement, immunity to the cyst stage depends on a cellular response. This dichotomous immune response is reminiscent of the extremes of the immune response associated with T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokine profiles. To characterize the cytokine response in cysticercosis, granulomas were removed from the peritoneal cavity of mice infected with Taenia crassiceps cysts and examined for cytokine message by in situ hybridization using 35S-labeled RNA probes. The granulomas were staged based on histologic appearance of the degenerating parasite. Message for gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) was identified by light microscopy in 11 of the 12 granulomas, and interleukin-2 (IL-2) message was identified in 9 of the 12. By laser scanning confocal microscopy, significantly increased IFN-gamma and IL-2 pixel intensity was identified in nearly all of the granulomas from early histologic stages. Message for IL-4 was seen in 6 of the 12 granulomas. Only granulomas with complete destruction of the parasite architecture displayed more than minimal amounts of IL-4 message by light microscopy, and only 2 of 12 granulomas had IL-4 pixel intensity significantly above background. Only minimal amounts of IL-10 message were detected in 4 of 11 granulomas. Thus, early granulomas in cysticercosis are predominantly associated with a Th1 response, whereas later granulomas, in which parasite destruction is complete, have a mixture of Th1 and IL-4. The Th1 response appears to play an important role both in the pathogenesis of disease as well as in the clearing of the parasites, with IL-4 involved in downregulation of the initial response. PMID:9199468

Robinson, P; Atmar, R L; Lewis, D E; White, A C

1997-01-01

288

A SURVEY OF THE TAPEWORM FAUNA OF THE COWNOSE RAY, RHINOPTERA BONASUS, FROM THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO WITH COMMENTS ON INTERMEDIATE HOSTS  

E-print Network

graded ethanol series, dried using hexamethyldisilizane (Electron Microscopy Services, Fort Washington, Pennsylvania), mounted on aluminum stubs using double-sided carbon 17 tape, and sputter-coated with approximately 35 nm of gold. Scanning electron..., 1889; R. lubeti (Euzet, 1959) Campbell and Carvajal, 1979; R. mesodesmatum (Bahamonde and Lopez, 1962) Campbell and Carvajal, 1979; and R. brachyascum (Riser, 1955) Campbell and Carvajal, 1979. Two paratypes and specimens collected as part of this study...

Call, Garrett

2007-10-12

289

First report of a gryporhynchid tapeworm (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) from New Zealand and from an eleotrid fish, described from metacestodes and in vitro-grown worms.  

PubMed

Metacestodes are often found in the body cavity of the common bully (Gobiomorphus cotidianus McDowall), from freshwater habitats in Otago, New Zealand. Identification of metacestodes relies only on the number, size and shape of the rostellar hooks. To attempt species determination, we cultivated metacestodes in vitro for up to 23 days, during which they matured to at least the male stage of development, although female organs were not discernable. Identified as members of the genus Paradilepis Hsü, 1935 (family Gryporhynchidae), these specimens are compared to previously described species, in particular P. minima (Goss, 1940), from Australia, the closest species, both geographically and morphologically. Although the size of scolex, suckers and proglottids differ significantly from those of P. minima, we are cautious about interpreting 'adults' grown in vitro, because we are unsure whether the artificial conditions alter development. For this reason, and because of the lack of female organs, we refrain from erecting a new species, and refer to the specimens as Paradilepis cf. minima until such time as the adults are found in the definitive host. With this proviso we present here a description of the in vitro-grown worms and the metacestodes as a preliminary study of this cestode. A molecular analysis of small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences, shows the position of P. cf. minima and another gryporhynchid, Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus (Wedl, 1855), to be equivocal, but confirms their exclusion from the Dilepididae and Hymenolepididae. This is the first record of a gryporhynchid from New Zealand, and the first from the fish family Eleotridae. PMID:22152219

Presswell, B; Poulin, R; Randhawa, H S

2012-12-01

290

Identification, molecular characterization and expression of the gene encoding the epidermal growth factor receptor orthologue from the fox-tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are crucially involved in the development of metazoan organisms and possible mediators of cell–cell communication that occurs between eukaryotic parasites and hosts. We have now cloned and characterized the complete complementary DNA (cDNA) molecule encoding a novel receptor tyrosine kinase, EmER, of the human parasite Echinococcus multilocularis. EmER shared significant amino acid sequence homologies with members

Markus Spiliotis; Antje Kroner; Klaus Brehm

2003-01-01

291

Intestinal helminths of golden jackals and red foxes from Tunisia.  

PubMed

Forty wild canids including 31 golden jackals (Canis aureus Linné, 1758) and 9 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linné, 1758) collected between 2008 and 2011 in the northeast, northwest and center of Tunisia were necropsied and examined for intestinal helminth parasites. All jackals and foxes were found infected with a prevalence rate of 95% for cestodes, 82.5% for nematodes and 7.5% for acanthocephalans. A total of twelve helminth species were recorded in red foxes: cestodes, Dipylidium caninum (55.6%), Diplopylidium noelleri (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes lineatus (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes litteratus (33%), Mesocestoïdes corti (22%); nematodes, Ancylostoma caninum (11%), Uncinaria stenocephala (44%), Spirura rytipleurites (11%), Trichuris vulpis (33%), Pterygodermatites affinis (67%), Oxynema linstowi (33%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (22%). The fifteen recovered helminth species in jackals were Echinococcus granulosus (9.7%), D. caninum (16%), D. noelleri (16%), M. lineatus (74%), M. litteratus (23%), M. corti (12.9%), Taenia pisiformis (3.2%), Taenia spp. (19%), Toxocara canis (16%), Toxascaris leonina (6.5%), A. caninum (9.7%), U. stenocephala (68%), P. affinis (6.5%), O. linstowi (3.2%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (3.2%). This is the first report on the presence of P. affinis, D. noelleri and O. linstowi in Tunisia. E. granulosus was found in young jackals, aged less than 4 years old, with a higher abundance in females (8.9 worms). M. lineatus presented the highest mean intensity of 231.86 and 108.8 tapeworms respectively in jackals and foxes. Canids from the northwest region had the highest prevalence (77.5%) and highest intensity (243.7) of helminth species compared to those from the northeast and central areas. U. stenocephala and O. linstowi had the highest mean intensity for nematodes in both jackals and foxes at 14.3 and 88 worms respectively. PMID:24938826

Lahmar, Samia; Boufana, Belgees; Ben Boubaker, Sarra; Landolsi, Faouzi

2014-08-29

292

Effect of depletion of L3T4+ cells on resistance to early primary infection of mice with Taenia taeniaeformis.  

PubMed

The role of L3T4+ T lymphocytes in early primary infection with the metacestode of T. taeniaeformis was investigated by selective removal of these cells in vivo by parenteral injections with the rat monoclonal antibody (MAb) GK1.5 directed against the L3T4 molecule. Comparisons between treated and non-treated BALB/cByJ mice, normally resistant to infection with T. taeniaeformis, demonstrated that the treated mice had a greater percentage of viable parasites in the livers. Eosinophils were prominent in the region immediately surrounding parasite larvae in control mice, whereas treated mice showed virtually no eosinophil infiltration. Additionally, fewer tissue macrophages were evident near parasite larvae in the treatment group when compared to controls. The more susceptible C3H/HeDub strain mice demonstrated similar responses following treatment with the MAb, including diminished parasite killing and limited inflammatory cell infiltration. When C3H/HeDub mice were injected with the cytotoxic agent vinblastine sulfate, which has been shown to diminish Lyt-2+ suppressor cell activity, these mice remained unable to mount a strong local cellular response to the larval parasite. It is suggested that L3T4+ T lymphocytes play a crucial role in the innate resistance to T. taeniaeformis infection during the first 6 days post-infection. Effects seen following vinblastine treatment may be a result of drug-induced alterations in leukocyte chemotaxis, toxicity to other effector T cell populations, or a specific depletion of a functional Lyt-2+ T cell population that is required in addition to L3T4+ T cells for the expression of resistance to primary infection with T. taeniaeformis. PMID:2146233

Davis, S W; Hammerberg, B

1990-08-01

293

Application of DNA fingerprinting with digoxigenated oligonucleotide probe (CAC)5 to analysis of the genetic variation within Taenia taeniaeformis.  

PubMed

DNA from T. taeniaeformis digested with the restriction endonuclease was hybridized with digoxigenated oligonucleotide probe (CAC)5. Metacestode and adult showed same clear multibanding patterns, which were characteristic of multilocus DNA fingerprinting. The fingerprinting patterns were quite different from those of the rodent hosts. Genetic variations in 4 laboratory-reared isolates of T. taeniaeformis, including 3 isolates which have been reported to be indistinguishable by infectivity, morphology and protein composition of metacestode, were investigated using this technique. Each of the 4 isolates exhibited isolate-specific fingerprinting patterns and were easily distinguished from one another, thus it was considered that (CAC)5 was a highly resolvable and informative probe for cestodes. However, it was also indicated that (CAC)5 was so sensitive that applying fingerprinting with (CAC)5 to taxonomical or phylogenetic analysis was limited where habitat of the host was restricted to the small area. In comparison to fingerprinting with 32P-labeled (CAC)5, fingerprinting with digoxigenated (CAC)5 represented more and sharper bands. It was considered that a digoxigenated probe was more useful for genetic analysis of cestodes. PMID:7492644

Okamoto, M; Ueda, H; Hayashi, M; Oku, Y; Kurosawa, T; Kamiya, M

1995-04-01

294

Human Neurocysticercosis: Comparison of Different Diagnostic Tests Using Cerebrospinal Fluid ?  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis (NC), caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, is one of the most common parasitic diseases of the central nervous system. The diagnosis of NC is mostly based on costly brain neuroimaging (computed tomography and/or nuclear magnetic resonance), which is rarely accessible in most affected areas. The most sensitive and specific tools for NC diagnosis are imagery techniques. The identification of specific antibodies and antigens is currently used only to support NC diagnosis due to their limited specificity and sensitivity. This study was performed to compare immunodiagnostic assays (antibody detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] and enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blotting [EITB] and HP10 antigen detection by ELISA) with the detection of parasite DNA by PCR amplification of a repetitive element of the parasite genome in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 121 radiologically and clinically characterized NC patients. Patients were divided into six groups according to the stage of the parasites and their localization. The CSF cellularity of each patient was also recorded. When all patients were considered, PCR exhibited the highest sensitivity (95.9%) and variable specificity (80% or 100%) depending on the controls used. The sensitivities of antibody detection by ELISA and EITB were not significantly different, and ELISA identified HP10 antigen mostly when vesicular cysticerci were located in the subarachnoideal basal cisterns. These results can help in the selection of different individual assays or combinations of assays to be used in NC diagnosis according to different requirements. PMID:21068283

Michelet, Lorraine; Fleury, Agnes; Sciutto, Edda; Kendjo, Eric; Fragoso, Gladis; Paris, Luc; Bouteille, Bernard

2011-01-01

295

Evidence-based identification of the most important livestock related zoonotic diseases in Kampala, Uganda.  

PubMed

Urban and peri-urban livestock farming in developing countries plays an important role in food security in cities; however it brings with it zoonotic risks. The present study was conducted to identify the most important livestock farming-related zoonotic diseases among the human population in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala, Uganda and to assess the risks from such farming. A framework for identifying livestock farming-related significant zoonoses was developed. The process consisted of screening of medical record summaries for zoonotic diagnoses, selection of the zoonoses which are related to livestock farming, case estimation of the identified zoonoses and evidence-based reassurance of the importance of diseases. Medical records in the Mulago National Referral Hospital were used for the analysis. Leaders and residents of 75 Local Councils (LC1s: villages; 48 urban, 11 peri-urban and 16 rural) randomly selected in Kampala were interviewed for information regarding livestock farming systems, value chains and use of medical service units. Twelve zoonoses were identified in the screening and four out of them were related to livestock farming: animal sourced food-borne gastroenteritis, brucellosis, Taenia solium neuro-cysticercosis and Mycobacterium bovis tuberculosis. Livestock farming, value chain and severity of the diseases confirmed that all four diseases were important. Poor geographical correlation between animals in peri-urban and rural areas and patients in urban areas suggested that the majority of these zoonoses were caused by informally-marketed foods. PMID:21467754

Makita, Kohei; Fèvre, Eric M; Waiswa, Charles; Kaboyo, Winyi; Eisler, Mark C; Welburn, Susan C

2011-08-01

296

Soft Tissue Cysticercosis: Study of 21 Cases  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate the clinico – pathological profile of patients with cysticercosis cellulosae. Materials and Methods The clinico – pathological data of patients with cysticercosis cellulosae who were reviewed during the last 5 years, were retrospectively analysed. Results Of the total 6805 biopsies analysed , 21 cases of cysticercosis in the soft tissues were observed. Excisional biopsy was performed to diagnose the lesion. The pattern of distribution was striated muscles in 11(52.4%), eye in 6 (28.6%), subcutaneous tissues in 2(9.5%), tongue in 1(4.8%) and breast in 1(4.8%) patient. Anterior abdominal wall was the most involved site. Conclusion Cysticercosis, a parasitic infestation caused by Taenia solium is a major health problem in the developing countries. It is a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for the clinicians. Steps towards control and possible eradication of the disease are needed, as the disease causes not only chronic morbidity, but also contributes to economic losses in an already impoverished population. PMID:23373024

Agrawal, Ranjan

2012-01-01

297

Prevalence case-control study of epilepsy in three Burkina Faso villages  

PubMed Central

Purpose To estimate the association between the prevalence of epilepsy and potential risk factors in three Burkina Faso villages. Methods Three villages were selected based on local reports of high numbers of epilepsy cases and pig-rearing practices. One person aged 7 or older was selected at random from all households of selected concessions for epilepsy screening and blood sampling. Epilepsy was confirmed by a physician using the ILAE definition. The cross-sectional associations between epilepsy and selected factors and sero-response to the antigens of Taenia solium were estimated using a Bayesian hierarchical logistic regression. Prevalence odds ratios (POR) and their 95% Credible Intervals (95%BCI) were estimated. Results Of 888 individuals interviewed, 39 of 70 screened positive were confirmed to have epilepsy for a lifetime prevalence of 4.5% (95%CI: 3.3–6.0). The prevalence of epilepsy was associated with a positive reaction to cysticercosis Ag-ELISA serology (POR=3.1, 95% BCI= 1.0;8.3), past pork consumption (POR=9.7, 95% BCI=2.5;37.9), and being salaried or a trader compared to a farmer or housewife (POR=2.9, 95% BCI= 1.2;6.4). Discussion Several factors were associated with prevalent epilepsy, with Ag-ELISA suggesting the presence of neurocysticercosis. The association of epilepsy and some occupations may reflect differences in local attitudes toward epilepsy and should be further explored. PMID:22289127

Nitiema, Pascal; Carabin, Helene; Hounton, Sennen; Cowan, Linda D; Ganaba, Rasmane; Kompaore, C; Millogo, Athanase

2012-01-01

298

Review of Zoonotic Parasites in Medical and Veterinary Fields in the Republic of Korea  

PubMed Central

Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19885329

2009-01-01

299

Crystallization of the Membrane-Associated Annexin B1: Roles of Additive Screen, Dynamic Light Scattering, and Bioactivity Assay  

SciTech Connect

Annexin B1 (AnxB1) is a calcium-dependent phospholipid binding protein from Taenia solium cysticercus and has been reported to possess anticoagulant activity, to inhibit phospholipase A{sub 2}, and to regulate membrane transport. Native AnxB1 and its selenomethionyl derivative have been overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified. The results of dynamic light scattering analysis showed that Hepes buffer combined with low concentration salts (NaCl or CaCl{sub 2}) was beneficial for preventing aggregation and for AnxB1 stabilization in the storage. After the additive screen, crystals have been yielded in the presence of guanidine hydrochloride (Gn-HCl). We determined that a low concentration of Gn-HCl significantly delayed clotting time and increased anticoagulant activity. Analysis of the crystal showed that in the presence of Gn-HCl, AnxB1 crystallizes in orthorhombic space group, which is modified from the cubic space group for crystals grown in the absence of Gn-HCl. A high quality data set (at 1.9 {angstrom}) has been collected successfully for crystals of L-selenomethionine labeled protein in the presence of Gn-HCl, to solve the structure with the single anomalous dispersion method (SAD). The unit cell parameters are a = 102.35 {angstrom}, b = 103.59 {angstrom}, c = 114.60 {angstrom}, {alpha} = {beta} = {gamma} = 90.00{sup o}.

Ding, F.; Xu, Y; Azzi, A; Zhu, D; Rehse, D; Chen, C; Sun, S; Lin, S

2010-01-01

300

Further characterization of Tsol-p27 as a diagnostic antigen in sub-Saharan Africa.  

PubMed

Commercial antigens used to diagnose human neurocysticercosis are obtained from either a soluble parasite extract or a parasite-derived glycoprotein fraction. The aim of the present study was to identify antigenic proteins as potential diagnostic candidates in Mozambique. Soluble proteins from Taenia solium cysticerci were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and blotted onto nitrocellulose membranes. Subtracted hybridization was performed with serum samples obtained from patients with neurocysticercosis (NCC) and from a NCC-negative control group. Six antigenic proteins were identified and sequenced by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among these we found Tsol-p27, which was previously identified as a diagnostic candidate in a study conducted in Nicaragua, Central America. Here, we evaluated Tsol-p27 and the antigen cC1 as potential recombinant diagnostic reagents, and also investigated the localization and partial function of Tsol-p27. Immunoblotting demonstrated that Tsol-p27 was recognized by all 10 serum samples from NCC-positive individuals, whereas cC1 was identified by only five of the 10 positive sera. None of the antigens were recognized by negative control sera. Despite the limited number of serum samples evaluated in this study, the results suggest that Tsol-p27 can be a suitable candidate for diagnosis of human NCC, not only in Central America but also in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24042013

Nhancupe, Noémia; Salazar-Anton, Fernando; Noormahomed, Emília Virginia; Afonso, Sónia; Lindh, Johan

2013-11-01

301

Cysticerci Drive Dendritic Cells to Promote In Vitro and In Vivo Tregs Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a crucial role in immune homeostasis. Treg induction is a strategy that parasites have evolved to modulate the host's inflammatory environment, facilitating their establishment and permanence. In human Taenia solium neurocysticercosis (NC), the concurrence of increased peripheral and central Treg levels and their capacity to inhibit T cell activation and proliferation support their role in controlling neuroinflammation. This study is aimed at identifing possible mechanisms of Treg induction in human NC. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) from healthy human donors, cocultivated with autologous CD4+ naïve cells either in the presence or absence of cysticerci, promoted CD25highFoxp3+ Treg differentiation. An increased Treg induction was observed when cysticerci were present. Moreover, an augmentation of suppressive-related molecules (SLAMF1, B7-H1, and CD205) was found in parasite-induced DC differentiation. Increased Tregs and a higher in vivo DC expression of the regulatory molecules SLAMF1 and CD205 in NC patients were also found. SLAMF1 gene was downregulated in NC patients with extraparenchymal cysticerci, exhibiting higher inflammation levels than patients with parenchymal parasites. Our findings suggest that cysticerci may modulate DC to favor a suppressive environment, which may help parasite establishment, minimizing the excessive inflammation, which may lead to tissue damage. PMID:23762101

Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Arce-Sillas, Asiel; Fragoso, Gladis; Cardenas, Graciela; Rosetti, Marcos; Casanova-Hernandez, Didier; Rangel-Escareno, Claudia; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Fleury, Agnes; Sciutto, Edda

2013-01-01

302

[Ocular cysticercosis].  

PubMed

Ocular cysticercosis results from development of Taenia solium larvae, Cysticercus cellulosae, in the eye. This condition is observed all over the world but is particularly common in developing countries. The eye, like nervous system and muscle tissue, is a prime location for parasitic development because of its rich vascularization. Intraorbital cysticercosis accounts for 75 to 85% of cases and if untreated leads to blindness. Intravitreal involvement is the most common followed by subretinal involvement. Involvement of other structures such as the camera aqueosa, iris, and crystalline lens is rare. Diagnosis of intraocular cysticercosis is straightforward when cysticerci are visible. Immunologic testing of aqueous humor using ELISA, western-blot, or immunodetection of circulating antigens can be useful diagnostic techniques in patients with opacification of the eye. Involvement of the orbit, palpebra, conjunctiva, and lacrimal glands is observed in 20 to 25% of cases. Diagnosis of adnexal involvement is facilitated by ultrasonography and CT-scan. Drug therapy for ocular manifestations of cysticercosis is ineffective and hastens progression of the disease by exacerbating the inflammatory response. Surgical treatment is the only alternative. Significant progress has been made thanks to new microsurgical vitreal and retinal procedures but these techniques are often unavailable in developing countries. The severity of ocular cysticercosis and poor management facilities in developing countries underlines the need for prevention by sanitary measures and health education. PMID:10906978

Auzemery, A; Andriantsimahavandy, A; Esterre, P; Bouat, C; Boitte, J P; Huguet, P

1995-01-01

303

Recombinant Protein- and Synthetic Peptide-Based Immunoblot Test for Diagnosis of Neurocysticercosis  

PubMed Central

One of the most well-characterized tests for diagnosing neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay developed at the CDC, which uses lentil lectin-bound glycoproteins (LLGP) extracted from Taenia solium cysticerci. Although the test is very reliable, the purification process for the LLGP antigens has been difficult to transfer to other laboratories because of the need for expensive equipment and technical expertise. To develop a simpler assay, we previously purified and cloned the diagnostic glycoproteins in the LLGP fraction. In this study, we evaluated three representative recombinant or synthetic antigens from the LLGP fraction, individually and in different combinations, using an immunoblot assay (recombinant EITB). Using a panel of 249 confirmed NCC-positive and 401 negative blood serum samples, the sensitivity of the recombinant EITB assay was determined to be 99% and the specificity was 99% for diagnosing NCC. We also tested a panel of 239 confirmed NCC-positive serum samples in Lima, Peru, and found similar results. Overall, our data show that the performance characteristics of the recombinant EITB assay are comparable to those of the LLGP-EITB assay. This new recombinant- and synthetic antigen-based assay is sustainable and can be easily transferred to other laboratories in the United States and throughout the world. PMID:24554747

Rodriguez, Silvia; Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Handali, Sukwan; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Garcia, Hector H.; Wilkins, Patricia P.

2014-01-01

304

Comparative profile of circulating antigenic peptides in CSF, serum & urine from patients with neurocysticercosis diagnosed by immunoblotting.  

PubMed

Traditionally serum and/or CSF specimens have been used for detection of either specific antibodies or antigens as a supportive diagnosis of NCC. However, in recent days, much interest has been shown employing noninvasive specimens such as urine. In our study, we identified and compared a profile of circulating antigenic peptides of parasite origin in three different body fluids (CSF, serum and urine) obtained from confirmed NCC cases and control subjects. The circulating antigenic peptides were resolved by SDS-PAGE and subjected to immunoblotting. For confirmation of their origin as parasite somatic or excretory secretory (ES) material, immunoreactivity was tested employing affinity purified polyclonal Taenia solium metacestode anti-somatic or ES antibodies, respectively. Only lower molecular weight antigenic peptides were found circulating in urine in contrast to serum and CSF specimens. Few somatic peptides were identified to be 100% specific for NCC (19·5 kDa in all three specimens; 131, 70 kDa in CSF and serum only; 128 kDa in CSF only). Similarly, the specific ES peptides detected were 32 kDa (in all three specimens), 16·5 kDa (in serum and CSF only), and 15 kDa (urine only). A test format detecting either one or more of these specific peptides would enhance the sensitivity in diagnosis of NCC. PMID:24965663

Sahu, P S; Parija, S; Kumar, D; Jayachandran, S; Narayan, S

2014-10-01

305

[Role of infectious agents in the emergence of malignant tumors].  

PubMed

According to the data of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), at least 6 virus species (HPV, EBV, HHV-8/KSHV, HTLV-1, HBV, HCV), 4 helminthes species (Schistosoma haematobium and japonicum, Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis) and I bacterium species (Helicobacter pylori) have been proved to be capable of causing the development of cancer. The analysis of the data available shows that Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), John Cunningham polyomavirus (JCV), monkey virus 40 (SV40), cytomegalovirus (CMV), xenotropic murine leukemia virus (XMRV), Helicobacter bilis and hepaticus, Campylobacter jejuni, Fusobacterium varium, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides vulgatus, Prevotella spp., Streptococcus bovis and anginosus, Treponema denticola, Salmonella typhi, paratyphi and typhimurium, Borrelia burgdorferi, Bartonella spp., Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, trachomatis and psittaci, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Propionibacterium acnes, Tropheryma whippelii, Schistosoma mansoni, Opistorchis felineus, Strongyloides stercoralis, Taenia solium, Candida spp., Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Histoplasma capsulatum and Trichomonas vaginalis can also be potential etiological agents of cancer. Apparently, detection of new associations between infectious agents and risk of the development of cancer will facilitate progress in elaboration of prophylaxis measures, early diagnostic methods and, probably, methods of treatment of malignant tumors. PMID:23163048

Kutikhin, A G; Yuzhalin, A E; Brusina, E B; Briko, N I

2012-01-01

306

Review of zoonotic parasites in medical and veterinary fields in the Republic of Korea.  

PubMed

Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19885329

Youn, Heejeong

2009-10-01

307

Oxfendazole flukicidal activity in pigs.  

PubMed

Although oxfendazole (OFZ) is a well know broad-spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic, the assessment of its potential trematodicidal activity remains unexplored. OFZ administration at single high doses has been recommended to control Taenia solium cysticercus in pigs. The current study investigated the flukicidal activity obtained after a single high (30mg/kg) oral dose of OFZ in pigs harbouring a natural Fasciola hepatica infection. Sixteen (16) local ecotype pigs were randomly allocated into two (2) experimental groups of 8 animals each named as follow: Untreated control and OFZ treated, in which animals received OFZ (Synanthic(®), Merial Ltd., 9.06% suspension) orally at 30mg/kg. At seven (7) days post-treatment, all the animals were sacrificed and direct adult liver fluke counts were performed following the WAAVP guidelines. None of the animals involved in this experiment showed any adverse event during the study. OFZ treatment as a single 30mg/kg oral dose showed a 100% efficacy against F. hepatica. In conclusion, the trial described here demonstrated an excellent OFZ activity against F. hepatica in naturally infected pigs, after its administration at a single oral dose of 30mg/kg. PMID:24713198

Ortiz, Pedro; Terrones, Susana; Cabrera, María; Hoban, Cristian; Ceballos, Laura; Moreno, Laura; Canton, Candela; Donadeu, Meritxell; Lanusse, Carlos; Alvarez, Luis

2014-08-01

308

[A case of cysticercosis with multiple lesions in the brain and femoral muscles].  

PubMed

A 37-year-old Nepalese man was admitted to Showa University Hospital because of a loss of consciousness and seizures. He had lived in Nepal, Qatar, Singapore, and India before the age of 34 years. He had no history of having eaten raw pork. His physical findings were normal excluding an abnormal visual field, and a positive serum antibody test result for Taenia solium, CT and MRI examinations showed multiple nodular lesions in his brain and thigh. We resected a cyst from his left thigh and diagnosed him as having cysticercosis based on the presence of characteristic hooklets and suckers on a pathological examination. Later, the Asian type of Cysticercus cellulosa was identified using a mitochondrial DNA test. Albendazole (800 mg/day) and prednisolone (60 mg/day) were administered for 14 days. All cysticercus were smaller on Day7 and had almost disappeared on Day 14. No adverse effects from the treatment occurred. Cysticercosis is rare in Japan, and cases requiring treatment for a large number of cysticercus in the brain and thigh are rare. We report a case of neurocysticercosis that had a good clinical course. PMID:24195171

Shoji, Hisashi; Hirai, Takahito; Shirakura, Tetsuro; Takuma, Takahiro; Okino, Tetsuya; Wakatsuki, Yasushi; Okino, Teruhiko; Niki, Yoshihito

2013-09-01

309

Parasitoses of the human central nervous system.  

PubMed

Cerebral involvement in parasitoses is an important clinical manifestation of most of the human parasitoses. Parasites that have been described to affect the central nervous system (CNS), either as the dominant or as a collateral feature, include cestodes (Taenia solium (neurocysticerciasis), Echinococcus granulosus (cerebral cystic echinococcosis), E. multilocularis (cerebral alveolar echinococcosis), Spirometra mansoni (neurosparganosis)), nematodes (Toxocara canis and T. cati (neurotoxocariasis), Trichinella spiralis (neurotrichinelliasis), Angiostrongylus cantonensis and A. costaricensis (neuroangiostrongyliasis), Gnathostoma spinigerum (gnathostomiasis)), trematodes (Schistosoma mansoni (cerebral bilharziosis), Paragonimus westermani (neuroparagonimiasis)), or protozoa (Toxoplasma gondii (neurotoxoplasmosis), Acanthamoeba spp. or Balamuthia mandrillaris (granulomatous amoebic encephalitis), Naegleria (primary amoebic meningo-encephalitis), Entamoeba histolytica (brain abscess), Plasmodium falciparum (cerebral malaria), Trypanosoma brucei gambiense/rhodesiense (sleeping sickness) or Trypanosoma cruzi (cerebral Chagas disease)). Adults or larvae of helminths or protozoa enter the CNS and cause meningitis, encephalitis, ventriculitis, myelitis, ischaemic stroke, bleeding, venous thrombosis or cerebral abscess, clinically manifesting as headache, epilepsy, weakness, cognitive decline, impaired consciousness, confusion, coma or focal neurological deficits. Diagnosis of cerebral parasitoses is dependent on the causative agent. Available diagnostic tools include clinical presentation, blood tests (eosinophilia, plasmodia in blood smear, antibodies against the parasite), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) investigations, imaging findings and occasionally cerebral biopsy. Treatment relies on drugs and sometimes surgery. Outcome of cerebral parasitoses is highly variable, depending on the effect of drugs, whether they are self-limiting (e.g. Angiostrongylus costaricensis) or whether they remain undetected or asymptomatic, like 25% of neurocysticerciasis cases. PMID:23046708

Finsterer, J; Auer, H

2013-09-01

310

Distribution of, and risk factors associated with, sheep carcass condemnations due to Cysticercus ovis infection on Canadian sheep farms.  

PubMed

Cysticercus ovis, the intermediate stage of a canine tapeworm, Taenia ovis, produces cystic lesions in the skeletal and cardiac muscle of sheep which, if numerous, will result in the condemnation of an entire carcass. In 2007 and 2008, the number of carcass condemnations due to C. ovis rose dramatically across Canada, suggesting that the prevalence of this infection on sheep farms was increasing. Trace-back of 237 carcasses condemned at Ontario provincially inspected abattoirs, between March 2009 and March 2011, revealed they originated from 133 farms across Canada. A case-control study was performed (n=40 cases, 56 controls) to identify farm-level risk factors associated with carcass condemnations due to C. ovis. Participating farms, located in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Ontario, were asked to answer a short questionnaire which collected information about each farm's geographic location and management practices. A multivariable logistic regression model revealed that farm dogs scavenging deadstock (OR=4.04; 95% CI: 1.16-14.04) and failing to dispose of deadstock (OR=11.78; 95% CI: 2.93-47.40) were significantly associated with condemnations (p ? 0.05). PMID:22877826

DeWolf, Bradley D; Peregrine, Andrew S; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Jansen, Jocelyn T; Mactavish, Jennifer; Menzies, Paula I

2012-12-21

311

Seasonal and biogeographical patterns of gastrointestinal parasites in large carnivores: wolves in a coastal archipelago.  

PubMed

Parasites are increasingly recognized for their profound influences on individual, population and ecosystem health. We provide the first report of gastrointestinal parasites in gray wolves from the central and north coasts of British Columbia, Canada. Across 60 000 km(2), wolf feces were collected from 34 packs in 2005-2008. At a smaller spatial scale (3300 km(2)), 8 packs were sampled in spring and autumn. Parasite eggs, larvae, and cysts were identified using standard flotation techniques and morphology. A subset of samples was analysed by PCR and sequencing to identify tapeworm eggs (n=9) and Giardia cysts (n=14). We detected ?14 parasite taxa in 1558 fecal samples. Sarcocystis sporocysts occurred most frequently in feces (43·7%), followed by taeniid eggs (23·9%), Diphyllobothrium eggs (9·1%), Giardia cysts (6·8%), Toxocara canis eggs (2·1%), and Cryptosporidium oocysts (1·7%). Other parasites occurred in ?1% of feces. Genetic analyses revealed Echinococcus canadensis strains G8 and G10, Taenia ovis krabbei, Diphyllobothrium nehonkaiense, and Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and B. Parasite prevalence differed between seasons and island/mainland sites. Patterns in parasite prevalence reflect seasonal and spatial resource use by wolves and wolf-salmon associations. These data provide a unique, extensive and solid baseline for monitoring parasite community structure in relation to environmental change. PMID:22309976

Bryan, Heather M; Darimont, Chris T; Hill, Janet E; Paquet, Paul C; Thompson, R C Andrew; Wagner, Brent; Smits, Judit E G

2012-05-01

312

Infection status with helminthes in feral cats purchased from a market in Busan, Republic of Korea  

PubMed Central

The present study was performed to investigate the infection status with helminth in a group of feral cats in Korea. More than 29 helminth species including adults or eggs were detected in visceral and fecal samples of the examined cats. Among these were a host of nematodes, including toxocarids, Ancylostoma sp. and the larva of Anisakis simplex; trematodes, including Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani, Eurytrema pancreaticum, Pharyngostomum cordatum, Metagonimus spp., Heterophyes nocens, Pygidiopsis summa, Heterophyopsis continua, Stictodora fuscata, Stictodora lari, Acanthotrema felis, Stellantchasmus falcatus, Centrocestus armatus, Procerovum varium, Cryptocotyle sp., Echinostoma revolutum, Echinostoma hortense, Echinochasmus japonicus, Stephanoprora sp., Plagiorchis muris, Neodiplostomum sp. and diplostomulum. We also detected a variety of cestodes, including Spirometra erinacei, Taenia taeniaeformis and unidentified species of tapeworm. We also found examples of the acanthocephalan, Bolbosoma sp. In our assessment of the stools, we detected at least 12 species of helminth eggs. These findings confirmed that feral cats in Korea are infected with a variety of helminth parasite species. Furthermore, among the helminths detected, E. pancreaticum, S. fuscata, S. lari, A. felis, S. falcatus, C. armatus, P. varium, Cryptocotyle sp., E. revolutum, E. japonicus, Stephanoprora sp., P. muris, Neodiplostomum sp. and Bolbosoma sp. represent helminth fauna which have not been reported previously in feral cats in the Republic of Korea. PMID:16192750

Chai, Jong-Yil

2005-01-01

313

Phylogeographic Triangulation: Using Predator-Prey-Parasite Interactions to Infer Population History from Partial Genetic Information  

PubMed Central

Phylogeographic studies, which infer population history and dispersal movements from intra-specific spatial genetic variation, require expensive and time-consuming analyses that are not always feasible, especially in the case of rare or endangered species. On the other hand, comparative phylogeography of species involved in close biotic interactions may show congruent patterns depending on the specificity of the relationship. Consequently, the phylogeography of a parasite that needs two hosts to complete its life cycle should reflect population history traits of both hosts. Population movements evidenced by the parasite’s phylogeography that are not reflected in the phylogeography of one of these hosts may thus be attributed to the other host. Using the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and a parasitic tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis) as an example, we propose comparing the phylogeography of easily available organisms such as game species and their specific heteroxenous parasites to infer population movements of definitive host/predator species, independently of performing genetic analyses on the latter. This may be an interesting approach for indirectly studying the history of species whose phylogeography is difficult to analyse directly. PMID:23209834

Barbosa, A. Marcia; Thode, Guillermo; Real, Raimundo; Feliu, Carlos; Vargas, J. Mario

2012-01-01

314

Tape worm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The tapeworm is ingested by humans through raw or undercooked meat. The tapeworm comes to rest in the small intestines of the human and absorbs nutrients from food that its host ingests. It matures in the small intestine.

N/A N/A (None;)

2006-05-11

315

THE TAXONOMICS OF THE GENUS PROTOGYNELLA JONES, 1943 (CESTODA: HYMENOLEPIDIDAE), WITH A DESCRIPTION OF PROTOGYNELLA PAUCIOVA N. SP. PROVIS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jones (1943) established the genus Protogynella to receive a species of small tapeworm which he recovered from the short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda (Say), collected in Virginia. He described this tapeworm, Protogynella blarinae, as having an unarmed rostellum. In addition the tapeworm was characterized as having a single testis which developed in each proglottid after the ovary had reached maturity, thus

VERNON H. OSWALD

316

Ecology 2007 21, 552560  

E-print Network

for parasite life-cycle dynamics: the case of urban foxes and Echinococcus multilocularis tapeworm D. HEGGLIN. The zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart is transmitted to foxes (Vulpes vulpes L parasites such as cestodes. For example, the small fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart

Richner, Heinz

317

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Porcine Cysticercosis in Ang?nia District, Mozambique  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium is an important zoonosis in many developing countries. Cysticercosis poses a serious public health risk and incurs sizeable economic losses to pig production. Because data on the epidemiology of porcine cysticercosis in Mozambique are scarce, the present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 11 villages in Angónia district, Tete province in northwestern Mozambique. Between September and November, 2007, a total of 661 pigs were tested serologically and examined by tongue inspection. Serum samples were tested for the presence of circulating parasite antigen using a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA). In addition, a questionnaire survey to collect information on pig production, occurrence and transmission of porcine cysticercosis, risk factors and awareness of porcine cysticercosis was conducted in the selected households from which pigs were sampled. Two hundred thirty-one samples (34.9%) were found positive by the Ag-ELISA, while by tongue inspection on the same animals cysticerci were detected in 84 pigs (12.7%). Increasing age (OR?=?1.63; 95% CI?=?1.13–2.37) and free-range pig husbandry system (OR?=?3.81; 95% CI?=?2.08–7.06) were important risk factors for porcine cysticercosis in the district. The present findings indicate that porcine cysticercosis is endemic in the region, and that increasing pig age and pig husbandry practices contribute significantly to porcine cysticercosis transmission. Further epidemiological studies on the prevalence and transmission of porcine cysticercosis in rural communities in Mozambique are needed to enable collection of more baseline data and implementation of effective control strategies within the country. PMID:20126403

Pondja, Alberto; Neves, Luis; Mlangwa, James; Afonso, Sonia; Fafetine, Jose; Willingham, Arve Lee; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang

2010-01-01

318

Ag-ELISA and PCR for Monitoring the Vaccination of Cattle against Taenia saginata Cysticercosis Using an Oncospheral Adhesion Protein (HP6) with Surface and Secreted Localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

ATaenia saginata oncosphere-derived adhesion protein (HP6) with surface and secreted localization was used to successfully vaccinate calves against oral challenge withT. saginata eggs. In contrast, vaccination using a combination ofT. saginata oncosphere-derived peptides, selected on the basis of their antigenic index, and including three derived from the HP6 molecule (HP6-1, HP6-2 and HP6-3), was unsuccessful. This either indicated that the

L. J. S. Harrison; T. Garate; D. M. Bryce; L. M. Gonzalez; M. Foster-Cuevas; L. W. Wamae; J. A. Onyango-Abuje; R. M. E. Parkhouse

2005-01-01

319

Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 12S ribosomal RNA characterization of Coenurus cerebralis from sheep in Iran.  

PubMed

Taenia multiceps is a widely distributed zoonotic tapeworm of canids. The larval stage of the parasite (Coenurus) occurs in sheep, goat and cattle and has been rarely reported from humans. This study investigated genetic variability of two mitochondrial genes in 102 isolates of T. multiceps. Metacestodes were collected from brains and hearts of sheep in Tehran and Qom provinces of Iran. DNA of each isolate was extracted and used for PCR amplification of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (CO1) and 12S ribosomal DNA (12S rRNA) genes. All amplicons were sequenced and the sequence data were analyzed using NCBI Blast and BioEdit. Phylogenetic trees and pairwise calculations were obtained by using Mega5 software. In total 7 and 25 representative haplotypes were differentiated for CO1 and 12S rRNA genes, respectively. For CO1 sequences 11 segregation sites within 7 haplotypes were observed. For 12S rRNA sequences a total of 32 segregation sites were observed in 25 haplotypes. CO1 gene displayed lower diversity than 12S rRNA gene with an overall nucleotide variation of 3.0% for CO1 vs. 7.2% for 12S rRNA. Pairwise comparisons among 7 haplotypes in CO1 and 12S rRNA genes showed the level of nucleotide differences 0.3-2.5% and 0.2-4.0%, respectively. A high degree of genetic variation was found in the isolates of T. multiceps in Iran. Additional molecular studies are required on the parasite from other intermediate hosts. PMID:23890823

Rostami, Sima; Salavati, Reza; Beech, Robin N; Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Babaei, Zahra; Saedi, Sadegh; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

2013-10-18

320

Plerocercoid growth factor (PGF), a human growth hormone (hGH) analogue produced by the tapeworm Spirometra mansonoides, has direct insulin-like action in adipose tissue of normal rats in vitro  

SciTech Connect

The metabolic actions of GH can be divided into acute (insulin-like) and chronic (lipolytic/anti-insulin). The insulin-like actions of GH are most readily elicited in GH-deficient animals as GH induces resistance to its own insulin-like action. Like GH, PGF stimulates growth and cross-reacts with anti-hGH antibodies. Independent experiments were conducted comparing the direct actions of PGF to insulin or hGH in vitro. Insulin-like effects were determined by the ability of PGF, insulin or hGH to stimulate (U-/sup 14/C)glucose metabolism in epidydimal fat pads from normal rats and by inhibition of epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis. Direct stimulation of lipolysis was used as anti-insulin activity. To determine if PGF competes for insulin or GH receptors, adipocytes (3 x 10/sup 5/ cells/ml) were incubated with either (/sup 125/I)insulin or (/sup 125/I)hGH +/- PGF, +/- insulin or +/- hGH. PGF stimulated glucose oxidation and /sup 14/C-incorporation into lipids. Insulin, hGH and PGF inhibited lipolysis (33%, 29% and 34%, respectively). Adipose tissue was very sensitive to the lipolytic effect of hGH but PGF was neither lipolytic nor did it confer refractoriness to its insulin-like action. PGF bound to GH but not to insulin receptors. Therefore, PGF had direct insulin-like effects but did not stimulate lipolysis in tissue from normal rats in vitro.

Salem, M.A.M.; Phares, C.K.

1986-03-01

321

Orf parapoxvirus infection from a cat scratch  

E-print Network

human contact are more numerous and include, among others: campylobacteriosis, plague, salmonellosis, dermatophytosis, leptospirosis, dipylidium caninum (dog and cat tapeworm), toxoplasmosis, dirofilariasis,

Frandsen, Jonathan; Enslow, Mike; Bowen, Anneli R

2011-01-01

322

No effect of a parasite on reproduction in stickleback males: a laboratory artefact?  

E-print Network

with plerocercoids of a cestode tapeworm, Schistocephalus solidus, than shoaling males. However, when a random sample effects, sexual signalling, Schistocephalus solidus, three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus

Helsinki, University of

323

Development of an electron beam irradiation design for use in the treatment of municipal biosolids and wastewater effluent  

E-print Network

Protozoa Balantidium coli Balantidiasis Cryptosporidium parvum Cryptosporidiosis Entamoeba histolytica Amebiasis (amoebic dysentery) Giardia lamblia Giardiasis Helminths Ascaris lumbricoides Ascariasis T. solium Taeniasis Trichuris trichiura Trichuriasis... Protozoa Balantidium coli Balantidiasis Cryptosporidium parvum Cryptosporidiosis Entamoeba histolytica Amebiasis (amoebic dysentery) Giardia lamblia Giardiasis Helminths Ascaris lumbricoides Ascariasis T. solium Taeniasis Trichuris trichiura Trichuriasis...

Lazarine, Alexis Dawn

2009-05-15

324

Prevalence of active convulsive epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa and associated risk factors: cross-sectional and case-control studies  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The prevalence of epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa seems to be higher than in other parts of the world, but estimates vary substantially for unknown reasons. We assessed the prevalence and risk factors of active convulsive epilepsy across five centres in this region. Methods We did large population-based cross-sectional and case-control studies in five Health and Demographic Surveillance System centres: Kilifi, Kenya (Dec 3, 2007–July 31, 2008); Agincourt, South Africa (Aug 4, 2008–Feb 27, 2009); Iganga-Mayuge, Uganda (Feb 2, 2009–Oct 30, 2009); Ifakara, Tanzania (May 4, 2009–Dec 31, 2009); and Kintampo, Ghana (Aug 2, 2010–April 29, 2011). We used a three-stage screening process to identify people with active convulsive epilepsy. Prevalence was estimated as the ratio of confirmed cases to the population screened and was adjusted for sensitivity and attrition between stages. For each case, an age-matched control individual was randomly selected from the relevant centre's census database. Fieldworkers masked to the status of the person they were interviewing administered questionnaires to individuals with active convulsive epilepsy and control individuals to assess sociodemographic variables and historical risk factors (perinatal events, head injuries, and diet). Blood samples were taken from a randomly selected subgroup of 300 participants with epilepsy and 300 control individuals from each centre and were screened for antibodies to Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Onchocerca volvulus, Plasmodium falciparum, Taenia solium, and HIV. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) with logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, education, employment, and marital status. Results 586?607 residents in the study areas were screened in stage one, of whom 1711 were diagnosed as having active convulsive epilepsy. Prevalence adjusted for attrition and sensitivity varied between sites: 7·8 per 1000 people (95% CI 7·5–8·2) in Kilifi, 7·0 (6·2–7·4) in Agincourt, 10·3 (9·5–11·1) in Iganga-Mayuge, 14·8 (13·8–15·4) in Ifakara, and 10·1 (9·5–10·7) in Kintampo. The 1711 individuals with the disorder and 2032 control individuals were given questionnaires. In children (aged <18 years), the greatest relative increases in prevalence were associated with difficulties feeding, crying, or breathing after birth (OR 10·23, 95% CI 5·85–17·88; p<0·0001); abnormal antenatal periods (2·15, 1·53–3·02; p<0·0001); and head injury (1·97, 1·28–3·03; p=0·002). In adults (aged ?18 years), the disorder was significantly associated with admission to hospital with malaria or fever (2·28, 1·06–4·92; p=0·036), exposure to T canis (1·74, 1·27–2·40; p=0·0006), exposure to T gondii (1·39, 1·05–1·84; p=0·021), and exposure to O volvulus (2·23, 1·56–3·19; p<0·0001). Hypertension (2·13, 1·08–4·20; p=0·029) and exposure to T solium (7·03, 2·06–24·00; p=0·002) were risk factors for adult-onset disease. Interpretation The prevalence of active convulsive epilepsy varies in sub-Saharan Africa and that the variation is probably a result of differences in risk factors. Programmes to control parasitic diseases and interventions to improve antenatal and perinatal care could substantially reduce the prevalence of epilepsy in this region. Funding Wellcome Trust, University of the Witwatersrand, and South African Medical Research Council. PMID:23375964

Ngugi, Anthony K; Bottomley, Christian; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Wagner, Ryan G; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Masanja, Honorati; Kamuyu, Gathoni; Odhiambo, Rachael; Chengo, Eddie; Sander, Josemir W; Newton, Charles R

2013-01-01

325

First insight into CD59-like molecules of adult Fasciola hepatica.  

PubMed

The present study focussed on investigating CD59-like molecules of Fasciola hepatica. A cDNA encoding a CD59-like protein (termed FhCD59-1) identified previously in the membrane fraction of the F. hepatica tegument was isolated. This homologue was shown to encode a predicted open reading frame (ORF) of 122 amino acids (aa) orthologous to human CD59 with a 25 aa signal peptide, a mature protein containing 10 cysteines and a conserved CD59/Ly-6 family motif "CCXXXXCN". An analysis of cDNAs from two different adult specimens of F. hepatica revealed seven variable types of FhCD59-1 sequences, designated FhCD59-1.1 to FhCD59-1.7, which had 94.3-99.7% amino acid sequence identity upon pairwise comparison. Molecular modeling of FhCD59-1.1 with human CD59 confirmed the presence of the three-finger protein domain found in the CD59 family and predicted three disulphide bonds in the F. hepatica sequence. The interrogation of F. hepatica databases identified two additional sequences, designated FhCD59-2 and FhCD59-3, which had only 23.4-29.5% amino acid identity to FhCD59-1.1. Orthologues of the inferred CD59 protein sequences of F. hepatica were also identified in other flatworms, including Fasciola gigantica, Fascioloides magna, Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni, Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus and the free living Schmidtea mediterannea. The results revealed a considerable degree of sequence complexity in the CD59-like sequence families in F. hepatica and flatworms. Phylogenetic analysis of CD59-like aa sequences from F. hepatica and flatworms showed that FhCD59-2 clustered with the known surface-associated protein SmCD59-2 of S. mansoni. Relatively well-supported clades specific to schistosomes, fasciolids and opisthorchiids were identified. The qPCR analysis of gene transcription showed that the relative expression of these 3 FhCD59-like sequences varied by 11-47-fold during fluke maturation, from the newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) to the adult stage. These findings suggest that different FhCD59-like sequences play distinct roles during the development of F. hepatica. PMID:24955521

Shi, Yunliang; Toet, Hayley; Rathinasamy, Vignesh; Young, Neil D; Gasser, Robin B; Beddoe, Travis; Huang, Weiyi; Spithill, Terry W

2014-09-01

326

Transcriptome analysis of the ependymal barrier during murine neurocysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Background Central nervous system (CNS) barriers play a pivotal role in the protection and homeostasis of the CNS by enabling the exchange of metabolites while restricting the entry of xenobiotics, blood cells and blood-borne macromolecules. While the blood–brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (CSF) control the interface between the blood and CNS, the ependyma acts as a barrier between the CSF and parenchyma, and regulates hydrocephalic pressure and metabolic toxicity. Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an infection of the CNS caused by the metacestode (larva) of Taenia solium and a major cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The common clinical manifestations of NCC are seizures, hydrocephalus and symptoms due to increased intracranial pressure. The majority of the associated pathogenesis is attributed to the immune response against the parasite. The properties of the CNS barriers, including the ependyma, are affected during infection, resulting in disrupted homeostasis and infiltration of leukocytes, which correlates with the pathology and disease symptoms of NCC patients. Results In order to characterize the role of the ependymal barrier in the immunopathogenesis of NCC, we isolated ependymal cells using laser capture microdissection from mice infected or mock-infected with the closely related parasite Mesocestoides corti, and analyzed the genes that were differentially expressed using microarray analysis. The expression of 382 genes was altered. Immune response-related genes were verified by real-time RT-PCR. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software was used to analyze the biological significance of the differentially expressed genes, and revealed that genes known to participate in innate immune responses, antigen presentation and leukocyte infiltration were affected along with the genes involved in carbohydrate, lipid and small molecule biochemistry. Further, MHC class II molecules and chemokines, including CCL12, were found to be upregulated at the protein level using immunofluorescence microcopy. This is important, because these molecules are members of the most significant pathways by IPA analyses. Conclusion Thus, our study indicates that ependymal cells actively express immune mediators and likely contribute to the observed immunopathogenesis during infection. Of particular interest is the major upregulation of antigen presentation pathway-related genes and chemokines/cytokines. This could explain how the ependyma is a prominent source of leukocyte infiltration into ventricles through the disrupted ependymal lining by way of pial vessels present in the internal leptomeninges in murine NCC. PMID:22731103

2012-01-01

327

Large Cerebral Intraventricular Neurocysticercosal Tumor in an Asymptomatic Patient: A Treatment Dilemma  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a growing health problem in the United States and worldwide due to an increasing number of immigrants. Cysticercosis is caused by ingestion of the larval form of Taenia solium. The intraventricular form, NCC is seen in 7%–45% of the cases. We present a case of a young Chinese man who presented with headache and finding of an impressive intraventricular cyst related to NCC. Our case emphasizes the importance of recognition of NCC, especially in immigrant populations. Case Report: A 37 year-old male Chinese immigrant with no significant past medical history presented to our facility after sustaining a head injury from a car accident. He lost consciousness briefly during the incident and had transient headache. He was admitted to the hospital for further evaluation. On physical exam, he had no neurological deficits. Non-contrast Head Computed tomography (CT) was obtained to rule out intracranial hemorrhage and found a large cystic lesion measuring 5x6x7cm in the right lateral ventricle, with partially calcification. Gadolinium- enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was obtained and revealed a large solitary, right lateral ventricular cystic lesion containing a partially calcified mural nodule. No surrounding edema or inflammation was observed. The findings were highly suggestive of intraventricular NCC. He was born and raised in China, moved to Mexico and then to Hawai‘i three years ago. He denied previous history of headache, weakness, seizure, or visual impairment. The MRI result prompted neurosurgical evaluation. As the patient was asymptomatic and had no hydrocephalus, no surgical intervention was pursued and close outpatient follow-up was recommended. After 6 months of follow up, the patient has remained asymptomatic. Follow-up MRI after admission showed no changes in size of the cystic lesion or evidence of surrounding inflammation. Discussion: Treatment for NCC should be tailored individually. In our patient who was asymptomatic, the large intraventricular cyst was an incidental finding on neuroimaging. The decision whether or not to perform endoscopic neurosurgery is very complicated; endoscopic surgery is an invasive procedure with multiple possible complications. Removal of the large cyst may decrease the risk of mechanical obstruction but may increase the risk of secondary hydrocephalus due to inflammatory damage. We present an atypically-large intraventricular NCC managed by close observation in an asymptomatic patient. The conservative approach in a seemingly complicated patient implies and emphasizes the importance of managing NCC on an individual basis.

Wongjittraporn, Suwarat; Tongma, Chawat; Chung, Heath

2014-01-01

328

LIFE-HISTORY STUDIES ON TWO MOLECULAR STRAINS OF MESOCESTOIDES (CESTODA: MESOCESTOIDIDAE): IDENTIFICATION OF SYLVATIC HOSTS AND INFECTIVITY OF IMMATURE LIFE STAGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life-cycle studies were conducted on 2 molecular strains of Mesocestoides tapeworms that represent different evo- lutionary lineages (clades A and B). Wild carnivores, reptiles, and rodents were examined for tapeworm infections at 2 enzootic sites: (1) San Miguel Island (SMI), a small island off the coast of southern California and (2) Hopland Research and Extension Center (HREC), a field station

Kerry A. Padgett; Walter M. Boyce

2004-01-01

329

Echinococcus multilocularis (Cestoda, Taeniidae) in Red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes) in northern Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first record of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis (Cestoda, Taeniidae) in Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in northern Belgium is described. Between 1996 and 1999, 237 dead foxes were examined for the presence of this tapeworm using the intestinal scraping technique. Four foxes (1.7%) were found to be infected with E. multilocularis and showed medium to very high parasitic burdens. Three

M. Vervaeke; P. Dorny; F. Vercammen; S. Geerts; J. Brandt; K. Van Den Bergec; R. Verhagen

2003-01-01

330

[Helminth fauna of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes LINNE 1758) in south Sachsen-Anhalt--1: Cestodes].  

PubMed

Between January 1993 and November 1994 a total of 1300 red foxes from the administrative districts Halle and Dessau were examined for the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis and other cestodes. Echinococcus multilocularis-infections were detected in only 4 of 1300 (0.3%) foxes. Furthermore the following cestodes were found: Mesocestoides spp. (54.1%), Taenia crassiceps (17.7%), Taenia polyacantha (11.9%), Hydatigera taeniaeformis (0.2%), Taenia serialis (0.15%), Taenia pisiformis (0.15%), not determinable taeniids (9.2%), Dipylidium caninum (0.2%) and Hymenolepis spp. (0.08%). PMID:9445786

Pfeiffer, F; Kuschfeldt, S; Stoye, M

1997-10-01

331

Helminths of sympatric black-tailed jack rabbits (Lepus californicus) and desert cottontails (Sylvilagus audubonii) from the high plains of eastern New Mexico.  

PubMed

Thirty-five desert cottontails (Sylvilagus audubonii) and 35 black-tailed jack rabbits (Lepus californicus), occurring sympatrically near the Clovis-Portales area of eastern New Mexico were infected with four species of Eucestoda (adults of Raillietina salmoni and Raillietina selfi, larvae of Taenia pisiformis and Taenia serialis). Raillietina salmoni and T. pisiformis more commonly infected S. audubonii. Raillietina selfi was found in near equal prevalence in both host species. Taenia serialis was recovered only from L. californicus. Thus, three of the four helminth species were shared by both lagomorphs (Jaccard's coefficient = 75). Female hosts were most heavily infected with R. selfi and Taenia serialis. PMID:3373649

Pfaffenberger, G S; Valencia, V B

1988-04-01

332

Parasitology Review Wildlife Health, WFB 861  

E-print Network

, lungworms · Phylum Acanthocephala ­ Thorny-headed worm · Phylum Platyhelminthes ­ Flatworms, trematodes, flukes, tapeworms · Phylum Arthropoda ­ Insects, spiders #12;Arthropods · Insects, arachnids, tongue

Jodice, Patrick

333

Conceptual Framework for the Use of Fish Parasites as Bioindicators of Acute and Chronic  

E-print Network

*-- digeneans, flukes, digenes, digenetic trematodes Class Monogenea*-- monogeneans, monogenoideans, monogenes Animalia-- animals Phylum Myxozoa (Cnidaria)-- myxozoans, myxosporidians Phylum Platyhelminthes-- flatworms, monogenetic trematodes Class Cestoda*-- cestodes, cestoideans: gyrocotylideans and eucestodes, tapeworms

Kane, Andrew S.

334

[Diphyllobothrium pacificum (Nybelin,1931) margolis, 1956 in Canis familiaris from Chincha city, Peru].  

PubMed

In this communication is presented the finding of the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium pacificum, parasite of sea lions, in Canis familiaris (dog) in Chincha city, Peru. This is the first canine infection with D. pacificum in the South Peruvian coast. PMID:12058669

Cabrera, R; Tantaleán, M; Rojas, R

2001-01-01

335

PUBLIC HEALTH SIGNIFICANCE OF GROUPS INCLUDED IN THE KEY COMMON NAME PUBLIC HEALTH SIGNIFICANCE  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . venomous bite; infest nasal, intestinal, and urinary tracts. Chewing Louse . . . . . . . . . infest . . . . . . . . . . . . infest stored food; used as indicator organisms for pesticide studies. Copepod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . exude vesicating venom; infest digestive and urinary tract; intermediate host of tapeworms. Mite

336

21 CFR 524.775 - Emodepside and praziquantel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...caused by Ancylostoma tubaeforme (adults, immature adults, and fourth stage larvae), roundworm infections caused by Toxocara cati (adults and fourth stage larvae), and tapeworm infections caused by Dipylidium caninum (adults) and...

2010-04-01

337

Multiple species of Phoreiobothrium from the blacktip shark, Carcharhinus limbatus, in the Gulf of Mexico  

E-print Network

During a survey of the adult tapeworm fauna of sharks from the Gulf of Mexico, the blacktip shark, Carcharhinus limbatus (Müller and Henle, 1839), was found to host cestodes in the genus Phoreiobothrium. Carcharhinus limbatus inhabits the world...

Owens, Hannah L.

2008-01-01

338

MFR PAPER 1343 The Principal Parasitic Diseases  

E-print Network

eliminated the problem of steri lity. Some genera of monogenetic tre- matodes can build up large populations after restocking. Corallobothrium is a tapeworm sometimes found in great numbers in the intestine

339

77 FR 32943 - Application(s) for Duty-Free Entry of Scientific Instruments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Republic. Intended Use: The instrument will be used to examine tapeworms of sharks and stingrays, microbial mats, mosses, lichens, algae, diatoms, and other samples. The experiments aim to explore the morphology and anatomy of various plants and...

2012-06-04

340

Anemia - B12 deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... vitamin B12. They include: Chronic alcoholism Crohn disease, celiac disease, infection with the fish tapeworm, or other problems ... may no longer be needed after Crohn disease, celiac disease, or alcoholism is properly treated. Your doctor or ...

341

Towards a 3g Crawling Robot through the Integration of Microrobot Technologies*  

E-print Network

minimally invasive surgery instruments that are inspired by tapeworms [1] to miniature aircraft inspired that make a full rotation to achieve high terrain adaptability with no sensing [5]), and the hybrid leg

Fearing, Ron

342

Social situation, sperm competition and sex allocation in a simultaneous hermaphrodite parasite, the cestode  

E-print Network

, the cestode Schistocephalus solidus L. SCHA� RER* & C. WEDEKIND*à *Abteilung Verhaltenso� kologie reproduction in a simultaneous hermaphrodite parasite, the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus, by placing worms

Schärer, Lukas

343

The Acute Toxicity of Praziquantel to Grass Carp and Golden Shiners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute toxicity and highest nonlethal concentration of praziquantel (LC0) were determined in the laboratory for grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella and golden shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas, two cyprinids known to harbor the Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel is an anthelmintic used to treat fish with tapeworms. The 24-h and 96-h LC50 values were 55.1 and 49.7 mg\\/L for golden shiners (1.3

Andrew J. Mitchell; Melissa S. Hobbs

2007-01-01

344

DNA Differential Diagnosis of Taeniasis and Cysticercosis by Multiplex PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 11 August 2003\\/Returned for modification 19 September 2003\\/Accepted 26 November 2003 Multiplex PCR was established for differential diagnosis of taeniasis and cysticercosis, including their caus- ative agents. For identification of the parasites, multiplex PCR with cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene yield- ed evident differential products unique for Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica and for American\\/African and Asian genotypes

Hiroshi Yamasaki; James C. Allan; Marcello Otake Sato; Minoru Nakao; Yasuhito Sako; Kazuhiro Nakaya; Dongchuan Qiu; Wulamu Mamuti; Philip S. Craig; Akira Ito

2004-01-01

345

[Evaluation of the diagnostic value of the ELISA tests developed by using EgHF, Em2 and EmII/3-10 antigens in the serological diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis].  

PubMed

Alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by larva stage of Echinococcus multilocularis, is one of the lethal parasitic diseases of man and a major public health problem in many countries in the northern hemisphere. When the living conditions and habits in Turkey were considered in terms of relation with the life cycle of the parasite, it was suggested that AE has been much more common than reported mainly from the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Since in vitro serologic diagnosis tests with high specificity for AE have not been used in our country, most of the cases with liver lesions were misdiagnosed by radiological investigations as malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the in-house ELISA methods developed by using three different antigens (EgHF, Em2, EmII/3-10) in the serological diagnosis of AE. The study samples included a total of 100 sera provided by Bern University Parasitology Institute where samples were obtained from patients with helminthiasis and all were confirmed by clinical, parasitological and/or histopathological means. Ten samples from each of the cases infected by E.multilocularis, E.granulosus, Taenia solium, Wuchereria bancrofti, Strongyloides stercolaris, Ascaris lumbricoides, Toxocara canis, Trichinella spiralis, Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma haematobium were studied. In the study, EgHF (E.granulosus hydatid fluid) antigens were prepared in our laboratory from the liver cyst fluids of sheeps with cystic echinococcosis, however Em2 (E.multilocularis metacestode-purified laminated layer) and EmII/3-10 (E.multilocularis recombinant protoscolex tegument) antigens were provided by Bern University Parasitology Institute. Flat bottom ELISA plates were covered with EgHF, Em2 and EmII/3-10 antigens in the concentrations of 2.5 µg, 1 µg and 0.18 µg per well, respectively, and all sera were tested by EgHF-ELISA, Em2-ELISA and EmII/3-10-ELISA methods. For each tests, the samples which were reactive above the cut-off value (mean OD of negative controls+2 SD) were accepted as positive. The sensitivity of the ELISA tests performed with EgHF, Em2 and Em2II/3-10 antigens were estimated as 100%, 90% and 90%, respectively, whereas the specificity were 63%, 91% and 91%, respectively. When Em2-ELISA and EmII/3-10-ELISA tests were evaluated together, the specificity increased to 96%. Our data indicated that the highest sensitivity (100% with EgHF-ELISA) and specificity (96% with Em2-ELISA + EmII/3-10-ELISA) for the serodiagnosis of AE can be achieved by the combined use of the ELISA tests with three different antigens. It was concluded that the early and accurate diagnosis of AE in our country which is endemic for that disease, could be supported by the use of highly specific serological tests such as Em2-ELISA ve EmII/3-10-ELISA contributing radiological data. PMID:25052112

Pekta?, Bayram; Altinta?, Nazmiye; Akpolat, Nezahat; Gottstein, Bruno

2014-07-01

346

Helminth parasites of the wolf Canis lupus from Latvia.  

PubMed

Thirty-four wolves were collected between 2003 and 2008 from throughout Latvia and examined for helminths. A total of 17 helminth species were recorded: the trematode Alaria alata (85.3%); the cestodes Diphyllobothrium latum (2.9%), Echinococcus granulosus (2.9%), Echinococcus multilocularis (5.9%), Mesocestoides lineatus (5.9%), Taenia crassiceps (8.8%), Taenia hydatigena (41.2%), Taenia (ovis) krabbei (8.8%), Taenia multiceps (47.1%), Taenia pisiformis (20.6%), Taenia polyacantha (11.8%), Taenia spp. (8.8%); and the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum (2.9%), Crenosoma vulpis (9.1%), Eucoleus aerophilus (36.4%), Pearsonema plica (41.4%), Trichinella spp. (69.7%), Toxocara canis (5.8%), and Uncinaria stenocephala (41.2%). Alaria alata presented the highest mean intensity (403.8). All animals were infected with at least one species of parasite, while the maximum recorded in one specimen was eight. No differences in the intensity or prevalence of any helminth species were found among the host based on age and gender, except for T. multiceps which was more prevalent in adults than in juveniles. PMID:19138449

Bagrade, G; Kirjusina, M; Vismanis, K; Ozoli?s, J

2009-03-01

347

[The helminth fauna of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus 1758) in north Hesse and east Westphalia. 1. Cestodes].  

PubMed

Between November 1989 and June 1990 a total number of 397 foxes were examined for the presence of cestodes. The animals came from the districts of Arnsberg, Detmold and Kassel. In 16.4% of the foxes infections with Echinococcus multilocularis were found, in 28.5% Taenia crassiceps, in 14.4% Taenia polyacantha, in 4.3% Mesocestoides spp., in 3.3% Multiceps multiceps, in 2.5% Hydatigera taeniaeformis, in 0.8% Taenia hydatigena and in 0.3% Taenia martis. Infections with Echinococcus multilocularis very often showed high worm numbers of more than 1000 per fox. The number of worms for the other cestodes mostly varied between one and ten specimen per animal. PMID:1396164

Ballek, D; Takla, M; Ising-Volmer, S; Stoye, M

1992-09-01

348

Helminth fauna of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Estonia.  

PubMed

Thirty-seven carcasses of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) collected and examined in Estonia during 1999-2001 had helminths. Parasites identified and their prevalence included Diphyllobothrium latum (5%), Taenia pisiformis (100%), Taenia laticollis (41%), Taenia hydatigena (3%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3%), Toxocara cati (68%), and Trichinella spp. (22%). The only significant relationships (P < or = 0.05) between occurrence of helminths and host age and sex were a greater number of T. pisiformis and T. laticollis in older than in youger male lynx, and older males had a greater number of species of helminth than did younger lynx. Sixty-one fecal samples collected during snow tracking of nine lynx were examined; eggs of T. cati were identified in 38 samples, and Capillaria spp were found in eight samples. This is the first systematic investigation of parasites of lynx in Estonia. PMID:15362842

Valdmann, H; Moks, E; Talvik, H

2004-04-01

349

Helminthologic survey of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Estonia, with an emphasis on Echinococcus granulosus.  

PubMed

Carcasses of 26 wolves were collected during the 2000/2001 and 2003/2004 hunting seasons and examined for helminths. Thirteen helminth species were recorded: one trematode (Alaria alata), seven cestodes (Diphyllobothrium latum, Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia multiceps, Taenia ovis, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus), and five nematode species (Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara canis, Trichinella nativa, and Trichinella britovi). The most common species were A. alata and U. stenocephala. Mature Echinococcus granulosus was found and described for the first time in Estonia, and its identity verified using PCR-RFLP analysis. Sequencing a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA NADH dehydrogenase 1 (mtND1) gene showed that the E. granulosus strain from Estonia was identical to strain G10, recently characterized in reindeer and moose in Finland. PMID:16870858

Moks, E; Jõgisalu, I; Saarma, U; Talvik, H; Järvis, T; Valdmann, H

2006-04-01

350

21 CFR 520.816 - Epsiprantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... —(1) Dogs —(i) Amount . 2.5 milligrams per pound of body weight. (ii) Indications for use . Removal of canine cestodes Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis . (2) Cats —(i) Amount . 1.25 milligrams per pound of...

2010-04-01

351

Evidence of experimental postcyclic transmission of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in bonytail chub (Gila elegans)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the role that predation of infected conspecific fish and postcyclic transmission might play in the life cycle of the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) Yamaguti, 1934. Young-of-the-year (YOY) bonytail chub (Gila elegans) were exposed to copepods infected with B. acheilognathi and subsequently fed to subadult bonytail chub. Within 1 wk after consumption of the YOY chub, subadults were necropsied and found infected with gravid and nongravid tapeworms. This study provides evidence that postcyclic transfer of B. acheilognathi can occur. Postcyclic transmission may be an important life history trait of B. acheilognathi that merits consideration when studying the impact and distribution of this invasive and potentially pathogenic tapeworm. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2007.

Hansen, S. P.; Choudhury, A.; Cole, R. A.

2007-01-01

352

Diphyllobothrium pacificum infection is seldom associated with megaloblastic anemia.  

PubMed

Twenty cases of Dyphillobothrium pacificum (fish tapeworm) infections were prospectively studied to determine whether this tapeworm is associated with megaloblastic anemia, as commonly reported for D. latum infections. The most frequent symptoms were fatigue and mild abdominal pain, which were identified in approximately 66.6% of the 18 patients interviewed. Fourteen patients received treatment with niclosamide and all were cured. The other six patients spontaneously eliminated the tapeworms. One patient, who also had chronic diabetes and gastric atrophy, had low vitamin B12 levels and megaloblastic anemia. In all other patients, including three other patients with anemia, baseline vitamin B12 levels were in the reference range and did not significantly change when re-assessed three months later. Unlike D. latum, infection with D. pacificum is seldom associated with megaloblastic anemia or vitamin B12 deficit. PMID:22987655

Jimenez, Juan A; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gamboa, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Lourdes; Garcia, Hector H

2012-11-01

353

Cyathocephalus truncatus (Cestoda: Spathebothridea) in its intermediate host Echinogammarus stammeri (Amphipoda) from the River Brenta, northern Italy.  

PubMed

A study was carried out on the occurrence of the tapeworm Cyathocephalus truncatus (Pallas, 1781) (Cestoda: Spathebothridea) in its intermediate host, the amphipod Echinogammarus stammeri, in the River Brenta. A total of 18,860 E. stammeri was examined from July 1990 to June 1994; only 25 of them (prevalence 0.13%) were infected with tapeworm larvae (intensity of infection 1 larva/host). Co-occurrence of C. truncatus larvae with the larva of the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus laevis (Müller, 1776) was recorded in 15 amphipods. Tapeworms were localized in the anterior portion of each amphipod's hemocoel, in intimate contact with E. stammeri internal organs such as the alimentary canal, and frequently induced its displacement. No differences in integumental pigmentation were noticed between infected and non-infected amphipods, and some infected E. stammeri females were ovigerous. PMID:8532369

Dezfuli, B S; Scholz, T

1995-04-01

354

Diphyllobothrium pacificum Infection is Seldom Associated with Megaloblastic Anemia  

PubMed Central

Twenty cases of Dyphillobothrium pacificum (fish tapeworm) infections were prospectively studied to determine whether this tapeworm is associated with megaloblastic anemia, as commonly reported for D. latum infections. The most frequent symptoms were fatigue and mild abdominal pain, which were identified in approximately 66.6% of the 18 patients interviewed. Fourteen patients received treatment with niclosamide and all were cured. The other six patients spontaneously eliminated the tapeworms. One patient, who also had chronic diabetes and gastric atrophy, had low vitamin B12 levels and megaloblastic anemia. In all other patients, including three other patients with anemia, baseline vitamin B12 levels were in the reference range and did not significantly change when re-assessed three months later. Unlike D. latum, infection with D. pacificum is seldom associated with megaloblastic anemia or vitamin B12 deficit. PMID:22987655

Jimenez, Juan A.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gamboa, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Lourdes; Garcia, Hector H.

2012-01-01

355

Helminth parasites of pine marten, Martes americana (Turton), from Manitoba, Canada.  

PubMed

Five species of helminths were recovered during a survey of 139 North American pine marten (Martes americana) from three areas of Manitoba: Alaria taxideae in 75 marten; Taenia sp. (cf. martis martis) in 16; Taenia mustelae in nine; Baylisascaris devosi in one; Trichinella sp. larvae in one. Taenia mustelae and Taenia sp. (cf. martis martis) were found in two different areas of the province, Taenia sp. (cf. martis martis) being isolated from the more northerly regions. Alaria taxideae, the most prevalent parasite in the survey, was common to all three areas. The intensity of infection and prevalence level of A. taxideae was significantly higher (P less than 0.05) in the southern region of this study. Altogether, male marten had a significantly higher intensity of A. taxideae compared to females, although there was no significant difference in prevalence level. When data for A. taxideae was combined for sexes and for regions a significantly higher prevalence level in young-of-the-year marten was noted compared to juveniles or adults, but no significant difference in intensities among the three age classes was found. No significant differences were detected in the prevalence of A. taxideae, Taenia sp. (cf. martis martis), or T. mustelae between sexes or among age classes from any of the three areas. PMID:6842730

Poole, B C; Chadee, K; Dick, T A

1983-01-01

356

A real-time multiplex-nested PCR system for coprological diagnosis of Echinococcus multilocularis and host species.  

PubMed

A hybridization probe-based real-time multiplex-nested PCR system was developed for the simultaneous detection of Echinococcus multilocularis and host species directly from faecal samples. Species identification was determined by melting curve analysis. Specificity was assessed by using DNA extracted from various cestodes (E. multilocularis, Echinococcus granulosus (G1), Echinococcus ortleppi, Echinococcus canadensis (G6, G7), Taenia crassiceps, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia mustelae, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia serialis, Taenia taeniaeformis, Mesocestoides leptothylacus), carnivores (Vulpes vulpes, Vulpes corsac, Vulpes ferrilata, Canis familiaris, Felis catus, Martes foina), Microtus arvalis and Arvicola terrestris. The analytical sensitivity was 10 fg, evaluated with serially diluted DNA of E. multilocularis to 10 ?l total DNA solution from E. multilocularis-negative canid faeces. Based on a comparison of 47 dog samples from China, the proportion of the E. multilocularis-positive-tested samples by the real-time multiplex-nested PCR was moderately higher (38% vs. 30%) as when tested with a previously evaluated nested PCR with a sensitivity of 70-100%, depending on the number and gravidity status of worms present in the intestine (Dinkel et al., J Clin Microbiol 36:1871-1876, 1998). To assess the epidemiological applicability of this method, 227 canid faecal samples collected in the field were analysed. This newly developed real-time multiplex-nested PCR system is a specific, sensitive and reliable method for the detection of E. multilocularis and host species in faecal samples for epidemiological purposes. PMID:21327991

Dinkel, Anke; Kern, Selina; Brinker, Anja; Oehme, Rainer; Vaniscotte, Amélie; Giraudoux, Patrick; Mackenstedt, Ute; Romig, Thomas

2011-08-01

357

[Epidemiologic characteristics of diphyllobothriasis in the lower Amur River valley].  

PubMed

Results of epidemiological studies of diphyllobothriasis in the Lower part of the Amur watershed have demonstrated that the disease nosogeographic range covered the entire region. Potential risk of invasion of humans and animals by the tapeworms exists all over the aforementioned area. Season of invasion coincides with the period of migration of calico and humpback salmon which are additional hosts of Diphyllobothriidae. Invasion occurs outside the Amur freshwater area; thus the real disease foci are absent in the Lower part of the Amur watershed. This is due to the fact that the disease is not induced by wide fish tapeworm, but by a marine or estuarine-marine species. PMID:2811749

Muratov, I V; Posokhov, P S

1989-01-01

358

Scanning electron microscopy of the surface of the adult Multiceps endothoracicus and a comparison of its larval and adult scoleces.  

PubMed

Scanning electron microscopy disclosed differences in various areas of the surface of the adult tapeworm, and in larval and adult scoleces of M. endothoracicus. Microtriches with apically crooked spikes were found in the circlet of hooks of the adult tapeworm, and in the area between the outer and inner sucker margins, i.e., in sites important for intestinal attachment. Dimorphic microtriches were present on the inner margin of the suckers and around the genital pore, while the only area to contain dimorphic microtriches in the larva was the surface of the rostellum. An illustration is given of the egg and its fixation to uterine branches. PMID:7198608

Hulínská, D

1981-01-01

359

Molecular diagnosis of diphyllobothriasis in Spain, most presumably acquired via imported fish, or sojourn abroad  

PubMed Central

Human diphyllobothriasis is sporadically detected in Spain. Diphyllobothrium latum and Diplogonoporus balaenopterae have been identified. In the study, four cases of presumably imported diphyllobothriasis in Spanish patients were appraised. Molecular diagnosis allowed us to identify ‘exotic’ fish tapeworms such as Diplogonoporus balaenopterae in one patient and Diphyllobothrium pacificum in the others. PMID:25356331

Pastor-Valle, J; Gonzalez, L M; Martin-Clemente, J P; Merino, F J; Gottstein, B; Garate, T

2014-01-01

360

A common origin of complex life cycles in parasitic flatworms: evidence from the complete mitochondrial genome of Microcotyle sebastis (Monogenea: Platyhelminthes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The parasitic Platyhelminthes (Neodermata) contains three parasitic groups of flatworms, each having a unique morphology, and life style: Monogenea (primarily ectoparasitic), Trematoda (endoparasitic flukes), and Cestoda (endoparasitic tapeworms). The evolutionary origin of complex life cyles (multiple obligate hosts, as found in Trematoda and Cestoda) and of endo-\\/ecto-parasitism in these groups is still under debate and these questions can be

Joong-Ki Park; Kyu-Heon Kim; Seokha Kang; Won Kim; Keeseon S Eom; DTJ Littlewood

2007-01-01

361

PARASITES OF LABORATORYANIMALS TRANSMISSIBLETO MAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY An assessment is made of the hazards to man from parasites of laboratory animals. The chief danger arises from gastrointestinal helminths and protozoa of primates and tapeworms of rodents and prevention of infection depends on the adoption of normal hygienic measures for disposal of the faeces and bedding of experimental animals. Simian malaria constitutes a possible danger in those

T. E. GIBSON

362

Cestodes of the family Dilepididae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) from fish-eating birds in Mexico: a survey of species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of adults of dilepidid tapeworms (Cyclophyllidea) from piscivorous birds from Mexico is presented on the basis of the taxonomic evaluation of freshly collected and voucher specimens. The following species are reported (first records from Mexico marked with an asterisk): Cyclustera capito (Rudolphi, 1819); ?C. ibisae (Schmidt & Bush, 1972); ?Dendrouterina ardeae Rausch, 1955; ?D. herodiae Fuhrmann, 1912; ?D.

Roman Kuchta; Guillermo Salgado-Maldonado

2002-01-01

363

The molecular epidemiology of Echinococcus granulosus and cystic hydatid disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now generally recognized that the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, the cause of cystic hydatid disease, exhibits substantial genetic diversity. This variability has important implications for the design and development of vaccines, diagnostic reagents and drugs effective against this parasite. The paper describes various deoxyribonucleic acid-based approaches that have been used for accurate identification of these genetic variants and

D. P. McManus

2002-01-01

364

Evaluation of in vitro antihelmintic activity of leaves of Butea monosperma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out on the crude extracts of the leaves of Butea Monosperma Lam along with ash values and extractive values on the powdered drug. The crude extracts were investigated for their anthelmintic activity against earthworms (Pheretima posthuma), roundworms (Ascardia galli.) and tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis). Three concentrations (25, 50 and 100 mg\\/mL) of each extract were

2010-01-01

365

Celebrating the Life of Oiva Joensuu  

E-print Network

is hell for the dog. I am going to start a society to save the tapeworm. We must be sure it doesn't become have "a Lesson of the Birch" from his mother than to apologize to his brother after a fight. He began

Miami, University of

366

MOLECULAR SYSTEMATICS OF MESOCESTOIDES SPP. (CESTODA: MESOCESTOIDIDAE) FROM DOMESTIC DOGS ( CANIS FAMILIARIS ) AND COYOTES ( CANIS LATRANS )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Mesocestoides Vaillant, 1863 includes tapeworms of uncertain phylogenetic affinities and with poorly defined life histories. We previously documented 11 cases of peritoneal cestodiasis in dogs (Canis familiaris L.) in western North America caused by metacestodes of Mesocestoides spp. In the current study, DNA sequences were obtained from metacestodes collected from these dogs (n 5 10), as well as

Paul R. Crosbie; Steven A. Nadler; Edward G. Platzer; Cynthia Kerner; J. Mariaux; Walter M. Boyce

2000-01-01

367

The embryonic development of the bodywall and nervous system of the cestode flatworm Hymenolepis diminuta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cestodes (tapeworms) are a derived, parasitic clade of the phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms). The cestode body wall represents an adaptation to its endoparasitic lifestyle. The epidermis forms a non-ciliated syncytium, and both muscular and nervous system are reduced. Morphological differences between cestodes and free-living flatworms become apparent already during early embryogenesis. Cestodes have a complex life cycle that begins with an

Volker Hartenstein; Malcolm Jones

2003-01-01

368

Calixolepis thuli n. g., n. sp. (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) from the wood duck Aix sponsa (Anatidae) in America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calixolepis thuli n. g., n. sp. is described and figured on the basis of the specimens from the wood duck Aix sponsa (L.) (Anseriformes: Anatidae) from Cuba and the USA. The tapeworm is characterised by: (1) strobila of medium size; (2) deep genital atrium; (3) external accessory sac; (4) unilateral genital pores, with female genital ducts situated anterior to male

J. K. Macko; V. Hanzelová

1997-01-01

369

WHO classification of alveolar echinococcosis: Principles and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alveolar echinococcosis is caused by the larval stage of the fox tapeworm (Echinococcus multilocularis) and is frequently diagnosed as a space occupying lesion in the liver. The growth pattern resembles that of a malignant tumor with infiltration throughout the liver, spreading into neighbouring organs and metastases formation in distant organs. Thus, one of the prevailing differential diagnoses is liver cancer.

Peter Kern; Hao Wen; Naoki Sato; Dominique A. Vuitton; Beate Gruener; Yinmei Shao; Eric Delabrousse; Wolfgang Kratzer; Solange Bresson-Hadni

2006-01-01

370

77 FR 4225 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Milbemycin Oxime, Lufenuron, and Praziquantel  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...control of various internal parasites in dogs. DATES: This rule is effective January...whipworm, and adult tapeworm infections in dogs and puppies 2 pounds of body weight or...Reserved] (d) Conditions of use--(1) Dogs--(i) Amount. 0.5 mg...

2012-01-27

371

First Record of Alcataenia larina larina (Cestoda: Dilepididae) in Atlantic Puffins (Aves, Alcidae, Fratercula arctica) from Newfoundland, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tapeworm Alcataenia larina (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Dilepididae) is a parasite of gulls (Laridae) with a Holarctic distribution in oceanic and littoral habitats. Two subspecies Alcataenia larina pacifica and Alcataenia larina larina are recognized with the former occurring in the North Pacific basin and the latter in the North Atlantic. Alcids serve as incidental hosts for both species and infec- tions

Sabir B. Muzaffar; Eric P. Hoberg; Ian L. Jones

2007-01-01

372

SURVIVAL OF PARASITE EGGS IN STORED SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The inactivation rates of digester-resistant parasite eggs in laboratory-stored sludge were measured to determine their potential fate in sludge lagoons. Eggs from roundworms (Ascaris, Toxocara and Trichuris) and a tapeworm (Hymenolepis) were added to domestic sludges either befo...

373

SURVIVAL OF PARASITE EGGS UPON STORAGE IN SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Destruction rates of parasite eggs in stored sludge were examined to help understand the fate of these agents of enteric diseases in sludge lagoons. Eggs from the roundworms, Ascaris, Toxocara, and Trichuris, and the tapeworms, Hymenolepis, were treated with domestic sludges by a...

374

Wilderness in the city: the urbanization of Echinococcus multilocularis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distinct increase in fox populations, particularly in urban areas, has been observed in Europe. This is of particular concern in endemic regions of the small fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the aetiological agent of human alveolar echinococcosis. Novel tools have facilitated the investigation of the ecology of urban foxes and have demonstrated the urban wildlife cycle of E. multilocularis. Such

Peter Deplazes; Daniel Hegglin; Sandra Gloor; Thomas Romig

2004-01-01

375

BAITING RED FOXES IN AN URBAN AREA: A CAMERA TRAP STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baiting red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) is an established method of vaccinating foxes against rabies in rural envi- ronments. Furthermore, anthelmintic baiting has been demonstrated to reduce the prevalence of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in foxes. The recent invasion of foxes into urban areas on continental Europe represents a considerable health risk that calls for the evaluation of baiting strategies

DANIEL HEGGLIN; FABIO BONTADINA; SANDRA GLOOR; JANN ROMER; ULI MÜLLER; URS BREITENMOSER; PETER DEPLAZES; Gehrt

2004-01-01

376

1926 PRIMER NOTES 2000 Blackwell Science Ltd, Molecular Ecology, 9, 19191952  

E-print Network

and characterization of microsatellite loci from the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus THOMAS BINZ,* THORSTEN B. H, microsatellite, paternity, Schistocephalus solidus, sex allocation Received 8 May 2000; revision accepted 9 June.binz@nmbe.unibe.ch Schistocephalus solidus, a pseudophyllidean cestode parasite, is an outstanding model organism for studying

Schärer, Lukas

377

BioMed Central Page 1 of 11  

E-print Network

Research article Survey of public knowledge about Echinococcus multilocularis in four European countries: Need by the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. In order to plan information campaigns, public knowledge questions, significant country-specific differences were found. Fewer people had heard of E. multilocularis

Richner, Heinz

378

Efficacy of Droncit R Spot-on (praziquantel) 4% w\\/v against immature and mature Echinococcus multilocularis in cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causative agent of alveolar hydatidosis in humans, the fox tapeworm Echinococcusmultilocularis, is extending its geographical range in Europe and has been found in domestic cats in some areas. A dermally applied cestocidal treatment for domestic cats has been developed and the efficacy of this treatment is reported. Thirty purpose-bred cats were experimentally infected each with 10?000 protoscoleces of Echinococcusmultilocularis.

David J Jenkins; Thomas Romig

2000-01-01

379

Coproantigen survey for Echinococcus multilocularis prevalence of red foxes in Hokkaido, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epidemiological survey was conducted on the seasonal variation of Echinococcus multilocularis prevalence in red foxes from 1997 to 1998, using a monoclonal antibody-based detection of the tapeworm coproantigen. Thirty-six breeding dens of reproductive fox families were identified in the endemic area of Koshimizu, eastern Hokkaido, Japan. Fecal samples from each site were examined by coproantigen detection assay and fecal

Yasuyuki Morishima; Hideharu Tsukada; Nariaki Nonaka; Yuzaburo Oku; Masao Kamiya

1999-01-01

380

During19822007,alveolarechinococcosis(AE)was diagnosedin407patientsinFrance,acountrypreviously  

E-print Network

by the larval stage of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocu- laris. In human infections, after a person ingests eggs, the metacestode cells of E. multilocularis proliferate in the liver, inducing a hepatic, Slovakia, Lithuania, Slovenia, Belgium, and Hungary (7,8). Molecular typing of E. multilocularis specimens

Boyer, Edmond

381

Compound processes as models for clumped parasite data  

E-print Network

leaves, in [6] for the tapeworms Echinococcus granulosus and multilocularis in dogs, in [7 by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus. The hypothesis of a clumped infection process against single ingestions infection, mixed Poisson, parasite data, Echinococcus. 1 Introduction Parasitic disease data often consist

Barbour, Andrew

382

Life-history studies on two molecular strains of mesocestoides (Cestoda: Mesocestoididae): identification of sylvatic hosts and infectivity of immature life stages.  

PubMed

Life-cycle studies were conducted on 2 molecular strains of Mesocestoides tapeworms that represent different evolutionary lineages (clades A and B). Wild carnivores, reptiles, and rodents were examined for tapeworm infections at 2 enzootic sites: (1) San Miguel Island (SMI), a small island off the coast of southern California and (2) Hopland Research and Extension Center (HREC), a field station in northern California. Results indicate that deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) may play an important role in the life cycles of Mesocestoides (clades A and B) in California. Over half the coyotes at HREC and at least a third of the population of island fox (Urocyon littoralis) at SMI were found to harbor clade A adult Mesocestoides spp. One of every 4 Mesocestoides-infected coyotes had tapeworms representing both clades A and B. Experimental inoculations revealed that proglottids (clades A and B) were not directly infectious to rodents, reptiles, or dogs. On the other hand, mice, lizards, and hamsters fed tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides spp. (clades A or B) developed peritoneal tetrathyridial infections. A dog that was fed tetrathyridia (clade B) developed an adult tapeworm infection. Acephalic metacestodes given orally to western fence lizards, laboratory mice, or domestic dogs did not result in metacestode or adult tapeworm infections. Whereas most clade A acephalic metacestodes from dogs were asexually proliferative, clade A tetrathyridia isolated from wild deer mice did not show evidence of asexual replication. Our study supports the hypothesis that a second, as of yet unidentified, intermediate host is necessary to complete the life cycles of Mesocestoides spp., and that acephalic metacestodes represent an aberrant form, incapable of further development. PMID:15040675

Padgett, Kerry A; Boyce, Walter M

2004-02-01

383

[Genetic diversity, origin and patterns of geographic distribution of polyploid spiny loach (Cypriniformes, Cobitidae, Cobitis) in Ukraine].  

PubMed

Only 16 biotypes from 28 possible ones, which could be generated during hybridization of C. elongatoides, on the one hand, and representatives of superspecies C. taenia s. lato (C. taenia, C. tanaitica, C. species-1), on the other hand, were discovered in water areas of Ukraine. Furthermore. two biotypes, presumably C. aff. melanoleuca-tanaitica, were discovered in the north-western regions. Polyploids have compounded 65% of investigated individuals of Cobitis genus, the average quantity of males has compounded less than 1% and it was equal among triploids and tetraploids. Absence of amphidiploids and also lack of sufficiently large number of individuals with recombined genotype and abnormal electrophoretic spectra should be stressed. Two loci of polyploid biotypes formation are marked out: southern (the Lower Danube) and northern (the Upper Danube, Oder and Rhine). C. taenia and non-specified C. species, typical of the north-western basins of Ukraine, participate in formation of polyploids in the last mentioned river alongside with C. elongatoides and C. tanaitica. It is established that in spite of clearly evident expansion capacity, so-called southern biotypes (C. 2 (3) elongatoides-tanaitica, C. elongatoides--2 (3) tanaitica) in comparison with the northern ones, which genome includes chromosomal complement C. taenia or C. species-1, are sharply limited in their spread to the East. The reason of such a situation is unbalanced gynogenetic crossing between females of the southern biotypes and C. taenia males, accompanied by introgressions, genetic instability and reduced posterity viability. PMID:21061693

Mezhzherin, S V; Pavlenko, L I

2010-01-01

384

Endoparasites of the coyote (Canis latrans), a recent migrant to insular newfoundland.  

PubMed

This study provides the first data on the helminth fauna of the coyote (Canis latrans) in insular Newfoundland. Sixty-nine coyotes were collected between 2001 and 2003 and examined for helminths. A total of 10 helminth species were recorded: the cestodes Taenia ovis krabbei (9%), Taenia hydatigena (4%), Taenia pisiformis (1%), and Mesocestoides spp. (5%); and the nematodes Toxocara canis (19%), Toxascaris leonina (1%), Crenosoma vulpis (19%), Physaloptera rara (6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (3%), and Angiostrongylus vasorum (1%). No significant differences (P< or =0.05) were detected between sexes. Mesocestoides spp., T. canis, and C. vulpis were more prevalent in juveniles than adults. Angiostrongylus vasorum is reported in coyotes for the second time in Newfoundland, Canada. PMID:19901402

Bridger, Kimberly E; Baggs, Eric M; Finney-Crawley, Jean

2009-10-01

385

Epidemiological studies on intestinal helminth parasites of rural and urban red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes) in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epidemiological study of intestinal helminths in 843 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from southern England revealed the presence of 13 parasite species: five nematodes—Toxocara canis (prevalence 55.9%), Toxascaris leonina (1.5%), Uncinaria stenocephala (68.0%), Trichuris vulpis (0.5%) and Capillaria aerophila (0.2%); four cestodes—Taenia pisiformis (13.8%), Taenia hydatigena (2.5%), Echinococcus granulosus (0.1%) and Dipylidium caninum (3.8%); two trematodes—Brachylaima recurva (2.9%) and Cryptocotyle lingua

D. T. Richards; S. Harris; J. W. Lewis

1995-01-01

386

The prevalence and abundance of internal parasites in working horses autopsied in Poland.  

PubMed

The digestive tracts of 50 working horses from private farms in Poland were examined. Thirty-seven nematode species, two tapeworm species and one species of botfly were recovered. The most prevalent small strongyle species were Cyathostomum catinatum, Cylicocyclus nassatus, Cylicostephanus goldi, Cylicostephanus longibursatus, Cyathostomum coronatum, Cylicostephanus calicatus, Cylicocyclus leptostomus and Cylicostephanus minutus. Thirteen cyathostome species showed a site preference in the ventral colon, five in the dorsal colon and three in the caecum. One species, Cylicocyclus triramosus, was new for Poland. Delafondia vulgaris was the most common large strongyle, with 74% prevalence, but low abundance. Parascaris equorum (26%) and Oxyuris equi (36%) were common. Strongyloides westeri (4%), Habronema majus (16%) and Habronema muscae (8%) were less prevalent. Both Habronema species were new for Poland. Tapeworm infection were not prevalent (Anoplocephala magna (4%) and Anoplocephala perfoliata (4%)). Botfly larvae were found in 40% of the horses examined. It was stated that no anthelmintics had been used on the farms. PMID:7676606

Gawor, J J

1995-05-01

387

[Characteristics of protein hydrolysis on the digestive-transport surfaces of the intestine of the kittiwake Rissa tridactyla and Alcataenia larina (Cestoda, Dilepididae) parasitizing it].  

PubMed

Investigation of the activity of proteolytic enzymes functioning on the digestive-transport surfaces of the intestine of infected and noninfected kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla and cestodes Alcataenia larina (Cestoda, Dilepididae) parasitizing it was conducted. The protease activities depending on the pH values in the intestine of gulls and tapeworms were determined. The dynamics of desorption of enzymes of protein hydrolysis from the surface of the cestodes A. larina and the kittiwake intestine was studied. It was shown that the tapeworm invasion activates the processes of membrane and cavitary digestion of birds. It was determined that the degree of influence of the dilepidid infection on protease activity was defined mainly by the intensity of the invasion. PMID:22117422

Kuklina, M M; Kuklin, V V

2011-01-01

388

Helminthic infections of the liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human helminthic infestation is exceedingly common on a global scale, with as many as 1.5 to 2 billion people affected worldwide.\\u000a Helminths (parasitic worms) that infect the liver and hepatobiliary system include nematodes (roundworms), cestodes (tapeworms),\\u000a and trematodes (flatworms or flukes). The majority of morbidity and mortality from these infestations is caused by the host\\u000a immune response to the larvae

Paul J. Pockros; Thomas A. Capozza

2005-01-01

389

Helminthic infections of the liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human helminthic infestation is exceedingly common on a global scale, with as many as 1.5 to 2 billion people affected worldwide.\\u000a Helminths (parasitic worms) that infect the liver and hepatobiliary system include nematodes (roundworms), cestodes (tapeworms),\\u000a and trematodes (flatworms or flukes). The majority of morbidity and mortality from these infestations is caused by the host\\u000a immune response to the larvae

Paul J. Pockros; Thomas A. Capozza

2004-01-01

390

Cestodes of the family Dilepididae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) from fish-eating birds in Mexico: a survey of species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of adults of dilepidid tapeworms (Cyclophyllidea) from piscivorous birds from Mexico is presented on the basis of the taxonomic evaluation of freshly collected and voucher specimens. The following species are reported (first records from Mexico marked with an asterisk): Cyclustera capito (Rudolphi, 1819); *\\u000aC. ibisae (Schmidt & Bush, 1972); *\\u000aDendrouterina ardeae Rausch, 1955; *\\u000aD. herodiae Fuhrmann, 1912;

Tomáš Scholz; Roman Kuchta; Guillermo Salgado-Maldonado

2002-01-01

391

Differential protein expression in Spirometra erinacei according to its development in its final host  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to identify genes involved in the growth and development of Spirometra erinacei larvae, an intestinal tapeworm of cats and dogs, within the final host. The differential protein expression at three different\\u000a stages of S. erinacei, the plerocercoid larvae, 8-day-old juveniles, and adults, was compared using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Specifically\\u000a or highly expressed proteins in juvenile worms were

Jae-Hwan Kim; Young Ju Kim; Woon-Mok Sohn; Young Mee Bae; Sung-Tae Hong; Min-Ho Choi

2009-01-01

392

Syncope as the primary manifestation of hydatid cyst. Report of two cases with different etiologies.  

PubMed

Hydatid disease is a parasitic infestation that is caused by the larvae of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. Clinical manifestations are extremely variable and related to the location and the size of the cysts. Syncope as the first clinical presentation of hydatid cyst is a very rare condition. Herein, we report two cases of patients with cardiac and pleural hydatid cysts who had syncope as the initial symptom. PMID:23749195

Turak, O; Ozcan, F; Sökmen, E; I?leyen, A; Okten, R S; Tüfekçio?lu, O; Birincio?lu, C L

2014-03-01

393

Investigation on the occurrence of Echinococcus multilocularis in Central Italy  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies on geographic distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis in Europe show that it has a wider range than previously thought. It is unclear, however, if the wider distribution is due to its recent spreading or to a lack of previous data from the new areas. Italy, previously considered E. multilocularis-free, is now part of these new areas: infected foxes (the main definitive host of the tapeworm) have been observed in a Northern Alpine territory. Thus, more surveys need to be done in other Italian regions in order to monitor the spreading of E. multilocularis. The aim of the present study was to look for this parasite in 283 foxes collected in an Apennine area of Central Italy by different diagnostic methods. Results The foxes were heavily parasitized by 11 helminthic genera, but none of the animals was infected by E. multilocularis neither by E. granulosus (harboured adult worms or their DNA). Low specificity was observed in commercially available ELISA kits for the detection of E. multilocularis antigens in the faeces. Molecular diagnostics were sensitive and specific for the detection and identification of tapeworm eggs in faeces, but less sensitive, although specific, to adult tapeworms in the intestinal content. Conclusion Preliminarily, we can say that no E. multilocularis could be found in the study area. These data will enable us to follow temporal changes of the spatial distribution of the parasite in the study area of the Central Apennines. Due to its low specificity the ELISA kit for E. multilocularis coproantigens is not suitable for epidemiological surveys, whereas molecular diagnostics applied to faecal samples give useful results. Finally, absence of E. granulosus in foxes living in the endemic areas studied confirms the thought that this tapeworm prefers a different definitive host. PMID:19941652

2009-01-01

394

On some cestodes parasitizing freshwater fish in Italy.  

PubMed

The paper presents a systematic survey of some cestodes parasitizing freshwater fish in Italy. The following eight species were recorded: Monobothrium wageneri, Cyathocephalus truncatus, Triaenophorus nodulosus (plerocercoids and adults), Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, B. claviceps, Ligula intestinalis (plerocercoids), Schistocephalus sp. (plerocercoids) and Proteocephalus percae from Perca fluviatilis which is reported from freshwater fish in Italy for the first time. All the tapeworms recovered are described and figured. PMID:1339972

Scholz, T; Paggi, L; Di Cave, D; Orecchia, P

1992-12-01

395

Thioureides of 2-(phenoxymethyl)benzoic acid 4-R substituted: A novel class of anti-parasitic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty members of a novel class of antimicrobial compounds, 2-(4-R-phenoxymethyl)benzoic acid thioureides, were synthesized and characterized with respect to their activities against three parasites of human relevance, namely the protozoa Giardia lamblia and Toxoplasma gondii, and the larval (metacestode) stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. To determine the selective toxicity of these compounds, the human colon cancer cell line Caco2

Joachim Müller; Carmen Limban; Britta Stadelmann; Alexandru Vasile Missir; Ileana Cornelia Chirita; Mariana Carmen Chifiriuc; George Mihai Nitulescu; Andrew Hemphill

2009-01-01

396

Protective immune mechanisms against the metacestode of Echinococcus multilocularis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection with the larval stage of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis results in a life-threatening hepatic disease concerning humans and intermediate rodent hosts. Immunoepidemiological surveys provided information that a large proportion of infected individuals may demonstrate either constitutional resistance to early post-oncospheral development of the parasite or late resistance to disease by exhibiting an intrahepatic died-out parasite lesion. Similar events

B. Gottstein; R. Felleisen

1995-01-01

397

The Echinococcus multilocularis 14-3-3 protein protects mice against primary but not secondary alveolar echinococcosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by the larval stage (metacestode) of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, exhibits very similar disease characteristics in humans and rodents. Recently, it has been shown that an over-expression of the parasite 14-3-3 protein could be associated to the proliferative growth of the E. multilocularis metacestode. We now demonstrate the expression of this protein at the E. multilocularis

M. Siles-Lucas; M. Merli; U. Mackenstedt; B. Gottstein

2003-01-01

398

HELMINTH PARASITISM IN MARTENS (MARTES AMERICANA) AND ERMINES (MUSTELA ERMINEA) FROM WASHINGTON, WITH COMMENTS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helminths are reported for the first time from ermines (Mustela erminea) and martens (Martes americana) in Washington (USA). Among 22 adult ermines, 41% were infected by one or more of five species (Taenia mustelae, Maria mustelae, Molineus patens, M. mustelae and Trichinella spiralis). Among 78 adult martens from three geographic localities, the prevalence was 83%. Nine species were identified (Mesocestoides

Eric P. Hoberg; Keith B. Aubry; J. David Brittell

399

Echinococcus multilocularis infections in dogs from urban and peri-urban areas in France.  

PubMed

Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis, a severe zoonotic disease. It is maintained through a sylvatic life cycle based on predator-prey interactions mainly between foxes and rodents. Dogs are also good definitive hosts; and due to their close proximity to humans, they may represent a major risk factor for the occurrence of human cases. In two medium-sized cities of Eastern France (Annemasse and Pontarlier), located in highly endemic areas, 817 dog feces samples were collected and analyzed by a flotation technique followed by a multiplex PCR assay. For the first time in France, we assessed the presence of E. multilocularis DNA in four dog feces samples, in which it represents an estimated prevalence of 0.5% (95% CI; 0.1% <> 1.3%). Eight other samples presented taeniid infections from three different species (Taenia crassiceps, Taenia serialis, and Taenia polyacantha). When considering both E. multilocularis and Taenia sensu lato, prevalence rose to 0.6% in Annemasse and 2.6% in Pontarlier. In this highly endemic context, proper application of the usual deworming recommendations (70% of the dogs were treated twice a year or more) failed to prevent dog infection, particularly for hunting dogs. Our results stressed the need to adapt treatment to the environmental context and to the specific activity of dogs. Further epidemiological surveys in domestic dogs and cats using this coprological approach are still needed to obtain a better overview of infection and the associated zoonotic risk. PMID:24687286

Umhang, Gérald; Comte, Sébastien; Raton, Vincent; Hormaz, Vanessa; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Favier, Stéphanie; Combes, Benoît; Boué, Franck

2014-06-01

400

A phylogeny of members of the family Taeniidae based on the mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 gene data.  

PubMed

The cestode family Taeniidae consists of 2 genera, Taenia and Echinococcus, which both have been the focus of intensive taxonomic and epidemiological studies because of their zoonotic importance. However, a comprehensive molecular phylogeny of this family has yet to be reconstructed. In this study, 54 isolates representing 9 Taenia species were characterized using DNA sequences in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) genes. Phylogenetic relationships within the family Taeniidae were inferred by combining cox1 and nad1 sequence data of the present and previous studies. In the phylogenetic analysis, the genus Echinococcus was shown to be monophyletic, but Taenia proved to be paraphyletic due to the position of T. mustelae as a probable sister taxon of Echinococcus. This indicates that T. mustelae should form a genus of its own. Taenia ovis krabbei was placed distant from T. ovis ovis, as a sister taxon of T. multiceps, supporting its recognition as a distinct species, T. krabbei. High intraspecific sequence variation within both T. polyacantha and T. taeniaeformis suggests the existence of cryptic sister species. PMID:18937885

Lavikainen, A; Haukisalmi, V; Lehtinen, M J; Henttonen, H; Oksanen, A; Meri, S

2008-10-01

401

The chromosomes of 11 species of cyprinidae and one cobitidae from Italy, with some remarks on the problem of polyploidy in the cypriniformes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper gives a detailed description of the morphology of the karyotype of 11 Cyprinidae and 1 Cobitidae indigenous to Italian inland waters. The data relating to Chondrostoma toxostoma, C. soetta, Phoxinus phoxinus, Rutilus rubilio, Barbus meridionalis and Cobitis taenia are new from a karyological point of view; as regards Leuciscus cephalus, L. souffia, Alburnus alburnus, Scardinius erythrophtalmus, Tinca

Stefano Cataudella; Luciana Sola; Rosanna Accame Muratori; Ernesto Capanna

1977-01-01

402

Ecological analyses of the intestinal helminth communities of the wolf, Canis lupus, in Spain.  

PubMed

This work describes the ecological characteristics of the intestinal helminth communities of 50 wolves (Canis lupus L.) from Spain. The species found were classified into three groups according to prevalence, intensity and intestinal distribution. Taenia hydatigena Pallas, 1766 and Uncinaria stenocephala (Railliet, 1884) are the core species of the community. Taenia multiceps (Leske, 1780) is a secondary species. The rest of the species, Alaria alata (Goeze, 1782), Taenia serialis (Gervais, 1847). Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780), Dipylidium caninum (Linnaeus, 1758), Mesocestoides sp. aff. litteratus, Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782), Toxascaris leonina (von Linstow, 1902), Ancylostoma caninum (Ercolani, 1859) and Trichuris vulpis (Froelich, 1789), behave as satellite species. The linear intestinal distribution of all helminth species was analysed. The location of most species can be considered predictable, especially for core and secondary species. The analysis of interspecific relationships between infracommunities shows that negative associations are more numerous than positive associations. The role of A. caninum in the community is compared with that of U. stenocephala. PMID:14535350

Segovia, Juan-Matías; Guerrero, Ricardo; Torres, Jordi; Miquel, Jordi; Feliu, Carlos

2003-09-01

403

Some intestinal parasites of Arctic fox, Banks Island, N. W. T.  

PubMed

Small intestinal parasitology of 50 trapped Arctic fox taken on Banks Island, The Northwest Territories, showed a prevalence of Taenia crassiceps (78%), Toxascaris leonina (60%), Echinococcus multilocularis (2%) and Coccidia (2%). Attention is drawn to the absence of Toxocara sp. and of Uncinaria sp. PMID:497890

Eaton, R D; Secord, D C

1979-04-01

404

PREVALENCE OF HELMINTHS IN A CYCLIC SNOWSHOE HARE POPULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five species of helminths were monitored in a population of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus ) near Rochester, Alberta, during 1961-1977. Prevalence of both Obeliscoides cuniculi and Protostrongylus boughtoni among young hares averaged about 50% by age 2 mo, then tended to level off. Prevalence of Taenia pisiformis (cysticerci) and Dirofilaria scapiceps rose more slowly, but continued to increase steadily beyond

Lloyd B. Keith; John R. Cary; Thomas M. Yuill; Inge M. Keith

1985-01-01

405

Some intestinal parasites of Arctic fox, Banks Island, N. W. T.  

PubMed Central

Small intestinal parasitology of 50 trapped Arctic fox taken on Banks Island, The Northwest Territories, showed a prevalence of Taenia crassiceps (78%), Toxascaris leonina (60%), Echinococcus multilocularis (2%) and Coccidia (2%). Attention is drawn to the absence of Toxocara sp. and of Uncinaria sp. PMID:497890

Eaton, R D; Secord, D C

1979-01-01

406

Electrical Transmission at the Nexus between Smooth Muscle Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that nexuses between cells are responsible for the core conductor properties of tissues was tested using smooth muscle prepara- tions from the taenia coli of guinea pigs. Action potentials recorded from small diameter preparations across a sucrose gap change from monophasic to diphasic when a shunt resistor is connected across the gap. This indicates that transmis- sion between

L. Barr; W. BERGER; M. M. D EWEY

1968-01-01

407

Parasites associated with exotic food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short description of parasites associated with “exotic food” is by no means inclusive. Many others, such as Toxoplasma gondii, Spirometa spp. (sparganosis), Taenia saginata (cysticercosis), and Echinostoma malayanum, are transmitted via food. Raw sheep liver “sowda” is commonly consumed in Lebanon. Many people developed human toxocariasis after eating this dish (19). The economic loss associated with food-borne parasitic zoonoses

Susan M. Novak

1996-01-01

408

COMPOSITION AND ADULT ACTIVITY OF SALT-MARSH MOSQUITOES ATTRACTED TO 1-OCTEN-3-OL, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND LIGHT IN TOPSAIL ISLAND, NORTH CAROLINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

By monitoring weekly for 3 months with Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps baited with carbon dioxide (CO2) and light, 12 species of mosquitoes were collected from salt-marsh areas in Topsail Island, North Carolina: Aedes vexaris, Anopheles atropos, An. bradleyi, An. crucians, An. ptmctipennis, Culex pipiens, Cx. restuans, Cx. salinarius, Ochlerotatus sollicitans, Oc. taeniorhynchus, Oc. iqfirmatus, and Urano- taenia

LEOPOLDO M. RUEDA; ROBERT C. GARDNER

409

ENDOPARASITES OF SELECTED POPULATIONS OF  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the fall of 1966 and spring of 1967,260 cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) were collectedfrom 13 sites in 8 southeasternstatesand examined for endoparasites. In order of prevalence, the endoparasites found were: Obeliscoides cuniculi, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Trichostrongylus affinis, Taenia pisiformis (cysticerci), Raillietina salmoni, Eimeria spp., Longistriata noviberiae, Cittotaenia variabilis, Hasstilesia tricolor, Trichuris leporis, Dermatoxys veligera, Passalurus ambiguus, Dirofilaria scapiceps, Sarcocystis sp.,

CHARLES L. ANDREWS; WILLIAM R DAVIDSON; ERNEST E. PROVOST

410

Specific parasiticidal use of 2-benzamido-5-nitro-thiazole derivatives  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The 2-benazmido-5-nitro-thiazole derivatives disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,950,351 are effective against various species of cestodes: Taenia pisiformis, Dypilidium caninum, Echinococus granulosus and Moniezia expansa, and various species of nematodes: roundworms (Ancyslotoma spp.) and whipworms (Trichuris spp.).

1982-02-09

411

The musk rat ( Ondatra zibethicus) as intermediate host of cestodes in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation on the presence of larval cestodes in musk rats (Ondatra zibethicus) was carried out in two regions of the Netherlands (east Groningen and south Limburg) where in a earlier study foxes with Echinococcus multilocularis were found. A total of 1726 musk rats were dissected (1200 in Groningen, 526 in Limburg). Larval stages of Taenia taeniaeformis were most frequently

Fred H. M Borgsteede; Joop H Tibben; Joke W. B van der Giessen

2003-01-01

412

Echinococcus granulosus in gray wolves and ungulates in Idaho and Montana, USA.  

PubMed

We evaluated the small intestines of 123 gray wolves (Canis lupus) that were collected from Idaho, USA (n=63), and Montana, USA (n=60), between 2006 and 2008 for the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The tapeworm was detected in 39 of 63 wolves (62%) in Idaho, USA, and 38 of 60 wolves (63%) in Montana, USA. The detection of thousands of tapeworms per wolf was a common finding. In Idaho, USA, hydatid cysts, the intermediate form of E. granulosus, were detected in elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and a mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). In Montana, USA, hydatid cysts were detected in elk. To our knowledge, this is the first report of adult E. granulosus in Idaho, USA, or Montana, USA. It is unknown whether the parasite was introduced into Idaho, USA, and southwestern Montana, USA, with the importation of wolves from Alberta, Canada, or British Columbia, Canada, into Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA, and central Idaho, USA, in 1995 and 1996, or whether the parasite has always been present in other carnivore hosts, and wolves became a new definitive host. Based on our results, the parasite is now well established in wolves in these states and is documented in elk, mule deer, and a mountain goat as intermediate hosts. PMID:19901399

Foreyt, William J; Drew, Mark L; Atkinson, Mark; McCauley, Deborah

2009-10-01

413

Lack of preference for infective faeces in Hymenolepis diminuta-infected beetles (Tenebrio molitor).  

PubMed

The beetle-tapeworm life cycle provides a convenient system to study how host behaviour influences the probability of re-infection because initial and secondary infections can be tracked. The beetle, Tenebrio molitor, is infected with the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta when it ingests rat faeces containing tapeworm eggs, which upon hatching undergo five morphologically distinct stages while developing inside the beetle. In a series of preference trials, both individual and groups of previously infected beetles were exposed to baits of infective (faeces with eggs) and uninfective faeces. Beetles did not differ in the amount of time spent or in the number of occurrences at each bait type, suggesting that infected beetles show no preference for infective faeces. This may be a host adaptation to avoid further infection, parasite manipulation to avoid competition for host resources, or both. Further, once infected, beetles are no more or no less likely to become re-infected than uninfected beetles. An analysis of the mean and variance of infection suggests that some individuals are highly susceptible to and some are highly resistant to infection, with males being more variable than females. This could explain the higher load of cysticercoids observed in males. PMID:17875228

Shea, John F

2007-09-01

414

[Ocular sparganosis in the Czech Republic--a case report].  

PubMed

The authors report a case of 14-year-old boy presented to the Ophthalmologic Department of University Hospital in Olomouc with the diagnosis af acute anterior uveitis. A living parasite has been detected in the anterior chamber in a slit lamp examination. The vitreous and retina remained uninvolved. The acute iridocyclitis associated with parasitic infection is a very rare cause of anterior uveitis in Central Europe. The patient underwent surgical removal of the parasite via paracentesis. The inflammation resolved under the treatment with atropine and dexamethasone drops within a few days. Histopathological examination revealed the parasite as a young larval stage of tapeworm from family Pseudophyllidea (sparganum). Based on the analysis of development cycles of different types of tapeworms and according the literature data on tapeworms found in the Czech Republic genus Spirometra seemed to be the most plausible cause of the patient's disease. As the most probable source of viable parasites authors suspect swallowed water containing tiny infected crustaceans in the dam near the town Olomouc in Moravia. PMID:16958022

Rehák, M; Kolárová, L; Kohnová, I; Rehák, J; Mohlerová, S; Fric, E; Chrapek, O

2006-08-01

415

[Lethal alveolar echinococcosis in a dog: clinical symptoms and pathology].  

PubMed

Epidemiological data indicate a progressing spread of the fox tapeworm in Germany. Here we report on a case of lethal alveolar echinococcosis in a dog from Brandenburg. The patient was clinically presented with abdominal distension. Ultrasonic examination revealed severe structural alterations of the liver and in a fine needle aspiration cytology larval tape worm fragments were suspected. Explorative laparotomy suggested inoperable lesions and the animal was euthanized with unfavorable prognosis. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of hepatic echinococcosis. PCR analysis of the liver identified Echinococcus multilocularis, the so called "small fox tapeworm". The infection, reportable in Germany, is an important zoonotic disease that is transmitted by accidentally ingested tapeworm eggs shed by foxes or dogs. The prevalence between 7.6% and 16.7% in the fox population of Brandenburg is significantly lower than in the endemic regions of South and Southwest Germany, however, it is suspected to increase. This underlines the importance of a regional monitoring in domestic animals living in close contact to humans. In this regard, especially dogs should be taken into consideration as a potential definitive host and source of infection for people. PMID:24199383

Meyer, Anja; Conraths, Franz J; Schneemann, Christiane; Wienrich, Volker; Kershaw, Olivia; Gruber, Achim D

2013-01-01

416

Seasonal abundance and control of the clover head weevil, Hypera meles (Fabr.)  

E-print Network

spread generally throughout the Atlantic seaboard states and westward as far as Kansas, with a known distribution of 23 states. This pest was first reported in Texas on crimson clo- ver, Trifolium incarnatum, during the spring of 1965 (Tnomas... aclditional soecies of Trifolium as hosts of the weevil 12 He also stated that the occurrence o . clove" head s. -ecvils on plants other than crimson clover, Trifolium incarnatun, was "are and that hc collect ec la vao onl!: on species o= izi- Solium. )Ie...

Stanley, Roy Lee

2012-06-07

417

Genetic uniformity of Echinococcus multilocularis collected from different intermediate host species in Hokkaido, Japan.  

PubMed

DNA from several isolates of Taenia taeniaeformis and Echinococcus multilocularis were digested with restriction enzymes and hybridized with digoxigenated oligonucleotide probe (CAC)5. Within the six wild isolates of Taenia taeniaeformis from Norway rats in Hokkaido, although several bands were common among isolates, fingerprinting patterns were specific to each isolate. In the case of E. multilocularis, regardless of hosts from which each isolate has been isolated, the five isolates collected from Hokkaido, showed the same fingerprinting pattern. These results indicate that there was very little genetic difference among these isolates. Although the fingerprinting pattern of E. multilocularis from St. Lawrence Is. was similar to that of the Hokkaido isolates, some bands were different from those in the Hokkaido isolates. Echinococcus multilocularis in Hokkaido seems to be closely-related genetically to that from St. Lawrence Is. PMID:17339760

Okamoto, Munehiro; Oku, Yuzaburo; Kurosawa, Tsutomu; Kamiya, Masao

2007-02-01

418

Efficacy of praziquantel (Cesocide injection) in treatment of cestode infections in domestic and laboratory animals.  

PubMed

Efficacy of praziquantel (Cesocide injection) by intramuscular (I.M.) route against cestode infections was evaluated. Total 93 domestic or laboratory animals such as dogs, cats, rats, mice, goats, deers and chickens were used. Animals were infected with Dipylidium caninum, Spirometra sp., Taenia pisiformis, Taenia taeniaeformis, Hymenolepis nana, Moniezia expansa, Moniezia sp. or Raillietina sp. A single dose of praziquantel, 6 mg/kg of body weight, was highly effective (97.9%) against cestodes of various kinds disregarding the host species or their intensity of infection. At high dose above 6 mg/kg, the cure rate was 100%. All the cestodes treated were expelled from the host within 48 hours. The discharged proglottids were damaged severely except Hymenolepis nana and Moniezia expansa. Intramuscular injection of this drug evoked a brief pain response in a dog, but no other side reactions were observed. PMID:12811058

Eom, Kee Seon; Kim, Seung Ho; Rim, Han Jong

1988-06-01

419

[The parasite fauna of East Germany. 9. The helminth fauna of Lutra lutra].  

PubMed

Alimentary tract, liver, kidneys and lungs of 25 otters, died of several causes during 1982-1987 in GDR were included in helminthological investigations. Parasites were detected in 8 animals. One cestode: Taenia martis and 3 trematodes: Isthmiophora melis, Opisthorchis felineus and Pseudamphistomum truncatum are regarded to be certain parasites of this host. Other findings like Ligula intestinalis, Azygia luccii and Piscicola geometra and the fragment of a pseudophyllidean enter the alimentary tract with the food and pass through it. PMID:3177936

Schuster, R; Schierhorn, K; Heidecke, D; Stubbe, M

1988-06-01

420

Coprological survey of alimentary tract parasites in dogs from Zambia and evaluation of a coproantigen assay for canine echinococcosis  

PubMed Central

Faecal samples were collected from the rectum of 540 domestic dogs from four districts (Lusaka, Katete, Petauke and Luangwa) in Zambia between 2005 and 2006 and prevalences of canine alimentary tract parasites were determined by coprological examination. Thirteen different ova and parasites including strongyle (43.3%), Spirocerca lupi (18.7%), taeniid (13.1%), Toxocara canis (7.6%), Sarcocystis sp.* (7.5%), Isospora sp.* (5.7%), Physaloptera sp.* (4.6%), Capillaria sp.* (2.8%), Dipylidium caninum (2.2%), Mesocestoides sp.* (2.0%), Ascaris sp.* (1.7%), Trichuris vulpis* (0.4%) and Schistosoma mansoni* (0.4%) were detected, Ascaris and Schistosoma probably originating from coprophagy. The species with asterisks and later-described Taenia multiceps are for the first time reported from dogs in Zambia. A coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoproAg-ELISA) developed for Echinococcus spp. revealed 43 positive dogs and 37 of these harboured taeniid eggs. From 63 of the 71 taeniid egg-positive samples, eggs and DNA thereof were isolated and subjected to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for differentiating E. granulosus sensu lato, E. multilocularis and Taenia spp. Amplicons indicative for Taenia spp. were obtained from 60 samples. Sequencing of amplicons spanning part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, which was possible with 38 samples, revealed 35 infections with T. hydatigena and 3 with T. multiceps. Therefore, the CoproAg-ELISA showed some positives, but concrete evidence for the existence of canine E. granulosus infection could not be established. Comparison of the results of the CoproAg-ELISA and Taenia species identification indicated that the CoproAg-ELISA cross-reacts with patent infections of T. hydatigena (57%) and T. multiceps (33%). PMID:22185947

Nonaka, N; Nakamura, S; Inoue, T; Oku, Y; Katakura, K; Matsumoto, J; Mathis, A; Chembesofu, M; Phiri, I G K

2011-01-01

421

IgA detection in human neurocysticercosis using different preparations of heterologous antigen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurocysticercosis (NC) is the most important neurological disease of parasitic origin in humans. IgA and IgG detection in\\u000a serum from neurocysticercosis patients was tested using some antigenic preparations of total saline extract from Taenia saginata: detergent (D) and aqueous (A) phases extracted with Triton X-114 and the jacalin bound (JBF) and unbound fractions (JUF)\\u000a obtained by affinity chromatography using jacalin

Vanessa da S. Ribeiro; Marianna N. Manhani; Julia M. Costa-Cruz

2010-01-01

422

Helminth fauna of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus, 1758) in southern Belarus.  

PubMed

We examined 94 carcasses of and 1,213 faecal samples from red foxes collected between 1981 and 2001 in natural and transformed ecosystems in the southern part of Belarus. A total of 32 helminth species were found. Of these, the most common were Alaria alata, Pearsonema plica, Taenia crassiceps, Toxocara canis, Trichinella spp. larvae and Uncinaria stenocephala. All species are significant for medical and veterinary health. PMID:12474048

Shimalov, V V; Shimalov, V T

2003-01-01

423

In vitro uptake of /sup 14/C-praziquantel by cestodes, trematodes, and a nematode  

SciTech Connect

/sup 14/C-praziquantel was rapidly taken up by Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, and isolated strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis. Schistosoma mansoni lost praziquantel rapidly to drug-free medium. Chromatography of extracts prepared after incubation of S. mansoni and H. nana yielded no indication that praziquantel was metabolized. Autoradiography revealed a uniform distribution of praziquantel throughout the tissues of S. mansoni and H. nana. Uptake was considerably slower in the nematode Heterakis spumosa and apparently via the oral route.

Andrews, P.; Thomas, H.; Weber, H.

1980-12-01

424

The intestinal helminths of the red fox and some other carnivores in Southwest Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

In south-west Germany between 1975 and 1980, 3,573 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 84 badgers (Meles meles), 47 stone martens (Martes foina), and 387 cats (Felis catus) were examined for intestinal helminths. In foxes the extent of infections was:Taenia crassiceps 24%,T. polyacantha 8%,T. taeniaeformis 0.6%,T. serialis 0.5%Mesocestoides leptothylacus 20%,Mesocestoides sp. 0.2%,Toxocara canis 32%,Toxascaris leonina 3%,Uncinaria stenocephala 26%. One to three foxes

B. Loos-Frank; E. Zeyhle

1982-01-01

425

Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Parasitenfauna des Wildes in Nordrhein-Westfalen. 1. Der Endoparasitenbefall des Rehwildes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Die Endoparasitenfauna von 64 Rehen (131 Jahr) aus den Jagdjahren 1997\\/98 und 1998\\/99 aus 5 Herkunftsgebieten im südlichen Nordrhein-Westfalen wurde untersucht. Dabei wurden eine Zestodenart (Taenia hydatigena-Zystizerken) und 28 Nematodenarten nachgewiesen. Im Kehlkopf bzw. in der Luftröhre von 2 Rehen sind wenigeCephenemyia stimulator-Larven gefunden worden. Alle Rehe waren mit Magen-Darm-Nematoden befallen und 32,8 % mit Lungenwürmern (14,1 % mitDictyocaulus eckerti

St. Rehbein; Walburga Lutz; M. Visser; Renate Winter

2000-01-01

426

The carriage of larval echinococcus multilocularis and other cestodes by the musk rat (Ondatra zibethicus) along the Ourthe River and its tributaries (Belgium).  

PubMed

In Belgium, the carriage of Echinococcus multilocularis by the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) can be very high in some areas. This study was designed to evaluate the carriage of the larval form of E. multilocularis and other cestodes in a musk rat (Ondatra zibethicus) population trapped along the Ourthe River (southeastern Belgium). Six hundred fifty-seven musk rats were necropsied, and the larval cestodes of the abdominal and pleural cavities were identified. For E. multilocularis, the fertility of the cysts was verified in 58 liver samples. The following species were found: Taenia taeniaeformis (65.8%), Taenia martis (22.2%), E. multilocularis (22.1%), Taenia polyacantha (2.6%), and Taenia crassiceps (0.9%). Results were analyzed according to the site of capture (upper, middle, and lower Ourthe). There was a highly significant relationship between the carriage of E. multilocularis and the site of capture (the prevalence being higher in the upper part of the river). This difference could be due to different geoclimatic conditions. All but one hepatic lesion were found to contain protoscoleces of E. multilocularis (98.8%). The musk rat is probably infected through the consumption of plant material contaminated by the fox's feces. The red fox can occasionally prey on musk rats, but the musk rat cadavers that are left on the river banks by the trappers are probably also consumed. This could favor the maintenance of E. multilocularis life cycle. In conclusion, the musk rat seems to be highly susceptible to E. multilocularis and in Belgium could play the role of reservoir; when present this species could represent an inexpensive and sensitive bioindicator for the study and monitoring of the zoonosis. PMID:19395737

Mathy, A; Hanosset, R; Adant, S; Losson, B

2009-04-01