Sample records for tar creek study

  1. Tar Creek study, Sargent oil field, Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, David L.; Fedasko, Bill; Carnahan, J.R.; Brunetti, Ross; Magoon, Leslie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Stanley, Richard G.

    2002-01-01

    Field work in the Tar Creek area of Sargent oil field was performed June 26 to 28, 2000. The Santa Clara County study area is located in Sections, 30, 31, and 32, Township 11 South, Range 4 East, M.D.B&M; and in Sections 25 and 36, Township 11 South, Range 3 East, M.D.B.&M., north and south of Tar Creek, west of Highway 101. The work was a cooperative effort of the California Department of Conservation's Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (DOGGR), California Geological Survey (CGS), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the project was to map the stratigraphy and geologic structure (David Wagner, CGS); sample oil for age dating (Les Magoon, USGS); and search for undocumented wells plus conduct a GPS survey of the area (Bill Fedasko, J.P. Carnahan, and Ross Brunetti, DOGGR)

  2. Streamflow, Water Quality, and Metal Loads from Chat Leachate and Mine Outflow into Tar Creek, Ottawa County, Oklahoma, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, Caleb C.; Becker, Mark F.; Andrews, William J.; DeHay, Kelli

    2008-01-01

    Picher mining district is an abandoned lead and zinc mining area located in Ottawa County, northeastern Oklahoma. During the first half of the 20th century, the area was a primary producer of lead and zinc in the United States. Large accumulations of mine tailings, locally referred to as chat, produce leachate containing cadmium, iron, lead, and zinc that enter drainages within the mining area. Metals also seep to local ground water and streams from unplugged shafts, vent holes, seeps, and abandoned mine dewatering wells. Streamflow measurements were made and water-quality samples were collected and analyzed from two locations in Picher mining district from August 16 to August 29 following a rain event beginning on August 14, 2005, to determine likely concentrations and loads of metals from tailings and mine outflows in the part of Picher mining district near Tar Creek. Locations selected for sampling included a tailings pile with an adjacent mill pond, referred to as the Western location, and a segment of Tar Creek from above the confluence with Lytle Creek to below Douthat bridge, referred to as Tar Creek Study Segment. Measured streamflow was less than 0.01 cubic foot per second at the Western location, with streamflow only being measurable at that site on August 16, 2005. Measured streamflows ranged from <0.01 to 2.62 cubic feet per second at Tar Creek Study Segment. One water-quality sample was collected from runoff at the Western location. Total metals concentrations in that sample were 95.3 micrograms per liter cadmium, 182 micrograms per liter iron, 170 micrograms per liter lead, 1,760 micrograms per liter zinc. Total mean metals concentrations in 29 water-quality samples collected from Tar Creek Study Segment from August 16-29, 2005, were 21.8 micrograms per liter cadmium, 7,924 micrograms per liter iron, 7.68 micrograms per liter lead, and 14,548 micrograms per liter zinc. No metals loading values were calculated for the Western location. Metals loading to Tar Creek Study Segment were calculated based on instantaneous streamflow and metals concentrations. Total metals loading to Tar Creek from chat leachate ranged from 0.062 to 0.212 pound per day of cadmium, <0.001 to 0.814 pound per day of iron, 0.003 to 0.036 pound per day of lead, and 10.6 to 47.9 pounds per day of zinc. Metals loading to Tar Creek Study Segment from chat leachate and mine outflow was determined by subtracting values at appropriate upstream and downstream stations. Four sources of calculated metal loads are from Tar Creek and Lytle Creek entering the study segment, from chat pile leachate, and from old Lytle Creek mine outflow. Less than 1 percent of total and dissolved iron loading came from chat leachate, while about 99 percent of total iron loading came from mine outflow. Total and dissolved lead loading percentages from chat leachate were greater than total and dissolved lead loading percentages from mine outflow. About 19 percent of total zinc loading came from chat leachate, about 29 percent of total zinc loading came from mine outflow, and about 52 percent of total zinc loading came from Lytle Creek.

  3. Tar sands leachate study. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Grosse; L. McGowan

    1984-01-01

    An inhouse research project was conducted by the EPA's Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory (IERL) at the TandE Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio, to provide information concerning the potential for release of contaminants to groundwater from in-situ and above-ground processed tar sands. This study examined the composition of the leachate that may be generated from raw tar sand cores and spent tar

  4. Flow cytometric analysis of red-eared slider turtles ( Trachemys scripta ) from Tar Creek Superfund Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly A. Hays; Karen McBee

    2007-01-01

    Tar Creek Superfund Site (TCSFS) was heavily mined from the 1890s to 1970 and currently is contaminated with lead, zinc, and\\u000a cadmium. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to measure variation in nuclear DNA content of red blood cells collected from Trachemys scripta living within TCSFS and reference sites, Lake Carl Blackwell (LCB) and Sequoyah National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR). We also

  5. Boulder Creek Study

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Deirdre Bingaman

    2010-02-01

    Boulder Creek runs literally in the backyard of Donnelly Elementary School and happens to be on the EPA list of impaired water bodies. Therefore, a unique opportunity for problem solving opened the door to an exciting chance for students to become scienti

  6. Hydrocarbon accumulation in Pennsylvanian-age Ten Sleep Sandstone: the Trapper Creek tar sand deposit, Big Horn basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Barrell, S.S.

    1983-03-01

    Preliminary investigations indicate a potential tar sand accumulation in the Trapper Creek deposit of more than 2.13 million tons of mineralized material with a yield of 0.92 bbl per ton of 5.2/sup 0/ API oil for an approximate resource of 1.96 million bbl of recoverable petroleum. Remote sensing data suggest that the accumulation is in part controlled by two major and four minor lineaments which traverse the area. Stratigraphic and lithologic criteria can be used to infer a Minnelusa-type mode of occurrence. Ancillary stream sediment and outcrop geochemistry data yield locally anomalous but uneconomic concentrations of Mg, Ca, Ti, Mn, Ag, Cu, Mo, V, K, and Si, which may have significance in the identification of similar hydrocarbon accumulations along the west flank of the Bighorn Mountains.

  7. Emissions of tar-containing binders: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Hugener, Martin; Emmenegger, Lukas; Mattrel, Peter

    2007-02-15

    In Switzerland, hot recycling of tar-containing pavements is a subject of much dispute between environmentalists, road authorities and constructors. The main reason for this controversy comes from a lack of knowledge about the amount of hazardous compounds emitted, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the resulting health risk for road workers. On this background we decided to initiate a research project to study the emission behaviour of tar-containing materials. Mixtures of tar and bitumen with variable PAH content were heated in an open reactor flask at different temperatures to identify and quantify the key parameters of PAH emissions. The expected linear correlation between PAH concentration in the fumes and in the binder was found only for binder mixtures with PAH concentrations above 5000 ppm. This was traced back to the problem that a change of the PAH content in the binder was always accompanied by a change of other parameters, like viscosity. In the experiments with temperature variation, emissions of individual PAHs correlated well with vapor pressure. However, for Naphthalene and, in a lesser degree, for 3-ring PAHs too, a partial depletion of these compounds in the vapour was observed in some experiments. The effect is a slower increase with temperature for these compounds compared to 4-6-ring PAHs. This is one reason why the commonly used set of EPA-PAHs, which includes naphthalene and 3-ring PAHs, is considered inappropriate for the assessment of the health hazard in the case of tar-containing materials in hot recycling. PMID:17365290

  8. Study on tar generated from downdraft gasification of oil palm fronds.

    PubMed

    Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Kueh, Soo Chuan; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar

    2014-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3) in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC) unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928?g/Nm3 and 1.923?g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study. PMID:24526899

  9. Study on Tar Generated from Downdraft Gasification of Oil Palm Fronds

    PubMed Central

    Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Kueh, Soo Chuan; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar

    2014-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3) in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC) unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928?g/Nm3 and 1.923?g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study. PMID:24526899

  10. DEARY CREEK STUDY, LATAH COUNTY, IDAHO. 1979

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on Mount Deary Creek in Latah County, Idaho (17060306) to determine the present water quality of the stream and to obtain background information to determine effluent limitations for the City of Deary. The survey involved t...

  11. CAMAS CREEK STUDY, CAMAS COUNTY, IDAHO. 1979

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Eutrophication Survey on Magic Reservoir determined that Camas Creek in Camas County, Idaho (17040220) contributed roughly 45% of the total phosphorus load and 34% of the total nitrogen load into Magic Reservoir. From this finding, a water quality study was conducte...

  12. Microbial community structure and biodegradation activity of particle-associated bacteria in a coal tar contaminated creek

    SciTech Connect

    Jennifer M. DeBruyn; Gary S. Sayler [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology and Department of Microbiology

    2009-05-01

    The Chattanooga Creek Superfund site (Chattanooga, TN) is one of the most polluted waterways in the southeastern U.S. with high polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in the sediments. PAHs associate with suspended solids in the water column, and may be redeposited onto the floodplain. These suspended particles represent an interesting but understudied environment for PAH-degrading microbial communities. This study tested the hypotheses that particle-associated bacterial (PAB) communities have genotypic potential (PAH-dioxygenase genes) and activity (naphthalene and pyrene mineralization), and can contribute to natural attenuation of PAHs in Chattanooga Creek. Upstream of the Superfund site, mineralization ranged from 0.2 to 2.0% of added {sup 14}C-naphthalene and 0 to 0.1% {sup 14}C-pyrene (after 40 h), with first order biodegradation rate constants (k{sub 1}) ranging from 1.09 to 9.18 x 10{sup -5} h{sup -1} and 0 to 1.13 x 10{sup -6} h{sup -1}, respectively. Mineralization was significantly greater in PAB communities within the contaminated zone, with 11.8 to 31.2% {sup 14}C-naphthalene (k{sup 1} 5.34 to 14.2 x 10-4 h{sup -1}) and 1.3 to 6.6% {sup 14}C-pyrene mineralized (k{sub 1} 2.89 to 15.0 x 10{sup -5} h{sup -1}). Abundances of nagAc (naphthalene dioxygenase) and nidA (pyrene dioxygenase) genes indicated that PAB communities harbored populations with genetic potential for both low- and high-molecular weight PAH degradation, and quantification of Mycobacterium 16S rDNA genes indicated that PAH-degrading mycobacteria are also prevalent in this environment. Phylogenetic comparisons (T-RFLPs) between PAB and sediments indicated these microbial communities were taxonomically distinct, but shared some functional similarities, namely PAH catabolic genotypes, mineralization capabilities, and community structuring along a contamination gradient. 38 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. DRY CREEK WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, ARKANSAS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haley, Boyd R.; Stroud, Raymond B.

    1984-01-01

    The Dry Creek Wilderness Study Area covers an area of about 10 sq mi in parts of Logan, Scott, and Yell Counties, Arkansas. A mineral evaluation study of the area indicated that the area has a probable resource potential for natural gas and little promise for the occurrence of other mineral commodities. Less than 100,000 cu ft/day of natural gas is being produced from one well about 4 mi north of the area.

  14. Skin cancer in patients with psoriasis treated with coal tar. A 25-year follow-up study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Pittelkow; H. O. Perry; S. A. Muller; W. Z. Maughan; P. C. OBrien

    1981-01-01

    For many years, crude coal tar has been used for the treatment of psoriasis. The possible carcinogenic effect of crude coal tar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Goeckerman regimen), considered individually or in combination, has been of some concern to physicians. A 25-year follow-up study was completed on 280 patients with psoriasis who were hospitalized and treated with crude coal tar

  15. Emissions of tar-containing binders: field studies.

    PubMed

    Hugener, Martin; Emmenegger, Lukas; Mattrel, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the measurement of emissions during field construction of asphalt pavements using tar-containing recycled asphalt pavement (RAP), which is known to release harmful substances, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). At three different test sites, the main emission sources were identified and the total emission rates of fumes and PAHs of the paving process were determined. For this purpose, the paver was temporarily enclosed. While the screed area was the main emission source, the hopper area and freshly compacted pavement were also significant. In comparison with previous laboratory tests, the binder composition and the resulting emissions were comparable, except for Naphthalene. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as a representative for carcinogenic PAHs was identified as a good leading compound, correlating well with the toxicity weighted sum of PAHs. In contrast, the unweighted, mass related sum of all EPA PAHs does not seem to be a good parameter to assess workplace concentrations because emissions by mass are dominated by the less hazardous 2-, 3- and 4-ring PAHs. Workplace concentrations for bitumen fumes and PAHs were below limit values in all three field studies. However, the margin was not large and the field tests were done under favourable meteorological conditions. Therefore, we suggest maintaining the current Swiss limit of 5000 mg EPA-PAH per kg binder in the RAP-containing hot mix. PMID:19085592

  16. Experimental and kinetic study of the NO-reduction by tar formed from biomass gasification, using benzene as a tar model component

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui-Zhi Zhang; Chun-Yuan Liu; Ren-Hao Yin; Jia Duan; Yong-Hao Luo

    2011-01-01

    The present work studies the combustion of biomass syngas to characterize the NO-reduction by tar, benzene being selected as the representative model tar component. Experiments were carried out in a tubular flow reactor at atmospheric pressure and at different operating conditions i.e. an equivalence ratio of 0.5 to 2.5, temperatures between 1173K and 1673K and a reaction residence time of

  17. PECONIC ESTUARY PROGRAM TIDAL CREEK STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    EEA evaluated ten tidal creeks throughout the Peconic Estuary representing a wide range of watershed variables. Primary focus was directed towards the collection and analysis of the macrobenthic invertebrate communities of these ten tidal creeks. Analysis of the macrobenthic comm...

  18. TR-019 Hydrology March 2002 Roberts Creek Study Forest

    E-print Network

    TR-019 Hydrology March 2002 Roberts Creek Study Forest: effects of partial retention harvesting: effects of partial retention harvesting on nitrate concentrations in two S6 creeks three years after............................................................................................................................................................................7 6.1 Regression Models that Relate Nitrate Concentrations to Specific Stream Discharge

  19. FLINT CREEK RANGE WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ericksen, George E.; Marks, Lawrence Y.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Flint Creek Range Wilderness study area, Montana shows the presence of mineral deposits. By far the most important are low-grade, potentially large, contact-metamorphic tungsten deposits. A large stockwork molybdenum deposit is probably low in grade. The areas of these tungsten and molybdenum deposits have substantiated mineral-resource potential. A multimillion ton phosphate-rock deposit occurs in an area of substantiated resource potential in the Permian Phosphoria Formation in the south-central part of the study area. Deposits of massive quartz, perhaps suitable for smelter flux, a demonstrated resource. Small scattered silver- and gold-bearing veins are present, but no resource potential was identified.

  20. Optical, physical, and chemical properties of tar balls observed during the Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Hand; W. C. Malm; A. Laskin; D. Day; T. Lee; C. Wang; C. Carrico; J. Carrillo; J. P. Cowin; J. Collett; M. J. Iedema

    2005-01-01

    The Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study of summer 2002 (YACS) occurred during an active fire season in the western United States and provided an opportunity to investigate many unresolved issues related to the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols. Single particle analysis was performed on field-collected aerosol samples using an array of electron microscopy techniques. Amorphous carbon spheres, or “tar balls,”

  1. Skin cancer in patients with psoriasis treated with coal tar. A 25-year follow-up study

    SciTech Connect

    Pittelkow, M.R.; Perry, H.O.; Muller, S.A.; Maughan, W.Z.; O'Brien, P.C.

    1981-08-01

    For many years, crude coal tar has been used for the treatment of psoriasis. The possible carcinogenic effect of crude coal tar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Goeckerman regimen), considered individually or in combination, has been of some concern to physicians. A 25-year follow-up study was completed on 280 patients with psoriasis who were hospitalized and treated with crude coal tar and UV radiation at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn, during the years 1950 through 1954. The results of this study suggest that the incidence of skin cancer is not appreciably increased above the expected incidence for the general population when patients are treated with coal tar ointments. It seems that the Goeckerman regimen (topical crude coal tar combined with UV radiation) can be used with minimal risk for skin cancer in the treatment of psoriasis.

  2. [Longitudinal study of the excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine after external treatment with coal tar].

    PubMed

    Nenoff, P; Richter, B; Will, W; Haustein, U F

    1997-04-01

    In order to study the dermal uptake, time course, and urinary excretion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine was determined by means of high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection before, during, and after the topical treatment with coal tar in 19 patients suffering from prurigo simplex subacuta, microbial eczema, atopic dermatitis, eczematization after scabies, exanthematous lichen ruber, pityriasis lichenoides and cutaneous sarcoidosis. Beginning with a value of 6.04 +/- 2.06 micrograms 1-hydroxypyrene/g creatinine before treatment, the urinary excretion significantly increased during the therapy with coal tar (p < 0.0001 at 3rd, 5th, and 6th day of therapy). A maximum was reached at day 8 of topical treatment with a value of 584.35 +/- 191.96 micrograms 1-hydroxypyrene/g creatinine (p < 0.002). Already during treatment at day 10 there was a beginning decrease of 1-hydroxypyrene to 361.63 +/- 170.13 micrograms/g creatinine. After the end of treatment, the excretion further decreased reaching a value of 5.31 +/- 2.85 micrograms 1-hydroxypyrene/g creatinine at the 10th day after therapy. Skin carcinomas due to therapeutical use of coal tar occur extremely rarely and only after vergoten, non-controlled use. We suggest that the duration of exposure is the most important factor for the carcinogenic effect of coal tar. PMID:9206711

  3. Gold Creek: Preserving an Environmental Studies Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Suzanne

    In response to a Board of Trustees request for information and recommendations concerning the future use of the Gold Creek property owned by the Los Angeles Community College District, this report emphasizes that the use of this site for instructional field experiences enhances the quality of environmental education for the district's diverse…

  4. Cigarette tar content and symptoms of chronic bronchitis: results of the Scottish Heart Health Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C A Brown; I K Crombie; W C Smith; H Tunstall-Pedoe

    1991-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to determine if there was a relationship between cigarette tar yield and rates of chronic cough and chronic phlegm. SETTING--22 districts across Scotland were used for the Scottish Heart Health Study (SHHS) which was conducted between 1984 and 1986 and from which the data for this analysis were obtained. SUBJECTS--10,359 men and women aged 40-59 years

  5. LAPWAI CREEK STUDY, LEWIS AND NEZ PERCE COUNTIES, IDAHO. 1979

    EPA Science Inventory

    During Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on the Lapwai Creek in Nez Perce and Lewis Counties, Idaho (17060306) to obtain background information on nonpoint source pollution impacts and for effluent limitation development. The study involved approximately bi-mo...

  6. JORDAN CREEK STUDY, OWYHEE COUNTY, ID IN 1975-1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    A set of 3 intensive surveys was completed on Jordan Creek in Owyhee County, ID (17050108) during August and October 1975 and June 1976. Studies were conducted to determine the water quality condition of the stream and to assess the impact of pollution sources. The study includ...

  7. SF6 Tracer Release Study: A Contaminant Fate Study in Newtown Creek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, P. J.; Ho, D. T.; Peter, S.; Simpson, H. J.; Flores, S.; Dugan, W. A.

    2004-12-01

    Newtown Creek is a 5.5km creek that discharges into the East River, a 25km strait connecting Long Island Sound to the north and the New York Harbor to the south. Surface runoff dominates the freshwater input into the creek, for natural tributaries no longer exist. The areas directly adjacent to the creek are highly industrialized, and New York City's largest Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) discharges directly into creek. In August 2004, we injected sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) into Newtown creek to study the fate of oil seeping into the creek from an underground oil spill and the fate of nutrient rich effluent from the WPCP. We monitored SF6 in Newtown Creek, the East River, and the Upper Bay of New York Harbor for 7 consecutive days following the injection in order to investigate the spreading patterns and transport mechanics of waters exiting the creek, and to determine the ultimate fate of the contaminants/solutes originating in Newtown Creek. Dissolved oxygen (DO) measurements were collected simultaneously with SF6 measurements. A strong DO gradient exists in the creek, where waters in the upper reaches are anoxic. We use SF6 data to calculate mean residence times for Newtown Creek waters. SF6 was detected above background concentrations approximately 15km to the south of the creek at the Verrazano Bridge only 1 day after the tracer injection. By combining the movements of the SF6 distribution, the position of the oxygen gradient, and the residence time of Newtown Creek water, we can determine a lower boundary for oxygen consumption rates.

  8. Study of the Horsepen Creek Stream System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Angela Moore

    To prepare for this lab activity, there are several preceding lectures on the basics of the hydrologic cycle, river systems, and sediment transport. We also introduce the watershed, including city maps of the land use in the area of the creek. Students read the relevant chapter in the textbook beforehand. Students collect the field data from the stream during the first week, and the second week focuses on teaching them to analyze the data, and to use spreadsheets to graph their results. A very detailed, formal report is handed in by each student at the culmination of the project. The field experience requires students to collect and analyze data from four different stations along a local, impacted creek system. At each location students measure velocity and cross-sectional area, which they use to calculate the stream discharge. Students also collect data on the sediments by sieving and weighing samples, which they later use to generate cumulative sediment distribution curves. Water quality collected at each site includes total coliform, turbidity, nitrate concentrations, pH, dissolved oxygen, and temperature. Students are required to discuss all of these factors in their final report, and to assess whether the data are 'as expected' from the lectures and the reading. In addition, students develop and test their own hypothesis about the system. For example, they might choose to investigate whether sites with higher flow velocities correlate with higher sediment sizes. This activity reinforces specific concepts about streamflow and sediment transport, and also illustrates how the field of geology contributes to our understanding of the interaction of humans and their environment.

  9. JIM FORD CREEK STUDY, CLEARWATER COUNTY IDAHO. 1979

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on Jim Ford Creek in Clearwater County, Idaho (17060306) to assess the impact of the City of Weippe and Timberline High School discharges, to assess nonpoint source impacts, and to determine the present water quality of the ...

  10. EN-003 Silviculture March 2001 Roberts Creek Study Forest

    E-print Network

    / research_index.htm INTRODUCTION In October 1997, a group of staff from the Vancouver Forest RegionEN-003 Silviculture March 2001 Roberts Creek Study Forest: Worker Safety in Partial Harvesting Silvicultural Experiments and Operations By Fred Nuszdorfer and Brian DAnjou KEYWORDS: forestry, forest

  11. A study on the effect of heat treatment temperature on mesophase development in coal tar pitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Neha; Shah, Raviraj K.; Shrivastava, Rakesh; Datar, Manoj

    2013-06-01

    In the present study, a zero quinoline insoluble (QI) isotropic coal tar pitch was taken for the preparation of mesophase pitch. The pitch was heated in inert atmosphere at different heat treatment temperatures keeping same heating rate and soaking time to study the formation, growth and coalescence of mesophase spheres in the pitch. Such pitches were characterized for insoluble content (QI & TI), mesophase content, sulphur content, weight loss in inert atmosphere, softening point, coking value (CVC), C/H ratio etc. Results show that the insoluble content (QI & TI) and mesophase content of pitch increase with increase of heat treatment temperature.

  12. Environmental Forensics : Compound Specific Isotope Analysis Of PAHs. Study Of A Former Coal Tar Plant.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assal, A.; Doherty, R.; Dickson, K.; Kalin, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    Stable carbon isotopic fingerprints of PAHs obtained by GC-IRMS have often been used in source apportionment studies. The use of PAHs in environmental forensics relies on the assumption that carbon isotopic fractionation caused by microbial degradation is less significant for these heavy molecular weight compounds than for lighter molecules such as chlorinated solvents or BTEX. Carbon isotopic fractionation of PAHs during degradation is still not well understood. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of CSIA of PAHs for environmental forensics applications at a complex (hydrogeology affected by tidal fluxes) former coal tar plant. In this work, soil samples from a tar works site were analyzed. The tar works operated on the site over a period of sixty years. A source apportionment study was first carried out based on 90 target PAHs quantified by GC-MS. These results were then compared to carbon isotope fingerprints. The separation of compounds of interest from co-extracted interfering peaks is a crucial prerequisite of CSIA by GC-IRMS. Hence, a sample preparation method which allowed the determination of precise carbon isotope signatures for up to 35 compounds per soil extract was developed, validated and applied to the samples previously analyzed by GC- MS. Although most soil samples were shown to be related to the point source tar contamination, PAHs ratios and principal component analysis of abundances highlighted some samples with unusual patterns, suggesting the input of a second source of contaminants. However, no statistically significant variation of the isotopic fingerprints of heavy molecular weight PAHs of these samples was observed. This was inconsistent with the first diagnosis. Since evidence was provided that most samples were only affected by a single source of contaminants, carbon isotopic fractionation was investigated in-situ. Importantly, naphthalene and 2- and 1- methylnaphthalenes isotopic fractionation was observed in a vertical soil profile. Results of this study highlight advantages and limitations of CSIA of PAHs in environmental forensics studies and confirm the potential of this technique for deciphering new degradation pathways of lighter PAHs.

  13. Pine Creek Lake Dam Safety Modification Study U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Response to

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    #12;Pine Creek Lake Dam Safety Modification Study FINAL U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Response in establishing and administering peer review panels for USACE, was engaged to conduct the IEPR for the Pine Creek on the technical content of the Pine Creek Dam review documents and the overall scope of the project, Battelle

  14. Topical tar: Back to the future

    SciTech Connect

    Paghdal, K.V.; Schwartz, R.A. [University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The use of medicinal tar for dermatologic disorders dates back to the ancient times. Although coal tar is utilized more frequently in modern dermatology, wood tars have also been widely employed. Tar is used mainly in the treatment of chronic stable plaque psoriasis, scalp psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis, either alone or in combination therapy with other medications, phototherapy, or both. Many modifications have been made to tar preparations to increase their acceptability, as some dislike its odor, messy application, and staining of clothing. One should consider a tried and true treatment with tar that has led to clearing of lesions and prolonged remission times. Occupational studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity of tar; however, epidemiologic studies do not confirm similar outcomes when used topically. This article will review the pharmacology, formulations, efficacy, and adverse effects of crude coal tar and other tars in the treatment of selected dermatologic conditions.

  15. Partitioning studies of coal-tar constituents in a two-phase contaminated ground-water system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.; Pereira, W.E.; Hult, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    Organic compounds derived from coal-tar wastes in a contaminated aquifer in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, were identified, and their partition coefficients between the tar phase and aqueous phase were determined and compared with the corresponding n-octanol/water partition coefficients. Coal tar contains numerous polycyclic aromatic compounds, many of which are suspected carcinogens or mutagens. Groundwater contamination by these toxic compounds may pose an environmental health hazard in nearby public water-supply wells. Fluid samples from this aquifer developed two phases upon settling: an upper aqueous phase, and a lower oily-tar phase. After separating the phases, polycyclic aromatic compounds in each phase were isolated using complexation with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and identified by fused-silica capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Thirty-one of the polycyclic aromatic compounds were chosen for further study from four different classes: 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 10 nitrogen heterocycles, 5 sulfur heterocycles, and 4 oxygen heterocycles. Within each compound class, the tar/water partition coefficients of these compounds were reasonably comparable with the respective n-octanol/water partition coefficient.

  16. A Study of the Effects of Altering the Tar/Nicotine Ratio in Experimental Tobacco Carcinogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Davies, R. F.; Whitehead, J. K.

    1970-01-01

    There was no statistically significant difference in specific mouse skin carcinogenicity between smoke condensate from plain, flue-cured tobacco cigarettes with a normal tar to nicotine ratio and condensate from filter-tip cigarettes made from selected flue-cured tobaccos with a reduced tar to nicotine ratio. PMID:5428614

  17. Coal tar phototherapy for psoriasis reevaluated: erythemogenic versus suberythemogenic ultraviolet with a tar extract in oil and crude coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, N.J.; Wortzman, M.S.; Breeding, J.; Koudsi, H.; Taylor, L.

    1983-06-01

    Recent studies have questioned the therapeutic value of coal tar versus ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their relative necessity in phototherapy for psoriasis. In this investigation, different aspects of tar phototherapy have been studied in single-blind bilateral paired comparison studies. The effects of 1% crude coal tar were compared with those of petrolatum in conjunction with erythemogenic and suberythemogenic doses of ultraviolet light (UVB) using a FS72 sunlamp tubed cabinet. Crude coal tar was clinically superior to petrolatum with suberythemogenic ultraviolet. With the erythemogenic UVB, petrolatum was equal in efficacy to crude coal tar. Suberythemogenic UVB was also used adjunctively to compare the effects of a 5% concentration of a tar extract in an oil base to 5% crude coal tar in petrolatum or the oil base without tar. The tar extract in oil plus suberythemogenic UVB produced significantly more rapid improvement than the oil base plus UVB. The direct bilateral comparison of equal concentrations of tar extract in oil base versus crude coal tar in petrolatum in a suberythemogenic UV photo regimen revealed no statistical differences between treatments. In a study comparing tar extract in oil and the oil base without ultraviolet radiation, the tar extract in oil side responded more rapidly.

  18. Case Study of Worker Exposure to Coal tar Containing Paving Materials on a Routine Paving Project in Iowa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald Reinke; Stacy Glidden

    2007-01-01

    The potential for unknown exposure of present day highway paving workers to coal tar products is of concern to the asphalt paving industry. A case study describing this type of situation is the subject of this report. The project specifications called for the contractor to pulverize and re-compact the entire 230 mm (9 inches) of existing pavement and then pave

  19. Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch

    Cancer.gov

    Coal tar is derived from coal. It is a byproduct of the production of coke, a solid fuel that contains mostly carbon, and coal gas. Coal tar is used primarily for the production of refined chemicals and coal-tar products, such as creosote and coal-tar pitch. Certain preparations of coal tar have long been used to treat various skin conditions, such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.

  20. Detailed kinetic study of anisole pyrolysis and oxidation to understand tar formation during biomass

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    biomass combustion and gasification Milena Nowakowska, Olivier Herbinet, Anthony Dufour, Pierre. Methoxyphenols are one of the main precursors of PAH and soot in biomass combustion and gasification. Keywords: Anisole; Pyrolysis; Oxidation; Tars; Biomass; Kinetic modeling Corresponding author

  1. Mineral resources of the Fifteen Mile Creek, Oregon Canyon, Twelve Mile Creek, and Willow Creek Wilderness Study Areas, Malheur and Harney counties, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A.; Rytuba, J.J.; Plouff, D.; Vercountere, T.L.; Turner, R.L.; Sawatzky, D.L. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)); Leszcykowski, A.M.; Peters, T.J.; Schmauch, S.W.; Winters, R.A. (US Bureau of Mines (US))

    1988-01-01

    The four contiguous study areas are located in a volcanic terrane dominated by tuffs that were erupted from calderas of the McDermitt Caldera complex and the Whitehorse Caldera. None of these areas have identified resources, despite the proximity of mercury, uranium, and lithium mineralization to the south. The southern parts of the Fifteen Mile Creek and the Oregon Canyon Wilderness Study Areas have a low potential for mercury and uranium. The southern parts of the Fifteen Mile Creek, Oregon Canyon, and Willow Creek and the northwestern part of the Oregon Wilderness Study Areas have low potential for antimony, bismuth, mercury, silver,molybdenum, and zinc. In the Oregon Canyon Wilderness Study Area, the tuff of Oregon Canyon and the rim of the caldera of the McDermitt Caldera complex have a low potential for gold and silver in epithermal veins. The study areas have a low potential for zeolite minerals, oil and gas, and geothermal energy throughout, and restricted parts of the study areas have a low potential for pumice, rare-earth elements, zirconium, and decorative building stone.

  2. An Exploratory Study of Inhalers and Injectors Who Used Black Tar Heroin

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Spence, Richard T.

    2011-01-01

    Aims To undertake an exploratory study to examine the characteristics of patients in narcotic treatment programs who started their use of black tar heroin either as inhalers or as injectors and to compare them with those who started as inhalers but shifted to injecting. Other studies in this area have used subjects using other forms of heroin more amenable to inhaling. Participants, Design, and Measurement A purposive sample of 199 patients in 6 methadone programs in Texas were interviewed in 2002-2003 using a structured instrument. Findings At admission to treatment, those who were heroin inhalers were more likely to be African American, to live with their families, to have income from wages, and to report fewer days of problems on most of the ASI measures. Those who shifted from inhaling to injecting were more likely to be Hispanic and to have had mental health problems that interfered with their lives and to have had less nurturing while growing up. Injectors were older at this treatment admission, had more treatment episodes and more times in jail, and were more likely to have hepatitis C, AIDS, or gonorrhea. There were high levels of physical and mental problems and histories of traumatization as children and adults for almost all the respondents. Males were as likely as females to have been sexually abused as children or as adults. Conclusions The high rates of mental and physical problems among all the clients interviewed showed the need for comprehensive services to be delivered within the substance abuse treatment programs. Histories of trauma and sexual abuse should be addressed for both male and female clients. PMID:21552428

  3. Water Conservation Study for Manastash Creek Water Users, Kittias County, Washington, Final Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery Watson Harza (Firm)

    2002-12-31

    Manastash Creek is tributary of the Yakima River and is located southwest and across the Yakima River from the City of Ellensburg. The creek drains mountainous terrain that ranges in elevation from 2,000 feet to over 5,500 feet and is primarily snowmelt fed, with largest flows occurring in spring and early summer. The creek flows through a narrow canyon until reaching a large, open plain that slopes gently toward the Yakima River and enters the main stem of the Yakima River at river mile 154.5. This area, formed by the alluvial fan of the Creek as it leaves the canyon, is the subject of this study. The area is presently dominated by irrigated agriculture, but development pressures are evident as Ellensburg grows and develops as an urban center. Since the mid to late nineteenth century when irrigated agriculture was established in a significant manner in the Yakima River Basin, Manastash Creek has been used to supply irrigation water for farming in the area. Adjudicated water rights dating back to 1871 for 4,465 acres adjacent to Manastash Creek allow appropriation of up to 26,273 acre-feet of creek water for agricultural irrigation and stock water. The diversion of water from Manastash Creek for irrigation has created two main problems for fisheries. They are low flows or dewatered reaches of Manastash Creek and fish passage barriers at the irrigation diversion dams. The primary goal of this study, as expressed by Yakama Nation and BPA, is to reestablish safe access in tributaries of the Yakima River by removing physical barriers and unscreened diversions and by adding instream flow where needed for fisheries. The goal expressed by irrigators who would be affected by these projects is to support sustainable and profitable agricultural use of land that currently uses Manastash Creek water for irrigation. This study provides preliminary costs and recommendations for a range of alternative projects that will partially or fully meet the goal of establishing safe access for fisheries in Manastash Creek by reducing or eliminating diversions and eliminating fish passage barriers. Further study and design will be necessary to more fully develop the alternatives, evaluate their environmental benefits and impacts and determine the effect on Manastash Creek water users. Those studies will be needed to determine which alternative has the best combination of benefits and costs, and meets the goal of the Manastash Creek water users.

  4. The battle of Sailor's Creek: a study in leadership 

    E-print Network

    Smith, Cloyd Allen, Jr.

    2007-04-25

    The Battle of Sailor's Creek, 6 April 1865, has been overshadowed by Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House several days later, yet it is an example of the Union military war machine reaching its apex of war making ...

  5. Dual bed reactor for the study of catalytic biomass tars conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Ammendola, P.; Piriou, B.; Lisi, L.; Ruoppolo, G.; Chirone, R.; Russo, G. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione - CNR, P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    A dual fixed bed laboratory scale set up has been used to compare the activity of a novel Rh/LaCoO{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst to that of dolomite, olivine and Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, typical catalysts used in fluidized bed biomass gasification, to convert tars produced during biomass devolatilization stage. The experimental apparatus allows the catalyst to be operated under controlled conditions of temperature and with a real gas mixture obtained by the pyrolysis of the biomass carried out in a separate fixed bed reactor operated under a selected and controlled heating up rate. The proposed catalyst exhibits much better performances than conventional catalysts tested. It is able to completely convert tars and also to strongly decrease coke formation due to its good redox properties. (author)

  6. Characterization of acid tars.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Sunday A; Stegemann, Julia A; Roy, Amitava

    2010-03-15

    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain. PMID:19857924

  7. Tar sands development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1973-01-01

    Tar sands (also known as oil sands and bituminous sands) are sand deposits which are impregnated with dense viscous petroleum. Ultimate world reserves of bitumen in tar sands are about equal to ultimate reserves of crude oil in the U.S. However, the only tar-sand deposit of present commercial importance is in the Athabasca area of Alberta, Canada. The pioneer venture

  8. The battle of Sailor's Creek: a study in leadership

    E-print Network

    Smith, Cloyd Allen, Jr.

    2007-04-25

    The Battle of Sailor's Creek, 6 April 1865, has been overshadowed by Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House several days later, yet it is an example of the Union military war machine reaching its apex of war making ability during the Civil War...

  9. WARM SPRINGS CREEK GEOTHERMAL STUDY, BLAIN COUNTY IDAHO, 1987

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Warm Springs Creek drainage near Ketchum, Idaho (17040219), a leaking pipeline coveys geothermal water through the valley to heat nearby homes as well as to supply a resorts swimming pool. Several domestic wells in close proximity to this line have exhibited increasing fl...

  10. 1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C plant application study report: tar sands oil recovery application

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, R.; McMain, Jr., A. T.

    1981-05-01

    This report summarizes a study to apply an 1170-MW(t) high-temperature gas-cooled reactor - process steam/cogeneration (HTGR-PS/C) to tar sands oil recovery and upgrading. The raw product recovered from the sands is a heavy, sour bitumen; upgrading, which involves coking and hydrodesulfurization, produces a synthetic crude (refinable by current technology) and petroleum coke. Steam and electric power are required for the recovery and upgrading process. Proposed and commercial plants would purchase electric power from local utilities and obtain from boilers fired with coal and with by-product fuels produced by the upgrading. This study shows that an HTGR-PS/C represents a more economical source of steam and electric power.

  11. Redwood National Park studies; data release number 2, Redwood Creek, Humboldt County, and Mill Creek, Del Norte County, California, April 11, 1974-September 30, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwatsubo, Rick T.; Nolan, K.M.; Harden, D.R.; Glysson, G.D.

    1976-01-01

    An interdisciplinary study has been undertaken in Redwood National Park, Calif., to describe parts of the ecosystems and recent changes in the intensity of erosion and sedimentation, define processes that may alter the natural ecosystems, and assess the impact of recent road construction and timber harvest. This report is the second of a series that will present data collected in this study. Stream-discharge and water-quality data were collected at 53 sampling stations in the Redwood Creek and Mill Creek drainage basins. Measurements included the following variables: Stream stage and discharge; turbidity; sediment; onsite water-quality determinations of temperature, pH , total alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved-oxxygen concentration; chemical analyses of water samples for major dissolved solids, selected trace elements, nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon; chemical analyses of bottom sediment for organic carbon and pesticides; bacteria; benthic invertebrates; fish; periphyton; phytoplankton; and seston. Additional data include changes in geometry at 10 stream-channel cross sections along Mill Creek and the distribution of erosional landforms in the Mill Creek drainage basin; quantity and chemical composition of rainwater; and the intragravel-streambed condition at selected stations in the Redwood Creek drainage basin. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Absorptive removal of biomass tar using water and oily materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thana Phuphuakrat; Tomoaki Namioka; Kunio Yoshikawa

    2011-01-01

    Water is the most common choice of absorption medium selected in many gasification systems. Because of poor solubility of tar in water, hydrophobic absorbents (diesel fuel, biodiesel fuel, vegetable oil, and engine oil) were studied on their absorption efficiency of biomass tar and compared with water. The results showed that only 31.8% of gravimetric tar was removed by the water

  13. The interactions and recognition of cyclic peptide mimetics of Tat with HIV-1 TAR RNA: a molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun Hua; Zuo, Zhi Cheng; Su, Ji Guo; Xu, Xian Jin; Wang, Cun Xin

    2013-03-01

    The interaction of HIV-1 trans-activator protein Tat with its cognate trans-activation response element (TAR) RNA is critical for viral transcription and replication. Therefore, it has long been considered as an attractive target for the development of antiviral compounds. Recently, the conformationally constrained cyclic peptide mimetics of Tat have been tested to be a promising family of lead peptides. Here, we focused on two representative cyclic peptides termed as L-22 and KP-Z-41, both of which exhibit excellent inhibitory potency against Tat and TAR interaction. By means of molecular dynamics simulations, we obtained a detailed picture of the interactions between them and HIV-1 TAR RNA. In results, it is found that the binding modes of the two cyclic peptides to TAR RNA are almost identical at or near the bulge regions, whereas the binding interfaces at the apical loop exhibit large conformational heterogeneity. In addition, it is revealed that electrostatic interaction energy contributes much more to KP-Z-41 complex formation than to L-22 complex, which is the main source of energy that results in a higher binding affinity of KP-Z-41 over-22 for TAR RNA. Furthermore, we identified a conserved motif RRK (Arg-Arg-Lys) that is shown to be essential for specific binding of this class of cyclic peptides to TAR RNA. This work can provide a useful insight into the design and modification of cyclic peptide inhibitors targeting the association of HIV-1 Tat and TAR RNA. PMID:22943434

  14. Steam-Reforming Characteristics of Heavy and Light Tars Derived from Cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hirotatsu; Morinaga, Yosuke; Okazaki, Ken

    In this study, tar formation and steam-reforming mechanisms are discussed by separating the tars into heavy, middle, and light tars. Cellulose was heated in a drop-tube furnace under an Ar or Ar/steam atmosphere. After the tars were passed through the furnace for thermal cracking and polymerization, they were trapped by filters set at different temperatures (573, 393, and 273 K), and were respectively defined as heavy, middle, and light tars. Incondensable volatiles and gaseous products were measured using gas chromatography with thermal conductivity (GC-TCD), and flame ionization (GC-FID) detectors. The middle and light tars obtained under an Ar atmosphere were first characterized using time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). The analysis showed that the middle tar did not contain any low-boiling-point light tar components, while the light tar did contain them. It was also found that complex species in the tars were separated to a certain degree by changing the trap temperature. Moreover, the formation of heavy tar was quite different from that of the light tar. With increasing temperature, the formation of heavy tar was inhibited, while that of the light tar was enhanced during pyrolysis. The steam-reforming characteristics of these tars were also different. The heavy tar was barely reformed at a low temperature of 873 K, even with a long residence time, while the middle tar was well reformed by steam. While it was difficult to describe the tar formation and steam-reforming characteristics when the tar was considered as a single condensable matter, the tar formation and steam-reforming characteristics were clarified by separating the tars. This study shows that, to prevent tar emissions, the formation of heavy tar, which barely reacts with steam, should be inhibited during pyrolysis by controlling the heating.

  15. BIG CANYON CREEK STUDY, LEWIS AND NEZ PERCE COUNTIES, IDAHO, 1979

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the 1979 water year, a water quality study was completed on Big Canyon Creek in Lewis and Nez Perce Counties, Idaho (17060306). The study was conducted to obtain background information for development of effluent limitations for the Cities of Peck and Nezperce and to determin...

  16. HANGMEN CREEK, BENEWAH COUNTY, IDAHO - POST BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IMPLEMENTATION STUDY, 1989-1990

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study completed in 1982 established the baseline water quality status of Hangman Creek, Idaho (17010306) and recommended land management changes for the watershed. The main objective of this follow-up study was to evaluate differences in water quality for the 1981-1982 baselin...

  17. Yosemite Creek

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    In this image, Yosemite Creek may be seen just below the base of Yosemite Falls. Yosemite Creek is a 31.2 mile long creek in Yosemite National Park. It eventually joins with the Merced River in Yosemite Valley....

  18. A study of the synergistic interaction of asbestos fibers with cigarette tar extracts for the generation of hydroxyl radicals in aqueous buffer solution.

    PubMed

    Valavanidis, A; Balomenou, H; Macropoulou, I; Zarodimos, I

    1996-01-01

    Several models attempt to explain the synergistic increase in lung cancer among workers exposed to asbestos fibers, who were smokers at the same time. It is known that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important mediators in asbestos-induced diseases, especially cancer. We studied quantitatively the formation of ROS (by spin trapping with DMPO) in aqueous buffer suspensions containing crocidolite (UICC), chrysotile (UICC and commercial, long fibers) alone, and in combination with aqueous cigarette tar extracts. It was observed that asbestos and cigarette tar act in a cooperative or synergistic way in the generation of hydroxyl radical spin adducts. Grinding of asbestos fibers and addition of EDTA (iron chelator) enhanced the intensity of the ESR signal. This enhancement progressed with time, probably due to the reaction of the extracted iron with the slow released hydrogen peroxide from tar extracts. It was observed a fivefold increase in the ESR signal (for crocidolite and aqueous tar extracts) in the formation of hydroxyl radicals via an iron-catalyzed Fenton reaction. These experimental results are suggest to be strong evidence to the fact that lung cancer has been found in asbestos workers exposed to high concentrations of fibers in the working environment who were smokers, and only rarely in nonsmokers. PMID:8728034

  19. Effect of cavitation on the properties of coal-tar pitch as studied by gas-liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    M.I. Baikenov; T.B. Omarbekov; S.K. Amerkhanova (and others) [Buketov State University, Karaganda (Kazakhstan)

    2008-02-15

    The applicability of the cavitation-wave effect to coal-tar pitch processing is considered. The results of the GLC analysis of the test material before and after rotor-pulsation cavitation treatment are given. The organic matter of coal-tar pitch was found to degrade upon cavitation; as a result of this, the yields of light and medium fractions considerably increased. 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Results of a preimpoundment water-quality study of Swatara Creek, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishel, D.K.; Richardson, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    The water quality of Swatara Creek prior to impoundment by the proposed Swatara Creek Reservoir in south-central Pennsylvania was studied from July 1981 through October 1982. The report, done in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources (PaDER), Bureau of State Parks, presents information on existing water-quality conditions. A discussion of possible water-quality conditions in and downstream from the planned impoundment is also included. Precipitation measured near the study area at Lebanon, Pennsylvania from October 1981 through September 1982 was 8 percent below normal. Streamflow for the same period at Swatara Creek at Harper Tavern just downstream from the study area was 15 percent below the average annual flow. Swatara Creek above Highway 895 has been degraded by acid mine drainage. The main inflow to the planned impoundment has 2.1 times the discharge of Lower Little Swatara Creek--a forested and agricultural basin that is also tributary to the proposed impoundment. During the 1982 water year, 17,400 tons of suspended sediment were transported from the study area. About 46 percent of the annual load was transported during 3 days of high flow. Inflows to the planned impoundment from both Lower Little Swatara Creek and Swatara Creek above Highway 895 were poorly buffered. Measured concentrations of alkalinity and acidity were usually less than 10 mg/L (milligrams per liter) and 5 mg/L as CaCO3, respectively. The inflows contain high concentrations of nutrients and metals that would probably stratify in a reservoir. Maximum concentrations of dissolved nitrate and total phosphorus were 2.6 mg/L and 0.31 mg/L, respectively. At Lower Little Swatara Creek; these concentrations are well above those needed for growth of algae. Maximum observed concentrations for total recoverable iron, aluminum, and manganese at Swatara Creek above Highway 895 at Pine Grove were 100,000 ug/L (micrograms per liter), 66,000 ug/L, and 2,300 ug/L, respectively. Large increases in metal concentrations along with simultaneous decreases in pH and increases in acidity confirm that mine drainage continues to degrade the water quality of Swatara Creek and may have a large impact on water quality of the planned impoundment. Iron, lead, copper, and zinc concentrations periodically exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) criteria for freshwater aquatic life. Concentrations of manganese and lead also exceeded the U.S. EPA criteria for domestic water supplies and human health, respectively. The water quality of the Swatara Creek Reservoir will depend on characteristics such as (1) the detention time of water in the lake, (2) the timing and extent of thermal and chemical stratification, (3) sedimentation, and (4) the chemical loading and concentrations in the lake. Each of these characteristics may depend in part, on streamflow. The impoundment will act as a sediment trap and thus reduce the concentrations of total phosphorus, iron, aluminum, lead, copper, and zinc immediately downstream from the impoundment. Large storm discharges and releases from the hypolimnion of the reservoir to attain the winter-pool level may contain low oxygen concentrations and elevated concentrations of iron, aluminum, lead, copper, and zinc. Unless conservation releases from the multi-level release gates are carefully controlled, low dissolved-oxygen levels and high metal concentrations may degrade the downstream water quality and be detrimental to the aquatic community.

  1. Basics of compounding with tars.

    PubMed

    Allen, Loyd V

    2013-01-01

    Tar has been used throughout history for numerous purposes; from sealing the hulls of ships to sealing roofs of dwellings and even for medical purposes. Produced by destructive distillation, commonly used tars are prepared from coal and wood. Coal tar, juniper tar, and pine tar are used for various medical purposes as described in the article. Also presented are the various characteristics and uses of each tar, along with commercial products and numerous compounding formulas. Techniques used to compound with tars are also presented. PMID:24459787

  2. CALPUFF and AERMOD Model Validation Study in the Near Field: Martins Creek Revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan L. Dresser; Robert D. Huizer

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a near-field validation study involving the steady-state, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guideline model AERMOD and the nonsteady-state puff model CALPUFF. Relative model performance is compared with field measurements collected near Martins Creek, PA—a rural, hilly area along the Pennsylvania-New Jersey border. The principal emission sources in the study were two coal-fired power plants with tall stacks

  3. Abstract At the time of this study Fossil Creek was being considered as a site for the restoration

    E-print Network

    . This study was conducted prior to a hydroelectric dam decommissioning project in Fossil Creek where full limitation Æ Phosphorous Æ Nitrogen Æ Invertebrate Æ Dam Æ Hydroelectric Æ Native fish Æ Food base

  4. Blackbird Creek Monitoring Program to Study the impact of Climate Change and Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozbay, G.; Chintapenta, L. K.; Roeske, K. P.; Stone, M.; Phalen, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Blackbird Creek Monitoring Program at Delaware State University continues to utilize various perspectives to study the dynamics of one of Delaware's most pristine ecosystems. The water quality of Blackbird Creek has been constantly monitored for 3 years and correlated with the rain and storm events. Soil nutrients composition has been studied by extracting the water associated with soil aggregates and analyzing the levels of different nutrients. Soil quality is also assessed for heavy metals to identify potential human impact that may affect the health of ecosystem. Within the Blackbird Creek there is a threat to native plant communities from invasive plant species as they alter the ecosystem dynamics. Saltmarsh cord grass (Spartina alterniflora) and common reed (Phragmites australius) are the common wetland plants. Aerial mapping of the creek has been conducted to determine the area covered by invasive plant species. The microbial community structure plays a key role in soil carbon and nitrogen cycles in the ecosystem. Molecular analysis has been performed to study the microbial diversity with respect to the type of marsh grasses. This program has also incorporated the use of diatoms as biological indicators to assess the health of ecosystem and correlate that data with physical and chemical water quality data. The abundance and diversity of macro fauna such as blue crabs, fish and other significant species has also been studied. Stable isotopic analysis of these macro fauna has also been performed to study the food web. The results from this program will be helpful in addressing environmental challenges and designing management strategies.

  5. Catalytic destruction of tars in biomass-derived gases

    SciTech Connect

    Mudge, L K; Baker, E G; Brown, M D; Wilcox, W A

    1988-02-01

    The Biomass and Municipal Waste Technology Division of the US Department of Energy is sponsoring studies at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory on catalytic destruction of condensible hydrocarbons (tars) in biomass-derived gases. Currently gasifiers generate a significant amount of tars in the product gases. These tars create problems with plugging in downstream equipment and with wastewater treatment. Partial oxidation of the gas stream in a secondary fluid bed of catalyst destroys the tars in biomass-derived gases while increasing the energy content of the product gas by over 20%. Catalysts that remain active for tar destruction are used in the secondary reactor which is specially designed to promote destruction of tars and minimize oxidation of combustible gases such as CO and H/sub 2/. Results of studies with different catalysts which have been tested for this application are described.

  6. Phenol extraction studies: solvent screening, tar acid removal, and organic volatilization. Final technical report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Luthy; J. R. Campbell

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes three studies to assess the feasibility of pretreating wastewater from the SRC-I Demonstration Plant with solvents to remove phenolic materials. One series of tests evaluated the extraction efficiency of three solvents (diisopropyl ether, methyl isobutyl ketone, and N-butyl acetate) on SRC-I wastewater obtained from the Ft. Lewis pilot plant. Solvent extraction was deemed feasible, but not without

  7. Transmembrane Signaling of Chemotaxis Receptor Tar: Insights from Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies

    E-print Network

    Park, Hahnbeom; Im, Wonpil; Seok, Chaok

    2011-06-22

    the TM helices into responses at the cyto- plasmic domain (1). Extensive experimental studies on chemoreceptors have revealed important mechanistic features of chemoreceptor signaling, as reviewed in (2–4). Until now, a number of different transmembrane...- tion A is shown from two viewpoints rotated by 90#4;. DPPC phosphorus atoms are represented as orange spheres to show the water-membrane inter- faces. Notations for the helices in the TM domain (TM1, TM10, TM2, and TM20) and for those in the HAMP domain...

  8. Mineral resources of the Tabeguache Creek Wilderness Study Area, Montrose County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, R.P.; Barton, H.N.; Blank, H.R. Jr. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)); Scott, D.C. (US Bureau of Mines (US))

    1990-01-01

    The authors report on the Tabeguache Creek (C0-030-300) Wilderness Study Area in Montrose County, Colo., 3.5 miles north of Nucla. The study area comprises 7,908 acres of canyon and mesa country on the southwest flank of the Uncompahgre Plateau. The study area contains no known mineral resources. There is, however, a moderate potential for undiscovered resources of oil, gas and carbon dioxide. There is low mineral resource potential for undiscovered deposits of uranium and vanadium in the Morrison and Chinle formations, for gold, copper, and all other materials, and for geothermal energy.

  9. Evaluation of surfactant flushing for remediating EDC-tar contamination.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chenju; Hsieh, Cheng-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene dichloride tar (EDC-tar) is a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) waste originated from the process of vinyl chloride production, with major constituents including chlorinated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. This study investigated the feasibility of Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer Remediation (SEAR) for treating EDC-tar contaminated aquifers. Initial experiments explored the potential to enhance the apparent solubility of EDC-tar using single or mixed surfactants. The results showed that an aqueous solution mixed anionic and non-ionic surfactants (i.e., SDS/Tween 80) exhibited higher EDC-tar apparent solubility and lower surface tension than other surfactant systems tested. Additionally, alkaline pH aids in increasing the EDC-tar apparent solubility. In column flushing experiments, it was seen that the alkaline mixed SDS/Tween 80 solution showed better removal of pure EDC-tar from silica sand porous media. Furthermore, separation of EDC-tar in the surfactant solution was conducted employing a salting-out effect. Significant separation of DNAPL was observed when 13wt.% or more NaCl was added to the solution. Overall, this study evaluates the feasibility of using SEAR for remediating EDC-tar contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater. PMID:25941757

  10. Evaluation of surfactant flushing for remediating EDC-tar contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chenju; Hsieh, Cheng-Lin

    2015-06-01

    Ethylene dichloride tar (EDC-tar) is a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) waste originated from the process of vinyl chloride production, with major constituents including chlorinated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. This study investigated the feasibility of Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer Remediation (SEAR) for treating EDC-tar contaminated aquifers. Initial experiments explored the potential to enhance the apparent solubility of EDC-tar using single or mixed surfactants. The results showed that an aqueous solution mixed anionic and non-ionic surfactants (i.e., SDS/Tween 80) exhibited higher EDC-tar apparent solubility and lower surface tension than other surfactant systems tested. Additionally, alkaline pH aids in increasing the EDC-tar apparent solubility. In column flushing experiments, it was seen that the alkaline mixed SDS/Tween 80 solution showed better removal of pure EDC-tar from silica sand porous media. Furthermore, separation of EDC-tar in the surfactant solution was conducted employing a salting-out effect. Significant separation of DNAPL was observed when 13 wt.% or more NaCl was added to the solution. Overall, this study evaluates the feasibility of using SEAR for remediating EDC-tar contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater.

  11. Mobilization of Manufactured Gas Plant Tar with Alkaline Flushing Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Hauswirth, Scott C.; Birak, Pamela Schultz; Rylander, Seth C.; Miller, Cass T.

    2011-01-01

    This experimental study investigates the use of alkaline and alkaline-polymer solutions for the mobilization of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars. Tar-aqueous interfacial tensions (IFTs) and contact angles were measured, and column flushing experiments were conducted. NaOH solutions (0.01–1 wt.%) were found to significantly reduce tar-aqueous IFT. Contact angles indicated a shift to strongly water-wet, then to tar-wet conditions as NaOH concentration increased. Column experiments were conducted with flushing solutions containing 0.2, 0.35, and 0.5% NaOH, both with and without xanthan gum (XG). Between 10 and 44% of the residual tar was removed by solutions containing only NaOH, while solutions containing both NaOH and XG removed 81–93% of the tar with final tar saturations as low as 0.018. The mechanism responsible for the tar removal is likely a combination of reduced IFT, a favorable viscosity ratio, and tar bank formation. Such an approach may have practical applications and would be significantly less expensive than surfactant-based methods. PMID:22091957

  12. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report Sep-Nov 81

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1982-06-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the fall of 1981, Teredo bartschi remained in Oyster Creek despite continuous prolonged outages of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station.

  13. Development of bacteria and benthic total maximum daily loads: a case study, Linville Creek, Virginia.

    PubMed

    Benham, Brian L; Brannan, Kevin M; Yagow, Gene; Zeckoski, Rebecca W; Dillaha, Theo A; Mostaghimi, Saied; Wynn, Jeff W

    2005-01-01

    Two total maximum daily load (TMDL) studies were performed for Linville Creek in Rockingham County, Virginia, to address bacterial and benthic impairments. The TMDL program is an integrated watershed management approach required by the Clean Water Act. This paper describes the procedures used by the Center for TMDL and Watershed Studies at Virginia Tech to develop the Linville Creek TMDLs and discusses the key lessons learned from and the ramifications of the procedures used in these and other similar TMDL studies. The bacterial impairment TMDL was developed using the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF). Fecal coliform loads were estimated through an intensive source characterization process. The benthic impairment TMDL was developed using the Generalized Watershed Loading Function (GWLF) model and the reference watershed approach. The bacterial TMDL allocation scenario requires a 100% reduction in cattle manure direct-deposits to the stream, a 96% reduction in nonpoint-source loadings to the land surface, and a 95% reduction in wildlife direct-deposits to the stream. Sediment was identified as the primary benthic stressor. The TMDL allocation scenario for the benthic impairment requires an overall reduction of 12.3% of the existing sediment loads. Despite the many drawbacks associated with using watershed-scale models like HSPF and GWLF to develop TMDLs, the detailed watershed and pollutant-source characterization required to use these and similar models creates information that stakeholders need to select appropriate corrective measures to address the cause of the water quality impairment when implementing the TMDL. PMID:16151238

  14. Environmental flow studies of the Fort Collins Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey-Cherry Creek, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddle, Terry J.; Bovee, Ken D.

    2010-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Forest Service, an instream flow assessment was conducted at Cherry Creek, Ariz., to investigate habitat for native and introduced fish species and to describe the beneficial use of a possible instream flow water right. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fort Collins Science Center performed an intensive field study of two sections of Cherry Creek in September 2008 to provide base data for hydrodynamic simulation of the flow conditions in the stream. The USGS Arizona Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, at the University of Arizona School of Natural Resources, conducted a survey of the habitat requirements of the resident fish species in Cherry Creek and provided the habitat suitability criteria used in this study. The habitat suitability criteria were combined with hydrodynamic simulation results to quantify fish habitat for the full range of daily flow experienced in the creek and to produce maps of habitat occurrence for those flows. The flow record at the Cherry Creek stream gage was used to generate habitat response values over time. The long-term habitat response was incorporated into an Excel (Registered) spreadsheet to allow evaluation of habitat occurrence with and without an instream water right under different hypothetical water withdrawal scenarios. The spreadsheet displays information about the time sequence of habitat events, the duration of critical events, and habitat retention.

  15. Catalytic destruction of tar in biomass derived producer gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruiqin Zhang; Robert C. Brown; Andrew Suby; Keith Cummer

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate catalytic destruction of tar formed during gasification of biomass, with the goal of improving the quality of the producer gas. This work focuses on nickel based catalysts treated with alkali in an effort to promote steam gasification of the coke that deposits on catalyst surfaces. A tar conversion system consisting of a

  16. Validity of smokers' information about present and past cigarette brands--implications for studies of the effects of falling tar yields of cigarettes on health.

    PubMed Central

    Peach, H; Shah, D; Morris, R W

    1986-01-01

    Four hundred and twenty nine current smokers and ex-smokers who had provided details 12 years previously completed a self administered questionnaire about their present and past smoking habits, and two weeks later current smokers supplied an empty cigarette packet. The tar group and brand name of the current cigarette given on the questionnaire were compared with details on the packet, and the brand alleged to have been smoked 12 years ago was compared with that actually recorded at that time. Only 55% of "low middle" tar cigarettes as indicated by returned packets had been correctly identified in the questionnaire. The brand name was the same in the questionnaire and on the packet in 74% of cases. The recalled brand was confirmed by past records in only 49% of cases. It is concluded that current smokers should be asked to return an empty packet or packets of the cigarette brand or brands usually smoked with a self administered questionnaire and that follow up studies of populations for which brands of cigarette smoked were previously recorded might be more valid than studies relying on recall. PMID:3715776

  17. Hepatics of the Turkey Creek Unit of the Big Thicket National Preserve: a floristic and ecological study 

    E-print Network

    Bazan, Evangelina

    1980-01-01

    HEPATICS OF THE TURKEY CREEK UNIT OF THE BIG THICKET NATIONAL PRESERVE: A FLORISTIC AND ECOLOGICAL STUDY A Thesis by Evangelina Bazdn Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of Master of Science August 1980 Major Subject: Botany HEPATICS OF THE TURKEY CREEK UNIT OF THE BIG THICKET NATIONAL PRESERVE: A FLORISTIC AND ECOLOGICAL STUDY A Thesis by Evangelina Bazdn Approved as to style and content by: (Chair n o o...

  18. Environmental stability of PAH source indices in pyrogenic tars

    SciTech Connect

    Uhler, A.D.; Emsbo-Mattingly, S.D. [New Fields Environmental Forensics Practice, Rockland, MA (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental contaminants found in soil, sediments, and airborne particulates. The majority of PAHs found in modern soils and sediments arise from myriad anthropogenic petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. Tars and tar products such as creosote produced from the industrial pyrolysis of coal or oil at former manufactured gas plants (MGPs) or in coking retorts are viscous, oily substances that contain significant concentrations of PAH, usually in excess of 30% w/w. Pyrogenic tars and tar products have unique PAH patterns (source signatures) that are a function of their industrial production. Among pyrogenic materials, certain diagnostic ratios of environmentally recalcitrant 4-, 5- and 6-ring PAHs have been identified as useful environmental markers for tracking the signature of tars and petroleum in the environment. The use of selected PAH source ratios is based on the concept that PAHs with similar properties (i.e., molecular weight, partial pressure, solubility, partition coefficients, and biotic/abiotic degradation) will weather at similar rates in the environment thereby yielding stable ratios. The stability of more than 30 high molecular weight PAH ratios is evaluated during controlled studies of tar evaporation and aerobic biodegradation. The starting materials in these experiments consisted of relatively unweathered tars derived from coal and petroleum, respectively. The PAH ratios from these laboratory studies are compared to those measured in PAH residues found in tar-contaminated soils at a former MGP that operated with a carburetted water gas process.

  19. Beach tar accumulation, transport mechanisms, and sources of variability at Coal Oil Point, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tonya S. Del Sontro; Ira Leifer; Bruce P. Luyendyk; Bernardo R. Broitman

    2007-01-01

    A new field method for tar quantification was used at Coal Oil Point (COP), California to study the mechanisms transporting oil\\/tar from the nearby COP natural marine hydrocarbon seep field. This method segregates tar pieces into six size classes and assigns them an average mass based on laboratory or direct field measurements. Tar accumulation on the 19,927m2 survey area was

  20. Beach tar accumulation, transport mechanisms, and sources of variability at Coal Oil Point, California.

    PubMed

    Del Sontro, Tonya S; Leifer, Ira; Luyendyk, Bruce P; Broitman, Bernardo R

    2007-09-01

    A new field method for tar quantification was used at Coal Oil Point (COP), California to study the mechanisms transporting oil/tar from the nearby COP natural marine hydrocarbon seep field. This method segregates tar pieces into six size classes and assigns them an average mass based on laboratory or direct field measurements. Tar accumulation on the 19,927m(2) survey area was well resolved spatially by recording tar mass along twelve transects segmented into 4-m(2) blocks and then integrating over the survey area. A seasonal trend was apparent in total tar in which summer accumulations were an order of magnitude higher than winter accumulations. Based on multiple regression analyses between environmental data and tar accumulation, 34% of tar variability is explained by a combination of onshore advection via wind and low swell height inhibiting slick dispersion. PMID:17631358

  1. Beach tar accumulation, transport mechanisms, and sources of variability at Coal Oil Point, California

    E-print Network

    Luyendyk, Bruce

    Beach tar accumulation, transport mechanisms, and sources of variability at Coal Oil Point quantification was used at Coal Oil Point (COP), California to study the mechanisms transporting oil/tar from and Synthesis, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93101, USA Abstract A new field method for tar

  2. Summary and Synthesis of Mercury Studies in the Cache Creek Watershed, California, 2000-01

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Slotton, Darell G.; Alpers, Charles N.; Suchanek, Thomas H.; Churchill, Ronald; Bloom, Nicolas; Ayers, Shaun M.; Clinkenbeard, John

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the principal findings of the Cache Creek, California, components of a project funded by the CALFED Bay?Delta Program entitled 'An Assessment of Ecological and Human Health Impacts of Mercury in the Bay?Delta Watershed.' A companion report summarizes the key findings of other components of the project based in the San Francisco Bay and the Delta of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. These summary documents present the more important findings of the various studies in a format intended for a wide audience. For more in-depth, scientific presentation and discussion of the research, a series of detailed technical reports of the integrated mercury studies is available at the following website: .

  3. Centrifuge treatment of coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    L.A. Kazak; V.Z. Kaidalov; L.F. Syrova; O.S. Miroshnichenko; A.S. Minakov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    New technology is required for the removal of water and heavy fractions from regular coal tar. Centrifuges offer the best option. Purification of coal tar by means of centrifuges at OAO NLMK permits the production of pitch coke or electrode pitch that complies with current standards.

  4. Hydraulic model study of the Spring Creek debris dam selective withdrawal system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, L.J.

    1995-02-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation is designing a selective withdrawal outlet works structure as part of the modifications to Spring Creek Debris Dam. The selective withdrawal structure will be used to discharge varying concentrations of pollutants from the reservoir and to decrease the frequency of releases from the existing spillway. The hydraulic model study was used to determine the losses through the system and operational limits on the submergence of the skimming weir and slide gates in order to maintain control with the downstream gates and to suppress vortex formation. Additional items that were investigated were flow conditions in the conduit with more than one slide gate discharging, pressures acting across the weir gate under large submergences, and conditions under which blowback of entrained air might occur.

  5. Bridalveil Creek

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    In this image, Bridalveil Creek is seen flowing just beneath the base of Bridalveil Fall. The waterfall is 617 ft (188 m) in height and is one of the most well-known of Yosemite National Park's waterfalls....

  6. Hell Creek

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Hell Creek and underlying Fox Hills Formations are present at the land surface along the margins of the Williston Basin, but otherwise are the deepest bedrock aquifers that are commonly used in the basin....

  7. Does switching to a tobacco-free waterpipe product reduce toxicant intake? A crossover study comparing CO, NO, PAH, volatile aldehydes, tar and nicotine yields

    PubMed Central

    Shihadeh, Alan; Salman, Rola; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Saliba, Najat; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Blank, Melissa D.; Cobb, Caroline O.; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Waterpipe (hookah, narghile, shisha) use has become a global phenomenon, with numerous product variations. One variation is a class of products marketed as “tobacco-free” alternatives for the “health conscious user”. In this study toxicant yields from waterpipes smoked using conventional tobacco-based and tobacco-free preparations were compared. A human-mimic waterpipe smoking machine was used to replicate the puffing sequences of 31 human participants who completed two double-blind ad libitum smoking sessions in a controlled clinical setting: once with a tobacco-based product of their choosing and once with a flavor-matched tobacco-free product. Outcome measures included yields of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, volatile aldehydes, nicotine, tar, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Smoke from both waterpipe preparations contained substantial quantities of toxicants. Nicotine yield was the only outcome that differed significantly between preparations. These findings contradict advertising messages that “herbal” waterpipe products are a healthy alternative to tobacco products. PMID:22406330

  8. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves and fouling organisms in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Final report, September 1976-December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.

    1983-10-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves were studied using wood test panels at 20 stations in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Physiological tolerances of three teredinid species were investigated in the laboratory and correlated with field values of temperature, salinity, siltation, precipitation, and plant operations. The interaction of boring and fouling organisms was examined. There is a definite correlation between the operation of the power plant and teredinid outbreaks. Increased salinity and water flow as well as temperature are responsible. After 1976, most of the damage in Oyster Creek was done by the introduced subtropical species Teredo bartschi. It can respond faster than native species to environmental change. Although Oyster Creek contributed larvae to neighboring parts of Barnegat Bay, its role as a breeding ground was limited. Some elements of the fouling community may be antagonistic to shipworm growth. Fouling was increased in both biomass and species richness in Oyster Creek when compared with creek controls, but the fouling community in Oyster Creek was less stable than that in other areas. Lower salinity limits for the teredinids were within the salinity range found in Oyster Creek but not within the range found in the control creeks. 71 references, 9 figures, 39 tables.

  9. New mechanisms studied for creek formation in tidal flats: From crabs to tidal channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perillo, Gerardo M. E.; Iribarne, Oscar O.

    Mechanisms for the formation of creeks in tidal flats are rarely discussed in the peer-reviewed literature. Moreover, while there are general theories about how creeks form in tidal flats, there is no data to support these theories. It is generally believed that marshes inherit creeks from previous tidal flats that plants colonize, and that further modify the creeks. Recently, we have discovered new mechanisms for creek formation in three different environments of Argentina in which tidal creeks are actually originating in both fresh and salt marshes. One of the most surprising and interesting findings is that creek formation can actually be a product of the intense action of crabs (Chasmagnatus granulata). In these settings, crabs first interact with a halophytic plant (Salicornia ambigua), developing zones of high-density of crab holes, which then are utilized by groundwater and tidal action to form channels. This specific interaction forms a series of rings that, to the best of our knowledge, have not been described elsewhere in the literature.

  10. In situ recovery of oil from Utah tar sand: a summary of tar sand research at the Laramie Energy Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Marchant, L.C.; Westhoff, J.D.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes work done by the United States Department of Energy's Laramie Energy Technology Center from 1971 through 1982 to develop technology for future recovery of oil from US tar sands. Work was concentrated on major US tar sand deposits that are found in Utah. Major objectives of the program were as follows: determine the feasibility of in situ recovery methods applied to tar sand deposits; and establish a system for classifying tar sand deposits relative to those characteristics that would affect the design and operation of various in situ recovery processes. Contents of this report include: (1) characterization of Utah tar sand; (2) laboratory extraction studies relative to Utah tar sand in situ methods; (3) geological site evaluation; (4) environmental assessments and water availability; (5) reverse combustion field experiment, TS-1C; (6) a reverse combustion followed by forward combustion field experiment, TS-2C; (7) tar sand permeability enhancement studies; (8) two-well steam injection experiment; (9) in situ steam-flood experiment, TS-1S; (10) design of a tar sand field experiment for air-stream co-injection, TS-4; (11) wastewater treatment and oil analyses; (12) economic evaluation of an in situ tar sand recovery process; and (13) appendix I (extraction studies involving Utah tar sands, surface methods). 70 figs., 68 tabs.

  11. Inhibition of transcription by the TAR RNA of HIV-1 in a nuclear extract of HeLa cells.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, R; Koseki, S; Ohkawa, J; Murakami, K; Nishikawa, S; Taira, K; Kumar, P K

    1997-01-01

    Regulation of transcription of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) requires specific interaction of Tat protein with the trans-activation response region (TAR). Inhibition of replication of HIV-1 has previously been achieved with a TAR decoy, namely a short RNA oligonucleotide that corresponded to the sequence of the authentic TAR RNA. Since TAR RNA has the potential to interact with cellular factors, we examined the effect of TAR RNA on efficiency of transcription in nuclear of HeLa cell extracts. We performed an in vitro transcription assay in the presence of authentic TAR RNA using a template that was driven by the CMV (cytomegalovirus) early promoter in a HeLa nuclear extract and found, for the first time, that TAR RNA inhibited transcription by approximately 60-70% independently of the Tat-TAR interaction. Furthermore, we evaluated inhibition of transcription by variants of TAR RNA and found that the TAR RNA loop, bases surrounding the loop, the triple base bulge and the 'lower' stem region of TAR RNA were responsible for the inhibition of transcription. Taken together, earlier reports on proteins that bind to TAR RNA and the present results suggest that integrity of TAR RNA is important for efficient binding to cellular transcription factors. As judged from the significant inhibition observed in this study, the TAR decoy might sequester transcription factors and thus it might potentially be able to inhibit transcription of housekeeping genes that are unrelated to Tat function. PMID:9254702

  12. REVIEW PLAN PINE CREEK LAKE

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    #12;REVIEW PLAN PINE CREEK LAKE McCurtain County, Oklahoma DAM SAFETY MODIFICATION STUDY TULSA LEFT BLANK #12;REVIEW PLAN Pine Creek Lake, Oklahoma Dam Safety Modification Study TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter # Chapter Title Page # 1. Purpose and Requirements 1 2. Review Management Organization (RMO

  13. Fixed-Bearing Total Ankle Replacement (TAR) Improves Gait Function

    MedlinePLUS

    ... positive short-term results A study of gait mechanics in patients who underwent total ankle replacement (TAR) ... improvement in nearly all measured parameters of gait mechanics (measured preoperatively, 1 year postoperative, and 2 years ...

  14. Reduction of Ammonia and Tar in Pressurized Biomass Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.; Olofsson, G.

    2002-09-19

    The present paper intended to present the results of parametric study of the formation of ammonia and tar under pressurized gasification conditions. By the use of multivariate data analysis, the effects of operating parameters were determined and their influences could be quantified. In order to deal with cases in which high levels of ammonia and tar were produced, study of catalytic hot gas cleaning was performed, aiming to discuss the removal efficiency and test catalysts.

  15. The artificial catchment `Chicken Creek' (`Huehnerwasser') as a new research tool for hydrological and ecological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerwin, W.; Schaaf, W.; Hüttl, R. F.

    2009-04-01

    The most important framework of many ecological studies are watersheds as landscape units for water and element budgets. However, internal structures of natural catchments are often not well known due to natural heterogeneity and difficult boundary conditions. Important information has to be extrapolated from point measurements or indirect exploration methods. In contrast, artificial watersheds have the advantage of better defined boundaries and internal structures. Both local boundary conditions, e.g. the accordance of the surface and the groundwater catchment or hydrologic parameters like drainage patterns, discharge points and stratification can be designed and precisely documented during site construction. A recently launched German-Swiss Collaborative Research Centre is investigating the 'Chicken Creek' watershed which can be seen as one of the largest artificially created catchments for scientific purposes worldwide. The main hypothesis of the Collaborative Research Centre is that initial structures define and shape the development of an ecosystem as well as its later stages. Against this background the artificial catchment was designed to offer manifold opportunities for hydrological oriented as well as ecological studies of an initial ecosystem. As internal structures are well known and the surface and subsurface boundaries are well defined compared to natural catchments the site offers high potentials for improving hydrological and ecological models. The catchment ‘Chicken Creek' in Lusatia (Germany; 150 km SE from Berlin) has an area of 6 ha. It was constructed as a 2-4 m layer of post-glacial sandy to loamy sediments overlying a 1-2 m layer of Tertiary clay that forms a shallow pan and seals the whole catchment at the base. No further measures of restoration like planting, amelioration or fertilization were carried out to allow natural succession and undisturbed development. At the bottom of the catchment a small lake with a diameter of 70 m and a maximum depth of 3 m was established. The site was fenced in completely to avoid disturbances and vandalism particularly by human visitors but also by abundant game animals in the area. The construction operations were completed in September 2005 which can be defined as the ‘point zero' of the ongoing development of the site. A comprehensive monitoring programme has been started immediately after completion to investigate the development and differentiation of structures during the intial phase of ecosystem genesis. All spatial information on structures and processes will be brought together in the central integrating structure and process model that has to be developed within the project. This model will be the most important tool to differentiate and to elucidate different development phases. The objective of this structure and process model is the visualization of temporal and spatial dynamics and the interpretation of structure-process-interactions.

  16. Waste-assimilation study of Koshkonong Creek below sewage-treatment plant at Sun Prairie, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, R. Stephen

    1976-01-01

    A waste-load-assimilation study of a reach of Koshkonong Creek below the Sun Prairie, Wisconsin, sewage-treatment-plant outfall indicated that a high level of treatment would be required to meet Wisconsin water-quality standards. To maintain a minimum dissolved-oxygen concentration of 5 mg/liter during the critical summer low-flow period, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical-oxygen demand in waste discharges should not exceed 5 mg/liter and ammonium nitrogen should not exceed 1.5 mg/liter. Advanced treatment with denitrification is required because stream-reaeration coefficients are not high enough to offset deoxygenation caused by an abundance of attached biological slimes. The slimes apparently consumed dissolved oxygen at a rate of about 110 mg/liter per day at the time of the stream survey. During the critical summer low-flow period, natural stream discharge is very small compared to waste-water discharge , so benefits of dilution are insignificant. An evaluation of two proposed alternative waste-water discharge sites indicated that the present discharge site is hydraulically superior to these sites. Stream-reaeration coefficients used in the study were based on measurements using the radioactive-tracer method. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Oyster Creek cycle 10 nodal model parameter optimization study using PSMS

    SciTech Connect

    Dougher, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The power shape monitoring system (PSMS) is an on-line core monitoring system that uses a three-dimensional nodal code (NODE-B) to perform nodal power calculations and compute thermal margins. The PSMS contains a parameter optimization function that improves the ability of NODE-B to accurately monitor core power distributions. This functions iterates on the model normalization parameters (albedos and mixing factors) to obtain the best agreement between predicted and measured traversing in-core probe (TIP) reading on a statepoint-by-statepoint basis. Following several statepoint optimization runs, an average set of optimized normalization parameters can be determined and can be implemented into the current or subsequent cycle core model for on-line core monitoring. A statistical analysis of 19 high-power steady-state state-points throughout Oyster Creek cycle 10 operation has shown a consistently poor virgin model performance. The normalization parameters used in the cycle 10 NODE-B model were based on a cycle 8 study, which evaluated only Exxon fuel types. The introduction of General Electric (GE) fuel into cycle 10 (172 assemblies) was a significant fuel/core design change that could have altered the optimum set of normalization parameters. Based on the need to evaluate a potential change in the model normalization parameters for cycle 11 and in an attempt to account for the poor cycle 10 model performance, a parameter optimization study was performed.

  18. CALPUFF and AERMOD model validation study in the near field: Martins Creek revisited.

    PubMed

    Dresser, Alan L; Huizer, Robert D

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes a near-field validation study involving the steady-state, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guideline model AERMOD and the nonsteady-state puff model CALPUFF. Relative model performance is compared with field measurements collected near Martins Creek, PA-a rural, hilly area along the Pennsylvania-New Jersey border. The principal emission sources in the study were two coal-fired power plants with tall stacks and buoyant plumes. Over 1 yr of sulfur dioxide measurements were collected at eight monitors located at or above the two power plants' stack tops. Concurrent meteorological data were available at two sites. Both sites collected data 10 m above the ground. One of the sites also collected sonic detection and ranging measurements up to 420 m above ground. The ability of the two models to predict monitored sulfur dioxide concentrations was assessed in a four-part model validation. Each part of the validation applied different criteria and statistics to provide a comprehensive evaluation of model performance. Because of their importance in regulatory applications, an emphasis was placed on statistics that demonstrate the model's ability to reproduce the upper end of the concentration distribution. On the basis of the combined results of the four-part validation (i.e., weight of evidence), the performance of CALPUFF was judged to be superior to that of AERMOD. PMID:21751581

  19. Economic valuation of flood mitigation services: A case study from the Otter Creek, VT.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galford, G. L.; Ricketts, T.; Bryan, K. L.; ONeil-Dunne, J.; Polasky, S.

    2014-12-01

    The ecosystem services provided by wetlands are widely recognized but difficult to quantify. In particular, estimating the effect of landcover and land use on downstream flood outcomes remains challenging, but is increasingly important in light of climate change predictions of increased precipitation in many areas. Economic valuation can help incorporate ecosystem services into decisions and enable communities to plan for climate and flood resiliency. Here we estimate the economic value of Otter Creek wetlands for Middlebury, VT in mitigating the flood that followed Tropical Storm Irene, as well as for ten historic floods. Observationally, hydrographs above and below the wetlands in the case of each storm indicated the wetlands functioned as a temporary reservoir, slowing the delivery of water to Middlebury. We compare observed floods, based on Middlebury's hydrograph, with simulated floods for scenarios without wetlands. To simulate these "without wetlands" scenarios, we assume the same volume of water was delivered to Middlebury, but in a shorter time pulse similar to a hydrograph upstream of the wetlands. For scenarios with and without wetlands, we map the spatial extent of flooding using LiDAR digital elevation data. We then estimate flood depth at each affected building, and calculate monetary losses as a function of the flood depth and house value using established depth damage relationships. For example, we expect damages equal to 20% of the houses value for a flood depth of two feet in a two-story home with a basement. We define the value of flood mitigation services as the difference in damages between the with and without wetlands scenario, and find that the Otter Creek wetlands reduced flood damage in Middlebury by 88% following Hurricane Irene. Using the 10 additional historic floods, we estimate an ongoing mean value of $400,000 in avoided damages per year. Economic impacts of this magnitude stress the importance of wetland conservation and warrant the consideration of ecosystem services in land use decisions. Our study indicates that here and elsewhere, green infrastructure may have to potential to increase the resilience of communities to projected changes in climate.

  20. TarO: a target optimisation system for structural biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian M. Overton; C. A. Johannes Van Niekerk; Lester G. Carter; Alice Dawson; David M. A. Martin; Scott Cameron; Stephen A. Mcmahon; Malcolm F. White; William N. Hunter; James H. Naismith; Geoffrey J. Barton

    2008-01-01

    TarO (http:\\/\\/www.compbio.dundee.ac.uk\\/taro) offers a single point of reference for key bioinformatics analyses relevant to selecting proteins or domains for study by structural biology techniques. The protein sequence is analysed by 17 algorithms and compared to 8 databases. TarO gathers putative homologues, including orthologues, and then obtains predictions of properties for these sequences including crystallisation propensity, pro- tein disorder and post-translational

  1. Final geotechnical study, DARA Solid Storage Facility, Y-12 Bear Creek Burial Grounds, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The DARA Solid Storage Facility is located north of Gate 4 in the Y-12 Bear Creek Burial Grounds. It was constructed to temporarily store contaminated soil excavated during closure of the Oil Retention Ponds project. The ground surface around the perimeter of the building ranges from about 942 feet Mean Sea Level (MSL) to 936 feet MSL Surface drainage is away from the building, with most of the surface runoff flowing into the drainage ditch east of the building. In order for the DARA Solid Storage Facility (SSF) to be a RCRA permitted hazardous waste storage facility, you have informed us that the height of the water in the sediment cannot exceed one foot. The purposes of this study are to: Obtain subsurface data from the soil stored within the DARA Solid Storage Facility; classify the soil samples and conduct pertinent on-site laboratory tests to characterize the physical parameters of the soil; review groundwater information from nearby monitoring wells; review provided piezometer data, and integrate this with Ogden obtained data and analyze both; review other pertinent documents and drawings; comment as to why we believe that there is a reduced flow of water over time from the soil into the sumps; as appropriate, develop recommendations regarding possible methods that can be used to remove additional water from the soil; and provide other comments we believe are pertinent to a geotechnical analysis of the SSF soil-water relationship.

  2. Stabilization/solidification of acid tars.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Sunday A; Stegemann, Julia A

    2010-01-01

    This work involve a systematic treatability study of the treatment of acid tars (AT), a waste generated during the processing of petroleum and petrochemical, by stabilization/solidification with Portland cement (CEM I), with the addition of high carbon fly ash (HCFA), an industrial by-product, as a novel sorbent for organic contaminants. A factorial design experiment was adopted to investigate the effects of organic content, HCFA:AT ratio, percentage CEM I addition, and curing time on response variables including unconfined compressive strength (UCS), hydraulic conductivity, porosity, and leachability-related properties of the stabilized/solidified (s/s) products, and to assess management options for the s/s products based on performance criteria adapted from regulatory and other guidance. Results show that all studied factors had significant effects on the tested properties of the s/s products. Acid tar reduced UCS, but strength increase was observed with increased curing time. Increased HCFA addition led to an improvement in hydraulic conductivity. Assessment of management options indicates that the treated acid tars could find application as controlled low-strength materials, landfill liner, and landfill daily cover. The work demonstrates how a systematic treatability study can be used to develop a S/S operating window for management of a particular waste type. PMID:20473807

  3. Water-Quality Characteristics of Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; O'Ney, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    To address water-resource management objectives of the National Park Service in Grand Teton National Park, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service has conducted water-quality sampling on streams in the Snake River headwaters area. A synoptic study of streams in the western part of the headwaters area was conducted during 2006. Sampling sites were located on Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek. Sampling events in June, July, August, and October were selected to characterize different hydrologic conditions and different recreational-use periods. Stream samples were collected and analyzed for field measurements, major-ion chemistry, nutrients, selected trace elements, pesticides, and suspended sediment. Water types of Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek were calcium bicarbonate. Dissolved-solids concentrations were dilute in Cottonwood Creek and Taggart Creek, which drain Precambrian-era rocks and materials derived from these rocks. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 11 to 31 milligrams per liter for samples collected from Cottonwood Creek and Taggart Creek. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 55 to 130 milligrams per liter for samples collected from Lake Creek and Granite Creek, which drain Precambrian-era rocks and Paleozoic-era rocks and materials derived from these rocks. Nutrient concentrations generally were small in samples collected from Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek. Dissolved-nitrate concentrations were the largest in Taggart Creek. The Taggart Creek drainage basin has the largest percentage of barren land cover of the basins, and subsurface waters of talus slopes may contribute to dissolved-nitrate concentrations in Taggart Creek. Pesticide concentrations, trace-element concentrations, and suspended-sediment concentrations generally were less than laboratory reporting levels or were small for all samples. Water-quality characteristics of streams in the western part of the Snake River headwaters area were compared to water-quality characteristics of streams sampled in 2002 in the eastern part of the headwaters area. The median dissolved-solids concentration (55 milligrams per liter) for samples collected from western streams was smaller than the median dissolved-solids concentration (125 milligrams per liter) for samples collected from eastern streams. The small dissolved-solids concentrations in the western streams are a result of the large areas underlain by resistant Precambrian-era rocks that compose the Teton Range compared to the more erodable Mesozoic-era sedimentary rocks that compose the mountains in the eastern part of the headwaters area. The Teton Range also receives higher annual precipitation than the mountains in the east. The median total-nitrogen concentration (0.17 milligram per liter) in samples collected from streams in the western part of the Snake River headwaters area was larger than the median concentration (0.10 milligram per liter) for samples collected from streams in the eastern part of the headwaters area, in part because of larger dissolved-nitrate concentrations in samples from the western streams compared to the eastern streams. In contrast, total-phosphorus concentrations generally were larger for samples collected from eastern streams. Large total-phosphorus concentrations in the eastern streams were associated with large suspended-sediment concentrations. The source of the phosphorus and sediment probably is Mesozoic-era sedimentary rocks of marine origin that underlie parts of the eastern drainage basins.

  4. Investigation of the rank dependence of tar evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to develop an improved understanding of the process of coal tar evolution, its relationship to the structural characteristics of the parent coal, and the dependence of the chemical and physical properties of the tar products on the conditions of devolatilization. Data from this study are expected to allow hypothesis testing and refinements of coal devolatilization models relevant to the pulverized coal combustion process. The program is divided into seven major technical areas: tar evolution rates in rapid heating conditions; molecular weight and vapor pressure characteristics of tars; chemical structure and calorific values of tars; influence of interphase mass transport phenomena; gas phase secondary reactions of primary'' tars; parent coal nitrogen evolution during devolatilization; and model hypothesis testing. A range of coal ranks, from a Texas lignite to a Pennsylvania anthracite, are employed in the investigation. In addition, a high temperature polymer, a polyimide, is utilized as an additional reference case. The polyimide serves as a truly polymeric reference material for examining the nitrogen evolution behavior of coal. The samples are subjected to elemental composition determination, infrared absorbance characteristics, calorific value, high temperature ash analysis, and maceral composition. Consideration is being given to NMR analysis as well as tetrahydrofuran (THF) solubility. Results are discussed. 4 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. The bly creek ecosystem study: Phosphorus transport within a euhaline salt marsh basin, North Inlet, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dame, Richard F.; Wolaver, Thomas G.; Williams, Thomas M.; Spurrier, John D.; Miller, Anne B.

    Phosphorus transport through the tidal creek linking the Bly Creek basin (North Inlet, South Carolina) and the surrounding water body was studied on 34 tidal cycles between 20 June 1983 and 19 June 1984. Annual estimates of phosphorus input to the basin via streamwater, groundwater, and via streamwater, groundwater, and rain totalled 19.6 kg P·y -1; PO 4 export from the basin was not significant. Within the basin, the salt marsh was shown to be an important sink for PO 4 (207 kg P·y -1) while the oyster reef community exported a statistically insignificant 7.7 kg P·y -1. The data suggest that the source of the PO 4 to the salt marsh is the water column or benthic sediments of the tidal creek. The salt marsh was a significant sink for particulate phosphorus, but those uptakes were less than the error on the insignificant fluxes into the basin via the water column. The oyster reef community was a statistically significant sink for total phosphorus (98 kg P·y -1).

  6. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Interim report 1 Sep 79-28 Feb 80

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.; Turner, R.D.

    1980-11-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being analyzed. Teredo bartschi caused almost complete destruction of panels in Oyster Creek during the summer of 1979. Reproduction and settlement of this species continued into October. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with T. bartschi in Oyster Creek. The greatest shipworm damage is in Oyster Creek. Heavy mortality occurs in all species during winter, especially in winters such as 1979-80 when the generating station is not operating. Adults of all three species can survive for at least 30 days at salinities from 5 to 45 parts per thousand by weight. They can withstand abrupt salinity changes.

  7. IMPACT OF URBANIZATION ON THE HYDROLOGY OF THE POCONO CREEK WATERSHED: A MODEL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pocono Creek watershed located in Monroe County, PA, is threatened by high population growth and urbanization. Of concern specifically is the potential impact of future developments in the watershed on the reduction of base flow and the consequent risk of degradation of wild ...

  8. Mechanisms for groundwater contamination by UCG: preliminary conclusions from the Hoe Creek study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. T. Wang; S. W. Mead; D. H. Stuermer

    1982-01-01

    We have monitored groundwater quality changes in approximately 60 wells constructed near the 3 underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments carried out at our Hoe Creek site in northeastern Wyoming. A broad range of residual gasification products are introduced into the groundwater system as a result of the UCG process. These groundwater contaminants may be of environmental significance if they find

  9. Restore the riverbed with reservoir sedimentation: A case study for the Dahan Creek in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sheng-Chi; Shih, Shang-Shu; Hwang, Gwo-Wen; Hsu, Hao-Ming; Huang, Tsung-Feng

    2015-04-01

    Decreasing riverbed threats hydraulic infrastructures, bridges, and ecosystems in the Dahan Creek, northern Taiwan. The riverbed of the Dahan Creek descended 3.24 m in two decades (1969-1989) due to sand mining. After 1989, the activity of sand mining was banned, but the topography was not restored over time. The elevation of riverbed even kept decreasing and dropped approximately 0.58 m from 1989 through 2010. This result implied that that both sediment dynamic and river flow regime were obviously affected. The Shihmen Reservoir, one multiple-purpose and 233 million m3 of effective storage capacity reservoir, was established between 1956 and 1964 and located at the upstream of the Dahan Creek. Sediments were trapped by the Shihmen Reservoir and only released with floods during typhoon season. Sediments have occupied 29.76% of effective storage capacity of the Shihmen Reservoir (sediment volume was approximately 92,000,000 m3) based on a bathymetry survey on February 2013. For sustainable management, these reservoir sediments are releasing to the downstream region through the desilting tunnel. However, these sediments were difficult to deposit in the Dahan Creek and went directly to the downstream, because of steeper slope, finer grain size, and larger river discharge. During the same period (1989-2010), the downstream riverbed, namely the Tanshui River, ascended 1.61 m. In addition, during Typhoon Soulik in 2013, sediment of 0.58 million m3 was released with larger discharge (the peak flow was approximately 4,950 m3/s). Most of sediments were directly transported to the downstream or estuary, instead of refilling the riverbed materials for the Dahan Creek. Therefore, not only for reservoir sustainable management (reduce reservoir sediments) but also for river restoration (refill riverbed materials), an optimal strategy of artificial flood releasing is necessary.

  10. Paleontological overview of oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

    SciTech Connect

    Murphey, P. C.; Daitch, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-02-11

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the ''Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005,'' Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. In addition, Congress declared that both research- and commercial-scale development of oil shale and tar sands should (1) be conducted in an environmentally sound manner using management practices that will minimize potential impacts, (2) occur with an emphasis on sustainability, and (3) benefit the United States while taking into account concerns of the affected states and communities. To support this declaration of policy, Congress directed the Secretary of the Interior to undertake a series of steps, several of which are directly related to the development of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands. One of these steps was the completion of a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) to analyze the impacts of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands, with an emphasis on the most geologically prospective lands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. For oil shale, the scope of the PEIS analysis includes public lands within the Green River, Washakie, Uinta, and Piceance Creek Basins. For tar sands, the scope includes Special Tar Sand Areas (STSAs) located in Utah. This paleontological resources overview report was prepared in support of the Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and PEIS, and it is intended to be used by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) regional paleontologists and field office staff to support future projectspecific analyses. Additional information about the PEIS can be found at http://ostseis.anl.gov.

  11. LIGHTNING CREEK, PACK RIVER, AND SAND CREEK, BONNER COUNTY, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY SUMMARY, 1978

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Water Year 1978, water quality studies were conducted on Lightning Creek, Pack River, and Sand Creek in Bonner County, Idaho (17010214, 17010213) to determine the present status of the streams. Water quality in Lightning Creek was generally very high. No violations of standa...

  12. Is compulsory restriction of tar yield of cigarettes a worthwhile public health policy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Woodward

    2001-01-01

    Background: Although the notion of a “safe cigarette” has proved an illusion, while people continue to smoke, an issue remains of whether compulsory restriction of tar yield is a worthwhile public health policy.Methods: The study group was comprised of a random population sample of middle-aged Scottish men and women—3464 smokers of cigarettes with known tar yield at baseline. Tar yields

  13. Composition and properties of acid tar and asphalt produced from acid tar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. Frolov; A. N. Aminov; S. D. Timrot

    1981-01-01

    Acid tar is a waste material that is produced in large volumes in treating petroleum oils with concentrated sulfuric acid. The acid tar contains up to 80% petroleum oils and tars and resins. In current practice, the acid tar Ss dumped into holding ponds that take up large areas of land; this practice leads to pollution of the ground, water,

  14. Validity of smokers' information about present and past cigarette brands--implications for studies of the effects of falling tar yields of cigarettes on health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Peach; D Shah; R W Morris

    1986-01-01

    Four hundred and twenty nine current smokers and ex-smokers who had provided details 12 years previously completed a self administered questionnaire about their present and past smoking habits, and two weeks later current smokers supplied an empty cigarette packet. The tar group and brand name of the current cigarette given on the questionnaire were compared with details on the packet,

  15. Hoe Creek groundwater restoration, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Renk, R.R.; Crader, S.E.; Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    During the summer of 1989, approximately 6.5 million gallons of contaminated groundwater were pumped from 23 wells at the Hoe Creek underground coal gasification site, near Gillette, Wyoming. The organic contaminants were removed using activated carbon before the water was sprayed on 15.4 acres at the sites. Approximately 2647 g (5.8 lb) of phenols and 10,714 g (23.6 lb) of benzene were removed from the site aquifers. Phenols, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and naphthalene concentrations were measured in 43 wells. Benzene is the only contaminant at the site exceeds the federal standard for drinking water (5 {mu}g/L). Benzene leaches into the groundwater and is slow to biologically degrade; therefore, the benzene concentration has remained high in the groundwater at the site. The pumping operation affected groundwater elevations across the entire 80-acre site. The water levels rebounded quickly when the pumping operation was stopped on October 1, 1989. Removing contaminated groundwater by pumping is not an effective way to clean up the site because the continuous release of benzene from coal tars is slow. Benzene will continue to leach of the tars for a long time unless its source is removed or the leaching rate retarded through mitigation techniques. The application of the treated groundwater to the surface stimulated plant growth. No adverse effects were noted or recorded from some 60 soil samples taken from twenty locations in the spray field area. 20 refs., 52 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Chemistry of manganese precipitation in Pinal Creek, Arizona, USA: A laboratory study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hem, J.D.; Lind, Carol J.

    1994-01-01

    Groundwater underlying the valley of Pinal Creek downstream from Globe, Arizona, has been contaminated by low-pH metal-enriched wastewater from copper mining and ore processing at Miami, Arizona. At present, the acidity and most of the dissolved metal content, except for Mn, of the wastewater is removed by reactions with carbonate and other solids in the alluvial aquifer before the neutralized contaminated water enters the creek channel and becomes surface flow. Where flow in the creek is perennial, Mn-bearing precipitates are formed in the stream bed and in some places in the subsurface. As an aid to understanding the processes involved and explaining the mineralogy of the precipitates, closely controlled laboratory redox titration experiments were performed on samples of surface flow and groundwater taken near the head of perennial flow in the creek. The high content of dissolved Ca, Mg, Mn and COP2 species in the neutralized contaminated groundwater caused precipitation of some of the Mn as kutnahorite, (Mn, Mg)Ca(CO3)2, when the experimental system was held between pH 8.5 and 9.0 while CO2-free air was bubbled into the solution. Hausmannite and manganite also were precipitated, in somewhat lower amounts. When the concentrations of dissolved CO2 species in the groundwater sample were decreased before the experiment was started, the Mn precipitated was predominantly in the oxides hausmannite and manganite. In some of the experimental titrations clinoenstatite, (MgSiO3), was precipitated. After titrations were stopped the solutions and precipitates were allowed to stand, with limited access to the atmosphere, for several months. During this aging period the degree of oxidation of the precipitated Mn increased and in one precipitate from an experimental solution the Ca + Mn4+ oxides todorokite and takanelite were identified. These oxides also have been identified in streambed precipitates. Some of these precipitates also gave X-ray diffraction reflections for kutnahorite. Thermodynamic feasibilities of eight potential chemical reactions forming solid phases of interest were evaluated by calculating their respective reaction affinities attained during titration and aging. The results are in general agreement with the indications for the presence of these species given by X-ray and electron diffraction. The presence of carbonates in precipitated encrustations formed from groundwater below the land surface and their occurrence in manganese oxide crusts that precipitate from the creek water, also are predicted by these results. ?? 1994.

  17. The artifcial catchment Chicken Creek as a tool to study initial ecosystem development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaf, W.; Elmer, M.; Fischer, A.; Gerwin, W.; Nenov, R.

    2011-12-01

    The artificial catchment Chicken Creek was constructed in 2005 to study the increasingly complex interactions of processes and structures during initial development of ecosystems. The 6ha area serves as the central research site for the Transregional Collaborative Research Center 38. Both internal and external factors could be identified as driving forces for the formation of structures and patterns in the artificial catchment during the first five years of development. Initial structures formed by the construction process (e.g. catchment morphology, subsurface structures like clay dams and dumping cones, caterpillar tracks at the surface) and initial substrate characteristics (e.g. texture, geochemistry) were decisive both for the distribution and flow of precipitation water and for vegetation succession. External factors like episodic events (e.g. heavy thunderstorms) triggered erosion and dissection during this initial phase, promoted by the low vegetation cover and the unconsolidated sandy substrate. These processes resulted in transport and redistribution of water and sediment within the catchment, mainly along the main slope, and the formation of new structural elements like gullies and channels, a sedimentation fan above and sediments within the pond. As a result, we observed an overall differentiation of the site, e.g. with respect to water availability and texture redistribution, into areas with abrasion or accumulation processes dominating and areas with stable surfaces. During further development, both external factors and processes within the catchment continued to influence the site. For example, beside the initial soil seed bank, the surrounding environment of the catchment clearly affected species invasion. The dissection and stability of surfaces may be an important factor for the establishment of plants and habitats as well as for the formation of vegetation patterns and biological soil crusts. The transformation of the initial geo-system into areas with evolving terrestrial or aquatic characteristics and from a very episodic to a more permanent stream network and discharge, together with the observed vegetation dynamics increased site diversity and heterogeneity with respect to water and nutrient availability and transformation processes compared to the more homogenous conditions at point zero. We expect that these more permanent structures and patterns established after five years will greatly influence the future development of the catchment with respect to e.g. input and accumulation of soil organic matter, nitrogen input and availability by symbiotic microbial N-fixation, development of root systems and soil food webs, weathering and soil formation, element cycling, and the water and element budget at the catchment scale.

  18. Diatoms as a tracer of hydrological connectivity: the Oak Creek case study (Oregon, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonelli, Marta; Martínez-Carreras, Nuria; Frentress, Jay; Pfister, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    The vast heterogeneity and complexity of rainfall-runoff transformation processes expresses itself in a multitude of water sources and flowpaths - ultimately resulting in the well-known intricacy of hydrological connectivity. Pioneering work of Pfister et al. (2009) conducted in the Weierbach catchment (0.45 km2, NW Luxembourg, semi-oceanic climate) demonstrated the potential for diatoms (unicellular, eukaryotic algae) to be used as a tracer of hydrological connectivity. Diatoms originating from terrestrial habitats had been shown to be systematically flushed from the riparian areas into the stream during storm events. Here, we present a study conducted in the Oak Creek(0.17 km2, Oregon, Mediterranean climate), characterised by a large riparian area. Our first working hypothesis (H1) stipulates that diatoms are an ubiquitous tracer of fast hydrological flowpaths. The second hypothesis (H2) states that the riparian area is the major reservoir of terrestrial diatoms that contributes to the flushing process during rainfall events. A winter rainfall-runoff event was monitored in March 2012. Diatom samples were collected from soil, moss, epipelon and streamwater in order to characterise the communities along the hillslope-riparian-stream (HRS) continuum. Diatoms in each sample were also assigned to different wetness categories (according to Van Dam et al., 1994). The catchment was instrumented with an ISCO automatic streamwater sampler and the samples were analysed for conductivity, 18O, 2H, chemical elements and presence/abundance of diatoms belonging to different wetness categories. Our results show that the percentage of diatom species originating from habitats located outside of the stream evolves along the rising and falling limbs of the hydrograph. This observation confirms the event-related flushing of diatoms from terrestrial habitats to the stream and, consequently, the potential for diatoms to be used for the detection of hydrological connectivity in the hillslope-riparian-stream continuum (H1). Moreover, almost no strictly terrestrial diatoms were found in the stream during the event, indicating the majority of the diatoms (identified as aerophytic) being exported from the riparian area (H2).

  19. Investigation of the rank dependence of tar evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this study are to develop an improved understanding of the process of coal tar evolution, its relationship to the structural characteristics of the parent coal, and the dependence of the chemical and physical properties of the tar products on the conditions of devolatilization. Data from this study are expected to allow hypothesis testing and refinements of coal devolatilization models relevant to the pulverized coal combustion process. A range of coal ranks, from a Texas lignite to a Pennsylvania anthracite, are employed in the investigation. In addition, a high temperature polymer, a polyimide, is utilized as an additional reference case. The polyimide serves as a truly polymeric reference material for examining the nitrogen evolution behavior of coal. The samples are subjected to elemental composition determination, infrared absorbance characterization, calorific value measurement, high temperature ash analysis, and maceral composition. Potential tar yields are determined by long hold time heated grid investigations of each coal at a final temperature and heating rate observed to maximize tar yields for the reference coal. Relative tar evolution kinetic behavior is determined by zero hold time heated grid investigations of each coal. 4 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Restoring Fossil Creek

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carri J. LeRoy

    2004-07-01

    As part of an ongoing environmental project and partnership with a local university, high school students monitor changes to Fossil Creek in Arizona. Components of the project include fish behavior studies, responses to fishing, water chemistry measurements, aquatic invertebrate studies, photographic recording, riparian habitat transects, and small mammal trapping transects. The data collected will ultimately provide an invaluable annual record for students, working scientists, and the wider community as changes are monitored over time.

  1. Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Penney, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  2. Hydraulic testing plan for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatability technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. The ultimate goal of this effort is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium, technetium, nitrate, and several metals from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. This project directly supports the BCV Feasibility Study. Part of the Treatability Study, Phase II Hydraulic Performance Testing, will produce hydraulic and treatment performance data required to design a long-term treatment system. This effort consists of the installation and testing of two groundwater collection systems: a trench in the vicinity of GW-835 and an angled pumping well adjacent to NT-1. Pumping tests and evaluations of gradients under ambient conditions will provide data for full-scale design of treatment systems. In addition to hydraulic performance, in situ treatment chemistry data will be obtained from monitoring wells installed in the reactive media section of the trench. The in situ treatment work is not part of this test plan. This Hydraulic Testing Plan describes the location and installation of the trench and NT-1 wells, the locations and purpose of the monitoring wells, and the procedures for the pumping tests of the trench and NT-1 wells.

  3. Phase 1 report on the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    Bear Creek Valley (BCV) is located within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation and encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes associated with past operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The BCV Remedial Investigation determined that disposal of wastes at the S-3 Site, Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG) has caused contamination of both deep and shallow groundwater. The primary contaminants include uranium, nitrate, and VOCs, although other metals such as aluminum, magnesium, and cadmium persist. The BCV feasibility study will describe several remedial options for this area, including both in situ and ex situ treatment of groundwater. This Treatability Study Phase 1 Report describes the results of preliminary screening of treatment technologies that may be applied within BCV. Four activities were undertaken in Phase 1: field characterization, laboratory screening of potential sorbents, laboratory testing of zero valent iron products, and field screening of three biological treatment systems. Each of these activities is described fully in technical memos attached in Appendices A through G.

  4. Transverse Aeolian Ridges (TARs) on Mars II: Distributions, orientations, and ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Daniel C.; Balme, Matthew R.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Zimbelman, James R.

    2011-05-01

    Transverse Aeolian Ridges (TARs), 10 m scale, ripple-like aeolian bedforms with simple morphology, are widespread on Mars but it is unknown what role they play in Mars' wider sediment cycle. We present the results of a survey of all Mars Global Surveyor Narrow angle images in a pole-to-pole study area, 45° longitude wide. Following on from the classification scheme and preliminary surveys of Balme et al. (Balme, M.R., Berman, D.C., Bourke, M.C., Zimbelman, J.R. [2008a]. Geomorphology 101, 703-720) and Wilson and Zimbelman (Wilson, S.A., Zimbelman, J.R. [2004]. J. Geophys. Res. 109 (E10). doi: 10.1029/2004JE002247) we searched more than 10,000 images, and found that over 2000 reveal at least 5% areal cover by TARs. The mean TAR areal cover in the study area is about 7% (3% in the northern hemisphere and 11% in the southern hemisphere) but TARs are not homogenously distributed - they are concentrated in the mid-low latitudes and almost absent poleward of 35°N and 55°S. We found no clear correlation between TAR distribution and any of thermal inertia, kilometer-scale roughness, or elevation. We did find that TARs are less common at extremes of elevation. We found that TARs are most common near the equator (especially in the vicinity of Meridiani Planum, in which area they have a distinctive "barchan-like" morphology) and in large southern-hemisphere impact craters. TARs in the equatorial band are usually associated with outcrops of layered terrain or steep slopes, hence their relative absence in the northern hemisphere. TARs in the southern hemisphere are most commonly associated with low albedo, intercrater dune fields. We speculate that the mid-latitude mantling terrain (e.g., Mustard, J.F., Cooper, C.D., Rifkin, M.K. [2001]. Nature 412, 411-414; Kreslavsky, M.A., Head, J.W. [2002]. J. Geophys. Res. 29 (15). doi: 10.1029/2002GL015392) could also play a role in covering TARs or inhibiting saltation. We compared TAR distribution with general circulation model (GCM) climate data for both surface wind shear stress and wind direction. We performed GCM runs at various obliquity values to simulate the effects of changing obliquity on recent Mars climate. We found good general agreement between TAR orientation and GCM wind directions from present day obliquity conditions in many cases, but found no good correlation between wind shear stress and TAR distribution. We performed preliminary high resolution crater count studies of TARs in both equatorial and southern intracrater dunefield settings and compared these to superposition relationships between TARs and large dark dunes. Our results show that TARs near dunefield appear to be younger than TARs in the equatorial regions. We infer that active saltation from the large dunes keeps TARs active, but that TARs are not active under present day condition when distal to large dunes - perhaps supporting the interpretation that TARs are granule ripples. We conclude that local geology, rather than wind strength, controls TAR distribution, but that their orientation matches present-day regional wind patterns in most cases. We suggest that TARs are likely most (perhaps only) active today when they are proximal to large dark dune fields.

  5. Effect of wastewater treatment processes on the pyrolysis properties of the pyrolysis tars from sewage sludges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xia; Xie, Li-Ping; Li, Xin-Yu; Dai, Xiao-Hong; Fei, Xue-Ning; Jiang, Yuan-Guang

    2011-06-01

    The pyrolysis properties of five different pyrolysis tars, which the tars from 1# to 5# are obtained by pyrolyzing the sewage sludges of anaerobic digestion and indigestion from the A2/O wastewater treatment process, those from the activated sludge process and the indigested sludge from the continuous SBR process respectively, were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis at a heating rate of 10 °C/min in the nitrogen atmosphere. The results show that the pyrolysis processes of the pyrolysis tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5# all can be divided into four stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, heavy polar organic compounds decomposition, heavy organic compounds decomposition and the residual organic compounds decomposition. However, the process of 4# pyrolysis tar is only divided into three stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, decomposition of heavy polar organic compounds and the residual heavy organic compounds respectively. Both the sludge anaerobic digestion and the "anaerobic" process in wastewater treatment processes make the content of light organic compounds in tars decrease, but make that of heavy organic compounds with complex structure increase. Besides, both make the pyrolysis properties of the tars become worse. The pyrolysis reaction mechanisms of the five pyrolysis tars have been studied with Coats-Redfern equation. It shows that there are the same mechanism functions in the first stage for the five tars and in the second and third stage for the tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5#, which is different with the function in the second stage for 4# tar. The five tars are easy to volatile.

  6. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1: Main text

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  7. Graduate nuclear-engineering studies at Wolf Creek Nuclear Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    Donnert, H.J. (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan (United States))

    1991-11-01

    A cooperative venture was originally established between Kansas Gas and Electric Company and Kansas State University (KSU) in 1981. At that time, while Wolf Creek nuclear generating station was still under construction, a group of employees was hired to become the operating crew for plant startup and eventual commercial operation. The purpose of the original arrangement was to comply with the educational requirements in NUREG-737 imposed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in the wake of the incident at Three Mile Island. This was accomplished through the on-site offering by KSU and Emporia State University faculty of a series of courses that were part of a newly established undergraduate curriculum in nuclear reactor technology. When the need arose in 1987 to provide graduate education opportunities for the engineering staff of the Kansas Gas and Electric Company and the Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, the success of the undergraduate program provided the impetus to initiate an off-campus offering of graduate courses by the nuclear engineering department of KSU. Participating students will earn graduate credit applicable toward degree requirements for a master of science in nuclear engineering. The method adopted by the Department of Nuclear Engineering of KSU represents a viable means to provide off-campus graduate-level instruction responsive to the need of students at the particular remote locations being served.

  8. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, 1 March-31 May 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1980-12-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with the introduced T. bartschi in Oyster Creek, at the mouth of Forked River and on the coast of the bay between the two creeks. Heavy mortality occurred in all species during winter and spring when the generating station was not operating. Temperature and salinity tolerance tests begun during April and May, 1980, were not completed by the end of May because the adult shipworms proved to be very resistant to drastic changes in these physical parameters.

  9. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, March-May 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.

    1982-11-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. The adult population of Teredo bartschi survived the winter and spring of 1981-1982 better than it did previous cold periods without a thermal effluent. Lack of an effluent was due to a prolonged outage of the generating station. There was no spring outbreak of shipworms. The introduced species appears established at one station near but outside of Oyster Creek. Three teredinid species coexist in Oyster Creek. Larvae of T. bartschi and T. navalis have similar responses to reduced salinity. Bankia gouldi is the fastest-growing of the teredinids found in New Jersey, and as the lowest annual mortality.

  10. Hydrological characterization of Birch Creek Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Koslow, K.N.

    1984-12-01

    A hydrological characterization of the Birch Creek Basin has been conducted to analyze the flood potential from Birch Creek on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Birch Creek originated from springs below Gilmore Summit, between the Lemhi and Beaverhead Mountain Ranges, and flows in a southeasterly direction onto the Snake River Plain. The channel leads to a depression on the INEL site knows as the Birch Creek Playa. Birch Creek flows reach the playa only in years of high spring runoff. Test Area North (TAN) is located in this depressional area. This study provides a detailed description of the Birch Creek Basin including a flood-frequency analysis, PMF computation and local basin snowmelt analysis to determine the possible flood potential near TAN. 8 references, 6 figures, 6 tables.

  11. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Quarterly report, 1 September-30 November 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1981-04-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being analyzed. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with the introduced T. bartschi in Oyster Creek and at the mouth of Forked River.

  12. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Quarterly progress report 1 Dec 80-28 Feb 81

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1981-08-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being analyzed. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with the introduced T. bartschi in Oyster Creek and at the mouth of Forked River. An increase in mortality occurred in January. By February, Teredo bartschi was found only at Bayside.

  13. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report 1 Jun-31 Aug 80

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1981-02-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being analyzed. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with the introduced T. bartschi in Oyster Creek. Teredo bartschi can withstand higher temperatures than the native species, but all species suffer osmotic stress at 6 parts per thousand by weight.

  14. Solvent extraction process for tar sands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. W. Funk; W. G. May; J. C. Pirkle

    1982-01-01

    A solvent extraction process for tar sands is disclosed wherein a low boiling solvent having a normal boiling point of from 20* to 70* C. Is used to extract tar sands. The solvent is mixed with tar sands in a dissolution zone, the solvent:bitumen weight ratio being maintained at from about 0.5:1 to 2:1. This mixture is passed to a

  15. Investigation of the rank dependence of tar evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    Heated grid experiments have been conducted to test the crosslinking hypothesis which has been advanced by some investigators to explain the observed differences in tar yields with coal type. Three coals were studied: two HVA bituminous coals and a subbituminous coal. Results indicate, for the HVA coals, that crosslinking is unimportant relative to predicting total volatiles yield under rapid heating conditions. Results for the subbituminous coal are inconclusive. Devolatilization models which use functional group or aromatic bridge site concentrations in the parent coal as source terms for crosslinking sites are not justified. Models which incorporate the influence of differences in parent coal structure on tar precursor chemical and physical properties are more likely to be successful in predicting tar evolution behavior over a range of coal ranks. The molecular weight distributions (MWDs) of tars evolved from a range of coal ranks in the heated grid have been determined using an improved size exclusion chromatography (SEC) technique. Previous investigations have shown that tar yields, chemical and physical characteristics, and particle morphology are observed to vary significantly with ambient pressure, indicating interphase mass transfer has a significant effect on the tar evolution process with respect to product composition. The objective of one task was to quantify the effect of mass transfer resistance alone, as a function of extent of reaction and coal type. Towards this end, a heated grid experiment was devised which delivered equivalent heating fluxes in both vacuum and ambient pressure conditions. Three HVA bituminous coals were investigated (PSOC 1499d, 1451D and 1493D). ZHT heated grid runs were conducted in vacuum and 1 atm. argon to three final temperatures: 550, 650 and 750 C. 10 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Field and Laboratory Data From an Earthquake History Study of Scarps of the Lake Creek-Boundary Creek Fault Between the Elwha River and Siebert Creek, Clallam County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Alan R.; Personius, Stephen F.; Buck, Jason; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Wells, Ray E.; Schermer, Elizabeth R.

    2007-01-01

    Fault scarps recently discovered on Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM; also known as LiDAR) imagery show Holocene movement on the Lake Creek-Boundary Creek fault on the north flank of the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington State. Such recent movement suggests the fault is a potential source of large earthquakes. As part of the effort to assess seismic hazard in the Puget Sound region, we map scarps on ALSM imagery and show primary field and laboratory data from backhoe trenches across scarps that are being used to develop a latest Pleistocene and Holocene history of large earthquakes on the fault. Although some scarp segments 0.5-2 km long along the fault are remarkably straight and distinct on shaded ASLM imagery, most scarps displace the ground surface <1 m, and, therefore, are difficult to locate in dense brush and forest. We are confident of a surface-faulting or folding origin and a latest Pleistocene to Holocene age only for scarps between Lake Aldwell and the easternmost fork of Siebert Creek, a distance of 22 km. Stratigraphy in five trenches at four sites help determine the history of surface-deforming earthquakes since glacier recession and alluvial deposition 11-17 ka. Although the trend and plunge of indicators of fault slip were measured only in the weathered basalt exposed in one trench, upward-splaying fault patterns and inconsistent displacement of successive beds along faults in three of the five trenches suggest significant lateral as well as vertical slip during the surface-faulting or folding earthquakes that produced the scarps. Radiocarbon ages on fragments of wood charcoal from two wedges of scarp-derived colluvium in a graben-fault trench suggest two surface-faulting earthquakes between 2,000 and 700 years ago. The three youngest of nine radiocarbon ages on charcoal fragments from probable scarp-derived colluvum in a fold-scarp trench 1.2 km to the west suggest a possible earlier surface-faulting earthquake less than 5,000 years ago.

  17. Relationship Between the Composition and Interfacial Tension of Former Manufactured Gas Plant Tars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauswirth, S.; Birak, P. S.; Miller, C. T.

    2011-12-01

    Former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars pose significant environmental hazards and present a challenge to regulators and industry professionals. The tars, which were produced as a byproduct of the gas manufacturing process, were frequently released into the environment through improper disposal or leaks in plant infrastructure. The interfacial tension (IFT) is a primary factor controlling the mobility of tars in porous media, and is therefore important to understand for both predicting the migration of tars and designing remediation strategies. In this study, we characterized nine field-collected FMGP tars and a commercially available coal tar by means of chemical extractions (asphaltenes, resins, acids, and bases), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Additionally, the IFT and contact angle of each tar was determined for a pH range of 3-11. The IFT was found to be similar for all tars at pH 5 and 7 regardless of composition. Slight decreases in IFT at lower pH were correlated with higher concentrations of extractable bases, which consisted primarily of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic aromatic compounds. Much greater reductions of IFT were observed at high pH. These reductions were found to be associated with the presence of carbonyl or carboxyl groups in the asphaltenes. It is likely that the larger size of the asphaltene molecules (as compared to the extractable compounds) resulted in species with greater surface activity when ionized.

  18. Creating a Research Experience in an Undergraduate Geophysics Course: Integrated Geophysical Study of the Silver Creek Fault, Santa Clara Valley, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Reed; R. Williams

    2006-01-01

    An undergraduate geophysics course at the San Jose State University was redesigned to focus on providing students with an integrated research experience that included both formative and summative assessments of learning. To this end, the students carried out four geophysical studies (gravity, magnetic, refraction, and reflection) across the inferred location of the Silver Creek fault, which is buried by the

  19. GREEN RIVER AIR QUALITY MODEL DEVELOPMENT: METEOROLOGICAL DATA - AUGUST 1980 FIELD STUDY IN THE PICEANCE CREEK BASIN OIL SHALE RESOURCES AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Special meteorological and air quality studies were conducted during August 1980 in the Piceance Creek Basin oil shale resource area of Northwestern Colorado as part of the EPA-sponsored Green River Ambient Model Assessment program. The objective of the limited field program was ...

  20. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, September-November 1981

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Hoagland; L. Crocket

    1982-01-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the

  1. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Quarterly report, 1 September30 November 1980

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Hoagland; L. Crocket

    1981-01-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being

  2. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report 1 Jun-31 Aug 80

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Hoagland; L. Crocket

    1981-01-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being

  3. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, 1 March31 May 1980

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Hoagland; L. Crocket

    1980-01-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist

  4. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, March-May 1982

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoagland

    1982-01-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. The adult

  5. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves and fouling organisms in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Final report, September 1976December 1982

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoagland

    1983-01-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves were studied using wood test panels at 20 stations in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Physiological tolerances of three teredinid species were investigated in the laboratory and correlated with field values of temperature, salinity, siltation, precipitation, and plant operations. The interaction of

  6. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, December 1981February 1982

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Hoagland; L. Crocket

    1982-01-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the

  7. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report Sep-Nov 81

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Hoagland; L. Crocket

    1982-01-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the

  8. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Interim report 1 Sep 79-28 Feb 80

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Hoagland; L. Crocket; R. D. Turner

    1980-01-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being

  9. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, June-August 1982

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoagland

    1982-01-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. Adult populations

  10. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Quarterly progress report 1 Dec 80-28 Feb 81

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Hoagland; L. Crocket

    1981-01-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being

  11. Hydrologic data from the study of acidic contamination in the Miami Wash-Pinal Creek area, Arizona, water years 1992-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellenbeck, D.J.; Hunter, Yvonne R.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1984, hydrologic data have been collected as part of a U.S. Geological Survey study of the occurrence and movement of acidic contamination in the aquifer and streams of the Pinal Creek drainage basin near Globe, Arizona. Ground-water data from that study are presented for water years 1992 and 1993 and include location, construction information, site plans, water levels, chemical and physical field measurements, and selected chemical analyses of water samples for 10 monitoring well groups. During January 1993, a flood occurred in Pinal Creek that resulted in a record peak discharge of 5,700 cubic feet per second. During this flood, well group 450 was destroyed. Surface-water data are presented for 13 sites and include discharge measurements, chemical and physical field measure- ments, and chemical analyses of water. Data from a solute-transport study that was conducted in November 1992 are presented for shallow ground-water and surface-water sites along Pinal Creek. During this study, variations in metal chemistry with distance along Pinal Creek and depth below the streambed were determined and two filter sizes were used to quantify the partitioning of metals between dissolved and particulate phases. Monthly precipi- tation data and long-term precipitation statistics are presented for two sites.

  12. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1. Main text

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  13. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3. Appendix E

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document contains Appendix E: Toxicity Information and Uncertainty Analysis, description of methods, from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  14. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 4. Appendix F

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This section contains ecotoxicological profiles for the COPECs for the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The ecotoxicological information is presented for only those endpoints for which the chemicals are COPECs. The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  15. Fuel Oil Prepared by Blending Heavy Oil and Coal Tar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guojie Zhang; Xiaojie Guo; Yongfa Zhang; Yaling Sun; Bo Tian; Qidian Liu

    2009-01-01

    The effect of temperature, harmonic ration, surfactant and shearing to fuel oil prepared by blending heavy oil and coal tar were detailedly studied. The results show that the viscosity of the blended oil increases gradually with the increase of harmonic ration from 2:1 to 7:1. It shows that the viscosity decrease rate can be divided into two sections with temperature

  16. St. Vrain Creek

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    St. Vrain Creek below Boulder Creek at Hwy 119 near Longmont, CO; Bob Brandle, Cory Stephens, Matt Nicotra, and Kevin Scofield measure discharge and install temporary streamgage replacing nearby damaged streamgage....

  17. Restoring Fossil Creek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaccus, Kathleen; Vlieg, Julie; Marks, Jane C.; LeRoy, Carri J.

    2004-01-01

    Fossil Creek had been dammed for the past 90 years, and plans were underway to restore the stream. The creek runs through Central Arizona and flows from the high plateaus to the desert, cutting through the same formations that form the Grand Canyon. This article discusses the Fossil Creek monitoring project. In this project, students and teachers…

  18. Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief introduction and…

  19. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, September-November 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1982-06-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the fall of 1981, Teredo bartschi remained in Oyster Creek despite continuous prolonged outages of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. It did not spread to Forked River or Waretown as it had done in other years when the effluent was present. The peak in larval production and settlement of T. bartschi occurred between September and October. Settlement of shipworms occurred on no monthly panels except those in Oyster Creek during the period of this report. Laboratory experiments revealed that T. bartschi becomes inactive at 5/sup 0/C (24/sup 0///sub 00/) and T. navalis shows signs of osmotic stress below 10/sup 0///sub 00/ at 18/sup 0/C. The shipworms in Barnegat Bay do not show a preference for settling at the mudline when the substrate is not limited.

  20. Tomales High School Subshed of Keyes Creek Watershed-- A GIS Study of a Local Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillon, B.; Craig, K.; Cushman, T.; Greene, B.; Orsini, A.; Reynoso, E.; Whitlock, S.; Kinyon, J.

    2005-12-01

    Tomales Environmental Learning Center students, in conjunction with the Pacific Coast Science and Learning Center, developed a map of the Tomales High School Subshed of the Keyes Creek Watershed using both GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and GIT Geographic Information Technology). The map was developed for future water quality analysis projects. To complete the task the students developed GIS knowledge using ESRI's ArcView 3.3 raster data analysis and hydrology modeling tools. With these they created flow accumulation and flow direction maps from USGS 10-meter pixel Digital elevation Model (DEM) files, and then created a watershed area map for the local sub-watershed that included the local high school. The students walked and photographed the perimeter of the watershed collecting data on a handheld GPS (Trimble GeoXT with real-time DGPS correction) and ESRI's ArcPad mapping software. The resolution and accuracy of their hand-collected data was of a higher quality and more current than that derived from the DEM files, and provided the base for their fiinal map.

  1. Mechanisms for groundwater contamination by UCG: preliminary conclusions from the Hoe Creek study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, F.T.; Mead, S.W.; Stuermer, D.H.

    1982-08-03

    We have monitored groundwater quality changes in approximately 60 wells constructed near the 3 underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments carried out at our Hoe Creek site in northeastern Wyoming. A broad range of residual gasification products are introduced into the groundwater system as a result of the UCG process. These groundwater contaminants may be of environmental significance if they find their way, in sufficient concentrations, into surface waters or aquifers from which water is extracted for drinking or agricultural purposes. In seeking to identify effective control technologies or mitigation measures, we have found it important to investigate the mechanisms responsible for the formation and dispersal of the contaminants. For example, an important mechanism for the production of organic contaminants may be pyrolysis reactions along the surfaces of cracks through which hot product gases escape from the cavity during gasification. As gasification continues, these pyrolysis products will be distilled further out in the surrounding coal and deposited on the coal surfaces. Other mechanisms that are believed to be important are post-burn pyrolysis as a result of residual cavity heat and the liberation of minerals from the coal by the action of dissolved CO/sub 2/.

  2. Skin disease after occupational dermal exposure to coal tar: a review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Giannis-Aimant; Xanthopoulou, Eleni; Riza, Elena; Linos, Athena

    2015-08-01

    For about a century, coal tar has been used in industry and has been applied in the therapeutic management of several skin diseases. However, in the last decades the benefits of coal tar exploitation for humans could not outweigh its harmful effects on health. The aim of this study is to present the main adverse effects of coal tar on skin, with the emphasis on occupational exposure. The scientific literature indicates that dermal exposure to coal tar and coal tar pitches can be the cause of phototoxic reactions, irritation and burn, allergic dermatitis, folliculitis, occupational acne, atrophy of the epidermis, and hyperpigmentation. Moreover coal tar has been implicated in tumorigenesis, a relationship shown in numerous studies but not confirmed yet as the mechanism has not been fully clarified. A common finding in most studies is that exposure over a long period is the main risk factor for malignancy development, even in low exposure levels. Additional prospective, well-designed studies need to be performed to confirm the validity of the carcinogenic, mutagenic, and cytotoxic potential of coal tar on skin. PMID:26183242

  3. Steel Creek wildlife: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Giffin, M.A.; Patterson, K.K.

    1988-03-01

    Reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek below L-Lake were assessed in monthly or quarterly sampling programs. Thirty-eight species of reptiles or amphibians were collected during 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment, and in the delta and channel. Juvenile turtles and alligators, and larval amphibians were observed or collected during the study, indicating continued reproduction in Steel Creek. The reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek show no indication of any effect due to the impoundment of the lake or the operation of L-Reactor. Waterfowl and associated birds in Steel Creek below L-Lake were observed, in conjunction with other sampling programs, during winter--spring and fall--winter migrations. Nine species of waterfowl and five species of associated birds were observed in 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment and in the delta and channel.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF MERCURY CONTAMINATION AT THE EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK SITE, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE: A CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historic accidental release of mercury-contaminated material associated with nuclear weapons production at East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) resulted in stream and floodplain contamination. he EFPC is designated as an Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) operable unit under the Comprehensive ...

  5. Water quality and chemistry of an alpine stream: a case study of Sneffels Creek, Yankee Boy Basin, Colorado 

    E-print Network

    Heggie, Tracey Michelle

    2002-01-01

    debris from Atlas Mine, . 4 Looking down from Mount Sncffels at the head of Sneffels Creek. . . . . . . . . . . 29 5 Glacial features: horns, aretes, rock glacier, till, tarns, cols and cirques. . . . . 31 6 Columnar jointing. 7 Mean monthly...

  6. Water quality and chemistry of an alpine stream: a case study of Sneffels Creek, Yankee Boy Basin, Colorado

    E-print Network

    Heggie, Tracey Michelle

    2002-01-01

    conditions, this thesis establishes the baseline conditions for Sneffels Creek in Yankee Boy Basin which is located in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado. Water temperature, total dissolved solids (tds), water pH, conductivity, turbidity, and oxygen...

  7. Impact of Asphaltenes and Resins on the Wetting Characteristics of Tars at Former Manufactured Gas Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauswirth, S. C.; Birak, P. S.; Rylander, S.; Pedit, J. A.; Miller, C. T.

    2008-12-01

    Tars produced as a byproduct of coal and oil gasification at manufactured gas plants (MGPs) during the 19th and early 20th centuries were often released into the environment through poor disposal practices or leaks in holding tanks and piping. These tars are persistent contaminants, leaching polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into groundwater and posing a significant risk to human and ecological health. MGP tars also have several properties that make them notoriously difficult to remediate. They are denser than water, so they can migrate to depths which make direct removal difficult or impossible, and their relatively high viscosities and ability to alter the wetting characteristics of porous media result in inefficient removal by traditional pump-and-treat methods. In this study, we investigate the last of these properties. Previous studies have linked wetting changes to asphaltenes---polar, high molecular weight compounds present in the tars. However, we have conducted qualitative bottle tests for tar samples collected from two former MGPs which indicate that there is no direct correlation between asphaltene concentration and the tendency to alter wetting characteristics of porous media. To better understand the factors controlling wetting behavior, we isolate asphaltenes and resins, another class of polar compounds, from a tar sample and recombine them with the remaining PAH mixture to create a series of tars of varying composition. We assess the relative impact of each of the fractions on wettability through contact angle measurements conducted at three different pHs.

  8. Catalytic Tar Reduction for Assistance in Thermal Conversion of Space Waste for Energy Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraccio, Anne Joan; Devor, Robert William; Hintze, Paul E.; Muscatello, Anthony C.; Nur, Mononita

    2014-01-01

    The Trash to Gas (TtG) project investigates technologies for converting waste generated during spaceflight into various resources. One of these technologies was gasification, which employed a downdraft reactor designed and manufactured at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for the conversion of simulated space trash to carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide would then be converted to methane for propulsion and water for life support systems. A minor byproduct of gasification includes large hydrocarbons, also known as tars. Tars are unwanted byproducts that add contamination to the product stream, clog the reactor and cause complications in analysis instrumentation. The objective of this research was to perform reduction studies of a mock tar using select catalysts and choose the most effective for primary treatment within the KSC downdraft gasification reactor. Because the KSC reactor is operated at temperatures below typical gasification reactors, this study evaluates catalyst performance below recommended catalytic operating temperatures. The tar reduction experimentation was observed by passing a model tar vapor stream over the catalysts at similar conditions to that of the KSC reactor. Reduction in tar was determined using gas chromatography. Tar reduction efficiency and catalyst performances were evaluated at different temperatures.

  9. Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhoi, Prakashbhai Ramabhai

    The overall aims of this research study were to generate novel design data and to develop an equilibrium stage-based thermodynamic model of a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system for the removal of model tar compounds (benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene) found in biomass producer gas. The specific objectives were to design, fabricate and evaluate a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system and to optimize the design and operating variables; i.e., packed bed height, vegetable oil type, solvent temperature, and solvent flow rate. The experimental wet packed bed scrubbing system includes a liquid distributor specifically designed to distribute a high viscous vegetable oil uniformly and a mixing section, which was designed to generate a desired concentration of tar compounds in a simulated air stream. A method and calibration protocol of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was developed to quantify tar compounds. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Statistical analysis showed that both soybean and canola oils are potential solvents, providing comparable removal efficiency of tar compounds. The experimental height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) was determined as 0.11 m for vegetable oil based scrubbing system. Packed bed height and solvent temperature had highly significant effect (p0.05) effect on the removal of model tar compounds. The packing specific constants, Ch and CP,0, for the Billet and Schultes pressure drop correlation were determined as 2.52 and 2.93, respectively. The equilibrium stage based thermodynamic model predicted the removal efficiency of model tar compounds in the range of 1-6%, 1-4% and 1-2% of experimental data for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, respectively, for the solvent temperature of 30° C. The NRTL-PR property model and UNIFAC for estimating binary interaction parameters are recommended for modeling absorption of tar compounds in vegetable oils. Bench scale experimental data from the wet scrubbing system would be useful in the design and operation of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system. The process model, validated using experimental data, would be a key design tool for the design and optimization of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system.

  10. Understanding the stability of pyrolysis tars from biomass in a view point of free radicals.

    PubMed

    He, Wenjing; Liu, Qingya; Shi, Lei; Liu, Zhenyu; Ci, Donghui; Lievens, Caroline; Guo, Xiaofen; Liu, Muxin

    2014-03-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass has attracted increasing attention worldwide to produce bio-tars that can be upgraded into liquid fuels and chemicals. However, the bio-tars are usually poor in quality and stability and are difficult to be upgraded. To better understand the nature of the bio-tars, this work reveals radical concentration of tars derived from pyrolysis of two kinds of biomass. The tars were obtained by condensing the pyrolysis volatiles in 3s. It shows that the tars contain large amounts of radicals, at a level of 10(16)spins/g, and are able to generate more radicals at temperatures of 573K or higher, reaching a level of 10(19)spins/g at 673K in less than 30min. The radical generation in the tar samples is attributed to the formation of THF insoluble matters (coke), which also contain radicals. The radical concentrations of the aqueous liquids obtained in pyrolysis are also studied. PMID:24507874

  11. Application of organic geochemistry to coastal tar residues from Central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Hostettler, F.D.; Lorenson, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    Tar residues are common on the coastline of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. These coastal tar residues have been washed ashore and usually occur on headlands near the high-tide line. In this study, 18 coastal tar residues were collected and analyzed to determine their carbon isotopic compositions and the values of selected biomarker ratios. All of the residues have very heavy (13C-enriched) carbon isotopic compositions spanning a narrow range (??13C = -22.2 to -23.4???), and 28,30-bisnorhopane is present in all samples. These same geochemical characteristics are found in Monterey Formation oils from which the coastal tar residues were likely derived. These coastal residues could result from natural seeps or from accidental spills. Statistically the coastal tar residues can be organized into three groups, each of which may represent different spill or seep events. Seven samples of potential local representative sources for the tar residues were examined, but none could account for the coastal tars.

  12. Application of organic geochemistry to coastal tar residues from central California

    SciTech Connect

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Hostettler, F.D.; Lorenson, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    Tar residues are common on the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. These coastal tar residues have been washed ashore and usually occur on headlands near the high-tide line. In this study, 18 coastal tar residues were collected and analyzed to determine their carbon isotopic compositions and values of selected biomarker ratios. All of the residues have very heavy ({sup 13}C-enriched) carbon isotopic compositions spanning a narrow range ({delta}{sup 13}C = {minus}22.2 to {minus}23.4{per{underscore}thousand}), and 28,30-bisnorhopane is present in all samples. These same geochemical characteristics are found in Monterey Formation oils from which the coastal tar residues were likely derived. These coastal residues could result from natural seeps or from accidental spills. Statistically the coastal tar residues can be organized into three groups, each of which may represent different spill or seep events. Seven samples of potential local representative sources for the tar residues were examined, but none could account for the coastal tars.

  13. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report, July 1990--July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1992-04-01

    Contents of this report include the following: executive summary; characterization of the native bitumen from the Whiterocks oil sand deposit; influence of carboxylic acid content on bitumen viscosity; water based oil sand separation technology; extraction of bitumen from western oil sands by an energy-efficient thermal method; large- diameter fluidized bed reactor studies; rotary kiln pyrolysis of oil sand; catalytic upgrading of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; ebullieted bed hydrotreating and hydrocracking; super critical fluid extraction; bitumen upgrading; 232 references; Appendix A--Whiterocks tar sand deposit bibliography; Appendix B--Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit bibliography; and Appendix C--University of Utah tar sands bibliography.

  14. Blackening Character, Imagining Race, and Mapping Morality: Tarring and Feathering in Nineteenth Century American Literature 

    E-print Network

    Trninic, Marina

    2013-08-05

    This study examines the ritual of tarring and feathering within specific American cultural contexts and literary works of the nineteenth-century to show how the discourse surrounding the actual and figurative practice functioned as part of a larger...

  15. 5. Laurel Creek Road, revetment wall and creek. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Laurel Creek Road, revetment wall and creek. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  16. Coyote Creek Geologic Map

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Timothy R. Walsh

    Students are required to make field observations, collect data and then create a detailed geologic map and report for a small area (approximately 1 sq. mile) on the edge of the Tularosa Basin in south central New Mexico. The study area is located within the Tularosa NE quadrangle, but maps from the Cat Mountain quadrangle to the East are also useful. Gently dipping carbonate and siliciclastic beds, igneous intrusions, bioherms and a normal fault are present in the study area along Coyote Creek, a few miles north of Tularosa, NM. The creek generally runs parallel to dip, allowing relatively easy access to inclined strata. Bioherm(s) are present in the lower section. Several dikes are present running both parallel and perpendicular to sedimentary bed strike. One is very non-resistant to weathering, creating unusual troughs as it passes through the carbonate bioherms. A sill is present in the upper section and a N/S trending normal fault roughly parallels strike of sedimentary beds.

  17. Hydrologic Data from the Study of Acidic Contamination in the Miami Wash-Pinal Creek Area, Arizona, Water Years 1997-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konieczki, A.D.; Brown, J.G.; Parker, J.T.C.

    2008-01-01

    Since 1984, hydrologic data have been collected as part of a U.S. Geological Survey study of the occurrence and movement of acidic contamination in the aquifer and streams of the Pinal Creek drainage basin near Globe, Arizona. Ground-water data from that study are presented for water years 1997 through 2004 and include location, construction information, site plans, water levels, chemical and physical field measurements, and selected chemical analyses of water samples for 31 project wells. Hydrographs of depth to ground water are also included. Surface-water data for four sites are also presented and include selected chemical analyses of water samples. Monthly precipitation data and long-term precipitation statistics are presented for two sites. Chemical analyses of samples collected from the stream and shallow ground water in the perennial reach of Pinal Creek are also included.

  18. A long-term monitoring study of chlorophyll, microbial contaminants, and pesticides in a coastal residential stormwater pond and its adjacent tidal creek

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie E. DeLorenzo; Brian Thompson; Emily Cooper; Janet Moore; Michael H. Fulton

    Stormwater ponds are commonly used in residential and commercial areas to control flooding. The accumulation of urban contaminants\\u000a in stormwater ponds can lead to water-quality problems including nutrient enrichment, chemical contamination, and bacterial\\u000a contamination. This study presents 5 years of monitoring data assessing water quality of a residential subdivision pond and\\u000a adjacent tidal creek in coastal South Carolina, USA. The stormwater

  19. Comparison of coal tars generated by pyrolysis of Hanna coal and UCG (underground coal gasification) Hanna IVB coal tars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Barbour; R. E. Cummings

    1986-01-01

    The compositions of coal tars produced by laboratory and pilot scale apparatus have been compared to those produced during underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments at Hanna, Wyoming. Four coal tars were generated by pyrolysis using the block reactor and the laboratory reference retort, and a fifth coal tar was composited from products produced by UCG. Coal tars were separated into

  20. Overcoming Murphy`s Law to gain ERP - a case study at Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, E.M. [Hecla Mining Co., Stanley, ID (United States); Horbaczewski, J.K. [Morrison Knudsen Corp., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    As of January 1997, there are 2,586 acres of reclaimed land in the Extended Responsibility Period (ERP) at Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine, Texas. This achievement has taken approximately five years to accomplish - from 1991 to 1996. During this period, there were a number of issues, some of which appeared to follow Murphy`s Law (whatever can go wrong, will go wrong!). For example, the ERP candidate areas were split among three permit areas, which first had to be consolidated to facilitate the ERP process. Minesoil issues, identified as ERP prerequisites, became entangled in an overall renewal/revision of the newly-consolidated Permit 26B. Special-purpose vegetation studies were performed to investigate the effects of different minesoil textures. In the meantime, small depressional areas, wetland/wildlife enhancement areas, reclamation ponds and restored drainages became the subjects of attention from landowners and regulatory agencies. Some of these structures and features were subsequently reclaimed; others were approved via the permitting process. In some cases, the only way out of the impasse was through land acquisition. Finally, after all these issues had been resolved, an unforeseen oil-well drilling program crisscrossed the proposed ERP areas with a network of oil well pads and service roads, requiring a post-mining land use change. Eventually, whatever could go wrong, went right, and entry of lands into ERP was accomplished.

  1. Final geotechnical study, DARA Solid Storage Facility, Y-12 Bear Creek Burial Grounds, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The DARA Solid Storage Facility is located north of Gate 4 in the Y-12 Bear Creek Burial Grounds. It was constructed to temporarily store contaminated soil excavated during closure of the Oil Retention Ponds project. The ground surface around the perimeter of the building ranges from about 942 feet Mean Sea Level (MSL) to 936 feet MSL Surface drainage is away from the building, with most of the surface runoff flowing into the drainage ditch east of the building. In order for the DARA Solid Storage Facility (SSF) to be a RCRA permitted hazardous waste storage facility, you have informed us that the height of the water in the sediment cannot exceed one foot. The purposes of this study are to: Obtain subsurface data from the soil stored within the DARA Solid Storage Facility; classify the soil samples and conduct pertinent on-site laboratory tests to characterize the physical parameters of the soil; review groundwater information from nearby monitoring wells; review provided piezometer data, and integrate this with Ogden obtained data and analyze both; review other pertinent documents and drawings; comment as to why we believe that there is a reduced flow of water over time from the soil into the sumps; as appropriate, develop recommendations regarding possible methods that can be used to remove additional water from the soil; and provide other comments we believe are pertinent to a geotechnical analysis of the SSF soil-water relationship.

  2. Geology and coal resources of the Hanging Woman Creek Study Area, Big Horn and Powder River Counties, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Culbertson, William Craven; Hatch, Joseph R.; Affolter, Ronald H.

    1978-01-01

    In an area of 7,200 acres (29 sq km) In the Hanging Woman Creek study area, the Anderson coal bed contains potentially surface minable resources of 378 million short tons (343 million metric tons) of subbituminous C coal that ranges in thickness from 26 to 33 feet (7.9-10.1 m) at depths of less than 200 feet (60 m). Additional potentially surface minable resources of 55 million short tons (50 million metric tons) are contained in the 9-12 foot (2.7-3.7 m) thick Dietz coal bed which lies 50-100 feet (15-30 m) below the Anderson. Analyses of coal from 5 core holes indicates that the Anderson bed contains 0.4 percent sulfur, 5 percent ash, and has a heating value of 8,540 Btu/lb (4,750 Kcal/kg). The trace element content of the coal is generally similar to other coals in the Powder River Basin. The two coal beds are in the Fort Union Formation of Paleocene age which consists of sandstone, siltstone, shale, coal beds, and locally impure limestone. A northeast-trending normal fault through the middle of the area, downthrown on the southeast side, has displaced the generally flat lying strata as much as 300 feet (91 m). Most of the minable coal lies northwest of this fault.

  3. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, December 1981-February 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1982-08-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the winter of 1981, the generating station experienced a prolonged outage. The reproductive cycle of the shipworms was not extended. Teredo bartschi was very abundant at one station in Oyster Creek and moderately abundant at a second, but did not exist elsewhere in Barnegat Bay. Some specimens of Teredo bartschi contained larvae in the gills in February. According to laboratory experiments, Teredo navalis is able to remain active at temperatures as low as 4/sup 0/C, whereas T. bartschi ceases activity (withdraws its siphons) at about 13/sup 0/C. 12 tables.

  4. Extraction and Analysis of Asphalt Pavement Core Samples: Detection of Coal Tar-Derived Species using Chemical and Biological Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony J. Kriech; Joseph T. Kurek; Linda V. Osborn; Gary R. Blackburn

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiological studies [1,2] have reported elevated cancer incidences and mortality in the Danish mastic asphalt industry, and have associated these elevations with exposure to asphalt fumes. The strength of the causal association depends heavily on the claim that coal tar was not used in the industry after World War II; otherwise, exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles would have seriously

  5. Laboratory evaluation of forward combustion in Sunnyside tar sand

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.A. Jr.; Romanowski, L.J. Jr.

    1987-09-01

    Three one-dimensional simulations of the in situ forward-combustion process using Sunnyside (Utah) tar sand were conducted to evaluate its effectiveness for recovering oil from the deposit. The injectant for these tests was either steam-oxygen, air-oxygen, or air. All three simulations experienced plugging of the reactor tube during the tests. Only the air test went to completion and produced 46 wt % of the bitumen as highly upgraded oil. The plugging problem in the tests is believed to result from the collection of a highly oxidized material in a cooler portion of the tube forming a semi-solid barrier. It is recommended that extensive thermal characterization studies be conducted on Sunnyside tar sand before further in situ studies are conducted. The work described here substantiates the need for extensive laboratory evaluation of a recovery process before field application. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Flood discharges and hydraulics near the mouths of Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, studied the frequency and magnitude of flooding near the mouths of five tributaries to the New River in the New River Gorge National River. The 100-year peak discharge at each tributary was determined from regional frequency equations. The 100-year discharge at Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek was 3,400 cubic feet per second, 640 cubic feet per second, 8,200 cubic feet per second, 7,100 cubic feet per second, and 9,400 cubic feet per second, respectively. Flood elevations for each tributary were determined by application of a steady-state, one-dimensional flow model. Manning's roughness coefficients for the stream channels ranged from 0.040 to 0.100. Bridges that would be unable to contain the 100-year flood within the bridge opening included: the State Highway 82 bridge on Wolf Creek, the second Fayette County Highway 25 bridge upstream from the confluence with New River on Dunloup Creek, and an abandoned log bridge on Mill Creek.

  7. Major-ion, nutrient, and trace-element concentrations in the Steamboat Creek basin, Oregon, 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, Frank A.

    1998-01-01

    In September 1996, a water-quality study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in coordination with the U.S. Forest Service, in headwater streams of Steamboat Creek, a tributary to the North Umpqua River Basin in southwestern Oregon. Field measurements were made in and surface-water and bottomsediment samples were collected from three tributaries of Steamboat Creek?Singe Creek, City Creek, and Horse Heaven Creek?and at one site in Steamboat Creek upstream from where the three tributaries flow into Steamboat Creek. Water samples collected in Singe Creek had larger concentrations of most major-ion constituents and smaller concentrations of most nutrient constituents than was observed in the other three creeks. City Creek, Horse Heaven Creek, and Steamboat Creek had primarily calcium bicarbonate water, whereas Singe Creek had primarily a calcium sulfate water; the calcium sulfate water detected in Singe Creek, along with the smallest observed alkalinity and pH values, suggests that Singe Creek may be receiving naturally occurring acidic water. Of the 18 trace elements analyzed in filtered water samples, only 6 were detected?aluminum, barium, cobalt, iron, manganese, and zinc. All six of the trace elements were detected in Singe Creek, at concentrations generally larger than those observed in the other three creeks. Of the detected trace elements, only iron and zinc have chronic toxicity criteria established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for the protection of aquatic life; none exceeded the USEPA criterion. Bottom-sediment concentrations of antimony, arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, zinc, and organic carbon were largest in City Creek. In City Creek and Horse Heaven Creek, concentrations for 11 constituents?antimony, arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese (Horse Heaven Creek only), mercury, selenium, silver, zinc, and organic carbon (City Creek only)?exceeded concentrations considered to be enriched in streams of the nearbyWillamette River Basin, whereas in Steamboat Creek only two trace elements ?antimony and nickel?exceeded Willamette River enriched concentrations. Bottom-sediment concentrations for six of these constituents in City Creek and Horse Heaven Creek?arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc?also exceeded interim Canadian threshold effect level (TEL) concentrations established for the protection of aquatic life, whereas only four constituents between Singe Creek and Steamboat Creek?arsenic, chromium, copper (Singe Creek only), and nickel?exceeded the TEL concentrations.

  8. Mercury contamination in East Fork Poplar Creek and Bear Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Van Winkle, W.; Counts, R.W.; Dorsey, J.G.; Elwood, J.W.; Lowe, V.W. Jr.; McElhaney, R.; Schlotzhauer, S.D.; Taylor, F.G. Jr.; Turner, R.R.

    1984-02-01

    A one-month study was performed to determine the concentration of mercury in sediment, fish, moss, and pasture grass in the East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) and Bear Creek drainages and to determine whether mercury is still being released from the Y-12 Plant. Total mercury concentration in a sediment core from New Hope Pond was 100 ..mu..g/g dry wt at the surface and up to 300 ..mu..g/g dry wt in subsurface sediments, relative to background concentrations of less than 0.3 ..mu..g/g dry wt. There has been an apparent decrease since 1973 in mercury concentration of sediment entering New Hope Pond. Total mercury concentration in muscle tissue of bluegill from EFPC was positively correlated with body weight, as expected. Total mercury concentration averaged 3.5 and 0.2 ..mu..g/g fresh wt for dead and live foliage in pasture grass, respectively, on the flood plain of EFPC. Results for Bear Creek indicate that this drainage is considerably less contaminated with mercury than East Fork Poplar Creek. The concentration in the sediment was 13 ..mu..g/g dry wt near the settling basins at the west end of the Y-12 Plant area, but decreased to background concentrations before the confluence of Bear Creek with EFPC. Total mercury concentration in fish, except for one rock bass, did not exceed the FDA action level. Recommendations are made (1) to limit the quantity of mercury released from the Y-12 Plant area into EFPC, (2) to consider notifying the responsible state agencies and fishermen concerning mercury concentrations found in fish in EFPC, and (3) to measure mercury concentration in hair from cattle grazing on pasture grasses along EFPC. Recommendations concerning further monitoring are also made. 15 references, 3 figures, 8 tables.

  9. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, June-August 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.

    1982-12-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. Adult populations of Teredo bartschi existed in both Oyster Creek and Forked River in the summer of 1982, but the species was rare. There was no large settlement of this or any other teredinid species in Barnegat Bay. Teredo navalis was the most common species in the monthly panels. The fouling community reached its maximum yearly diversity in June-July. There was a thermal effluent causing a ..delta..T of 3 to 4/sup 0/C during most of the summer, and salinity in Oyster Creek and Forked River was similar to that of Barnegat Bay. The lack of a shipworm outbreak in 1982 may be related to the low ..delta..T in summer, plus the lack of a thermal effluent in the preceding winter-spring period.

  10. Dominant role of the 5' TAR bulge in dimerization of HIV-1 genomic RNA, but no evidence of TAR-TAR kissing during in vivo virus assembly.

    PubMed

    Jalalirad, Mohammad; Saadatmand, Jenan; Laughrea, Michael

    2012-05-01

    The 5' untranslated region of HIV-1 genomic RNA (gRNA) contains two stem-loop structures that appear to be equally important for gRNA dimerization: the 57-nucleotide 5' TAR, at the very 5' end, and the 35-nucleotide SL1 (nucleotides 243-277). SL1 is well-known for containing the dimerization initiation site (DIS) in its apical loop. The DIS is a six-nucleotide palindrome. Here, we investigated the mechanism of TAR-directed gRNA dimerization. We found that the trinucleotide bulge (UCU24) of the 5' TAR has dominant impacts on both formation of HIV-1 RNA dimers and maturation of the formed dimers. The ?UCU trinucleotide deletion strongly inhibited the first process and blocked the other, thus impairing gRNA dimerization as severely as deletion of the entire 5' TAR, and more severely than deletion of the DIS, inactivation of the viral protease, or most severe mutations in the nucleocapsid protein. The apical loop of TAR contains a 10-nucleotide palindrome that has been postulated to stimulate gRNA dimerization by a TAR-TAR kissing mechanism analogous to the one used by SL1 to stimulate dimerization. Using mutations that strongly destabilize formation of the TAR palindrome duplex, as well as compensatory mutations that restore duplex formation to a wild-type-like level, we found no evidence of TAR-TAR kissing, even though mutations nullifying the kissing potential of the TAR palindrome could impair dimerization by a mechanism other than hindering of SL1. However, nullifying the kissing potential of TAR had much less severe effects than ?UCU. By not uncovering a dimerization mechanism intrinsic to TAR, our data suggest that TAR mutations exert their effect 3' of TAR, yet not on SL1, because TAR and SL1 mutations have synergistic effects on gRNA dimerization. PMID:22482513

  11. Evaluation of Two Techniques: mFC AND mTEC for Determining Distributions of Fecal Pollution in Small, North Carolina Tidal Creeks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Cartier Esham; Ronald K. Sizemore

    1998-01-01

    Most tidal creeks in North Carolina are closed or partially closed to shellfishing. These creeks often remain closed due to the inability to determine sources of fecal pollution. This study was designed for intensive fecal coliform monitoring of Futch Creek, N.C., to try and determine sources(s) of fecal pollution. Futch Creek is a mildly polluted tidal creek, with marginal levels

  12. Shell Creek Summers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

    2005-01-01

    In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality provided…

  13. Using Passive Microwave Response to Soil Moisture Change for Soil Mapping: A Case Study for the Livingstone Creek Catchment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Summerell; V. Shoemark; S. Grant; J. P. Walker

    2009-01-01

    The 46-km2 Livingstone Creek Catchment in southeastern Australia was flown with a passive microwave airborne remote sensor four times throughout the three-week National Airborne Field Experiment in 2006, with a spatial resolution of ~200 m. Both continuous and discrete measurements of soil moisture were taken to help with interpretation of results. The catchment was experiencing extreme drought conditions leading up

  14. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1, main text

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit (CR/PC OU), an off-site OU associated with environmental restoration activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). As a result of past, present, and potential future releases of hazardous substances into the environment, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List in December 1989 (54 FR 48184). Sites on this list must be investigated for possible remedial action, as required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9601, et seq.). This report documents the findings of the remedial investigation of this OU and the feasibility of potential remedial action alternatives. These studies are authorized by Sect. 117 of CERCLA and were conducted in accordance with the requirements of the National Contingency Plan (40 CFR Part 300). DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) have entered into a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), as authorized by Sect. 120 of CERCLA and Sects. 3008(h) and 6001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (42 U.S.C. 6901, et seq.). The purpose of this agreement is to ensure a coordinated and effective response for all environmental restoration activities occurring at the ORR. In addition to other responsibilities, the FFA parties mutually define the OU boundaries, set remediation priorities, establish remedial investigation priorities and strategies, and identify and select remedial actions. A copy of this FFA is available from the DOE Information Resource Center in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  15. Compositional and pH effects on the interfacial tension between complex tar mixtures and aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Hauswirth, Scott C; Schultz, Pamela B; Miller, Cass T

    2012-09-18

    Tars at former manufactured gas plants (FMGPs) are a major environmental concern and present a number of challenges to remediators. This experimental study investigates the relationship between composition and tar-water interfacial tension (IFT), a property of primary importance in determining the transport of tar in porous media. Nine field-collected FMGP tars and a commercially available coal tar were characterized by means of fractionation, gas chromatography, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and vapor pressure osmometry. The tar-aqueous IFT of the tars, as well as resins and asphaltenes extracted therefrom, were measured over a range of pH. The IFTs were found to be strongly dependent on pH, with the lowest values obtained at high pH. The reduction of IFT at high pH was found to correlate well with the I(C?O) values from the FTIR analysis, which provide an indication of the relative amount of carbonyl groups present. Reductions of IFT at low pH were also observed and found to correlate well with the extractable base concentration. The aromaticity and asphaltene average molar mass are also correlated with IFT reductions at both low and high pH, suggestive of compositional patterns related to the tar source material. PMID:22901363

  16. Reduced tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure while smoking ultralow- but not low-yield cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Benowitz, N.L.; Jacob, P. III; Yu, L.; Talcott, R.; Hall, S.; Jones, R.T.

    1986-07-11

    An unresolved public health issue is whether some modern cigarettes are less hazardous than other and whether patients who cannot stop smoking should be advised to switch to lower-yield cigarettes. The authors studied tar (estimated by urine mutagenicity), nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure in habitual smokers switched from their usual brand to high- (15 mg of tar), low- (5 mg of tar), or ultralow-yield (1 mg of tar) cigarettes. There were no differences in exposure comparing high- or low-yield cigarettes, but tar and nicotine exposures were reduced by 49% and 56%, respectively, and carbon monoxide exposure by 36% while smoking ultralow-yield cigarettes. Similarly, in 248 subjects smoking their self-selected brand, nicotine intake, estimated by blood concentrations of its metabolite continine, was 40% lower in those who smoked ultralow but no different in those smoking higher yields of cigarettes. The data indicate that ultralow-yield cigarettes do deliver substantial doses of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide, but that exposure are considerably less than for other cigarettes.

  17. Mill Creek Summit Lovejoy Buttes

    E-print Network

    Mill Creek Summit Lovejoy Buttes Piute Butte Alpine Butte near-Black Butte Lovejoy Buttes Mill Creek Summit Piute Butte Alpine Butte near-Black Butte Lovejoy Buttes Mill Creek Summit Piute Butte Llano Figure 6. Sample Seismogram from M3 Hector Mine Aftershock Mill Creek Summit Lovejoy Buttes Piute

  18. Hydrologic data from the study of acidic contamination in the Miami Wash-Pinal Creek area, Arizona, water years 1994-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konieczki, Alice D.; Angeroth, Cory E.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1984, hydrologic data have been collected as part of a U.S. Geological Survey study of the occurrence and movement of acidic contamination in the aquifer and streams of the Pinal Creek drainage basin near Globe, Arizona. Ground-water data from that study are presented for water years 1994, 1995, and 1996 and include location, construction information, site plans, water levels, chemical and physical field measurements, and selected chemical analyses of water samples for nine monitoring well groups. Monthly precipitation data and long-term precipitation statistics are presented for two sites.

  19. The search for a source rock for the giant Tar Sand triangle accumulation, southeastern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntoon, J.E.; Hansley, P.L.; Naeser, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    A large proportion (about 36%) of the world's oil resource is contained in accumulations of heavy oil or tar. In these large deposits of degraded oil, the oil in place represents only a fraction of what was present at the time of accumulation. In many of these deposits, the source of the oil is unknown, and the oil is thought to have migrated over long distances to the reservoirs. The Tar Sand triangle in southeastern Utah contains the largest tar sand accumulation in the United States, with 6.3 billion bbl of heavy oil estimated to be in place. The deposit is thought to have originally contained 13-16 billion bbl prior to the biodegradation, water washing, and erosion that have taken place since the middle - late Tertiary. The source of the oil is unknown. The tar is primarily contained within the Lower Permian White Rim Sandstone, but extends into permeable parts of overlying and underlying beds. Oil is interpreted to have migrated into the White Rim sometime during the Tertiary when the formation was at a depth of approximately 3500 m. This conclusion is based on integration of fluid inclusion analysis, time-temperature reconstruction, and apatite fission-track modeling for the White Rim Sandstone. Homogenization temperatures cluster around 85-90??C for primary fluid inclusions in authigenic, nonferroan dolomite in the White Rim. The fluid inclusions are associated with fluorescent oil-bearing inclusions, indicating that dolomite precipitation was coeval with oil migration. Burial reconstruction suggests that the White Rim Sandstone reached its maximum burial depth from 60 to 24 Ma, and that maximum burial was followed by unroofing from 24 to 0 Ma. Time-temperature modeling indicates that the formation experienced temperatures of 85-90??C from about 35 to 40 Ma during maximum burial. Maximum formation temperatures of about 105-110??C were reached at about 24 Ma, just prior to unroofing. Thermal modeling is used to examine the history of potential source rocks for the White Rim oil. The most attractive potential sources for White Rim oil include beds within one or more of the following formations: the Proterozoic Chuar Group, which is present in the subsurface southwest of the Tar Sand triangle; the Mississippian Delle Phosphatic Member of the Deseret Limestone and equivalent formations, the Permian Kaibab Limestone, the Sinbad Limestone Member of the Triassic Moenkopi Formation, and the Jurassic Arapien Shale, Twin Creek Limestone, and Carmel Formation, which are present west of the Tar Sand triangle; the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation in the Paradox basin east of the Tar Sand triangle; and the Permian Park City Formation northwest of the Tar Sand triangle. Each formation has a high total organic carbon content and is distributed over a wide enough geographic area to have provided a huge volume of oil. Source beds in all of the formations reached thermal maturity at times prior to or during the time that migration into the White Rim is interpreted to have occurred. Based on all available data, the most likely source for the Tar Sand triangle appears to be the Mississippian Delle Phosphatic Member of the Deseret Limestone. Secondary migration out of the Delle is interpreted to have occurred during the Cretaceous, during Sevier thrusting. Subsequent tertiary migration into the Tar Sand triangle reservoir is interpreted to have occurred later, during middle Tertiary Laramide deformation.

  20. Clear creek/central city mine waste exposure study. Part 1. Smuggler Mountain Site. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Terracciano, G.J.

    1992-09-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and the Colorado Department of Health conducted a study to assess the extent of lead exposure. The primary objective of the study was to determine whether the Smuggler Mountain Superfund site residents had elevated blood lead levels. Other objectives were to identify the factors (environmental behavioral, and socioeconomic) which might have contributed to lead exposure in the community and to compare the results with those studies of other mining sites. The mean blood lead level of children from 6 months through 71 months of age was 3.0ug/dL. In children less than 6 years of age, there were no cases of lead poisoning as defined by the 1991 Centers for Disease Control guidelines. Thirty-six percent of the variability in the blood lead levels of children 6 through 71 months of age was explained by self reported behaviors of not washing hands before eating and allowing pets in the house.

  1. Characterization of Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2004-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Peterson, David A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Leemon, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Fish Creek, a tributary to the Snake River, is about 15 river miles long and is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson (fig. 1). Public concern about nuisance growths of aquatic plants in Fish Creek has been increasing since the early 2000s. To address this concern, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District, began studying Fish Creek in 2004 to describe the hydrology of the creek and later (2007?08) to characterize the water quality and the biological communities. The purpose of this fact sheet is to summarize the study results from 2004 to 2008.

  2. Hot Springs Creek

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientist Jennifer Lewicki measures the discharge along a tributary to Hot Springs Creek, Akutan Island, Alaska. Steam (upper left) rises from 3 high-temperature springs that discharge into the tributary....

  3. The Silver Creek Preserve

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Before The Nature Conservancy established the Silver Creek Preserve, the watershed had been degraded by years of livestock grazing and overfishing. Preserve managers have been concerned about sedimentation, increasing stream temperatures, and invasive species. To measure the effectiveness of their ...

  4. Selected hydrologic data for Fountain Creek and Monument Creek basins, east-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhn, Gerhard; Ortiz, Roderick F.

    1989-01-01

    Selected hydrologic data were collected during 1986, 1987, and 1988 by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Fountain Creek and Monument Creek basins, east-central Colorado. The data were obtained as part of a study to determine the present and projected effects of wastewater discharges on the two creeks. The data, which are available for 129 surface-water sites, include: (1) About 1,100 water quality analyses; (2) about 420 measurements of discharge, (3) characteristics of about 50 dye clouds associated with measurements of traveltime and reaeration , and (4) about 360 measurements of channel geometry. (USGS)

  5. Steamflood experiment in a Utah tar sand

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.A. Jr.; Fahy, L.J.; Romanowski, L.J. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The first Laramie Energy Technology Center steamflood experiment in a Utah Tar Sand, LETC TS-1S, was conducted in the Northwest Asphalt Ridge deposit located near Vernal, Utah. Following completion of construction in April 1980, steam injection was initiated in the center well of two concentric inverted five spot patterns. 8 refs.

  6. Spatial and temporal variation in fish assemblage structure at Village Creek 

    E-print Network

    Moriarty, Loren Joan

    1995-01-01

    Study Area The majority of samples came from Village Creek, which is a blackwater tributary of the Neches River drainage in east Texas. When sampling was initiated, Village Creek formed the western boundary of TNCT's Roy E. Larson Sandyland Sanctuary...

  7. Method for filtering solvent and tar sand mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Kelterborn, J. C.; Stone, R. A.

    1985-09-03

    A method for filtering spent tar sands from a bitumen and organic solvent solution comprises separating the solution into two streams wherein the bulk of the coarser spent tar sand is in a first stream and has an average particle size of about 10 to about 100 mesh and the bulk of the finer spent tar sand is in a second stream; producing a filter cake by filtering the coarser spent tar sand from the first stream; and filtering the finer spent tar sand from the second stream with the filter cake. The method is particularly useful for filtering solutions of bitumen extracted from bitumen containing diatomite, spent diatomite and organic solvent.

  8. Hydrologic analysis of Steel Creek and L Lake and the effects of flow reduction on Steel Creek habitat

    SciTech Connect

    del Carmen, B.R.; Paller, M.H.

    1993-12-31

    This report was prepared to support a proposal to eliminate the EIS mandated spring flow requirements in Steel Creek below L Lake. The base flow in Steel Creek below L Lake was estimated using historical data. The water balance of L Lake was studied to evaluate the effects of flow reduction on the Steel Creek hydrologic system. The base flow in Steel Creek below L Lake is estimated as 0.28 cms (10 cfs). A reduction in L Lake discharge to 0.28 cms will result in a fish community similar to the one that existed before the impoundment of L Lake.

  9. Effect of tar fractions from coal gasification on nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia and nickel-gadolinium doped ceria solid oxide fuel cell anode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorente, E.; Berrueco, C.; Millan, M.; Brandon, N. P.

    2013-11-01

    The allowable tar content in gasification syngas is one of the key questions for the exploitation of the full potential of fuel cell concepts with integrated gasification systems. A better understanding of the interaction between tars and the SOFC anodes which leads to carbon formation and deposition is needed in order to design systems where the extent of gas cleaning operations is minimized. Model tar compounds (toluene, benzene, naphthalene) have been used in experimental studies to represent those arising from biomass/coal gasification. However, the use of toluene as a model tar overestimates the negative impact of a real gasification tar on SOFC anode degradation associated with carbon formation. In the present work, the effect of a gasification tar and its distillation fractions on two commercially available fuel cell anodes, Ni/YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia) and Ni/CGO (gadolinium doped ceria), is reported. A higher impact of the lighter tar fractions was observed, in terms of more carbon formation on the anodes, in comparison with the whole tar sample. The characterization of the recovered tars after contact with the anode materials revealed a shift towards a heavier molecular weight distribution, reinforcing the view that these fractions have reacted on the anode.

  10. Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak) in a laboratory screw type reactor and secondary thermal/catalytic tar decomposition.

    PubMed

    Haydary, J; Susa, D; Dudáš, J

    2013-05-01

    Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak cartons) in a laboratory apparatus using a flow screw type reactor and a secondary catalytic reactor for tar cracking was studied. The pyrolysis experiments were realized at temperatures ranging from 650 °C to 850 °C aimed at maximizing of the amount of the gas product and reducing its tar content. Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields at different conditions was obtained. The presence of H2, CO, CH4, CO2 and light hydrocarbons, HCx, in the gas product was observed. The Aluminum foil was easily separated from the solid product. The rest part of char was characterized by proximate and elemental analysis and calorimetric measurements. The total organic carbon in the tar product was estimated by elemental analysis of tars. Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used for catalytic thermal tar decomposition. Three series of experiments (without catalyst in a secondary cracking reactor, with dolomite and with AFRC) at temperatures of 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 °C were carried out. Both types of catalysts have significantly affected the content of tars and other components in pyrolytic gases. The effect of catalyst on the tetrapack distribution into the product yield on the composition of gas and on the total organic carbon in the tar product is presented in this work. PMID:23428565

  11. Geologic map of the Skull Creek Quadrangle, Moffat County Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Loenen, R. E.; Selner, Gary; Bryant, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Skull Creek quadrangle is in northwestern Colorado a few miles north of Rangely. The prominent structural feature of the Skull Creek quadrangle is the Skull Creek monocline. Pennsylvanian rocks are exposed along the axis of the monocline while hogbacks along its southern flank expose rocks that are from Permian to Upper Cretaceous in age. The Wolf Creek monocline and the Wolf Creek thrust fault, which dissects the monocline, are salient structural features in the northern part of the quadrangle. Little or no mineral potential exists within the quadrangle. A geologic map of the Lazy Y Point quadrangle, which is adjacent to the Skull Creek quadrangle on the west, is also available (Geologic Investigations Series I-2646). This companian map shows similar geologic features, including the western half of the Skull Creek monocline. The geology of this quadrangle was mapped because of its proximity to Dinosaur National Monument. It is adjacent to quadrangles previously mapped to display the geology of this very scenic and popular National Monument. The Skull Creek quadrangle includes parts of the Skull Creek Wilderness Study Area, which was assessed for its mineral resource potential.

  12. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3: Appendixes E and F -- Risk assessment information

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  13. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 3. Risk assessment information. Appendixes E, F

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 3 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  14. A photographic method for estimating wear of coal tar sealcoat from parking lots

    SciTech Connect

    Mateo Scoggins; Tom Ennis; Nathan Parker; Chris Herrington [Watershed Protection and Development Review Department, Austin, TX (United States). Environmental Resource Management Division

    2009-07-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat has been recognized as an important source of PAHs to the environment through wear and transport via stormwater runoff. Sealcoat removal rates have not been measured or even estimated in the literature due to the complex array of physical and chemical process involved. A photographic study was conducted that incorporates all sources of wear using 10 coal tar-sealed parking lots in Austin, Texas, with sealcoat age ranging from 0 to 5 years. Randomly located photographs from each parking lot were analyzed digitally to quantify black sealed areas versus lighter colored unsealed areas at the pixel level. The results indicate that coal tar sealcoat wears off of the driving areas of parking lots at a rate of approximately 4.7% per year, and from the parking areas of the lots at a rate of approximately 1.4% per year. The overall annual loss of sealcoat was calculated at 2.4%. This results in an annual delivery to the environment of 0.51 g of PAHs per m{sup 2} of coal tar-sealed parking lot. These values provide a more robust and much higher estimate of loading of PAHs from coal tar sealcoated parking lots when compared to other available measures. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  15. ROCK CREEK, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1970-1984

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was designed to determine the characteristics and amounts of industrial and municipal wastes discharged to Rock Creek, Idaho (17040212) and subsequently into the Snake River and to evaluate the effects of these wastes on the biota and water quality of Rock Creek. Indus...

  16. Responses of tidal creek macrobenthic communities to the effects of watershed development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott B. Lerberg; A. Frederick Holland; Denise M. Sanger

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the effects of watershed development on macrobenthic communities in tidal creeks of Charleston Harbor,\\u000a South Carolina, U.S. Two types of creeks were evaluated: upland creeks which drained watersheds consisting of at least 15%\\u000a terrestrial land cover, and salt marsh creeks which drained no upland habitat (i.e., only intertidal habitat). Samples of\\u000a macrobenthic organisms were taken along the

  17. A Creek to Bay Biological Assessment in Oakland, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, E.; Ramirez, N.; Lopez, A.; Avila, M.; Ramirez, J.; Arroyo, D.; Bracho, H.; Casanova, A.; Pierson, E.

    2011-12-01

    In 2007, the Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program (SWAMP) assessed the impact of trash on water quality in the Peralta Creek which is located in the Fruitvale district of Oakland, CA. This 2011 follow-up study will take further steps in evaluating the physical and biological impacts of pollution and human development on Peralta Creek and in the San Leandro Bay, where the Creek empties into the larger San Francisco Bay estuary. This study will utilize two forms of biological assessment in order to determine the level of water quality and ecosystem health of Peralta Creek and San Leandro Bay in Oakland, California. A Rapid Bioassesment Protocal (RBP) will be used as the method of biological assessment for Peralta Creek. RBP uses a biotic index of benthic macroinvertebrates to provide a measure of a water body's health. Larval trematodes found in two mud snails (Ilynassa obsoleta and Cerithidea californica) will be used to evaluate the health of the San Leandro Bay. Due to the complex life cycle of trematodes, the measure of trematode diversity and richness in host species serves as an indicator of estuarine health (Huspeni 2005). We have completed the assessment of one section of Peralta Creek, located at 2465 34th Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601. Abundance results indicate a moderately healthy creek because there were high levels of pollution tolerant benthic macroinvertebrates. The tolerant group of benthic macroinvertebrates includes such organisms as flatworms, leeches, and scuds. This is possibly due to this section of the creek being pumped up to the surface from culverts impacting the macroinvertebrate's life cycle. Another contributing factor to creek health is the amount of organic debris found in the creek, which inhibits the flow and oxygenation of the water, allowing for more pollution tolerant aquatic insects to persist. Further investigation is being conducted to fully assess the Peralta Creek watershed; from the preliminary results one can surmise that runoff from the watershed that leads into the bay may reflect a moderately healthy San Leandro Bay.

  18. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station: progress report June-August 1981. Quarterly progress report 1 Jun-31 Aug 81

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1982-01-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the summer of 1981, Teredo bartschi occurred in large numbers at one station in Oyster Creek, but did not appear in significant numbers in Forked River.

  19. Analysis of geothermal electric-power generation at Big Creek Hot Springs, Lemhi County, Idaho

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Struhsacker

    1981-01-01

    Big Creek Hot Springs was evaluated as a source of electrical power for the Blackbird Cobalt Mine, approximately 13 miles south of the hot spring. An evaluaton of the geothermal potential of Big Creek Hot Springs, a suggested exploration program and budget, an engineering feasibility study of power generation at Big Creek Hot Springs, an economic analysis of the modeled

  20. Unfired refractories bonded with coal tar pitch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. G. Borisov; L. V. Kravets; N. K. Petrov; L. N. Kolesnik

    1971-01-01

    Conclusions Medium-temperature coal tar pitches are effective bonds for making unfired dolomite and dolomite —magnesite refractories by pressing bodies heated to 100–120°C. The features of the refractories with a pitch bond are the higher contents of carbon resistant to oxidation (about 4%), and the higher compressive strength (400–500 kg\\/cm2), and finally the higher hydration resistance (10 days).

  1. The Blacktail Creek Tuff: an analytical and experimental study of rhyolites from the Heise volcanic field, Yellowstone hotspot system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolte, Torsten; Holtz, Francois; Almeev, Renat; Nash, Barbara

    2015-02-01

    The magma storage conditions of the 6.62 Ma Blacktail Creek Tuff eruption, belonging to the Heise volcanic field (6.62-4.45 Ma old) of the Yellowstone hotspot system, have been investigated by combining thermobarometric and experimental approaches. The results from different geothermometers (e.g., Fe-Ti oxides, feldspar pairs, apatite and zircon solubility, and Ti in quartz) indicate a pre-eruptive temperature in the range 825-875 °C. The temperature estimated using two-pyroxene pairs varies in a range of 810-950 °C, but the pyroxenes are probably not in equilibrium with each other, and the analytical results of melt inclusion in pyroxenes indicate a complex history for clinopyroxene, which hosts two compositionally different inclusion types. One natural Blacktail Creek Tuff rock sample has been used to determine experimentally the equilibrium phase assemblages in the pressure range 100-500 MPa and a water activity range 0.1-1.0. The experiments have been performed at fluid-present conditions, with a fluid phase composed of H2O and CO2, as well as at fluid-absent conditions. The stability of the quartzo-feldspathic phases is similar in both types of experiments, but the presence of mafic minerals such as biotite and clinopyroxene is strongly dependent on the experimental approach. Possible explanations are given for this discrepancy which may have strong impacts on the choice of appropriate experimental approaches for the determination of magma storage conditions. The comparison of the composition of natural phases and of experimentally synthesized phases confirms magma storage temperatures of 845-875 °C. Melt water contents of 1.5-2.5 wt% H2O are required to reproduce the natural Blacktail Creek Tuff mineral assemblage at these temperatures. Using the Ti-in-quartz barometer and the Qz-Ab-Or proportions of natural matrix glasses, coexisting with quartz, plagioclase and sanidine, the depth of magma storage is estimated to be in a pressure range between 130 and 250 MPa.

  2. The relationship between smoking machine derived tar yields and biomarkers of exposure in adult cigarette smokers in the US

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Mendes; Qiwei Liang; Kimberly Frost-Pineda; Sagar Munjal; Ruediger-A. Walk; Hans J. Roethig

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive data on human exposure to smoke constituents from different machine-measured tar yield cigarettes is limited. Methods: This study used a stratified, cross-sectional, multi-center design to estimate biomarkers of exposure (BOE) from nicotine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), pyrene, CO, acrolein, and 1,3-butadiene and their relationship to tar yield categories of cigarette in adult smokers in the U.S. 3625 adults smokers were enrolled

  3. Distinct Conformational Transition Patterns of Noncoding 7SK snRNA and HIV TAR RNAs upon Tat Binding

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Noncoding 7SK snRNA is believed to play an important role in the recruitment of P-TEFb by viral protein Tat to stimulate HIV processive transcription. Because HIV-2 TAR RNA and 7SK both evolved to feature a dinucleotide bulge region, compared to the trinucleotide bulge for HIV-1 TAR, ultrafast time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy has been used to probe the conformational landscape of HIV-2 TAR and 7SK-SL4 RNA to monitor the conformational changes upon Tat binding. Our studies demonstrate that both HIV-1/2 TAR and 7SK-SL4 sample heterogeneous ensembles in the free state and undergo distinct conformational transitions upon Tat binding. These findings provide exquisite knowledge on the conformational complexity and intricate mechanism of molecular recognition and pave the way for drug design and discovery that incorporate dynamics information. PMID:24422492

  4. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station: progress report June-August 1981. Quarterly progress report 1 Jun-31 Aug 81

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Hoagland; L. Crocket

    1982-01-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the

  5. Adsorption of nicotine and tar from the mainstream smoke of cigarettes by oxidized carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhigang; Zhang, Lisha; Tang, Yiwen; Jia, Zhijie

    2006-02-01

    The adsorption of nicotine and tar from the mainstream smoke (MS) by the filter tips filled respectively with oxidized carbon nanotubes (O-CNTs), activated carbon and zeolite (NaY) has been investigated. O-CNTs show exceptional removal efficiency and their adsorption mechanism is investigated. Capillary condensation of some ingredients from MS in the inner hole of O-CNTs is observed and may be the primary reason for their superior removal efficiency. The effect of O-CNTs mass on the removal efficiencies is also studied and the results show that about 20-30 mg O-CNTs per cigarette can effectively remove most of nicotine and tar.

  6. Should We Dam Nanticoke Creek?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Philip Childs

    In this decision-making exercise, students investigate what would occur if a dam were built along Nanticoke Creek, a real stream just north of West Corners near the Village of Endicott, New York. They will use topographic maps to determine how much area would be flooded by the new reservoir, to study river drainages, and to consider the impacts of dams on a region. They must also consider rivers in the context of their relation to humankind. The exercise can be extended to other, more local locations having similar topography.

  7. The Paint Creek Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northrop, David; Vonck, Beth

    1998-01-01

    Describes a summer program project designed and conducted by a mixed-age group of elementary children. Students collected data to determine whether a local stream was polluted, and interpretations of the data varied. An informational video about the project and the creek was produced. (PVD)

  8. Waller Creek Urban Redevelopment 

    E-print Network

    McDonald, S.

    2013-01-01

    curtipendula - Sideoats Grama Muhlenbergia lindheimeir - Creek Muhly Panicum Virgatum - Switchgrass Schizachyrium scoparium - Little Bluestem Sorghastrum nutans - Indiangrass Elymus virginicus - Virginia Wildrye Rhizomaceous Plants, Grasses, Wildflowers Ruellia... drummondiana - Drummond Ruellia Justicia americana - Waterwillow Elymus virginicus - Virginia Wildrye Physostegia correllii - Correll's False Dragonhead Cephalanthus occidentalis - Buttonbush Cinna arundinacea - Woodland Cane Deep-rooted Shrubs and Perennials...

  9. Aquia Creek Sandstone

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This Aquia Creek Sandstone originated from a quarry about 40 miles south of Washington, D.C., in Stafford County, Va. This type of stone was used in the construction of many of D.C.'s most famous landmarks, including the White House and the U.S. Capitol building....

  10. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 2. Appendixes A, B, C, D

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document contains appendices A (water characterization), B (sediment characterization), C (biota Characterization), D (applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements) from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  11. Tar sands of Alberta, Canada. [Review on reserves, history, properties and composition, technology, and commercial ventures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1974-01-01

    The discussion is presented under the following section headings: occurrence and reserves; history of the Athabasca tar sands; properties and characteristics of Athabasca tar sands, including bulk properties, properties of tar sand minerals, bitumen properties, and properties of refined products; technology of the recovery of values from tar sands, including in-situ processes, mining, processing of mined tar sands for bitumen

  12. Tar sands of Alberta, Canada. [Review on reserves, history, properties and composition, technology, and commercial ventures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1976-01-01

    The discussion is presented under the following section headings: occurrence and reserves; history of the Athabasca tar sands; properties and characteristics of Athabasca tar sands, including bulk properties, properties of tar sand minerals, bitumen properties, and properties of refined products; technology of the recovery of values from tar sands, including in-situ processes, mining, processing of mined tar sands for bitumen

  13. Tar sand and heavy oil resources and technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1972-01-01

    Tar-sand resources in the U.S. are not as concentrated as the Canadian Athabasca deposits, but they are significant; the amount recoverable is estimated to be 25 to 35 billion barrels. Some of the characteristics of tar sands and heavy oil sands and their occurrence are discussed. The single large-scale production of bitumen from tar sands is the operation of Great

  14. 75 FR 62112 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the San Juan Creek and Tributaries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ...and Oso Creeks. The San Juan Creek Watershed encompasses approximately 176 square...response to the study authority, an interim watershed feasibility study was prepared in August...evaluations for the downstream portions of the watershed. 3. Objectives. The planning...

  15. Geology and resources of the Tar Sand Triangle, southeastern Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Dana, G.F.; Oliver, R.L.; Elliott, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    The Tar Sand Triangle is located in southeastern Utah between the Dirty Devil and Colorado Rivers and covers an area of about 200 square miles. The geology of the area consists of gently northwest dipping strata exposed in the box canyons and slopes of the canyonlands morphology. Strata in the area range in age from Jurassic to Permian. The majority of tar sand saturation is found in the Permian White Rim Sandstone Member of the Cutler Formation. The White Rim Sandstone Member consists of a clean, well-sorted sandstone which was deposited in a shallow marine environment. Resources were calculated from analytical data from the three coreholes drilled by the Laramie Energy Technology Center and other available data. The total in-place resources, determined from this study, are 6.3 billion barels. Previous estimates ranged from 2.9 to 16 million barrels. More coring and analyses will be necessary before a more accurate determination of resources can be attempted. 8 references, 11 figures, 7 tables.

  16. Travels of the Cache Creek Terrane: a paleomagnetic, geobarometric and 40Ar/ 39Ar study of the Jurassic Fourth of July Batholith, Canadian Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Michael J.; Symons, David T. A.; Blackburn, William H.; Hart, Craig J. R.; Villeneuve, Mike

    2003-02-01

    The Middle Jurassic Fourth of July Batholith and cross-cutting mafic dikes have been studied geochronologically, geobarometrically and paleomagnetically to estimate subsequent tectonic motion of the Cache Creek Terrane (CCT) in the northern Canadian Cordillera. 40Ar/ 39Ar hornblende ages from a granodiorite phase are similar to U-Pb zircon ages and indicate rapid cooling of the batholith upon intrusion, suggesting that the magnetization age is coincident with the 173-Ma crystallization age. Argon ages of biotite from the granodiorite and two mafic dikes have similar ages of ˜165 Ma, which dates cooling through ˜280 °C. Aluminum-in-hornblende geobarometry indicates differential uplift of the batholith across a north-south fault zone along Atlin Lake with >6 km more uplift on its eastern side. Also, the eastern side has been tilted downward to the south-southwest by ˜9°. Combined paleomagnetic data from 20 granitoid and 11 mafic dike sites yield an in situ paleopole at 55°W, 63°N ( dp=5°, dm=5°) and a tilt-corrected paleopole at 81°W, 55°N ( dp=5°, dm=6°). Compared to the 173-Ma reference pole for the North American craton, the tilt-corrected pole suggests a significant southward translation of 16.1±3.7° and a significant clockwise rotation of 107±7°. The translation estimate is similar to the Jurassic Teslin Crossing pluton in the Stikine Terrane, however, the rotation estimate is very different. This could indicate that the Cache Creek Terrane was at a similar latitude of the Stikine Terrane, but the two were not yet amalgamated.

  17. Comparison of coal tars generated by pyrolysis of Hanna coal and UCG (underground coal gasification) Hanna IVB coal tars

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, F.A.; Cummings, R.E.

    1986-04-01

    The compositions of coal tars produced by laboratory and pilot scale apparatus have been compared to those produced during underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments at Hanna, Wyoming. Four coal tars were generated by pyrolysis using the block reactor and the laboratory reference retort, and a fifth coal tar was composited from products produced by UCG. Coal tars were separated into chemically defined fractions and were characterized by gas chromatography. Specific compounds were not identified, but rather fingerprinting or compound-type profiling was used for identifying similarities and differences in the product tars. This permitted the evaluation of the different methods of tar production with respect to one another. The UCG coal tars appeared to have undergone more secondary cracking than the pyrolytic products. The coal tar products from the laboratory reference retort appear to be more indicative of the coal's chemical structure. Products from the block reactor contained lesser amounts of the lighter boiling material. In addition there is organic sulfur contamination as indicated by the large amount of sulfur present in the product tar from the block reactor. 11 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Chemical quality of water resources of the Conewango Creek basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beetem, W.A.

    1954-01-01

    This report incorporates the data obtained in a study of the chemical quality of the water resources in the Conewango Creek basin, New York. The study was made during the period October 1951 to September 1952.

  19. 43 CFR 3141.2 - Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas. 3141.2 Section 3141.2 Public...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.2 Prelease exploration...

  20. 43 CFR 3141.2 - Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas. 3141.2 Section 3141.2 Public...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.2 Prelease exploration...

  1. 43 CFR 3141.2 - Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas. 3141.2 Section 3141.2 Public...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.2 Prelease exploration...

  2. 43 CFR 3141.2 - Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas. 3141.2 Section 3141.2 Public...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.2 Prelease exploration...

  3. COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SUMMARY: SOLID WASTES AND BY-PRODUCT TARS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, one of several data summary reports on the environmental aspects and pollutants specific to coal gasification, addresses characteristics of solid wastes (ash and cyclone dust) and by-product tars and oils analyzed in nine EPA source tests and evaluation studies and li...

  4. Processing of Arroyo Grande tar sand using the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE copyright ) process

    SciTech Connect

    King, S.B.

    1989-12-01

    The objectives of this study are to (1) evaluate the applications of the ROPE{copyright} process to a California tar sand using the screw pyrolysis reactor-process development unit (SPR-PDU) reactor, (2) produce kinetics data for the recycle product oil-spent sand interaction, and (3) produce oil for end-use evaluation. 6 refs., 1 fig., 23 tabs.

  5. PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING OF U.S. TAR SANDS: AN ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Factors traceable to the increasing shortfall in U.S. production of natural crude have rekindled interests in U.S. tar sands as a source of synthetic fuel. Reported here are the results of a preliminary study to assess the potential primary environmental impacts of production and...

  6. MUTAGENICITY OF COAL TAR PAINTS USED IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity of coal tar paints used for coating drinking water tanks and pipes, as a preliminary screening for potential genotoxic hazards associated with leaching of mutagens into drinking water during water storage and distribution. To...

  7. Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat, polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), and environmental health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have identified coal-tar-based sealcoat-the black, viscous liquid sprayed or painted on asphalt pavement such as parking lots-as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in urban areas for large parts of the Nation. Several PAHs are suspected human carcinogens and are toxic to aquatic life.

  8. BENCH SCALE FIXATION OF SOILS FROM THE TACOMA TAR PITS SUPRFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the results of bench-scale soil fixation study conducted with materials from the Tacoma Tar Pits SuperfundSite. Chemical fixation (also called stabilization/solidification)is a relatively new technique for remediating contaminated soils. It entails both immo...

  9. Catalytic tar decomposition of biomass pyrolysis gas with a combination of dolomite and silica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carin Myrén; Christina Hörnell; Emilia Björnbom; Krister Sjöström

    2002-01-01

    In this study the catalytic effects of dolomite and silica on biomass tar decomposition were investigated. The concentration of naphthalene is of particular interest since it is the most difficult compound to decompose when dolomite is used as catalyst. The two catalysts were tested in different combinations to see whether synergetic effects on the cracking of naphthalene could be found.

  10. Cost analysis of water pollution control during in situ production of bitumen from tar sand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. E. Owen; M. J. Humenick

    1986-01-01

    Wastewater recovered by in situ production of tar sand bitumen using steam drive or combustion processes must be treated prior to recycling in the process, reuse within the production facility, or discharge. Recent laboratory studies have shown biological treatment with activated sludge and reverse osmosis treatment to be potentially effective on combustion wastewater. The hot line softening process has been

  11. Grieving in the Muscogee Creek Tribe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Andrea C.

    2008-01-01

    A qualitative, collective case study explores grieving in the Muscogee Creek tribe. Data from interviews with 27 participants, all adult members of the tribe, reveal tendencies in patterns of grieving. Commonalities include (a) individual strength and certainty of recovery; (b) focus on giving to others in the family and coping as a family unit;…

  12. Bereavement Rituals in the Muscogee Creek Tribe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Andrea C.; Balk, David E.

    2007-01-01

    A qualitative, collective case study explores bereavement rituals in the Muscogee Creek tribe. Data from interviews with 27 participants, all adult members of the tribe, revealed consensus on participation in certain bereavement rituals. Common rituals included (a) conducting a wake service the night before burial; (b) never leaving the body alone…

  13. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation... Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida,...

  14. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation... Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida,...

  15. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation... Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida,...

  16. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation... Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida,...

  17. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation... Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida,...

  18. Instrumental analysis of tars and their correlations in oil-impregnated sandstone beds, Uintah and Grand Counties, Utah

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gwynn

    1970-01-01

    The study area is located in the SE. portion of the Uinta Basin, Uintah and Grand counties, Utah. The normal sequence of exposed Eocene rocks in the area, in ascending stratigraphic order, make up the Wasatch, Green River, and Uinta formations. The oil-impregnated sandstones occur in 5 zones in lower Parachute Creek and Upper Douglas Creek members of the Green

  19. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  20. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  1. Olivine as tar removal catalyst for biomass gasifiers: Catalyst characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lopamudra Devi; Menno Craje; Peter Thüne; Krzysztof J. Ptasinski; Frans J. J. G. Janssen

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper olivine is considered as a prospective in-bed tar removal catalyst for fluidized bed biomass gasifiers. The catalytic activity of olivine is investigated via steam reforming reaction of naphthalene as a model biomass tar compound. It is observed that the calcination of olivine improves the performance of the catalyst. Calcination of olivine is done with air at

  2. The Compensating Behavior of Smokers: Taxes, Tar, and Nicotine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William N. Evans; Matthew C. Farrelly

    1998-01-01

    Using data from the 1979 and 1987 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we test whether smokers alter their smoking habits in the face of higher taxes. Smokers in high-tax states are more likely to smoke cigarettes higher in tar and nicotine. Although taxes reduce the number of cigarettes consumed per day among remaining smokers, total daily tar and nicotine intake

  3. +2 Valence Metal Concentrations in Lion Creek, Oakland, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, P.; Zedd, T.; Chagolla, R.; Dutton-Starbuck, M.; Negrete, A.; Jinham, M.; Lapota, M.

    2012-12-01

    Seven major creeks exist within the City of Oakland, California. These creeks all flow in the southwest direction from forested hills down through densely populated streets where they become susceptible to urban runoff. Lion Creek has been diverted to engineered channels and underground culverts and runs directly under our school (Roots International) before flowing into the San Leandro Bay. One branch of the creek begins near an abandoned sulfur mine. Previous studies have shown that extremely high levels of lead, arsenic and iron exist in this portion of the creek due to acid mine drainage. In this study +2 valence heavy metals concentration data was obtained from samples collected from a segment of the creek located approximately 2.8 miles downstream from the mine. Concentrations in samples collected at three different sites along this segment ranged between 50 ppb and 100 ppb. We hypothesize that these levels are related to the high concentration of +2 valence heavy metals at the mining site. To test this hypothesis, we have obtained samples from various locations along the roughly 3.75 miles of Lion Creek that are used to assess changes in heavy metals concentration levels from the mining site to the San Leandro Bay.

  4. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOEpatents

    Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

    1988-05-04

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOEpatents

    Westhoff, James D. (Laramie, WY); Harak, Arnold E. (Laramie, WY)

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000.degree. F. in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs.

  6. Bioremediation of coal tar PAH in soils using biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Taylor, L T; Jones, D M

    2001-08-01

    The addition of biodiesel together with nitrate and phosphate to soil containing coal tar, in laboratory and field experiments, resulted in degradation of coal tar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that was not apparent when the nutrients alone were added. The addition of motor diesel fuel instead of biodiesel was also tested. Over the 55 days of the field and laboratory experiments, the biodiesel resulted in an increased degradation of naphthalene in the coal tar by 52% and 85%, respectively, and motor diesel resulted in increased depletions of 85% and 96%, respectively. Other PAH containing up to four rings were depleted to lesser extents. The increases in PAH biodegradation by the diesel treatments were ascribed to tar solubilisation and dispersion thereby increasing the PAH bioavailability. The ready biodegradability and low phytotoxicity of biodiesel suggest that it may be suitable as a novel treatment for the bioremediation of coal tar contaminated soils. PMID:11513400

  7. Water Quality of Peralta and Courtland Creek Oakland, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, A.; Zhen, K. L.; Ponce, X.; Johnson, A.; Varela, N.; Quintero, D.; Hernandez, G.; Oghogho, E.

    2014-12-01

    Authors: Allan Ahumada, Aminah Butler, Mellany Davis, Yarely Guzman, Micah Johnson, Xochitl Ponce, Kim Zhen Abstract: Beginning in the summer of 2012 and continuing to the present time our group has been assessing the water quality of Courtland Creek, which flows from Northeast to Southwest in East Oakland, California. During the summer of 2014 we began assessing the water quality at nearby Peralta Creek to compare the health of Courtland Creek with another one within the same watershed. In making our assessment we have analyzed samples collected from three different sites along both creeks for Nitrate, Phosphate, and Ammonia concentration levels. Additionally, we conducted benthic macroinvertebrate surveys at one site along each creek. Preliminary results indicate that nitrate levels in Courtland Creek waters are very high, which we believe is the result of human and animal waste entering into the creek. There were also unusually high levels of Phosphate and Ammonia detected in creek waters. Such high concentrations were noted in a past study and in an attempt to address this problem we initiated a native plant restoration project at one particular site located at the intersection of Courtland and Thompson avenues. This effort has resulted in a reduction in levels of Nitrate, Phosphate and Ammonia. The average levels of these compounds in waters collected near the restoration site were lower than those found in samples collected at other sites. However, they are still well above levels that are harmful to invertebrates and fish. Nitrate, Phosphate and Ammonia concentration levels in samples collected from Peralta Creek were significantly lower than those collected from Courtland Creek. For example, the maximum level of nitrate detected in Courtland Creek waters was 50 PPM while the maximum found in Peralta Creek waters was 15 PPM. We have concluded that the observed high levels of various compounds are the result of animal waste and human feces spilling directly into Courtland Creek. Results from a recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) - led E. coli survey that included this watershed supports this claim.

  8. Waste management plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This Waste Management Plant (WMP) for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study addresses waste management requirements for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The study is intended to produce treatment performance data required to design a treatment system for contaminated groundwater. The treatability study will consist of an evaluation of various treatment media including: continuous column tests, with up to six columns being employed to evaluate the performance of different media in the treatment of groundwater; an evaluation of the denitrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of a wetland system; and the long-term denitrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of algal mats. The Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) covers the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. The Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety concerns and requirements for the proposed sampling activities. This WMP identifies the types and estimates the volumes of various wastes that may be generated during the proposed treatability studies. The approach to managing waste outlined in this WMP emphasizes: (1) management of the waste generated in a manner that is protective of human health and the environment; (2) minimization of waste generation, thereby reducing unnecessary costs and usage of limited permitted storage and disposal capacities; and (3) compliance with federal, state, and site requirements. Prior sampling at the site has detected organic, radioactive, and metals contamination in groundwater and surface water. Proposed field operations are not expected to result in worker exposures greater than applicable exposure or action limits.

  9. Diffusion of heterocyclic compounds from a complex mixture of coal tar compounds in natural clayey till

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broholm, Mette M.; Broholm, Kim; Arvin, Erik

    1999-10-01

    The diffusion of coal-tar compounds in natural clayey till was studied experimentally. Cores were exposed to a solution with near constant concentration of coal-tar compounds in a multi-component mixture for 5 months, the cores were subsequently sub-sampled and analyzed. Diffusion profile data strongly indicates highly non-linear sorption isotherms. For dibenzofuran, dibenzothiophene, 2-methylquinoline, carbazole, phenanthrene, and fluorene, the profiles indicated significantly stronger sorption at high solute concentrations than at low solute concentrations, and than expected based on linear sorption isotherms. This corresponds with observed dramatic increase in sorption of these compounds at high surface density. For benzofuran, benzothiophene, quinoline, phenols, naphthalenes, and BTEXs the profiles indicated significantly weaker sorption at high solute concentrations than at low solute concentrations and than expected based on linear or Freundlich isotherms. The observed diffusion profiles have important implications with respect to transport of dissolved coal-tar compounds in multi-component mixtures of high concentrations as expected near immiscible phase coal-tar sources. Breakthrough times and concentration levels are affected significantly.

  10. An economic evaluation of the Sulphur Creek Watershed Project 

    E-print Network

    Burns, Henry Taylor

    1967-01-01

    of sediment that would flow into the Lampasas Reservoir, an Army Corps of Engineers pzoject on the Lamoasas River, which was scheduled for construction soon after the completion of the Sulphur Creek 'iyatershed Project. A careful study of the watershed...

  11. Thrombocytopenia with absent radii (TAR) syndrome: from hemopoietic progenitor to mesenchymal stromal cell disease?

    PubMed

    Bonsi, Laura; Marchionni, Cosetta; Alviano, Francesco; Lanzoni, Giacomo; Franchina, Michele; Costa, Roberta; Grossi, Alberto; Bagnara, Gian Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia with absent radii (TAR) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by hypomegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia and bilateral radial aplasia. Its expression includes skeletal, hematologic, and cardiac system abnormalities. According to some authors, the association of disparate skeletal and hematologic abnormalities is related to simultaneous development of the heart, radii, and megakaryocytes at 6 to 8 weeks' gestation. Thrombocytopenia that generally presents at birth or during the neonatal period can also occur subsequently. Data as to the physiopathology of TAR syndrome are scanty because of the low frequency of the disease and frequent unavailability of samples for bone marrow. The few studies on colony formation suggest that thrombocytopenia could be due to a decreased response to thrombopoietin that affects both proliferation and differentiation. The genetic basis of this syndrome remains unclear because c-mpl gene mutations are not a likely cause of thrombocytopenia and they are also frequent in the normal population. This is also the case for the mutations to the multifunctional growth factor transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta2 gene as described in our laboratory. Finally, the deletion on chromosome 1q21.1 described by Klopocki and colleagues is not considered sufficient to determine the TAR syndrome phenotype. We have reported that bone marrow adherent stromal cells from patients with TAR syndrome do not express CD105 antigen (expressed in normal mesenchymal cells), part of the receptor complex for TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3. Thus, the hypothesis that the clinical phenotype of TAR could derive from damage to a common osteo/chondrogenic and hemopoietic progenitor warrants further study. PMID:19028006

  12. Yuccas in Pine Creek Canyon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Mojave Desert, home to drought-tolerant plants like yuccas, gradually mixes with loblolly pine ecosystems in Pine Creek Canyon. Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Rock Cany...

  13. Chollas in Pine Creek Canyon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Mojave Desert, home to drought-tolerant plants like Cholla cacti, gradually mixes with loblolly pine ecosystems in Pine Creek Canyon. Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Roc...

  14. Oxley Creek Common Brisbane, Australia

    E-print Network

    Queensland, University of

    Oxley Creek. The gate is always open. Amenities The main development at Oxley Creek Common is the Red Shed, which is beside the car park (plenty of space). The Red Shed has toilets (composting), water dogs, which scare a few species, often arrive at the Common very early. After heavy rain there can

  15. Physical-chemical treatment of tar-sand processing wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    King, P.H.

    1982-07-01

    This final report for Phase I summarizes work done to determine the ability of several coagulants to contribute significantly in the treatment of selected tar sand wastewaters. The coagulation process must be considered as one possible step in a treatment scheme to reduce pollutants in these wastewaters and lead to a water quality acceptable for reuse or disposal. Two wastewaters were provided by the Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC). The primary emphasis in this study was focused on a representative steam flooding wastewater designated in the report as TARSAND 1S. The coagulation study in which treatment of this wastewater was the prime goal is described in full detail in the thesis entitled Chemical Coagulation of Steam Flooding Tar Sand Wastewaters. This thesis, written by Mr. Omar Akad, is included as Appendix A in this report. A representative combustion wastewater, designated as TARSAND 2C, was also provided by LETC. This wastewater was characteristically low in suspended solids and after initial screening experiments were conducted, it was concluded that coagulation was relatively ineffective in the treatment of TARSAND 2C. Hence, efforts were concentrated on the parametric evaluation of coagulation of TARSAND 1S. The objectives for the research conducted under Phase I were: (1) to compare the effectiveness of lime, alum, ferric chloride and representative synthetic organic polymers in reducing suspended solids and total organic carbon (TOC) from TARSAND 1S wastewater; (2) to determine the effects of pH, coagulant aids, and mixing conditions on the coagulation process; (3) to determine the relative volume of sludge produced from each selected coagulation process.

  16. Implication of Coal Tar and Asphalt on Black Carbon Quantification in Urban Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Werth, C. J.; Ligouis, B.; Razzaque, M.

    2008-12-01

    Sorption to black carbon (BC) is an important process that controls the transport and fate of persistent organic pollutants in aquatic environments. Efforts have been made to measure BC in different environmental matrices including aerosols, soils, and sediments; however, few studies have attempted to evaluate BC in dust from urban streets or parking lots, which can be an important BC source in urban lake sediments. Methods to quantify BC in soils and sediments usually involve the removal of non-BC carbonaceous materials with chemical and/or thermal oxidation followed by elemental analysis. The presence of coal tar pitch and asphalt in urban pavement dust is hypothesized to potentially result in an overestimate of BC. The primary objectives of this research are to identify the distribution of BC in a small urban watershed and to investigate the potential interference from coal tar and asphalt on BC quantification by method intercomparison. Samples were collected from the Lake Como watershed in Fort Worth, Texas. They include dust from coal-tar-sealed and unsealed parking lots and residential streets, soils from residential and commercial areas, stream bed sediments, and lake sediment cores. After density separation, samples were subjected to sequential chemical treatments and thermal treatment. Commercial coal tar pitch and asphalt products were subjected to these same treatments for comparison. BC contents quantified with chemical treatment and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375°C (CTO-375) were compared with those characterized using organic petrography. The chemical treatment predicted greater BC contents than organic petrography in all samples, and the greatest difference is in the sealed parking lot dust. CTO-375 method also predicted greater BC content in this sample than organic petrography. Commercial coal tar pitch was resistant to thermal oxidation and both coal tar pitch and asphalt were resistant to the chemical treatment. These results indicate that chemical and thermal treatments can overestimate BC contents due to the chemical and thermal resistance of these materials. We recommend that interference from coal tar pitch and asphalt be considered when chemical or thermal oxidation methods are applied to quantify BC in urban environments, where urban runoff from parking lots and paved streets plays an important source role.

  17. Discoveries at Willow Creek

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this storybook, students learn about making observations, taking scientific measurements and recording their findings in a science journal. In the story, students Simon, Anita and Dennis join Hannah, a local scientist, as they comparing spring and fall observations of changes they see at Willow Creek. This science-based storybook is the one of four under the title Elementary GLOBE. Each book also has companion learning activities that complement the science covered in each story. GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program.

  18. Bryant Creek Watershed Atlas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Bryant Creek Watershed Project created this online atlas filled with a wealth of information on every aspect of this Missouri watershed -- even for those who do not live near the site. Teachers can find interactive, fun lesson plans for kindergarten through twelfth grade dealing with many aspects of the physical environment. Students will find an abundance of games, quizzes, and interactive modules. By taking the photo tour, visitors can learn about the fascinating unique places connected to the watershed. Users can also find materials on the biologic, historic, social, and recreational aspects of the watershed.

  19. Wallace Creek Field Exercises

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site contains model class exercises which instructors may find useful as class assignments to accompany class trips to the Wallace Creek site. These exercises are designed for college-level students who have had some background in geology and a general background of fault mechanics and earthquake geology. Particular questions in these exercises requires the students to conduct certain exercises or participate in appropriate discussions regarding geomorphology and slip rates. Five figures necessary to complete certain parts of the exercises are available for downloading.

  20. Class I cultural resource overview for oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, D.; Kullen, D.; Gierek, L.; Wescott, K.; Greby, M.; Anast, G.; Nesta, M.; Walston, L.; Tate, R.; Azzarello, A.; Vinikour, B.; Van Lonkhuyzen, B.; Quinn, J.; Yuen, R.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-11-01

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the 'Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005', Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is developing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) to evaluate alternatives for establishing commercial oil shale and tar sands leasing programs in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. This PEIS evaluates the potential impacts of alternatives identifying BLM-administered lands as available for application for commercial leasing of oil shale resources within the three states and of tar sands resources within Utah. The scope of the analysis of the PEIS also includes an assessment of the potential effects of future commercial leasing. This Class I cultural resources study is in support of the Draft Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and is an attempt to synthesize archaeological data covering the most geologically prospective lands for oil shale and tar sands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. This report is based solely on geographic information system (GIS) data held by the Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPOs). The GIS data include the information that the BLM has provided to the SHPOs. The primary purpose of the Class I cultural resources overview is to provide information on the affected environment for the PEIS. Furthermore, this report provides recommendations to support planning decisions and the management of cultural resources that could be impacted by future oil shale and tar sands resource development.

  1. Recent Approaches to Modeling Transport of Mercury in Surface Water and Groundwater - Case Study in Upper East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, TN - 13349

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary [Professional Project Services, Inc., Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States)] [Professional Project Services, Inc., Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States); Tachiev, Georgio [Florida International University, Applied Research Center 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100 Miami Florida 33174 (United States)] [Florida International University, Applied Research Center 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100 Miami Florida 33174 (United States); Malek-Mohammadi, Siamak [Bradley University, 413A Jobst Hall, Preoria, IL 61625 (United States)] [Bradley University, 413A Jobst Hall, Preoria, IL 61625 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In this case study, groundwater/surface water modeling was used to determine efficacy of stabilization in place with hydrologic isolation for remediation of mercury contaminated areas in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Watershed in Oak Ridge, TN. The modeling simulates the potential for mercury in soil to contaminate groundwater above industrial use risk standards and to contribute to surface water contamination. The modeling approach is unique in that it couples watershed hydrology with the total mercury transport and provides a tool for analysis of changes in mercury load related to daily precipitation, evaporation, and runoff from storms. The model also allows for simulation of colloidal transport of total mercury in surface water. Previous models for the watershed only simulated average yearly conditions and dissolved concentrations that are not sufficient for predicting mercury flux under variable flow conditions that control colloidal transport of mercury in the watershed. The transport of mercury from groundwater to surface water from mercury sources identified from information in the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System was simulated using a watershed scale model calibrated to match observed daily creek flow, total suspended solids and mercury fluxes. Mercury sources at the former Building 81-10 area, where mercury was previously retorted, were modeled using a telescopic refined mesh with boundary conditions extracted from the watershed model. Modeling on a watershed scale indicated that only source excavation for soils/sediment in the vicinity of UEFPC had any effect on mercury flux in surface water. The simulations showed that colloidal transport contributed 85 percent of the total mercury flux leaving the UEFPC watershed under high flow conditions. Simulation of dissolved mercury transport from liquid elemental mercury and adsorbed sources in soil at former Building 81-10 indicated that dissolved concentrations are orders of magnitude below a target industrial groundwater concentration beneath the source and would not influence concentrations in surface water at Station 17. This analysis addressed only shallow concentrations in soil and the shallow groundwater flow path in soil and unconsolidated sediments to UEFPC. Other mercury sources may occur in bedrock and transport though bedrock to UEFPC may contribute to the mercury flux at Station 17. Generally mercury in the source areas adjacent to the stream and in sediment that is eroding can contribute to the flux of mercury in surface water. Because colloidally adsorbed mercury can be transported in surface water, actions that trap colloids and or hydrologically isolate surface water runoff from source areas would reduce the flux of mercury in surface water. Mercury in soil is highly adsorbed and transport in the groundwater system is very limited under porous media conditions. (authors)

  2. Physicochemical Approaches for the Remediation of Former Manufactured Gas Plant Tars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauswirth, S.; Miller, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    Former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars are one of the most challenging non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminants to remediate due to their complex chemical composition, high viscosities, and ability to alter wettability. In this work, we investigate several in situ remediation techniques for the removal of tar from porous media. Batch and column experiments were conducted to test the effectiveness of mobilization, solubilization, and chemical oxidation remediation approaches. Alkaline (NaOH), surfactant (Triton X-100), and polymer (xanthan gum) agents were used in various combinations to reduce tar-water interfacial tension, increase flushing solution viscosity, and increase the solubilities of tar components. Base-activated sodium persulfate was used alone and in combination with surfactant to chemically oxidized tar components. The effectiveness of each method was assessed in terms of both removal of PAHs from the system and reduction of dissolved-phase effluent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations. In column studies, alkaline-polymer (AP) and alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) solutions efficiently mobilized 81-93% and 95-96% of residual PAHs, respectively, within two pore volumes. The impact of AP flushing on dissolved-phase PAH concentrations was relatively low; however, the concentrations of several low molar mass PAHs were significantly reduced after ASP flushing. Surfactant-polymer (SP) solutions removed over 99% of residual PAHs through a combination of mobilization and solubilization, and reduced the post-remediation, dissolved-phase total PAH concentration by 98.4-99.1%. Degradation of residual PAHs by base-activated sodium persulfate was relatively low (30-50%), and had little impact on dissolved-phase PAH concentrations.

  3. A coke oven model including thermal decomposition kinetics of tar

    SciTech Connect

    Munekane, Fuminori; Yamaguchi, Yukio [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Tanioka, Seiichi [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Sakaide (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    A new one-dimensional coke oven model has been developed for simulating the amount and the characteristics of by-products such as tar and gas as well as coke. This model consists of both heat transfer and chemical kinetics including thermal decomposition of coal and tar. The chemical kinetics constants are obtained by estimation based on the results of experiments conducted to investigate the thermal decomposition of both coal and tar. The calculation results using the new model are in good agreement with experimental ones.

  4. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  5. Health and safety plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety (H&S) concerns and requirements for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be collected from effluent following treatment tests of extraction columns, algal mats, and mature wetlands supplied by surface water locations and existing groundwater monitoring well locations. The project Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. It is the responsibility of the project managers, field manager, and site health and safety officer (SHSO) to determine that the requirements of this HASP are sufficiently protective. If it is determined that the requirements of this HASP are not sufficiently protective, a field change order(s) (FCO) will be prepared. FCOs will include a completed job hazard analysis or similar worksheet to ensure complete hazard assessment. FCOs must be approved by the Environmental Management and Enrichment Facilities (EMEF) project manager, EMEF H&S manager, subcontractor project or field manager, and subcontractor H&S representative. As a minimum, FCOs will be prepared if additional tasks will be performed or if contaminant exposure is anticipated.

  6. Blackening Character, Imagining Race, and Mapping Morality: Tarring and Feathering in Nineteenth Century American Literature

    E-print Network

    Trninic, Marina

    2013-08-05

    ............................................................................................ 88 Poe and Jacksonian Tar ..................................................................... 89 Poe?s Insane Tar and Feathers ........................................................... 92 Blackening Revenge in ?Hop... Tarr and Dr. Fether? (1845) and ?Hop-Frog; Or Eight Chained Ourang-Outangs? (1849) both treat tarring and feathering as a feature of power inversion, relying on the overlapping discourses of psychiatry, race, and taste. The final chapter, ?Tarring...

  7. Floodplain and wetlands assessment of the White Oak Creek Embayment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This report describes the proposed methods for dealing with contaminants that have accumulated in White Oak Creek, White Oak Lake, and the White Oak Creek Embayment as a result of process releases and discharges from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Alternative methods of cleaning up the area which were considered in accordance with regulatory guidelines are listed, and information supporting the selected methods is provided. Also included are results of a site survey conducted at the White Oak Creek Embayment and the expected effects of the proposed control structures on the floodplain and wetlands. The appendix contains figures showing the nine cross-sections of the stream channel surveyed during studies of the White Oak Creek area.

  8. Waste management plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley Treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This Waste Management Plan (WMP) for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study addresses waste management requirements for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The study is intended to produce treatment performance data required to design a treatment system for contaminated groundwater. The treatability study will consist of an evaluation of various treatment media including continuous column tests, with up to six columns being employed to evaluate the performance of different media in the treatment of groundwater; an evaluation of the dentrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of a wetland system; and the long-term dentrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of algal mats. Additionally, the treatability study involves installation of a trench and incline well to evaluate and assess hydraulic impacts of pumping groundwater. The Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) covers the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. The Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety concerns and requirements for the proposed sampling activities. This WMP identifies the types and estimates the volumes of various wastes that may be generated during the proposed treatability studies. The approach to managing waste outlined in this WMP emphasizes the following points: (1) management of the waste generated in a manner that is protective of human health and the environment; (2) minimization of waste generation, thereby reducing unnecessary costs and usage of limited permitted storage and disposal capacities; and (3) compliance with federal, state, and site requirements. Prior sampling at the site has detected organic, radioactive, and metals contamination in groundwater and surface water. Proposed field operations are not expected to result in worker exposures greater than applicable exposure or action limits.

  9. Variability of polychaete secondary production in intertidal creek networks along a stream-order gradient.

    PubMed

    Chu, Tianjiang; Sheng, Qiang; Wang, Sikai; Wu, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic tidal creek networks are important habitats for sustaining biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in salt marsh wetlands. To evaluate the importance of creek heterogeneity in supporting benthic secondary production, we assess the spatial distribution and secondary production of a representative polychaete species (Dentinephtys glabra) in creek networks along a stream-order gradient in a Yangtze River estuarine marsh. Density, biomass, and secondary production of polychaetes were found to be highest in intermediate order creeks. In high order (3rd and 4th) creeks, the density and biomass of D. glabra were higher in creek edge sites than in creek bottom sites, whereas the reverse was true for low order (1st and 2nd) creeks. Secondary production was highest in 2nd order creeks (559.7 mg AFDM m-2 year-1) and was ca. 2 folds higher than in 1st and 4th order creeks. Top fitting AIC models indicated that the secondary production of D. glabra was mainly associated with geomorphological characters including cross-sectional area and bank slope. This suggests that hydrodynamic forces are essential factors influencing secondary production of macrobenthos in salt marshes. This study emphasizes the importance of microhabitat variability when evaluating secondary production and ecosystem functions. PMID:24817092

  10. Influence of the presence of PAHs and coal tar on naphthalene sorption in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayard, Rémy; Barna, Ligia; Mahjoub, Borhane; Gourdon, Rémy

    2000-11-01

    The mobility of the most water-soluble polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene in contaminated soils from manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites or other similar sites is influenced not only by the naturally occurring soil organic matter (SOM) but also, and in many cases mostly, by the nature and concentration of coal tar xenobiotic organic matter (XOM) and other PAH molecules present in the medium under various physical states. The objective of the present study was to quantify the effects of these factors using batch experiments, in order to simulate naphthalene transport in soil-tar-water systems using column experiments. Naphthalene sorption was studied in the presence of (i) solid coal tar particles, (ii) phenanthrene supplied as pure crystals, in the aqueous solution or already sorbed onto the soil, (iii) fluoranthene as pure crystals, and (iv) an aqueous solution of organic molecules extracted from a liquid tar. All experiments were conducted under abiotic conditions using short naphthalene/sorbent contact times of 24-60 h. Although these tests do not reflect true equilibrium conditions which usually take more time to establish, they were used to segregate relatively rapid sorption phenomena ("pseudo equilibrium") from slow sorption and other aging phenomena. For longer contact times, published data have shown that experimental biases due to progressive changes in the characteristics of the soil and the solution may drastically modify the affinity of the solutes for the soil. Slow diffusion in the microporosity and in dense organic phases may also become significant over the long term, along with some irreversible aging phenomena which have not been addressed in this work. Results showed that PAHs had no effect on naphthalene sorption when present in the aqueous solution or as pure crystals, due to their low solubility in water. Adsorbed phenanthrene was found to reduce naphthalene adsorption only when present at relatively high concentrations (about 120 mg/kg) in the soil. In contrast, experiments carried out with coal tar particles revealed a significant effect. Naphthalene sorption appeared to be proportional to the amount of coal tar added to the sand or soil, and a much higher affinity of naphthalene for XOM ( Koc above 2000 cm 3/g) than SOM ( Koc around 300 cm 3/g) was observed. Naphthalene transport in the columns of sand or soil spiked with coal tar particles was simulated very satisfactorily with a dual double-domain model. Around 90% of naphthalene retention by coal tar was found to occur within the organic phase, suggesting a phase partition process which may be explained by the amorphous nature of the XOM and its extreme affinity for naphthalene. For SOM, however, which is present as porous microaggregates of clay and humic substances, with less affinity for naphthalene, only 1/3 of naphthalene retention was found to occur within the organic phase, underlining the significant role of surface adsorption in the short term behavior of naphthalene in soil. For longer contact times, the model simulations proposed in the present study should be coupled to slow sorption, aging and biodegradation models to describe long-term behavior of naphthalene in soil-tar-water systems.

  11. Lagrangian Sampling of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent in Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek,

    E-print Network

    Lagrangian Sampling of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent in Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile of wastewater treatment plant effluent in Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa, during the summer...................................................................................................................... 5 Acidic Organic Wastewater Compounds

  12. Characterization of sediment movement in tidal creeks adjacent to the gulf intracoastal waterway at Aransas National Wildlife Refuge, Austwell, TX: study of natural factors and effects of barge-induced drawdown currents 

    E-print Network

    Allison, John Bryan

    2005-08-29

    of the three creeks and it does not branch out into the marsh or serve as a direct connection for a large inland water body with the bay. 7 Sundown Bay Creek (SB Creek) is a natural creek that is separated from the GIWW by the same shallow open water (as... was Pump Canal) and a narrow island. The creek is less than a hundred meters in length before it splits into many tributary arms that branch into the marsh (Fig. 1). The marsh surrounding SB Creek has a higher density of ponds relative to the other...

  13. Byrne Creek Power Project

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, A.E.; Fischer, D.D.; Whitman, D.L.

    1985-06-01

    The Byrne Creek Power Project was submitted in response to the US Synthetic Fuels Corporation's (SFC) 4th General Solicitation. The project represents the first commercial application of underground coal gasification (UCG) technology in the US. A 2 phase approach consisting of an engineering burn (EVB) prior to design finalization and construction of the commercial facility has been proposed to the SFC. The UCG plant produces sufficient raw intermediate-Btu gas such that a total of 38.3 Megawatts electric (MWe) of power are produced with 31.6 MWe for sale and the remaining 6.7 MWe for internal plant consumption. The project requires government loan and price guarantees prior to initiation of construction. The project, the current plant design, the costs associated with the project, the organizational structure and project participants, the EVB, and the status of the project with the SFC are discussed.

  14. Optimal Tat-mediated activation of the HIV-1 LTR promoter requires a full-length TAR RNA hairpin.

    PubMed Central

    Verhoef, K; Tijms, M; Berkhout, B

    1997-01-01

    HIV-1 transcription from the LTR promoter is activated by the viral Tat protein through interaction with the nascent TAR RNA hairpin structure. The mechanism of Tat-mediated transcriptional activation has been extensively investigated with LTR-CAT reporter genes in transient transfections and, more recently, in infection experiments with mutant HIV-1 variants. Several discrepancies between these two assay systems have been reported. For instance, whereas opening of the lower part of the TAR RNA stem does not affect the promoter activity of an LTR-CAT plasmid in transient assays, the corresponding virus mutant is fully replication-impaired. With the aim to resolve this controversy, we have examined the activity of a set of TAR RNA mutants in transient transfection experiments with a variety of cell types. We now demonstrate that truncated TAR motifs exhibit a severe, but cell-type dependent transcription defect. Whereas full LTR activity is measured in COS cells that have been used regularly in previous transfection assays, a severe defect is apparent in a variety of human cell lines, including T cell lines that are typically used in HIV-1 replication studies. These results suggest the presence of a human protein that participates in Tat-mediated transcriptional activation through binding to the lower part of the TAR stem. Several candidate co-factors have been reported in literature. This study resolves the discrepancy between transfection and infection studies on the requirements of the lower TAR stem structure. The evidence also implies that LTR transcription studies should be performed preferentially in human cell types. PMID:9016587

  15. Optimal Tat-mediated activation of the HIV-1 LTR promoter requires a full-length TAR RNA hairpin.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, K; Tijms, M; Berkhout, B

    1997-02-01

    HIV-1 transcription from the LTR promoter is activated by the viral Tat protein through interaction with the nascent TAR RNA hairpin structure. The mechanism of Tat-mediated transcriptional activation has been extensively investigated with LTR-CAT reporter genes in transient transfections and, more recently, in infection experiments with mutant HIV-1 variants. Several discrepancies between these two assay systems have been reported. For instance, whereas opening of the lower part of the TAR RNA stem does not affect the promoter activity of an LTR-CAT plasmid in transient assays, the corresponding virus mutant is fully replication-impaired. With the aim to resolve this controversy, we have examined the activity of a set of TAR RNA mutants in transient transfection experiments with a variety of cell types. We now demonstrate that truncated TAR motifs exhibit a severe, but cell-type dependent transcription defect. Whereas full LTR activity is measured in COS cells that have been used regularly in previous transfection assays, a severe defect is apparent in a variety of human cell lines, including T cell lines that are typically used in HIV-1 replication studies. These results suggest the presence of a human protein that participates in Tat-mediated transcriptional activation through binding to the lower part of the TAR stem. Several candidate co-factors have been reported in literature. This study resolves the discrepancy between transfection and infection studies on the requirements of the lower TAR stem structure. The evidence also implies that LTR transcription studies should be performed preferentially in human cell types. PMID:9016587

  16. Paleoflood investigations for Cherry Creek Basin, Eastern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarrett, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    In 1950 when Cherry Creek dam, which is located in Denver. Colorado, was completed, the design flood was 5,126 m3/s. Two recent probable maximum flood (PMF) estimates for the dam range from 14,840 to 18,750 m 3/s demonstrate the uncertainty in estimating extreme flooding in eastern Colorado. PMF difference is due in part to a lack of extreme rainfall and flood data in eastern Colorado. A paleoflood study was conducted to assist dam-safety officials in assessing the risk of large floods in Cherry Creek basin. An envelope curve encompassing maximum contemporary floods (19 sites) and paleofloods (99 sites) was developed for Cherry Creek basin streams; paleoflood data reflect maximum flooding during the last few hundred to many thousands of years. Maximum paleofloods in Cherry Creek range from about 1,050 m 3/s near Franktown (in about 5,000 to at least 10,000 years), about 2,100 m3/s near Melvin (in about 1,500 to 5,000 years), and about 2,270 m3/s at Cherry Creek Reservoir (also in about 1,500 to 5,000 years). Flood-frequency relations for Cherry Creek, which incorporate paleoflood data, indicate the 10,000-year flood (10-4 annual exceedence probability) ranges from about 1,200 m3/s (near Franktown) to about 2,200 m3/s (near Melvin). PMF estimates are about six to eight times larger than paleofloods in Cherry Creek basin. Additional research in flood hydrometeorology is needed to help dam safety officials evaluate potential safety problems related to large floods in Cherry Creek basin. Copyright ASCE 2004.

  17. Studies of E. coli and Coliform Bacteria Contamination in Mussels (Geukensia demissa) Collected from Guion Creek and Its Correlation to Water Flow Rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pretima G. Persad; Anna K. Yeung-Cheung

    2007-01-01

    Ribbed mussels (Geukensia demissa) were collected from a highly contaminated Guion Creek, Mamaroneck Harbor, NY and were compared with Harbor Island Park and Shore Acres Beach, for amounts of bacteria. Mussels were also collected from a pristine beach, Read Sanctuary, Rye. The water flow rate was measured at all sites. The results showed that the amount of E. coli and

  18. Increasing a freshwater lens below a creek ridge using a controlled artificial recharge and drainage system: a case study in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauw, Pieter S.; van Baaren, Esther S.; Visser, Martijn; de Louw, Perry G. B.; Essink, Gualbert H. P. Oude

    2015-05-01

    A controlled artificial recharge and drainage (CARD) system was used to increase freshwater lenses below creek ridges to increase freshwater supply. Creek ridges are typical geomorphological features that lie up to 2 m higher than the surroundings in the reclaimed tidal flat landscape of the southwestern Netherlands. The 5-30-m thick freshwater lenses below the creek ridges are a vital source for irrigation, as the groundwater and surface waters are predominantly saline. However, freshwater supply from these lenses is commonly not sufficient to meet the irrigation demand, which leads to crop damage. The CARD system was tested in the field and the development of the freshwater lens was monitored during the period May 2013 to May 2014. Numerical models, which were used to investigate a long-term effect of the CARD system, predicted that below the center of the creek ridge, the 13-15-m thick freshwater lens increased 6-8 m within 10 years. The total volumetric increase of the freshwater lens was about 190,000 m3 after 10 years, which was about 40 % of the total recharge (natural and artificial recharge). From this increased freshwater lens, up to three times more water can be extracted using horizontal wells, compared to the initial size of the freshwater lens. A higher water table in the CARD system leads to a thicker freshwater lens but a lower storage efficiency. A lower water table has the opposite effect.

  19. Steamflood experiment in a Utah tar sand

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.A. Jr.; Fahy, L.J.; Romanowski, L.J. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The first Laramie Energy Technology Center steamflood experiment in Utah tar sand, LETC TS-IS, was conducted in the N. Asphalt Ridge Deposit located near Vernal, Utah. Following completion of construction in April 1980, steam injection was initiated in the center well of 2 concentric inverted 5-spot patterns. The zone chosen for the experiment was a 45-ft (14-m) thick sandstone in the Rimrock member of the Mesaverde Formation. The pattern area was 0.25 acres (1012 sq/m) and contained a 12-1/4 API (986 kg/cu m) bitumen with a viscosity greater than 106 cp (103 pa/sec) at reservoir conditions. The average oil saturation was 78.9% of the pore volume. During the 160 days of operation, 65,700 bbl (10.4 dam3) of water equivalent steam was injected at 360 to 530 psig (2.5 to 3.7 mpa) and 180 to 650 bpd (29 to 103 cu m/day). Total production during the test amounted to 1150 bbl (183 cu m) of oil and 6250 bbl (994 cu m) of water.

  20. Importance of heterocylic aromatic compounds in monitored natural attenuation for coal tar contaminated aquifers: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Philipp; Sagner, Anne; Tiehm, Andreas; Martus, Peter; Wendel, Thomas; Grathwohl, Peter

    2011-11-01

    NSO heterocycles (HET) are typical constituents of coal tars. However, HET are not yet routinely monitored, although HET are relatively toxic coal tar constituents. The main objectives of the study is therefore to review previous studies and to analyse HET at coal tar polluted sites in order to assess the relevance of HET as part of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) or any other long-term monitoring programme. Hence, natural attenuation of typical HET (indole, quinoline, carbazole, acridine, methylquinolines, thiophene, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, benzofuran, dibenzofuran, methylbenzofurans, dimethylbenzofurans and xanthene) were studied at three different field sites in Germany. Compound-specific plume lengths were determined for all main contaminant groups (BTEX, PAH and HET). The results show that the observed plume lengths are site-specific and are above 250 m, but less than 1000 m. The latter, i.e. the upper limit, however mainly depends on the level of investigation, the considered compound, the lowest measured concentration and/or the achieved compound-specific detection limit and therefore cannot be unequivocally defined. All downstream contaminant plumes exhibited HET concentrations above typical PAH concentrations indicating that some HET are generally persistent towards biodegradation compared to other coal tar constituents, which results in comparatively increased field-derived half-lives of HET. Additionally, this study provides a review on physicochemical and toxicological parameters of HET. For three well investigated sites in Germany, the biodegradation of HET is quantified using the centre line method (CLM) for the evaluation of bulk attenuation rate constants. The results of the present and previous studies suggest that implementation of a comprehensive monitoring programme for heterocyclic aromatic compounds is relevant at sites, if MNA is considered in risk assessment and for remediation.

  1. Catalytic conversion of tar from hot coke oven gas using 1-methylnaphthalene as a tar model compound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Yang; Xueguang Wang; Lin Li; Kui Shen; Xionggang Lu; Weizhong Ding

    2010-01-01

    High concentration (1.3vol.%) of 1-methylnaphthalene was selected as a tar model compound to investigate the catalytic conversion of tar from hot coke oven gas (COG) with lower steam content under atmospheric pressure over the Ni\\/MgO\\/Al2O3 catalysts. The catalysts were prepared by impregnating boehmite (AlOOH) with an aqueous solution of magnesium nitrate and nickel nitrate. The effects of Ni loading, reaction

  2. The Lyons Creek boat remains 

    E-print Network

    Neyland, Robert Stephen

    1990-01-01

    and artifacts dating to the colonial era were discovered during a dredging operation at Lyons Creek, a tributary of the Patuxent River, Calvert County, Maryland. Also recovered from the spoil area were ceramics, wine bottles, and kaolin tobacco pipes, which... Lyons Creek A Shortage of Boats 17 Ferriage 33 Lightering Tobacco Small Craft on the Patuxent River 35 Shallops and Sloops 48 Flats 61 Other Colonial-Era Small Craft 64 III ARTIFACTS AND DATING 68 A Lack of Provenience 68 Cannonballs 69...

  3. Chemistry and origin of Miocene and Eocene oils and tars in the onshore and offshore Santa Cruz Basins, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kornacki, A.S. (Shell Offshore, Inc., New Orleans, LA (United States)); McNeil, R.I. (Shell E P Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States))

    1996-01-01

    The Santa Cruz (La Honda) Basin is a small [open quote]slice[close quote] of the San Joaquin Basin that has been displaced c. 300 km to the northwest by the San Andreas Fault. The poorly-explored offshore area that now lies within the Monterey Bay NMS includes portions of the Outer Santa Cruz and Bodega basins. A modest amount (c. 1.3 MM bbl) of variable-quality oil has been produced from Eocene and Pliocene pay zones in the La Honda Field. Much smaller amounts of light oil ([ge]40[degrees] API) have been produced from three other fields (Oil Creek; Moody Gulch; Half Moon Bay). Large tar deposits also outcrop near the city of Santa Cruz. Proven source rocks in this basin include the Eocene Twobar Shale and three Miocene units: the Lambert Shale, Monterey Formation, and the Santa Cruz Mudstone. A high-gravity oil sample from the Oil Creek Field contains isotopically-light carbon ([delta][sup 13]C = - 28.2 per mil) and has a relatively high pristane/phytane ratio. This oil was generated at high temperature (c. 140[degrees]C) by pre-Miocene source rocks (probably the Twobar Shale). The presence of isotopically-heavy carbon in all other oil and tar samples demonstrates they were generated by Miocene source rocks. But the C[sub 7] oil-generation temperatures, sulfur content, vanadium/nickel ratios, and biomarker chemistry of these Miocene oils are significantly different than in Monterey oils from the prolific Santa Maria Basin (SMB). The sulfur content (8.0 wt%) and V-Ni chemistry of tarry petroleum recovered in the P-036-1 well (Outer Santa Cruz Basin) resembles the chemistry of very heavy (<15[degrees]API) oils generated by phosphatic Monterey shales in the SMB.

  4. Chemistry and origin of Miocene and Eocene oils and tars in the onshore and offshore Santa Cruz Basins, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kornacki, A.S. [Shell Offshore, Inc., New Orleans, LA (United States); McNeil, R.I. [Shell E& P Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Santa Cruz (La Honda) Basin is a small {open_quote}slice{close_quote} of the San Joaquin Basin that has been displaced c. 300 km to the northwest by the San Andreas Fault. The poorly-explored offshore area that now lies within the Monterey Bay NMS includes portions of the Outer Santa Cruz and Bodega basins. A modest amount (c. 1.3 MM bbl) of variable-quality oil has been produced from Eocene and Pliocene pay zones in the La Honda Field. Much smaller amounts of light oil ({ge}40{degrees} API) have been produced from three other fields (Oil Creek; Moody Gulch; Half Moon Bay). Large tar deposits also outcrop near the city of Santa Cruz. Proven source rocks in this basin include the Eocene Twobar Shale and three Miocene units: the Lambert Shale, Monterey Formation, and the Santa Cruz Mudstone. A high-gravity oil sample from the Oil Creek Field contains isotopically-light carbon ({delta}{sup 13}C = - 28.2 per mil) and has a relatively high pristane/phytane ratio. This oil was generated at high temperature (c. 140{degrees}C) by pre-Miocene source rocks (probably the Twobar Shale). The presence of isotopically-heavy carbon in all other oil and tar samples demonstrates they were generated by Miocene source rocks. But the C{sub 7} oil-generation temperatures, sulfur content, vanadium/nickel ratios, and biomarker chemistry of these Miocene oils are significantly different than in Monterey oils from the prolific Santa Maria Basin (SMB). The sulfur content (8.0 wt%) and V-Ni chemistry of tarry petroleum recovered in the P-036-1 well (Outer Santa Cruz Basin) resembles the chemistry of very heavy (<15{degrees}API) oils generated by phosphatic Monterey shales in the SMB.

  5. Potential hydrologic impacts of a tar-sand industry in 11 special tar sand areas in eastern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindskov, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    About 93 percent of the Nation 's estimated 30 billion barrels of crude oil in tar sand deposits is in 11 tar-sand deposits in eastern Utah that were chosen for leasing by the Federal government. The Tar Sand Triangle area, which contains about 15 billion barrels of oil, is the largest. This area and the Sunnyside and P R Springs areas contain more than three-fourths of the Utah reserves. About 88,000 acre-feet of water per year would be required for a commercial tar-sand industry producing about 365,000 barrels per day. At this rate, most of the recoverable oil would be mined within 30 years. About 22,000 acre-feet of water per year would be required for a commercial tar-sand industry producing about 83,000 barrels per day. Impacts on local hydrology would be greatest in the Tar Sand Triangle, Sunnyside, and P R Springs areas. Impacts could be minimized with proper construction of surface facilities to decrease erosion, sediment transport, and impoundment of mining and retort water. Increases in salinity of the Colorado River at Imperial Dam, Ariz.-Calif., could be about 3 milligrams per liter, with a peak of 9 milligrams per liter, for a 365 ,000-barrel-per-day industry and less than 1 milligram per liter , with a peak of 2 milligrams per liter, for an 83 ,000-barrel-per-day industry. (USGS)

  6. A Synoptic Study of Fecal-Indicator Bacteria in the Wind River, Bighorn River, and Goose Creek Basins, Wyoming, June-July 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Gamper, Merry E.

    2003-01-01

    A synoptic study of fecal-indicator bacteria was conducted during June and July 2000 in the Wind River, Bighorn River, and Goose Creek Basins in Wyoming as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program for the Yellowstone River Basin. Fecal-coliform concentrations ranged from 2 to 3,000 col/100 mL (colonies per 100 milliliters) for 100 samples, and Escherichia coli concentrations ranged from 1 to 2,800 col/100 mL for 97 samples. Fecal-coliform concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit for a single sample for recreational contact with water in 37.0 percent of the samples. Escherichia coli concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit for a single sample for moderate use, full-body recreational contact with water in 38.1 percent of the samples and the recommended limit for infrequent use, full-body recreational contact with water in 24.7 percent of the samples. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations varied by basin. Samples from the Bighorn River Basin had the highest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 340 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 300 col/100 mL. Samples from the Wind River Basin had the lowest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 50 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 62 col/100 mL. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations varied by land cover. Samples from sites with an urban land cover had the highest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 540 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 420 col/100 mL. Maximum concentrations for fecal coliform of 3,000 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 2,800 col/100 mL were in samples from sites with an agricultural land cover. The lowest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 130 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 67 col/100 mL were for samples from sites with a forested land cover. A strong and positive relation existed between fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (Spearman's Rho value of 0.976). The majority of the fecal coliforms were Escherichia coli during the synoptic study. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations were not correlated to streamflow, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conduc-tance, and alkalinity. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations were moderately correlated with turbidity (Spearman's Rho values of 0.662 and 0.640 for fecal coliform and Escherichia coli, respectively) and sediment (Spearman's Rho values of 0.628 and 0.636 for fecal coliform and Escherichia coli, respectively). Escherichia coli isolates analyzed by discriminant analysis of ribotype patterns for samples from the Bighorn River at Basin, Wyoming, and Bitter Creek near Garland, Wyoming, in the Bighorn River Basin were determined to be from nonhuman and human sources. Using a confidence interval of 90 percent, more of the isolates from both sites were classified as being from nonhuman than human sources; however, both samples had additional isolates that were classified as unknown sources. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  7. Plasma enhanced catalytic reforming of biomass tar model compound to syngas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Tao; Naoko Ohta; Guiqing Liu; Yoshiharu Yoneyama; Tiejun Wang; Noritatsu Tsubaki

    2010-01-01

    Direct thermal decomposition, plasma-assisted decomposition, catalytic steam reforming and plasma enhanced catalytic steam reforming of biomass tar using toluene as a model compound were comparatively studied. Plasma enhanced catalytic steam reforming showed the best performance. The introduction of a plasma to the catalytic reforming reaction accelerated the decomposition of toluene, while the co-existing Ni\\/SiO2 reforming catalyst, on the other hand,

  8. Process and apparatus to produce crude oil from tar sands. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Seader; L. M. Smart

    1984-01-01

    A two-staged fluidized-bed reactor for the energy-efficient, thermal recovery of bitumen from Utah tar sands has been constructed. This reactor is a scaled-up version of an earlier system investigated at the University of Utah, and involves the use of three liquid-potassium heat pipes which thermally couple an upper pyrolysis bed with a lower combustion bed. The reactor has been studied

  9. 77 FR 73650 - Peabody Trout Creek Reservoir LLC;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ...No. 14446-001] Peabody Trout Creek Reservoir LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...November 30, 2012, Peabody Trout Creek Reservoir LLC (Peabody) filed an application...feasibility of the Peabody Trout Creek Reservoir Hydroelectric Project (Trout Creek...

  10. Development of Catalytic Tar Decomposition in an Internally Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xianbin; Le, Due Dung; Morishita, Kayoko; Li, Liuyun; Takarada, Takayuki

    Biomass gasification in an Internally Circulating Fluidized-bed Gasifier (ICFG) using Ni/Ah03 as tar cracking catalyst is studied at low temperature. Reaction conditions of the catalyst bed are discussed, including catalytic temperature and steam ratio. High energy efficiency and hydrogen-rich, low-tar product gas can be achieved in a properly designed multi-stage gasification process, together with high-performance catalyst. In addition, considering the economical feasibility, a newly-developed Ni-loaded brown coal char is developed and evaluated as catalyst in a lab-scale fluidized bed gasifier with catalyst fixed bed. The new catalyst shows a good ability and a hopeful prospect oftar decomposition, gas quality improvement and catalytic stability.

  11. Production of aromatics through current-enhanced catalytic conversion of bio-oil tar.

    PubMed

    Bi, Peiyan; Yuan, Yanni; Fan, Minghui; Jiang, Peiwen; Zhai, Qi; Li, Quanxin

    2013-05-01

    Biomass conversion into benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) can provide basic feedstocks for the petrochemical industry, which also serve as the most important aromatic platform molecules for development of high-end chemicals. Present work explored a new route for transformation of bio-oil tar into BTX through current-enhanced catalytic conversion (CECC), involving the synergistic effect between the zeolite catalyst and current to promote the deoxygenation and cracking reactions. The proposed transformation shows an excellent BTX aromatics selectivity of 92.9 C-mol% with 25.1 wt.% yield at 400 °C over usual HZSM-5 catalyst. The study of the model compounds revealed that the groups such as methoxy, hydroxyl and methyl in aromatics can be effectively removed in the CECC process. Present transformation potentially provides an important approach for production of the key petrochemicals of BTX and the overall use of bio-oil tar derived from bio-oil or biomass. PMID:23567684

  12. Molecular dynamics and binding specificity analysis of the bovine immunodeficiency virus BIV Tat-TAR complex.

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, C M; Nifosì, R; Frankel, A D; Kollman, P A

    2001-01-01

    We have performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, with particle-mesh Ewald, explicit waters, and counterions, and binding specificity analyses using combined molecular mechanics and continuum solvent (MM-PBSA) on the bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) Tat peptide-TAR RNA complex. The solution structure for the complex was solved independently by Patel and co-workers and Puglisi and co-workers. We investigated the differences in both structures and trajectories, particularly in the formation of the U-A-U base triple, the dynamic flexibility of the Tat peptide, and the interactions at the binding interface. We observed a decrease in RMSD in comparing the final average RNA structures and initial RNA structures of both trajectories, which suggests the convergence of the RNA structures to a MD equilibrated RNA structure. We also calculated the relative binding of different Tat peptide mutants to TAR RNA and found qualitative agreement with experimental studies. PMID:11371457

  13. Light absorption properties of laboratory generated tar ball particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffer, A.; Tóth, A.; Nyir?-Kósa, I.; Pósfai, M.; Gelencsér, A.

    2015-06-01

    Tar balls (TBs) are a specific particle type which is abundant in the global troposphere, in particular in biomass smoke plumes. These particles belong to the family of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) which can absorb light in the visible range of the solar spectrum. Albeit TBs are typically present as individual particles in biomass smoke plumes, their absorption properties have been only indirectly inferred from field observations or calculations based on their electron energy-loss spectra. This is because in biomass smoke TBs coexist with various other particle types (e.g. organic particles with inorganic inclusions and soot, the latter is emitted mainly during flaming conditions) from which they cannot be physically separated; thus, a direct experimental determination of their absorption properties is not feasible. Very recently we have demonstrated that TBs can be generated in the laboratory from droplets of wood tar that resemble atmospheric TBs in all of their observed properties. As a follow-up study we have installed on-line instruments to our laboratory set-up generating pure TB particles to measure the absorption and scattering, as well as size distribution of the particles. In addition, samples were collected for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and total carbon (TC) analysis. The effects of experimental parameters were also studied. The mass absorption coefficients of the laboratory generated TBs were found to be in the range of 0.8-3.0 m2 g-1 at 550 nm, with absorption Ångström exponents (AAE) between 2.7 and 3.4 (average 2.9) in the wavelength range 467-652 nm. The refractive index of TBs as derived from Mie calculations was about 1.84-0.21i at 550 nm. In the brown carbon continuum these values fall closer to those of soot than to other light-absorbing species such as humic-like substances (HULIS). Considering the abundance of TBs in biomass smoke and the global magnitude of biomass burning emissions, these findings may have substantial influence on the understanding of global radiative energy fluxes.

  14. 33 CFR 334.240 - Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian Head Division, Indian Head, Md. 334...Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian Head Division, Indian Head, Md....

  15. 33 CFR 334.240 - Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian Head Division, Indian Head, Md. 334...Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian Head Division, Indian Head, Md....

  16. Fast microwave-assisted catalytic gasification of biomass for syngas production and tar removal.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qinglong; Borges, Fernanda Cabral; Cheng, Yanling; Wan, Yiqin; Li, Yun; Lin, Xiangyang; Liu, Yuhuan; Hussain, Fida; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, a microwave-assisted biomass gasification system was developed for syngas production. Three catalysts including Fe, Co and Ni with Al2O3 support were examined and compared for their effects on syngas production and tar removal. Experimental results showed that microwave is an effective heating method for biomass gasification. Ni/Al2O3 was found to be the most effective catalyst for syngas production and tar removal. The gas yield reached above 80% and the composition of tar was the simplest when Ni/Al2O3 catalyst was used. The optimal ratio of catalyst to biomass was determined to be 1:5-1:3. The addition of steam was found to be able to improve the gas production and syngas quality. Results of XRD analyses demonstrated that Ni/Al2O3 catalyst has good stability during gasification process. Finally, a new concept of microwave-assisted dual fluidized bed gasifier was put forward for the first time in this study. PMID:24508907

  17. Water Quality of Camp Creek, Costello Creek, and Other Selected Streams on the South Side of Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Whitman, Matthew S.

    2002-01-01

    The Camp and Costello Creek watersheds are located on the south side of Denali National Park and Preserve. The Dunkle Mine, an abandoned coal mine, is located near the mouth of Camp Creek. Due to concern about runoff from the mine and its possible effects on the water quality and aquatic habitat of Camp Creek and its receiving stream, Costello Creek, these two streams were studied during the summer runoff months (June to September) in 1999 and 2000 as part of a cooperative study with the National Park Service. Since the south side of Denali National Park and Preserve is part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Cook Inlet Basin study unit, an additional part of this study included analysis of existing water-quality data at 23 sites located throughout the south side of Denali National Park and Preserve to compare with the water quality of Camp and Costello Creeks and to obtain a broader understanding of the water quality in this area of the Cook Inlet Basin. Analysis of water column, bed sediment, fish, invertebrate, and algae data indicate no effects on the water quality of Camp Creek from the Dunkle Mine. Although several organic compounds were found in the streambed of Camp Creek, all concentrations were below recommended levels for aquatic life and most of the concentrations were below the minimum reporting level of 50 ?g/kg. Trace element concentrations of arsenic, chromium, and nickel in the bed sediments of Camp Creek exceeded threshold effect concentrations (TEC), but concentrations of these trace elements were also exceeded in streambed sediments of Costello Creek above Camp Creek. Since the percent organic carbon in Camp Creek is relatively high, the toxicity quotient of 0.55 is only slightly above the threshold value of 0.5. Costello Creek has a relatively low organic carbon content and has a higher toxicity quotient of 1.19. Analysis of the water-quality data for other streams located in the south side of Denali National Park and Preserve indicate similarities to Camp Creek and Costello Creek. Most of the streams are calcium bicarbonate/calcium bicarbonate-sulfate type water with the exception of two streams that are calcium sulfate and magnesium sulfate type water. Trace element concentrations of arsenic, chromium, and nickel in the bed sediments of 9 streams exceeded the TEC or the probable effect concentration (PEC). Seven streams exceeded the threshold value of the toxicity quotient. Analysis of trace element concentrations in bed sediment and basin characteristics for 16 watersheds by cluster and discriminant analysis techniques indicated that the watersheds could be separated into two groups based on their basin characteristics.

  18. Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek Watershed Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon; Smith, J.G.

    1999-03-01

    Biological monitoring of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, which border the Paducah Site, has been conducted since 1987. Biological monitoring was conducted by University of Kentucky from 1987 to 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 through March 1999. In March 1998, renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permits were issued to the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Enrichment Corporation. The renewed DOE permit requires that a watershed monitoring program be developed for the Paducah Site within 90 days of the effective date of the renewed permit. This plan outlines the sampling and analysis that will be conducted for the watershed monitoring program. The objectives of the watershed monitoring are to (1) determine whether discharges from the Paducah Site and the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) associated with the Paducah Site are adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assess the ecological health of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, (3) assess the degree to which abatement actions ecologically benefit Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, (4) provide guidance for remediation, (5) provide an evaluation of changes in potential human health concerns, and (6) provide data which could be used to assess the impact of inadvertent spills or fish kill. According to the cleanup will result in these watersheds [Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks] achieving compliance with the applicable water quality criteria.

  19. Video transit training for older travelers: case study of the Rossmoor Senior Adult Community, Walnut Creek, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan A. Shaheen; Caroline J. Rodier

    2007-01-01

    This study applied principles of social learning and marketing to develop a transit training video for residents of the Rossmoor Senior Adult Community in California. The video features familiar community members successfully navigating specific concerns and problems related to transit use in accessing key community destinations (shopping, health care, and the nearest San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District station).

  20. Surface-water quality of coal-mine lands in Raccoon Creek Basin, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K.S.

    1985-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Reclamation, plans to reclaim abandoned surface mines in the Raccoon Creek watershed in southern Ohio. Historic water-quality data collected between 1975 and 1983 were complied and analyzed in terms of eight selected mine-drainage characteristics to develop a data base for individual subbasin reclamation projects. Areas of mine drainage affecting Raccoon Creek basin, the study Sandy Run basin, the Hewett Fork basin, and the Little raccoon Creek basin. Surface-water-quality samples were collected from a 41-site network from November 1 through November 3, 1983, Results of the sampling reaffirmed that the major sources of mine drainage to Raccoon Creek are in the Little Raccoon Creek basin, and the Hewett Fork basin. However, water quality at the mouth of Sandy Run indicated that it is not a source of mine drainage to Raccoon Creek. Buffer Run, Goose Run, an unnamed tributary to Little Raccoon Creek, Mulga Run, and Sugar Run were the main sources of mine drainage sampled in the Little Raccoon Creek basin. All sites sampled in the East Branch Raccoon Creek basin were affected by mine drainage. This information was used to prepare a work plan for additional data collection before, during, and after reclamation. The data will be used to define the effectiveness of reclamation effects in the basin.

  1. HIV-1 TAR as anchoring site for optimized catalytic RNAs.

    PubMed

    Puerta-Fernandez, Elena; Barroso-del Jesus, Alicia; Romero-López, Cristina; Berzal-Herranz, Alfredo

    2003-03-01

    Ribozymes have a great potential for developing specific gene silencing molecules. One of the main limitations to ensure the efficient application of ribozymes is to achieve effective binding to the target. Stem-loop domains support efficient formation of the kissing complex between natural antisense molecules and their target sequence. We have characterized catalytic antisense RNA hybrid molecules composed of a hammerhead ribozyme and a stem-loop antisense domain. A series of artificial RNA substrates containing the TAR-RNA stem-loop and a target for the hammerhead ribozyme were constructed and challenged with a catalytic antisense RNA carrying the TAR complementary stem-loop. The catalytic antisense RNA cleaves each of these substrates significantly more efficiently than the parental hammerhead ribozyme. Deletion of the TAR domain in the substrate abolishes the positive effect. These results suggest that the enhancement is due to the interaction of both complementary stem-loop motifs. A similar improvement was corroborated when targeting the LTR region of HIV-1 with either hammerhead- and hairpin-based catalytic antisense RNAs. Our results indicate that the TAR domain can be used as an anchoring site to facilitate the access of ribozymes to their specific target sequences within TAR-containing RNAs. Finally, we propose the addition of stable stem-loop motifs to the ribozyme domain as a rational way for constructing catalytic antisense RNAs. PMID:12715885

  2. Coal-tar based pavement sealant toxicity to freshwater macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Bryer, Pamela J; Scoggins, Mateo; McClintock, Nancy L

    2010-05-01

    Non-point-source pollution is a major source of ecological impairment in urban stream systems. Recent work suggests that coal-tar pavement sealants, used extensively to protect parking areas, may be contributing a large portion of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) loading seen in urban stream sediments. The hypothesis that dried coal-tar pavement sealant flake could alter the macroinvertebrate communities native to streams in Austin, TX was tested using a controlled outdoor laboratory type approach. The treatment groups were: control, low, medium, and high with total PAH concentrations (TPAH = sum of 16 EPA priority pollutant PAHs) of 0.1, 7.5, 18.4, & 300 mg/kg respectively. The low, medium, and high treatments were created via the addition of dried coal-tar pavement sealant to a sterile soil. At the start of the 24-day exposure, sediment from a minimally impacted local reference site containing a community of live sediment-dwelling benthic macroinvertebrates was added to each replicate. An exposure-dependent response was found for several stream health measures and for several individual taxa. There were community differences in abundance (P = 0.0004) and richness (P < 0.0001) between treatments in addition to specific taxa responses, displaying a clear negative relationship with the amount of coal-tar sealant flake. These results support the hypothesis that coal-tar pavement sealants contain bioavailable PAHs that may harm aquatic environments. PMID:19913343

  3. Biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Research progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Ghoshal, S.; Ramaswami, A.; Luthy, R.G.

    1994-02-07

    Biodegradation experiments were conducted to evaluate the mineralization of naphthalene released from coal tar entrapped in microporous silica media. Tests were performed with two coal tars recovered from former manufactured gas plant sites. Results from these tests showed that the degradation end point for naphthalene was significantly lower than the total amount of naphthalene present in coal tar. The role of physico-chemical and biological processes on the rate of biotransformation of naphthalene was evaluated. Mass transfer rates for dissolution of naphthalene from entrapped coal tar were measured in batch, flow-through systems. The rate of naphthalene mass transfer from the coal tar was found to be significantly greater than the rate of naphthalene biomineralization in batch slurry reactors. This implied that the rate acting factor for the biodegradation process was related to biokinetic phenomena rather than mass transfer processes. Further tests indicated that conditions inhibitory to bacteria limited the biodegradation of naphthalene, and in some cases the inhibition was reversible upon dilution of the reactor contents.

  4. Indications of mineral zoning in a fossil hydrothermal system at the Meager Creek geothermal prospect, British Columbia, Canada, from induced polarization studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, S.H.; Zhao, J.X.; Groenwald, J.; Moore, J.N.

    1985-05-01

    By measuring the induced-polarization parameters m (chargeability) and tau (time-constant) we have found evidence that the center of a presumed fossil hydrothermal system at Meager Creek, British Columbia, lies south of the main manifestation of the present-day convective hydrothermal system. What implication this finding has for development of the present-day system is unknown. However, some of the fractures formed during the development of the fossil hydrothermal system may serve as conduits for fluids of the present-day system. The analysis is limited by the lack of availability of a good subsurface distribution of core samples. Nevertheless, a surface induced-polarization survey is expected to yield information about the geometry of the fossil system. Such knowledge would have implications not only for Meager Creek but for other hydrothermal systems of Cascades volcano type. 16 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  5. High numbers of Vibrio vulnificus in tar balls collected from oiled areas of the north-central Gulf of Mexico following the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Tao, Zhen; Bullard, Stephen; Arias, Covadonga

    2011-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill was the largest oil spill in USA history releasing approximately 4.9 million barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Soon after the spill started, tar balls and other forms of weathered oil appeared in large numbers on beaches in Mississippi and Alabama. In this study, we analyzed tar balls for total aerobic bacterial (TAB) counts and also for the presence of Vibrio vulnificus, a human pathogen known to be abundant in the Gulf Coast environment and capable of causing severe wound infections by contact with contaminated surfaces. Our results showed that TAB counts were significantly higher in tar balls than in sand and seawater collected at the same location. In addition, V. vulnificus numbers were 10× higher in tar balls than in sand and up to 100× higher than in seawater. Densities of V. vulnificus were higher than 10(5) colony forming units/g of tar ball in all samples analyzed. Our data suggest that tar balls can act as reservoirs for bacteria including human pathogens. PMID:22109669

  6. Identifying the source of tar balls deposited along the beaches of Goa in 2013 and comparing with historical data collected along the West Coast of India.

    PubMed

    Suneel, V; Vethamony, P; Naik, B G; Krishna, M S; Jadhav, Lakshmikant

    2015-09-15

    Deposition of oil residues, also known as tar balls, is a seasonal phenomenon, and it occurs only in the southwest monsoon season along the west coast of India. This has become a serious environmental issue, as Goa is a global tourist destination. The present work aims at identifying the source oil of the tar balls that consistently depositing along the Goa coast using multi-marker fingerprint technique. In this context, the tar ball samples collected in May 2013 from 9 beaches of Goa coast and crude oils from different oil fields and grounded ship were subject to multi-marker analyses such as n-alkanes, pentacyclic terpanes, regular steranes, compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and principle component analysis (PCA). The n-alkane weathering index shows that samples have been weathered to various degrees, and the status of weathering is moderate. Since the international tanker route passes closer to the west coast of India (WCI), it is generally presumed that tanker wash is the source of the tar balls. We found that 2010/2011 tar balls are as tanker wash, but the present study demonstrates that the Bombay High (BH) oil fields can also contribute to oil contamination (tar balls) along ?650km stretch of the WCI, running from Gujarat in the north to Goa in the south. The simulated trajectories show that all the particles released in April traveled in the southeast direction, and by May, they reached the Goa coast with the influence of circulation of Indian monsoon system. PMID:25965045

  7. Application of UAS photogrammetry for assessment of flood driven fluvial dynamics of montane stream. Case study - Roklansky creek, Sumava Mts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhammer, Jakub; Mi?ijovský, Jakub; Hartvich, Filip; Kaiglová, Jana

    2014-05-01

    Current progress in hydrology and fluvial geomorphology is largely based on new field survey and analysis techniques, employing advanced technologies for monitoring the dynamics of the runoff process, field surveying and for remote monitoring of changes in riverbeds and of fluvial dynamics. Application of these techniques allows researchers to obtain information on a significantly higher qualitative level than using traditional methods of field survey and measurement, either in terms of spatial accuracy and resolution, frequency of sampling or qualitative characteristics of acquired data. The contribution demonstrates the potential of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) for analysis of fluvial dynamics of montane stream, driven by flood in combination with other survey techniques, namely the ground LiDAR scanning, digital granulometry and automated water level monitoring. The UAS photogrammetry is employed in the study to acquire high precision DTMs, enabling reconstruction of riverbed and quantitative analysis of volumetric changes related to initial flood events. The hexacopter UAS platform has been used to acquire the data for photogrammetric analysis of complex stretch of stream with historically elevated fluvial dynamics. The photogrammetric reconstruction enabled to build accurate DTM of riverbed and floodplain before and after the initial event and to calculate the extent of volumetric changes. The potential of UAS photogrammetry for fluvio morphological study is in combination with other monitoring and survey techniques, enabling complex analysis of fluvial dynamics. The magnitude, duration and hydrological properties of initial flood event were derived from automated high frequency water level monitoring. The digital granulometry enabled to analyze the structure of sedimentary material in floodplain. The terrestrial LiDAR scanning allows construction of very detailed 3D models of selected fluvial forms, enabling deeper insight into the effects of fluvial dynamics and to verify the spatial information acquired using UAS photogrammetry. The results of above mentioned techniques are applied to build hydrodynamic model explaining threshold conditions for initiation of changes in fluvial morphology of the riverbed in relation to known and theoretical flood magnitude. The presented study proved the UAS photogrammetry to be unique source of spatial information, allowing analysis of dynamics of fluvial systems with unprecedented precision and flexibility. This technique has full potential to bring spatial information to a new qualitative level and in experimental areas with limited availability of spatial information. The preliminary results achieved in the study enabled us to discuss the synergic potential of coupling the UAS photogrammetry, sensor networks and other hydroinformatic techniques to enhance significantly our knowledge on the dynamics of fluvial systems. Key words: UAS photogrmmetry, DTM, fluvial processes, erosion, hydrodynamic modelling

  8. Rapidity of orogenesis in the Paleoproterozoic Halls Creek Orogen, northern Australia; evidence from SHRIMP zircon data, CL zircon images, and mixture modeling studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SIMON BODORKOS; PETER A. CAWOOD; NICHOLAS H. S. OLIVER; ALEXANDER A. NEMCHIN

    2000-01-01

    Combining U-Pb SHRIMP zircon geochronology with cathodolu- minescence imaging enables the resolution of temporally closely-spaced geologi- cal events important for understanding tectonothermal processes in the Paleopro- terozoic Halls Creek Orogen of northern Australia. The youngest detrital zircon grains from a low-grade quartz-muscovite psammite of the Tickalara Metamor- phics have a 207Pb\\/206Pb SHRIMP age of 1864 4 Ma, defining a maximum

  9. VARS2 and TARS2 Mutations in Patients with Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathies

    PubMed Central

    Diodato, Daria; Melchionda, Laura; Haack, Tobias B; Dallabona, Cristina; Baruffini, Enrico; Donnini, Claudia; Granata, Tiziana; Ragona, Francesca; Balestri, Paolo; Margollicci, Maria; Lamantea, Eleonora; Nasca, Alessia; Powell, Christopher A; Minczuk, Michal; Strom, Tim M; Meitinger, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger; Lamperti, Costanza; Zeviani, Massimo; Ghezzi, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    By way of whole-exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous missense mutation in VARS2 in one subject with microcephaly and epilepsy associated with isolated deficiency of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complex I and compound heterozygous mutations in TARS2 in two siblings presenting with axial hypotonia and severe psychomotor delay associated with multiple MRC defects. The nucleotide variants segregated within the families, were absent in Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) databases and are predicted to be deleterious. The amount of VARS2 and TARS2 proteins and valyl-tRNA and threonyl-tRNA levels were decreased in samples of afflicted patients according to the genetic defect. Expression of the corresponding wild-type transcripts in immortalized mutant fibroblasts rescued the biochemical impairment of mitochondrial respiration and yeast modeling of the VARS2 mutation confirmed its pathogenic role. Taken together, these data demonstrate the role of the identified mutations for these mitochondriopathies. Our study reports the first mutations in the VARS2 and TARS2 genes, which encode two mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, as causes of clinically distinct, early-onset mitochondrial encephalopathies. PMID:24827421

  10. Local Willingness-to-Pay Estimates for the Remediation of the Sydney Tar Ponds in Nova Scotia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ida Ferrara; Stephen McComb; Paul Missios

    2007-01-01

    une large part des coûts de restauration du site. The Sydney Tar Ponds and Coke Ovens site in Nova Scotia, Canada, is among the most toxic hazardous waste sites in North America. This study presents hedonic estimates of the willingness-to-pay for remediation of the site using housing sales data from urban Sydney. Negative impacts are estimated with a maximum likelihood

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, “tar”, and nicotine in the mainstream smoke aerosol of the narghile water pipe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Shihadeh; Rawad Saleh

    2005-01-01

    A smoking machine protocol and yields for “tar”, nicotine, PAH, and CO are presented for the standard 171-puff steady periodic smoking regimen proposed by Shihadeh et al. [Shihadeh, A., Azar, S., Antonios, C., Haddad, A., 2004b. Towards a topographical model of narghile water-pipe café smoking: A pilot study in a high socioeconomic status neighborhood of Beirut, Lebanon. Pharmacology Biochemistry and

  12. Metasedimentary Rocks at the Apple Creek Formation

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientist Art Bookstrom looks at puzzling sedimentary structures in metasedimentary rocks of the Apple Creek Formation, near the Jackass prospect, near Iron Creek, in the southeastern part of the Idaho cobalt belt, in east-central Idaho....

  13. 78 FR 12714 - Intermountain Region, Payette National Forest, New Meadows Ranger District, Idaho; Lost Creek...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ...Creek-Boulder Creek Landscape Restoration Project AGENCY...Creek-Boulder Creek Landscape Restoration Project. The Lost Creek- Boulder Creek Landscape Restoration Project area...Official will determine what design features,...

  14. Application of Uav Photogrammetry for Assessment of Fluvial Dynamics of a Montane Stream. Case Study - Roklanský Creek, Šumava Mts., Europe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhammer, J.; Mi?ijovský, J.; Hartvich, F.; Kaiglová, J.

    2014-12-01

    Current progress in hydrology and fluvial geomorphology is largely driven by the newly emerging survey and detection techniques, employing advanced technologies for remote sensing and monitoring of the runoff processes and fluvial dynamics. The contribution demonstrates the potential of the fusion of experimental survey methods for analysis of fluvial dynamics of a montane stream. The UAV photogrammetry, optical granulometry, ground LiDAR scanning and sensor network monitoring were applied as a base for building hydrodynamic model for simulation of fluvial dynamics. The UAV photogrammetry is employed to acquire high precision DTM and especially for quantitative analysis of volumetric changes related to initial flood events. The hexacopter platform has been used to acquire the data for photogrammetric analysis of complex stretch of stream with historically elevated fluvial dynamics. The SfM algorithm was used to extract accurate DTM of the channel and to consequently analyze the volumetric changes after a flood event. The sensor network with automated high frequency water level monitoring was used to derive information on hydrological properties of initial flood event. The digital granulometry enabled to analyze the structure of sedimentary material in floodplain. The terrestrial LiDAR scanning allows construction of very detailed 3D models of selected fluvial forms, enabling deeper insight into the effects of fluvial dynamics and to verify the spatial information acquired using UAS photogrammetry. The results of above mentioned techniques are applied to build hydrodynamic model explaining threshold conditions for initiation of changes in fluvial morphology of the riverbed in relation to known and theoretical flood magnitude. The results achieved in the study enabled us to discuss the synergic potential of coupling the UAV photogrammetry, sensor networks and other high precision survey techniques to enhance significantly our knowledge on the dynamics of fluvial systems.

  15. Grizzly Bear Creek Flooding May 2015, SD

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Grizzly Bear Creek in Keystone, SD, on May 24, 2015. USGS streamgage 06403850 (Grizzly Bear Creek near Keystone, SD) showed the creek was more than one-half foot above flood stage on May 24. This streamgage is operated in cooperation with the METWARN (Rapid City/Pennington County Emer...

  16. LITTLE CONESTOGA CREEK WATERSHED ASSESSMENT, LANCASTER, PA.

    E-print Network

    Marshall, Jeffrey S.

    LITTLE CONESTOGA CREEK WATERSHED ASSESSMENT, LANCASTER, PA. FACULTY Andy deWet, Franklin & Marshall Run is closer to the expected exponential curve. #12;LITTLE CONESTOGA CREEK WATERSHED ASSESSMENT. The Little Conestoga Creek Watershed in Lancaster County, PA including project locations (1 = Bachman Run, 2

  17. FIELD EVALUATION OF THE MYRTLE CREEK ADVANCED

    E-print Network

    Bertini, Robert L.

    FIELD EVALUATION OF THE MYRTLE CREEK ADVANCED CURVE WARNING SYSTEM Final Report SPR 352 #12;#12;FIELD EVALUATION OF THE MYRTLE CREEK ADVANCED CURVE WARNING SYSTEM SPR 352 Final Report by Robert L's Catalog No. 5. Report Date June 2006 4. Title and Subtitle Field Evaluation of the Myrtle Creek Advanced

  18. 8 May 2008 SONOMA CREEK WATERSHED

    E-print Network

    areas will guide the stakeholders of the Sonoma Creek watershed participating in the Critical Coastal8 · May 2008 May 2008 SONOMA CREEK WATERSHED A tool for developing an action plan for the Critical understand current conditions and develop strategies for environmental recovery in the Sonoma Creek watershed

  19. Hydrological characterization of Birch Creek Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koslow

    1984-01-01

    A hydrological characterization of the Birch Creek Basin has been conducted to analyze the flood potential from Birch Creek on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Birch Creek originated from springs below Gilmore Summit, between the Lemhi and Beaverhead Mountain Ranges, and flows in a southeasterly direction onto the Snake River Plain. The channel leads to a depression on the

  20. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

    1995-04-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

  1. Bacterial Composition in Urban Watershed Creeks Impacted by Contaminants from different Sources.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to monitor changes in microbial and chemical composition along Chino Creek Reach 1 region, which, in 2002, was placed on the 303(d) list as an impaired waterbody. Pollutants in the Chino Creek basin mainly consist of pathogens and nutrients due to the densely populated areas...

  2. Vehicular fuels and oxychemicals from biomass thermochemical tars

    SciTech Connect

    Soltes, E.J.; Lin, S.C.K.

    1983-01-01

    Catalytic hydroprocessing (hydrotreating and hydrocracking) of biomass thermochemical tars can yield mixtures of liquid hydrocarbons and alkyl aromatics of chemical compositions similar to those presently used in diesel and gasoline engine fuels. Phenolics can be coproduced. Compositions of hydroprocessed tars are similar regardless of biomass feedstock used, suggesting that the two-stage process of pyrolysis and hydroprocessing may afford a somewhat universal route to the generation of useful hydrocarbons and oxychemicals from a variety of agricultural and forestry residues. 26 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  3. 29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1915.1002...EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term....

  4. 29 CFR 1926.1102 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1926.1102...CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1102 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term....

  5. Analysis of nodal point pollution, variability, and sustainability in mesohaline tidal creeks.

    PubMed

    Muller, Andrew; Muller, Diana

    2014-08-15

    Mesohaline tidal creeks are critical since they may lie at the crossroads of aquatic habitat and urban/sub-urban pressures. The emphasis of this study was to determine the water quality stressor variations within and between tidal creeks and determine whether they serve as nodes of pollutants into the sub-estuary. Measurements of water quality stressors were conducted over a six-year period. The study revealed that characterizing the variability of individual tidal creeks is critical to understanding the process and impacts of stressors in sub-estuarine environments and that the tidal creeks are actually nodal points of sediment and nutrient pollution. This results in hypoxia being controlled within tidal creeks rather than being imported from the parent estuary. The calculated metrics were then used to create a Sustainability Characterization Map. Methods incorporated in this study would be of value to restoration managers, and in the decision-making process of urban and suburban watershed planners. PMID:24997875

  6. Investigation of the distribution of tar components by fractions as a function of the tar moisture level

    SciTech Connect

    Gogoleva, T.Y.; Plastun, A.A.; Maksimov, L.S.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of the fractions obtained in the refining of coal tar was presented. The concentrations of the various components of the fractions were determined as a function of the moisture. Six fractions were obtained--a light fraction, a phenolic fraction, a naphthalene fraction, a wash oil fraction, and two anthracene fractions. An increase in moisture level of the tar caused high losses of naphthalene to the light and phenolic fractions and decreased the quality of the wash oil. The use of a steam stripper to remove naphthalene from the wash oil fraction reduced the effectiveness of the wash oil for recovery of benzene from coke oven gas.

  7. Determining the characteristics of the direct coke oven gas tar fog

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. G. Nazarov; G. Vshivtsev; S. P. Simonov

    1982-01-01

    In the cooling of coke oven gas, the principal part of the tar in the gas main condenses and is discharged to the mechanical clarifiers with the water. The remaining part of the tar is present chiefly in the form of fog. The vapor phase of the tar is insignificant and consists primarily of fractions boiling below 300°C. Separation of

  8. Catalytic pyrolysis of coal tar and the dynamics of gases sorbed in polymers probed by NMR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cain

    1989-01-01

    The pyrolysis of a bituminous coal tar in a fixed bed reactor, was investigated. Potential catalysts and the effect of temperature and residence time on tar conversion was also investigated. The observed temperature dependence of tar conversion was then used to model the kinetics of these reactions by applying a lumped parameter approach. The strongest catalytic activity was displayed by

  9. Tar removal from biomass pyrolysis gas in two-step function of decomposition and adsorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thana Phuphuakrat; Tomoaki Namioka; Kunio Yoshikawa

    2010-01-01

    Tar content in syngas pyrolysis is a serious problem for fuel gas utilization in downstream applications. This paper investigated tar removal, by the two-step function of decomposition and adsorption, from the pyrolysis gas. The temperature of the tar decomposition process was fixed at 800°C both with and without steam, with air as the reforming agent. Both steam and air had

  10. Monument Creek hydraulics project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Eric Leonard

    Students are given some general questions (file "IntroQuestions_07.pdf") related to project design during the class session before the main project is handed out. They need to use their textbook and/or other class resources to attempt to answer these questions and to prepare to discuss them the next class session. These questions concern field reconstruction of flood hydraulics, specifically. of bankfull flow. At this next class session we discuss their answers to the preliminary questions. Students are then given the main project handout (Monument_Ck_Problem_07.pdf). This gives them the general questions to be answered in the project. After reading it, students brainstorm again as a class about how to go about answering the questions. Students then divide themselves into research of three. These teams will synthesize data together and ultimately write up the project together. Each team then sends one member to join members of other teams to do one of the three main aspects of the field or computer work (1) field identification of the bankfull channel and measurement of bankfull channel geometry, (2) field determination of modern channel roughness from modern stream hydraulics (Manning's n is back-calculated from present channel geometry and flow), (3) development of a flood-frequency curve for this reach of Monument Creek from USGS discharge data. These working groups (with one member from each research team) work initially independently in the field and subsequently doing calculations in the lab, or on the computer. Once each working group has completed what it can do on its own, these groups split up and each member of each group carries the groups results back to his/her research team, and explains to the other members of the research team what he/she has done to this point and what results he/she has for the team. The team then works to synthesize he results into an overall answer to the questions posed at the beginning of the lab (confusing enough for you?). Each research team then writes up the results, sometimes (as in 2007) as a lab write up, in other years in scientific paper format. Whether the project is turned in simply as a lab write up or as a scientific paper, students are always asked to assess sources of error and how they might affect the results. Key words: Fluvial geomorphology, fluvial hydraulics, bankfull discharge, flood-frequency analysis Designed for a geomorphology course

  11. Sediment dynamics of an impounded river: Yegua Creek, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Martinez, Adriana Elizabeth

    2009-05-15

    distribution............. 58 25 Davidson Creek cumulative particle size distribution curves .................... 58 26 Nails and Cedar Creek cumulative particle size distribution curves.......... 59 27 Median bed sediment sizes, Yegua Creek..., cohesive sediment (Chin et al., 2002). Field observations provided preliminary evidence of substantially coarser bed material throughout West Yegua Creek (Fig. 10), Nails Creek (Fig. 11) and lower Middle Yegua Creek (Fig. 8). Banks along Yegua Creek...

  12. LINCOLN CREEK ROADLESS AREA, NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.; Stebbins, Scott A.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, the Lincoln Creek Roadless Area, Nevada was determined to have little likelihood for the occurrence of mineral resources. Geologic terrane favorable for the occurrence of contact-metasomatic tungsten deposits exists, but no evidence for this type of mineralization was identified. The geologic setting precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels and no other energy resources were identified.

  13. Sunset over Pine Creek Canyon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Rock Canyon is a National Conservation Area managed by the Bureau of Land Management, located just outside of Las Vegas, Nevada. It is part of...

  14. Sunset in Pine Creek Canyon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Rock Canyon is a National Conservation Area managed by the Bureau of Land Management, located just outside of Las Vegas, Nevada. It is part of...

  15. Manzanita in Pine Creek Canyon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Rock Canyon is a National Conservation Area managed by the Bureau of Land Management, located just outside of Las Vegas, Nevada. It is part of...

  16. Yucca in Pine Creek Canyon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Rock Canyon is a National Conservation Area managed by the Bureau of Land Management, located just outside of Las Vegas, Nevada. It is part of...

  17. OXYGEN AERATION AT NEWTOWN CREEK

    EPA Science Inventory

    A successful initial feasibility investigation of oxygen aeration at the 0.11-cu m/sec (2.5-mgd) municipal wastewater treatment plant in Batavia, New York, prompted a larger demonstration at New York City's 13.6-cu m/sec (310-mgd) Newtown Creek Plant. A 34-mo evaluation was perfo...

  18. Oxley Creek Common Brisbane, Australia

    E-print Network

    Queensland, University of

    development at Oxley Creek Common is the Red Shed, which is beside the car park (plenty of space). The Red) and 9am in the winter. On most weekends, The Mound near the Red Shed is used by model aircraft enthusiasts. People walking dogs, which scare a few species, often arrive at the Common very early. Path near

  19. Phytotoxicity and Plant Productivity Analysis of Tar-Enriched Biochars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, M. L.; Masiello, C. A.; Dugan, B.; Rudgers, J. A.; Capareda, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    Biochar is one of the three by-products obtained by the pyrolysis of organic material, the other two being syngas and bio-oil. The pyrolysis of biomass has generated a great amount of interest in recent years as all three by-products can be put toward beneficial uses. As part of a larger project designed to evaluate the hydrologic impact of biochar soil amendment, we generated a biochar through fast pyrolysis (less than 2 minutes) of sorghum stock at 600°C. In the initial biochar production run, the char bin was not purged with nitrogen. This inadvertent change in pyrolysis conditions produced a fast-pyrolysis biochar enriched with tars. We chose not to discard this batch, however, and instead used it to test the impact of tar-enriched biochars on plants. A suite of phytotoxicity tests were run to assess the effects of tar-rich biochar on plant germination and plant productivity. We designed the experiment to test for negative effects, using an organic carbon and nutrient-rich, greenhouse- optimized potting medium instead of soil. We used Black Seeded Simpson lettuce (Lactuca sativa) as the test organism. We found that even when tars are present within biochar, biochar amendment up to 10% by weight caused increased lettuce germination rates and increased biomass productivity. In this presentation, we will report the statistical significance of our germination and biomass data, as well as present preliminary data on how biochar amendment affects soil hydrologic properties.

  20. TAR Channel Access Mechanism For VANET Safety-Critical Situations

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    TAR Channel Access Mechanism For VANET Safety-Critical Situations Ines Khoufi, Bachar Wehbi, Anis Abstract-- Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) is among the most relevant forms of mobile ad-hoc networks. VANET helps improving traffic safety and efficiency. By exchanging information between each others

  1. Hydraulic mining technique for recovering bitumen from tar sand deposit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Redford

    1976-01-01

    Viscous petroleum including bitumen may be recovered for subterranean petroleum containing unconsolidated said formations such as tar sand deposits by hydraulic mining. Hot water or steam is introduced into the subterranean deposit with sufficient velocity to dislodge bitumen and particles of sand therefrom. The process is a single wellbore operation using rotatable vertically moveable injection string with one or more

  2. CHARACTERIZATION AND POTENTIAL UTILIZATION OF WHITEROCKS (UTAH) TAR SAND BITUMEN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi Hslng Tsai; Milind D. Deo; Francis V. Hanson; Alex G. Oblad

    1991-01-01

    The native Whiterocks (Utah) tar sand bitumen was separated into several boiling range fractions for detailed analysis and characterization. The lighter fraction (477-617 K) was evaluated for use as a transportation fuel and the residues (>617 K and >728 K) were evaluated for use as road asphalts. The 617 K plus residue from the Whiterocks bitumen can be classified as

  3. Is promise of Alberta's tar sands nearing reality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stauffer

    1993-01-01

    Alberta's far north shares a vital element with Saudi Arabia: Many hundreds of billions of barrels of oil. The Energy Resources and Conservation Board counts one trillion barrels, four to five times above Saudi Arabia's reserves. To date, though, it has not been economic to tap these reserves, which are in the form of tar sands. Now, however, a new

  4. Extraction of vanadium from athabasca tar sands fly ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. O. Gomez-Bueno; D. R. Spink; G. L. Rempel

    1981-01-01

    The production of refinery grade oil from the Alberta tar sands deposits as currently practiced by Suncor (formally Great Canadian Oil Sands Ltd.---GCOS) generates a substantial amount of petroleum coke fly ash which contains appreciable amounts of valuable metals such as vanadium, nickel and titanium. Although the recovery of vanadium from petroleum ash is a well established commercial practice, it

  5. Release of polyaromatic hydrocarbons from coal tar contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Priddy, N.D.; Lee, L.S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Agronomy

    1996-11-01

    A variety of process wastes generated from manufactured gas production (MGP) have contaminated soils and groundwater at production and disposal sites. Coal tar, consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons present as a nonaqueous phase liquid, makes up a large portion of MGP wastes. Of the compounds in coal tar, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the major constituents of environmental concern due to their potential mutagenic and carcinogenic hazards. Characterization of the release of PAHs from the waste-soil matrix is essential to quantifying long-term environmental impacts in soils and groundwater. Currently, conservative estimates for the release of PAHs to the groundwater are made assuming equilibrium conditions and using relationships derived from artificially contaminated soils. Preliminary work suggests that aged coal tar contaminated soils have much lower rates of desorption and a greater affinity for retaining organic contaminants. To obtain better estimates of desorption rates, the release of PAHs from a coal tar soil was investigated using a flow-interruption, miscible displacement technique. Methanol/water solutions were employed to enhance PAH concentrations above limits of detection. For each methanol/water solution employed, a series of flow interrupts of varying times was invoked. Release rates from each methanol/water solution were estimated from the increase in concentration with duration of flow interruption. Aqueous-phase release rates were then estimated by extrapolation using a log-linear cosolvency model.

  6. Identification and characterization of wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Rosensteel, B.A. [JAYCOR, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trettin, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify, characterize, and map the wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed. A preliminary wetland categorization system based on the Cowardin classification system (Cowardin et al. 1979) with additional site-specific topographic, vegetation, and disturbance characteristic modifiers was developed to characterize the type of wetlands that exist in the Bear Creek watershed. An additional objective was to detect possible relationships among site soils, hydrology, and the occurrence of wetlands in the watershed through a comparison of existing data with the field survey. Research needs are discussed in the context of wetland functions and values and regulatory requirements for wetland impact assessment and compensatory mitigation.

  7. Evaluation of the Steel Creek ecosystem in relation to the proposed restart of L reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.H.; Sharitz, R.R.; Gladden, J.B.

    1981-10-01

    Information is presented on the following subjects: habitat and vegetation, the avifauna, semi-aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates, and aquatic communities of Steel Creek, species of special concern, and radiocesium in Steel Creek. Two main goals of the study were the compilation of a current inventory of the flora and fauna of the Steel Creek ecosystem and an assessment of the probable impacts of radionuclides, primarily /sup 137/Cs, that were released into Steel Creek during earlier reactor operations. Although a thorough evaluation of the impacts of the L reactor restart is impossible at this time, it is concluded that the effects on the Steel Creek ecosystem will be substantial if no mitigative measures are taken. (JGB)

  8. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 2. Appendixes A, B, C, and D-Biota and representative concentrations of contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 2 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  9. Impact of variability in coastal fog on photosynthesis and dissolved oxygen levels in shallow water habitats: Salmon Creek estuary case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Largier, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal fog reduces available light levels that in turn reduce rates of photosynthesis and oxygen production. This effect can be seen in perturbations of the day-night production-respiration cycle that leads to increase and decrease in dissolved oxygen in shallow-water habitats. In well stratified coastal lagoons, a lower layer may be isolated from the atmosphere so that small changes in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) are evident in perturbations of the typical day-night cycle of oxygen concentration. This effect is observed in the summertime, mouth-closed Salmon Creek Estuary, located in Sonoma County (California). Sub-diurnal fluctuations in dissolved oxygen in Salmon Creek Estuary correlate with deviations from the clear-sky diurnal cycle in PAR. Similar effects are observed in other estuaries and the process by which fog controls photosynthesis can be expected to occur throughout coastal California, although the effect may not be easily observable in data collected from open waters where mixing and bloom dynamics are likely to dominate temporal variability in biogenic properties like dissolved oxygen.

  10. Evolution of dissolved organic matter during abiotic oxidation of coal tar--comparison with contaminated soils under natural attenuation.

    PubMed

    Hanser, Ogier; Biache, Coralie; Boulangé, Marine; Parant, Stéphane; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Billet, David; Michels, Raymond; Faure, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    In former coal transformation plants (coking and gas ones), the major organic contamination of soils is coal tar, mainly composed of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Air oxidation of a fresh coal tar was chosen to simulate the abiotic natural attenuation impact on PAC-contaminated soils. Water-leaching experiments were subsequently performed on fresh and oxidized coal tars to study the influence of oxidation on dissolved organic matter (DOM) quality and quantity. The characterization of the DOM was performed using a combination of molecular and spectroscopic techniques (high-performance liquid chromatography-size-exclusion chromatography (HPLC-SEC), 3D fluorescence, and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS)) and compared with the DOM from contaminated soils sampled on the field exposed to natural attenuation for several decades. An increase in the oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compound concentrations was observed with abiotic oxidation both in the coal tar and the associated DOM. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the leachates exceeded pure water solubility limits, suggesting that co-solvation with other soluble organic compounds occurred. Furthermore, emission excitation matrix analysis combined with synchronous fluorescence spectra interpretation and size-exclusion chromatography suggests that oxidation induced condensation reactions which were responsible for the formation of higher-molecular weight compounds and potentially mobilized by water. Thus, the current composition of the DOM in aged soils may at least partly result from (1) a depletion in lower-molecular weight compounds of the initial contamination stock and (2) an oxidative condensation leading to the formation of a higher-molecular weight fraction. Abiotic oxidation and water leaching may therefore be a significant combination contributing to the evolution of coal tar-contaminated soils under natural attenuation. PMID:25146121

  11. FIDDLER CREEK POLYMER AUGMENTATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle A. Johnson, Jr.

    2001-10-31

    The Fiddler Creek field is in Weston County, Wyoming, and was discovered in 1948. Secondary waterflooding recovery was started in 1955 and terminated in the mid-1980s with a fieldwide recovery of approximately 40%. The West Fiddler Creek Unit, the focus of this project, had a lower recovery and therefore has the most remaining oil. Before the project this unit was producing approximately 85 bbl of oil per day from 20 pumping wells and 17 swab wells. The recovery process planned for this project involved adapting two independent processes, the injection of polymer as a channel blocker or as a deep-penetrating permeability modifier, and the stabilization of clays and reduction of the residual oil saturation in the near-wellbore area around the injection wells. Clay stabilization was not conducted because long-term fresh water injection had not severely reduced the injectivity. It was determined that future polymer injection would not be affected by the clay. For the project, two adjoining project patterns were selected on the basis of prior reservoir studies and current well availability and production. The primary injection well of Pattern 1 was treated with a small batch of MARCIT gel to create channel blocking. The long-term test was designed for three phases: (1) 77 days of injection of a 300-mg/l cationic polyacrylamide, (2) 15 days of injection of a 300-mg/l anionic polymer to ensure injectivity of the polymer, and (3) 369 days of injection of the 300-mg/l anionic polymer and a 30:1 mix of the crosslinker. Phases 1 and 2 were conducted as planned. Phase 3 was started in late March 1999 and terminated in May 2001. In this phase, a crosslinker was added with the anionic polymer. Total injection for Phase 3 was 709,064 bbl. To maintain the desired injection rate, the injection pressure was slowly increased from 1,400 psig to 2,100 psig. Early in the application of the polymer, it appeared that the sweep improvement program was having a positive effect on Pattern 1 with lesser effects in Pattern 2. These early observations did not continue to develop. The oil production for both patterns remained fairly constant to the rates established by the restart of waterflooding. The water production declined but stabilized in both patterns. The stabilization of the oil at prepolymer rates and water production at the lower rates can be attributed to the polymer injection, but the effect was not as great as originally predicted. The sweep improvement for the patterns appeared to be negatively impacted by extended shutdowns in the injection and production systems. Such problems as those experienced in this project can be expected when long-term polymer injection is started in old waterflood fields. To prevent these problems, new injection and production tubulars and pumps would be required at a cost prohibitive to the present, independent operators. Unless the future results from the continued waterflood show positive effects of the long-term polymer injection, it appears that the batch-type polymer treatment may have more promise than the long-term treatment and should be more cost effective.

  12. Extraction of vanadium from athabasca tar sands fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Bueno, C. O.; Spink, D. R.; Rempel, G. L.

    1981-06-01

    The production of refinery grade oil from the Alberta tar sands deposits as currently practiced by Suncor (formally Great Canadian Oil Sands Ltd.—GCOS) generates a substantial amount of petroleum coke fly ash which contains appreciable amounts of valuable metals such as vanadium, nickel and titanium. Although the recovery of vanadium from petroleum ash is a well established commercial practice, it is shown in the present work that such processes are not suitable for recovery of vanadium from the GCOS fly ash. The fact that the GCOS fly ash behaves so differently when compared to other petroleum fly ash is attributed to its high silicon and aluminum contents which tie up the metal values in a silica-alumina matrix. Results of experiments carried out in this investigation indicate that such matrices can be broken down by application of a sodium chloride/water roast of the carbon-free fly ash. Based on results from a series of preliminary studies, a detailed investigation was undertaken in order to define optimum conditions for a vanadium extraction process. The process developed involves a high temperature (875 to 950 °C) roasting of the fly ash in the presence of sodium chloride and water vapor carried out in a rotary screw kiln, followed by dilute sodium hydroxide atmosphereic leaching (98 °C) to solublize about 85 pet of the vanadium originally present in the fly ash. It was found that the salt roasting operation, besides enhancing vanadium recovery, also inhibits silicon dissolution during the subsequent leaching step. The salt roasting treatment is found to improve vanadium recovery significantly when the fly ash is fully oxidized. This is easily achieved by burning off the carbon present in the “as received” fly ash under excess air. The basic leaching used in the new process selectively dissolves vanadium from the roasted ash, leaving nickel and titanium untouched.

  13. Characterisation of naturally and artificially weathered pine tar coatings by visual assessment and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inger Marie Egenberg; Ann Katrin Holtekjølen; Elsa Lundanes

    2003-01-01

    Tarring experiments with pine tar from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) obtained from a traditionally accomplished kiln production have been carried out, in order to investigate potentials of improvement concerning tarring of the preserved Norwegian medieval stave churches. Pine tar coated test panels of pine wood were exposed to three different natural climates in Norway and on a regular basis characterised

  14. Thrombocytopenia-absent radius (TAR) syndrome: a clinical genetic series of 14 further cases. impact of the associated 1q21.1 deletion on the genetic counselling.

    PubMed

    Houeijeh, Ali; Andrieux, Joris; Saugier-Veber, Pascale; David, Albert; Goldenberg, Alice; Bonneau, Dominique; Fouassier, Marc; Journel, Hubert; Martinovic, Jelana; Escande, Fabienne; Devisme, Louise; Bisiaux, Sophie; Chaffiotte, Caroline; Baux, Mathilde; Kerckaert, Jean-Pierre; Holder-Espinasse, Muriel; Manouvrier-Hanu, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia-absent radius Syndrome (TAR) is a rare congenital malformation syndrome of complicated transmission. 1q21.1 deletion is necessary but not sufficient for its expression. We report the result of a French multicentric clinical study, and we emphasized on the role of the associated 1q21.1 deletion in the diagnosis and the genetic counselling of our patients. We gathered information on 14 patients presenting with TAR syndrome and referred for genetic counselling in six different university hospitals (8 foetuses, 1 child and 5 adults). Clinical or pathology details, as well as skeletal X-rays were analyzed. Genetic studies were performed by Array-CGH, and Quantitative Multiplex PCR. We demonstrated the very variable phenotypes of TAR syndrome. Female:male ratio was ?2:1. All patients presented with bilateral radial aplasia/hypoplasia with preserved thumbs. Phocomelia and lower limb anomalies were present in 28% of the cases. We reported the first case of cystic hygroma on affected foetus. 1q21.1 deletions ranging from 330 to 1100 kb were identified in all affected patients. Most of them were inherited from one healthy parent (80%). The identification of a 1q21.1 deletion allowed confirmation of TAR syndrome diagnosis, particularly in foetuses and in atypical phenotypes. Additionally, it allowed accurate genetic counselling, especially when it occurred de novo. These findings allowed discussing the diagnostic criteria and management towards TAR syndrome. PMID:21635976

  15. Prenatal detection of TAR syndrome in a fetus with compound inheritance of an RBM8A SNP and a 334?kb deletion: a case report.

    PubMed

    Papoulidis, Ioannis; Oikonomidou, Eirini; Orru, Sandro; Siomou, Elisavet; Kontodiou, Maria; Eleftheriades, Makarios; Bacoulas, Vasilios; Cigudosa, Juan C; Suela, Javier; Thomaidis, Loretta; Manolakos, Emmanouil

    2014-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia?absent radius syndrome (TAR) is a rare genetic disorder that is characterized by the absence of the radius bone in each forearm and a markedly reduced platelet count that results in life?threatening bleeding episodes (thrombocytopenia). Tar syndrome has been associated with a deletion of a segment of 1q21.1 cytoband. The 1q21.1 deletion syndrome phenotype includes Tar and other features such as mental retardation, autism and microcephaly. This study describes a case of a prenatally diagnosed fetus with compound inheritance of a small (334 kb) deletion, as detected by array?comparative genomic hybridization, and a 5' untranslated region (UTR) low?frequency allele (rs139428292) in gene RBM8A as detected by Sanger sequencing. The study describes the first case of prenatal analysis of TAR syndrome in a fetus with compound inheritance of a 334?kb deletion in the 1q21.1 region and a low?frequency 5' UTR single nucleotide polymorphism, and provides confirmation of the causal nature of the RBM8A gene in the diagnosis of TAR syndrome. PMID:24220582

  16. The temporal relationship between advertising and sales of low?tar cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Mark B; Anderson, Christy M; Burns, David M

    2006-01-01

    Objective and hypothesis To determine whether a temporal relationship exists between the advertising and sales of low?tar cigarettes. It was hypothesised that increases in the advertising of low?tar cigarettes would precede increases in sales for these cigarettes. Methods The themes of cigarette advertisements were reviewed and coded for 20 low?tar cigarette brands advertised in 13 widely read magazines in the US between 1960 and 1996. These 20 brands represented most of the low?tar cigarette advertisements and cigarette sales from 1967 to 1996. Cigarette sales data were obtained from the 1994 Maxwell report that summarises all cigarette sales from 1925 to 1990. If the advertisement referred to the low?tar attributes of the cigarette advertised, the advertisement was coded as having a low?tar theme and was included in the analysis. Results Five different graphical presentations of the relationship between the advertising and sales of the 20 low?tar cigarette brands showed a temporal relationship between low?tar advertising and sales for these brands. This relationship was observed for brands that introduced a low?tar alternative into an existing brand family (eg, Marlboro Light) and for new exclusively low?tar brands (eg, Carlton). Despite large increases in the advertising for the exclusively low?tar brands, sales of these brands remained low relative to sales of the low?tar alternative brands. Conclusions Increases in print advertising of 20 of the most popular low?tar cigarette brands were followed by increases in sales for these cigarettes. Despite increases in the advertising of exclusively low?tar brands in the mid?1970s and early 1980s, the sales of these brands never matched the sales of the low?tar alternative brands. This suggests that it may have been easier to get smokers to switch to low?tar brands within a brand family compared with entirely new low?tar brands. Over the past 30?years, the marketing of low?tar cigarettes as a healthier alternative to higher?tar cigarettes has resulted in these brands dominating the market, and may have kept concerned smokers from quitting. PMID:17130371

  17. WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, STOCKNEY CREEK, IDAHO COUNTY, IDAHO. 1986

    EPA Science Inventory

    A water quality monitoring study was conducted on Stockney Creek (17060305) for the following purposes: 1) to determine baseline water quality; 2) to document water quality effects of spring and storm agricultural runoff; and 3) to determine whether implementation of Best Manage...

  18. MILK CREEK, TETON COUNTY, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1986

    EPA Science Inventory

    Milk Creek, Idaho (17040204) was identified in the Agricultural Pollution Abatement Plans as a second priority stream segment for the reduction of agriculture related pollutants. A water quality study was conducted from March through June 1986 as part of the agricultural plannin...

  19. ROCK CREEK RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM, 1988 ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Implementation of the Rock Creek (17040212) rural clean water program began in 1980, following a Section 208 planning study. Contracting phases concluded on September 30, 1986. Best Management Practices (BMP) implementation phase began in 1980. As of 1 Oct 88, 38% of the contr...

  20. Groundwater contamination near the Hoe Creek UCG experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. T. Wang; S. W. Mead; D. H. Stuermer

    1981-01-01

    It has been shown that underground coal gasification (UCG) may introduce a broad range of residual gasification products into the groundwater of a coal aquifer. Sorption of many contaminants by the coal itself is an important factor in restricting the migration of these contaminants in the groundwater. However, our field studies, conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Hoe Creek site,

  1. Application of an Ecological Model for the Cibolo Creek Watershed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Price; Terry McLendon; Cade Coldren

    BACKGROUND: The U.S. Army Engineer District, Fort Worth (CESWF) is involved in demon- strating the utility of an ecological model in the performance and interpretation of a comprehensive General Investigations (GI) study of the Cibolo Creek watershed upstream of Interstate 10 near San Antonio, Texas. Partners to the District in this project are the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), U.S.

  2. Spatial distribution of pipe collapses in Goodwin Creek Watershed, Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal erosion of soil pipes can induce pipe collapses that affect soil erosion process and landform evolution. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial distribution of pipe collapses in agricultural fields of Goodwin Creek watershed. Ground survey was carried out to detect pipe co...

  3. Herbicide Transport Trends in Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrologic transport of soil-applied herbicides continues to be of great concern relative to contamination of surface waters in the United States. The objectives of this study were to analyze trends in herbicide concentrations and loads in Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed (GCEW) from 1992 to 2...

  4. Study of LANDSAT-D thematic mapper performance as applied to hydrocarbon exploration. [Southern Ontario, Lawton, Oklahoma; Owl Creek, Wyoming; Washington, D.C.; and Death Valley California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, J. R. (principal investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Improved delineation of known oil and gas fields in southern Ontario and a spectacularly high amount of structural information on the Owl Creek, Wyoming scene were obtained from analysis of TM data. The use of hue, saturation, and value image processing techniques on a Death Valley, California scene permitted direct comparison of TM processed imagery with existing 1:250,000 scale geological maps of the area and revealed small outcrops of Tertiary volcanic material overlying Paleozoic sections. Analysis of TM data over Lawton, Oklahoma suggests that the reducing chemical environment associated with hydrocarbon seepage change ferric iron to soluble ferrous iron, allowing it to be leached. Results of the band selection algorithm show a suprising consistency, with the 1,4,5 combination selected as optimal in most cases.

  5. Love Garden AntelopeCreek

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    St. 12thSt. 13thSt. 14thSt. 20thSt. 16thSt. 17thSt. 18thSt. 19thSt. Vine St. 'Y' St. 'R' St. 'Q' St. 'P. I-80South 'S' St. Vine St. 14thSt. X STREET AntelopeValleyParkway Holdrege St. Salt Creek Roadway 'Y Hall Devaney Sports Center Track Office Bldg. Nebraska Champions Club Center Husker Hall Vine St

  6. Love Garden AntelopeCreek

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    St. 12thSt. 13thSt. 14thSt. 20thSt. 16thSt. 17thSt. 18thSt. 19thSt. Vine St. 'Y' St. 'R' St. 'Q' St. 'P. I-80South 'S' St. Vine St. 14thSt. X STREET AntelopeValleyParkway Holdrege St. Salt Creek Roadway 'Y Office Bldg. Nebraska Champions Club Center Husker Hall Vine St.Apts. Othmer Hall Temple Bldg. Alexander

  7. PINE CREEK ROADLESS AREA, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, George W.; Denton, David K., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Examination of the Pine Creek Roadless Area, Oregon indicates that there is little likelihood for the occurrence of energy or metallic mineral resources in the area. No mines or mineral prospects were identified during the investigation. Although nearby parts of Harney Basin are characterized by higher than normal heat flow, indicating that the region as a whole may have some as yet undefined potential for the occurrence of the geothermal energy resources, no potential for this resource was identified in the roadless area.

  8. Paleontology, paleoclimatology and paleoecology of the late middle miocene Musselshell Creek flora, Clearwater County Idaho. A preliminary study of a new fossil flora

    SciTech Connect

    Baghai, N.L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Jorstad, R.B. [Eastern Illinois Univ., Charleston, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Musselshell Creek flora (12.0-10.5 Ma) of northern Idaho is used to reconstruct paleoclimatic and paleoecologic parameters of the Pacific Northwest during the late Middle Miocene. Other megafossil and microfossil floral records spanning 12.0-6.4 Ma are unknown from this region. The Musselshell Creek fossil flora, previously undescribed, is preserved in lacustrine clays and sediments that accumulated in a narrow valley surrounded by rugged terrain. Dominant taxa include dicotyledons and conifers. Most of the leaves are preserved as impressions or compressions. Some fossil leaves retained their original pigmentation, cellular anatomy, and organic constituents. Other fossils include excellent remains of pollen and spores, dispersed leaf cuticle, pyritized wood, and disarticulated fish bones. A destructive statistical analysis of one block of sediment, approximately 30 cm x 45 cm (1.5 sq. ft) recovered 14 orders, 23 families, and 34 genera of spermatophyte plant fossils. These floral elements are compared with two other earlier Miocene floras which were similarly sampled. Common megafossil genera include Quercus, Zizy-phoides, Taxodium, Alnus, Castanea, Magnolia, Acer, Ex-bucklandia, Sequoia, Populus, and Betula. The rare occurrence of Ginkgo leaves is a first record of this taxon in the Idaho Miocene. Additional plant taxa, are represented by palynomorphs. Common pollen taxa are Pinus, Abies, Carya, Quercus, and Tilia. Most of the megafossil and microfossil flora assemblage is characteristic of a streambank to floodplain environment that existed in a warm to cool temperate climate similar to the modern Mid-Atlantic coast of the United States. 47 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. 63. SURVEY OF RESERVOIR SITE ON LITTLE ROCK CREEK FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. SURVEY OF RESERVOIR SITE ON LITTLE ROCK CREEK FOR PALMDALE WATER CO., J.B. LIPPINCOTT ENGINEERING OFFICES; OCTOBER, 1915. Palmdale Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 2. General perspective view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. General perspective view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, view looking north, east side of structure - Neawanna Creek Bridge, Spanning Neawanna Creek at Milepoint 19.72 on U.S. 101 (Oregon Coast Highway), Seaside, Clatsop County, OR

  11. 5. General perspective view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, showing articulated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. General perspective view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, showing articulated fascia walls - Neawanna Creek Bridge, Spanning Neawanna Creek at Milepoint 19.72 on U.S. 101 (Oregon Coast Highway), Seaside, Clatsop County, OR

  12. 4. General perspective view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. General perspective view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, view looking northwest - Neawanna Creek Bridge, Spanning Neawanna Creek at Milepoint 19.72 on U.S. 101 (Oregon Coast Highway), Seaside, Clatsop County, OR

  13. 3. General perspective view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General perspective view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, view looking north, west side of structure - Neawanna Creek Bridge, Spanning Neawanna Creek at Milepoint 19.72 on U.S. 101 (Oregon Coast Highway), Seaside, Clatsop County, OR

  14. 1. Topographic view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, view looking northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Topographic view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, view looking northeast - Neawanna Creek Bridge, Spanning Neawanna Creek at Milepoint 19.72 on U.S. 101 (Oregon Coast Highway), Seaside, Clatsop County, OR

  15. 59. Credit FM. Flood waters on South Battle Creek next ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Credit FM. Flood waters on South Battle Creek next to powerhouse. Note height of water in relation to tailraces. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  16. 122. Credit JE. Millseat Creek above the intake of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. Credit JE. Millseat Creek above the intake of the ditch leading to the Volta forebay. (JE, v. 12 1902 p. 233). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  17. 77 FR 10960 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Snake Creek, Islamorada, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ...USCG-2012-0047] Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Snake Creek, Islamorada, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard...from the regulation governing the operation of Snake Creek Bridge, mile 0.5, across Snake Creek, in Islamorada, Florida. The...

  18. Topographic view of the Spring Creek Bridge and Collier State ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Topographic view of the Spring Creek Bridge and Collier State Park, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  19. Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  20. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking northwest. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  1. Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  2. Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  3. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  4. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking southeast. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  5. 2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  6. 1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and silt sluice gate (center), main canal headworks (to right), view to northwest - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  7. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  8. 75 FR 43915 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ...Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY: Rural Utilities...Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed Deer Creek Station Energy Facility project...construct, own, operate, and maintain the Deer Creek Station Energy Facility, a 300...

  9. 75 FR 8895 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ...Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY: Rural Utilities...Impact Statement (DEIS) for the proposed Deer Creek Station in White, Brookings County...construct the proposed 300 megawatt (MW) Deer Creek Station in Brookings and Deuel...

  10. 75 FR 33238 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ...Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY: Rural Utilities...Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed Deer Creek Station project in Brookings and...construct the proposed 300 megawatt (MW) Deer Creek Station in Brookings and Deuel...

  11. 8. DETAIL VIEW OF DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'HARP CREEK, LUTEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW OF DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'HARP CREEK, LUTEN BRIDGE CO., CONTRACTOR, ARKANSAS STATE HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT, 1928' - Harp Creek Bridge, Spans Harp Creek at State Highway 7, Harrison, Boone County, AR

  12. Depth-gradient analysis of the Colony Creek Cycle (late Pennsylvanian) of north Texas 

    E-print Network

    Kennedy, Noel Lynne

    1986-01-01

    -2. Location of the sections studied in the Brazos River valley. m 0 32 13 THE COLONY CREEK CYCLE A COMPOSITE OF THE COLORADO RIVER SECTIONS 28 26 HOME CREEK LIMESTONE 20 I6 l2 52 78 COLONY CREEK SHALE O co co ELI IL ca ILJ 91 O ft... LAKE BRO &WOOD 15 W STAT P WK 0 @Q KE 150 metre 150 Figure l-l. Location of the sections studied in the Colorado River valley. BRAZOS RIVER VALLEY TIONS POSSUM KINGDOM LAKE ZOS RIV l6 NORTH BRAD Q6 C ADD 8 0 KM 8 Figure 1...

  13. NAME: Salt Creek Estuary Restoration LOCATION: Salt Creek Watershed, Clallam County, Washington

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    NAME: Salt Creek Estuary Restoration LOCATION: Salt Creek Watershed, Clallam County, Washington Federal funds $0 PROJECT DESCRIPTION: The Salt Creek Estuary Reconnection project will significantly enhance tidal and fluvial hydrology to 22.5 acres of salt marsh, which will return the salt marsh to its

  14. DEEP CREEK AND MUD CREEK, TWIN FALLS, IDAHO. WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1986

    EPA Science Inventory

    Deep Creek and Mud Creek are located in Twin Falls County near Buhl, Idaho (17040212). From April through October, these creeks convey irrigation drainage water from the western part of the Twin Falls irrigation tract to the Snake River. During 1986, water quality surveys were ...

  15. Process and apparatus for recovery of oil from tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, J.C.

    1982-11-30

    A crude oil product is extracted from a tar sand by first crushing the tar sand as mined and then fine grinding the crushed material in a grinding mill in the presence of a cleansing liquid, such as an aqueous solution of a caustic. The resulting slurry is passed into suitable extractor-classifier equipment, such as that shown in U.S. Pat. No. 3,814,336, in which a body of cleansing liquid is maintained. Agitation of the slurry in such maintained body of cleansing liquid substantially completes removal of the bituminous matter from the sand, and the resulting crude oil and cleansing liquid phase is discharged separately from the sand solid phase. The liquid phase is treated for the removal of residual sand particles and for the separation of residual cleansing liquid from the crude oil. The cleansing liquid so recovered is recycled and the crude oil is passed to further processing or for use as such.

  16. One-dimensional modeling of steam injection in tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.S.; Hutchinson, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    A one-dimensional numeric model of steam injection was developed and used to simulate experimental steam and hot water injection in the Asphalt Ridge tar sands. The model described a 3-phase flow system of water, steam and oil with interphase mass transfer of water. The mass and energy balance equations were solved simultaneously by a semi-implicit Sequential Solution method. The results of the linear numeric simulator showed moderate agreement with the observed results from the steam and hot water injection experiments. The simulator predicted that (1) changes in relative permeability, thermal expansion coefficient of oil and oil viscosity are important factors affecting oil recovery from tar sands, and (2) the oil response time is decreased with increasing steam injection rate and quality, and is decreased by reducing steam injection temperature. 22 references.

  17. Oil from tar sands--a significant new plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uhl

    1967-01-01

    The first synthetic crude oil from Canada's Athabasca tar sands has been in commercial production since October, when the new 45,000 b\\/cd (design capacity) installation of Great Canadian Oil Sands Ltd. at Fort McMurray, Alberta, began operations. Besides the oil, the plant is designed to produce about 2,600 tons\\/cd of petroleum coke, for use as plant fuel, and 314 tons\\/cd

  18. Extraction of vanadium from athabasca tar sands fly ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. O. Gomez-Bueno; D. R. Spink; G. L. Rempel

    1981-01-01

    The production of refinery grade oil from the Alberta tar sands deposits as currently practiced by Suncor (formally Great\\u000a Canadian Oil Sands Ltd.—GCOS) generates a substantial amount of petroleum coke fly ash which contains appreciable amounts\\u000a of valuable metals such as vanadium, nickel and titanium. Although the recovery of vanadium from petroleum ash is a well established\\u000a commercial practice, it

  19. Sydney Tar Ponds: Some Problems in Quantifying Toxic Waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EDWARD FURIMSKY

    2002-01-01

    Information on the type and amount of hazardous and toxic waste is required to develop a meaningful strategy and estimate\\u000a a realistic cost for clean up of the Sydney Tar Pond site which is located on Cape Breton, in the province of Nova Scotia,\\u000a Canada. The site covers the area of the decommissioned Sysco (Sydney Steel Corporation) plant. The materials

  20. Brown carbon in tar balls from smoldering biomass combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, R. K.; Moosmüller, H.; Chen, L.-W. A.; Lewis, K.; Arnott, W. P.; Mazzolen, C.; Dubey, M.; Wold, C. E.; Hao, W. M.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2010-03-01

    We report the direct observation of large-scale production of spherical, carbonaceous particles - "tar balls" - from smoldering combustion of two commonly occurring dry mid-latitude fuels. Real-time measurements indicate that brown carbon is an important component of tar balls. The spectrum of the imaginary parts of their complex refractive indices can be described with a Lorentzian-like model with an effective resonance wavelength in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region. Sensitivity calculations for aerosols containing traditional organic carbon (no absorption at visible and UV wavelengths) and brown carbon suggest that accounting for UV absorption by brown carbon leads to a significant increase in aerosol radiative forcing efficiency and increased atmospheric warming. Since particles from smoldering combustion account for nearly three-fourths of the total carbonaceous aerosol mass emitted globally, inclusion of the optical properties of tar balls into radiative forcing models has significance for the Earth's radiation budget, optical remote sensing, and understanding of anomalous UV absorption in the troposphere.

  1. Brown carbon in tar balls from smoldering biomass combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, R. K.; Moosmüller, H.; Chen, L.-W. A.; Lewis, K.; Arnott, W. P.; Mazzoleni, C.; Dubey, M. K.; Wold, C. E.; Hao, W. M.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2010-07-01

    We report the direct observation of laboratory production of spherical, carbonaceous particles - "tar balls" - from smoldering combustion of two commonly occurring dry mid-latitude fuels. Real-time measurements of spectrally varying absorption Ångström coefficients (AAC) indicate that a class of light absorbing organic carbon (OC) with wavelength dependent imaginary part of its refractive index - optically defined as "brown carbon" - is an important component of tar balls. The spectrum of the imaginary parts of their complex refractive indices can be described with a Lorentzian-like model with an effective resonance wavelength in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region. Sensitivity calculations for aerosols containing traditional OC (no absorption at visible and UV wavelengths) and brown carbon suggest that accounting for near-UV absorption by brown carbon leads to an increase in aerosol radiative forcing efficiency and increased light absorption. Since particles from smoldering combustion account for nearly three-fourths of the total carbonaceous aerosol mass emitted globally, inclusion of the optical properties of tar balls into radiative forcing models has significance for the Earth's radiation budget, optical remote sensing, and understanding of anomalous UV absorption in the troposphere.

  2. Comparison of laboratory and field steamfloods in tar sand

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.A. Jr.; Thomas, K.P.

    1985-09-01

    In situ recovery technologies for tar sand and heavy oil are simulated at the Western Research Institute to prepare for pilot tests and commercial operations. Wide ranges of process parameters are tested in one-dimensional reactor tubes in which the tar sand or heavy oil is uniformly reconstituted to nearly the same permeability and porosity as the field resource. Three-dimensional process performance is verified in a reactor system that demonstrates the most promising operating parameters in consolidated blocks of the field resource. Both of these reactors are capable of testing combustion or steamflood processes at pressures as high as 1000 psi. Initial laboratory simulations have tested steamflooding of Asphalt Ridge tar sand for comparison with previous results from a pilot test near Vernal, Utah. Oil production rates, properties and residual saturations have been measured for different operating conditions, reservoir properties and bitumen concentrations. Corresponding operating parameters and production performance are compared to evaluate the relationships between the laboratory simulations and the field test results. These comparisons show that the residual oil saturations and sweep efficiencies in the laboratory tests are similar to the results of the field tests. 9 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Depth-gradient analysis of the Colony Creek Cycle (late Pennsylvanian) of north Texas

    E-print Network

    Kennedy, Noel Lynne

    1986-01-01

    . The abundant and diverse microbiota in the Colony Creek, was not studied because of the uncertainties associated with recovery, and the scope of the study being limited to macrofossils. None of the organisms identified appear to be reworked, although some... OF CONTENTS Chapter I INTRODUCTION. . Location of Study. II STRATIGRAPHY AND REGIONAL GEOLOGY. Tectonic Setting. Depositional Setting. . Depositional Analysis of the Colony Creek Cycle. . Proposed Mechanism of Cycle Formation...

  4. Biomass waste gasification - Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?

    SciTech Connect

    Sulc, Jindrich; Stojdl, Jiri; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Svoboda, Karel, E-mail: svoboda@icpf.cas.cz [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR, v.v.i., Rozvojova 135, 165 02 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Smetana, Jiri; Vacek, Jiri [D.S.K. Ltd., Ujezdecek - Dukla 264, 415 01 Teplice I (Czech Republic); Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr [Dept. of Gas, Coke and Air protection, Institute of Chemical Technol., Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of one stage (co-current) and two stage gasification of wood pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Original arrangement with grate-less reactor and upward moving bed of the pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two stage gasification leads to drastic reduction of tar content in gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One stage gasification produces gas with higher LHV at lower overall ER. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Content of ammonia in gas is lower in two stage moving bed gasification. - Abstract: A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW{sub th}. The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950 Degree-Sign C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER = 0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV = 3.15 MJ/Nm{sup 3}), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950 Degree-Sign C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the second stage presented only few mass% of the inlet biomass stream.

  5. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

  6. Aquatic biology of the Redwood Creek and Mill Creek drainage basins, Redwood National Park, Humboldt and Del Norte counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwatsubo, Rick T.; Averett, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    A 2-year study of the aquatic biota in the Redwood Creek and Mill Creek drainage basins of Redwood National Park indicated that the aquatic productivity is low. Densities of coliform bacteria were low except in Prairie Creek, a tributary to Redwood Creek, where a State park, county fish hatchery, grazing land, lumber mill, and scattered residential areas are potential sources of fecal coliform bacteria. Benthic invertebrate data indicated a diverse fauna which varied considerably between streams and among stream sections. Noteworthy findings include: (1) benthic invertebrates rapidly recolonized the streambed following a major storm, and (2) man-caused disruption or sedimentation of the streambed during low flow can result in drastic reductions of the benthic invertebrate community. Seven species of fish representing species typically found in northern California coastal streams were captured during the study. Nonparametric statistical tests indicate that condition factors of steelhead trout were significantly larger at sampling stations with more insolation, regardless of drainage basin land-use history. Periphyton and phytoplankton communities were diverse, variable in numbers, and dominated by diatoms. Seston concentrations were extremely variable between stations and at each station sampled. The seston is influenced seasonally by aquatic productivity at each station and amount of allochthonous material from the terrestrial ecosystem. Time-series analysis of some seston data indicated larger and sharper peak concentrations being flushed from the logged drainage basin than from the control drainage basin. (USGS)

  7. Pollen from Laguna Verde, Blue Creek, Belize: Implications for Paleoecology, Paleoethnobotany, Agriculture, and Human Settlement 

    E-print Network

    Morse, Mckenzie

    2010-10-12

    This dissertation is a palynological examination of the Mayan archaeological site at Blue Creek, northwestern Belize. This study uncovers more than 4,500 years of environmental and agricultural history of the region, which ...

  8. Quality of water and time of travel in Goodwater and Okatoma creeks near Magee, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    An intensive quality-of-water study was conducted during a period of generally low streamflow in Goodwater and Okatoma Creeks near Magee, Miss. During the August 12-14, 1980, study, the mean specific conductance of the water at all sites was less than 59 micromhos per centimeter; the dissolved-oxygen concentrations were greater than 5.0 milligrams per liter: pH values ranged from 6.0 to 6.8, and the mean water temperature ranged from 23.0 to 27.0 Celsius. The biochemical oxygen demand and nutrient concentrations at the downstream sampling sites were higher in Goodwater Creek than in Okatoma Creek. The maximum 5-day biochemical oxygen demand was 2.7 milligrams per liter in Goodwater Creek and 1.5 milligrams per liter in Okatoma Creek. The mean concentration of total nitrogen was 1.0 and 0.71 milligrams per liter and the mean total phosphorus concentration was 0.26 and 0.10 milligrams per liter at the downstream sites on Goodwater and Okatoma Creeks, respectively. Fecal coliform densities generally were high at all sites, exceeding 4,000 colonies per 100 milliliters in both Goodwater and Okatoma Creeks. Objectionable concentrations of total cadmium, mercury, iron, and phenol were present in a sample of water. Dieldrin, chlordane, DDD, DDE, and DDT were present in a sample of bottom material collected at the downstream site of Okatoma Creek. The peak concentration of dye injected into Goodwater Creek traveled through a 1.7-mile reach at a rate of 0.3 mile per hour. (USGS)

  9. Hydrothermal Tar Mounds in Escanaba Trough, Southern Gorda Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koski, R. A.; Clague, D. A.; Rosenbauer, R. A.; Hostettler, F. D.; Kvenvolden, K. A.; Lamothe, P. J.

    2002-12-01

    Mounds of asphaltic petroleum were located and sampled by the submersible ROV Tiburon at two sites on the 3300-m-deep, sediment-covered floor of Escanaba Trough, southern Gorda Ridge. The northern site (41.01°N) consists of several individual mounds up to 1 m across and 25 cm high that occur within 100 m of active hydrothermal vents and polymetallic sulfide deposits. These mounds are not covered by sediment and serve as solid substrates for anemones and sponges. Fragments of a partly-buried tar mound at the southern site (40.69°N) were recovered near a field of inactive sulfide deposits. The mounds have a lobate morphology in which younger lobes with lustrous surfaces drape over older lobes encrusted by mud and faunal debris. In cross section, individual lobes have dense rinds, softer inner walls, and hollow cores. Coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of tar samples show the presence of a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The aliphatic fractions have homologous n-alkane distributions from n-C12 to n-C36 with Cmax = n-C28, and a distinctive even-over-odd C-number predominance. Epimer ratios for hopanes and steranes indicate hydrocarbons that are relatively immature. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are dominated by high-molecular-weight parent molecules such as pyrene and phenanthrene; alkylated derivatives are minor constituents. The aromatic fractions also contain a large unresolved complex mixture (UCM). The presence of high-molecular-weight PAH (e.g., benzo-pyrene, indeno-pyrene) reflects formation at high temperatures compared to conventional petroleum. Microwave digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analyses of the soluble organic fraction from three tar samples reveal the following concentrations: 0.1 to 0.2 wt% S, 1 to 10 ppm Mg, Al, P, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, and Ba, 1 to 100 ppb Pd and Pt, and 1 to 10 ppb Au. The insoluble residues separated from these samples, analyzed by scanning-electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, contain particles of talc, barite, Fe sulfide, and Fe oxide. Physical characteristics of the Escanaba Trough tar mounds indicate that viscous petroleum flowed onto the sea floor and condensed into solid deposits that accreted by eruption of flow lobes through breakout points on mound surfaces. The occurrence and composition of the tar mounds further indicate a hydrothermal origin for the petroleum, contemporaneous formation with sulfide deposits, and generation by rapid pyrolysis of organic matter in the sediment.

  10. Phenol-formaldehyde resin substitutes from biomass tars

    SciTech Connect

    Himmelblau, D.A. [Biocarbons Corporation, Woburn, MA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Approximately 320,000 tonnes of phenol and formaldehyde are currently used annually in North America to make adhesive resins that are used to make exterior-grade structural panels. The demand for phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins is growing faster than the demand for panels, because more adhesive is required to join/coat the surface of wood flakes (for oriented strand board - OSB) than is required to join veneer; OSB is replacing plywood as logs large enough for veneer become scarcer. Also, competitive uses for phenol and methanol (for making formaldehyde) have increased raw materials cost and threatened availability. Production of adhesive resins from biomass to reduce reliance on raw materials derived from commodity petrochemicals and to lower resin cost looks attractive. A simple fluidized-bed reactor system can be used to produce tars that can substitute for a major portion of the phenol and formaldehyde in PF resin adhesives. This can be done in an air-fluidized, single-bed reactor; no inert gas or dual-bed system is required. The key is recognizing that optimum phenolic character in the tar is not produced at the maximum tar yield, but at reactor temperatures around 600{degrees}C and short gas-phase residence times that produce a yield of about 25 to 30 weight percent. A wide range of phenols, aldehydes and other compounds capable of polymerization are produced. Feedstock can be any wood waste larger than sander dust; low cost agricultural wastes such as bagasse are also suitable. Adhesive resin is produced from the entire tar product by shifting the pH from acidic to basic with NaOH, and combining and heating the resulting resole with phenol and formaldehyde, similarly to conventional resins. Approximately half of the phenol and formaldehyde by weight can be replaced with tar. A plant producing 13,865,000 kg (30,566,000 lb) annually from 308 tonnes (340 tons) per day of green wood chips would cost approximately $8,400,000.

  11. Nekton use of intertidal creek edges in low salinity salt marshes of the Yangtze River estuary along a stream-order gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Binsong; Qin, Haiming; Xu, Wang; Wu, Jihua; Zhong, Junsheng; Lei, Guangchun; Chen, Jiakuan; Fu, Cuizhang

    2010-07-01

    Non-vegetated creek edges were investigated to explore spatial nekton use patterns in a low salinity intertidal salt marsh creek network of the Yangtze River estuary along a stream-order gradient with four creek orders. Non-vegetated creek edges were arbitrarily defined as the approximately 3 m extending from the creek bank (the marsh-creek interface) into open water. Nekton was sampled using seine nets during daytime high slack water during spring tides for two or three days each in May through July 2008. Twenty-three nekton species (16 fishes and 7 crustaceans) were caught during the study. Fishes were dominated by gobies ( Mugilogobius abei, Periophthalmus magnuspinnatus, Periophthalmus modestus, Synechogobius ommaturus), mullets ( Chelon haematocheilus, Liza affinis) and Chinese sea bass ( Lateolabrax maculatus). Crustaceans were dominated by mud crab ( Helice tientsinensis) and white prawn ( Exopalaemon carinicauda). Rank abundance curves revealed higher evenness of nekton assemblages in lower-order creeks compared to higher-order creeks. Fish abundance tended to increase with increasing creek order. Crustacean abundance was higher in the first-third order creeks than in the fourth-order creek. Dominant nekton species displayed various trends in abundance and length-frequency distributions along the stream-order gradient. The spatial separation of nekton assemblages between the first-third order creeks and the fourth-order creek could be attributed to geomorphological factors (distance to mouth and cross-sectional area). These findings indicate that both lower- and higher-order creek edges play important yet different roles for nekton species and life history stages in salt marshes.

  12. 33 CFR 117.741 - Raccoon Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Raccoon Creek. 117.741 Section 117.741 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.741 Raccoon Creek. (a) The draw of the Route 130 highway...

  13. 33 CFR 117.741 - Raccoon Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raccoon Creek. 117.741 Section 117.741 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.741 Raccoon Creek. (a) The draw of the Route 130 highway...

  14. 33 CFR 117.741 - Raccoon Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Raccoon Creek. 117.741 Section 117.741 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.741 Raccoon Creek. (a) The draw of the Route 130 highway...

  15. 33 CFR 117.741 - Raccoon Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Raccoon Creek. 117.741 Section 117.741 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.741 Raccoon Creek. (a) The draw of the Route 130 highway...

  16. 33 CFR 117.741 - Raccoon Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Raccoon Creek. 117.741 Section 117.741 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.741 Raccoon Creek. (a) The draw of the Route 130 highway...

  17. The Patroon Creek Contamination Migration Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Dufek; A. Zafran; J. T. Moore

    2006-01-01

    Shaw performed a Site Investigation (SI) for sediment within the Unnamed Tributary of the Patroon Creek, a section of the Patroon Creek, and the Three Mile Reservoir as part of the overall contract with the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to remediate the Colonie Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Site. The Unnamed Tributary formerly flowed through

  18. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile 0.8,...

  19. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile 0.8,...

  20. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile 0.8,...

  1. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile 0.8,...

  2. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile 0.8,...

  3. 33 CFR 117.571 - Spa Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spa Creek. 117.571 Section 117.571 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.571 Spa Creek. The S181 bridge, mile 4.0, at Annapolis,...

  4. Pine Creek Ranch; Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Mark E.

    2003-02-01

    This report gives information about the following four objectives: OBJECTIVE 1--Gather scientific baseline information for monitoring purposes and to assist in the development of management plans for Pine Creek Ranch; OBJECTIVE 2--Complete and implement management plans; OBJECTIVE 3--Protect, manage and enhance the assets and resources of Pine Creek Ranch; and OBJECTIVE 4--Deliverables.

  5. SALMON RESEARCH AT DEER CREEK, CALIF.

    E-print Network

    SALMON RESEARCH AT DEER CREEK, CALIF. Marine Biological Laboratory L I B rt ja. R Y FEB 2 7 1952 FISN AND WILDLIFE SERVICE #12;#12;SALMON RESEARCH AT DEER CREEK, CALIF. Marine Biological Laboratory. January, 19^2 #12;?4 4t ^^'^^^'^''C^^Jtr^ShQsfa Lake SHASTA DAM KESWICK DAM UPPER SACRAMENTO AREA AND DEER

  6. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draws of the Baltimore County...

  7. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draws of the Baltimore County...

  8. Big Canyon Creek Ecological Restoration Strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn Rasmussen; Shannon Richardson

    2007-01-01

    He-yey, Nez Perce for steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), are a culturally and ecologically significant resource within the Big Canyon Creek watershed; they are also part of the federally listed Snake River Basin Steelhead DPS. The majority of the Big Canyon Creek drainage is considered critical habitat for that DPS as well as for the federally listed Snake River

  9. 33 CFR 117.335 - Taylor Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taylor Creek. 117.335 Section 117.335 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.335 Taylor Creek. The draw of US441 bridge, mile 0.3 at...

  10. 33 CFR 117.335 - Taylor Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Taylor Creek. 117.335 Section 117.335 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.335 Taylor Creek. The draw of US441 bridge, mile 0.3 at...

  11. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw of the State highway bridge, mile...

  12. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw of the State highway bridge, mile...

  13. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw of the State highway bridge, mile...

  14. Beach tar on bermuda: Recent observations and implications for global monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James N Butler; Peter G Wells; Sharon Johnson; John J Manock

    1998-01-01

    Petroleum residues (pelagic tar) have been reported from beaches all over the world since the 1960s, and have been quantitatively measured at a few locations. At the south-facing open ocean beaches of Bermuda, rapid exchange of tar with the sea makes it possible to use the quantity of beach tar as a measure of open-ocean petroleum pollution. Brief surveys conducted

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF WESTERN COAL SURFACE MINING. PART VIII. FISH DISTRIBUTION IN TROUT CREEK, COLORADO, 1975-1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted on Trout Creek in northwestern Colorado during 1975-1976 to assess the effects of drainage from an adjacent surface coal mine on the distribution of fishes in the creek, and to relate their distribution to physical and chemical variables. A second objective ...

  16. Brooker Creek Watershed

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This case study about the environmental challenges facing a watershed in Florida can serve as a model for a watershed module. The study covers all aspects of the watershed, including its geography and hydrology, land use and population, plants and animals, as well as challenges to the quality of the watershed now appearing due to development and use of water from the watershed's streams and aquifers. Materials for students include a watershed quiz, a students' corner with puzzles, games, and links to online resources about watersheds, and tips on how to preserve watershed environments.

  17. SANDY CREEK ROADLESS AREA, MISSISSIPPI.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haley, Boyd R.; Bitar, Richard F.

    1984-01-01

    The Sandy Creek Roadless Area includes about 3. 7 sq mi in the southeastern part of Adams County, Mississippi. On the basis of a mineral survey, the area offers little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources but has a probable resource potential for oil and natural gas. It is possible that wells drilled deep enough to penetrate the older reservoirs will encounter significant quantities of oil and natural gas in the roadless area. The deposits of gravel, sand, and clay present in the area could be utilized in the construction industry, but similar deposits elsewhere are much closer to available markets.

  18. SHEEP CREEK SEEP CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The materials presented represent an assessment of site conditions related to the LaCrone property seep, located in the NW 1/4 of Section 34, Township 7E, Range 2N, near Harden City, OK. The primary objective of the study was to identify possible source(s) for the saline water, ...

  19. The inhibitory effect of extracts of cigarette tar on electron transport of mitochondria and submitochondrial particles.

    PubMed

    Pryor, W A; Arbour, N C; Upham, B; Church, D F

    1992-01-01

    Acetonitrile extracts of cigarette tar inhibit state 3 and state 4 respiration of intact mitochondria. Exposure of respiring submitochondrial particles to acetonitrile extracts of cigarette tar results in a dose-dependent inhibition of oxygen consumption and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidation. This inhibition was not due to a solvent effect since acetonitrile alone did not alter oxygen consumption or NADH oxidation. Intact mitochondria are less sensitive to extracts of tar than submitochondrial particles. The NADH-ubiquinone (Q) reductase complex is more sensitive to inhibition by tar extract than the succinate-Q reductase and cytochrome complexes. Nicotine or catechol did not inhibit respiration of intact mitochondria. Treatment of submitochondrial particles with cigarette tar results in the formation of hydroxyl radicals, detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping. The ESR signal attributable to the hydroxyl radical spin adduct requires the presence of NADH and is completely abolished by catalase and to a lesser extent superoxide dismutase (SOD). Catalase and SOD did not protect the mitochondrial respiratory chain from inhibition by tar extract, indicating that the radicals detected by ESR spin trapping are not responsible for the inhibition of the electron transport. We propose that tar causes at least two effects: (1) Tar components interact with the electron transport chain and inhibit electron flow, and (2) tar components interact with the electron transport chain, ultimately to form hydroxyl radicals. PMID:1317324

  20. Bereavement rituals in the Muscogee Creek tribe.

    PubMed

    Walker, Andrea C; Balk, David E

    2007-08-01

    A qualitative, collective case study explores bereavement rituals in the Muscogee Creek tribe. Data from interviews with 27 participants, all adult members of the tribe, revealed consensus on participation in certain bereavement rituals. Common rituals included: (a) conducting a wake service the night before burial; (b) never leaving the body alone before burial; (c) enclosing personal items and food in the casket; (d) digging graves by hand; (e) each individual throwing a handful of dirt into the grave before covering, called giving a "farewell handshake"; (f) covering the grave completely by hand; (g) building a house over the grave; (h) waiting 4 days before burial; (i) using medicine/purification; and (j) adhering to socialized mourning period. Cultural values of family, community, religion, importance of the number 4, Indian medicine, and the meaning of death contributed to the development of these rituals. PMID:17849603

  1. Ground water in Creek County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cady, Richard Carlysle

    1937-01-01

    Creek County has been designated as a problem area by the Land Use Planning Section of the Resettlement Administration. Some of the earliest oil fields to brought into production were situated in and near this county, and new fields have been opened from time to time during the ensuing years. The production of the newer fields, however, has not kept pace with the exhaustion of the older fields, and the county now presents an excellent picture of the problems involved in adjusting a population to lands that are nearly depleted of their mineral wealth. Values of land have been greatly depressed; tax collection is far in arrears; tenancy is widespread; and in addition more people will apparently be forced to depend on the income from agriculture than the land seems capable of supporting. The county as a whole is at best indifferently suitable for general farming. The Land Use planning Section proposes to study the present and seemingly immanent maladjustments of population to the resources of the land, and make recommendations for their correction. The writer was detailed to the Land Use Planning Section of Region VIII for the purposes of making studies of ground water problems in the region. In Creek County two investigations were made. In September, 1936, the writer spent about ten days investigating the availability of ground water for the irrigation of garden crops during drouths. If it proved feasible to do this generally throughout the county, the Land Use Planning Section might be able to encourage this practice. The second investigation made by the writer was in regard to the extent to which ground water supplies have been damaged by oil well brines. He was in county for four days late in January 1937, and again in March, 1937. During part of the second field trip he was accompanied by R.M. Dixon, sanitary engineer of the Water Utilization Unit of the Resettlement Administration. (available as photostat copy only)

  2. Adventures at Dry Creek

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This educational module enables students (5-12) to experience ongoing research of University of California paleontologists studying about life in Montana 60-70 million years ago. It gives students the opportunity to experience the scientific process using real research questions and data. The teacher guide provides background information, standards, a lesson plan, discussion question, handouts, assessment materials, content background, and related material. During this module students will: gain an understanding of paleontological field work, stratigraphy, geologic time, and fossils; conduct a scientific investigation by collecting, categorizing, identifying and analyzing fossils; use a key to identify fossils; read and analyze data presented in a chart and graph; use fossil data to develop multiple hypotheses about life in the past; make inferences about life in the past using direct and indirect evidence; and communicate findings with others for review.

  3. Polymerization in narrow fractions of coal tar wash-oil

    SciTech Connect

    Volkov, E.L.; Akulov, P.V.; Zhilyaev, Yu. A.; Samarkina, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    Certain changes take place in coal tar wash-oil as it is circulated through the benzol hydrocarbons recovery and distillation cycle. It undergoes condensation, loses much of its light distillates content and attains a higher cp. One major problem with coal tar wash-oil is its tendency to form polymers as it circulates through the processing cycle and comes into contact with coke-oven gas. The polymerization rate is affected by a number of factors relating to the composition of the wash-oil, the concentrations in the coke-oven gas of components capable of promoting condensation and the operating conditions in the processing cycle. It has been shown that H/sub 2/S and O/sub 2/ in the coke-oven gas greatly accelerate polymerization processes in the wash-oil. Cyanide compounds and oxides of nitrogen also impair the quality of coal tar wash-oil.The deterioration of wash-oil in circulation leads to a serious rise in its cp and the rapid build-up of deposits on the scrubber packings, with serious effects on the performances of the benzol recovery and distillation sections. We have attempted to evaluate the polymerization tendencies of individual narrow wash-oil fractions. The tests were planned to simulate the conditions under which wash-oil can condense and polymerize. The results show that polymerization proceeds most rapidly in the fractions boiling at 280 to 285 and 285 to 295/sup 0/C. They rapidly increase in density and viscosity and lower the quality of the entire oil. The most stable fractions in respect of polymerization are those boiling up to 270/sup 0/C and up to 280/sup 0/C. These tests have shown that wash-oil boiling up to 280/sup 0/C is the least liable to polymerization; its processing quality is superior and the specific consumption can thus be reduced.

  4. 2. CONTEMPORARY PHOTOGRAPH OF BIG CREEK POWERHOUSE NO. 3 TAKEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CONTEMPORARY PHOTOGRAPH OF BIG CREEK POWERHOUSE NO. 3 TAKEN FROM SAME ANGLE AS CA-167-X-1. THREE ORIGINAL PENSTOCKS PLUS FOURTH AND FIFTH PENSTOCKS (VISIBLE TO LEFT OF ORIGINAL THREE), AND THREE ORIGINAL STANDPIPES COUPLED TO FOURTH STANDPIPE SHOWN BEHIND AND ABOVE POWERHOUSE BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 3 Penstock Standpipes, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  5. Omesh Syal of Dawson Creek PEACE & LIARD 2009

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Omesh Syal of Dawson Creek PEACE & LIARD 2009 Fort St. John Melissa Asai BComm Accounting Erin of Dawson Creek Dawson Creek Julie Alexander BSc Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Brody Fraser BComm of Fort St. John Tamara Shipton of Fort St. JohnShamir Mangalji of Dawson Creek UNBC Scholars First

  6. 23. VIEW SHOWING HIGH WATER IN ROWDY CREEK WITH COLLAPSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW SHOWING HIGH WATER IN ROWDY CREEK WITH COLLAPSED SECTION IN CREEK, LOOKING NORTH TO SOUTH FROM END OF UNCOLLAPSED SECTION Winter 1931-32 - Rowdy Creek Bridge, Spanning Rowdy Creek at Fred Haight Drive, Smith River, Del Norte County, CA

  7. A postdevelopmental evaluation of Langford Creek Watershed Project 

    E-print Network

    Rico, Luis

    1971-01-01

    -run-off conversion factors to the rain- fall data figures from Clarksville yielded amounts of run-off pro- duced by each storm that affected the project area during the study pellodo Estimating the number of acres that would have been flooded with and without... had predicted that benefit would accrue as a result of restoration of productivity in the flood plains of Langford Creek. This study found that expected restoration of productivity has not actually been realized. The average actual benefit...

  8. PAH concentrations in lake sediment decline following ban on coal-tar-based pavement sealants in Austin, Texas.

    PubMed

    Van Metre, Peter C; Mahler, Barbara J

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies have concluded that coal-tar-based pavement sealants are a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban settings in large parts of the United States. In 2006, Austin, TX, became the first jurisdiction in the U.S. to ban the use of coal-tar sealants. We evaluated the effect of Austin's ban by analyzing PAHs in sediment cores and bottom-sediment samples collected in 1998, 2000, 2001, 2012, and 2014 from Lady Bird Lake, the principal receiving water body for Austin urban runoff. The sum concentration of the 16 EPA Priority Pollutant PAHs (?PAH16) in dated core intervals and surficial bottom-sediment samples collected from sites in the lower lake declined about 44% from 1998-2005 to 2006-2014 (means of 7980 and 4500 ?g kg(-1), respectively), and by 2012-2014, the decline was about 58% (mean of 3320 ?g kg(-1)). Concentrations of ?PAH16 in bottom sediment from two of three mid-lake sites decreased by about 71 and 35% from 2001 to 2014. Concentrations at a third site increased by about 14% from 2001 to 2014. The decreases since 2006 reverse a 40-year (1959-1998) upward trend. Despite declines in PAH concentrations, PAH profiles and source-receptor modeling results indicate that coal-tar sealants remain the largest PAH source to the lake, implying that PAH concentrations likely will continue to decline as stocks of previously applied sealant gradually become depleted. PMID:24930435

  9. Role of weathered coal tar pitch in the partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in manufactured gas plant site sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Muhammad F. Khalil; Upal Ghosh; Joseph P. Kreitinger [University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2006-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in manufactured gas plant (MGP) site sediments are often associated with carbonaceous particles that reduce contaminant bioavailability. Although black carbon inclusive partitioning models have been proposed to describe elevated PAH partitioning behavior, questions remain on the true loading and association of PAHs in different particle types in industrially impacted sediments. In the studied MGP sediments, the light density organic particles (coal, coke, wood, and coal tar pitch) comprised 10-20% of the total mass and 70-95% of the PAHs. The remainder of the PAHs in sediment was associated with the heavy density particles (i.e., sand, silt, and clays). Among the different particle types, coal tar pitch (quantified by a quinoline extraction method) contributed the most to the bulk sediment PAH concentration. Aqueous partition coefficients for PAHs measured using a weathered pitch sample from the field were generally an order of magnitude higher than reported for natural organic matter partitioning, and match well with theoretical predictions based on a coal tar-water partitioning model. A pitch-partitioning inclusive model is proposed that gives better estimates of the measured site-specific PAH aqueous equilibrium values than standard estimation based on natural organic matter partitioning only. Thus, for MGP impacted sediments containing weathered pitch particles, the partitioning behavior may be dominated by the sorption characteristics of pitch and not by natural organic matter or black carbon. 25 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. How binding of small molecule and peptide ligands to HIV-1 TAR alters the RNA motional landscape

    PubMed Central

    Bardaro, Michael F.; Shajani, Zahra; Patora-Komisarska, Krystyna; Robinson, John A.; Varani, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    The HIV-1 TAR RNA represents a well-known paradigm to study the role of dynamics and conformational change in RNA function. This regulatory RNA changes conformation in response to binding of Tat protein and of a variety of peptidic and small molecule ligands, indicating that its conformational flexibility and intrinsic dynamics play important roles in molecular recognition. We have used 13C NMR relaxation experiments to examine changes in the motional landscape of HIV-1 TAR in the presence of three ligands of different affinity and specificity. The ligands are argininamide, a linear peptide mimic of the Tat basic domain and a cyclic peptide that potently inhibits Tat-dependent activation of transcription. All three molecules induce the same motional characteristics within the three nucleotides bulge that represents the Tat-binding site. However, the cyclic peptide has a unique motional signature in the apical loop, which represents a binding site for the essential host co-factor cyclin T1. These results suggest that all peptidic mimics of Tat induce the same dynamics in TAR within this protein binding site. However, the new cyclic peptide mimic of Tat represents a new class of ligands with a unique effect on the dynamics and the structure of the apical loop. PMID:19139066

  11. Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Li, Ruijian (Katy, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2009-07-21

    A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

  12. Seychelles beach tars, well oil tied to same source rock

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, P. [Seychelles National Oil Co., Victoria (Seychelles)

    1995-03-20

    Geochemical analyses of beach-stranded tars from Seychelles can be correlated to comparable analyses of an oil sample from a well in the Seychelles offshore. The analyses also enable the precursor source rock to be characterized. Such a source rock was encountered in the three offshore wells and is extensively developed to the west and south of the granitic islands. The paper describes the first samples collected in 1978, recent correlation, a geochemical anomaly commonly occurring at the n-C30 peak, and prospectivity relevance.

  13. Terrestrial Laser Scanning Study of Gully Erosion at West Bijou Creek, Arapahoe County, Colorado: An Investigation on Field Acquisition and Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feliciano Bonilla, E. A.; Sheehan, A.; Tucker, G.

    2008-12-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) or ground based LiDAR (light detection and ranging) is a relatively new technology that digitally maps geological outcrops at a (mm-cm) resolution. This paper reports the results of a trial TLS project that has two main aims: collecting scans for monitoring gully erosion and conducting a survey to connect field methods of TLS with geomorphology. The site of the TLS survey was located at Arapahoe County, Colorado and data collection consisted of a three-day campaign. This project focus is applying a new approach to analyzing and measuring deformation and erosion in gully dominated landscapes. Our approach to make the survey consisted of going to the field with an Optech scanner to acquire the data, searching for different field acquisition strategies, practicing with data processing and making a web page of the project for the scientific community. A preliminary terrain model is made in Polyworks software using only twenty percent of the scans and giving us an insight of how the landscape model can look in the future. The long-term goal of this research is to keep track of the changes in the morphology of the gullies located at the West Bijou Creek in Colorado using Real Time Kinematic GPS (RTK- GPS) and Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS). Because applications of TLS in geology and geophysics are evolving rapidly, in this project a web page including a forum is made to provide the scientific community with a summary of current field acquisition practices for sharing ideas and discoveries.

  14. Rebound of a coal tar creosote plume following partial source zone treatment with permanganate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, N. R.; Fraser, M. J.; Lamarche, C.; Barker, J. F.; Forsey, S. P.

    2008-11-01

    The long-term management of dissolved plumes originating from a coal tar creosote source is a technical challenge. For some sites stabilization of the source may be the best practical solution to decrease the contaminant mass loading to the plume and associated off-site migration. At the bench-scale, the deposition of manganese oxides, a permanganate reaction byproduct, has been shown to cause pore plugging and the formation of a manganese oxide layer adjacent to the non-aqueous phase liquid creosote which reduces post-treatment mass transfer and hence mass loading from the source. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of partial permanganate treatment to reduce the ability of a coal tar creosote source zone to generate a multi-component plume at the pilot-scale over both the short-term (weeks to months) and the long-term (years) at a site where there is > 10 years of comprehensive synoptic plume baseline data available. A series of preliminary bench-scale experiments were conducted to support this pilot-scale investigation. The results from the bench-scale experiments indicated that if sufficient mass removal of the reactive compounds is achieved then the effective solubility, aqueous concentration and rate of mass removal of the more abundant non-reactive coal tar creosote compounds such as biphenyl and dibenzofuran can be increased. Manganese oxide formation and deposition caused an order-of-magnitude decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Approximately 125 kg of permanganate were delivered into the pilot-scale source zone over 35 days, and based on mass balance estimates < 10% of the initial reactive coal tar creosote mass in the source zone was oxidized. Mass discharge estimated at a down-gradient fence line indicated > 35% reduction for all monitored compounds except for biphenyl, dibenzofuran and fluoranthene 150 days after treatment, which is consistent with the bench-scale experimental results. Pre- and post-treatment soil core data indicated a highly variable and random spatial distribution of mass within the source zone and provided no insight into the mass removed of any of the monitored species. The down-gradient plume was monitored approximately 1, 2 and 4 years following treatment. The data collected at 1 and 2 years post-treatment showed a decrease in mass discharge (10 to 60%) and/or total plume mass (0 to 55%); however, by 4 years post-treatment there was a rebound in both mass discharge and total plume mass for all monitored compounds to pre-treatment values or higher. The variability of the data collected was too large to resolve subtle changes in plume morphology, particularly near the source zone, that would provide insight into the impact of the formation and deposition of manganese oxides that occurred during treatment on mass transfer and/or flow by-passing. Overall, the results from this pilot-scale investigation indicate that there was a significant but short-term (months) reduction of mass emanating from the source zone as a result of permanganate treatment but there was no long-term (years) impact on the ability of this coal tar creosote source zone to generate a multi-component plume.

  15. 78 FR 5798 - Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC, Grouse Creek Wind Park II, LLC; Notice of Petition for Enforcement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ...QF11-32-001, QF11-33-001] Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC, Grouse Creek Wind Park II, LLC; Notice of Petition for Enforcement Take...Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA), Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC and Grouse Creek Wind Park II, LLC...

  16. 33 CFR 334.480 - Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot...Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot...zone on Archers Creek (between the Broad River and Beaufort River), Ribbon Creek,...

  17. 33 CFR 334.480 - Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot...Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot...zone on Archers Creek (between the Broad River and Beaufort River), Ribbon Creek,...

  18. 33 CFR 334.480 - Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot...Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot...zone on Archers Creek (between the Broad River and Beaufort River), Ribbon Creek,...

  19. Flood of August 27-28, 1977, West Cache Creek and Blue Beaver Creek, southwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corley, Robert K.; Huntzinger, Thomas L.

    1979-01-01

    This report documents a major storm which occurred August 27-28, 1977, in southwest Oklahoma near the communities of Cache and Faxon, OK. Blue Beaver Creek and West Cache Creek and their tributaries experienced extensive flooding that caused an estimated $1 million in damages. Reported rainfall amounts of 8 to 12 inches in 6 hours indicate the storm had a frequency in excess of the 100-year rainfall. Peak discharges on Blue Beaver Creek near Cache and West Cache Creek near Faxon were 13,500 cubic feet per second and 45,700 cubic feet per second respectively. The estimated flood frequency was in excess of 100 years on Blue Beaver Creek and in excess of 50 years on West Cache Creek. Unit runoff on small basins were in excess of 2000 cubic feet per second per square mile. Surveyed highwater marks were used to map the flooded area. (USGS)

  20. Panther Creek, Idaho, Habitat Rehabilitation, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Reiser, Dudley W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to achieve full chinook salmon and steelhead trout production in the Panther Creek, Idaho, basin. Plans were developed to eliminate the sources of toxic effluent entering Panther Creek. Operation of a cobalt-copper mine since the 1930's has resulted in acid, metal-bearing drainage entering the watershed from underground workings and tailings piles. The report discusses plans for eliminating and/or treating the effluent to rehabilitate the water quality of Panther Creek and allow the reestablishment of salmon and trout spawning runs. (ACR)

  1. Investigation of the rank dependence of tar evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M.

    1990-01-01

    Despite its high nitrogen concentration levels relative to the parent coal samples, 7.2% vs. 1.4 - 2.0%, little volatile nitrogen evolution is observed until decomposition temperatures of 600[degree]C or greater are obtained. Due to the lack of decomposition via tar evolution and as contrasted to parent coals, no significant bound nitrogen is evolved with heavy hydrocarbons at particle temperatures less than 600[degree]C. Similar to virgin'' chars and tars formed during rapid devolatilization, the polyimide samples begin to evolve significant fractions of bound nitrogen as IR-active light gases at particle temperatures between 650 and 750[degree]C. Unlike coal samples, however, relatively large fractions of the light gases are observed to be ammonia. The IR-active, nitrogen-containing light gas evolution rapidly declines at polyimide char temperatures greater than 750[degree]C, again in contrast to observed behavior in virgin coal char samples. It is not certain if the nitrogen evolution kinetics changes from selectively forming ammonia and hydrogen cyanide to benzonitriles or free nitrogen at these temperatures. The light gas evolution pattern with decomposition temperature of polymide could contribute to our understanding of the low conversion efficiencies observed for bound nitrogen to NO[sub x] conversion in the char combustion phase of pfc combustion.

  2. pTAR-Encoded Proteins in Plasmid Partitioning

    PubMed Central

    Kalnin, Kirill; Stegalkina, Svetlana; Yarmolinsky, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Partition cassettes, essential for the segregational stability of low-copy-number bacterial plasmids, typically encode two autoregulated proteins and an adjacent cis-acting centromere analog to which one or perhaps both proteins bind. The diminutive partition region of pTAR of Agrobacterium spp. was reported to be exceptional, encoding only a single protein, ParA (D. R. Gallie and C. I. Kado, J. Mol. Biol. 193:465–478, 1987). However, resequencing of the region revealed two small downstream genes, parB and orf-84, of which only parB was found to be essential for partitioning in A. tumefaciens. Purified ParA exhibited a weak ATPase activity that was modestly increased by nonspecific DNA. ParB bound in vitro to repeated sequences present in a region, parS, that possesses centromere and operator functions and within which we identified the primary transcription start site by primer extension. In certain respects the Par proteins behave normally in the foreign host Escherichia coli. In E. coli, as in A. tumefaciens, ParB repressed the partition operon; ParA, inactive alone, augmented this repression. Functional similarities between the partition system of pTAR and those of other plasmids and bacteria are prominent, despite differences in size, organization, and amino acid sequence. PMID:10714993

  3. Three-dimensional combustion test of tar sand triangle material

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.A. Jr.

    1985-12-01

    In situ recovery technologies for tar sand deposits and heavy oil reservoirs are simulated at the Western Research Institute to develop a technological base for understanding the application of in situ processes to these resources. Wide ranges of process parameters are tested in a one-dimensional tubular reactor system. Three-dimensional process performance is evaluated by testing the most promising operating parameters, as determined in one-dimensional simulations, in consolidated blocks of the field resource. A three-dimensional simulation of forward combustion was conducted on a block of material from the Tar Sand Triangle deposit. Although combustion was established in the block, the maintenance and advancement of the combustion front was not successful. Problems relating to maintaining and advancing the combustion front were analyzed. To overcome these problems, it has been determined that: (1) larger heated area must be established prior to unheated air injection, and (2) continuous monitoring of oxygen in the produced gas must be used to control air injection rates. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Recovery of heavy oil and tar sands using a high-temperature nuclear steam supply

    SciTech Connect

    Quade, R.N.; Rao, R.

    1984-04-01

    In this paper, the application of the HTGR to enhanced oil recovery is explored using a typical California heavy oil field (Midway-Sunset) and a tar sands field (Maverick County, Texas) as two examples. Cost comparisons are made with available alternates, centralized coal, jumbo boilers for heavy oil, and an atmospheric fluidized bed (AFB) for tar sands. 10 references, 7 figures, 5 tables.

  5. Recovery of heavy oil and tar sands using a high-temperature nuclear steam supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Quade; R. Rao

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, the application of the HTGR to enhanced oil recovery is explored using a typical California heavy oil field (Midway-Sunset) and a tar sands field (Maverick County, Texas) as two examples. Cost comparisons are made with available alternates, centralized coal, jumbo boilers for heavy oil, and an atmospheric fluidized bed (AFB) for tar sands. 10 references, 7 figures,

  6. Recovery of heavy oil and tar sands using a high-temperature nuclear steam supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Quade; R. Rao

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, the application of the HTGR to enhanced oil recovery is explored using a typical California heavy oil field (Midway-Sunset) and a tar sands field (Maverick County, Texas) as two examples. Cost comparisons are made with available alternates, centralized coal, jumbo boilers for heavy oil, and an atmospheric fluidized bed (AFB) for tar sands.

  7. Recovery of heavy oil and tar sands using a high-temperature nuclear steam supply

    SciTech Connect

    Quade, R.N.; Rao, R.

    1984-08-01

    In this paper, the application of the HTGR to enhanced oil recovery is explored using a typical California heavy oil field (Midway-Sunset) and a tar sands field (Maverick County, Texas) as two examples. Cost comparisons are made with available alternates, centralized coal, jumbo boilers for heavy oil, and an atmospheric fluidized bed (AFB) for tar sands.

  8. Theater as Representation (TAR) in the Teaching of Teacher and Administrator Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Matthew J.

    2004-01-01

    Theater as representation (TAR) has been used in pre-service and in-service teacher and administrator preparation programs since 1998. This paper places TAR within a pedagogical arena that further solidifies its place as an instrument for leadership professional development in B.Ed., M.Ed., and in-service programs. Maxine Greene (1995) challenges…

  9. Process for recovering hydrocarbons and heavy minerals from a tar sand hot water process waste stream

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Baillie; L. F. Schmoyer; T. E. Skarada

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for the recovery of zircon and rutile from bituminous tar sands. The process includes the steps of recovering a mineral-containing bitumen froth from a separation process for the treatment of bituminous tar sand, diluting the froth with a liquid hydrocarbon diluent, centrifuging at least a portion of the mineral-containing diluted bitumen froth to produce a bitumen

  10. Inhibition of HIV derived lentiviral production by TAR RNA binding domain of TAT protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Y Mi; Jiying Zhang; Yukai He

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A critical step in the production of new HIV virions involves the TAT protein binding to the TAR element. The TAT protein contains in close proximity its TAR RNA binding domain and protein transduction domain (PTD). The PTD domain of TAT has been identified as being instrumental in the protein's ability to cross mammalian cell and nuclear membranes. All

  11. Zirconia: Selective oxidation catalyst for removal of tar and ammonia from biomass gasification gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sami J. Juutilainen; Pekka A. Simell; A. Outi I. Krause

    2006-01-01

    Catalysts containing zirconia and alumina were tested for their activity in the selective oxidation of tar and ammonia in biomass gasification gas. Their performance was compared with that of nickel and dolomite catalysts. Synthetic gasification gas with toluene as tar model compound was used as feed. In the presence of oxygen, zirconia and alumina-doped zirconia gave high toluene and ammonia

  12. Pulsed Corona Discharges for Tar Removal from Biomass Derived Fuel Gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. M. Pemen; S. A. Nair; K. Yan; E. J. M. van Heesch; K. J. Ptasinski; A. A. H. Drinkenburg

    2003-01-01

    To supply combustion engines or gasturbines with fuel gas obtained from biomass gasification, it is necessary to clean the fuel gas. Also the production of chemicals by processes such as Fisher-Tropsch requires a high gas quality. Especially heavy aromatic hydrocarbons (“tars”) must be removed. In this work, we give an overview of our investigations on tar removal by pulsed corona

  13. Literature survey of in situ processes for application to the US tar sand resource

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johnson; L. A. Jr

    1989-01-01

    Tar sands in the United States and worldwide are a large potential source of hydrocarbon liquids that has yet to be sufficiently developed. The development of the US tar sand resource lags the worldwide development and poses a challenge that has not been eagerly accepted by the petroleum industry. This paper reviews the developmental status of in situ enhanced oil

  14. Early Operating Results of the First Commercial Extraction Plant-Athabasca Tar Sands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert McClements; R. Jr

    1968-01-01

    The early operation of the Great Canadian Oil Sands project to mine Athabasca tar sand and recover 45,000 bpd of synthetic crude is discussed. Following a brief history of the project, a general discussion of the operations is given. This includes some technical information on the geological and mechanical problems inherent in tar sand mining, performance of the hot-water extraction

  15. Recognition of HIV TAR RNA by triazole linked neomycin dimers Sunil Kumar, Dev P. Arya

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Recognition of HIV TAR RNA by triazole linked neomycin dimers Sunil Kumar, Dev P. Arya Laboratory region of HIV virus. TAR (trans activation response) RNA region, a 59 base pair stem loop structure located at 50 -end of all nascent HIV-1 transcripts interacts with a key regulatory protein, Tat

  16. Species assemblages and diets of Collembola in the organic matter accumulated1 over an old tar deposit2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -1- Species assemblages and diets of Collembola in the organic matter accumulated1 over an old tar-mail address: jean-francois.ponge@wanadoo.fr10 11 Running title: Collembola over tar12 13 Abstract An oil

  17. Comparative quantitative prevalence of mycobacteria and functionally abundant nidA, nahAc, and nagAc Dioxygenase genes in coal tar contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Jennifer M. DeBruyn; Christopher S. Chewning; Gary S. Sayler [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    2007-08-01

    The Chattanooga Creek Superfund site is heavily contaminated with metals, pesticides, and coal tar with sediments exhibiting high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). High molecular weight PAHs are of concern because of their toxicity and recalcitrance in the environment; as such, there is great interest in microbes, such as fast-growing Mycobacterium spp., capable of degradation of these compounds. Real-time quantitative PCR assays were developed targeting multiple dioxygenase genes to assess the ecology and functional diversity of PAH-degrading communities. These assays target the Mycobacterium nidA, {beta}-proteobacteria nagAc, and {gamma}-proteobacteria nahAc with the specific goal of testing the hypothesis that Mycobacteria catabolic genes are enriched and may be functionally associated with high molecular weight PAH biodegradation in Chattanooga Creek. Dioxygenase gene abundances were quantitatively compared to naphthalene and pyrene mineralization, and temporal and spatial PAH concentrations. nidA abundances ranged from 5.69 x 10{sup 4} to 4.92 x 10{sup 6} copies per gram sediment; nagAc from 2.42 x 10{sup 3} to 1.21 x 10{sup 7}, and nahAc from below detection to 4.01 x 10{sup 6} copies per gram sediment. There was a significantly greater abundance of nidA and nagAc at sites with the greatest concentrations of PAHs. In addition, nidA and nagAc were significantly positively correlated, indicating a coexistence of organisms carrying these genes. A positive relationship was also observed between nidA and nagAc and pyrene mineralization indicating that these genes serve as biomarkers for pyrene degradation. A 16S rDNA clone library of fast-growing Mycobacteria indicated that the population is very diverse and likely plays an important role in attenuation of high molecular weight PAHs from Chattanooga Creek. 35 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Steel Creek fish, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The lake has an average width of approximately 600 m and extends along the Steel Creek valley approximately 7000 m from the dam to the headwaters. Water level is maintained at a normal pool elevation of 58 m above mean sea level by overflow into a vertical intake tower that has multilevel discharge gates. The intake tower is connected to a horizontal conduit that passes through the dam and releases water into Steel Creek. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems.

  19. BLACK CREEK CANAL VIRUS INFECTION INSIGMODON HISPIDUSIN SOUTHERN FLORIDA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GREGORY E. GLASS; WALTER LIVINGSTONE; JAMES N. MILLS; W. GARY HLADY; JOSHUA B. FINE; WILLIAM BIGGLER; TREVOR COKE; DWIGHT FRAZIER; STEPHANIE ATHERLEY; PIERRE E. ROLLIN; THOMAS G. KSIAZEK; C. J. PETERS; JAMES E. CHILDS

    1998-01-01

    A total of 1,500 small mammals were collected and tested for antibodies cross-reactive to Sin Nombre virus (Hantavirus: Bunyaviridae) at 89 sites in a 1,600 km2 study area of southern Florida. More than 95% of the 123 seropositive animals were cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), suggesting infection by Black Creek Canal Virus, although seroreactive Rattus rattus (5 of 294) and Peromyscus

  20. ADAMS GAP AND SHINBONE CREEK ROADLESS AREAS, ALABAMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, T.L.; Harrison, Donald K.

    1984-01-01

    The Adams Gap and Shinbone Creek Roadless Areas in Alabama were evaluated for their mineral potential. The only resource within the established boundary of the roadless area is quartzite suitable for crushed rock or refractory-grade aggregate. The quartzite contains deleterious impurities and is found in abundance outside the areas. Natural gas or petroleum may exist at depth. Detailed seismic studies and deep drilling tests are needed before a reasonable estimate of hydrocarbon potential can be made.