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1

Tar Creek study, Sargent oil field, Santa Clara County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Field work in the Tar Creek area of Sargent oil field was performed June 26 to 28, 2000. The Santa Clara County study area is located in Sections, 30, 31, and 32, Township 11 South, Range 4 East, M.D.B&M; and in Sections 25 and 36, Township 11 South, Range 3 East, M.D.B.&M., north and south of Tar Creek, west of Highway 101. The work was a cooperative effort of the California Department of Conservation's Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (DOGGR), California Geological Survey (CGS), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the project was to map the stratigraphy and geologic structure (David Wagner, CGS); sample oil for age dating (Les Magoon, USGS); and search for undocumented wells plus conduct a GPS survey of the area (Bill Fedasko, J.P. Carnahan, and Ross Brunetti, DOGGR)

Wagner, David L.; Fedasko, Bill; Carnahan, J.R.; Brunetti, Ross; Magoon, Leslie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Stanley, Richard G.

2002-01-01

2

Small-bodied Fishes of Tar Creek and Other Small Streams in  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fishes of small streams in Ottawa County, Oklahoma, were collected by seine from July 2004 through October 2005 to provide base-line data on species occurrences in Tar Creek and surrounding watersheds. Nine sites within the study area have been receiving mine drainage contaminated with iron, zinc, lead and cadmium for at least three decades fol- lowing the cessation of mining

Courtney M. Franssen; Melody A. Brooks; Randy W. Parham; Katherine G. Sutherland; William J. Matthews

3

REMEDIATION OF THE TAR CREEK SUPERFUND SITE: AN UPDATE1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tar Creek Superfund Site is a portion of an abandoned lead and zinc mining area known as the Tri-State Mining District (OK, KS and MO) and includes approximately 104 km2 of disturbed land and contaminated water resources in extreme northeastern Oklahoma. Underground mining from the 1890s through the 1960s degraded over 1000 surface ha, and produced nearly 500 km

Robert W. Nairn

4

The challenge posed to children's health by mixtures of toxic waste: the Tar Creek superfund site as a case-study.  

PubMed

In the United States, many of the millions of tons of hazardous wastes that have been produced since World War II have accumulated in sites throughout the nation. Citizen concern about the extent of this problem led Congress to establish the Superfund Program in 1980 to locate, investigate, and clean up the worst sites nationwide. Most such waste exists as a complex mixture of many substances. This article discusses the issue of toxic mixtures and children's health by focusing on the specific example of mining waste at the Tar Creek Superfund Site in Northeast Oklahoma. PMID:17306689

Hu, Howard; Shine, James; Wright, Robert O

2007-02-01

5

Applying Mental Models to Qualitative Risk Assessment at the Tar Creek Superfund Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Re-suspension of heavy metal residuals generated by former mining activities conducted at the Tar Creek Superfund site may result in exposures of nearby residents. Currently, remediation and mitigation activities include removal of yard soil containing high concentrations of heavy metals, removal of selected chat piles, and providing assistance for families with young children. Although these are important activities to reduce

Astrid P. Vásquez; James L. Regens; James T. Gunter

2006-01-01

6

Flow cytometric analysis of red-eared slider turtles ( Trachemys scripta ) from Tar Creek Superfund Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar Creek Superfund Site (TCSFS) was heavily mined from the 1890s to 1970 and currently is contaminated with lead, zinc, and\\u000a cadmium. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to measure variation in nuclear DNA content of red blood cells collected from Trachemys scripta living within TCSFS and reference sites, Lake Carl Blackwell (LCB) and Sequoyah National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR). We also

Kimberly A. Hays; Karen McBee

2007-01-01

7

Tonto Creek: Backwater Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Reclamation studied backwater and sediment deposition effects at Tonto Creek resulting from the recent modifications to Theodore Roosevelt Dam. The top of active conservation pool at Theodore Roosevelt Reservoir will be raised from 2,136 fee...

L. Lest

1997-01-01

8

TAR CREEK SUPERFUND SITE REMEDIATION: COMBINED ROLES FOR BIOMASS, POULTRY LITTER, FLY ASH AND FLU GAS DESULFURIZATION RESIDUES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Tar Creek Superfund site in Northeastern Oklahoma is a large area contaminated from 100 years of lead and zinc mining. In this proposal we focus on developing surface coverage and remediation methods for the 45 million cubic yards of mine tailings, known as chat. The chat h...

9

Potential health impacts of heavy-metal exposure at the Tar Creek Superfund site, Ottawa County, Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential impact of exposure to heavy metals and health problems was evaluated at the Tar Creek Superfund site, Ottawa\\u000a County, Oklahoma, USA. Observed versus expected mortality was calculated for selected conditions in the County and exposed\\u000a cities. Excess mortality was found for stroke and heart disease when comparing the exposed County to the state but not when\\u000a comparing the

John S. Neuberger; Stephen C. Hu; K. David Drake; Rebecca Jim

2009-01-01

10

Potential health impacts of heavy-metal exposure at the Tar Creek Superfund site, Ottawa County, Oklahoma.  

PubMed

The potential impact of exposure to heavy metals and health problems was evaluated at the Tar Creek Superfund site, Ottawa County, Oklahoma, USA. Observed versus expected mortality was calculated for selected conditions in the County and exposed cities. Excess mortality was found for stroke and heart disease when comparing the exposed County to the state but not when comparing the exposed cities to the nonexposed rest of the County. However, sample sizes in the exposed area were small, population emigration has been ongoing, and geographic coding of mortality data was incomplete. In an exposed community, 62.5% of children under the age of 6 years had blood lead levels exceeding 10 microg/dl. The relationships between heavy-metal exposure and children's health and chronic disease in adults are suggestive that a more thorough investigation might be warranted. A number of possible environmental and health studies are suggested, including those focusing on possible central nervous system impacts. Unfortunately, the exposed population is dispersing. One lesson learned at this site is that health studies need to be conducted as soon as possible after an environmental problem is identified to both study the impact of the most acute exposures and to maximize study sample size-including those exposed to higher doses-and minimize the loss of individuals to follow-up. PMID:18306045

Neuberger, John S; Hu, Stephen C; Drake, K David; Jim, Rebecca

2009-02-01

11

Hydrocarbon accumulation in Pennsylvanian-age Ten Sleep Sandstone: the Trapper Creek tar sand deposit, Big Horn basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary investigations indicate a potential tar sand accumulation in the Trapper Creek deposit of more than 2.13 million tons of mineralized material with a yield of 0.92 bbl per ton of 5.2/sup 0/ API oil for an approximate resource of 1.96 million bbl of recoverable petroleum. Remote sensing data suggest that the accumulation is in part controlled by two major and four minor lineaments which traverse the area. Stratigraphic and lithologic criteria can be used to infer a Minnelusa-type mode of occurrence. Ancillary stream sediment and outcrop geochemistry data yield locally anomalous but uneconomic concentrations of Mg, Ca, Ti, Mn, Ag, Cu, Mo, V, K, and Si, which may have significance in the identification of similar hydrocarbon accumulations along the west flank of the Bighorn Mountains.

Barrell, S.S.

1983-03-01

12

Chemical analyses of stream sediment in the Tar Creek basin of the Picher mining area, northeast Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chemical analyses are presented for 47 sediment samples from the Tar Creek drainage in the Picher mining area of northeast Oklahoma. The samples were taken in December 1983, June 1984, and June 1985. All of the samples were taken downstream from mine-water discharge points of abandoned lead and zinc mines. The 34 samples taken in December 1983 and June 1984 were analyzed semiquantitatively by emission spectrography for 64 elements and quantitatively for cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, sulfur, zinc, and organic carbon. The 13 samples taken in June 1985 were analyzed quantitatively for aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, phosphorus, lead, sulfur, silicon, titanium, vanadium, zinc, and organic carbon.

Parkhurst, David L.; Doughten, Michael; Hearn, Paul P., Jr.

1988-01-01

13

Ground-water flow model of the Boone formation at the Tar Creek superfund site, Oklahoma and Kansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Extensive mining activities conducted at the Tar Creek Superfund site, one of the largest Superfund sites in the United States, pose substantial health and safety risks. Mining activities removed a total of about 6,000,000 tons of lead and zinc by 1949. To evaluate the effect of this mining on the ground-water flow, a MODFLOW 2000 digital model has been developed to simulate ground-water flow in the carbonate formations of Mississippian age underlying the Tar Creek Superfund site. The model consists of three layers of variable thickness and a grid of 580 rows by 680 columns of cells 164 feet (50 meters) on a side. Model flux boundary conditions are specified for rivers and general head boundaries along the northern boundary of the Boone Formation. Selected cells in layer 1 are simulated as drain cells. Model calibration has been performed to minimize the difference between simulated and observed water levels in the Boone Formation. Hydraulic conductivity values specified during calibration range from 1.3 to 35 feet per day for the Boone Formation with the larger values occurring along the axis of the Miami Syncline where horizontal anisotropy is specified as 10 to 1. Hydraulic conductivity associated with the mine void is set at 50,000 feet per day and a specific yield of 1.0 is specified to represent that the mine void is filled completely with water. Residuals (the difference between measured and simulated ground-water altitudes) has a root-mean-squared value of 8.53 feet and an absolute mean value of 7.29 feet for 17 observed values of water levels in the Boone Formation. The utility of the model for simulating and evaluating the possible consequences of remediation activities has been demonstrated. The model was used to simulate the emplacement of chat (mine waste consisting of fines and fragments of chert) back into the mine. Scenarios using 1,800,000 and 6,500,000 tons of chat were run. Hydraulic conductivity was reduced from 50,000 feet per day to 35 feet per day in the model cells corresponding to chat emplacement locations. A comparison of the simulated baseline conditions and conditions after simulated chat emplacement revealed little change in water levels, drainage and stream flux, and ground-water flow velocity. Using the calibrated flow model, particle tracks were simulated using MODPATH to evaluate the simultaneous movement of particles with water in the vicinity of four potential sites at which various volumes of chat might be emplaced in the underground mine workings as part of potential remediation efforts at the site. Particle tracks were generated to follow the rate and direction of water movement for a simulated period of 100 years. In general, chat emplacement had minimal effect on the direction and rate of movement when compared to baseline (current) flow conditions. Water-level differences between baseline and chat-emplacement scenarios showed declines as much as 2 to 3 feet in areas immediately downgradient from the chat emplacement cells and little or no head change upgradient. Chat emplacements had minimal effect on changes in surfacewater flux with the largest simulated difference in one cell between baseline and chat emplacement scenarios being about 3.5 gallons per minute.

Reed, T.B.; Czarnecki, John B.

2006-01-01

14

Emissions of tar-containing binders: Field studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the measurement of emissions during field construction of asphalt pavements using tar-containing recycled asphalt pavement (RAP), which is known to release harmful substances, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). At three different test sites, the main emission sources were identified and the total emission rates of fumes and PAHs of the paving process were determined. For this

Martin Hugener; Lukas Emmenegger; Peter Mattrel

2009-01-01

15

OROFINO CREEK STUDY, CLEARWATER COUNTY IDAHO, 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on Orofino Creek in Clearwater County, Idaho (17060306) to determine the present condition of the stream and to assess the impact of point and nonpoint sources. The study involved approximately bi-monthly monitoring for the...

16

MORES CREEK STUDY, BOISE COUNTY, IDAHO, 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on Mores Creek in Boise County, Idaho (17050112) to determine the present water quality of the stream and obtain background information on effluent limitations development for Idaho City. The study was designed for approxim...

17

An NMR study of the HIV-1 TAR element hairpin.  

PubMed

The TAR hairpin is an important part of the 5' long terminal repeat of HIV-1 and appears to be recognized by a cellular protein. A 14-base model of the native TAR hairpin 5'-GAGC[CUGGGA]-GCUC-3' (loop bases in square brackets) has been studied by proton, phosphorus, and natural abundance carbon NMR; these results are compared to other published NMR studies of the TAR hairpin. Assignments of all nonexchangeable protons and of all the stem-exchangeable protons have been made, as well as all phosphorus and many carbon resonances. Large J1'2' and J3'4' proton-proton coupling in the C5, G8, and G9 sugars indicate an equilibrium between C2'- and C3'-endo forms; these data show a dynamic loop structure. We see three broad imino resonances that have not been reported before; these resonances are in the right region for unbonded loop imino protons. These peaks suggest the protons are protected from fast exchange with the solvent by the structure of the hairpin loop. Simulated annealing and molecular dynamics with 148 distance constraints, 11 hydrogen bonds, and 84 torsion angle constraints showed a wide variety of structures. Certain trends are evident, such as continuation of the A-form helix on the 3' side of the hairpin loop. The ensemble of calculated structures agree with most chemical modification data. PMID:8241143

Jaeger, J A; Tinoco, I

1993-11-23

18

DEARY CREEK STUDY, LATAH COUNTY, IDAHO. 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on Mount Deary Creek in Latah County, Idaho (17060306) to determine the present water quality of the stream and to obtain background information to determine effluent limitations for the City of Deary. The survey involved t...

19

ELK CREEK STUDY, IDAHO COUNTY IDAHO, 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1979, the American River, the Red River, and Elk Creek in Idaho County (17060305) were studied to determine their present water quality and to obtain background information on effluent limitations development for the Elk City sewage treatment plant. Quarterly monit...

20

CAMAS CREEK STUDY, CAMAS COUNTY, IDAHO. 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Eutrophication Survey on Magic Reservoir determined that Camas Creek in Camas County, Idaho (17040220) contributed roughly 45% of the total phosphorus load and 34% of the total nitrogen load into Magic Reservoir. From this finding, a water quality study was conducte...

21

Reconnaissance Feasibility Study Hydroelectric Potential on Lowell Creek.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of hydroelectric power development on Lowell Creek near Seward was investigated at a reconnaissance level. The study was conducted because the physical characteristics of the creek and surrounding terrain initially appeared suitable for hy...

1979-01-01

22

Microbial community structure and biodegradation activity of particle-associated bacteria in a coal tar contaminated creek.  

PubMed

The Chattanooga Creek Superfund site (Chattanooga, TN) is one of the most polluted waterways in the southeastern U.S. with high polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in the sediments. PAHs associate with suspended solids in the water column, and may be redeposited onto the floodplain. These suspended particles represent an interesting but understudied environment for PAH-degrading microbial communities. This study tested the hypotheses that particle-associated bacterial (PAB) communities have genotypic potential (PAH-dioxygenase genes) and activity (naphthalene and pyrene mineralization), and can contribute to natural attenuation of PAHs in Chattanooga Creek. Upstream of the Superfund site, mineralization ranged from 0.2 to 2.0% of added 14C-naphthalene and 0 to 0.1% 14C-pyrene (after 40 h), with first order biodegradation rate constants (k1) ranging from 1.09 to 9.18 x 10(-5) h(-1) and 0 to 1.13 x 10(-6) h(-1), respectively. Mineralization was significantly greater in PAB communities within the contaminated zone, with 11.8 to 31.2% 14C-naphthalene (k1 5.34 to 14.2 x 10(-4) h(-1)) and 1.3 to 6.6% 14C-pyrene mineralized (k1 2.89 to 15.0 x 10(-5) h(-1)). Abundances of nagAc (naphthalene dioxygenase) and nidA (pyrene dioxygenase) genes indicated that PAB communities harbored populations with genetic potential for both low- and high-molecularweight PAH degradation, and quantification of Mycobacterium 16S rDNA genes indicated that PAH-degrading mycobacteria are also prevalent in this environment. Phylogenetic comparisons (T-RFLPs) between PAB and sediments indicated these microbial communities were taxonomically distinct, but shared some functional similarities, namely PAH catabolic genotypes, mineralization capabilities, and community structuring along a contamination gradient PMID:19534112

Debruyn, Jennifer M; Sayler, Gary S

2009-05-01

23

DRY CREEK WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, ARKANSAS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Dry Creek Wilderness Study Area covers an area of about 10 sq mi in parts of Logan, Scott, and Yell Counties, Arkansas. A mineral evaluation study of the area indicated that the area has a probable resource potential for natural gas and little promise for the occurrence of other mineral commodities. Less than 100,000 cu ft/day of natural gas is being produced from one well about 4 mi north of the area.

Haley, Boyd, R.; Stroud, Raymond, B.

1984-01-01

24

Microbial community structure and biodegradation activity of particle-associated bacteria in a coal tar contaminated creek  

SciTech Connect

The Chattanooga Creek Superfund site (Chattanooga, TN) is one of the most polluted waterways in the southeastern U.S. with high polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in the sediments. PAHs associate with suspended solids in the water column, and may be redeposited onto the floodplain. These suspended particles represent an interesting but understudied environment for PAH-degrading microbial communities. This study tested the hypotheses that particle-associated bacterial (PAB) communities have genotypic potential (PAH-dioxygenase genes) and activity (naphthalene and pyrene mineralization), and can contribute to natural attenuation of PAHs in Chattanooga Creek. Upstream of the Superfund site, mineralization ranged from 0.2 to 2.0% of added {sup 14}C-naphthalene and 0 to 0.1% {sup 14}C-pyrene (after 40 h), with first order biodegradation rate constants (k{sub 1}) ranging from 1.09 to 9.18 x 10{sup -5} h{sup -1} and 0 to 1.13 x 10{sup -6} h{sup -1}, respectively. Mineralization was significantly greater in PAB communities within the contaminated zone, with 11.8 to 31.2% {sup 14}C-naphthalene (k{sup 1} 5.34 to 14.2 x 10-4 h{sup -1}) and 1.3 to 6.6% {sup 14}C-pyrene mineralized (k{sub 1} 2.89 to 15.0 x 10{sup -5} h{sup -1}). Abundances of nagAc (naphthalene dioxygenase) and nidA (pyrene dioxygenase) genes indicated that PAB communities harbored populations with genetic potential for both low- and high-molecular weight PAH degradation, and quantification of Mycobacterium 16S rDNA genes indicated that PAH-degrading mycobacteria are also prevalent in this environment. Phylogenetic comparisons (T-RFLPs) between PAB and sediments indicated these microbial communities were taxonomically distinct, but shared some functional similarities, namely PAH catabolic genotypes, mineralization capabilities, and community structuring along a contamination gradient. 38 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Jennifer M. DeBruyn; Gary S. Sayler [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology and Department of Microbiology

2009-05-01

25

Study on tar generated from downdraft gasification of oil palm fronds.  

PubMed

One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3) in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC) unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928?g/Nm3 and 1.923?g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study. PMID:24526899

Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Kueh, Soo Chuan; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar

2014-01-01

26

RICHLAND CREEK WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, ARKANSAS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Richland Creek Wilderness Study Area covers an area of about 5 sq mi in parts of Newton and Searcy Counties, Arkansas. Geochemical studies of the outcropping rocks and stream sediments in the study area indicate that these rocks have little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. There is little promise for the occurrence of natural gas within the area because the Pennsylvanian age rocks have been breached by erosion and the other potential reservoir rocks were reported as dry. Some of the sandstone and limestone could be used for commercial purposes.

Haley, Boyd, R.; Stroud, Raymond, B.

1984-01-01

27

Skin cancer in patients with psoriasis treated with coal tar. A 25-year follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, crude coal tar has been used for the treatment of psoriasis. The possible carcinogenic effect of crude coal tar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Goeckerman regimen), considered individually or in combination, has been of some concern to physicians. A 25-year follow-up study was completed on 280 patients with psoriasis who were hospitalized and treated with crude coal tar

M. R. Pittelkow; H. O. Perry; S. A. Muller; W. Z. Maughan; P. C. OBrien

1981-01-01

28

Do smokers of lower tar cigarettes consume lower amounts of smoke components? Results from the Scottish Heart Health Study.  

PubMed

Data on 1133 men and 1621 women who smoke solely cigarettes with a known tar yield are extracted from the baseline population survey of the Scottish Heart Health Study. The expired-air carbon monoxide (CO-E), serum thiocyanate and serum cotinine values are compared between smokers in three tar groups: low (below 13 mg/cig.), middle (14-15 mg/cig.) and high tar (above 15 mg/cig.). An index of tar consumption is calculated assuming that the intake of different smoke components relative to one another is in proportion to their concentration in the smoke. CO-E and cotinine are found to peak in the middle tar group. Thiocyanate only tends to increase from low to middle tar group for women and from middle to high tar group for men. Tar consumption increases with tar yield of the cigarette smoked, but the increase is much lower than would be expected. We conclude that the tar yield of a cigarette is not an accurate guide to the amount of smoke components consumed by its smoker. Health professionals should be aware of these limitations of tar yield as a measure of cigarette strength. PMID:1326360

Woodward, M; Tunstall-Pedoe, H

1992-06-01

29

LITTLE CYPRESS CREEK STUDY: A WATERSHED RESTORATION CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Little Cypress Creek watershed, which is the home of the Louisiana Purchase Historic State Park and Natural Area, is one of the only remaining examples of a headwater swamp ecosystem left in Arkansas. An increase in water elevations and a change in species composition were noticed in the park in late 1970. A study of the upper watershed of

Lisa Gandy; Randy Roberson; Tom Foti

30

Flood Plain Management Study: Plateau Creek, Grove Creek, Buzzard Creek at Collbran, Mesa County, Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the study is to provide detailed flood plain management information and mapping to Mesa County and the Town of Collbran for use in implementing flood plain management programs which will minimize potential flood losses. Included in the re...

1991-01-01

31

Kentucky tar sand project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering details and pilot-plant results from a pioneering investigation based on a Kentucky tar-sand reserve are presented. The tar sand deposits of Kentucky are generally situated in the southeastern rim of the Illinois Basin along the southern boundary of the Western Coal Field region. In a recent study of US tar sand reserves, it was reported that over 3.4 billion

M. N. Kelley; H. D. II Jones; F. W. Lewis

1985-01-01

32

Optical, physical, and chemical properties of tar balls observed during the Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study of summer 2002 (YACS) occurred during an active fire season in the western United States and provided an opportunity to investigate many unresolved issues related to the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols. Single particle analysis was performed on field-collected aerosol samples using an array of electron microscopy techniques. Amorphous carbon spheres, or ``tar balls,''

Jenny L. Hand; W. C. Malm; Alexander Laskin; D. E. Day; Tae-bum Lee; Chong M. Wang; C. E. Carrico; John R. Carrillo; James P. Cowin; J. G. Collett; Martin J. Iedema

2005-01-01

33

LAPWAI CREEK STUDY, LEWIS AND NEZ PERCE COUNTIES, IDAHO. 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

During Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on the Lapwai Creek in Nez Perce and Lewis Counties, Idaho (17060306) to obtain background information on nonpoint source pollution impacts and for effluent limitation development. The study involved approximately bi-mo...

34

JORDAN CREEK STUDY, OWYHEE COUNTY, ID IN 1975-1976  

EPA Science Inventory

A set of 3 intensive surveys was completed on Jordan Creek in Owyhee County, ID (17050108) during August and October 1975 and June 1976. Studies were conducted to determine the water quality condition of the stream and to assess the impact of pollution sources. The study includ...

35

Skin cancer in patients with psoriasis treated with coal tar. A 25-year follow-up study  

SciTech Connect

For many years, crude coal tar has been used for the treatment of psoriasis. The possible carcinogenic effect of crude coal tar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Goeckerman regimen), considered individually or in combination, has been of some concern to physicians. A 25-year follow-up study was completed on 280 patients with psoriasis who were hospitalized and treated with crude coal tar and UV radiation at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn, during the years 1950 through 1954. The results of this study suggest that the incidence of skin cancer is not appreciably increased above the expected incidence for the general population when patients are treated with coal tar ointments. It seems that the Goeckerman regimen (topical crude coal tar combined with UV radiation) can be used with minimal risk for skin cancer in the treatment of psoriasis.

Pittelkow, M.R.; Perry, H.O.; Muller, S.A.; Maughan, W.Z.; O'Brien, P.C.

1981-08-01

36

SF6 Tracer Release Study: A Contaminant Fate Study in Newtown Creek  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newtown Creek is a 5.5km creek that discharges into the East River, a 25km strait connecting Long Island Sound to the north and the New York Harbor to the south. Surface runoff dominates the freshwater input into the creek, for natural tributaries no longer exist. The areas directly adjacent to the creek are highly industrialized, and New York City's largest Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) discharges directly into creek. In August 2004, we injected sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) into Newtown creek to study the fate of oil seeping into the creek from an underground oil spill and the fate of nutrient rich effluent from the WPCP. We monitored SF6 in Newtown Creek, the East River, and the Upper Bay of New York Harbor for 7 consecutive days following the injection in order to investigate the spreading patterns and transport mechanics of waters exiting the creek, and to determine the ultimate fate of the contaminants/solutes originating in Newtown Creek. Dissolved oxygen (DO) measurements were collected simultaneously with SF6 measurements. A strong DO gradient exists in the creek, where waters in the upper reaches are anoxic. We use SF6 data to calculate mean residence times for Newtown Creek waters. SF6 was detected above background concentrations approximately 15km to the south of the creek at the Verrazano Bridge only 1 day after the tracer injection. By combining the movements of the SF6 distribution, the position of the oxygen gradient, and the residence time of Newtown Creek water, we can determine a lower boundary for oxygen consumption rates.

Schmieder, P. J.; Ho, D. T.; Peter, S.; Simpson, H. J.; Flores, S.; Dugan, W. A.

2004-12-01

37

SANTA CREEK, BENEWAH COUNTY, IDAH - EFFLUENT LIMITATION STUDY. 1986  

EPA Science Inventory

A water quality study was initiated on Santa Creek, Idaho (17010304) to determine if new effluent limitations are necessary for the discharge from the City of Emida wastewater lagoon. The City of Emida provides secondary treatment of domestic sewage in an unaerated facultative l...

38

JIM FORD CREEK STUDY, CLEARWATER COUNTY IDAHO. 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on Jim Ford Creek in Clearwater County, Idaho (17060306) to assess the impact of the City of Weippe and Timberline High School discharges, to assess nonpoint source impacts, and to determine the present water quality of the ...

39

Analytical study on mesocarbon microbeads derived from coal tar pitch  

SciTech Connect

Pitches have been recognized as excellent precursors for carbon materials and their properties are considered to be influential on the properties and function of carbon material. For this reason, their detailed characterization is being required. Successful pitch characterization must satisfy the following points: (1) very complicated pitches can be clearly distinguished; (2) the performance of the final carbon product can be predicted by characterizing the precursor pitch at its molecular level; and (3) a satisfactory explanation can be provided for chemical and physical behavior of pitches for a given utilization process based on their structural differences. Successful pitch characterization is quite difficult to be attained because pitches are very complex mixtures containing several hundred compounds with different functionalities. Thus, the methods for their characterization are limited to the measurements of average structural parameters, such as softening point (SP), H/C atomic ratio, quinoline- and toluene-insoluble (QI and TI) fractions, aromaticity, carbon yield, etc.. Although these parameters can give a fairly good evaluation about pitch quality, they can not always explain why pitches with similar characteristics on traditional characterization techniques display a significantly different behavior. This fact provides a challenging subject in the field of pitch characterization. At the same time, there is a possibility that in a given case satisfactory important factors remain undetected due to the limitation of analytical techniques, thus leading to serious problems in the pitch utilization. Therefore, it seems to be essential to know, for a given utilization of pitches, which of the pitch properties normally measured is important and how this affects the behavior of pitch. Another serious difficulty in pitch characterization is the fact that pitches are normally not completely soluble in solvents. There is no single analytical technique which can provide complete information about structures of pitches. Thus, the combination of different analytical techniques seems to be best for the characterization of such materials. The first objective of this paper is to give an insight into structural features of two kinds of mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) derived from different coal tar pitches, by conducting butylation of MCMB with butyl iodide catalyzed by dibutylzinc and characterizing their butylated products according to conventional techniques. The second one is to differentiate two MCMB in terms of chemical structure based on IR, SEM and Raman spectroscopy. Most of this information is extracted from the authors' earlier and just completed papers, cited in the references.

Zhang, Y.; Murata, S.; Nomura, M.

1999-07-01

40

Criteria for coal-tar seal coats on airport pavements. Volume 2. Laboratory and field studies. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Because coal tars are resistant to gasoline and jet fuel, they have been used for many years as a protective coating on asphalt pavements for airport parking areas, ramps, taxiways and runways. Applications include both coal tar emulsions and rubberized coal tar emulsions, applied with sand to provide skid resistance and stability to the seal costs. Volume II of the report includes the results of an experimental Laboratory and field investigation conducted at the University of Nevada at Reno. The focus on the University program was to develop test procedures that would measure workability, scuff, adhesion and fuel resistance properties of coal tar emulsion seal coats. This program developed a method for designing seal coat formulations test procedures that could be used for quality assurance purposes. Volume II includes the test data generated in the study, including measurements made on field sections.

Shook, J.E.; Jenkins, S.W.; Gardiner, M.S.; Newcomb, D.E.; Epps, J.A.

1990-01-01

41

Sand Creek Massacre Project. Volume 1. Site Location Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In May 1999, the Sand Creek Massacre Project Team completed its successful search for the site of the Sand Creek Massacre. On the banks of Sand Creek in Kiowa County, Colorado, an archeological team that included tribal members, National Park Service staf...

2000-01-01

42

Mineral resources of the Fifteen Mile Creek, Oregon Canyon, Twelve Mile Creek, and Willow Creek Wilderness Study Areas, Malheur and Harney counties, Oregon  

SciTech Connect

The four contiguous study areas are located in a volcanic terrane dominated by tuffs that were erupted from calderas of the McDermitt Caldera complex and the Whitehorse Caldera. None of these areas have identified resources, despite the proximity of mercury, uranium, and lithium mineralization to the south. The southern parts of the Fifteen Mile Creek and the Oregon Canyon Wilderness Study Areas have a low potential for mercury and uranium. The southern parts of the Fifteen Mile Creek, Oregon Canyon, and Willow Creek and the northwestern part of the Oregon Wilderness Study Areas have low potential for antimony, bismuth, mercury, silver,molybdenum, and zinc. In the Oregon Canyon Wilderness Study Area, the tuff of Oregon Canyon and the rim of the caldera of the McDermitt Caldera complex have a low potential for gold and silver in epithermal veins. The study areas have a low potential for zeolite minerals, oil and gas, and geothermal energy throughout, and restricted parts of the study areas have a low potential for pumice, rare-earth elements, zirconium, and decorative building stone.

Peterson, J.A.; Rytuba, J.J.; Plouff, D.; Vercountere, T.L.; Turner, R.L.; Sawatzky, D.L. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)); Leszcykowski, A.M.; Peters, T.J.; Schmauch, S.W.; Winters, R.A. (US Bureau of Mines (US))

1988-01-01

43

Environmental Forensics : Compound Specific Isotope Analysis Of PAHs. Study Of A Former Coal Tar Plant.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable carbon isotopic fingerprints of PAHs obtained by GC-IRMS have often been used in source apportionment studies. The use of PAHs in environmental forensics relies on the assumption that carbon isotopic fractionation caused by microbial degradation is less significant for these heavy molecular weight compounds than for lighter molecules such as chlorinated solvents or BTEX. Carbon isotopic fractionation of PAHs during degradation is still not well understood. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of CSIA of PAHs for environmental forensics applications at a complex (hydrogeology affected by tidal fluxes) former coal tar plant. In this work, soil samples from a tar works site were analyzed. The tar works operated on the site over a period of sixty years. A source apportionment study was first carried out based on 90 target PAHs quantified by GC-MS. These results were then compared to carbon isotope fingerprints. The separation of compounds of interest from co-extracted interfering peaks is a crucial prerequisite of CSIA by GC-IRMS. Hence, a sample preparation method which allowed the determination of precise carbon isotope signatures for up to 35 compounds per soil extract was developed, validated and applied to the samples previously analyzed by GC- MS. Although most soil samples were shown to be related to the point source tar contamination, PAHs ratios and principal component analysis of abundances highlighted some samples with unusual patterns, suggesting the input of a second source of contaminants. However, no statistically significant variation of the isotopic fingerprints of heavy molecular weight PAHs of these samples was observed. This was inconsistent with the first diagnosis. Since evidence was provided that most samples were only affected by a single source of contaminants, carbon isotopic fractionation was investigated in-situ. Importantly, naphthalene and 2- and 1- methylnaphthalenes isotopic fractionation was observed in a vertical soil profile. Results of this study highlight advantages and limitations of CSIA of PAHs in environmental forensics studies and confirm the potential of this technique for deciphering new degradation pathways of lighter PAHs.

Assal, A.; Doherty, R.; Dickson, K.; Kalin, R. M.

2008-12-01

44

Topical tar: Back to the future  

SciTech Connect

The use of medicinal tar for dermatologic disorders dates back to the ancient times. Although coal tar is utilized more frequently in modern dermatology, wood tars have also been widely employed. Tar is used mainly in the treatment of chronic stable plaque psoriasis, scalp psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis, either alone or in combination therapy with other medications, phototherapy, or both. Many modifications have been made to tar preparations to increase their acceptability, as some dislike its odor, messy application, and staining of clothing. One should consider a tried and true treatment with tar that has led to clearing of lesions and prolonged remission times. Occupational studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity of tar; however, epidemiologic studies do not confirm similar outcomes when used topically. This article will review the pharmacology, formulations, efficacy, and adverse effects of crude coal tar and other tars in the treatment of selected dermatologic conditions.

Paghdal, K.V.; Schwartz, R.A. [University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States)

2009-08-15

45

Aqueous extracts of cigarette tar containing the tar free radical cause DNA nicks in mammalian cells.  

PubMed Central

The ability of aqueous extracts of cigarette tar to nick DNA was investigated using viable mammalian cells. Tar extracts contain a radical with a stable electron spin resonance (ESR) signal at g = 2.0036 characteristic of a semiquinone. The association of the tar component that carries the ESR signal with DNA was demonstrated using viable rat alveolar macrophages. The formation of single-strand DNA breaks caused by cigarette tar extracts in viable rat thymocytes follows saturation kinetics, indicating a tar component associates with DNA and then nicks it. These studies support our hypothesis that tar components that contain the cigarette tar radical can enter cells, associate with, and then nick DNA.

Stone, K K; Bermudez, E; Pryor, W A

1994-01-01

46

Partitioning studies of coal-tar constituents in a two-phase contaminated ground-water system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organic compounds derived from coal-tar wastes in a contaminated aquifer in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, were identified, and their partition coefficients between the tar phase and aqueous phase were determined and compared with the corresponding n-octanol/water partition coefficients. Coal tar contains numerous polycyclic aromatic compounds, many of which are suspected carcinogens or mutagens. Groundwater contamination by these toxic compounds may pose an environmental health hazard in nearby public water-supply wells. Fluid samples from this aquifer developed two phases upon settling: an upper aqueous phase, and a lower oily-tar phase. After separating the phases, polycyclic aromatic compounds in each phase were isolated using complexation with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and identified by fused-silica capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Thirty-one of the polycyclic aromatic compounds were chosen for further study from four different classes: 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 10 nitrogen heterocycles, 5 sulfur heterocycles, and 4 oxygen heterocycles. Within each compound class, the tar/water partition coefficients of these compounds were reasonably comparable with the respective n-octanol/water partition coefficient.

Rostad, C. E.; Pereira, W. E.; Hult, M. F.

1985-01-01

47

Coal tar phototherapy for psoriasis reevaluated: erythemogenic versus suberythemogenic ultraviolet with a tar extract in oil and crude coal tar  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies have questioned the therapeutic value of coal tar versus ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their relative necessity in phototherapy for psoriasis. In this investigation, different aspects of tar phototherapy have been studied in single-blind bilateral paired comparison studies. The effects of 1% crude coal tar were compared with those of petrolatum in conjunction with erythemogenic and suberythemogenic doses of ultraviolet light (UVB) using a FS72 sunlamp tubed cabinet. Crude coal tar was clinically superior to petrolatum with suberythemogenic ultraviolet. With the erythemogenic UVB, petrolatum was equal in efficacy to crude coal tar. Suberythemogenic UVB was also used adjunctively to compare the effects of a 5% concentration of a tar extract in an oil base to 5% crude coal tar in petrolatum or the oil base without tar. The tar extract in oil plus suberythemogenic UVB produced significantly more rapid improvement than the oil base plus UVB. The direct bilateral comparison of equal concentrations of tar extract in oil base versus crude coal tar in petrolatum in a suberythemogenic UV photo regimen revealed no statistical differences between treatments. In a study comparing tar extract in oil and the oil base without ultraviolet radiation, the tar extract in oil side responded more rapidly.

Lowe, N.J.; Wortzman, M.S.; Breeding, J.; Koudsi, H.; Taylor, L.

1983-06-01

48

Tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The four largest oil sand deposits contain over 90% of the world's known heavy oil. The total heavy oil and bitumen in place, estimated at nearly 6 trillion barrels is almost entirely concentrated in western Canada, principally Alberta, and eastern Venezuela. The known tar sand resource in the United States consists of about 550 occurrences located in 22 states. The

Wennekers; J. H. N

1981-01-01

49

South Casper Creek Field: A study in reservoir heterogeneity  

SciTech Connect

The Tensleep Sandstone, an eolian and marine deposit, has produced low-gravity oil at South Casper Creek field (Natrona County, Wyoming) since the 1920s. Until recently, the reservoir was considered a relatively homogeneous sandstone body and was modeled as such for secondary recovery operations initiated during the late 1970s and early 1980s. Poor secondary recovery performance led to extensive reevaluation of the reservoir. Characterization studies by the field operator, Union Oil of California (UNOCAL), and through the Reservoir Characterization Project at the Colorado School of Mines produced an entirely revised picture of the Tensleep interval. Significant stratigraphic, diagenetic, and structural heterogeneities were identified, mapped, and correlated against productivity patterns under pilot steamflood programs. The results of this integrated geologic and geophysical effort are significant and have implications for secondary recovery operations elsewhere in the Tensleep and its regional correlatives.

Montgomery, S.I.

1996-08-01

50

Refining Lurgi tar acids  

SciTech Connect

There is disclosed a process for removing tar bases and neutral oils from the Lurgi tar acids by treating the tar acids with aqueous sodium bisulfate to change the tar bases to salts and to hydrolyze the neutral oils to hydrolysis products and distilling the tar acids to obtain refined tar acid as the distillate while the tar base salts and neutral oil hydrolysis products remain as residue.

Greco, N.P.

1984-04-17

51

Kentucky tar sand project  

SciTech Connect

Engineering details and pilot-plant results from a pioneering investigation based on a Kentucky tar-sand reserve are presented. The tar sand deposits of Kentucky are generally situated in the southeastern rim of the Illinois Basin along the southern boundary of the Western Coal Field region. In a recent study of US tar sand reserves, it was reported that over 3.4 billion barrels of oil are in Kentucky tar sand deposits alone. In the 22,000 acres, estimated reserves are over 100 million barrels of recoverable heavy oil. The oil-impregnated section of the deposit ranges in heavy oil content from five gallons per ton to over fifteen gallons per ton. The ore body is up to thirty-five feet thick and the overall stripping ratio for a commercial plant is estimated to be one cubic yard of undisturbed overburden material per ton of tar sand ore. A shovel and truck-type strip mining operation would be used to provide feedstock to the plant.

Kelley, M.N.; Jones, H.D. II; Lewis, F.W.

1985-03-01

52

Study of 'Orconectes shoupi' Mill Creek Basin, Tennessee, 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fourteen sites on Mill, Sevenmile, and Indian creeks in Davidson and Williamson Counties, Tenn., were surveyed for crayfish in July 1985. Orconectes shoupi, considered for listing as Endangered by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, numerically dominated at...

A. C. Miller P. D. Hartfield

1987-01-01

53

Water Conservation Study for Manastash Creek Water Users, Kittias County, Washington, Final Report 2002.  

SciTech Connect

Manastash Creek is tributary of the Yakima River and is located southwest and across the Yakima River from the City of Ellensburg. The creek drains mountainous terrain that ranges in elevation from 2,000 feet to over 5,500 feet and is primarily snowmelt fed, with largest flows occurring in spring and early summer. The creek flows through a narrow canyon until reaching a large, open plain that slopes gently toward the Yakima River and enters the main stem of the Yakima River at river mile 154.5. This area, formed by the alluvial fan of the Creek as it leaves the canyon, is the subject of this study. The area is presently dominated by irrigated agriculture, but development pressures are evident as Ellensburg grows and develops as an urban center. Since the mid to late nineteenth century when irrigated agriculture was established in a significant manner in the Yakima River Basin, Manastash Creek has been used to supply irrigation water for farming in the area. Adjudicated water rights dating back to 1871 for 4,465 acres adjacent to Manastash Creek allow appropriation of up to 26,273 acre-feet of creek water for agricultural irrigation and stock water. The diversion of water from Manastash Creek for irrigation has created two main problems for fisheries. They are low flows or dewatered reaches of Manastash Creek and fish passage barriers at the irrigation diversion dams. The primary goal of this study, as expressed by Yakama Nation and BPA, is to reestablish safe access in tributaries of the Yakima River by removing physical barriers and unscreened diversions and by adding instream flow where needed for fisheries. The goal expressed by irrigators who would be affected by these projects is to support sustainable and profitable agricultural use of land that currently uses Manastash Creek water for irrigation. This study provides preliminary costs and recommendations for a range of alternative projects that will partially or fully meet the goal of establishing safe access for fisheries in Manastash Creek by reducing or eliminating diversions and eliminating fish passage barriers. Further study and design will be necessary to more fully develop the alternatives, evaluate their environmental benefits and impacts and determine the effect on Manastash Creek water users. Those studies will be needed to determine which alternative has the best combination of benefits and costs, and meets the goal of the Manastash Creek water users.

Montgomery Watson Harza (Firm)

2002-12-31

54

Fume Emissions from Coal-Tar Pitch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was intended to characterize the chemical and physical nature of coal-tar fumes emitted from spreading applications of coal tar and to determine a first estimate of the emission factor for coal-tar fumes under conditions similar to those found ...

D. C. Hittle J. J. Stukel

1976-01-01

55

Studies on the composition and aging of marine tars. Final report, 30 Jun 1972--10 Jan 1974  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental aging of Arctic diesel, gasoline, motor oil, benzene, and petroleum ether in marine simulated environment failed to produce any tar-like material. Bunker C produced tars quickly. Southern Louisiana crude oil failed to form tars even when asphalt was added to the solution before aging. Presumably some combination of surface energy and mutual solubilities prevents tar formation in this case.

D. R. Schink; L. Jeffrey; C. W. Poag; R. D. Grigsby; J. R. Gormly

1974-01-01

56

Seepage study of McLeod Creek and East Canyon Creek near Park City, Summit County, Utah, 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seepage investigations on McLeod Creek downstream of U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station McLeod Creek near Park City, Utah, and its confluence with Kimball Creek during the summer of 2004 indicate that this section of the creek is a gaining reach. The total seepage gains ranged from 1.8 to 2.7 cubic feet per second, or a 32 to 55 percent gain. The apparent average total seepage gain was 2.2 cubic feet per second, or an average 42 percent gain. Seepage investigations from the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station at East Canyon Creek below I-80 Rest Stop near Park City, Utah, to the station at East Canyon Creek near Jeremy Ranch, Utah, indicate that this section of East Canyon Creek is a slightly losing reach. The total seepage losses ranged from -1.2 to -2.0 cubic feet per second. This is a loss of between -18 and -27 percent from discharge measured at the upstream gaging station. The apparent average total seepage loss for the reach was -1.0 cubic feet per second, or -18 percent. Seepage information also was obtained along East Canyon Creek by using water-temperature data recorded in three shallow streambed piezometers. Surface-water temperature also was recorded at these locations. These water-temperature profiles indicate a seepage loss at all three locations along East Canyon Creek. This seepage loss appears to decrease in September and October.

Wilkowske, C. D.

2005-01-01

57

THREE MILE CREEK TOTAL MAXIMUM DAILY LOAD STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The pupose of this project is to establish the allowable loading of pollutants, or other quantifiable parameters for Threemile Creek. These funds will assist ADEM in the preparation of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) for the reduction and elimination of pollution in Threemile C...

58

Marine ecological habitat: a case study on projected thermal power plant around Dharamtar Creek, India.  

PubMed

Estuaries and tidal creeks, harboring mangroves particularly, face tremendous anthropogenic pressures. Expansion of mega cities and the thermal power plants are generally proposed in the vicinity of estuaries and creek, due to the feasibility of intake and discharge of water for cooling. Discharges from such developments remain constant threat of increasing thermal pollution and affecting the quality of environment. The baseline information on prevailing quality of aquatic environment comes handy for understanding alterations due to such activities. Principle component analysis (PCA) revealed that temperature, pH, salinity, suspended solids, DO, BOD and phaeophytins are major parameters influencing the creek system. Heated effluents may have direct and adverse impacts on these parameters, altering biotic constituents. Hence, periodic and detailed observations are necessary to estimate exact response of biotic communities to changing environment. The present paper is based on case study, projecting a power plant in the vicinity of major mangrove habitats of Dharamtar creek. PMID:21882658

Kulkarni, Vikrant A; Naidu, Velamala S; Jagtap, Tanaji G

2011-03-01

59

Influence of laminar flow on preorientation of coal tar pitch structural units: Raman microspectroscopic study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to estimate the role of laminar flow of viscous, aromatic matter of carbonaceous precursor on microtextural preorientation in pregraphitization stage, we performed experiments with coal tar pitch (CTP). The principal hypothesis of preorientation of basic structural units (BSUs) in the case of laminar flow (pressure impregnation of CTP into porous matrix) and secondary release of volatiles during carbonization were studied. Glass microplates, planar porous medium with average distance between single microplates 5 ?m were used as suitable porous matrix. Samples of CTP were carbonized up to 2500 °C. Optical microscopy reveals large flow domains in the sample of cokes carbonized between glass microplates. Raman microspectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) show that at nanometric scale, the samples do not support the proposed hypotheses. With increasing temperature of pyrolysis, the graphitization of CTP impregnated into porous matrix proceeds to lower degree of structural ordering in comparison with single pyrolyzed CTP. This is explained by the release of volatile matter during carbonization in geometrically restricted spaces. More evident structural changes were discovered with the sample of single coke, where parts of fine grain mosaics, relicts of 'so called QI parts', reveal higher structural organization, in comparison with large and prolonged flow domains, similar to flow domains of cokes from microplates.

Urban, O.; Jehli?ka, J.; Pokorný, J.; Rouzaud, J. N.

2003-08-01

60

Tar sand  

SciTech Connect

Research on tar sand is briefly discussed. The research program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes a variety of surface extraction schemes. The University of Utah has process development units (PDU) employing fluidized bed, hot, water-assisted, and fluidized-bed/heat-pipe, coupled combustor technology. Considerable process variable test data have been gathered on these systems: (1) a rotary kiln unit has been built recently; (2) solvent extraction processing is being examined; and (3) an advanced hydrogenation upgrading scheme (hydropyrolysis) has been developed. The University of Arkansas, in collaboration with Diversified Petroleum, Inc., has been working on a fatty acid, solvent extraction process. Oleic acid is the solvent/surfactant. Solvent is recovered by adjusting processing fluid concentrations to separate without expensive operations. Western Research Institute has a PDU-scale scheme called the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process, which combines solvent (hot recycle bitumen) and pyrolytic extraction. 14 refs., 19 figs.

McLendon, T.R.; Bartke, T.C.

1990-01-01

61

Tar sands  

SciTech Connect

The four largest oil sand deposits contain over 90% of the world's known heavy oil. The total heavy oil and bitumen in place, estimated at nearly 6 trillion barrels is almost entirely concentrated in western Canada, principally Alberta, and eastern Venezuela. The known tar sand resource in the United States consists of about 550 occurrences located in 22 states. The total oil in place in 39 of these occurrences is estimated to be between 23.7 billion and 32.7 billion barrels. At least 90% of this resource is located in Utah. Other significant deposits are in Texas, New Mexico, California, and Kentucky. Bituminous sand deposits and petroleum-impregnated rocks are found in Malagasy, Albania, Rumania, the USSR, and Trinidad. 4 figures, 2 tables. (DP)

Wennekers, J.H.N.

1981-10-01

62

An Exploratory Study of Inhalers and Injectors Who Used Black Tar Heroin  

PubMed Central

Aims To undertake an exploratory study to examine the characteristics of patients in narcotic treatment programs who started their use of black tar heroin either as inhalers or as injectors and to compare them with those who started as inhalers but shifted to injecting. Other studies in this area have used subjects using other forms of heroin more amenable to inhaling. Participants, Design, and Measurement A purposive sample of 199 patients in 6 methadone programs in Texas were interviewed in 2002-2003 using a structured instrument. Findings At admission to treatment, those who were heroin inhalers were more likely to be African American, to live with their families, to have income from wages, and to report fewer days of problems on most of the ASI measures. Those who shifted from inhaling to injecting were more likely to be Hispanic and to have had mental health problems that interfered with their lives and to have had less nurturing while growing up. Injectors were older at this treatment admission, had more treatment episodes and more times in jail, and were more likely to have hepatitis C, AIDS, or gonorrhea. There were high levels of physical and mental problems and histories of traumatization as children and adults for almost all the respondents. Males were as likely as females to have been sexually abused as children or as adults. Conclusions The high rates of mental and physical problems among all the clients interviewed showed the need for comprehensive services to be delivered within the substance abuse treatment programs. Histories of trauma and sexual abuse should be addressed for both male and female clients.

Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Spence, Richard T.

2011-01-01

63

Pilot study on the isolation, metabolism and adaptation of microorganisms to Santa Rosa tar sand hydrocarbons. Phase II. Final report, June 17, 1982-July 17, 1982  

SciTech Connect

This report describes and discusses additional work on a project which involved the use of microorganisms for increasing extraction efficiencies on tar sands. The study was conducted primarily on samples from the Santa Rosa Tar Sands (Guadalupe County, New Mexico). However, in order to be able to fully evaluate the results, parallel comparative studies were conducted on tar sand samples from an Alabama formation. A species of bacteria, Bacillus brevis, which had previously been isolated and adapted for growth on tar sands hydrocarbons was used. The results of the study indicate that bacterial action enhances the solvent extractability of crude from the tar sands. it was also found that sulfur and nitrogen contents of, especially, Santa Rosa tar sands are significantly reduced. Although the work is considered to be fairly conclusive it is suggested that further work and refinement is required. It is believed that the microbial process has merit but that the extraction efficiency can be improved by further work or perhaps the development of other micoorganisms.

Sanchez, G.

1983-01-01

64

Characterization of acid tars.  

PubMed

Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain. PMID:19857924

Leonard, Sunday A; Stegemann, Julia A; Roy, Amitava

2010-03-15

65

Levels-of-Growing-Stock Cooperative Study in Douglas-Fir. Report No. 7. Preliminary Results, Stampede Creek, and Some Comparisons with Iron Creek and Hoskins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of the Stampede Creek LOGS study in southwest Oregon are summarized, and results are compared with two more-advanced LOGS studies and, in general, are similar. To age 43, thinning in this low site 111 Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga Menziesii) stand resu...

R. L. Williamson R. O. Curtis

1984-01-01

66

HANGMEN CREEK, BENEWAH COUNTY, IDAHO - POST BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IMPLEMENTATION STUDY, 1989-1990  

EPA Science Inventory

A study completed in 1982 established the baseline water quality status of Hangman Creek, Idaho (17010306) and recommended land management changes for the watershed. The main objective of this follow-up study was to evaluate differences in water quality for the 1981-1982 baselin...

67

Lower Susquehanna Subbasin. Small Watershed Study: Yellow Breeches Creek. A Bacteriological Assessment, February-November 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC) completed a water quality survey in the Yellow Breeches Creek Watershed from February-November 2006 as part of the Year-2 small watershed study in the Lower Susquehanna River Subbasin. The Year-1 study of more...

2007-01-01

68

BIG CANYON CREEK STUDY, LEWIS AND NEZ PERCE COUNTIES, IDAHO, 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In the 1979 water year, a water quality study was completed on Big Canyon Creek in Lewis and Nez Perce Counties, Idaho (17060306). The study was conducted to obtain background information for development of effluent limitations for the Cities of Peck and Nezperce and to determin...

69

Tar sands development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar sands (also known as oil sands and bituminous sands) are sand deposits which are impregnated with dense viscous petroleum. Ultimate world reserves of bitumen in tar sands are about equal to ultimate reserves of crude oil in the U.S. However, the only tar-sand deposit of present commercial importance is in the Athabasca area of Alberta, Canada. The pioneer venture

1973-01-01

70

Reynolds Creek Watershed. Interim Report No. 11, January 1, 1980-December 31, 1980. SEA-AR/BLM Cooperative Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The interim report summarizes progress and results on the Reynolds Creek Watershed and supporting studies on the Boise Front from October 1 through September 30, 1980. The major objectives of the research on the Reynolds Creek Watershed are to provide mea...

1981-01-01

71

BIG CREEK SUB-WATERSHED STUDY: WATER AND BED SEDIMENT QUALITY RELATIONAL TO PESTICIDE AND NUTRIENT CONCENTRATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The City of Alpharetta, Georgia was awarded a 319(h) grant in 1999 for the study of water and bed sediment quality relational to pesticide and nutrient concentrations in the Big Creek sub-watershed. After changes in personnel and the work plan, monitoring began on the project in April 2004. Big Creek has a watershed area of 103 square miles and is

Rebecca Shelton

2007-01-01

72

Results of a preimpoundment water-quality study of Swatara Creek, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The water quality of Swatara Creek prior to impoundment by the proposed Swatara Creek Reservoir in south-central Pennsylvania was studied from July 1981 through October 1982. The report, done in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources (PaDER), Bureau of State Parks, presents information on existing water-quality conditions. A discussion of possible water-quality conditions in and downstream from the planned impoundment is also included. Precipitation measured near the study area at Lebanon, Pennsylvania from October 1981 through September 1982 was 8 percent below normal. Streamflow for the same period at Swatara Creek at Harper Tavern just downstream from the study area was 15 percent below the average annual flow. Swatara Creek above Highway 895 has been degraded by acid mine drainage. The main inflow to the planned impoundment has 2.1 times the discharge of Lower Little Swatara Creek--a forested and agricultural basin that is also tributary to the proposed impoundment. During the 1982 water year, 17,400 tons of suspended sediment were transported from the study area. About 46 percent of the annual load was transported during 3 days of high flow. Inflows to the planned impoundment from both Lower Little Swatara Creek and Swatara Creek above Highway 895 were poorly buffered. Measured concentrations of alkalinity and acidity were usually less than 10 mg/L (milligrams per liter) and 5 mg/L as CaCO3, respectively. The inflows contain high concentrations of nutrients and metals that would probably stratify in a reservoir. Maximum concentrations of dissolved nitrate and total phosphorus were 2.6 mg/L and 0.31 mg/L, respectively. At Lower Little Swatara Creek; these concentrations are well above those needed for growth of algae. Maximum observed concentrations for total recoverable iron, aluminum, and manganese at Swatara Creek above Highway 895 at Pine Grove were 100,000 ug/L (micrograms per liter), 66,000 ug/L, and 2,300 ug/L, respectively. Large increases in metal concentrations along with simultaneous decreases in pH and increases in acidity confirm that mine drainage continues to degrade the water quality of Swatara Creek and may have a large impact on water quality of the planned impoundment. Iron, lead, copper, and zinc concentrations periodically exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) criteria for freshwater aquatic life. Concentrations of manganese and lead also exceeded the U.S. EPA criteria for domestic water supplies and human health, respectively. The water quality of the Swatara Creek Reservoir will depend on characteristics such as (1) the detention time of water in the lake, (2) the timing and extent of thermal and chemical stratification, (3) sedimentation, and (4) the chemical loading and concentrations in the lake. Each of these characteristics may depend in part, on streamflow. The impoundment will act as a sediment trap and thus reduce the concentrations of total phosphorus, iron, aluminum, lead, copper, and zinc immediately downstream from the impoundment. Large storm discharges and releases from the hypolimnion of the reservoir to attain the winter-pool level may contain low oxygen concentrations and elevated concentrations of iron, aluminum, lead, copper, and zinc. Unless conservation releases from the multi-level release gates are carefully controlled, low dissolved-oxygen levels and high metal concentrations may degrade the downstream water quality and be detrimental to the aquatic community.

Fishel, D. K.; Richardson, J. E.

1986-01-01

73

FIVE MILE CREEK WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT FEASIBILITY STUDY AND CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS DESIGN PROJECT, BIRMINGHAM, AL  

Microsoft Academic Search

ENTRIX Inc. (ENTRIX) recently conducted a feasibility study looking at water quality and flood reduction projects in the Five Mile Creek watershed, north of Birmingham, Alabama. The property is owned by the Freshwater Land Trust as part of the Jefferson County Greenways Plan. This project was driven by the supplemental projects required by the consent decree on Jefferson County Department

Terrell Gibbs; Aylin Lewallen; Doug Mooney; Wendy Allen-Jackson

74

UNDERGROUND MINE DRAINAGE CONTROL SNOWY CREEK-LAUREL RUN, WEST VIRGINIA, FEASIBILITY STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted at the Snowy Creek - Laurel Run basin near Terra Alta, West Virginia, to determine the feasibility of demonstrating mine drainage control by known abatement techniques in abandoned coal mine areas having shallow overburden. The basin contains two abandoned m...

75

Groundwater and Contaminant Transport Modelling at the Sydney Tar Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Muggah Creek estuary has accumulated contaminants from 100 years of iron, steel and coke manufacturing in its contributing watershed. The estuary, locally known as the Tar Ponds, contains sediments contaminated with PAHs and PCBs. A program of groundwater modelling was aimed at estimating current contaminant fluxes to the estuary and site streams, via groundwater. The conceptual model developed for

Mark King

76

Crystallization studies of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) Tat protein and its trans-activation response element (TAR) RNA.  

PubMed

Small single crystals are reported of a complex between a small peptide fragment of the HIV-1 Tat protein and a fragment of the RNA to which it binds. Tat is responsible for enhancing the level of expression of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and is a logical target for AIDS therapy. Tat may function to increase the level of transcription initiation or to prevent premature termination of transcripts. In vitro, Tat binds through its basic domain (two Lys and six Arg in nine residues) to a three-nucleotide bulge of a stem-loop RNA structure called TAR. Complex formation between Tat and TAR is necessary for Tat activity. Peptides which contain the basic region of Tat also bind to TAR RNA. We have carried out crystallization experiments on a 27-nucleotide fragment of TAR RNA and on complexes between two Tat peptides and TAR. PMID:15299414

McKenna, M C; Anderson, D; Cascio, D; Eisenberg, D

1994-07-01

77

A double-blind randomized controlled trial of the effect of a low- versus a middle-tar cigarette on respiratory symptoms--a feasibility study.  

PubMed

A feasibility study of a double-blind, randomized controlled trial of the effect of a low-versus a middle-tar cigarette on respiratory symptoms is described. A smoking questionnaire was sent to 19,366 households. Returned questionnaires (64%) yielded 604 middle-tar cigarette smokers aged 20-44 years; 342 replied to a health warning stating that they did not want to or had failed to stop smoking and of these 183 volunteered for the trial. Thus about every 100 households originally mailed yielded one volunteer. Of the volunteers, 95 men were randomly allocated to be sold a middle-tar cigarette and 88 to be sold a low-tar cigarette of identical appearance. The cigarettes were sold at three different reduced prices and the men were asked to smoke them for five weeks. There was a 22% drop-out and this was unrelated to type of cigarette smoked. A reduction in price of 20% was sufficient incentive for volunteers to participate. Cigarette butts were collected weekly or fortnightly and urine samples were collected initially and after three and five weeks. Compliance with the trial cigarettes was good. The excretion of nicotine metabolites, number of cigarettes smoked and average butt weight for men allocated the low-tar cigarette was not significantly different from that of those allocated the middle-tar cigarette. This suggested that the former compensated for the 37% reduction in the nicotine yield of their cigarette by taking more frequent or deeper puffs from their cigarette. The implications of these results for a large-scale, randomized controlled trial are discussed. PMID:3305334

Peach, H; Hayward, D M; Shah, D; Ellard, G A

1986-01-01

78

Monitored natural attenuation of manufactured gas plant tar mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ground water: a 14-year field study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Site 24 was the subject of a 14-year (5110-day) study of a ground water plume created by the disposal of manufactured gas plant (MGP) tar into a shallow sandy aquifer approximately 25 years prior to the study. The ground water plume in 1988 extended from a well-defined source area to a distance of approximately 400 m down gradient. A system

Edward F. Neuhauser; John A. Ripp; Nicholas A. Azzolina; Eugene L. Madsen; David M. Mauro; Terry Taylor

2009-01-01

79

Steam-Reforming Characteristics of Heavy and Light Tars Derived from Cellulose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, tar formation and steam-reforming mechanisms are discussed by separating the tars into heavy, middle, and light tars. Cellulose was heated in a drop-tube furnace under an Ar or Ar/steam atmosphere. After the tars were passed through the furnace for thermal cracking and polymerization, they were trapped by filters set at different temperatures (573, 393, and 273 K), and were respectively defined as heavy, middle, and light tars. Incondensable volatiles and gaseous products were measured using gas chromatography with thermal conductivity (GC-TCD), and flame ionization (GC-FID) detectors. The middle and light tars obtained under an Ar atmosphere were first characterized using time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). The analysis showed that the middle tar did not contain any low-boiling-point light tar components, while the light tar did contain them. It was also found that complex species in the tars were separated to a certain degree by changing the trap temperature. Moreover, the formation of heavy tar was quite different from that of the light tar. With increasing temperature, the formation of heavy tar was inhibited, while that of the light tar was enhanced during pyrolysis. The steam-reforming characteristics of these tars were also different. The heavy tar was barely reformed at a low temperature of 873 K, even with a long residence time, while the middle tar was well reformed by steam. While it was difficult to describe the tar formation and steam-reforming characteristics when the tar was considered as a single condensable matter, the tar formation and steam-reforming characteristics were clarified by separating the tars. This study shows that, to prevent tar emissions, the formation of heavy tar, which barely reacts with steam, should be inhibited during pyrolysis by controlling the heating.

Watanabe, Hirotatsu; Morinaga, Yosuke; Okazaki, Ken

80

Data from the surface-water hydrologic investigations of the Hay Creek Study Area, Montana, and the West Branch Antelope Creek Study Area, North Dakota, October 1976 through April 1982  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data are provided for the Hay Creek study area near Wibaux, Montana, and the West Branch Antelope Creek study area near Beulah, North Dakota. The report contains data on the following: Air temperature, relative humidity, wind direction, wind run, solar radiation, precipitation, soil temperature, snowpack temperature, snowpack density and moisture content, streamflow, water quality, soil moisture, land use, and basin characteristics. Detailed descriptions of the location of the data-collection sites, instrumentation, and methods used to collect data are included. (USGS)

Emerson, Douglas G.; Norbeck, Steven W.; Boespflug, Kelvin L.

1983-01-01

81

Ecological Studies of Wood-Boring Bivalves in the Vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The species competition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at ...

K. E. Hoagland

1982-01-01

82

Ecological Studies of Wood-Boring Bivalves in the Vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at ...

K. E. Hoagland L. Crocket

1982-01-01

83

Ecological Studies of Wood-Boring Bivalves and Fouling Organisms in the Vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves were studied using wood test panels at 20 stations in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, NJ. Physiological tolerances of three t...

K. E. Hoagland

1983-01-01

84

Ecological Studies of Wood-Boring Bivalves in the Vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at ...

K. E. Hoagland L. Crocket R. D. Turner

1980-01-01

85

Nationwide Urban Runoff Program, Washington, DC. Area Urban Runoff Project: Seneca Creek Watershed Management Study. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using the Seneca Creek watershed in Montgomery County, MD as a case study area, the report presents a methodology for integrating consideration of water quality impacts into the land use planning processes of local governments. Evaluates the potential imp...

T. R. Schueler

1983-01-01

86

Ecological Studies of Wood-Boring Bivalves in the Vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at ...

K. E. Hoagland L. Crocket

1981-01-01

87

Oil from tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, the tar sand deposits of the world have drawn a great deal of attention as possible sources of enormous quantities of crude oil. The total in-place reserves are estimated at over 900 billion bbl, 3 times the liquid petroleum reserves of the world. In the Western Hemisphere, the largest deposits of tar sands occur in Canada, Venezuela,

Farouq Ali

1968-01-01

88

Beaver Creek Wilderness, Kentucky  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Beaver Creek Wilderness, Kentucky, was studied in 1980 by the USGS and USBM. Coal is the most important mineral resource in the Beaver Creek Wilderness. The coal is tentatively ranked as high-volatile A bituminous, and like coal of this rank in nearby mining areas, it is primarily suitable for use as steam coal. The coal resources are estimated to

K. J. Englund; R. W. Hammack

1984-01-01

89

Effect of cavitation on the properties of coal-tar pitch as studied by gas-liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect

The applicability of the cavitation-wave effect to coal-tar pitch processing is considered. The results of the GLC analysis of the test material before and after rotor-pulsation cavitation treatment are given. The organic matter of coal-tar pitch was found to degrade upon cavitation; as a result of this, the yields of light and medium fractions considerably increased. 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

M.I. Baikenov; T.B. Omarbekov; S.K. Amerkhanova (and others) [Buketov State University, Karaganda (Kazakhstan)

2008-02-15

90

Friction resistance of buried pipeline coatings studied. [Comparative evaluation of coal tar felt and thin-film epoxy coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Static friction tests were conducted to find the coefficient of friction between coal tar felt and thin-film epoxy pipe coating and eight representative backfill soil samples from typical locations along a pipeline right-of-way. The results indicate that the friction coefficients are significantly higher than those previously extrapolated from the literature and that coal tar would be the preferable coating in

J. B. Ligon; G. R. Mayer

1975-01-01

91

Water quality study of the Riley Creek (Blanchard River, Ottawa, Ohio)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riley Creek in northwest central Ohio is one of the most heavily impacted tributaries in the Blanchard River watershed. Anthropogenic inputs of phosphorus and nitrogen from agriculture have led to heavy eutrophication over the past decades. Because the Blanchard River is part of the Lake Erie basin, controls on phosphorus and nitrogen, among other inputs, are critical for restoration of ecosystem health in Lake Erie. A previous study in the Riley Creek watershed has shown high historical loadings of both nitrogen and phosphorus. Additionally, bacterial impairment has been noted in the watershed, from both municipal sources and failing septic tanks. This study is the most recent data detailing water quality parameters both chemical and microbiological in Riley Creek. This is also the first data set in Riley Creek examining the spectral characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM). From May to August, 2012, dissolved oxygen concentrations at six sites in the watershed declined from a maximum of 13.2 mg/L (154% O2 saturation) to 1.1 mg/L (12.9%). Median dissolved oxygen during the same period was 5.96 mg/L. Water pH was relatively steady, ranging from 8.6 to 7.9, with values generally declining with time. All six sites were found to have nitrate concentrations above the enforcement target (1 mg/L NO3--N) at various times, with four out of 73 samples falling below this value. Dissolved reactive phosphorus was generally low, with concentrations ranging from 0.074 mg P/L to below detection limits (<0.005 mg P/L). Dissolved organic matter concentrations (measured as mg C/L, potassium hydrogen phthalate equivalent) ranged from 24.1 to 3.5 mg C/L (mean = 9.8 ± 3.8 mg C/L), with no apparent temporal trends. Spectral slope ratios, a proxy for molecular mass, were relatively constant at 0.9 ± 0.2, with only intermittent excursions. No correlation to either flow or time was observed. Tests for fecal coliform bacteria were almost universally positive at all sites, with 10 of 69 samples showing a presumptive positive with presence-absence broth. Overall, the health of the Riley Creek watershed appears to be either stable or declining. Phosphorus and nitrogen loadings have not shown any appreciable change over approximately the past decade. Declines in dissolved oxygen were not noted in previous studies, and may signal an emerging problem in the watershed.

Spiese, C. E.; Berry, J. M.

2012-12-01

92

Cigarette tar yields in relation to mortality from lung cancer in the cancer prevention study II prospective cohort, 1982-8  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the risk of lung cancer in smokers of medium tar filter cigarettes compared with smokers of low tar and very low tar filter cigarettes. Design Analysis of the association between the tar rating of the brand of cigarette smoked in 1982 and mortality from lung cancer over the next six years. Multivariate proportional hazards analyses used to

Jeffrey E Harris; Michael J Thun; Alison M Mondul; Eugenia E Calle

2004-01-01

93

CASS/Cave Creek Water Reclamation Salinity Study. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was commissioned to characterize the CCWRP sewer shed, identify and quantify TDS sources, and attempt to project TDS changes over a 15 year planning horizon. As a small WRP with a consistent and steady source water TDS, this area represents an ...

2006-01-01

94

Sand Creek Massacre Project. Volume 2. Special Resource Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to provide the United States Congress with a professional analysis--prepared in close consultation with the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes of Oklahoma, the Northern Cheyenne Tribe, the Northern Arapaho Tribe, and the State of Col...

2000-01-01

95

Basics of compounding with tars.  

PubMed

Tar has been used throughout history for numerous purposes; from sealing the hulls of ships to sealing roofs of dwellings and even for medical purposes. Produced by destructive distillation, commonly used tars are prepared from coal and wood. Coal tar, juniper tar, and pine tar are used for various medical purposes as described in the article. Also presented are the various characteristics and uses of each tar, along with commercial products and numerous compounding formulas. Techniques used to compound with tars are also presented. PMID:24459787

Allen, Loyd V

2013-01-01

96

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 5  

SciTech Connect

This volume is in support of the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the Oak Ridge Reservation (for more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities there). It addresses the quality assurance objectives for measuring the data, presents selected historical data, contains data from several discrete water characterization studies, provides data supporting the sediment characterization, and contains data related to several biota characterization studies.

NONE

1996-03-01

97

Characterization of acid tars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS), inductively coupled plasma\\/optical emission spectrometry (ICP\\/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy\\/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM\\/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio

Sunday A. Leonard; Julia A. Stegemann; Amitava Roy

2010-01-01

98

Collection of short papers on Beaver Creek watershed studies in West Tennessee, 1989-94  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey began a scientific investigation to evaluate the effect of agricultural activities on water quality and the effectiveness of agricultural best management practices in the Beaver Creek watershed, West Tennessee. The project is being conducted jointly with other Federal, State, county agencies, the farming community, and academic institutions, in support of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Hydrologic Unit Area program. The Beaver Creek project has evolved into a long-term watershed assessment and monitoring program. In 1991, a grant was received to develop and evaluate sampling strategies for higher order streams. During the summer of 1992, a reconnaissance of water-quality conditions for the shallow aquifers in Shelby, Tipton, Fayette, and Haywood Counties was conducted and included 89 domestic wells in the Beaver Creek watershed. Results from this effort lead to the development of a 1-year program to evaluate cause- and-effect relations that can explain the observed water-quality conditions for the shallow aquifers in the watershed. In 1992 the USGS, in cooperation with the Soil Conservation Service and the Shelby County Soil Conservation District, began an evaluation of in-stream processes and in-stream resource-management systems. In 1993, a biomonitoring program was established in the watershed. This collection of eight articles and abstracts was originally published in the American Water Resources Association National Symposium on Water Quality Proceedings for the national conference held in Chicago in 1994 and describes what has been learned in the study to date.

Compiled by Doyle, W. Harry.; Baker, Eva G.

1995-01-01

99

Tar loads on Omani beaches  

SciTech Connect

Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches.

Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T. (National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt))

1991-11-01

100

Properties of Utah tar sands: Threemile Canyon area, P. R. Spring deposit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of detailed analyses of 4 cores from the Threemile Canyon area in the P.R. Spring tar sand deposit in Utah are reported by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. The cores were obtained by the Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey as part of a 17-corehole evaluation program in the P.R. Spring, Hill Creek, and Rim Rock tar sand deposits. Average

L. C. Marchant; L. A. Johnson; C. Q. Cupps

1974-01-01

101

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report Sep-Nov 81  

SciTech Connect

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the fall of 1981, Teredo bartschi remained in Oyster Creek despite continuous prolonged outages of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station.

Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

1982-06-01

102

Examination of eastern oil shale disposal problems - the Hope Creek field study  

SciTech Connect

A field-based study of problems associated with the disposal of processed Eastern oil shale was initiated in mid-1983 at a private research site in Montgomery County, Kentucky. The study (known as the Hope Creek Spent Oil Shale Disposal Project) is designed to provide information on the geotechnical, revegetation/reclamation, and leachate generation and composition characteristics of processed Kentucky oil shales. The study utilizes processed oil shale materials (retorted oil shale and reject raw oil shale fines) obtained from a pilot plant run of Kentucky oil shale using the travelling grate retort technology. Approximately 1000 tons of processed oil shale were returned to Kentucky for the purpose of the study. The study, composed of three components, is described. The effort to date has concentrated on site preparation and the construction and implementation of the field study research facilities. These endeavors are described and the project direction in the future years is defined.

Koppenaal, D.W.; Kruspe, R.R.; Robl, T.L.; Cisler, K.; Allen, D.L.

1985-02-01

103

Mineral resources of the Owl Creek Wilderness Study Area, Hot Springs County, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, 710 acres of the Owl Creek Wilderness Study Area were studied for mineral endowment. Field and labortory studies were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines. A search of U.S. Bureau of Land Management, State, and county records showed no current or previous mining claim activity and, other than common-variety sand and gravel, no mineral resources were identified during field examination of the study area. Sand and gravel is classified as an inferred subeconomic resource; however, the remoteness of the area precludes much usage of the material. About two-thirds of the study area is under lease for oil and gas. The entire study area has moderate resource potential for undiscovered oil and gas and low resource potential for undiscovered metals, coal, zeolites, and geothermal energy.

Bove, D.J.; Carlson, R.R.; Kulik, D.M.; Lundby, W.

1989-01-01

104

Mineral resources of the Owl Creek Wilderness Study Area, Hot Springs County, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the US Bureau of Land Management, 710 acres of the Owl Creek Wilderness Study Area were studied for mineral endowment. Field and laboratory studies were conducted by the US Geological Survey and the US Bureau of Mines. A search of US Bureau of Land Management, State, and County records showed no current or previous mining claim activity and, other than common-variety sand and gravel, no mineral resources were identified during field examination of this study area. Sand and gravel is classified as an inferred subeconomic resource; however, the remoteness of this area precludes much usage of this material. About two-thirds of this study area is under lease for oil and gas. This entire study area has a moderate resource potential for undiscovered oil and gas and a low resource potential for undiscovered metals, coal, zeolites, and geothermal energy.

Bove, D.J.; Carlson, R.R.; Kulik, D.M.; Lundby, W.

1989-01-01

105

Preliminary study of heavy metal pollution from Fe-Al oxides in Peihuang Creek, North Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) is not active since late Pleistocene but the post-volcanic activities, such as hot spring and sulfur gas, still widespread around the volcano province. Peihuang Creek is the main watershed system in TVG. The creek water is characterized by higher temperature, low pH values (3.0-4.5) and high SO4 content (60-400 ppm) due to the mixing of hotspring. This would promote the geochemical interaction between water and andesitic rocks and results in waters with highly enriched iron, aluminum and silica. These elements prefer to form suspended colloidal particles in water and adsorb heavy metals. Once the pH of water increases under oxidation condition, the colloid would precipitate in the form of ochre colored powder on the riverbed. The previous study reports that the arsenic content can reach as high as hundreds ppm. It is very important to evaluate the desorption behavior of heavy metals, especially for the study area with highly developed agriculture. For the preliminary analysis, five samples of ochre colored powder were sampled along the creek. The results of XRF demonstrate that the powder is mainly composed of iron, aluminum and silica, which is Fe-Al hydroxide. The iron content of Fe-Al hydroxide decreases from 63% to 25% while the aluminum and silica contents gradually increase from 5% to 20% and from 9% to 30%, respectively. To evaluate the desorption of heavy metals, the sequential extraction procedure was conducted. In the first step for determining leachable metals, the Fe-Al oxides were extracted with deionized water in the room temperature for one week. All of the metals are in ppb level except copper. For determining reducible phase, Step 2 used reagent solution of 0.5 mol/L hydroxylamine hydrochloride, which was adjusted to pH=2 with ultrapure nitric acid, for one week. The extracted chromium, arsenic, lead and copper are in the dangerous level of tens to hundreds ppm. It is believed that only very small amounts of heavy metals were extracted due to extraordinary high content of Fe oxide in the powder. These metals would be expected to be released under reducing conditions. And, more extraction methods simulating different natural and anthropogenic environment will be performed in the future research. Rare earth elements (REE) are an excellent indicator of adsorption/desorption geochemistry and were also determined in this study. The results demonstrate a light REE enriched pattern, which reveals that the Fe-Al oxides prefer to bind metals with low ionic potential. In addition, a positive cerium anomaly indicates an oxidation condition during the precipitation of Fe-Al oxides.

Lai, B.

2012-12-01

106

Analyses and description of geochemical samples, Mill Creek Wilderness Study Area, Giles County, Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Semiquantitative emission spectrographic analyses for 64 elements on 62 stream sediment and 71 rock samples from Mill Creek Wilderness Study area, Giles County, Virginia, are reported here in detail. Locations for all samples are given in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. Brief descriptions of rock samples are also included. Rocks analysed are mostly sandstone. Samples of hematitic sandstone of the Rose Hill Formation and limonite-cemented sandstone of the Rocky Gap Sandstone contain high values of iron; these rocks are submarginal iron resources. Some of the same iron-rich samples have a little more barium, copper, cobalt, lead, silver, and/or zinc then is in average sandstone, but they do not suggest the presence of economic deposits of these metals. No other obviously anomalous values related to mineralized rock are present in the data.

Mei, Leung; Lesure, Frank Gardner

1978-01-01

107

Levels-of-Growing-Stock Cooperative Study in Douglas-Fir. Report No. 14, Stampede Creek: 30-Year Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of the Stampede Creek installation of the levels-of-growing-stock (LOGS) study in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) are summarized. To age 63 (planned completion of 60 feet of height growth), volume growth on the site III natural ...

R. O. Curtis D. D. Marshall

2002-01-01

108

Middle Susquehanna River Subbasin Small Watershed Study: Wyalusing Creek Watershed. A Water Quality and Biological Assessment, October 2002 - September 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC) conducted a survey in the Wyalusing Creek Watershed from October 2002 to September 2003 as part of the Year-2 small watershed study in the Middle Susquehanna Subbasin. The Year-1 survey was conducted in the Mi...

S. R. LeFevre

2004-01-01

109

Microcosm studies of microbial degradation in a coal tar distillate plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigation of a groundwater plume containing up to 24 g l -1 phenolic compounds suggested that over a period of nearly 50 years, little degradation had occurred despite the presence of a microbial community and electron acceptors within the core of the plume. In order to study the effect of contaminant concentration on degradation behaviour, laboratory microcosm experiments were performed under aerobic and anaerobic conditions at four different concentrations obtained by diluting contaminated with uncontaminated groundwater. The microcosms contained groundwater with total phenols at ca. 200, 250, 660 and 5000 mg l -1, and aquifer sediment that had been acclimatised within the plume for several months. The microcosms were operated for a period of 390-400 days along with sterile controls to ascertain whether degradation was microbially mediated or abiotic. Under aerobic conditions, degradation only occurred at concentrations up to 660 mg l -1 total phenols. At phenol concentrations below 250 mg l -1, a benzoquinone intermediate, thought to originate from the degradation of 2,5-dimethylphenol, was isolated and identified. This suggested an unusual degradative pathway for this compound; its aerobic degradation more commonly proceeding via catecholic intermediates. Under anaerobic conditions, degradation only occurred in the most dilute microcosm (total phenols 195 mg l -1) with a loss of p-cresol accompanied by a nonstoichiometric decrease in nitrate and sulphate. By inference, iron(III) from the sediment may also have been used as a terminal electron acceptor, in which case the amount of biologically available iron released was calculated as 1.07 mg Fe(III)/g of sediment. The study shows that natural attenuation is likely to be stimulated by dilution of the plume.

Harrison, I.; Williams, G. M.; Higgo, J. J. W.; Leader, R. U.; Kim, A. W.; Noy, D. J.

2001-12-01

110

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves and fouling organisms in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Final report, September 1976-December 1982  

SciTech Connect

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves were studied using wood test panels at 20 stations in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Physiological tolerances of three teredinid species were investigated in the laboratory and correlated with field values of temperature, salinity, siltation, precipitation, and plant operations. The interaction of boring and fouling organisms was examined. There is a definite correlation between the operation of the power plant and teredinid outbreaks. Increased salinity and water flow as well as temperature are responsible. After 1976, most of the damage in Oyster Creek was done by the introduced subtropical species Teredo bartschi. It can respond faster than native species to environmental change. Although Oyster Creek contributed larvae to neighboring parts of Barnegat Bay, its role as a breeding ground was limited. Some elements of the fouling community may be antagonistic to shipworm growth. Fouling was increased in both biomass and species richness in Oyster Creek when compared with creek controls, but the fouling community in Oyster Creek was less stable than that in other areas. Lower salinity limits for the teredinids were within the salinity range found in Oyster Creek but not within the range found in the control creeks. 71 references, 9 figures, 39 tables.

Hoagland, K.E.

1983-10-01

111

Comparative anti-dandruff efficacy between a tar and a non-tar shampoo.  

PubMed

A randomized double-blind clinical study was conducted on two groups of 30 volunteers using either a non-tar shampoo (2% salicylic acid, 0.75% piroctone olamine and 0.5% elubiol) or a 0.5% coal tar shampoo. Subjects were diagnosed as having moderate to marked dandruff. The study consisted of a 3-week washout, followed by a 4-week treatment and a 4-week posttreatment regression phase. The clinical evaluations and subject self-assessments showed that the non-tar shampoo was as effective as the tar shampoo. Both received high approval ratings (> or =70%). Biometrological methods proved to be more sensitive than clinical evaluations to assess the efficacy of the shampoos. The non-tar shampoo yielded a significantly better reduction of Malassezia spp. counts (p<0.02) during the treatment phase and reduced the spontaneous increase in squamometry values (p< 0.01) during the posttreatment phase. It is concluded that a formulation associating salicylic acid, piroctone olamine and elubiol exhibited increased beneficial effects compared to the coal tar shampoo. PMID:10773717

Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E; Vroome, V; Lin, G C; Appa, Y

2000-01-01

112

Study of naturally occurring, radionuclide bearing deposits at Portland Creek, Newfoundland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A small uraniferous peat deposit located near Portland Creek, Newfoundland was investigated as part of the National Uranium Tailings Program (NUTP). The purpose of the investigation was to provide data on naturally occurring uranium series radionuclides a...

1985-01-01

113

Importance of heterocylic aromatic compounds in monitored natural attenuation for coal tar contaminated aquifers: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

NSO heterocycles (HET) are typical constituents of coal tars. However, HET are not yet routinely monitored, although HET are relatively toxic coal tar constituents. The main objectives of the study is therefore to review previous studies and to analyse HET at coal tar polluted sites in order to assess the relevance of HET as part of monitored natural attenuation (MNA)

Philipp Blum; Anne Sagner; Andreas Tiehm; Peter Martus; Thomas Wendel; Peter Grathwohl

2011-01-01

114

Higher temperature coal tar enamel fights corrosion  

SciTech Connect

High temperatures create new challenges for pipeline coatings. Cracking, adhesion breakdown and electrochemical corrosion are accelerated by higher service temperatures. A new epoxy primer/coal tar pipeline coating system utilizes the latent heat of the coal tar application to fully cure the newly developed primer to achieve outstanding bonding integrity and high temperature cathodic disbondment resistance. A key reason for this overall high performance is the marriage of a newly developed epoxy primer that provides outstanding adhesion with coal tar enamel, which provides excellent long-term water resistance. The paper describes experimental studies, pilot plant application, cathodic disbondment testing, and results from hot water soak tests and the low temperature cracking test.

Johnson, J.R.; Henegar, S.; Roder, B. [Reilly Industries, Inc., Indianapolis, IN (United States)

1996-10-01

115

Mineral resources of the Fish Creek Canyon, Road Canyon, and Mule Canyon Wilderness Study Areas, San Juan County, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book reports the Fish Creek Canyon (UT-060-204), Road Canyon(UT-060-201), and Mule Canyon (UT-060-205B) Wilderness Study Areas, which comprise 40,160 acres, 52,420 acres, and 5,990 acres, respectively, studied for their mineral endowment. A search of federal, state, and county records showed no current or previous mining-claim activity. No mineral resources were identified during field examination of the study areas. Sandstone

D. J. Bove; D. R. Shawe; G. K. Lee; W. F. Hanna; R. E. Jeske

1989-01-01

116

Beach tar accumulation, transport mechanisms, and sources of variability at Coal Oil Point, California.  

PubMed

A new field method for tar quantification was used at Coal Oil Point (COP), California to study the mechanisms transporting oil/tar from the nearby COP natural marine hydrocarbon seep field. This method segregates tar pieces into six size classes and assigns them an average mass based on laboratory or direct field measurements. Tar accumulation on the 19,927m(2) survey area was well resolved spatially by recording tar mass along twelve transects segmented into 4-m(2) blocks and then integrating over the survey area. A seasonal trend was apparent in total tar in which summer accumulations were an order of magnitude higher than winter accumulations. Based on multiple regression analyses between environmental data and tar accumulation, 34% of tar variability is explained by a combination of onshore advection via wind and low swell height inhibiting slick dispersion. PMID:17631358

Del Sontro, Tonya S; Leifer, Ira; Luyendyk, Bruce P; Broitman, Bernardo R

2007-09-01

117

Validity of smokers' information about present and past cigarette brands--implications for studies of the effects of falling tar yields of cigarettes on health.  

PubMed

Four hundred and twenty nine current smokers and ex-smokers who had provided details 12 years previously completed a self administered questionnaire about their present and past smoking habits, and two weeks later current smokers supplied an empty cigarette packet. The tar group and brand name of the current cigarette given on the questionnaire were compared with details on the packet, and the brand alleged to have been smoked 12 years ago was compared with that actually recorded at that time. Only 55% of "low middle" tar cigarettes as indicated by returned packets had been correctly identified in the questionnaire. The brand name was the same in the questionnaire and on the packet in 74% of cases. The recalled brand was confirmed by past records in only 49% of cases. It is concluded that current smokers should be asked to return an empty packet or packets of the cigarette brand or brands usually smoked with a self administered questionnaire and that follow up studies of populations for which brands of cigarette smoked were previously recorded might be more valid than studies relying on recall. PMID:3715776

Peach, H; Shah, D; Morris, R W

1986-03-01

118

Validity of smokers' information about present and past cigarette brands--implications for studies of the effects of falling tar yields of cigarettes on health.  

PubMed Central

Four hundred and twenty nine current smokers and ex-smokers who had provided details 12 years previously completed a self administered questionnaire about their present and past smoking habits, and two weeks later current smokers supplied an empty cigarette packet. The tar group and brand name of the current cigarette given on the questionnaire were compared with details on the packet, and the brand alleged to have been smoked 12 years ago was compared with that actually recorded at that time. Only 55% of "low middle" tar cigarettes as indicated by returned packets had been correctly identified in the questionnaire. The brand name was the same in the questionnaire and on the packet in 74% of cases. The recalled brand was confirmed by past records in only 49% of cases. It is concluded that current smokers should be asked to return an empty packet or packets of the cigarette brand or brands usually smoked with a self administered questionnaire and that follow up studies of populations for which brands of cigarette smoked were previously recorded might be more valid than studies relying on recall.

Peach, H; Shah, D; Morris, R W

1986-01-01

119

Waste management plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley Treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Waste Management Plan (WMP) for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study addresses waste management requirements for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The study is intended to produce treatment performance data required to design a treatment system for conta...

1997-01-01

120

Machine-smoking studies of cigarette filter color to estimate tar yield by visual assessment and through the use of a colorimeter.  

PubMed

This paper explores using the intensity of the stain on the end of the filter ("filter color") as a vehicle for estimating cigarette tar yield, both by instrument reading of the filter color and by visual comparison to a template. The correlation of machine-measured tar yield to filter color measured with a colorimeter was reasonably strong and was relatively unaffected by different puff volumes or different tobacco moistures. However, the correlation of filter color to machine-measured nicotine yield was affected by the moisture content of the cigarette. Filter color, as measured by a colorimeter, was generally comparable to filter extraction of either nicotine or solanesol in its correlation to machine-smoked tar yields. It was found that the color of the tar stain changes over time. Panelists could generally correctly order the filters from machine-smoked cigarettes by tar yield using the intensity of the tar stain. However, there was considerable variation in the panelist-to-panelist tar yield estimates. The wide person-to-person variation in tar yield estimates, and other factors discussed in the text could severely limit the usefulness and practicality of this approach for visually estimating the tar yield of machine-smoked cigarettes. PMID:19879915

Morton, Michael J; Williams, David L; Hjorth, Heather B; Smith, Jennifer H

2010-04-01

121

Beaver Creek Wilderness, Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

The Beaver Creek Wilderness, Kentucky, was studied in 1980 by the USGS and USBM. Coal is the most important mineral resource in the Beaver Creek Wilderness. The coal is tentatively ranked as high-volatile A bituminous, and like coal of this rank in nearby mining areas, it is primarily suitable for use as steam coal. The coal resources are estimated to total 8.31 million short tons in beds greater than 14 in. thick. Nonmetallic minerals present in the Wilderness include limestone, shale, clay, and sandstone; these commodities are abundant outside the wilderness. The information available is not adequate for the assessment of the oil and gas resource potential of the Beaver Creek Wilderness. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources.

Englund, K.J.; Hammack, R.W.

1984-01-01

122

InSAR Studies of Crustal Deformation Near Jakobshavn Isbrae, Greenland and Cane Creek Anticline, Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will present studies of two kinds of crustal deformation phenomena using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technique. Jakobshavn Isbrae, one of the largest outlet glaciers in Greenland, has been undergoing significant thinning and acceleration in recent years (Thomas, et al, 2003; Joughin et al, 2004). We use InSAR to measure crustal uplift in the ice-free bedrock area near the mouth of the glacier from 2002 to 2007, caused by the removal of the ice load. We will discuss the possibility of using the crustal deformation measurement to improve the estimation of mass loss rate of Jakobshavn Isbrae. Orbital error correction using empirical models and GPS data as ground control points will also be discussed. Since 1970s, potash ore has been mined from about 3000 feet underneath the Cane Creek anticline in southeastern Utah, using a system combining solution mining and solar evaporation. The barren and arid conditions in this area are ideal for InSAR measurements. Ground coherence is well maintained, even for time spans larger than 5 years. Interferograms formed by using ERS-1/2 SAR data show that the ground surface was subsiding steadily with a rate of 10~15 mm/yr in the period of 1992 to 2002. Detailed results, including time series studies of the subsidence rate and shape and their relation to mining activities will be provided.

Liu, L.; Wahr, J.; Howat, I.; Khan, S. A.; Joughin, I.

2007-12-01

123

CALPUFF and AERMOD model validation study in the near field: Martins Creek revisited.  

PubMed

This paper describes a near-field validation study involving the steady-state, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guideline model AERMOD and the nonsteady-state puff model CALPUFF. Relative model performance is compared with field measurements collected near Martins Creek, PA-a rural, hilly area along the Pennsylvania-New Jersey border. The principal emission sources in the study were two coal-fired power plants with tall stacks and buoyant plumes. Over 1 yr of sulfur dioxide measurements were collected at eight monitors located at or above the two power plants' stack tops. Concurrent meteorological data were available at two sites. Both sites collected data 10 m above the ground. One of the sites also collected sonic detection and ranging measurements up to 420 m above ground. The ability of the two models to predict monitored sulfur dioxide concentrations was assessed in a four-part model validation. Each part of the validation applied different criteria and statistics to provide a comprehensive evaluation of model performance. Because of their importance in regulatory applications, an emphasis was placed on statistics that demonstrate the model's ability to reproduce the upper end of the concentration distribution. On the basis of the combined results of the four-part validation (i.e., weight of evidence), the performance of CALPUFF was judged to be superior to that of AERMOD. PMID:21751581

Dresser, Alan L; Huizer, Robert D

2011-06-01

124

Water-Quality Characteristics of Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To address water-resource management objectives of the National Park Service in Grand Teton National Park, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service has conducted water-quality sampling on streams in the Snake River headwaters area. A synoptic study of streams in the western part of the headwaters area was conducted during 2006. Sampling sites were located on Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek. Sampling events in June, July, August, and October were selected to characterize different hydrologic conditions and different recreational-use periods. Stream samples were collected and analyzed for field measurements, major-ion chemistry, nutrients, selected trace elements, pesticides, and suspended sediment. Water types of Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek were calcium bicarbonate. Dissolved-solids concentrations were dilute in Cottonwood Creek and Taggart Creek, which drain Precambrian-era rocks and materials derived from these rocks. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 11 to 31 milligrams per liter for samples collected from Cottonwood Creek and Taggart Creek. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 55 to 130 milligrams per liter for samples collected from Lake Creek and Granite Creek, which drain Precambrian-era rocks and Paleozoic-era rocks and materials derived from these rocks. Nutrient concentrations generally were small in samples collected from Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek. Dissolved-nitrate concentrations were the largest in Taggart Creek. The Taggart Creek drainage basin has the largest percentage of barren land cover of the basins, and subsurface waters of talus slopes may contribute to dissolved-nitrate concentrations in Taggart Creek. Pesticide concentrations, trace-element concentrations, and suspended-sediment concentrations generally were less than laboratory reporting levels or were small for all samples. Water-quality characteristics of streams in the western part of the Snake River headwaters area were compared to water-quality characteristics of streams sampled in 2002 in the eastern part of the headwaters area. The median dissolved-solids concentration (55 milligrams per liter) for samples collected from western streams was smaller than the median dissolved-solids concentration (125 milligrams per liter) for samples collected from eastern streams. The small dissolved-solids concentrations in the western streams are a result of the large areas underlain by resistant Precambrian-era rocks that compose the Teton Range compared to the more erodable Mesozoic-era sedimentary rocks that compose the mountains in the eastern part of the headwaters area. The Teton Range also receives higher annual precipitation than the mountains in the east. The median total-nitrogen concentration (0.17 milligram per liter) in samples collected from streams in the western part of the Snake River headwaters area was larger than the median concentration (0.10 milligram per liter) for samples collected from streams in the eastern part of the headwaters area, in part because of larger dissolved-nitrate concentrations in samples from the western streams compared to the eastern streams. In contrast, total-phosphorus concentrations generally were larger for samples collected from eastern streams. Large total-phosphorus concentrations in the eastern streams were associated with large suspended-sediment concentrations. The source of the phosphorus and sediment probably is Mesozoic-era sedimentary rocks of marine origin that underlie parts of the eastern drainage basins.

Clark, Melanie L.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; O'Ney, Susan E.

2007-01-01

125

Final geotechnical study, DARA Solid Storage Facility, Y-12 Bear Creek Burial Grounds, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The DARA Solid Storage Facility is located north of Gate 4 in the Y-12 Bear Creek Burial Grounds. It was constructed to temporarily store contaminated soil excavated during closure of the Oil Retention Ponds project. The ground surface around the perimeter of the building ranges from about 942 feet Mean Sea Level (MSL) to 936 feet MSL Surface drainage is away from the building, with most of the surface runoff flowing into the drainage ditch east of the building. In order for the DARA Solid Storage Facility (SSF) to be a RCRA permitted hazardous waste storage facility, you have informed us that the height of the water in the sediment cannot exceed one foot. The purposes of this study are to: Obtain subsurface data from the soil stored within the DARA Solid Storage Facility; classify the soil samples and conduct pertinent on-site laboratory tests to characterize the physical parameters of the soil; review groundwater information from nearby monitoring wells; review provided piezometer data, and integrate this with Ogden obtained data and analyze both; review other pertinent documents and drawings; comment as to why we believe that there is a reduced flow of water over time from the soil into the sumps; as appropriate, develop recommendations regarding possible methods that can be used to remove additional water from the soil; and provide other comments we believe are pertinent to a geotechnical analysis of the SSF soil-water relationship.

Not Available

1992-06-01

126

Sampling and analysis plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatment technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. This project directly supports Alternative 5 of the base action in...

1997-01-01

127

Ecological Studies of Wood-Boring Bivalves in the Vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Progress Report December 1981 - February 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of woodboring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 1...

K. E. Hoagland L. Crocket

1982-01-01

128

Treatment of hot tar burns  

PubMed Central

Hot tar burns, although rare, usually occur in workers in the paving and roofing industries. When tar is heated to high temperatures it can cause deep burns, and its removal often causes further damage. However, the use of one of the polysorbates (surface-active agents) makes removal easy and painless. ImagesFIG. 1

Bose, B.; Tredget, T.

1982-01-01

129

Reconnaissance Investigation, Water Supply and Water Quality Control Study. Beaver Creek Watershed, Oregon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A reconnaissance survey has been made which discloses a need for storage for municipal water supply in the Beaver Creek Watershed, Oregon. No need is foreseen in the basin for water quality control storage. This conclusion is based on economic, demographi...

1966-01-01

130

IMPACT OF URBANIZATION ON THE HYDROLOGY OF THE POCONO CREEK WATERSHED: A MODEL STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Pocono Creek watershed located in Monroe County, PA, is threatened by high population growth and urbanization. Of concern specifically is the potential impact of future developments in the watershed on the reduction of base flow and the consequent risk of degradation of wild ...

131

Pesticide Runoff Model (PeRM): A Case Study for the Kintore Creek Watershed, Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated model, the Pesticide Runoff Model (PeRM), has been developed to predict pesticide losses due to runoff by considering the emission, degradation, adsorption and desorption of pesticides, as well as their movement in dissolved and adsorbed phases. The developed modeling system has been used to calculate the losses of atrazine from agricultural lands in the Kintore Creek Watershed, Ontario,

John Struger; Bing Chen; Gordon H. Huang

2003-01-01

132

The bly creek ecosystem study: Phosphorus transport within a euhaline salt marsh basin, North Inlet, South Carolina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus transport through the tidal creek linking the Bly Creek basin (North Inlet, South Carolina) and the surrounding water body was studied on 34 tidal cycles between 20 June 1983 and 19 June 1984. Annual estimates of phosphorus input to the basin via streamwater, groundwater, and via streamwater, groundwater, and rain totalled 19.6 kg P·y -1; PO 4 export from the basin was not significant. Within the basin, the salt marsh was shown to be an important sink for PO 4 (207 kg P·y -1) while the oyster reef community exported a statistically insignificant 7.7 kg P·y -1. The data suggest that the source of the PO 4 to the salt marsh is the water column or benthic sediments of the tidal creek. The salt marsh was a significant sink for particulate phosphorus, but those uptakes were less than the error on the insignificant fluxes into the basin via the water column. The oyster reef community was a statistically significant sink for total phosphorus (98 kg P·y -1).

Dame, Richard F.; Wolaver, Thomas G.; Williams, Thomas M.; Spurrier, John D.; Miller, Anne B.

133

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Interim report 1 Sep 79-28 Feb 80  

SciTech Connect

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being analyzed. Teredo bartschi caused almost complete destruction of panels in Oyster Creek during the summer of 1979. Reproduction and settlement of this species continued into October. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with T. bartschi in Oyster Creek. The greatest shipworm damage is in Oyster Creek. Heavy mortality occurs in all species during winter, especially in winters such as 1979-80 when the generating station is not operating. Adults of all three species can survive for at least 30 days at salinities from 5 to 45 parts per thousand by weight. They can withstand abrupt salinity changes.

Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.; Turner, R.D.

1980-11-01

134

Monitored natural attenuation of manufactured gas plant tar mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ground water: a 14-year field study  

SciTech Connect

Site 24 was the subject of a 14-year (5110-day) study of a ground water plume created by the disposal of manufactured gas plant (MGP) tar into a shallow sandy aquifer approximately 25 years prior to the study. The ground water plume in 1988 extended from a well-defined source area to a distance of approximately 400 m down gradient. A system of monitoring wells was installed along six transects that ran perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the plume centerline. The MGP tar source was removed from the site in 1991 and a 14-year ground water monitored natural attenuation (MNA) study commenced. The program measured the dissolved mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs and PAHs) periodically over time, which decreased significantly over the 14-year period. Naphthalene decreased to less than 99% of the original dissolved mass, with mass degradation rates of 0.30 per year (half-life 2.3 years). Bulk attenuation rate constants for plume centerline concentrations over time ranged from 0.33 {+-} 0.09 per year (half-life 2.3 {+-} 0.8 years) for toluene and 0.45 {+-} 0.06 per year (half-life 1.6 {+-} 0.2 years) for naphthalene. The hydrogeologic setting at Site 24, having a sandy aquifer, shallow water table, clay confining layer, and aerobic conditions, was ideal for demonstrating MNA. However, these results demonstrate that MNA is a viable remedial strategy for ground water at sites impacted by MAHs and PAHs after the original source is removed, stabilized, or contained.

Neuhauser, E.F.; Ripp, J.A.; Azzolina, N.A.; Madsen, E.L.; Mauro, D.M.; Taylor, T. [Foth Infrastructure & Environment LLC, Green Bay, WI (United States)

2009-07-01

135

Beaver Creek and Clear Creek Reservoirs. Northeastern Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement. Volume II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Beaver Creek and Clear Creek Reservoirs Land Management Plan is a study of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)-managed public land surrounding Beaver Creek and Clear Creek reservoirs. It is one of five reservoir land management plans (RLMPs) associat...

2010-01-01

136

Does switching to a tobacco-free waterpipe product reduce toxicant intake? A crossover study comparing CO, NO, PAH, volatile aldehydes, "tar" and nicotine yields.  

PubMed

Waterpipe (hookah, narghile, shisha) use has become a global phenomenon, with numerous product variations. One variation is a class of products marketed as "tobacco-free" alternatives for the "health conscious user". In this study toxicant yields from waterpipes smoked using conventional tobacco-based and tobacco-free preparations were compared. A human-mimic waterpipe smoking machine was used to replicate the puffing sequences of 31 human participants who completed two double-blind ad libitum smoking sessions in a controlled clinical setting: once with a tobacco-based product of their choosing and once with a flavor-matched tobacco-free product. Outcome measures included yields of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, volatile aldehydes, nicotine, tar, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Smoke from both waterpipe preparations contained substantial quantities of toxicants. Nicotine yield was the only outcome that differed significantly between preparations. These findings contradict advertising messages that "herbal" waterpipe products are a healthy alternative to tobacco products. PMID:22406330

Shihadeh, Alan; Salman, Rola; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Saliba, Najat; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Blank, Melissa D; Cobb, Caroline O; Eissenberg, Thomas

2012-05-01

137

Does switching to a tobacco-free waterpipe product reduce toxicant intake? A crossover study comparing CO, NO, PAH, volatile aldehydes, tar and nicotine yields  

PubMed Central

Waterpipe (hookah, narghile, shisha) use has become a global phenomenon, with numerous product variations. One variation is a class of products marketed as “tobacco-free” alternatives for the “health conscious user”. In this study toxicant yields from waterpipes smoked using conventional tobacco-based and tobacco-free preparations were compared. A human-mimic waterpipe smoking machine was used to replicate the puffing sequences of 31 human participants who completed two double-blind ad libitum smoking sessions in a controlled clinical setting: once with a tobacco-based product of their choosing and once with a flavor-matched tobacco-free product. Outcome measures included yields of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, volatile aldehydes, nicotine, tar, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Smoke from both waterpipe preparations contained substantial quantities of toxicants. Nicotine yield was the only outcome that differed significantly between preparations. These findings contradict advertising messages that “herbal” waterpipe products are a healthy alternative to tobacco products.

Shihadeh, Alan; Salman, Rola; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Saliba, Najat; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Blank, Melissa D.; Cobb, Caroline O.; Eissenberg, Thomas

2012-01-01

138

Chromatographic studies of purity and segregation behaviour of natural impurities present in coal tar acenaphthene and pyrene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twenty one (two unidentified) and 14 impurities were detected and identified in the bottom parts of the zone refined ingots of commercially available ex-coal tar acenaphthene and pyrene, respectively, with the help of Hewlett-Packard gas chromatographs type 6890 GC System and 5890 series II equipped with fused silica capillary columns and the FID and MS detectors. The result of quantitative determination have shown that naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene and 9H-fluorene, and 7-methylanthracene, 1-phenylnaphthalene, fluoranthene and unknown compound with the molecular weight of 208 may be treated as the major impurities of the above hydrocarbons, respectively. These results have also shown that with the exception of methyldibenzofuran present as impurity in acenaphthene, the segregation coefficients of all the remaining detected impurities are lower than unity. Moreover, it was found that the final distribution of the major impurities after 100 passes of the melting zone may be described with high accuracy by a third-order equation. The purification procedure worked out on the basis of the determined impurity segregation behaviour enabled the preparation of the hydrocarbons with purity ?99.999 mass% from which high quality crystals were grown.

Marciniak, B.

2002-05-01

139

LIGHTNING CREEK, PACK RIVER, AND SAND CREEK, BONNER COUNTY, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY SUMMARY, 1978  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1978, water quality studies were conducted on Lightning Creek, Pack River, and Sand Creek in Bonner County, Idaho (17010214, 17010213) to determine the present status of the streams. Water quality in Lightning Creek was generally very high. No violations of standa...

140

Tar sands. (FL74-56)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In terms of in-place deposits, tar sands are a relatively small hydrocarbon resource. Though ''small'' by comparison with coal and shale, tar sands have been commercially processed since 1968, and a second plant is now under construction. Many processes have been proposed to extract the bitumen from tar sands. These include both in-situ methods, and processing of mined tar sands.

1974-01-01

141

Fixed-Bearing Total Ankle Replacement (TAR) Improves Gait Function  

MedlinePLUS

... positive short-term results A study of gait mechanics in patients who underwent total ankle replacement (TAR) ... improvement in nearly all measured parameters of gait mechanics (measured preoperatively, 1 year postoperative, and 2 years ...

142

Chemistry of manganese precipitation in Pinal Creek, Arizona, USA: A laboratory study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Groundwater underlying the valley of Pinal Creek downstream from Globe, Arizona, has been contaminated by low-pH metal-enriched wastewater from copper mining and ore processing at Miami, Arizona. At present, the acidity and most of the dissolved metal content, except for Mn, of the wastewater is removed by reactions with carbonate and other solids in the alluvial aquifer before the neutralized contaminated water enters the creek channel and becomes surface flow. Where flow in the creek is perennial, Mn-bearing precipitates are formed in the stream bed and in some places in the subsurface. As an aid to understanding the processes involved and explaining the mineralogy of the precipitates, closely controlled laboratory redox titration experiments were performed on samples of surface flow and groundwater taken near the head of perennial flow in the creek. The high content of dissolved Ca, Mg, Mn and COP2 species in the neutralized contaminated groundwater caused precipitation of some of the Mn as kutnahorite, (Mn, Mg)Ca(CO3)2, when the experimental system was held between pH 8.5 and 9.0 while CO2-free air was bubbled into the solution. Hausmannite and manganite also were precipitated, in somewhat lower amounts. When the concentrations of dissolved CO2 species in the groundwater sample were decreased before the experiment was started, the Mn precipitated was predominantly in the oxides hausmannite and manganite. In some of the experimental titrations clinoenstatite, (MgSiO3), was precipitated. After titrations were stopped the solutions and precipitates were allowed to stand, with limited access to the atmosphere, for several months. During this aging period the degree of oxidation of the precipitated Mn increased and in one precipitate from an experimental solution the Ca + Mn4+ oxides todorokite and takanelite were identified. These oxides also have been identified in streambed precipitates. Some of these precipitates also gave X-ray diffraction reflections for kutnahorite. Thermodynamic feasibilities of eight potential chemical reactions forming solid phases of interest were evaluated by calculating their respective reaction affinities attained during titration and aging. The results are in general agreement with the indications for the presence of these species given by X-ray and electron diffraction. The presence of carbonates in precipitated encrustations formed from groundwater below the land surface and their occurrence in manganese oxide crusts that precipitate from the creek water, also are predicted by these results. ?? 1994.

Hem, J. D.; Lind, C. J.

1994-01-01

143

HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Protein Switches the Pathway of TAR RNA/DNA Annealing from Loop-Loop "Kissing" to "Zipper"  

PubMed Central

Summary The chaperone activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nucleocapsid protein (NC) facilitates multiple nucleic acid rearrangements that are critical for reverse transcription of the single-stranded RNA genome into double-stranded DNA. Annealing of the trans-activation response element (TAR) RNA hairpin to a complementary TAR DNA hairpin is an essential step in the minus-strand transfer step of reverse transcription. Previously, we used truncated 27-nucleotide (nt) mini-TAR RNA and DNA constructs to investigate this annealing reaction pathway in the presence and absence of HIV-1 NC. In this work, full-length 59-nt TAR RNA and TAR DNA constructs were used to systematically study TAR hairpin annealing kinetics. In the absence of NC, full-length TAR hairpin annealing is ?10-fold slower than mini-TAR annealing. Similar to mini-TAR annealing, the reaction pathway for TAR in the absence of NC involves the fast formation of an unstable “kissing” loop intermediate, followed by a slower conversion to an extended duplex. NC facilitates the annealing of TAR by ?105-fold by stabilizing the bimolecular intermediate (?104-fold) and promoting the subsequent exchange reaction (?10-fold). In contrast to the mini-TAR annealing pathway, wherein NC-mediated annealing can initiate through both loop-loop kissing and a distinct “zipper” pathway involving nucleation at the 3?/5? terminal ends, full-length TAR hairpin annealing switches predominantly to the zipper pathway in the presence of saturated NC.

Vo, My-Nuong; Barany, George; Rouzina, Ioulia; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

2009-01-01

144

Restoring Fossil Creek  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of an ongoing environmental project and partnership with a local university, high school students monitor changes to Fossil Creek in Arizona. Components of the project include fish behavior studies, responses to fishing, water chemistry measurements, aquatic invertebrate studies, photographic recording, riparian habitat transects, and small mammal trapping transects. The data collected will ultimately provide an invaluable annual record for students, working scientists, and the wider community as changes are monitored over time.

Leroy, Carri J.; Marks, Jane C.; Vlieg, Julie; Flaccus, Kathleen

2004-07-01

145

Periorbital comedones and their relationship to pitch tar: A cross-sectional analysis and a review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Comedones, often in a periorbital distribution, have been claimed to be associated with pitch tar.Objective: This cross-sectional study compares the incidence of periorbital comedones between a group of individuals exposed to pitch tar and a control group.Methods: The incidence of periorbital comedones was determined in workers (n = 55) at a tar distillation plant. A comparison group (n =

Brian B. Adams; Viziam B. Chetty; Diya F. Mutasim

2000-01-01

146

Hydraulic testing plan for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatability technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. The ultimate goal of this effort is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium, technetium, nitrate, and several metals from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. This project directly supports the BCV Feasibility Study. Part of the Treatability Study, Phase II Hydraulic Performance Testing, will produce hydraulic and treatment performance data required to design a long-term treatment system. This effort consists of the installation and testing of two groundwater collection systems: a trench in the vicinity of GW-835 and an angled pumping well adjacent to NT-1. Pumping tests and evaluations of gradients under ambient conditions will provide data for full-scale design of treatment systems. In addition to hydraulic performance, in situ treatment chemistry data will be obtained from monitoring wells installed in the reactive media section of the trench. The in situ treatment work is not part of this test plan. This Hydraulic Testing Plan describes the location and installation of the trench and NT-1 wells, the locations and purpose of the monitoring wells, and the procedures for the pumping tests of the trench and NT-1 wells.

NONE

1997-09-01

147

Phase 1 report on the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Bear Creek Valley (BCV) is located within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation and encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes associated with past operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The BCV Remedial Investigation determined that disposal of wastes at the S-3 Site, Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG) has caused contamination of both deep and shallow groundwater. The primary contaminants include uranium, nitrate, and VOCs, although other metals such as aluminum, magnesium, and cadmium persist. The BCV feasibility study will describe several remedial options for this area, including both in situ and ex situ treatment of groundwater. This Treatability Study Phase 1 Report describes the results of preliminary screening of treatment technologies that may be applied within BCV. Four activities were undertaken in Phase 1: field characterization, laboratory screening of potential sorbents, laboratory testing of zero valent iron products, and field screening of three biological treatment systems. Each of these activities is described fully in technical memos attached in Appendices A through G.

NONE

1997-04-01

148

Water flow statistics: SRP creeks  

SciTech Connect

For a number of environmental studies it is necessary to know the water flow rates and variations in the SRP streams. The objective of this memorandum is to pull together and present a number of statistical analyses for Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek and Lower Three Runs Creek. The data basis covers 8 USGS stream gage stations for the years 1972 - 1981. The average flow rates over a ten-year period along Upper Three Runs Creek were determined to be 114 cfs at US Route 278, 193 cfs at Road C, and 265 cfs at Road A. Along Four Mile Creek the average flow rates over a ten-year period doubled from 9 cfs prior to F-Area discharges to 18 cfs prior to cooling water discharges from C-Area Reactor. Finally, average flow rates along Lower Three Runs Creek over a ten-year period tripled from 32 cfs at Par Pond to 96 cfs near Snelling, South Carolina. 1 figure, 9 tables.

Lower, M.W.

1982-08-26

149

The Australian tar derby: the origins and fate of a low tar harm reduction programme  

PubMed Central

Objective: To document the development of the low tar harm reduction programme in Australia, including tobacco industry responses. Data sources: Tobacco industry documents, retail tobacco journals, newspapers, medical journals, and Anti-Cancer Council of Victoria (ACCV) newsletters and archival records. Study selection: Documents on the strategies and knowledge bases of the ACCV, other Australian health authorities, and the tobacco industry. Results: The ACCV built a durable system for measuring and publicising the tar and nicotine yields of Australian cigarettes and influencing their development. The tobacco industry initially sought to block the development of this system but later appeared to cooperate with it, as is evidenced by the current market dominance of low tar brands. However, behind the scenes, the industry used its substantial knowledge advantage regarding compensatory smoking and its ability to re-engineer cigarettes to gain effective control of the system and subvert the ACCV's objectives. Conclusions: Replacement of the low tar programme with new means of minimising the harms from cigarette smoking should be a policy priority for the Australian government. This will require regulation, rather than further voluntary agreements, and stringent monitoring of successor programmes will be necessary.

King, W; Carter, S; Borland, R; Chapman, S; Gray, N

2003-01-01

150

Mineral resources of the Fish Creek Canyon, Road Canyon, and Mule Canyon Wilderness Study Areas, San Juan County, Utah  

SciTech Connect

This book reports the Fish Creek Canyon (UT-060-204), Road Canyon(UT-060-201), and Mule Canyon (UT-060-205B) Wilderness Study Areas, which comprise 40,160 acres, 52,420 acres, and 5,990 acres, respectively, studied for their mineral endowment. A search of federal, state, and county records showed no current or previous mining-claim activity. No mineral resources were identified during field examination of the study areas. Sandstone and sand and gravel have no unique qualities but could have limited local use for road metal or other construction purposes. However, similar materials are abundant outside the study areas. The three study areas have moderate resource potential for undiscovered oil and gas and low resource potential for undiscovered metals, including uranium and thorium, coal, and geothermal energy.

Bove, D.J.; Shawe, D.R.; Lee, G.K.; Hanna, W.F. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)); Jeske, R.E. (US Bureau of Mines (US))

1989-01-01

151

Field and Laboratory Data From an Earthquake History Study of Scarps of the Lake Creek-Boundary Creek Fault Between the Elwha River and Siebert Creek, Clallam County, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fault scarps recently discovered on Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM; also known as LiDAR) imagery show Holocene movement on the Lake Creek-Boundary Creek fault on the north flank of the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington State. Such recent movement suggests the fault is a potential source of large earthquakes. As part of the effort to assess seismic hazard in the Puget Sound region, we map scarps on ALSM imagery and show primary field and laboratory data from backhoe trenches across scarps that are being used to develop a latest Pleistocene and Holocene history of large earthquakes on the fault. Although some scarp segments 0.5-2 km long along the fault are remarkably straight and distinct on shaded ASLM imagery, most scarps displace the ground surface <1 m, and, therefore, are difficult to locate in dense brush and forest. We are confident of a surface-faulting or folding origin and a latest Pleistocene to Holocene age only for scarps between Lake Aldwell and the easternmost fork of Siebert Creek, a distance of 22 km. Stratigraphy in five trenches at four sites help determine the history of surface-deforming earthquakes since glacier recession and alluvial deposition 11-17 ka. Although the trend and plunge of indicators of fault slip were measured only in the weathered basalt exposed in one trench, upward-splaying fault patterns and inconsistent displacement of successive beds along faults in three of the five trenches suggest significant lateral as well as vertical slip during the surface-faulting or folding earthquakes that produced the scarps. Radiocarbon ages on fragments of wood charcoal from two wedges of scarp-derived colluvium in a graben-fault trench suggest two surface-faulting earthquakes between 2,000 and 700 years ago. The three youngest of nine radiocarbon ages on charcoal fragments from probable scarp-derived colluvum in a fold-scarp trench 1.2 km to the west suggest a possible earlier surface-faulting earthquake less than 5,000 years ago.

Nelson, Alan R.; Personius, Stephen F.; Buck, Jason; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Wells, Ray E.; Schermer, Elizabeth R.

2007-01-01

152

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, March-May 1982  

SciTech Connect

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. The adult population of Teredo bartschi survived the winter and spring of 1981-1982 better than it did previous cold periods without a thermal effluent. Lack of an effluent was due to a prolonged outage of the generating station. There was no spring outbreak of shipworms. The introduced species appears established at one station near but outside of Oyster Creek. Three teredinid species coexist in Oyster Creek. Larvae of T. bartschi and T. navalis have similar responses to reduced salinity. Bankia gouldi is the fastest-growing of the teredinids found in New Jersey, and as the lowest annual mortality.

Hoagland, K.E.

1982-11-01

153

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, 1 March-31 May 1980  

SciTech Connect

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with the introduced T. bartschi in Oyster Creek, at the mouth of Forked River and on the coast of the bay between the two creeks. Heavy mortality occurred in all species during winter and spring when the generating station was not operating. Temperature and salinity tolerance tests begun during April and May, 1980, were not completed by the end of May because the adult shipworms proved to be very resistant to drastic changes in these physical parameters.

Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

1980-12-01

154

Spread Creek anticline, Teton County, Wyoming: A study in structural form and petroleum exploration  

SciTech Connect

Spread Creek anticline is a large, doubly-plunging, closed anticlinal structure in northeast Teton County, Wyoming. The area of closure is approximately 20 mi long and 2 mi wide. Closure based on surface geoloyy may exceed 2000 ft. No commercial guantities of hydrocarbons have been established by exploratory drilling. Eleven deep exploratory tests and four shallow core holes have been drilled on or adjacent to the fold, one of which reached strata of Cambrian age. The axis of the fold migrate to the northeast with depth. For part of the fold, there may be no dip reversal and therefore no closure at the level of the Permian Phosphoria Formation and the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone. Natural gas seeps are probably due to degassing of coal beds near the surface and do not reflect a deep trapped hydrocarbon accumulation.

Blackstone, D.L. Jr. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie (USA))

1989-04-01

155

Production and processing of U. S. tar sands: an environmental assessment. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors traceable to the increasing shortfall in U.S. production of natural crude have rekindled interests in U.S. tar sands as a source of synthetic fuel. Reported here are the results of a preliminary study to assess the potential primary environmental impacts of production and processing of U.S. tar sands bitumen. With the possible exception attributable to chemical differences between tar

N. A. Frazier; D. W. Hissong; W. E. Ballantyne; E. J. Mazey

1976-01-01

156

Restoring Lower Rock Creek  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief video describes how Lower Rock Creek’s location between two National Wild and Scenic Rivers caused Kentucky environmentalists to choose the creek as a target for acid mine drainage remediation.

Ket

2011-01-11

157

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Quarterly report, 1 September-30 November 1980  

SciTech Connect

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being analyzed. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with the introduced T. bartschi in Oyster Creek and at the mouth of Forked River.

Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

1981-04-01

158

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Quarterly progress report 1 Dec 80-28 Feb 81  

SciTech Connect

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being analyzed. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with the introduced T. bartschi in Oyster Creek and at the mouth of Forked River. An increase in mortality occurred in January. By February, Teredo bartschi was found only at Bayside.

Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

1981-08-01

159

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report 1 Jun-31 Aug 80  

SciTech Connect

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being analyzed. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with the introduced T. bartschi in Oyster Creek. Teredo bartschi can withstand higher temperatures than the native species, but all species suffer osmotic stress at 6 parts per thousand by weight.

Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

1981-02-01

160

Composition and properties of acid tar and asphalt produced from acid tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid tar is a waste material that is produced in large volumes in treating petroleum oils with concentrated sulfuric acid. The acid tar contains up to 80% petroleum oils and tars and resins. In current practice, the acid tar Ss dumped into holding ponds that take up large areas of land; this practice leads to pollution of the ground, water,

A. F. Frolov; A. N. Aminov; S. D. Timrot

1981-01-01

161

77 FR 42714 - Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Project No. 9690-109] Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources...2012. d. Applicants: Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC; Eagle Creek Land Resources...President-- Operations, Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Water...

2012-07-20

162

Restoring Fossil Creek  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fossil Creek had been dammed for the past 90 years, and plans were underway to restore the stream. The creek runs through Central Arizona and flows from the high plateaus to the desert, cutting through the same formations that form the Grand Canyon. This article discusses the Fossil Creek monitoring project. In this project, students and teachers…

Flaccus, Kathleen; Vlieg, Julie; Marks, Jane C.; LeRoy, Carri J.

2004-01-01

163

Differential growth kinetics are exhibited by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 TAR mutants.  

PubMed Central

The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) TAR element is critical for the activation of gene expression by the transactivator protein, Tat. Mutagenesis has demonstrated that a stable stem-loop RNA structure containing both loop and bulge structures transcribed from TAR is the major target for tat activation. Though transient assays have defined elements critical for TAR function, no studies have yet determined the role of TAR in viral replication because of the inability to generate viral stocks containing mutations in TAR. In the current study, we developed a strategy which enabled us to generate stable 293 cell lines which were capable of producing high titers of different viruses containing TAR mutations. Viruses generated from these cell lines were used to infect both T-lymphocyte cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Viruses containing TAR mutations in either the upper stem, the bulge, or the loop exhibited dramatically decreased HIV-1 gene expression and replication in all cell lines tested. However, we were able to isolate lymphoid cell lines which stably expressed gene products from each of these TAR mutant viruses. Though the amounts of virus in these cell lines were roughly equivalent, cells containing TAR mutant viruses were extremely defective for gene expression compared with cell lines containing wild-type virus. The magnitude of this decrease in viral gene expression was much greater than previously seen in transient expression assays using HIV-1 long terminal repeat chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene constructs. In contrast to the defects in viral growth found in T-lymphocyte cell lines, several of the viruses containing TAR mutations were much less defective for gene expression and replication in activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These results indicate that maintenance of the TAR element is critical for viral gene expression and replication in all cell lines tested, though the cell type which is infected is also a major determinant of the replication properties of TAR mutant viruses. Images

Harrich, D; Hsu, C; Race, E; Gaynor, R B

1994-01-01

164

Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3. Appendix E  

SciTech Connect

This document contains Appendix E: Toxicity Information and Uncertainty Analysis, description of methods, from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

NONE

1995-09-01

165

Levels-of-Growing-Stock Cooperative Study in Douglas-Fir: Report No. 11 - Stampede Creek: A 20-Year Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of the first 20 years of the Stampede Creek levels-of-growing-stock (LOGS) study in southwest Oregon are summarized. To age 53, growth in this site III Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stand has been strongly related to level of ...

R. O. Curtis

1992-01-01

166

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, June-August 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. Adult populations

Hoagland

1982-01-01

167

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, March-May 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. The adult

Hoagland

1982-01-01

168

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, September-November 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the

K. E. Hoagland; L. Crocket

1982-01-01

169

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Interim report 1 Sep 79-28 Feb 80  

Microsoft Academic Search

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being

K. E. Hoagland; L. Crocket; R. D. Turner

1980-01-01

170

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, 1 March31 May 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist

K. E. Hoagland; L. Crocket

1980-01-01

171

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report 1 Jun-31 Aug 80  

Microsoft Academic Search

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being

K. E. Hoagland; L. Crocket

1981-01-01

172

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Quarterly progress report 1 Dec 80-28 Feb 81  

Microsoft Academic Search

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being

K. E. Hoagland; L. Crocket

1981-01-01

173

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Quarterly report, 1 September30 November 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being

K. E. Hoagland; L. Crocket

1981-01-01

174

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, December 1981February 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the

K. E. Hoagland; L. Crocket

1982-01-01

175

GREEN RIVER AIR QUALITY MODEL DEVELOPMENT: METEOROLOGICAL DATA - AUGUST 1980 FIELD STUDY IN THE PICEANCE CREEK BASIN OIL SHALE RESOURCES AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

Special meteorological and air quality studies were conducted during August 1980 in the Piceance Creek Basin oil shale resource area of Northwestern Colorado as part of the EPA-sponsored Green River Ambient Model Assessment program. The objective of the limited field program was ...

176

Tar sands and oil shales  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worlds largest potential liquid-hydrocarbon reserves are not recoverable by ordinary oil-producing methods. These reserves are the Athabasca tar sands of northern Alberta in Canada and the Green River oil shales of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. The two deposits differ in their chemistry, physical state, and history. Both contain hydrocarbons that can be converted economically into petroleum products. Both occur

de Never

1966-01-01

177

Spectroscopic characterization of visbreaking tars  

SciTech Connect

Visbreaking (VB) is a thermal cracking process, widely used in the refineries of Western Europe to obtain distillates (gasoil, naphtha) from a petroleum residue (feedstock). The visbroken residue (tar) is used to produce fuel oil, after addition of the appropriate amounts of cutter-stock. Even if the highest conversion of feedstock would be desirable, the severity of the VB process is limited by the stability of the resulting VB tars. The stability index (SI) here employed is: SI = I + V{sub cet}, where V{sub cet} is the maximum amount of n-cetane, expressed as ml of cetane for g of sample, that can be added before the flocculation of asphaltenes starts. VB tars having SI<1.1 are considered to be unstable and cannot be used in the preparation of fuel oils with the appropriate specifications. Several papers can be found in the literature dealing with the molecular changes occuring during the VB process. The present paper is aimed at verifying the amount of information that can be extracted from optical spectroscopies and, in particular, the possibility of directly monitoring the physico-chemical modifications caused by VB process. To this purpose a series of VB tars, produced from a single feedstock at different severities, were investigated by a number of spectroscopic techniques, viz.: NIR; UV-Vis; Fluorescence; {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NUR, EPR.

Scotti, R.; Clericuzio, M.; Pirovano, C. [Eniricerche S.p.A., Milanese (Italy)

1995-12-31

178

TOXICITY PERSISTENCE IN PRICKLY PEAR CREEK, MONTANA  

EPA Science Inventory

Instream toxicity tests using the larval fathead minnow Pimephales promelas and the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia reticulata were conducted on Prickly Pear Creek, Montana waters to study toxicity persistence in a stream. The toxicity source was Spring Creek, a tributary of Prickly Pear...

179

Nutrient limitation and algal blooms in urbanizing tidal creeks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tidal creeks are commonly found in low energy systems on the East and Gulf Coasts of the United States, and are often subject to intense watershed human development. Many of these creeks are receiving urban and suburban runoff containing nutrients, among other pollutants. During the period 1993–2001, we studied three tidal creeks located in southeastern North Carolina, a rapidly urbanizing

Michael A. Mallin; Douglas C. Parsons; Virginia L. Johnson; Matthew R. McIver; Heather A. CoVan

2004-01-01

180

Age of Douglas Creek Arch, Colorado and Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isopach mapping and stratigraphic studies in the Douglas Creek arch area, a north-south-trending structure that separates the Uinta basin of Utah from the Piceance Creek basin of Colorado, indicate that the arch was formed largely during the Laramide orogeny (Late Cretaceous, late Campanian through Eocene). Formation was contemporaneous with the formation of the Uinta and Piceance Creek basins, but may

R. C. Johnson; T. M. Finn

1985-01-01

181

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, September-November 1981  

SciTech Connect

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the fall of 1981, Teredo bartschi remained in Oyster Creek despite continuous prolonged outages of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. It did not spread to Forked River or Waretown as it had done in other years when the effluent was present. The peak in larval production and settlement of T. bartschi occurred between September and October. Settlement of shipworms occurred on no monthly panels except those in Oyster Creek during the period of this report. Laboratory experiments revealed that T. bartschi becomes inactive at 5/sup 0/C (24/sup 0///sub 00/) and T. navalis shows signs of osmotic stress below 10/sup 0///sub 00/ at 18/sup 0/C. The shipworms in Barnegat Bay do not show a preference for settling at the mudline when the substrate is not limited.

Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

1982-06-01

182

Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Penney, W.R.

1990-01-01

183

Steel Creek wildlife: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987  

SciTech Connect

Reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek below L-Lake were assessed in monthly or quarterly sampling programs. Thirty-eight species of reptiles or amphibians were collected during 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment, and in the delta and channel. Juvenile turtles and alligators, and larval amphibians were observed or collected during the study, indicating continued reproduction in Steel Creek. The reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek show no indication of any effect due to the impoundment of the lake or the operation of L-Reactor. Waterfowl and associated birds in Steel Creek below L-Lake were observed, in conjunction with other sampling programs, during winter--spring and fall--winter migrations. Nine species of waterfowl and five species of associated birds were observed in 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment and in the delta and channel.

Giffin, M.A.; Patterson, K.K.

1988-03-01

184

CHARACTERIZATION OF MERCURY CONTAMINATION AT THE EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK SITE, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE: A CASE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Historic accidental release of mercury-contaminated material associated with nuclear weapons production at East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) resulted in stream and floodplain contamination. he EFPC is designated as an Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) operable unit under the Comprehensive ...

185

Phase 1 report on the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bear Creek Valley (BCV) is located within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation and encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes associated with past operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The BC...

1997-01-01

186

Effect of wastewater treatment processes on the pyrolysis properties of the pyrolysis tars from sewage sludges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pyrolysis properties of five different pyrolysis tars, which the tars from 1# to 5# are obtained by pyrolyzing the sewage sludges of anaerobic digestion and indigestion from the A2/O wastewater treatment process, those from the activated sludge process and the indigested sludge from the continuous SBR process respectively, were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis at a heating rate of 10 °C/min in the nitrogen atmosphere. The results show that the pyrolysis processes of the pyrolysis tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5# all can be divided into four stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, heavy polar organic compounds decomposition, heavy organic compounds decomposition and the residual organic compounds decomposition. However, the process of 4# pyrolysis tar is only divided into three stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, decomposition of heavy polar organic compounds and the residual heavy organic compounds respectively. Both the sludge anaerobic digestion and the "anaerobic" process in wastewater treatment processes make the content of light organic compounds in tars decrease, but make that of heavy organic compounds with complex structure increase. Besides, both make the pyrolysis properties of the tars become worse. The pyrolysis reaction mechanisms of the five pyrolysis tars have been studied with Coats-Redfern equation. It shows that there are the same mechanism functions in the first stage for the five tars and in the second and third stage for the tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5#, which is different with the function in the second stage for 4# tar. The five tars are easy to volatile.

Wu, Xia; Xie, Li-Ping; Li, Xin-Yu; Dai, Xiao-Hong; Fei, Xue-Ning; Jiang, Yuan-Guang

2011-06-01

187

Optimized Detection of Tar Content in the Manufacturing Process Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to model and optimize the detection of tar in cigarettes during the manufacturing process and show that low yield cigarettes contain similar levels of nicotine as compared to high yield cigarettes while B (Benzene), T(toluene) and X (xylene) (BTX) levels increase with increasing tar yields. A neuro-fuzzy system which comprises a fuzzy inference structure

Zikrija Avdagic; Lejla Begic Fazlic; Samim Konjicija

2009-01-01

188

Estimating the hazards of “less hazardous” cigarettes. III. A study of the effect of various smoking conditions on yields of hydrogen cyanide and cigarette tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brand of cigarette with nominal tar and nicotine yields of 4.0 mg and 0.4 mg, respectively, was examined under various machine?smoked conditions that reflect the wide range of human smoking behavior. Three levels of each of five smoking parameters?butt length, puff duration, puff interval, puff volume, and ventilation occlusion?were examined, and the effects on puff number and total particulate

W. S. Rickert; J. C. Robinson; N. E. Collishaw; D. F. Bray

1983-01-01

189

5. Laurel Creek Road, revetment wall and creek. Great ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Laurel Creek Road, revetment wall and creek. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

190

Coyote Creek Geologic Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are required to make field observations, collect data and then create a detailed geologic map and report for a small area (approximately 1 sq. mile) on the edge of the Tularosa Basin in south central New Mexico. The study area is located within the Tularosa NE quadrangle, but maps from the Cat Mountain quadrangle to the East are also useful. Gently dipping carbonate and siliciclastic beds, igneous intrusions, bioherms and a normal fault are present in the study area along Coyote Creek, a few miles north of Tularosa, NM. The creek generally runs parallel to dip, allowing relatively easy access to inclined strata. Bioherm(s) are present in the lower section. Several dikes are present running both parallel and perpendicular to sedimentary bed strike. One is very non-resistant to weathering, creating unusual troughs as it passes through the carbonate bioherms. A sill is present in the upper section and a N/S trending normal fault roughly parallels strike of sedimentary beds.

Walsh, Timothy R.

191

Thermal recovery from tar sands  

SciTech Connect

On the basis of the progress made in developing improved technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands, it is logical to assume that as the world's supply of light and heavy oil is depleted, production of synthetic oil from the bitumen resources in tar sands will accelerate. As most of the known deposits of tar sands were discovered by accident, there is reason to believe that a worldwide exploration program based on sound geological principles will discover much more of this material. The long lead times required to turn this massive resource into acceptable alternative refinery feedstock at a reasonable price make it imperative that we vigorously pursue the development of recovery technology at this time if we are to avoid shortages of liquid fuel early in the next century. There is no question that the light-crude-oil substitute developed from this resource will be more expensive than the conventional light and heavy crudes being used today. However, there is reason to believe that the differential in costs will narrow as the search for new sources of light oil swings to deeper targets in more remote and hostile environments, such as the continental shelves and arctic islands, and more expensive enhancedrecovery techniques are used to recover the oil now left behind in deep depleted light- and heavy-oil reservoirs.

Carrigy, M.A.

1983-12-01

192

Water Flow Statistics: SRP Creeks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For a number of environmental studies it is necessary to know the water flow rates and variations in the SRP streams. The objective of this memorandum is to pull together and present a number of statistical analyses for Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile C...

M. W. Lower

1982-01-01

193

Clear Creek Gambusia Recovery Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Clear Creek gambusia (Gambusia heterochir) is a small, stocky species in the Poeciliidae. A series of interconnected springs on the Wilkinson Clear Creek Ranch comprise the known range of the Clear Creek gambusia. Competition (genetic and environmenta...

1980-01-01

194

Composition and Properties of Coal Tar DNAPLs at Former Manufactured Gas Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal tar is a persistent source of groundwater contamination in the subsurface at many former manufactured gas plants (MGPs). Remediation of coal tar remains a significant environmental challenge due to its complex chemical composition, existence as a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), and tendency to alter the wettability of porous media systems. Changes in wettability are believed to occur due to the presence of ashphaltenes, a complex group of high molecular weight surface active compounds. Despite thousands of former MGPs in the US, a thorough investigation into the literature identified less than twenty sites from which coal tar DNAPL was analyzed to obtain data on chemical composition and/or physical properties. Currently, no study exists in the literature which considers multiple samples from a single site. In order to understand the potential universe of coal tar DNAPL and identify current data gaps, we compile all available literature data on coal tar DNAPL including: chemical composition, density, viscosity, and interfacial tension. We also conduct an analysis of multiple coal tar samples from a former MGP and evaluate changes in coal tar composition along the migration path of a DNAPL plume. Finally, we present a method for analyzing the asphaltene content of coal tar along with the results of this analysis.

Birak, P. S.; Hauswirth, S. C.; Williams, D. A.; Pedit, J. A.; Miller, C. T.

2007-12-01

195

Relationship Between the Composition and Interfacial Tension of Former Manufactured Gas Plant Tars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars pose significant environmental hazards and present a challenge to regulators and industry professionals. The tars, which were produced as a byproduct of the gas manufacturing process, were frequently released into the environment through improper disposal or leaks in plant infrastructure. The interfacial tension (IFT) is a primary factor controlling the mobility of tars in porous media, and is therefore important to understand for both predicting the migration of tars and designing remediation strategies. In this study, we characterized nine field-collected FMGP tars and a commercially available coal tar by means of chemical extractions (asphaltenes, resins, acids, and bases), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Additionally, the IFT and contact angle of each tar was determined for a pH range of 3-11. The IFT was found to be similar for all tars at pH 5 and 7 regardless of composition. Slight decreases in IFT at lower pH were correlated with higher concentrations of extractable bases, which consisted primarily of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic aromatic compounds. Much greater reductions of IFT were observed at high pH. These reductions were found to be associated with the presence of carbonyl or carboxyl groups in the asphaltenes. It is likely that the larger size of the asphaltene molecules (as compared to the extractable compounds) resulted in species with greater surface activity when ionized.

Hauswirth, S.; Birak, P. S.; Miller, C. T.

2011-12-01

196

Final geotechnical study, DARA Solid Storage Facility, Y-12 Bear Creek Burial Grounds, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

The DARA Solid Storage Facility is located north of Gate 4 in the Y-12 Bear Creek Burial Grounds. It was constructed to temporarily store contaminated soil excavated during closure of the Oil Retention Ponds project. The ground surface around the perimeter of the building ranges from about 942 feet Mean Sea Level (MSL) to 936 feet MSL Surface drainage is away from the building, with most of the surface runoff flowing into the drainage ditch east of the building. In order for the DARA Solid Storage Facility (SSF) to be a RCRA permitted hazardous waste storage facility, you have informed us that the height of the water in the sediment cannot exceed one foot. The purposes of this study are to: Obtain subsurface data from the soil stored within the DARA Solid Storage Facility; classify the soil samples and conduct pertinent on-site laboratory tests to characterize the physical parameters of the soil; review groundwater information from nearby monitoring wells; review provided piezometer data, and integrate this with Ogden obtained data and analyze both; review other pertinent documents and drawings; comment as to why we believe that there is a reduced flow of water over time from the soil into the sumps; as appropriate, develop recommendations regarding possible methods that can be used to remove additional water from the soil; and provide other comments we believe are pertinent to a geotechnical analysis of the SSF soil-water relationship.

Not Available

1992-06-01

197

Geology and coal resources of the Hanging Woman Creek Study Area, Big Horn and Powder River Counties, Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In an area of 7,200 acres (29 sq km) In the Hanging Woman Creek study area, the Anderson coal bed contains potentially surface minable resources of 378 million short tons (343 million metric tons) of subbituminous C coal that ranges in thickness from 26 to 33 feet (7.9-10.1 m) at depths of less than 200 feet (60 m). Additional potentially surface minable resources of 55 million short tons (50 million metric tons) are contained in the 9-12 foot (2.7-3.7 m) thick Dietz coal bed which lies 50-100 feet (15-30 m) below the Anderson. Analyses of coal from 5 core holes indicates that the Anderson bed contains 0.4 percent sulfur, 5 percent ash, and has a heating value of 8,540 Btu/lb (4,750 Kcal/kg). The trace element content of the coal is generally similar to other coals in the Powder River Basin. The two coal beds are in the Fort Union Formation of Paleocene age which consists of sandstone, siltstone, shale, coal beds, and locally impure limestone. A northeast-trending normal fault through the middle of the area, downthrown on the southeast side, has displaced the generally flat lying strata as much as 300 feet (91 m). Most of the minable coal lies northwest of this fault.

Culbertson, William Craven; Hatch, Joseph R.; Affolter, Ronald H.

1978-01-01

198

Shell Creek Summers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality provided…

Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

2005-01-01

199

Gain-loss study of lower San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River, San Antonio, Texas, May-October 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five streamflow gain-loss measurement surveys were made along lower San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River from Mitchell Street to South Loop 410 east of Kelly Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas, during May?October 1999. All of the measurements were made during dry periods, when stormwater runoff was not occurring and effects of possible bank storage were minimized. San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River were divided into six subreaches, and streamflow measurements were made simultaneously at the boundaries of these subreaches so that streamflow gains or losses and estimates of inflow from or outflow to shallow ground water could be quantified for each subreach. There are two possible sources of ground-water inflow to lower San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River east of Kelly Air Force Base. One source is direct inflow of shallow ground water into the streams. The other source is ground water that enters tributaries that flow into the San Antonio River. The estimated mean direct inflow of ground water to the combined San Pedro Creek and San Antonio River study reach was 3.0 cubic feet per second or 1.9 million gallons per day. The mean tributary inflow of ground water was estimated to be 1.9 cubic feet per second or 1.2 million gallons per day. The total estimated inflow of shallow ground water was 4.9 cubic feet per second or 3.2 million gallons per day. The amount of inflow from springs and seeps (estimated by observation) is much less than the amount of direct ground-water inflow estimated from the gain-loss measurements. Therefore, the presence of springs and seeps might not be a reliable indicator of the source of shallow ground water entering the river. Most of the shallow ground water that enters the San Antonio River from tributary inflow enters from the west side, through Concepcion Creek, inflows near Riverside Golf Course, and Six-Mile Creek.

Ockerman, Darwin J.

2002-01-01

200

Trapper Canyon Deposit, eastern Big Horn Basin, Wyoming: tar sand or heavy oil  

SciTech Connect

The Trapper Canyon Deposit (Battle Creek Deposit in US Bureau of Mines Monograph 12) is located on the western flank of the Bighorn Mountains approximately 30 mi (48 km) east of Greybull, Wyoming. The petroleum occurs in the upper eolian sequence of the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone which dips from 5/sup 0/ to 8/sup 0/ to the southwest. The deposit was initially reported by N.H. Darton in US Geological Survey Professional Paper 51 in 1906. A characterization study was made on the deposit which included mapping the deposit and surrounding area, measuring three stratigraphic sections in the Tensleep Sandstone, and sampling 13 outcrop localities. Thickness of the deposit ranged from 0 to 22.5 ft (6.8 m) in the 13 sample localities. Preliminary analyses of outcrop samples indicate API gravities and viscosities consistent with the definition of a tar sand. Oil properties are similar to those published for Phosphoria-sourced oils produced from the Tensleep Sandstone in fields to the west. Lateral pinch-out of the deposit, tight characteristics of upper and lower bounding units, and the lack of any apparent structural controls in the area, are all evidence for a stratigraphic trapping mechanism. Recoverable reserves are estimated at 1.96 million bbl over a 67-acre (27 ha) area.

Verploeg, A.J.; Debruin, R.H.

1983-08-01

201

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, December 1981-February 1982  

SciTech Connect

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the winter of 1981, the generating station experienced a prolonged outage. The reproductive cycle of the shipworms was not extended. Teredo bartschi was very abundant at one station in Oyster Creek and moderately abundant at a second, but did not exist elsewhere in Barnegat Bay. Some specimens of Teredo bartschi contained larvae in the gills in February. According to laboratory experiments, Teredo navalis is able to remain active at temperatures as low as 4/sup 0/C, whereas T. bartschi ceases activity (withdraws its siphons) at about 13/sup 0/C. 12 tables.

Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

1982-08-01

202

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 4. Information related to the feasibility study and ARARs. Appendixes G, H, I  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

NONE

1996-03-01

203

Future of heavy crude and tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 106 papers which were presented at the First International Conference on the Future of Heavy Crude and Tar Sands, held in Edmonton, Alberta are incorporated in this volume. They are grouped under the following sections: (1) role of heavy crude oils and tar sands in world energy; (2) major known occurrences; (3) chemistry and geochemistry; (4) geology; (5) resource

R. F. Meyer; C. T. Steele

1981-01-01

204

JiTT - La Brea Tar Pits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

1) What is "tar" and how does it form? 2) List the animals that have been uncovered in the tar pits that you didn't know were native to North America. Why do you think these animals are now extinct? ...

Guertin, Laura

205

Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief introduction and…

Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

2009-01-01

206

Results of 1984 Bureau of Mines Site Specific Field Studies within the Willow Creek Mining District, Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines conducted mineral investigations of specific sites in the Hatcher Pass area of the Willow Creek Mining District in Alaska during 1984. The Hatcher Pass area has produced over 400,000 oz of gold, mainly from lode deposits and some minor...

J. M. Kurtak

1986-01-01

207

MDAG.com Internet Case Study 27 Highway 97C Road-Cut Environmental Prosecution Near Pennask Creek  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the late 1980's, Highway 97C (the Coquihalla Connector) was built in southern British Columbia, Canada. A relatively small amount of rock was excavated near Unnamed Tributary, which drained into fish-bearing Pennask Creek and Pennask Lake. This activity produced \\

K. A. Morin; N. M. Hutt

208

ASSESSING ECOLOGICAL RISK IN WATERSHEDS: A CASE STUDY OF PROBLEM FORMULATION IN THE BIG DARBY CREEK WATERSHED, OHIO, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

The Big Darby Creek watershed, a highly valued ecosystem in central Ohio, USA, threatened by intensive agriculture and suburban encroachment, served as an example of how case specifics can be applied to refine and direct the planning and problem formulation stage of the U.S. Env...

209

Major-ion, nutrient, and trace-element concentrations in the Steamboat Creek basin, Oregon, 1996  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In September 1996, a water-quality study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in coordination with the U.S. Forest Service, in headwater streams of Steamboat Creek, a tributary to the North Umpqua River Basin in southwestern Oregon. Field measurements were made in and surface-water and bottomsediment samples were collected from three tributaries of Steamboat Creek?Singe Creek, City Creek, and Horse Heaven Creek?and at one site in Steamboat Creek upstream from where the three tributaries flow into Steamboat Creek. Water samples collected in Singe Creek had larger concentrations of most major-ion constituents and smaller concentrations of most nutrient constituents than was observed in the other three creeks. City Creek, Horse Heaven Creek, and Steamboat Creek had primarily calcium bicarbonate water, whereas Singe Creek had primarily a calcium sulfate water; the calcium sulfate water detected in Singe Creek, along with the smallest observed alkalinity and pH values, suggests that Singe Creek may be receiving naturally occurring acidic water. Of the 18 trace elements analyzed in filtered water samples, only 6 were detected?aluminum, barium, cobalt, iron, manganese, and zinc. All six of the trace elements were detected in Singe Creek, at concentrations generally larger than those observed in the other three creeks. Of the detected trace elements, only iron and zinc have chronic toxicity criteria established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for the protection of aquatic life; none exceeded the USEPA criterion. Bottom-sediment concentrations of antimony, arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, zinc, and organic carbon were largest in City Creek. In City Creek and Horse Heaven Creek, concentrations for 11 constituents?antimony, arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese (Horse Heaven Creek only), mercury, selenium, silver, zinc, and organic carbon (City Creek only)?exceeded concentrations considered to be enriched in streams of the nearbyWillamette River Basin, whereas in Steamboat Creek only two trace elements ?antimony and nickel?exceeded Willamette River enriched concentrations. Bottom-sediment concentrations for six of these constituents in City Creek and Horse Heaven Creek?arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc?also exceeded interim Canadian threshold effect level (TEL) concentrations established for the protection of aquatic life, whereas only four constituents between Singe Creek and Steamboat Creek?arsenic, chromium, copper (Singe Creek only), and nickel?exceeded the TEL concentrations.

Rinella, Frank A.

1998-01-01

210

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, June-August 1982  

SciTech Connect

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. Adult populations of Teredo bartschi existed in both Oyster Creek and Forked River in the summer of 1982, but the species was rare. There was no large settlement of this or any other teredinid species in Barnegat Bay. Teredo navalis was the most common species in the monthly panels. The fouling community reached its maximum yearly diversity in June-July. There was a thermal effluent causing a ..delta..T of 3 to 4/sup 0/C during most of the summer, and salinity in Oyster Creek and Forked River was similar to that of Barnegat Bay. The lack of a shipworm outbreak in 1982 may be related to the low ..delta..T in summer, plus the lack of a thermal effluent in the preceding winter-spring period.

Hoagland, K.E.

1982-12-01

211

Levels-of-Growing-Stock Cooperative Study in Douglas-Fir. Report No. 4. Rocky Brook, Stampede Creek, and Iron Creek.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Forest Service maintains three of nine installations in a regional, cooperative study of influences of levels-of-growing-stock (LOGS) on stand growth. The effects of calibration thinnings are described for the three areas.

R. L. Williamson

1976-01-01

212

Fifty years' experience of reduced-tar cigarettes: what do we know about their health effects?  

PubMed

Since the 1950s, cigarettes sold in the United States have undergone a progressive modification, including the addition of filters and a reduction in the average machine-measured tar and nicotine yield per cigarette by over 60%. These, and other, temporal changes in manufactured cigarettes, coupled with the complexity of smoking behavior, make it difficult to assess the impact of the newer cigarettes on health. Recently, some researchers have suggested that the newer products, marketed as being less harmful, may in fact provide no benefit compared to the older, higher tar cigarettes. The primary purpose of this review is to critically evaluate the available epidemiologic evidence on the health effects of low-tar cigarettes. This body of data provides the only means of assessing the effects of long-term exposure to these products, as they are actually used. After identifying important methodological problems confronting research in this area, studies of lung cancer, coronary heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and total mortality are examined in terms of their strengths and weaknesses and their results. Thirty-five studies of lung cancer are suggestive that smokers of low tar cigarettes have a lower risk (by 20-30%) compared to smokers of higher tar cigarettes. Only a minority of studies of heart disease provide evidence of a reduction in risk, on the order of 10%. Studies concerning chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are inconsistent, but the majority suggest decreased risk in smokers of lower tar cigarettes. Finally, studies that included total mortality indicate with a high degree of consistency that the total death rate is reduced in smokers of lower tar cigarettes, on the order of 10-20%. Because of the multiplicity of factors involved in smoking behavior, including compensation for reduced nicotine, and the modest magnitude of the apparent reduction in risk, the relative benefits of low tar cigarettes remain uncertain. Additional analyses of existing data sets could further clarify the impact of low-tar cigarettes. PMID:12955615

Kabat, Geoffrey C

2003-09-15

213

Levels-of-Growing-Stock Cooperative Study in Douglas-Fir. Report No. 4. Rocky Brook, Stampede Creek, and Iron Creek.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Forest Service maintains three of nine installations in a regional, cooperative study of influences of levels-of-growing-stock (LOGS) on stand growth. The effects of calibration thinnings are described for the three areas. Results of first treatm...

R. L. Williamson

1976-01-01

214

Impact of Asphaltenes and Resins on the Wetting Characteristics of Tars at Former Manufactured Gas Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tars produced as a byproduct of coal and oil gasification at manufactured gas plants (MGPs) during the 19th and early 20th centuries were often released into the environment through poor disposal practices or leaks in holding tanks and piping. These tars are persistent contaminants, leaching polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into groundwater and posing a significant risk to human and ecological health. MGP tars also have several properties that make them notoriously difficult to remediate. They are denser than water, so they can migrate to depths which make direct removal difficult or impossible, and their relatively high viscosities and ability to alter the wetting characteristics of porous media result in inefficient removal by traditional pump-and-treat methods. In this study, we investigate the last of these properties. Previous studies have linked wetting changes to asphaltenes---polar, high molecular weight compounds present in the tars. However, we have conducted qualitative bottle tests for tar samples collected from two former MGPs which indicate that there is no direct correlation between asphaltene concentration and the tendency to alter wetting characteristics of porous media. To better understand the factors controlling wetting behavior, we isolate asphaltenes and resins, another class of polar compounds, from a tar sample and recombine them with the remaining PAH mixture to create a series of tars of varying composition. We assess the relative impact of each of the fractions on wettability through contact angle measurements conducted at three different pHs.

Hauswirth, S. C.; Birak, P. S.; Rylander, S.; Pedit, J. A.; Miller, C. T.

2008-12-01

215

Evaluation of Two Techniques: mFC AND mTEC for Determining Distributions of Fecal Pollution in Small, North Carolina Tidal Creeks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most tidal creeks in North Carolina are closed or partially closed to shellfishing. These creeks often remain closed due to the inability to determine sources of fecal pollution. This study was designed for intensive fecal coliform monitoring of Futch Creek, N.C., to try and determine sources(s) of fecal pollution. Futch Creek is a mildly polluted tidal creek, with marginal levels

E. Cartier Esham; Ronald K. Sizemore

1998-01-01

216

Application of organic geochemistry to coastal tar residues from central California  

SciTech Connect

Tar residues are common on the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. These coastal tar residues have been washed ashore and usually occur on headlands near the high-tide line. In this study, 18 coastal tar residues were collected and analyzed to determine their carbon isotopic compositions and values of selected biomarker ratios. All of the residues have very heavy ({sup 13}C-enriched) carbon isotopic compositions spanning a narrow range ({delta}{sup 13}C = {minus}22.2 to {minus}23.4{per{underscore}thousand}), and 28,30-bisnorhopane is present in all samples. These same geochemical characteristics are found in Monterey Formation oils from which the coastal tar residues were likely derived. These coastal residues could result from natural seeps or from accidental spills. Statistically the coastal tar residues can be organized into three groups, each of which may represent different spill or seep events. Seven samples of potential local representative sources for the tar residues were examined, but none could account for the coastal tars.

Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Hostettler, F.D.; Lorenson, T.D.

2000-01-01

217

Understanding the stability of pyrolysis tars from biomass in a view point of free radicals.  

PubMed

Fast pyrolysis of biomass has attracted increasing attention worldwide to produce bio-tars that can be upgraded into liquid fuels and chemicals. However, the bio-tars are usually poor in quality and stability and are difficult to be upgraded. To better understand the nature of the bio-tars, this work reveals radical concentration of tars derived from pyrolysis of two kinds of biomass. The tars were obtained by condensing the pyrolysis volatiles in 3s. It shows that the tars contain large amounts of radicals, at a level of 10(16)spins/g, and are able to generate more radicals at temperatures of 573K or higher, reaching a level of 10(19)spins/g at 673K in less than 30min. The radical generation in the tar samples is attributed to the formation of THF insoluble matters (coke), which also contain radicals. The radical concentrations of the aqueous liquids obtained in pyrolysis are also studied. PMID:24507874

He, Wenjing; Liu, Qingya; Shi, Lei; Liu, Zhenyu; Ci, Donghui; Lievens, Caroline; Guo, Xiaofen; Liu, Muxin

2014-03-01

218

Application of organic geochemistry to coastal tar residues from Central California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tar residues are common on the coastline of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. These coastal tar residues have been washed ashore and usually occur on headlands near the high-tide line. In this study, 18 coastal tar residues were collected and analyzed to determine their carbon isotopic compositions and the values of selected biomarker ratios. All of the residues have very heavy (13C-enriched) carbon isotopic compositions spanning a narrow range (??13C = -22.2 to -23.4???), and 28,30-bisnorhopane is present in all samples. These same geochemical characteristics are found in Monterey Formation oils from which the coastal tar residues were likely derived. These coastal residues could result from natural seeps or from accidental spills. Statistically the coastal tar residues can be organized into three groups, each of which may represent different spill or seep events. Seven samples of potential local representative sources for the tar residues were examined, but none could account for the coastal tars.

Kvenvolden, K. A.; Rosenbauer, R. J.; Hostettler, F. D.; Lorenson, T. D.

2000-01-01

219

CSO Disinfection Pilot Study: Spring Creek CSO Storage Facility Upgrade. Research Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Research Summary presents the results of a pilot-scale disinfection study performed for the New York City Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) under a contract No. 7C-R394-NTLX to Camp Dresser &...

I. Wojtenko, M. K. Stinson

2003-01-01

220

Hydrologic study and evaluation of Ish Creek watershed (West Chestnut Ridge proposed disposal site)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of site characterization work for the proposed West Chestnut Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility, hydrologic information has been assembled from literature sources and direct field measurements. Earlier studies provide the basis for estimating flow frequency and expected high and low flows for catchments on Knox Group formations. Seven waterflow-gaging installations were established and used to characterize runoff patterns

D. D. Huff; J. L. Elmore; D. C. Farmer

1984-01-01

221

InSAR Studies of Crustal Deformation Near Jakobshavn Isbrae, Greenland and Cane Creek Anticline, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

We will present studies of two kinds of crustal deformation phenomena using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technique. Jakobshavn Isbrae, one of the largest outlet glaciers in Greenland, has been undergoing significant thinning and acceleration in recent years (Thomas, et al, 2003; Joughin et al, 2004). We use InSAR to measure crustal uplift in the ice-free bedrock area near the

L. Liu; J. Wahr; I. Howat; S. A. Khan; I. Joughin

2007-01-01

222

Clear creek/central city mine waste exposure study. Part 1. Smuggler Mountain Site. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and the Colorado Department of Health conducted a study to assess the extent of lead exposure. The primary objective of the study was to determine whether the Smuggler Mountain Superfund site residents had elevated blood lead levels. Other objectives were to identify the factors (environmental behavioral, and socioeconomic) which might have contributed to lead exposure in the community and to compare the results with those studies of other mining sites. The mean blood lead level of children from 6 months through 71 months of age was 3.0ug/dL. In children less than 6 years of age, there were no cases of lead poisoning as defined by the 1991 Centers for Disease Control guidelines. Thirty-six percent of the variability in the blood lead levels of children 6 through 71 months of age was explained by self reported behaviors of not washing hands before eating and allowing pets in the house.

Terracciano, G.J.

1992-09-01

223

The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report, July 1990--July 1991  

SciTech Connect

Contents of this report include the following: executive summary; characterization of the native bitumen from the Whiterocks oil sand deposit; influence of carboxylic acid content on bitumen viscosity; water based oil sand separation technology; extraction of bitumen from western oil sands by an energy-efficient thermal method; large- diameter fluidized bed reactor studies; rotary kiln pyrolysis of oil sand; catalytic upgrading of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; ebullieted bed hydrotreating and hydrocracking; super critical fluid extraction; bitumen upgrading; 232 references; Appendix A--Whiterocks tar sand deposit bibliography; Appendix B--Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit bibliography; and Appendix C--University of Utah tar sands bibliography.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1992-04-01

224

Solvent leaching of tar sands  

SciTech Connect

Solvent flooding is the basis of a wide range of enhanced oil recovery methods, and has been shown to be a possible method of creating initial steam injectivity in tar sands. This paper presents a unique model of dissolution of a semi-solid bitumen, resulting from the injection of a solvent. The solution of the mathematical equations, describing this phenomena is discussed. Results, including a series of two-dimensional problems, are presented. Numerical aspects are addressed. It is shown that three dimensionless groups control the bitumen leaching process. In the absence of fluid flow, the dissolution of bitumen is governed by the Damkohler and solvent capacity numbers. In the absence of dissolution, the Peclet number governs miscible displacement in the fluid phase. This paper presents computational results for a series of two-dimensional problems for a five-spot flow geometry, showing the importance of the model developed.

Oguztoreli, M.; Faroqu, S.M.

1983-11-01

225

Value engineering study report on Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Project. Alternative No. 3  

SciTech Connect

The project under study is Alternative No. 3 as identified in the Feasibility Study dated August 1994. This alternative is identified as Excavation and Disposal of Commercial/DOE, Other, and Residential Remedial Unit Soil. The assumptions used for generating baseline costs are discussed in site associated costs. It is further described as follows: Soils with mercury concentrations greater than 200 ppM in the Commercial/DOE and Other Remedial Units and greater than 180 ppM in the Residential Remedial Unit [41,300m{sup 3} (54,000yd{sup 3} a volume equivalent to approximately 6,750 dump truck loads)] would be excavated and disposed of in an approved, lined landfill at Y-12 with leachate collection and possible pretreatment of the leachate before discharge. Because 0.6 ha (1.5 acres) of wetland would be destroyed, wetlands banking would occur, whereby a 1.8-ha (4.5-acre) wetland would be constructed on DOE-owned land near K-25. Borrow soil would be obtained from the Y-12 West End Borrow Area or from excess soil located at Y-12 landfills to fill the excavation. It is estimated that 7.3 ha (18.2 acres, and area about the size of 17 football fields) of habitat would be adversely affected. This alternative would use BMPs to minimize any adverse affects and to comply substantively with regulatory requirements.

NONE

1995-08-01

226

Method for treatment of tar-bearing fuel gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described of producing a fuel gas which contains condensable tar vapor when it leaves a gasifier, the improvement wherein the tar-bearing gases are treated to remove tar therefrom. The process consists of: (a) continuously conducting hot fuel gas from a gasifier to and discharging it into a spray chamber where the hot tar-bearing gas is contacted with

L. L. Frauen; S. Kasper

1986-01-01

227

Benthic macroinvertebrate richness along Sausal Creek, Oakland, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sausal Creek, 5.0 km long, is one of the principal watercourses in Oakland, California. The headwaters of Sausal Creek arise in the Oakland Hills and the creek flows southwestward through the city, discharging into the tidal canal that separates the island of Alameda from Oakland; the creek ultimately flows into San Francisco Bay. Due to the presence of rainbow trout, the stream health of Sausal Creek is a local conservation priority. In the present study, a survey of benthic macroinvertebrates in the creek was conducted and possible correlations between environmental variables and taxonomic richness were analyzed. Three stations along the creek were sampled using a 30.5cm 500 micron aquatic d-net, and temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen levels were measured in creek samples obtained at each station. Temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen levels remained constant along the creek. Taxonomic richness was highest at the upstream site of Palo Seco, located in an eastern section of the creek, and furthest downstream at Dimond Park, in the western portion of the creek. The Monterrey site, just west of Palo Seco was found to be significantly low in benthic macroinvertebrates. The Palo Seco and Monterrey sites are separated by Highway 13 and storm drain inputs may bring contaminants into the creek at this site. At the Monterrey site Sausal Creek follows the Hayward Fault, gas emissions or change in substrate may also affect the local population of benthic invertebrates. Further research will be conducted to determine what factors are contributing to this local anomaly.

Lara, D.; Ahumada, E.; Leon, Y.; Bracho, H.; Telles, C.

2012-12-01

228

Characteristics of tar, NOx precursors and their absorption performance with different scrubbing solvents during the pyrolysis of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently thermal utilizations of sewage sludge, especially pyrolysis and gasification, are regarded as promising technologies due to efficient utilization of fuel gas. In this study, characteristics of tar and NOx precursors were investigated during the pyrolysis of sewage sludge. Moreover, absorption performance for tar and NOx precursors were also studied by using four kinds of scrubbing mediums: cooking oil, diesel

Hongfang Chen; Tomoaki Namioka; Kunio Yoshikawa

2011-01-01

229

Utilization of Trace Metals in Source Diagnosing of Tar Balls From the Mediterranean City of Alexandria, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study represents a forensic chemical analysis to identify the source(s) of tar balls polluting several beaches of the Mediterranean city of Alexandria, Egypt. Concentrations of six metals (vanadium [V], nickel [Ni], magnesium [Mg], iron [Fe], cobalt [Co], and copper [Cu]) were studied in tar balls, collected from different locations along the coast of the city and in Egyptian crude

A. H. Hegazi

2009-01-01

230

Developments in tar sands in 1984  

SciTech Connect

Interest and activity in tar sands development are progressing slowly with cautious optimism. Scaled-down, modular, in-situ pilot projects allow companies to react quickly to fluctuations in market conditions or the global economy. In addition, new drilling techniques and increasing efficient methods of bitumen recovery are being field tested. Since most worldwide tar sand production is from Canada, this paper centers on Canadian issues and project developments in the Peace River, Cold Lake, Athabasca, and Wabasca regions. The improvements there can be used as a model for other tar sands projects in similar economic situations and geological regions. 4 figures, 3 tables.

Seifert, S.R.; Lennox, T.R.

1985-10-01

231

Developments in tar sands in 1984  

SciTech Connect

Interest and activity in tar sands development are progressing slowly with cautious optimism. Scaled-down, modular, in-situ pilot projects allow companies to react quickly to fluctuations in market conditions or the global economy. In addition, new drilling techniques and increasingly efficient methods of bitumen recovery are being field tested. Since most worldwide tar sand production is from Canada, this paper centers on Canadian issues and project developments in the Peace River, Cold Lake, Athabasca, and Wabasca regions. The improvements there can be used as a model for other tar sands projects in similar economic situations and geologic regions.

Seifert, S.R.; Lennox, T.R.

1985-10-01

232

Developments in tar sands in 1981  

SciTech Connect

Activity in tar sands projects during 1981 continued at a very significant pace. The bulk of activity was in Canada, where 38 pilot projects were active, 2 commercial plants continued operations, 1 commercial scheme was canceled, and another was put into the twilight zone. Activity in the United States was low, whereas Venezuelan efforts reflect a firm commitment toward commercial development. The tenacious attitude of both industry and certain governments in the pursuit of tar sands development will keep the greater tar sands dream alive.

Wennekers, J.H.N.

1982-11-01

233

Process Train Evaluation for Treatment of Tar Sands Wastewaters. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Activated carbon, ozone and reverse osmosis were evaluated in treating two tar sand wastewaters generated by steam flooding (1S) and reverse combustion (2C) procedures. Substrates for these studies included untreated and pretreated (filtration, foam fract...

R. A. Sierka

1983-01-01

234

Characterization of Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2004-08  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fish Creek, a tributary to the Snake River, is about 15 river miles long and is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson (fig. 1). Public concern about nuisance growths of aquatic plants in Fish Creek has been increasing since the early 2000s. To address this concern, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District, began studying Fish Creek in 2004 to describe the hydrology of the creek and later (2007?08) to characterize the water quality and the biological communities. The purpose of this fact sheet is to summarize the study results from 2004 to 2008.

Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Peterson, David A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Leemon, Daniel J.

2010-01-01

235

United states tar sands as a petroleum source  

Microsoft Academic Search

This discussion of the U.S. tar sand deposits includes the following topics: geographic and geologic distribution, tar sand host rocks, impregnating material, a comparison between the U.S. and Canadian deposits, thermal recovery of tar sands, recent U.S. tar sand mining and separation experience, and price and incentives. Several U.S. tar sand deposits compare favorably with Athabasca in having big reserves

Ball

1967-01-01

236

Hydrology and Flood Profiles of Duck Creek and Jordan Creek Downstream from Egan Drive, Juneau, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrologic and hydraulic updates for Duck Creek and the lower part of Jordan Creek in Juneau, Alaska, included computation of new estimates of peak streamflow magnitudes and new water-surface profiles for the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods. Computations for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence interval flood magnitudes for both streams used data from U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations weighted with regional regression equations for southeast Alaska. The study area for the hydraulic model consisted of three channels: Duck Creek from Taku Boulevard near the stream's headwaters to Radcliffe Road near the end of the Juneau International Airport runway, an unnamed tributary to Duck Creek from Valley Boulevard to its confluence with Duck Creek, and Jordan Creek from a pedestrian bridge upstream from Egan Drive to Crest Street at Juneau International Airport. Field surveys throughout the study area provided channel geometry for 206 cross sections, and geometric and hydraulic characteristics for 29 culverts and 15 roadway, driveway, or pedestrian bridges. Hydraulic modeling consisted of application of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) for steady-state flow at the selected recurrence intervals using an assumed high tide of 20 feet and roughness coefficients refined by calibration to measured water-surface elevations from a 2- to 5-year flood that occurred on November 21, 2005. Model simulation results identify inter-basin flow from Jordan Creek to the southeast at Egan Drive and from Duck Creek to Jordan Creek downstream from Egan Drive at selected recurrence intervals.

Curran, Janet H.

2007-01-01

237

Remote sensor application studies report, July 1, 1968 to June 30, 1969: Remote sensing reconnaissance, Mill creek area, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Remote Sensor Application Studies program, infrared images and several kinds of photographs were obtained on reconnaissance flights over two areas in the Arbuckle Mountains near Mill Creek, Oklahoma. These data were used in a preliminary investigation (1) to determine the diagnostic reflection and emission characteristics of various rock types, and (2) io evaluate the perturbing influence of atmospheric conditions, surface coatings, rock texture, and topography on the observed reflected and emitted energy in the thermal infrared (8-14?) part of the spectrum

Rowan, L.C.; Offield, T. W.; Watson, Kenneth; Cannon, P. J.; Watson, R.D.

1970-01-01

238

Recent activity in U. S. tar sand  

SciTech Connect

A review of the U.S. tar sand resources is presented. The total oil-in-place in 550 occurrences of tar sand in 22 states is estimated to be between 25 and 36 billion barrels, of which at least 80% is located in Utah. The lack of commercial oil production is attributed to the lack of proven technology, marketability of the produced oil, and a moratorium on leasing of federally controlled tar sand properties. Current activities to develop the U.S. tar sand resources include reservoir characterization and evaluation by industry, states, and DOE, oil recovery research by industry and universities, and few field mini-tests and pilot work by industry and DOE.

Marchant, L.C. (U.S. Department of Energy, Laramie Energy Technology Center, Laramie, WY); Stosur, J.J. (U.S. Department of Energy, Germantown, MD); Cupps, C.Q.

1980-01-01

239

Method of Producing Epoxide Tars Containing Phosphorus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for producing epoxide tars (resins) containing phosphorus by means of interaction of diepoxides with the products of acids of phosphorus is presented. Derivatives of phosphorus acids are used with the dichlorides of phosphoric, phosphorous, and p...

E. V. Kuznetsov R. S. Ivanova V. A. Maslov

1965-01-01

240

Laboratory evaluation of selected tar sand asphalts  

SciTech Connect

Three tar sand asphalts of similar grades prepared from one syncrude by three different refining methods were characterized by tests commonly used to specify paving asphalts together with certain special tests. Asphalt-aggregate mixtures were prepared using these asphalts and tested in the laboratory to determine strength stiffness stability, tensile properties, temperature effects and water susceptibility. Comparison of the tar sand asphalt properties to conventional petroleum asphalt properties reveal no striking differences.

Button, J.W.; Epps, J.A.; Gallaway, B.M.

1980-12-01

241

Vapor phase cracking of prompt tars from pyrolysis of sweet gum hardwood  

SciTech Connect

The vapor phase cracking of tar freshly generated by pyrolysis of sweet gum hardwood was studied as a function of temperature (500-800/sup 0/C) at residence times of 0.9 - 2.2 sec to obtain quantitative yields and kinetics. For residence times of about 1 sec, tar conversion ranged from 10 wt% at 500/sup 0/C to 32 wt% at 600/sup 0/C and reached 85 wt% at 800/sup 0/C. The major products of tar cracking are carbon monoxide, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and ethylene. Kinetic parameters obtained by fitting first-order reaction models to the data allow extents of tar cracking and resulting gaseous product yields to be predicted with an error generally less than ten percent.

Boroson, M.L.; Howard, J.B.; Longwell, J.P.; Peters, W.A.

1986-01-01

242

Environmental setting of Maple Creek watershed, Nebraska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Maple Creek watershed covers a 955-square-kilometer area in eastern Nebraska, which is a region dominated by agricultural land use. The Maple Creek watershed is one of seven areas currently included in a nationwide study of the sources, transport, and fate of water and chemicals in agricultural watersheds. This study, known as the topical study of 'Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport, and Fate' is part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Program is designed to describe water-quality conditions and trends based on representative surface- and ground-water resources across the Nation. The objective of the Agricultural Chemicals topical study is to investigate the sources, transport, and fate of selected agricultural chemicals in a variety of agriculturally diverse environmental settings. The Maple Creek watershed was selected for the Agricultural Chemicals topical study because its watershed represents the agricultural setting that characterizes eastern Nebraska. This report describes the environmental setting of the Maple Creek watershed in the context of how agricultural practices, including agricultural chemical applications and irrigation methods, interface with natural settings and hydrologic processes. A description of the environmental setting of a subwatershed within the drainage area of Maple Creek is included to improve the understanding of the variability of hydrologic and chemical cycles at two different scales.

Fredrick, Brian S.; Linard, Joshua I.; Carpenter, Jennifer L.

2006-01-01

243

Hydrologic analysis of Steel Creek and L Lake and the effects of flow reduction on Steel Creek habitat  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared to support a proposal to eliminate the EIS mandated spring flow requirements in Steel Creek below L Lake. The base flow in Steel Creek below L Lake was estimated using historical data. The water balance of L Lake was studied to evaluate the effects of flow reduction on the Steel Creek hydrologic system. The base flow in Steel Creek below L Lake is estimated as 0.28 cms (10 cfs). A reduction in L Lake discharge to 0.28 cms will result in a fish community similar to the one that existed before the impoundment of L Lake.

del Carmen, B.R.; Paller, M.H.

1993-12-31

244

Salmon Falls Creek Fish Inventory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Salmon Falls Creek fisheries and instream habitat was investigated between Lily Grade and Salmon Falls Creek Dam in 1994. This reach of Salmon Falls Creek is within a remote, narrow steep canyon with limited access. The source of most of the water within ...

C. D. Warren F. E. Partridge

1995-01-01

245

Special Flood Hazard Evaluation Report, Fish Creek and Brimfield Ditch, Portage County, Ohio.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technical report documents the results of an investigation to determine the potential flood situation along Fish Creek and Brimfied Ditch within the unincorporated areas of Portage County, Ohio. The study reaches include Fish Creek from the northern c...

1995-01-01

246

Thermal and Catalytic Cracking of Tars and Tar Constituents from Coal-Gasification Processes. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this program is to screen catalysts and determine operating conditions for maximizing gas and char production from the pyrolysis of coal gasification tars. The product yields from cracking a bituminous coal tar in a fixed-bed reactor were...

W. Y. Wen

1983-01-01

247

Compositional and pH effects on the interfacial tension between complex tar mixtures and aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

Tars at former manufactured gas plants (FMGPs) are a major environmental concern and present a number of challenges to remediators. This experimental study investigates the relationship between composition and tar-water interfacial tension (IFT), a property of primary importance in determining the transport of tar in porous media. Nine field-collected FMGP tars and a commercially available coal tar were characterized by means of fractionation, gas chromatography, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and vapor pressure osmometry. The tar-aqueous IFT of the tars, as well as resins and asphaltenes extracted therefrom, were measured over a range of pH. The IFTs were found to be strongly dependent on pH, with the lowest values obtained at high pH. The reduction of IFT at high pH was found to correlate well with the I(C?O) values from the FTIR analysis, which provide an indication of the relative amount of carbonyl groups present. Reductions of IFT at low pH were also observed and found to correlate well with the extractable base concentration. The aromaticity and asphaltene average molar mass are also correlated with IFT reductions at both low and high pH, suggestive of compositional patterns related to the tar source material. PMID:22901363

Hauswirth, Scott C; Schultz, Pamela B; Miller, Cass T

2012-09-18

248

Structural determinants of TAR RNA-DNA annealing in the absence and presence of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein.  

PubMed

Annealing of the TAR RNA hairpin to the cTAR DNA hairpin is required for the minus-strand transfer step of HIV-1 reverse transcription. HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) plays a crucial role by facilitating annealing of the complementary hairpins. To gain insight into the mechanism of NC-mediated TAR RNA-DNA annealing, we used structural probes (nucleases and potassium permanganate), gel retardation assays, fluorescence anisotropy and cTAR mutants under conditions allowing strand transfer. In the absence of NC, cTAR DNA-TAR RNA annealing depends on nucleation through the apical loops. We show that the annealing intermediate of the kissing pathway is a loop-loop kissing complex involving six base-pairs and that the apical stems are not destabilized by this loop-loop interaction. Our data support a dynamic structure of the cTAR hairpin in the absence of NC, involving equilibrium between both the closed conformation and the partially open 'Y' conformation. This study is the first to show that the apical and internal loops of cTAR are weak and strong binding sites for NC, respectively. NC slightly destabilizes the lower stem that is adjacent to the internal loop and shifts the equilibrium toward the 'Y' conformation exhibiting at least 12 unpaired nucleotides in its lower part. PMID:21724607

Kanevsky, Igor; Chaminade, Françoise; Chen, Yingying; Godet, Julien; René, Brigitte; Darlix, Jean-Luc; Mély, Yves; Mauffret, Olivier; Fossé, Philippe

2011-10-01

249

Structural determinants of TAR RNA-DNA annealing in the absence and presence of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein  

PubMed Central

Annealing of the TAR RNA hairpin to the cTAR DNA hairpin is required for the minus-strand transfer step of HIV-1 reverse transcription. HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) plays a crucial role by facilitating annealing of the complementary hairpins. To gain insight into the mechanism of NC-mediated TAR RNA–DNA annealing, we used structural probes (nucleases and potassium permanganate), gel retardation assays, fluorescence anisotropy and cTAR mutants under conditions allowing strand transfer. In the absence of NC, cTAR DNA-TAR RNA annealing depends on nucleation through the apical loops. We show that the annealing intermediate of the kissing pathway is a loop–loop kissing complex involving six base-pairs and that the apical stems are not destabilized by this loop–loop interaction. Our data support a dynamic structure of the cTAR hairpin in the absence of NC, involving equilibrium between both the closed conformation and the partially open ‘Y’ conformation. This study is the first to show that the apical and internal loops of cTAR are weak and strong binding sites for NC, respectively. NC slightly destabilizes the lower stem that is adjacent to the internal loop and shifts the equilibrium toward the ‘Y’ conformation exhibiting at least 12 unpaired nucleotides in its lower part.

Kanevsky, Igor; Chaminade, Francoise; Chen, Yingying; Godet, Julien; Rene, Brigitte; Darlix, Jean-Luc; Mely, Yves; Mauffret, Olivier; Fosse, Philippe

2011-01-01

250

Baseline Characteristics of Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anadromous fish populations historically have found healthy habitat in Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska. Concern regarding potential degradation to the habitat by urban development within the Mendenhall Valley led to a cooperative study among the City and Borough of Juneau, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, and the U.S. Geological Survey, that assessed current hydrologic, water-quality, and physical-habitat conditions of the stream corridor. Periods of no streamflow were not uncommon at the Jordan Creek below Egan Drive near Auke Bay stream gaging station. Additional flow measurements indicate that periods of no flow are more frequent downstream of the gaging station. Although periods of no flow typically were in March and April, streamflow measurements collected prior to 1999 indicate similar periods in January, suggesting that no flow conditions may occur at any time during the winter months. This dewatering in the lower reaches likely limits fish rearing and spawning habitat as well as limiting the migration of juvenile salmon out to the ocean during some years. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations may not be suitable for fish survival during some winter periods in the Jordan Creek watershed. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured as low as 2.8 mg/L at the gaging station and were measured as low as 0.85 mg/L in a tributary to Jordan Creek. Intermittent measurements of pH and dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the mid-reaches of Jordan Creek were all within acceptable limits for fish survival, however, few measurements of these parameters were made during winter-low-flow conditions. One set of water quality samples was collected at six different sites in the Jordan Creek watershed and analyzed for major ions and dissolved nutrients. Major-ion chemistry showed Jordan Creek is calcium bicarbonate type water with little variation between sampling sites.

Host, Randy H.; Neal, Edward G.

2004-01-01

251

An overview of the tar sand resources of Utah  

SciTech Connect

Utah contains 53 shallow tar sand deposits that contain between 19.4 and 29.2 billion bbl of hydrocarbons. This amount is nearly 100 times the total published proven reserves of crude oil in all of Utah. Over 96% of this resource occurs in eight deposits, located in the Uinta basin and in southeastern central Utah. Currently, only small production of tar sand occurs in the state and a low level of research is being done on the deposits due to low oil prices. During the period of high oil prices in the early 1980s, many companies explored these deposits, performed feasibility studies, and developed processes for extracting the oil, but much is still to be learned. New recovery processes may allow future development of this huge resource.

Bishop, C.E.; Tripp, B.T. (Utah Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

1993-08-01

252

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 5. Appendixes J, K, L, M, and N-other supporting information  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 5 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

NONE

1996-06-01

253

Reduced tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure while smoking ultralow- but not low-yield cigarettes  

SciTech Connect

An unresolved public health issue is whether some modern cigarettes are less hazardous than other and whether patients who cannot stop smoking should be advised to switch to lower-yield cigarettes. The authors studied tar (estimated by urine mutagenicity), nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure in habitual smokers switched from their usual brand to high- (15 mg of tar), low- (5 mg of tar), or ultralow-yield (1 mg of tar) cigarettes. There were no differences in exposure comparing high- or low-yield cigarettes, but tar and nicotine exposures were reduced by 49% and 56%, respectively, and carbon monoxide exposure by 36% while smoking ultralow-yield cigarettes. Similarly, in 248 subjects smoking their self-selected brand, nicotine intake, estimated by blood concentrations of its metabolite continine, was 40% lower in those who smoked ultralow but no different in those smoking higher yields of cigarettes. The data indicate that ultralow-yield cigarettes do deliver substantial doses of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide, but that exposure are considerably less than for other cigarettes.

Benowitz, N.L.; Jacob, P. III; Yu, L.; Talcott, R.; Hall, S.; Jones, R.T.

1986-07-11

254

ROCK CREEK, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1970-1984  

EPA Science Inventory

The study was designed to determine the characteristics and amounts of industrial and municipal wastes discharged to Rock Creek, Idaho (17040212) and subsequently into the Snake River and to evaluate the effects of these wastes on the biota and water quality of Rock Creek. Indus...

255

Economics, Politics and the Subjugation of the Creek Indians.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study attempts to identify and delineate the underlying dynamics of change affecting and course of Creek Indian history during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, with particular reference to the Creek War of 1813-14. The analysis is based...

J. A. Paredes K. J. Plante

1975-01-01

256

Should We Dam Nanticoke Creek?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this decision-making exercise, students investigate what would occur if a dam were built along Nanticoke Creek, a real stream just north of West Corners near the Village of Endicott, New York. They will use topographic maps to determine how much area would be flooded by the new reservoir, to study river drainages, and to consider the impacts of dams on a region. They must also consider rivers in the context of their relation to humankind. The exercise can be extended to other, more local locations having similar topography.

Childs, Philip

257

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station: progress report June-August 1981. Quarterly progress report 1 Jun-31 Aug 81  

SciTech Connect

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the summer of 1981, Teredo bartschi occurred in large numbers at one station in Oyster Creek, but did not appear in significant numbers in Forked River.

Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

1982-01-01

258

Analysis of geothermal electric-power generation at Big Creek Hot Springs, Lemhi County, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Big Creek Hot Springs was evaluated as a source of electrical power for the Blackbird Cobalt Mine, approximately 13 miles south of the hot spring. An evaluaton of the geothermal potential of Big Creek Hot Springs, a suggested exploration program and budget, an engineering feasibility study of power generation at Big Creek Hot Springs, an economic analysis of the modeled

Struhsacker

1981-01-01

259

Selected Constituents in the Smoke of Domestic Low Tar Cigarettes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thirty-two brands of domestic commercial low tar and nicotine cigarettes were analyzed for their production of tar, nicotine, nitrogen oxides (as nitric oxide), hydrogen cyanide, acrolein, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide under standard analytical smoki...

W. H. Griest R. B. Quincy M. R. Guerin

1977-01-01

260

Tar Sand Process Water Control Technology. Draft Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The location, geology, reservoir and oil properties of the major tar sand deposits of the United States are described. Past and present tar sand oil recovery processes are discussed with reference to their state of development, water requirements, waste t...

R. Kahle

1981-01-01

261

Tar decanter sludge as a resource material  

SciTech Connect

Tar decanter sludge (TDS) is a solid hazardous waste produced as a by-product of tar separation from flushing liquor in coke plants. For many years, TDS was buried in authorized land-fills near the coke plants. However, because of the ballooning costs associated with an environmentally acceptable burial under current standards, attention has focused on utilizing TDS as a resource material instead. This paper reviews, the properties of TDS and various upgrading/processing techniques, resulting in its use as an additive to the coal charged to the coke ovens, as a fuel, or as a feedstock for making higher-value products.

Stipanovich, J.

1986-01-01

262

Tar sands: a new fuels industry takes shape. [Alberta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems have delayed exploitation of tar sands in Alberta, but they have certainly not halted it. One by one, these problems have been overcome until, today, tar sands are the most promising near term alternative source of fossil fuels. One company has been mining tar sands and extracting oil from them for 10 yr, the last 2 yr at a

Maugh; T. H. II

1978-01-01

263

An evaluation of in-situ recovery of tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several field tests of in-situ recovery of tar and heavy oil expose the difficulty of achieving an acceptable economic process. The technical problems encountered in achieving successful projects are: adequate communication between wells, mobilization of the tar and maintenance of production wells. If currently available technology for the recovery of tar sand is to compete economically with world prices for

R. L. Arscott; A. David

1977-01-01

264

Hot-Recycling of Tar-Containing Asphalt Pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot recycling in pavement construction leads to the emission of hazardous compounds when tar-containing recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) is used. This is due to the relatively high content of substances such as phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in tar. The latter are of special interest, because some PAHs have carcinogenic and\\/or mutagenic properties. High tar content in combination with

Martin Hugener; Lukas Emmenegger; Peter Mattrel

2010-01-01

265

Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 2. Appendixes A, B, C, D  

SciTech Connect

This document contains appendices A (water characterization), B (sediment characterization), C (biota Characterization), D (applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements) from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

NONE

1995-09-01

266

Tidal creek changes at the Sonoma Baylands restoration site  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over the past 150 years, human activity has had a major impact on tidal wetlands adjoining the San Francisco Bay-Delta estuary Growing concern about the effect of this change on the ecology of the estuary has prompted Bay area managers to attempt to reclaim tidal wetlands. The Sonoma Baylands Restoration Project is designed to use dredge material to convert 348 acres from farmland to wetland. This paper describes changes to a tidal creek that flows from that restoration site to San Pablo Bay (north San Francisco Bay) through an existing tidal wetland during different phases of the project. Hydrologic measurements near the bottom of the creek and cross-creek profiles show how the creek responded to non-tidal flow conditions introduced by filling the site with dredge materials. At the time of this study, the creek had deepened by approximately 40 cm but had not widened.

Dingler, John, R.; Cacchione, David, A.

1998-01-01

267

Simulated water budgets and ground-water/surface-water interactions in Bushkill and parts of Monocacy Creek watersheds, Northampton County, Pennsylvania--a preliminary study with identification of data needs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report, prepared in cooperation with the Department of Environmental Protection, Office of Mineral Resources Management, provides a preliminary analysis of water budgets and generalized ground-water/surface-water interactions for Bushkill and parts of Monocacy Creek watersheds in Northampton County, Pa., by use of a ground-water flow model. Bushkill Creek watershed was selected for study because it has areas of rapid growth, ground-water withdrawals from a quarry, and proposed stream-channel modifications, all of which have the potential for altering ground-water budgets and the interaction between ground water and streams. Preliminary 2-dimensional, steady-state simulations of ground-water flow by the use of MODFLOW are presented to show the status of work through September 2005 and help guide ongoing data collection in Bushkill Creek watershed. Simulations were conducted for (1) predevelopment conditions, (2) a water table lowered for quarry operations, and (3) anthropogenic changes in hydraulic conductivity of the streambed and aquifer. Preliminary results indicated under predevelopment conditions, the divide between the Bushkill and Monocacy Creek ground-water basins may not have been coincident with the topographic divide and as much as 14 percent of the ground-water discharge to Bushkill Creek may have originated from recharge in the Monocacy Creek watershed. For simulated predevelopment conditions, Schoeneck Creek and parts of Monocacy Creek were dry, but Bushkill Creek was gaining throughout all reaches. Simulated lowering of the deepest quarry sump to an altitude of 147 feet for quarry operations caused ground-water recharge and streamflow leakage to be diverted to the quarry throughout about 14 square miles and caused reaches of Bushkill and Little Bushkill Creeks to change from gaining to losing streams. Lowering the deepest quarry sump to an altitude of 100 feet caused simulated ground-water discharge to the quarry to increase about 4 cubic feet per second. Raising the deepest sump to an altitude of 200 feet caused the simulated discharge to the quarry to decrease about 14 cubic feet per second.Decreasing the hydraulic conductivity of the streambed of Bushkill Creek in the reach of large losses of flow caused simulated ground-water levels to decline and ground-water discharge to a quarry to decrease from 74 to 45 cubic feet per second. Decreasing the hydraulic conductivity of a hypothesized highly transmissive zone with a plug of relatively impermeable material caused ground-water levels to increase east of the plug and decline west of the plug, and decreased the discharge to a quarry from 74 to 53 cubic feet per second. Preliminary results of the study have significant limitations, which need to be recognized by the user. The results demonstrated the usefulness of ground-water modeling with available data sets, but as more data become available through field studies, a more complete evaluation could be conducted of the preliminary assumptions in the conceptual model, model sensitivity, and effects of boundary conditions. Additional streamflow and ground-water-level measurements would be needed to better quantify recharge and aquifer properties, particularly the anisotropy of carbonate rocks. Measurements of streamflow losses at average, steady-state hydrologic conditions could provide a more accurate estimate of ground-water recharge from this source, which directly affects water budgets and contributing areas simulated by the model.

Risser, Dennis W.

2006-01-01

268

Assessment of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in the Autauga Creek watershed, Autauga County, Alabama, 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Only four families within the Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera orders were found during a 1999 survey of aquatic macroinvertebrates in Autauga Creek, Autauga County, Alabama, by the Alabama Department of Environmental Management. The low number of taxa of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera families indicated that the aquatic macroinvertebrate community was in poor condition, and the creek was placed on the Alabama Department of Environmental Management 303(d) list. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in 2009 to provide data for the Alabama Department of Environmental Management and other water management agencies to re-evaluate aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in Autauga Creek to see if they meet Alabama Department of Environmental Management water-quality criteria. Aquatic macroinvertebrate communities were evaluated at three sites in the Autauga Creek watershed. Macroinvertebrates were sampled at two sites on Autauga Creek and one on Bridge Creek, the largest tributary to Autauga Creek. Water-quality field parameters were assessed at 11 sites. During the 2009 sampling, 12 families within the orders of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera were found at the Alabama Department of Environmental Management's assessment site whereas only four were found in 1999. The upstream site on Autauga Creek had consistently higher numbers of taxa than the Bridge Creek site and the lower site on Autauga Creek which is the Alabama Department of Environmental Management's assessment site. Chironomid richness was noticeably higher on the two Autauga Creek sites than the Bridge Creek site.

Mooty, Will S.; Gill, Amy C.

2011-01-01

269

Design of a groundwater model to determine the feasibility of extending an artificial salmon-spawning stream: case study for Marx Creek, near Hyder, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marx Creek is a groundwater-fed, artificial salmon-spawning stream near Hyder, Alaska. The purpose of this project was to develop a groundwater flow model to predict baseflow to a proposed 450-m extension of Marx Creek. To accomplish this purpose, water levels were monitored in 20 monitor wells and discharge measurements were recorded from Marx Creek. These data were used to create a three-dimensional groundwater flow model using Visual MODFLOW. Three predictive simulations were run after the model was calibrated to groundwater levels and stream discharge measurements. The proposed extension was added to the calibrated model during the first simulation, resulting in simulated baseflow to the extension stream exceeding simulated baseflow to the existing Marx Creek by 39 %. Sections of Marx Creek were removed from the model during the second simulation, resulting in a 5 % increase in simulated baseflow to the extension stream. A 32-cm reduction in the water table was simulated during the third simulation, resulting in an 18 % decrease in simulated baseflow to the extension stream. These modeling results were used by Tongass National Forest personnel to determine that baseflow to the proposed extension would likely be sufficient to provide habitat conducive to salmon spawning. The extension stream was constructed and portions of Marx Creek were decommissioned during the summer of 2008. It was observed that there is comparable or greater discharge in the extension stream than there was in the decommissioned sections of Marx Creek, although neither discharge nor stream stage measurements have yet been collected.

Nelson, T. P.; Lachmar, T. E.

2013-09-01

270

Thermal recovery of hydrocarbon from tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention relates to a method for the recovery of oil from subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing formations containing low API gravity viscous oils or bitumens. More particularly, the invention relates to the production of bitumens and hydrocarbons from reservoirs of low mobility, such as tar sand formations. This can be achieved by the injection of a mixture of an oxygen-containing gas

D. A. Redford; S. M. Creighton

1977-01-01

271

Economic Potential of Domestic Tar Sands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analysis of the domestic tar sand resources and the technologies currently available for recovering them indicates that: (1) Much of the resource is lean and scattered, having too little overburden for an in situ thermal process and too much overburden fo...

V. A. Kuuskraa S. Chalton T. M. Doscher

1978-01-01

272

Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry

Stauffer

1981-01-01

273

Buck Creek River Flow Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Buck Creek flowing through Springfield Ohio has a number of low-head dams currently in place that cause safety issues and sometimes make it impossible for recreational boaters to pass through. The safety issues include the back eddies created by the dams that are known as drowning machines and the hydraulic jumps. In this study we are modeling the flow of Buck Creek using topographical and flow data provided by the Geology Department of Wittenberg University. The flow is analyzed using Hydraulic Engineering Center - River Analysis System software (HEC-RAS). As the first step a model of the river near Snyder Park has been created with the current structure in place for validation purposes. Afterwards the low-head dam is replaced with four drop structures with V-notch overflow gates. The river bed is altered to reflect plunge pools after each drop structure. This analysis will provide insight to how the flow is going to behave after the changes are made. In addition a sediment transport analysis is also being conducted to provide information about the stability of these structures.

Dhanapala, Yasas; George, Elizabeth; Ritter, John

2009-04-01

274

Bereavement Rituals in the Muscogee Creek Tribe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative, collective case study explores bereavement rituals in the Muscogee Creek tribe. Data from interviews with 27 participants, all adult members of the tribe, revealed consensus on participation in certain bereavement rituals. Common rituals included (a) conducting a wake service the night before burial; (b) never leaving the body alone…

Walker, Andrea C.; Balk, David E.

2007-01-01

275

Grieving in the Muscogee Creek Tribe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative, collective case study explores grieving in the Muscogee Creek tribe. Data from interviews with 27 participants, all adult members of the tribe, reveal tendencies in patterns of grieving. Commonalities include (a) individual strength and certainty of recovery; (b) focus on giving to others in the family and coping as a family unit;…

Walker, Andrea C.

2008-01-01

276

Integrated Geophysical Monitoring Program to Study Flood Performance and Incidental CO2 Storage Associated with a CO2 EOR Project in the Bell Creek Oil Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center, is working with Denbury Onshore LLC to determine the effect of a large-scale injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into a deep clastic reservoir for the purpose of simultaneous CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and to study incidental CO2 storage at the Bell Creek oil field located in southeastern Montana. This project will reduce CO2 emissions by more than 1 million tons a year while simultaneously recovering an anticipated 30 million barrels of incremental oil. The Bell Creek project provides a unique opportunity to use and evaluate a comprehensive suite of technologies for monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) of CO2 on a large-scale. The plan incorporates multiple geophysical technologies in the presence of complementary and sometimes overlapping data to create a comprehensive data set that will facilitate evaluation and comparison. The MVA plan has been divided into shallow and deep subsurface monitoring. The deep subsurface monitoring plan includes 4-D surface seismic, time-lapse 3-D vertical seismic profile (VSP) surveys incorporating a permanent borehole array, and baseline and subsequent carbon-oxygen logging and other well-based measurements. The goal is to track the movement of CO2 in the reservoir, evaluate the recovery/storage efficiency of the CO2 EOR program, identify fluid migration pathways, and determine the ultimate fate of injected CO2. CO2 injection at Bell Creek began in late May 2013. Prior to injection, a monitoring and characterization well near the field center was drilled and outfitted with a distributed temperature-monitoring system and three down-hole pressure gauges to provide continuous real-time data of the reservoir and overlying strata. The monitoring well allows on-demand access for time-lapse well-based measurements and borehole seismic instrumentation. A 50-level permanent borehole array of 3-component geophones was installed in a second monitoring well. A pre-injection series of carbon-oxygen logging across the reservoir was acquired in 35 wells. The baseline 3-D surface seismic survey was acquired in September 2012. A 3-D VSP incorporating two wells and 2 square miles of overlapping seismic coverage in the middle of the field was acquired in May 2013. Initial iterations of geologic modeling and reservoir simulation of the field have been completed. Currently, passive seismic monitoring with the permanent borehole array is being conducted during injection. Interpretation results from the baseline surface 3-D survey and preliminary results from the baseline 3-D VSP are being evaluated and integrated into the reservoir model. The PCOR Partnership's philosophy is to combine site characterization, modeling, and monitoring strategies into an iterative process to produce descriptive integrated results. The comprehensive effort at Bell Creek will allow a comparison of the effectiveness of several complementary geophysical and well-based methods in meeting the goals of the deep subsurface monitoring effort.

Burnison, S. A.; Ditty, P.; Gorecki, C. D.; Hamling, J. A.; Steadman, E. N.; Harju, J. A.

2013-12-01

277

Information on tar and nicotine yields on cigarette packages.  

PubMed Central

We examined information on tar and nicotine yields on the packages of 160 cigarette brands, 58 percent of the 275 brands for which tar and nicotine yields were listed in a recent Federal Trade Commission report. The tar yield was indicated on 14 percent, the nicotine yield was indicated on 11 percent. As tar yield increased among brands, the yield was progressively less likely to be shown on the package and was not disclosed on the package of any cigarette yielding 11 mg or more of tar.

Davis, R M; Healy, P; Hawk, S A

1990-01-01

278

Santa Paula Creek Channel, Ventura County, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is proposed to initiate construction of: two debris basins, one each on Santa Paula and Mud Creeks; and concrete channel improvements along both creeks. Recreation would be developed at Santa Paula Creek Debris Basin and channel. The improvements would...

1972-01-01

279

33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation... Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida,...

2013-07-01

280

33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation... Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida,...

2009-07-01

281

Chemical quality of water resources of the Conewango Creek basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report incorporates the data obtained in a study of the chemical quality of the water resources in the Conewango Creek basin, New York. The study was made during the period October 1951 to September 1952.

Beetem, W. A.

1954-01-01

282

Sediment quality status of two creeks in the upper Bonny Estuary, Niger Delta, in relation to urban/industrial activities.  

PubMed

Two creeks (Azuabie and Obufe) in the upper Bonny Estuary, Nigeria were studied to determine how industrial and other anthropogenic activities have influenced their relative sediment qualities. Total organic carbon, total hydrocarbons, zinc, lead, cadmium and iron were significantly higher in the Azuabie creek, while phosphate, nitrate, copper and chromium did not show significant differences between the two creeks. Principal component analysis (PCA) ordinations discriminated all locations in the Obufe creek into a cluster along with the less-contaminated sites in the Azuabie creek. The other two sites in the Azuabie creek clustered separately, showing that they were contamination hot-spots. PMID:17487433

Daka, Erema R; Moslen, Miebaka; Ekeh, Calista A; Ekweozor, I K E

2007-06-01

283

Remote Sensor Application Studies Progress Report, July 1, 1968 to June 30, 1969. RemoteSensing Reconnaissance, Mill Creek Area, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Infrared data for the Mill Creek area in the Arbuckle Mountains of Oklahoma reveal significant stratigraphic and structural information. Relatively pure limestones and dolomites in this area can be differentiated in the nighttime infrared images, and the ...

L. C. Rowan T. W. Offield K. Watson P. J. Cannon R.D. Watson

1970-01-01

284

Engineering and Environmental Study of DDT Contamination of Huntsville Spring Branch, Indian Creek, and Adjacent Lands and Waters, Wheeler Reservoir, Alabama. Revision.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report deals with DDTR contamination in northeast Alabama in the Tennessee River system from Mile 260 to 375 which includes Wilson, Wheeler, and Guntersville Reservoirs. The primary area of interest is the Huntsville Spring Branch - Indian Creek (HSB...

1984-01-01

285

Wallace Creek Field Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains model class exercises which instructors may find useful as class assignments to accompany class trips to the Wallace Creek site. These exercises are designed for college-level students who have had some background in geology and a general background of fault mechanics and earthquake geology. Particular questions in these exercises requires the students to conduct certain exercises or participate in appropriate discussions regarding geomorphology and slip rates. Five figures necessary to complete certain parts of the exercises are available for downloading.

286

Shell Creek Summers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What would motivate high school students to donate valuable summer vacation time to do science research?--the opportunity to make a difference! The Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group (SCWIG) was formed to identify and promote needed conservation practices within a local watershed, and turned to the high school science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality. Since 2002, for the past three summers, in this ongoing project, students collect water quality data and report their findings to the three involved community organizations.

Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

2005-04-01

287

Line Creek improves efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Boosting coal recovery rate by 8% and reducing fuel expense $18,000 annually by replacing two tractors, are two tangible benefits that Crows Nest Resources of British Columbia has achieved since overseas coal markets weakened in 1985. Though coal production at the 4-million tpy Line Creek open pit mine has been cut 25% from its 1984 level, morale among the pit crew remains high. More efficient pit equipment, innovative use of existing equipment, and encouragement of multiple skill development among workers - so people can be assigned to different jobs in the operation as situations demand - contribute to a successful operation.

Harder, P.

1988-04-01

288

Paleontology, paleoclimatology and paleoecology of the late middle miocene Musselshell Creek flora, Clearwater County Idaho. A preliminary study of a new fossil flora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Musselshell Creek flora (12.0-10.5 Ma) of northern Idaho is used to reconstruct paleoclimatic and paleoecologic parameters of the Pacific Northwest during the late Middle Miocene. Other megafossil and microfossil floral records spanning 12.0-6.4 Ma are unknown from this region. The Musselshell Creek fossil flora, previously undescribed, is preserved in lacustrine clays and sediments that accumulated in a narrow valley

N. L. Baghai; R. B. Jorstad

1995-01-01

289

Airborne concentrations, skin contamination, and urinary metabolite excretion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among paving workers exposed to coal tar derived road tars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exposure of surface dressing workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was studied. Four different paving sites, at which coal tar-containing binders were applied, were selected as work sites with high exposure levels of PAH. Breathing zone airborne particulates, contamination of the skin with PAH, and 1-hydroxypyrene in urine of the workers involved in chip sealing were determined. Substantial concentrations

FRANS J. JONGENEELEN; PAUL T. J. SCHEEPERS; ANITA GROENENDIJK; LEON A. G. J. M. VAN AERTS; ROB B. M. ANZION; ROBERT P. BOS; SIEBRAND J. VEENSTRA

1988-01-01

290

Effects of model coal tar components on adhesion strength of polyurethane coating on steel plate  

SciTech Connect

In order to study the effects of coal tar components on the adhesion strength of a heavy duty anticorrosive coating formed with tar-urethane resin oil on a steel plate, polyurethane coatings that were compounded with 15 kinds of polycyclic aromatic compounds as model coal tar components were prepared. In the model coal tar, components, naphthalene, quinoline, 2-naphthol, and phenanthrene showed good compatibility with polyurethane. To test their heavy duty anticorrosive properties, tensile adhesion strength of the cured coatings prepared with the compatible model coal tar components was measured, and the change in tensile adhesion strength as a function of time during salt-water spray treatment was measured. We found that the systems compounded with naphthalene, 2-naphthol, and phenanthrene showed good properties in an ordinary state for adhesion strength. However, only the system with 2-naphthol was found to have good properties in the change of tensile adhesion strength as a function or time during salt-water spray treatment. The curing time of the system with 2-naphthol was slower than that or the others, i.e., we found an inverse proportion between curing speed and adhesion durability. We also measured the dynamic viscoelasticity of cured coatings.

Yokoyama, N.; Fujino, K. [Nippon Steel Chemical Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). R& amp; D Labs.

2005-04-15

291

Effects of the reforming reagents and fuel species on tar reforming reaction.  

PubMed

In this study, using wood chips and polyethylene (PE) as fuels, the effects of air and/or steam as reagents on the tar reforming were clarified quantitatively with a simulated gasifier/reformer apparatus of a two-staged gasification process. The results show that when only steam or air was supplied into the reformer, the tar residual rate (defined as the ratio of the tar amount in the reformed gas to the tar amount in the pyrolysis gas) and the carbon particulate concentration in both reformed gases produced from pyrolysis gases of wood chips and PE decreased with the increase of the steam ratio (H(2)O/C, 0-1.0) or the air ratio (ER, 0-0.30). Supplying steam into the reformer to suppress carbon particulate formation for PE pyrolysis gas is more effective than for wood chips pyrolysis gas. Comparing with the results of steam only reforming, the effect of air supply on reduction of the tar residual rate was more significant, while that on suppression of carbon particulate formation was smaller. PMID:19665371

Wang, Yin; Namioka, Tomoaki; Yoshikawa, Kunio

2009-12-01

292

Creek schism: Seminole genesis revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reevaluates commonly accepted interpretations of Seminole ethnogenesis in light of recent scholarship and previously ignored sources from the Spanish archives. It argues that Seminole formation was largely a bi-product of a struggle between two opposing Lower Creek factions: the Creek \\

Philip C Hawkins

2009-01-01

293

Folding at two different scales of the Paradox anticline in the Ordovician Cool Creek Formation, Arbuckle Group, Slick Hills, southwestern Oklahoma: A paleomagnetic fold test study.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The carbonates in the Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle Group, part of the southern Oklahoma aulacogen, has been the subject of previous paleomagnetic studies with a focus primarily on their origin of the magnetizations. Most previous studies indicate late Paleozoic magnetizations that reside in hematite. However, Elmore et al. (1988) conducted a paleomagnetic study of the Arbuckle Group carbonates from the Slick Hills area utilizing six sites from a north-plunging tightly folded Paradox anticline. Alternating field and thermal demagnetization results from their study indicated a post-tilting remanence that resides primarily in magnetite. Also, based on the difference between the observed and expected remanence directions, they suggested a possible 30° block rotation. As a continuation of their work, this paleomagnetic study was conducted to corroborate the observed 30° rotations utilizing more sites from the Paradox anticline and the use of a more sensitive 2G Cryogenic magnetometer. In addition, the major focus of this paleomagnetic study is to examine the relationship between the timing of remanence acquisition with respect to the primary (F1) and the secondary (F2) folds of the Paradox anticline. To this extent, oriented samples of carbonates have been collected from the Ordovician Cool Creek Formation of the Paradox anticline from the Slick Hills area from both the F1 and the F2 folds. Low temperature demagnetization protocols have been carried out on these samples to remove the effects of multidomain magnetite grains thereby isolating better the characteristic remanence components. Post-low temperature cleaning, the thermal step-demagnetization procedure isolates primarily two components: 1.) a low-temperature steep downward viscous remanent magnetization; and, 2.) a high-temperature characteristic remanent magnetization component, residing primarily in magnetite, with shallow remanence directions scattered towards the east-south-east to south-east. Fold test results indicate a post-tilting remanence for the F1 major folding of the Paradox anticline similar to that observed by Elmore et al. (1988). However, an interesting new observation is the paleomagnetic fold test results from the F2 fold that indicates a syntilting remanent magnetization. In addition, the south-easterly scattered shallow remanence directions from these Ordovician Cool Creek carbonates substantiates a possible 30° rotation that is likely attributed to the left-lateral wrench faulting observed in this area.

Pannalal, S. J.; Zechmeister, M. S.; Elmore, D. R.

2007-12-01

294

75 FR 62112 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the San Juan Creek and Tributaries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EIS) for the San Juan Creek and Tributaries Flood Risk Management Study, Orange...projects in the interest of flood control and related purposes.'' 2...Creek have been channelized for flood risk management and erosion control within...

2010-10-07

295

Kiowa Creek Switching Station  

SciTech Connect

The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1990-03-01

296

Ship Creek bioassessment investigations  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

1995-06-01

297

Steel Creek habitat formers: L Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987  

SciTech Connect

This portion of the L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program evaluated the impact of L-Reactor operations on the floodplain communities and channel habitat structure in the Steel Creek-Meyer's Branch system in 1986 and 1987. The floodplain community was evaluated quarterly along two transects at each of the 12 Steel Creek sites, and the one site on Meyer's Branch. These sites fell into four broad groups of floodplain habitat: mixed deciduous forests that were inundated periodically (downstream channel and Meyer's Branch); forested wetlands (corridor sites and delta Station 295); mixed forested/scrub-shrub nonpersistent wetlands (Stations 300, 310, 320 and 330); and mixed deciduous swamp forests (Stations 340 and 350). The extent of floodplain inundation at the forested wetland sites was influenced by L-Lake discharges and varied greatly throughout this study. During high discharge periods, the corridor floodplain became part of the stream channel. 79 refs., 21 figs., 39 tabs.

Firth, P.; Breiner, M.S.; Hammond-Beyer, C.D.; Hooker, K.L.; Stiner, S.A.

1988-03-01

298

FEASIBILITY OF ELK CREEK ACID MINE DRAINAGE ABATEMENT PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted within the Elk Creek Watershed, West Virginia to determine the technical and economic feasibility of three acid mine drainage abatement techniques. Alkaline regarding and slurry trench construction were established as technically and economically viable abat...

299

Early specific free radical-related cytotoxicity of gas phase cigarette smoke and its paradoxical temporary inhibition by tar: An electron paramagnetic resonance study with the spin trap DEPMPO.  

PubMed

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping studies demonstrated aqueous tar particulate matter (TPM) and gas phase cigarette smoke (GPCS) to behave as different sources of free radicals in cigarette smoke (CS) but their cytotoxic implications have been only assessed in CS due to its relevance to the natural smoking process. Using a sensitive spin trapping detection with 5-(diethoxyphosphoryl)-5-methyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DEPMPO), this study compared the respective roles of CS- and GPCS-derived free radicals on smoke-induced cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation of filtered and unfiltered, machine-smoked experimental and reference cigarettes yielding a wide range of TPM yields. In buffer bubbled with CS the DEPMPO/superoxide spin adduct was the major detected nitroxide. Use of appropriate control experiments with nitric oxide radical (NO*) or carbonyl sulfide, and a computer analysis of spin adduct diastereoisomery showed that the hydroxyl radical (HO*) adduct of DEPMPO seen in GPCS-bubbled was rather related to metal-catalyzed nucleophilic synthesis than to direct HO* trapping. Unexpectedly a protective effect of TPM on murine 3T3 fibroblasts was observed in early (<3h) free radical-, GPCS-induced cell death, and carbon filtering decreased free radical formation, toxicity and lipid peroxidation in three cell lines (including human epithelial lung cells) challenged with GPCS. These results highlight an acute, free radical-dependent, harmful mechanism specific to the GPCS phase, possibly involving NO* chemistry, whose physical or chemical control may be of great interest with the aim of reducing the toxicity of smoke. PMID:17083924

Culcasi, Marcel; Muller, Agnès; Mercier, Anne; Clément, Jean-Louis; Payet, Olivier; Rockenbauer, Antal; Marchand, Véronique; Pietri, Sylvia

2006-12-15

300

Tar sands of Alberta, Canada. [Review on reserves, history, properties and composition, technology, and commercial ventures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discussion is presented under the following section headings: occurrence and reserves; history of the Athabasca tar sands; properties and characteristics of Athabasca tar sands, including bulk properties, properties of tar sand minerals, bitumen properties, and properties of refined products; technology of the recovery of values from tar sands, including in-situ processes, mining, processing of mined tar sands for bitumen

1974-01-01

301

Tar sands of Alberta, Canada. [Review on reserves, history, properties and composition, technology, and commercial ventures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discussion is presented under the following section headings: occurrence and reserves; history of the Athabasca tar sands; properties and characteristics of Athabasca tar sands, including bulk properties, properties of tar sand minerals, bitumen properties, and properties of refined products; technology of the recovery of values from tar sands, including in-situ processes, mining, processing of mined tar sands for bitumen

1976-01-01

302

Radiocarbon dating of extinct fauna in the Americas recovered from tar pits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have obtained radiocarbon dates by accelerator mass spectrometry on bones of extinct large mammals from tar pits. Results on some samples of Glyptodon and Holmesina (extinct large mammals similar to armadillos) yielded ages of >25 and >21 ka, respectively. We also studied the radiocarbon ages of three different samples of bones from the extinct Cuban ground sloth, Parocnus bownii, which yielded dates ranging from 4960 ± 280 to 11 880 ± 420 yr BP. In order to remove the tar component pretreat the samples sufficiently to obtain reliable dates, we cleaned the samples by Soxhlet extraction in benzene. Resulting samples of collagenous material were often small.

Jull, A. J. T.; Iturralde-Vinent, M.; O'Malley, J. M.; MacPhee, R. D. E.; McDonald, H. G.; Martin, P. S.; Moody, J.; Rincón, A.

2004-08-01

303

Adsorption of nicotine and tar from the mainstream smoke of cigarettes by oxidized carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adsorption of nicotine and tar from the mainstream smoke (MS) by the filter tips filled respectively with oxidized carbon nanotubes (O-CNTs), activated carbon and zeolite (NaY) has been investigated. O-CNTs show exceptional removal efficiency and their adsorption mechanism is investigated. Capillary condensation of some ingredients from MS in the inner hole of O-CNTs is observed and may be the primary reason for their superior removal efficiency. The effect of O-CNTs mass on the removal efficiencies is also studied and the results show that about 20-30 mg O-CNTs per cigarette can effectively remove most of nicotine and tar.

Chen, Zhigang; Zhang, Lisha; Tang, Yiwen; Jia, Zhijie

2006-02-01

304

GEE CREEK WILDERNESS, TENNESSEE.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mine and prospect surveys, it was determined that the Gee Creek Wilderness, Tennessee has little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. Iron ore was formerly mined, but the deposits are small, have a high phosphorous content, and are inaccessible. Shale, suitable for brick or lightweight aggregate, and sandstone, which could be utilized for crushed stone or sand, are found in the area, but are also found in areas closer to potential markets. The geologic setting precludes the presence of oil and gas resources in the surface rocks, but the possibility of finding natural gas at depth below the rocks exposed in the area cannot be discounted. Geophysical exploration would be necessary to define the local structure in rocks at depth to properly evaluate the potential of the area for gas.

Epstein, Jack, B.; Gazdik, Gertrude, C.

1984-01-01

305

Preparation of spherical activated phenol-formaldehyde beads from bamboo tar for adsorption of toluene.  

PubMed

Bamboo tar is a waste by-product from the process of bamboo charcoal production. After distillation under reduced pressure, bamboo tar becomes a highly viscous liquid containing phenolic compounds at more than 70 wt%. Therefore, bamboo tar could be an excellent replacement for the phenolic compounds produced by the decomposition of petroleum. In this study, bamboo tar was mixed with formalin under a weak alkaline condition to form cured phenol-formaldehyde (PF) beads through suspension polymerization. In total, 35% of the obtained PF resin produced spherical beads with a particle size ranging from 9 to 16 mesh. The char yield after 500 degrees C carbonization was 60.4 wt%, according to thermogravimetric analysis. This high char yield is advantageous for the subsequent activation process. After physical activation using CO2 at 900 degrees C for 2 hr the carbide yield was up to 73.0 wt%. The specific surface area of activated PF beads was dependent on the activation time and temperature. Toluene adsorption results suggest that the activated PF beads are applicable to the adsorption and recovery of VOC gases. Monolayer adsorption may limit the VOC adsorption with activated PF beads because the adsorption isotherms were better fitted with the Langmuir model. Implications: Bamboo tar is shown to be a good replacement for the phenolic compounds from decomposition of petroleum to form activated phenol-formaldehyde (PF) beads. Toluene adsorption tests suggest that the activated PF beads have potential to adsorb and recover VOC gases. Nevertheless, due to the low specific surface area of the activated PF beads from bamboo tar, a further enhancement in both meso- and microporosity is needed in the future experiments. The experimental data provide a contribution to better understanding the possibility of resource recovery of waste agricultural by-products and their potential application in environment protection. PMID:24010379

Huang, Ying-Pin; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Liu, Szu-Chen

2013-08-01

306

Tar sand and heavy oil resources and technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar-sand resources in the U.S. are not as concentrated as the Canadian Athabasca deposits, but they are significant; the amount recoverable is estimated to be 25 to 35 billion barrels. Some of the characteristics of tar sands and heavy oil sands and their occurrence are discussed. The single large-scale production of bitumen from tar sands is the operation of Great

1972-01-01

307

Genesis of tar sands production: reversing mother nature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the U.S. may not have the magnitude of tar sands resource known to exist in Canada and Venezuela, sizeable tar sands deposits, exceeding 1,000,000 bbl in place, are known to exist in California, Kentucky, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah. One such deposit is of 50-ft thick layer of partially consolidated sandstone and hydrocarbon known as the South Texas Tar

Loosley

1982-01-01

308

The Effect of Domestic Effluent on Two Spring Surveys Of Fishes in Lost Creek, Craighead County, Arkansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lost Creek is representative of deltonic streams of the St. Francis Basin possessing characteristics of being tur- bid. It has a low flow velocity except during the annual spring rains. Lost Creek meanders approximately 18 km. before receiving effluents and empties into Big Creek approximately 4 km. west of Jonesboro, Arkansas. Five col- lecting stations were studied in 1966 while

John K. Beadles

309

78 FR 62616 - Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Project No. 3730-005] Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption...filed September 23, 2013, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company informed the Commission that...

2013-10-22

310

Floodplain and wetlands assessment of the White Oak Creek Embayment  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the proposed methods for dealing with contaminants that have accumulated in White Oak Creek, White Oak Lake, and the White Oak Creek Embayment as a result of process releases and discharges from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Alternative methods of cleaning up the area which were considered in accordance with regulatory guidelines are listed, and information supporting the selected methods is provided. Also included are results of a site survey conducted at the White Oak Creek Embayment and the expected effects of the proposed control structures on the floodplain and wetlands. The appendix contains figures showing the nine cross-sections of the stream channel surveyed during studies of the White Oak Creek area.

Not Available

1991-07-01

311

Underside of span over Pickering Creek, showing highly skewed piers, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Underside of span over Pickering Creek, showing highly skewed piers, looking south. - Pennsylvania Railroad, Pickering Creek Trestle, Spanning Pickering Creek, south of Buckwalter Road, Pickering, Chester County, PA

312

21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740...Statements § 740.18 Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. ...any labeling accompanying a coal tar hair dye containing any ingredient...

2009-04-01

313

21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740...Statements § 740.18 Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. ...any labeling accompanying a coal tar hair dye containing any ingredient...

2010-04-01

314

Waste management plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley Treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This Waste Management Plan (WMP) for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study addresses waste management requirements for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The study is intended to produce treatment performance data required to design a treatment system for contaminated groundwater. The treatability study will consist of an evaluation of various treatment media including continuous column tests, with up to six columns being employed to evaluate the performance of different media in the treatment of groundwater; an evaluation of the dentrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of a wetland system; and the long-term dentrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of algal mats. Additionally, the treatability study involves installation of a trench and incline well to evaluate and assess hydraulic impacts of pumping groundwater. The Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) covers the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. The Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety concerns and requirements for the proposed sampling activities. This WMP identifies the types and estimates the volumes of various wastes that may be generated during the proposed treatability studies. The approach to managing waste outlined in this WMP emphasizes the following points: (1) management of the waste generated in a manner that is protective of human health and the environment; (2) minimization of waste generation, thereby reducing unnecessary costs and usage of limited permitted storage and disposal capacities; and (3) compliance with federal, state, and site requirements. Prior sampling at the site has detected organic, radioactive, and metals contamination in groundwater and surface water. Proposed field operations are not expected to result in worker exposures greater than applicable exposure or action limits.

NONE

1997-09-01

315

Variability of Polychaete Secondary Production in Intertidal Creek Networks along a Stream-Order Gradient.  

PubMed

Dendritic tidal creek networks are important habitats for sustaining biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in salt marsh wetlands. To evaluate the importance of creek heterogeneity in supporting benthic secondary production, we assess the spatial distribution and secondary production of a representative polychaete species (Dentinephtys glabra) in creek networks along a stream-order gradient in a Yangtze River estuarine marsh. Density, biomass, and secondary production of polychaetes were found to be highest in intermediate order creeks. In high order (3rd and 4th) creeks, the density and biomass of D. glabra were higher in creek edge sites than in creek bottom sites, whereas the reverse was true for low order (1st and 2nd) creeks. Secondary production was highest in 2nd order creeks (559.7 mg AFDM m-2 year-1) and was ca. 2 folds higher than in 1st and 4th order creeks. Top fitting AIC models indicated that the secondary production of D. glabra was mainly associated with geomorphological characters including cross-sectional area and bank slope. This suggests that hydrodynamic forces are essential factors influencing secondary production of macrobenthos in salt marshes. This study emphasizes the importance of microhabitat variability when evaluating secondary production and ecosystem functions. PMID:24817092

Chu, Tianjiang; Sheng, Qiang; Wang, Sikai; Wu, Jihua

2014-01-01

316

Variability of Polychaete Secondary Production in Intertidal Creek Networks along a Stream-Order Gradient  

PubMed Central

Dendritic tidal creek networks are important habitats for sustaining biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in salt marsh wetlands. To evaluate the importance of creek heterogeneity in supporting benthic secondary production, we assess the spatial distribution and secondary production of a representative polychaete species (Dentinephtys glabra) in creek networks along a stream-order gradient in a Yangtze River estuarine marsh. Density, biomass, and secondary production of polychaetes were found to be highest in intermediate order creeks. In high order (3rd and 4th) creeks, the density and biomass of D. glabra were higher in creek edge sites than in creek bottom sites, whereas the reverse was true for low order (1st and 2nd) creeks. Secondary production was highest in 2nd order creeks (559.7 mg AFDM m?2 year?1) and was ca. 2 folds higher than in 1st and 4th order creeks. Top fitting AIC models indicated that the secondary production of D. glabra was mainly associated with geomorphological characters including cross-sectional area and bank slope. This suggests that hydrodynamic forces are essential factors influencing secondary production of macrobenthos in salt marshes. This study emphasizes the importance of microhabitat variability when evaluating secondary production and ecosystem functions.

Chu, Tianjiang; Sheng, Qiang; Wang, Sikai; Wu, Jihua

2014-01-01

317

Catalytic tar decomposition of biomass pyrolysis gas with a combination of dolomite and silica  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the catalytic effects of dolomite and silica on biomass tar decomposition were investigated. The concentration of naphthalene is of particular interest since it is the most difficult compound to decompose when dolomite is used as catalyst. The two catalysts were tested in different combinations to see whether synergetic effects on the cracking of naphthalene could be found.

Carin Myrén; Christina Hörnell; Emilia Björnbom; Krister Sjöström

2002-01-01

318

MUTAGENICITY OF COAL TAR PAINTS USED IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity of coal tar paints used for coating drinking water tanks and pipes, as a preliminary screening for potential genotoxic hazards associated with leaching of mutagens into drinking water during water storage and distribution. To...

319

BENCH SCALE FIXATION OF SOILS FROM THE TACOMA TAR PITS SUPRFUND SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents the results of bench-scale soil fixation study conducted with materials from the Tacoma Tar Pits SuperfundSite. Chemical fixation (also called stabilization/solidification)is a relatively new technique for remediating contaminated soils. It entails both immo...

320

PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING OF U.S. TAR SANDS: AN ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Factors traceable to the increasing shortfall in U.S. production of natural crude have rekindled interests in U.S. tar sands as a source of synthetic fuel. Reported here are the results of a preliminary study to assess the potential primary environmental impacts of production and...

321

Thermal Remediation of Tar-Contaminated Soil and Oil-Contaminated Gravel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilot plant studies were carried out to evaluate the feasibility of remediation of coal tar- contaminated soil and oil-contaminated gravel by incineration with environmentally acceptable performance. In addition to adequate decontamination and emission control, effort was devoted to treating the special feedstocks with difficult handling properties by use of conventional combustion and feeding systems. Analysis of the results showed that

Edward J. Anthony; Jinsheng Wang; Dave Martin

322

Examination of the mining of heavy oil and tar sands by overburden substitution  

SciTech Connect

A mining procedure which removes the geologic formations above an oil or tar sand bearing reservoir by strip mining techniques, then floods the upper surface of the reservoir with a pool of water, is examined by computational models and laboratory scale experiments. The results of the studies indicate low production rates are achieved by such a procedure.

Fox, R.L.

1982-02-01

323

Production and Processing of U.S. Tar Sands: An Environmental Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Factors traceable to the increasing shortfall in U.S. production of natural crude have rekindled interests in U.S. tar sands as a source of synthetic fuel. Reported here are the results of a preliminary study to assess the potential primary environmental ...

D. W. Hissong E. J. Mazey N. A. Frazier W. E. Ballantyne

1976-01-01

324

Radiocarbon dating of extinct fauna in the Americas recovered from tar pits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have obtained radiocarbon dates by accelerator mass spectrometry on bones of extinct large mammals from tar pits. Results on some samples of Glyptodon and Holmesina (extinct large mammals similar to armadillos) yielded ages of >25 and >21 ka, respectively. We also studied the radiocarbon ages of three different samples of bones from the extinct Cuban ground sloth, Parocnus bownii,

A. J. T Jull; M. Iturralde-Vinent; J. M O'Malley; R. D. E MacPhee; H. G McDonald; P. S Martin; J. Moody; A. Rincón

2004-01-01

325

Kinetic characterization of TAR RNA–Tat peptide and neomycin interactions by acoustic wave biosensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of binding of short Tat peptides and an aminoglycoside molecule to the human immunodeficiency virus-type 1(HIV-1) TAR RNA and to a bulge mutant analogue (MTAR) is studied in a biosensor format by monitoring the time course of the response in a series resonance frequency, using an acoustic wave biosensor. Association and dissociation rate constants are evaluated by fitting

Nardos Tassew; Michael Thompson

2003-01-01

326

Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat, polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), and environmental health  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have identified coal-tar-based sealcoat-the black, viscous liquid sprayed or painted on asphalt pavement such as parking lots-as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in urban areas for large parts of the Nation. Several PAHs are suspected human carcinogens and are toxic to aquatic life.

Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.

2011-01-01

327

Surface Chemistry Features in the Hot Water Processing of Utah Tar Sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hot water processing of Utah tar sand involves two important steps in the process sequence, phase disengagement (digestion) and phase separation (flotation). Inasmuch as phase separation is accomplished by flotation, the hydrophobic\\/hydrophilic balance at the surface of the bitumen droplets was studied in conjunction with the system's solution chemistry and the results correlated with the flotation response.Contact angle measurements

M. Misra; Rosme Aguilar; J. D. Miller

1981-01-01

328

Elementary GLOBE Unit: Discoveries at Willow Creek  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, the GLOBE Kids, on their second visit to Willow Creek, discover why the creek looks different. They learn about making observations, measuring water temperature and speed, and looking for critters in the water. In Activity 1, 'Magnify That', students will be able to identify a magnifying lens and its purpose. They will be able to explain how the same object looks different when using the unaided eye and then using a magnifying lens. In Activity 2, 'Measure Up', students will learn how to make nonstandard and standard linear measurements. They will test their estimates and record their results. In Activity 3, 'Water Wonders', students will have an understanding of what aquatic macroinvertebrates are, what kinds of adaptations they have for their environment, and why scientists study them.

2006-01-01

329

Conservation of Thane Creek and Ulhas River Estuary, India.  

PubMed

There has been a steady decrease in the area occupied by wetlands in creeks and estuaries adjacent urban areas due to unprecedented urban growth in coastal cities, for example, Thane Creek and Ulhas River Estuary near Mumbai, India. Urban cities serve as centres of employment and attract a large number of migrants from other places. In case of coastal cities, due to inadequate infrastructure, wastewater and solid waste are disposed of into wetlands and estuary. Discharge of sediments and solid waste into the creeks from drains and construction activities has resulted in decreased flow depth in the coastal waters of Thane Creek and Ulhas River Estuary. Various researchers have studied individual elements of Thane Creek and Ulhas River Estuary at micro level. However, a holistic approach for restoration and conservation of the creek and estuary is required. This paper presents the details of an integrated approach incorporating different conservation measures such as sewerage and sewage treatment, urban drainage management, solid waste management, mangrove plantation and dredging. PMID:21117428

Nikam, Vinay S; Kumar, Arun; Lalla, Kamal; Gupta, Kapil

2009-07-01

330

Bioassay of Coke Oven Coal Tar Carcinogenic Activity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The carcinogenicity of coke oven coal tar was investigated. C3H-mice were treated dermally twice a week with 50 milligrams of various benzo(a)pyrene (50328) (BaP) solutions in toluene, whole coal tar containing different amounts of BaP, the light oil coal...

E. Bingham

1982-01-01

331

Canada goes after the energy in the tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Athabasca tar sands are scattered across a boggy wilderness in northern Alberta. Until recently, the cost of getting at that oil was discouragingly high. But now, with growing energy demands, rising world oil prices, and a pledge of subsidies from the Canadian government, the tar sands are at last beginning to yield oil on an impressive scale. Over the

Nulty

1978-01-01

332

The Compensating Behavior of Smokers: Taxes, Tar, and Nicotine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the 1979 and 1987 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we test whether smokers alter their smoking habits in the face of higher taxes. Smokers in high-tax states are more likely to smoke cigarettes higher in tar and nicotine. Although taxes reduce the number of cigarettes consumed per day among remaining smokers, total daily tar and nicotine intake

William N. Evans; Matthew C. Farrelly

1998-01-01

333

Selected constituents in the smoke of domestic low tar cigarettes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-two brands of domestic commercial low tar and nicotine cigarettes were analyzed for their production of tar, nicotine, nitrogen oxides (as nitric oxide), hydrogen cyanide, acrolein, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide under standard analytical smoking conditions. Results are compared with published data for certain brands.

W. H. Griest; R. B. Quincy; M. R. Guerin

1977-01-01

334

Production of petroleum pitches from heavy cracked tars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher quality of electrode products can be achieved by using components of all-petroleum origin in the electrode paste. Petroleum pitch is a very desirable binder for use in electrode paste. In [i], a rapid process was proposed for the production of petroleum pitch from tars obtained by distillate cracking. However, if this pitch manufacturing process is applied to tars produced

R. N. Gimaev; V. V. Taushev

1985-01-01

335

Hot water extraction of bitumen from Utah tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utah tar sands are distinctly different from Canadian tar sands both with regard to chemical composition and physical properties, specifically viscosity. Flow curves for Utah and Athabasca bitumens were determined as a function of temperature. For all temperatures, both bitumen samples exhibited Newtonian behavior. Utah bitumen is significantly more viscous than Athabasca bitumen by more than an order of magnitude.

J. E. Sepulveda; J. D. Miller; A. G. Oblad

1976-01-01

336

Flotation behavior of digested asphalt ridge tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hot water process for Utah tar sands differs from that used for Canadian tar sands due to inherent differences in respective bitumen viscosities and the nature of bitumen-sand association. Although contact angle measurements of solvent extracted Asphalt Ridge bitumen indicated moderate hydrophobicity, air bubble attachment to the bitumen concentrate is not possible. This suggests that flotation separation is dependent

R. J. Smith; J. D. Miller

1981-01-01

337

Tar processing and gas phase hydrogenation in Leuna  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brown coal tar processed in the liquid phase consisted of 45% middle oil plus gasoline and 55% residue. The tar had up to 1% dust (benzene-insolubles) with 50% ash and contained up to 2% water. Before processing, the dust and water had to be removed by centrifuging in order to avoid fouling the equipment and the catalyst and disrupting

1937-01-01

338

Observation of HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Protein induced TAR DNA melting at the single molecule level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reverse transcription of the HIV-1 RNA genome involves several nucleic acid rearrangement steps, and the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) plays a key role in this process. NC is a nucleic acid chaperone protein, which facilitates the formation of the most stable nucleic acid structures. Single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (SM-FRET) measurements enable us to observe the NC-induced conformational fluctuations of a transactivation response region (TAR) DNA hairpin, which is part of the initial product of reverse transcription known as minus-strand strong-stop DNA. SM-FRET studies show that the majority of conformational fluctuations of the fluorescently-labeled TAR DNA hairpin in the presence of NC occur in <100 ms. A single molecule explores a wide range of confomations unpon NC binding, with fluctuations encompassing as many as 40 bases in both arms of the hairpin. No conformational fluctuations are observed with the dye-labeled TAR DNA hairpin in the absence of NC or when a labeled TAR DNA hairpin variant lacking bulges and internal loops is analyzed in the presence of NC. This study represents the first real-time observation of NC-mediated nucleic acid conformational fluctuations, revealing new insights into NC's nucleic acid chaperone activity.

Cosa, Gonzalo; Harbron, Elizabeth; O'Connor, Donald; Musier-Forsyth, Karin; Barbara, Paul

2003-03-01

339

Recovery of oil from Utah's Tar Sands. Final report, December 1, 1979-March 31, 1983  

SciTech Connect

Work was focused in the following main areas: water assisted extraction of bitumens, quality and disposal of tailings, and raw bitumen clean-up; thermal recovery of bitumens in a fluidized-bed characterization of bitumen obtained and coked sand combustion; recovery of heat from hot burned sand; upgrading of raw bitumens from water extraction and thermally produced bitumens including in situ recovered material. This report covers in particular the following: investigation of the effect of bitumen viscosity in hot water extraction of tar sands and bitumen concentrate cleaning and a study of the use of an air sparged hydroclone in bitumen recovery; thermal recovery of bitumen from two additional Utah tar sands: Tar Sand Triangle and Whiterocks; upgrading of tar sand bitumens by the processing sequences; coking followed by hydrotreating of product and hydropyrolysis followed by hydrotreating of product; experimental and theoretical studies of a fluidized-bed pyrolysis reactor with a coked sand combination reactor with transfer of heat from the combustor to the pyrolysis reactor by means of potassium filled heat pipe.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1984-01-01

340

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 4. Appendixes G, H, and I and information related to the feasibility study and ARARs  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 4 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

NONE

1996-06-01

341

Effects of multiple effluents on resident fish from Junction Creek, Sudbury, Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Junction Creek in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada receives effluent from three metal mining effluents (MMEs), as well as urban run-off and municipal sewage treatment plant (STP) discharges. The present study examined organismal and sub-organismal end-points in prespawning fathead minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas) and creek chub (CC; Semotilus atromaculatus) collected in May 2004 from Junction Creek. Metal body burdens of Cd, Cu,

Lynn P. Weber; Monique G. Dubé; Carrie J. Rickwood; Kimberlea Driedger; Cam Portt; Christine Brereton; David M. Janz

2008-01-01

342

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

1988-05-04

343

77 FR 73650 - Peabody Trout Creek Reservoir LLC;  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 14446-001] Peabody Trout Creek Reservoir LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...November 30, 2012, Peabody Trout Creek Reservoir LLC (Peabody) filed an application...feasibility of the Peabody Trout Creek Reservoir Hydroelectric Project (Trout Creek...

2012-12-11

344

Freshwater flow from estuarine creeks into northeastern Florida Bay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-level, water-velocity, salinity, and temperature data were collected from selected estuarine creeks to compute freshwater flow into northeastern Florida Bay. Calibrated equations for determining mean velocity from acoustic velocity were obtained by developing velocity relations based on direct acoustic measurements, acoustic line velocity, and water level. Three formulas were necessary to describe flow patterns for all monitoring sites, with R2 (coefficient of determination) values ranging from 0.957 to 0.995. Cross-sectional area calculations were limited to the main channel of the creeks and did not include potential areas of overbank flow. Techniques also were used to estimate discharge at noninstrumented sites by establishing discharge relations to nearby instrumented sites. Results of the relation between flows at instrumented and noninstrumented sites varied with R2 values ranging from 0.865 to 0.99. West Highway Creek was used to estimate noninstrumented sites in Long Sound, and Mud Creek was used to estimate East Creek in Little Madeira Bay. Mean monthly flows were used to describe flow patterns and to calculate net flow along the northeastern coastline. Data used in the study were collected from October 1995 through September 1999, which includes the El Nino event of 1998. During this period, about 80 percent of the freshwater flowing into the bay occurred during the wet season (May-October). The mean freshwater discharge for all five instrumented sites during the wet season from 1996 to 1999 is 106 cubic feet per second. The El Nino event caused a substantial increase (654 percent) in mean flows during the dry season (November-April) at the instrumented sites, ranging from 8.5 cubic feet per second in 1996-97 to 55.6 cubic feet per second in 1997-98. Three main flow signatures were identified when comparing flows at all monitoring stations. The most significant was the magnitude of discharges at Trout Creek, which carries about 50 percent of the total measured freshwater entering northeastern Florida Bay. The mean monthly wet-season (May-October) flow at Trout Creek is about 340 cubic feet per second, compared to 55 cubic feet per second at West Highway Creek, 52 cubic feet per second at Taylor River, 49 cubic feet per second at Mud Creek, and 33 cubic feet per second at McCormick Creek. The other two flow signatures are the decline of freshwater discharge at McCormick Creek at the start of the El Nino event, and the absence of net-negative flows at West Highway Creek. The observed flow distribution within the study area, suggests that the overall flow direction of freshwater in the Everglades wetlands in the lower part of Taylor Slough may have a strong eastward flow component as water approaches the coastline. Data analysis also indicates that Trout Creek could potentially be used as a long-term monitoring station to estimate total freshwater flow into northeastern Florida Bay, provided that the remaining questions regarding flow patterns at McCormick Creek and the creeks in Long Sound are answered and that no major changes in flow characteristics occur in the future.

Hittle, Clinton; Patino, Eduardo; Zucker, Mark A.

2001-01-01

345

Depositional environments, sequence stratigraphy, and trapping mechanisms of Fall River Formation in Donkey Creek and Coyote Creek oil fields, Powder River basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Donkey Creek and Coyote Creek fields contain combined reserves of approximately 35 million bbl of oil and are within a trend of fields on the eastern flank of the Powder River basin that totals over 100 million bbl of reserves. The principal producing formation is the Lower Cretaceous Fall River Sandstone. A study of 45 cores and 248 logs from

Paul R. Knox

1989-01-01

346

Toxicity of weathered coal tar for shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) embryos and larvae.  

PubMed

Weathered coal tar collected from the Connecticut River near Holyoke, Massachusetts, was toxic to shortnose sturgeon embryos and larvae in whole sediment flow-through and elutriate static-renewal laboratory exposures. Sterile laboratory sand and clean Connecticut River sand, collected upstream from the coal tar deposits, produced no significant difference in toxicity to sturgeon embryos-larvae, while coal tar-contaminated sediment produced over 95% embryo-larval mortality. Hydrocarbon transfer and subsequent toxicity appeared to be via direct contact of the embryos with contaminated sediment, rather than via exposure to soluble hydrocarbons. This conclusion was supported by exposure of embryos and larvae to elutriates (e.g., water soluble extract) of coal-tar sediments, that resulted in embryo and larval mortality at low molecular weight PAH concentrations-0.47 mg/L, higher than would occur naturally. No decrease in petroleum hydrocarbon concentration was observed in sediments exposed to flowing water for 14 d, supporting the contention that soluble hydrocarbons were not responsible for the observed toxicity in whole sediment exposures under the conditions employed in this study. PMID:8785011

Kocan, R M; Matta, M B; Salazar, S M

1996-08-01

347

Investigation of the distribution of tar components by fractions as a function of the tar moisture level  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of the fractions obtained in the refining of coal tar was presented. The concentrations of the various components of the fractions were determined as a function of the moisture. Six fractions were obtained--a light fraction, a phenolic fraction, a naphthalene fraction, a wash oil fraction, and two anthracene fractions. An increase in moisture level of the tar caused

T. Y. Gogoleva; A. A. Plastun; L. S. Maksimov

1982-01-01

348

33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c ...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. The area within the...

2010-07-01

349

33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c ...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. The area within the...

2009-07-01

350

33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. The area within the...

2013-07-01

351

Implication of Coal Tar and Asphalt on Black Carbon Quantification in Urban Watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sorption to black carbon (BC) is an important process that controls the transport and fate of persistent organic pollutants in aquatic environments. Efforts have been made to measure BC in different environmental matrices including aerosols, soils, and sediments; however, few studies have attempted to evaluate BC in dust from urban streets or parking lots, which can be an important BC source in urban lake sediments. Methods to quantify BC in soils and sediments usually involve the removal of non-BC carbonaceous materials with chemical and/or thermal oxidation followed by elemental analysis. The presence of coal tar pitch and asphalt in urban pavement dust is hypothesized to potentially result in an overestimate of BC. The primary objectives of this research are to identify the distribution of BC in a small urban watershed and to investigate the potential interference from coal tar and asphalt on BC quantification by method intercomparison. Samples were collected from the Lake Como watershed in Fort Worth, Texas. They include dust from coal-tar-sealed and unsealed parking lots and residential streets, soils from residential and commercial areas, stream bed sediments, and lake sediment cores. After density separation, samples were subjected to sequential chemical treatments and thermal treatment. Commercial coal tar pitch and asphalt products were subjected to these same treatments for comparison. BC contents quantified with chemical treatment and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375°C (CTO-375) were compared with those characterized using organic petrography. The chemical treatment predicted greater BC contents than organic petrography in all samples, and the greatest difference is in the sealed parking lot dust. CTO-375 method also predicted greater BC content in this sample than organic petrography. Commercial coal tar pitch was resistant to thermal oxidation and both coal tar pitch and asphalt were resistant to the chemical treatment. These results indicate that chemical and thermal treatments can overestimate BC contents due to the chemical and thermal resistance of these materials. We recommend that interference from coal tar pitch and asphalt be considered when chemical or thermal oxidation methods are applied to quantify BC in urban environments, where urban runoff from parking lots and paved streets plays an important source role.

Yang, Y.; Werth, C. J.; Ligouis, B.; Razzaque, M.

2008-12-01

352

Class I cultural resource overview for oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming.  

SciTech Connect

In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the 'Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005', Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is developing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) to evaluate alternatives for establishing commercial oil shale and tar sands leasing programs in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. This PEIS evaluates the potential impacts of alternatives identifying BLM-administered lands as available for application for commercial leasing of oil shale resources within the three states and of tar sands resources within Utah. The scope of the analysis of the PEIS also includes an assessment of the potential effects of future commercial leasing. This Class I cultural resources study is in support of the Draft Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and is an attempt to synthesize archaeological data covering the most geologically prospective lands for oil shale and tar sands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. This report is based solely on geographic information system (GIS) data held by the Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPOs). The GIS data include the information that the BLM has provided to the SHPOs. The primary purpose of the Class I cultural resources overview is to provide information on the affected environment for the PEIS. Furthermore, this report provides recommendations to support planning decisions and the management of cultural resources that could be impacted by future oil shale and tar sands resource development.

O'Rourke, D.; Kullen, D.; Gierek, L.; Wescott, K.; Greby, M.; Anast, G.; Nesta, M.; Walston, L.; Tate, R.; Azzarello, A.; Vinikour, B.; Van Lonkhuyzen, B.; Quinn, J.; Yuen, R.; Environmental Science Division

2007-11-01

353

Water Quality of Camp Creek, Costello Creek, and Other Selected Streams on the South Side of Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Camp and Costello Creek watersheds are located on the south side of Denali National Park and Preserve. The Dunkle Mine, an abandoned coal mine, is located near the mouth of Camp Creek. Due to concern about runoff from the mine and its possible effects on the water quality and aquatic habitat of Camp Creek and its receiving stream, Costello Creek, these two streams were studied during the summer runoff months (June to September) in 1999 and 2000 as part of a cooperative study with the National Park Service. Since the south side of Denali National Park and Preserve is part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Cook Inlet Basin study unit, an additional part of this study included analysis of existing water-quality data at 23 sites located throughout the south side of Denali National Park and Preserve to compare with the water quality of Camp and Costello Creeks and to obtain a broader understanding of the water quality in this area of the Cook Inlet Basin. Analysis of water column, bed sediment, fish, invertebrate, and algae data indicate no effects on the water quality of Camp Creek from the Dunkle Mine. Although several organic compounds were found in the streambed of Camp Creek, all concentrations were below recommended levels for aquatic life and most of the concentrations were below the minimum reporting level of 50 ?g/kg. Trace element concentrations of arsenic, chromium, and nickel in the bed sediments of Camp Creek exceeded threshold effect concentrations (TEC), but concentrations of these trace elements were also exceeded in streambed sediments of Costello Creek above Camp Creek. Since the percent organic carbon in Camp Creek is relatively high, the toxicity quotient of 0.55 is only slightly above the threshold value of 0.5. Costello Creek has a relatively low organic carbon content and has a higher toxicity quotient of 1.19. Analysis of the water-quality data for other streams located in the south side of Denali National Park and Preserve indicate similarities to Camp Creek and Costello Creek. Most of the streams are calcium bicarbonate/calcium bicarbonate-sulfate type water with the exception of two streams that are calcium sulfate and magnesium sulfate type water. Trace element concentrations of arsenic, chromium, and nickel in the bed sediments of 9 streams exceeded the TEC or the probable effect concentration (PEC). Seven streams exceeded the threshold value of the toxicity quotient. Analysis of trace element concentrations in bed sediment and basin characteristics for 16 watersheds by cluster and discriminant analysis techniques indicated that the watersheds could be separated into two groups based on their basin characteristics.

Brabets, Timothy P.; Whitman, Matthew S.

2002-01-01

354

Application of UAS photogrammetry for assessment of flood driven fluvial dynamics of montane stream. Case study - Roklansky creek, Sumava Mts.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current progress in hydrology and fluvial geomorphology is largely based on new field survey and analysis techniques, employing advanced technologies for monitoring the dynamics of the runoff process, field surveying and for remote monitoring of changes in riverbeds and of fluvial dynamics. Application of these techniques allows researchers to obtain information on a significantly higher qualitative level than using traditional methods of field survey and measurement, either in terms of spatial accuracy and resolution, frequency of sampling or qualitative characteristics of acquired data. The contribution demonstrates the potential of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) for analysis of fluvial dynamics of montane stream, driven by flood in combination with other survey techniques, namely the ground LiDAR scanning, digital granulometry and automated water level monitoring. The UAS photogrammetry is employed in the study to acquire high precision DTMs, enabling reconstruction of riverbed and quantitative analysis of volumetric changes related to initial flood events. The hexacopter UAS platform has been used to acquire the data for photogrammetric analysis of complex stretch of stream with historically elevated fluvial dynamics. The photogrammetric reconstruction enabled to build accurate DTM of riverbed and floodplain before and after the initial event and to calculate the extent of volumetric changes. The potential of UAS photogrammetry for fluvio morphological study is in combination with other monitoring and survey techniques, enabling complex analysis of fluvial dynamics. The magnitude, duration and hydrological properties of initial flood event were derived from automated high frequency water level monitoring. The digital granulometry enabled to analyze the structure of sedimentary material in floodplain. The terrestrial LiDAR scanning allows construction of very detailed 3D models of selected fluvial forms, enabling deeper insight into the effects of fluvial dynamics and to verify the spatial information acquired using UAS photogrammetry. The results of above mentioned techniques are applied to build hydrodynamic model explaining threshold conditions for initiation of changes in fluvial morphology of the riverbed in relation to known and theoretical flood magnitude. The presented study proved the UAS photogrammetry to be unique source of spatial information, allowing analysis of dynamics of fluvial systems with unprecedented precision and flexibility. This technique has full potential to bring spatial information to a new qualitative level and in experimental areas with limited availability of spatial information. The preliminary results achieved in the study enabled us to discuss the synergic potential of coupling the UAS photogrammetry, sensor networks and other hydroinformatic techniques to enhance significantly our knowledge on the dynamics of fluvial systems. Key words: UAS photogrmmetry, DTM, fluvial processes, erosion, hydrodynamic modelling

Langhammer, Jakub; Mi?ijovský, Jakub; Hartvich, Filip; Kaiglová, Jana

2014-05-01

355

Glycosylation of Wall Teichoic Acid in Staphylococcus aureus by TarM*  

PubMed Central

Wall teichoic acid (WTA) glycopolymers are major constituents of cell envelopes in Staphylococcus aureus and related Gram-positive bacteria with important roles in cell wall maintenance, susceptibility to antimicrobial molecules, biofilm formation, and host interaction. Most S. aureus strains express polyribitol phosphate WTA substituted with d-alanine and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). WTA sugar modifications are highly variable and have been implicated in bacteriophage susceptibility and immunogenicity, but the pathway and enzymes of staphylococcal WTA glycosylation have remained unknown. Revisiting the structure of S. aureus RN4220 WTA by NMR analysis revealed the presence of canonical polyribitol phosphate WTA bearing only ?-linked GlcNAc substituents. A RN4220 transposon mutant resistant to WTA-dependent phages was identified and shown to produce altered WTA, which exhibited faster electrophoretic migration and lacked completely the WTA ?-GlcNAc residues. Disruption of a gene of unknown function, renamed tarM, was responsible for this phenotype. Recombinant TarM was capable of glycosylating WTA in vitro in a UDP-GlcNAc-dependent manner, thereby confirming its WTA GlcNAc-transferase activity. Deletion of the last seven amino acids from the C terminus abolished the activity of TarM. tarM-related genes were found in the genomes of several WTA-producing bacteria, suggesting that TarM-mediated WTA glycosylation is a general pathway in Gram-positive bacteria. Our study represents a basis for dissecting the biosynthesis and function of glycosylated WTA in S. aureus and other bacteria.

Xia, Guoqing; Maier, Lisa; Sanchez-Carballo, Patricia; Li, Min; Otto, Michael; Holst, Otto; Peschel, Andreas

2010-01-01

356

FY 80 Tar Sands Program first quarterly report, January 1980  

SciTech Connect

Research and development efforts in support of the Tar Sands program well completions and stimulation subactivity and new and novel concepts task have been initiated. The objectives of the well completion and stimulation efforts are to carry out research and development in areas with significant for long-range tar sand extraction development as well as provide potential interaction and support of the near-term tar sand field experiments. Evaluation testing of packers and computational analysis of well bore insulation for tar sands steam recovery injection wells have been investigated this quarter. Production well completions for the tar sand steam drive experiment have been examined, and a program to measure downhole steam quality in the experiment is under development. Initial examination of the application of the DOE downhole steam generator program to tar sand reservoirs has commenced. The examination of new and novel concepts for extraction of tar sands has been initiated. An overburden replacement technique was evaluated both computationally and in a laboratory scale experiment. Analyses of both microwave heating and in situ hydrogenation are being initiated.

Fox, R.L.; Wayland, J.R.

1980-05-01

357

Spatial input variables applications for hydrological simulation of south Wyoming watershed: case study of Muddy Creek via MIKE SHE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the abundant online data sources, there are great advantages of hydrological simulation for the American watershed management. Not only are the conventional station-based data conveniently accessible, but also the spatial data provide the great possibility for the hydrological approaches. This case study demonstrates the possible applications and access source for the hydrological modeling, which might be used as reference. The modeling input time series or parameters origins from various sources: precipitation is from TRMM (as spatial input of hydrological model) and NOAA (station-based), evapotranspiration came from (NASA MODIS platform via ArcGIS access), temperature is delivered by NOAA database (station-based) and NASA MODIS (spatial input), the snow mask and depth also can be obtained from NOAA, NASA MODIS and NRCS, discharge data might be from USGS hydro-climate data network (HCDN). The parameters of static state are surely complete such as DEM contributed by STRM of NASA, soil related data from SSURGO and landuse related data obtained from USGS. The different institutes might focus on different aspects, temporal span, geo-locations. But supported by the various sources of data, the hydrological modeling can be setup solidly by interpolating the various data. The daily time step simulation is manually calibrated for 1 year period referred by 4 discharge gauging stations, as well as 1 year of validation period. Simulation resolution is uniformed to 200m*200m cells size according the 2600km2 of watershed domain. The case study demonstrates that the station-based and spatial data could cooperate each other and support the accurate hydrological modeling during. Based on the established model, it can be further extended for the assessment of water quality impact and sediment transportation simulation. The final goal the modeling approach is to serve the land management on hydrological response.

Liu, T.; Miller, S. N.; Chitrakar, S.

2013-12-01

358

Monument Creek hydraulics project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are given some general questions (file "IntroQuestions_07.pdf") related to project design during the class session before the main project is handed out. They need to use their textbook and/or other class resources to attempt to answer these questions and to prepare to discuss them the next class session. These questions concern field reconstruction of flood hydraulics, specifically. of bankfull flow. At this next class session we discuss their answers to the preliminary questions. Students are then given the main project handout (Monument_Ck_Problem_07.pdf). This gives them the general questions to be answered in the project. After reading it, students brainstorm again as a class about how to go about answering the questions. Students then divide themselves into research of three. These teams will synthesize data together and ultimately write up the project together. Each team then sends one member to join members of other teams to do one of the three main aspects of the field or computer work (1) field identification of the bankfull channel and measurement of bankfull channel geometry, (2) field determination of modern channel roughness from modern stream hydraulics (Manning's n is back-calculated from present channel geometry and flow), (3) development of a flood-frequency curve for this reach of Monument Creek from USGS discharge data. These working groups (with one member from each research team) work initially independently in the field and subsequently doing calculations in the lab, or on the computer. Once each working group has completed what it can do on its own, these groups split up and each member of each group carries the groups results back to his/her research team, and explains to the other members of the research team what he/she has done to this point and what results he/she has for the team. The team then works to synthesize he results into an overall answer to the questions posed at the beginning of the lab (confusing enough for you?). Each research team then writes up the results, sometimes (as in 2007) as a lab write up, in other years in scientific paper format. Whether the project is turned in simply as a lab write up or as a scientific paper, students are always asked to assess sources of error and how they might affect the results. Key words: Fluvial geomorphology, fluvial hydraulics, bankfull discharge, flood-frequency analysis Designed for a geomorphology course

Leonard, Eric

359

PINE CREEK, NEZ PERCE COUNTY, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1986  

EPA Science Inventory

A water quality monitoring study was conducted on Pine Creek (17060306), from February 20, 1985 to February 23, 1986. Objectives of the study were to determine baseline water quality of Pine Creek and its tributaries and to document the effects of storm runoff on water quality. ...

360

Dutch policy on destruction of PAH's from tar-containing asphalt mixes  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Re-use of waste materials has a long history in the Netherlands. Coal tar has been used as a binder in road construction. When the carcinogenic properties of the PAH in tar became apparent the use of tar in roads was abandoned. At that time, tar used as a b inder was present in about 25% of the road system.

Willem M. A. J. Willart

361

A review of the primary measures for tar elimination in biomass gasification processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar formation is one of the major problems to deal with during biomass gasification. Tar condenses at reduced temperature, thus blocking and fouling process equipments such as engines and turbines. Considerable efforts have been directed on tar removal from fuel gas. Tar removal technologies can broadly be divided into two approaches; hot gas cleaning after the gasifier (secondary methods), and

Lopamudra Devi; Krzysztof J Ptasinski; Frans J. J. G Janssen

2003-01-01

362

OXYGEN AERATION AT NEWTOWN CREEK  

EPA Science Inventory

A successful initial feasibility investigation of oxygen aeration at the 0.11-cu m/sec (2.5-mgd) municipal wastewater treatment plant in Batavia, New York, prompted a larger demonstration at New York City's 13.6-cu m/sec (310-mgd) Newtown Creek Plant. A 34-mo evaluation was perfo...

363

Sandy Creek Reservoir Infiltration Gallery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Long Lake Water District No. 2 is supplied by a surface reservoir impoundment known as Sandy Creek. A series of diatomaceous earth (DE) filters were installed between the intake and the distribution system. The DE filters have provided effective treat...

1999-01-01

364

AFF4 binding to Tat-P-TEFb indirectly stimulates TAR recognition of super elongation complexes at the HIV promoter.  

PubMed

Superelongation complexes (SECs) are essential for transcription elongation of many human genes, including the integrated HIV-1 genome. At the HIV-1 promoter, the viral Tat protein binds simultaneously to the nascent TAR RNA and the CycT1 subunit of the P-TEFb kinase in a SEC. To understand the preferential recruitment of SECs by Tat and TAR, we determined the crystal structure of a quaternary complex containing Tat, P-TEFb, and the SEC scaffold, AFF4. Tat and AFF4 fold on the surface of CycT1 and interact directly. Interface mutations in the AFF4 homolog AFF1 reduced Tat-AFF1 affinity in vivo and Tat-dependent transcription from the HIV promoter. AFF4 binding in the presence of Tat partially orders the CycT1 Tat-TAR recognition motif and increases the affinity of Tat-P-TEFb for TAR 30-fold. These studies indicate that AFF4 acts as a two-step filter to increase the selectivity of Tat and TAR for SECs over P-TEFb alone.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02375.001. PMID:24843025

Schulze-Gahmen, Ursula; Lu, Huasong; Zhou, Qiang; Alber, Tom

2014-01-01

365

Exploring TAR-RNA aptamer loop-loop interaction by X-ray crystallography, UV spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance.  

PubMed

In HIV-1, trans-activation of transcription of the viral genome is regulated by an imperfect hairpin, the trans-activating responsive (TAR) RNA element, located at the 5' untranslated end of all viral transcripts. TAR acts as a binding site for viral and cellular proteins. In an attempt to identify RNA ligands that would interfere with the virus life-cycle by interacting with TAR, an in vitro selection was previously carried out. RNA hairpins that formed kissing-loop dimers with TAR were selected [Ducongé F. and Toulmé JJ (1999) RNA, 5:1605-1614]. We describe here the crystal structure of TAR bound to a high-affinity RNA aptamer. The two hairpins form a kissing complex and interact through six Watson-Crick base pairs. The complex adopts an overall conformation with an inter-helix angle of 28.1 degrees , thus contrasting with previously reported solution and modelling studies. Structural analysis reveals that inter-backbone hydrogen bonds between ribose 2' hydroxyl and phosphate oxygens at the stem-loop junctions can be formed. Thermal denaturation and surface plasmon resonance experiments with chemically modified 2'-O-methyl incorporated into both hairpins at key positions, clearly demonstrate the involvement of this intermolecular network of hydrogen bonds in complex stability. PMID:18996893

Lebars, Isabelle; Legrand, Pierre; Aimé, Ahissan; Pinaud, Noël; Fribourg, Sébastien; Di Primo, Carmelo

2008-12-01

366

AFF4 binding to Tat-P-TEFb indirectly stimulates TAR recognition of super elongation complexes at the HIV promoter  

PubMed Central

Superelongation complexes (SECs) are essential for transcription elongation of many human genes, including the integrated HIV-1 genome. At the HIV-1 promoter, the viral Tat protein binds simultaneously to the nascent TAR RNA and the CycT1 subunit of the P-TEFb kinase in a SEC. To understand the preferential recruitment of SECs by Tat and TAR, we determined the crystal structure of a quaternary complex containing Tat, P-TEFb, and the SEC scaffold, AFF4. Tat and AFF4 fold on the surface of CycT1 and interact directly. Interface mutations in the AFF4 homolog AFF1 reduced Tat–AFF1 affinity in vivo and Tat-dependent transcription from the HIV promoter. AFF4 binding in the presence of Tat partially orders the CycT1 Tat–TAR recognition motif and increases the affinity of Tat-P-TEFb for TAR 30-fold. These studies indicate that AFF4 acts as a two-step filter to increase the selectivity of Tat and TAR for SECs over P-TEFb alone. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02375.001

Schulze-Gahmen, Ursula; Lu, Huasong; Zhou, Qiang; Alber, Tom

2014-01-01

367

Reconnaissance and economic geology of Copper Mountain metamorphic complex, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Copper Mountain metamorphic complex lies within a westerly trending belt of Precambrian exposures known as the Owl Creek Mountains uplift. The metamorphic complex at Copper Mountain is part of a larger complex known as the Owl Creek Mountains greenstone belt. Until more detailed mapping and petrographic studies can be completed, the Copper Mountain area is best referred to as

W. Dan Hausel

1983-01-01

368

CHANNEL DEVELOPMENT ON UNRECLAIMED SURFACE MINES IN THE BEAVER CREEK WATERSHED, TUCKER COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining in the early to mid 1900's has degraded streams within the Beaver Creek watershed in Tucker County, West Virginia. Channels have incised to bedrock and banks suffer from severe erosion. The sediment supply surpasses the stream's transport capacity, which has resulted in channel alterations. In a preliminary study, the headwater regions of two streams within the Beaver Creek watershed

Wendy D. Igo; Jeffrey Skousen

2004-01-01

369

VALIDITY OF EFFLUENT AND AMBIENT TOXICITY TESTS FOR PREDICTING BIOLOGICAL IMPACT, SCIPPO CREEK, CIRCLEVILLE, OHIO  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the first site study on Scippo Creek at Circleville, Ohio, which receives only one discharge from a chemical resins plant using batch operations. Scippo Creek is a small sunfish/bass stream flowing through an agricultural area in central Ohio. Previous biolog...

370

Hydrogeological characterization of the Childress Creek basin, central Texas using aquifer testing and geophysical methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Childress Creek Basin comprises about one-seventh of the Washita Prairie Edwards Aquifer which is a shallow aquifer easily susceptible to groundwater contamination. The purpose of this study is to characterize aquifer properties within Childress Creek Basin so that a better understanding can aid management and protection of its water quality. Although this aquifer is sparingly used by the largely

Scheerhorn

1993-01-01

371

WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, INDIAN CREEK (CANYON COUNTY), IDAHO 1976-1977  

EPA Science Inventory

The Indian Creek drainage (17050114) is located in the Boise River Basin of Southwest Idaho. This study was concerned with the portion of Indian Creek near the Nampa and Caldwell urban areas. Major land uses in the area are associated with urban development and irrigated agricu...

372

Geodetic evidence for creep along the Rodgers Creek and Maacama fault zones, northern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The `North Bay' region, north of San Francisco, is poorly covered by existing geodetic measurements, yet is home to the fault currently considered most dangerous in northern California by the 2008 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, the Rodgers Creek fault. Previous studies using the PS-InSAR technique suggest that creep may occur on the Rodgers Creek fault around the city

M. A. Floyd; G. J. Funning; B. Lipovsky

2009-01-01

373

FY 80 Tar Sands program. Second quarterly report, April 1980  

SciTech Connect

The research and development efforts in support of the Tar Sands program reservoir access and alternate extraction activities that were initiated last quarter have been continued and expanded. The development of a short course on the utilization of specialized drilling technology to Tar Sands has been investigated. The steam quality sampler is undergoing laboratory testing. Plans for a Tar Sands enhanced permeability workshop have been initiated. A special report on possible application of sand control methods to the Tar Sands steam injection test (TS-1S) experiment has been prepared. The first stage of the analysis of rf and microwave heating has been completed. The results of a series of laboratory experiments on in-situ hydrogenation are presented.

Wayland, J.R.; Fox, R.L.

1980-09-01

374

Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Alabama Tar Sands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The tar sand deposits of northwest Alabama contain large reserves of oil, part of which may one day be tapped to supplement conventional oil production. The largest reserves occur in the Hartselle Sandstone and Price Mountain Formation, both of Mississipp...

G. V. Wilson

1983-01-01

375

The contribution of low tar cigarettes to environmental tobacco smoke  

SciTech Connect

A series of low tar cigarettes (LTC) were smoked and the quantities of condensable mainstream (inhaled) and sidestream (between puffs) smoke compounds were determined and compared to those produced by a high tar, nonfilter cigarette. It was found that the LTC produced large quantities of sidestream smoke condensates, about equal to the high tar cigarette, and contained very high levels of toxic or cocarcinogenic phenols. On an equal weight basis, the LTC emitted more of these hazardous compounds into sidestream and environmental tobacco smoke. Higher smoke yields of a flavor additive and a sugar degradation product indicated addition of such compounds during the manufacture of LTC. It was concluded that, compared to a high tar cigarette, smoking LTC may be better for the smoker, but not for the nearby nonsmoker. Information should be developed to allow smokers to choose LTC that produce lower levels of hazardous compounds in their environmentally emitted sidestream smoke.

Chortyk, O.T.; Schlotzhauer, W.S. (Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA (USA))

1989-05-01

376

Evaluation of additives to enhance the in-situ steam processes applied to US and Canadian tar sand and heavy oil reservoirs. Final report, 14 October 1982-15 May 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diverse additives were subjected to a series of three screening phases to assess their suitability with a steam drive process for recovery of tar sand and heavy oil resources. The resources studied were tar and mateials from Utah and Alberta and heavy oil materials from California and Saskatchewan. The first screening phase, which consisted of a literature review, identified over

B. G. Raplee; F. Cottrell; J. S. Raab

1985-01-01

377

Evaluation of Additives to Enhance the in-Situ Steam Processes Applied to US and Canadian Tar Sand and Heavy Oil Reservoirs. Final Report, 14 October 1982-15 May 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Diverse additives were subjected to a series of three screening phases to assess their suitability with a steam drive process for recovery of tar sand and heavy oil resources. The resources studied were tar and mateials from Utah and Alberta and heavy oil...

B. G. Raplee F. Cottrell S. R. J. Cottrell

1985-01-01

378

3-D sedimentological and geophysical studies of clastic reservoir analogs: Facies architecture, reservoir properties, and flow behavior within delta front facies elements of the Cretaceous Wall Creek Member, Frontier Formation, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This project examined the internal architecture of delta front sandstones at two locations within the Turonian-age Wall Creek Member of the Frontier Formation, in Wyoming. The project involved traditional outcrop field work integrated with core-data, and 2D and 3D ground penetrating radar (GPR) imaging from behind the outcrops. The fluid-flow engineering work, handled through a collaborative grant given to PI Chris White at LSU, focused on effects on fluid flow of late-stage calcite cement nodules in 3D. In addition to the extensive field component, the work funded 2 PhD students (Gani and Lee) and resulted in publication of 10 technical papers, 17 abstracts, and 4 internal field guides. PI Bhattacharya also funded an additional 3 PhD students that worked on the Wall Creek sandstone funded separately through an industrial consortium, two of whom graduated in the fall 2006 ((Sadeque and Vakarelov). These additional funds provided significant leverage to expand the work to include a regional stratigraphic synthesis of the Wall Creek Member of the Frontier Formation, in addition to the reservoir-scale studies that DOE directly funded. Awards given to PI Bhattacharya included the prestigious AAPG Distinguished Lecture Award, which involved a tour of about 25 Universities and Geological Societies in the US and Canada in the fall of 2005 and Spring of 2006. Bhattacharya gave two talks, one entitled “Applying Deltaic and Shallow Marine Outcrop Analogs to the Subsurface”, which highlighted the DOE sponsored work and the other titled “Martian River Deltas and the Origin of Life”. The outcrop analog talk was given at about 1/2 of the venues visited.

Janok P. Bhattacharya; George A. McMechan

2007-02-16

379

Chlorinated solvents for tar sands: Fast and efficient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar sands in the United States represent a significant petroleum resource. Total reserve in the U.S. is estimated at >50 billion bbl with the majority being contained in Utah deposits. Although the surface mining potential for tar sands is only a small fraction of the total resource, it could support in excess of ten 20,000 bbl\\/day plants for a period

G. A. Gimber; K. O. Groves; E. M. Haschke; G. E. Rademacher

1983-01-01

380

Gasification of biomass in a fixed bed downdraft gasifier--a realistic model including tar.  

PubMed

This study presents a model for fixed bed downdraft biomass gasifiers considering tar also as one of the gasification products. A representative tar composition along with its mole fractions, as available in the literature was used as an input parameter within the model. The study used an equilibrium approach for the applicable gasification reactions and also considered possible deviations from equilibrium to further upgrade the equilibrium model to validate a range of reported experimental results. Heat balance was applied to predict the gasification temperature and the predicted values were compared with reported results in literature. A comparative study was made with some reference models available in the literature and also with experimental results reported in the literature. Finally a predicted variation of performance of the gasifier by this validated model for different air-fuel ratio and moisture content was also discussed. PMID:22244905

Barman, Niladri Sekhar; Ghosh, Sudip; De, Sudipta

2012-03-01

381

Geology and coal resources of the Foidel Creek EMRIA site and surrounding area, Routt County, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Terrigenous clastic sediments of the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group (Campanian) in the southeastern part of the Yampa coal field in Routt County, northwestern Colorado, contain many beds of bituminous coal. Lower, middle, and upper coal groups are recognized. The middle coal group, in the lower coal-bearing member of the Williams Fork Formation, contains two thick, persistent coal beds in the Foidel Creek area. The Wadge coal bed, stratigraphically the higher of the two, reaches thicknesses of 3.7 meters, and is strippable beneath large areas on the south slope of Eckman Park. Coal resources of the Wadge bed in the Foidel Creek area--an area of 134 square kilometers, as defined in this study--are estimated to be 317 million metric tons. The Foidel Creek EMRIA reclamation study site--an area of 10.9 square kilometers--contains about 36.1 million metric tons of Wadge coal, as much as 28.1 million metric tons of which occur beneath overburden 61 meters or less in thickness. About 52 meters lower in the section, the Wolf Creek coal bed locally exceeds 6.1 meters in thickness. Coal resources of the Wolf Creek bed in the Foidel Creek area are estimated to be 434 million metric tons. The Foidel Creek EMRIA reclamation study site contains an estimated 49.7 million metric tons of Wolf Creek coal.

Ryer, Thomas A.

1977-01-01

382

Characterization and treatment of tars and biomass gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

Biomass gasification and pyrolysis have the potential to make a significant impact on energy supplies in the United States and have demonstrated their commercial potential in many projects around the country. The environmental aspects of biomass gasification need to be defined to assure that the technology makes its maximum impact on energy supplies. One area that needs further development is characterization and treatment of the tar byproduct from gasifiers and pyrolyzers. This paper examines the effect of the type of gasifier/pyrolyzer and the processing conditions on the yield and properties of tars and condensates. End use limitations for tars are discussed. Wet scrubbing is the most common method of tar removal from gases. The scrub liquor will require treatment to remove organics before it can be disposed. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a catalytic tar destruction process that will treat the hot, raw gas from the gasifier and convert the tars to gas. The process increases the gas yield and cold gas efficiency of the gasification process, produces a clean gas that can be used for many applications, and produces a clean condensate that can be disposed with minimal treatment. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Elliott, D.C.; Mudge, L.K.

1988-08-01

383

Analytical results for 56 rock, 46 stream-sediment and soil, and 22 panned-concentrate samples from the Welcome Creek Wilderness Study Area, Granite County, Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fifty-six rock, 46 stream-sediment, and 22 panned-concentrate samples were collected from the Welcome Creek Wilderness, Granite County, Montana, during the summers of 1979 and 1980. All samples were analyzed for 31 elements by a six-step semiquantitative emission spectrographic method (Grimes and Marranzino, 1968). All panned concentrate and other selected samples were analyzed for gold by an atomic absorption procedure (Thompson and others, 1968). All rock and stream-sediment samples were also analyzed for Ag, Bi, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, and Zn by a partial-digestion procedure (Viets and others, 1979). Sample analyses and locations are presented in this report.

Campbell, W. L.; Lee, G. K.; Antweiler, J. C.; Hopkins, R. T.

1983-01-01

384

Geology of the lower Yellow Creek Area, Northwestern Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The lower Yellow Creek area is located in Rio Blanco and Moffat Counties of northwestern Colorado, about midway between the towns of Rangely and Meeker. The study area is in the northwestern part of the Piceance Creek basin, a very deep structural and sedimentary basin that formed during the Laramide orogeny. Potentially important resources in the area are oil shale and related minerals, oil and gas, coal, and uranium. Topics discussed in the report include: Stratigraphy (Subsurface rocks, Cretaceous rocks, Tertiary rocks, and Quaternary deposits); Structure (Midland anticline, graben at Pinyon Ridge, and Crooked Wash syncline, Folds and faults in the vicinity of the White River, Red Wash syncline and central graben zone, Yellow Creek anticlinal nose); Economic geology (Oil shale and associated minerals, Coal, Oil and gas, Uranium, Gravel).

Hail, W.J.

1990-01-01

385

Three-dimensional imaging of heat zones at an Athabasca tar sands thermal pilot  

SciTech Connect

High resolution three-dimensional (3-D) seismic surveys were conducted before and during steam injection at Amoco's (AOSTRA and Petro-Canada) Gregoire Lake In-Situ Steam Pilot (GLISP) located in northeastern Alberta, Canada. This paper addresses the rock properties studies, seismic modeling, and 3-D seismic imaging of induced heat movement at this pilot. The monitoring technique used is related to changes in acoustic impedance caused by the heating of tar sands. Rock-property testing of onsite high viscosity tar sands core samples indicated a velocity decrease of up to 30% with increase in temperature. Model studies using these data demonstrate the feasibility of imaging the heat zones with good high-frequency, high S/N seismic field data. Comparison of the 3-D seismic data set after steam injection with a similar data set obtained prior to steaming resulted in excellent imaging of the heat zones.

Pullin, N.E.; Jackson, R.K.; Thorborn, R.F.; Den Boer, L.D.; Hirshe, W.K.; Matthews, L.W.

1988-02-01

386

Steam reforming of gasification gas tar over dolomite with benzene as a model compound  

SciTech Connect

Tar decomposition over a dolomite catalyst in gasification conditions was modeled using benzene as a tar model compound. The reactions of the gas main components were included in the models studied. Kinetic studies were carried out at 750--925 C and under ambient pressure in a plug flow reactor using a mixture of simulated gasification gas. Operation conditions without external or internal mass-transfer limitations were applied. Mechanistic models of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood type describing benzene decomposition were developed and tested. Experimental results could be best described by a kinetic rate equation based on the assumption that single-site adsorption of benzene was the rate-determining step and that adsorption of hydrogen inhibited benzene decomposition.

Simell, P.A.; Hirvensalo, E.K.; Smolander, V.T. [VTT Energy (Finland)] [VTT Energy (Finland); Krause, A.O.I. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Technology] [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Technology

1999-04-01

387

Characterization of water quality and biological communities, Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2007-2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fish Creek, an approximately 25-kilometer-long tributary to Snake River, is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson. Fish Creek is an important water body because it is used for irrigation, fishing, and recreation and adds scenic value to the Jackson Hole properties it runs through. Public concern about nuisance growths of aquatic plants in Fish Creek has been increasing since the early 2000s. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District to characterize the hydrology, water quality, and biologic communities of Fish Creek during 2007–11. The hydrology of Fish Creek is strongly affected by groundwater contributions from the area known as the Snake River west bank, which lies east of Fish Creek and west of Snake River. Because of this continuous groundwater discharge to the creek, land-use activities in the west bank area can affect the groundwater quality. Evaluation of nitrate isotopes and dissolved-nitrate concentrations in groundwater during the study indicated that nitrate was entering Fish Creek from groundwater, and that the source of nitrate was commonly a septic/sewage effluent or manure source, or multiple sources, potentially including artificial nitrogen fertilizers, natural soil organic matter, and mixtures of sources. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate and orthophosphate, which are key nutrients for growth of aquatic plants, generally were low in Fish Creek and occasionally were less than reporting levels (not detected). One potential reason for the low nutrient concentrations is that nutrients were being consumed by aquatic plant life that increases during the summer growing season, as a result of the seasonal increase in temperature and larger number of daylight hours. Several aspects of Fish Creek’s hydrology contribute to higher productivity and biovolume of aquatic plants in Fish Creek than typically observed in streams of its size in Wyoming. Especially in the winter, the proportionately large, continuous gain of groundwater into Fish Creek in the perennial section keeps most of the creek free of ice. Because sunlight can still reach the streambed in Fish Creek and the water is still flowing, aquatic plants continue to photosynthesize in the winter, albeit at a lower level of productivity. Additionally, the cobble and large gravel substrate in Fish Creek provides excellent attachment points for aquatic plants, and when combined with Fish Creek’s channel stability allows rapid growth of aquatic plants once conditions allow during the spring. The aquatic plant community of Fish Creek was different than most streams in Wyoming in that it contains many different macrophytes—including macroalgae such as long streamers of Cladophora, aquatic vascular plants, and moss; most other streams in the state contain predominantly algae. From the banks of Fish Creek, the bottom of the stream sometimes appeared to be a solid green carpet. A shift was observed from higher amounts of microalgae in April/May to higher amounts macrophytes in August and October, and differences in the relative abundance of microalgae and macrophytes were statistically significant between seasons. Differences in dissolved-nitrate concentrations and in the nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratio were significantly different between seasons, as concentrations of dissolved nitrate decreased from April/May to August and October. It is likely that dissolved-nitrate concentrations in Fish Creek were lower in August and October because macrophytes were quickly utilizing the nutrient, and a negative correlation between macro-phytes and nitrate was found. Macroinvertebrates also were sampled because of their role as indicators of water quality and their documented responses to perturbation such as degradation of water quality and habitat. Statistically significant seasonal differences were noted in the macroinvertebrate community. Taxa richness and relative abundance of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera, which tend to be intolerant of water-

Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Peterson, David A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Edmiston, C. Scott; Taylor, Michelle L.; Leemon, Daniel J.

2013-01-01

388

Importance of heterocylic aromatic compounds in monitored natural attenuation for coal tar contaminated aquifers: A review.  

PubMed

NSO heterocycles (HET) are typical constituents of coal tars. However, HET are not yet routinely monitored, although HET are relatively toxic coal tar constituents. The main objectives of the study is therefore to review previous studies and to analyse HET at coal tar polluted sites in order to assess the relevance of HET as part of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) or any other long-term monitoring programme. Hence, natural attenuation of typical HET (indole, quinoline, carbazole, acridine, methylquinolines, thiophene, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, benzofuran, dibenzofuran, methylbenzofurans, dimethylbenzofurans and xanthene) were studied at three different field sites in Germany. Compound-specific plume lengths were determined for all main contaminant groups (BTEX, PAH and HET). The results show that the observed plume lengths are site-specific and are above 250m, but less than 1000m. The latter, i.e. the upper limit, however mainly depends on the level of investigation, the considered compound, the lowest measured concentration and/or the achieved compound-specific detection limit and therefore cannot be unequivocally defined. All downstream contaminant plumes exhibited HET concentrations above typical PAH concentrations indicating that some HET are generally persistent towards biodegradation compared to other coal tar constituents, which results in comparatively increased field-derived half-lives of HET. Additionally, this study provides a review on physicochemical and toxicological parameters of HET. For three well investigated sites in Germany, the biodegradation of HET is quantified using the centre line method (CLM) for the evaluation of bulk attenuation rate constants. The results of the present and previous studies suggest that implementation of a comprehensive monitoring programme for heterocyclic aromatic compounds is relevant at sites, if MNA is considered in risk assessment and for remediation. PMID:22115084

Blum, Philipp; Sagner, Anne; Tiehm, Andreas; Martus, Peter; Wendel, Thomas; Grathwohl, Peter

2011-11-01

389

Importance of heterocylic aromatic compounds in monitored natural attenuation for coal tar contaminated aquifers: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NSO heterocycles (HET) are typical constituents of coal tars. However, HET are not yet routinely monitored, although HET are relatively toxic coal tar constituents. The main objectives of the study is therefore to review previous studies and to analyse HET at coal tar polluted sites in order to assess the relevance of HET as part of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) or any other long-term monitoring programme. Hence, natural attenuation of typical HET (indole, quinoline, carbazole, acridine, methylquinolines, thiophene, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, benzofuran, dibenzofuran, methylbenzofurans, dimethylbenzofurans and xanthene) were studied at three different field sites in Germany. Compound-specific plume lengths were determined for all main contaminant groups (BTEX, PAH and HET). The results show that the observed plume lengths are site-specific and are above 250 m, but less than 1000 m. The latter, i.e. the upper limit, however mainly depends on the level of investigation, the considered compound, the lowest measured concentration and/or the achieved compound-specific detection limit and therefore cannot be unequivocally defined. All downstream contaminant plumes exhibited HET concentrations above typical PAH concentrations indicating that some HET are generally persistent towards biodegradation compared to other coal tar constituents, which results in comparatively increased field-derived half-lives of HET. Additionally, this study provides a review on physicochemical and toxicological parameters of HET. For three well investigated sites in Germany, the biodegradation of HET is quantified using the centre line method (CLM) for the evaluation of bulk attenuation rate constants. The results of the present and previous studies suggest that implementation of a comprehensive monitoring programme for heterocyclic aromatic compounds is relevant at sites, if MNA is considered in risk assessment and for remediation.

Blum, Philipp; Sagner, Anne; Tiehm, Andreas; Martus, Peter; Wendel, Thomas; Grathwohl, Peter

2011-11-01

390

Page Museum La Brea Tar Pits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Page Museum La Brea Tar Pits is one of the worldâs most famous fossil localities, recognized for having the largest and most diverse assemblage of extinct Ice Age plants and animals in the world. Visitors can learn about Los Angeles as it was between 10,000 and 40,000 years ago, during the last Ice Age, when animals such as saber-toothed cats and mammoths roamed the Los Angeles Basin. Through windows at the Page Museum Laboratory, visitors can watch bones being cleaned and repaired. Outside the Museum, in Hancock Park, life-size replicas of several extinct mammals are featured. The online Return to the Ice Age Exploration Guide is an extensive tutorial covering La Brea Geology, Geologic Time, Asphalt Deposits, Fossil Burial and Conditions of Fossilization, as well as La Brea Flora and Fauna and Human Exploration and Excavations. PDF versions are also available for download. There is also online information about the research efforts of the Museum, as well as pictures and information about the excavation site and findings.

391

Identification and characterization of wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study was to identify, characterize, and map the wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed. A preliminary wetland categorization system based on the Cowardin classification system (Cowardin et al. 1979) with additional site-specific topographic, vegetation, and disturbance characteristic modifiers was developed to characterize the type of wetlands that exist in the Bear Creek watershed. An additional objective was to detect possible relationships among site soils, hydrology, and the occurrence of wetlands in the watershed through a comparison of existing data with the field survey. Research needs are discussed in the context of wetland functions and values and regulatory requirements for wetland impact assessment and compensatory mitigation.

Rosensteel, B.A. [JAYCOR, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trettin, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1993-10-01

392

Impact of variability in coastal fog on photosynthesis and dissolved oxygen levels in shallow water habitats: Salmon Creek estuary case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal fog reduces available light levels that in turn reduce rates of photosynthesis and oxygen production. This effect can be seen in perturbations of the day-night production-respiration cycle that leads to increase and decrease in dissolved oxygen in shallow-water habitats. In well stratified coastal lagoons, a lower layer may be isolated from the atmosphere so that small changes in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) are evident in perturbations of the typical day-night cycle of oxygen concentration. This effect is observed in the summertime, mouth-closed Salmon Creek Estuary, located in Sonoma County (California). Sub-diurnal fluctuations in dissolved oxygen in Salmon Creek Estuary correlate with deviations from the clear-sky diurnal cycle in PAR. Similar effects are observed in other estuaries and the process by which fog controls photosynthesis can be expected to occur throughout coastal California, although the effect may not be easily observable in data collected from open waters where mixing and bloom dynamics are likely to dominate temporal variability in biogenic properties like dissolved oxygen.

Largier, J. L.

2013-12-01

393

Effects of organic chlorine on the chemical composition and carbon number distribution of pyrolysis tars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that in order to quantify the effects of chlorine on the composition and distribution of tar products, droplets containing varying amounts of toluene and chlorinated hydrocarbon additives were pyrolyzed in nitrogen. Three chlorinated organics were studied: o-dichlorobenzene, 1,2-dichloroethane, and trichloroethylene. It was found that the pyrolysis of chloro-organics results in the sequestration of hydrogen, leading to a

J. A. Mulholland; A. F. Sarofim; P. Sosothikul; A. L. Lafleur

1993-01-01

394

Review of reported tar-sand occurrences and recent projects in Wyoming. [78 occurrences  

SciTech Connect

A synopsis is presented of 78 reported occurrences of shallow, oil-impregnated rocks in Wyoming many of which may be tar sands. (Appendices A and B). In most cases, there are only sketchy descriptions of these occurrences, scattered throughout the literature. This paper is a prelude to much needed studies and evaluations of these individual deposits. In addition, brief descriptions of three recent extractive operations are presented.

Clark, M.; Glass, G.B.

1983-05-01

395

Stormwater Toxicity in Chollas Creek and San Diego Bay, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stormwater discharges from Chollas Creek, a tributary of San Diego Bay, have been shown to be toxic to aquatic life. The primary objective of this study was to provide the linkage between in-channel measurements and potential impairments in the receiving waters of San Diego Bay. This study addressed this objective within the context of four questions: (1) How much area

Kenneth C. Schiff; Steven M. Bay; Dario W. Diehl

2003-01-01

396

Production of aromatics through current-enhanced catalytic conversion of bio-oil tar.  

PubMed

Biomass conversion into benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) can provide basic feedstocks for the petrochemical industry, which also serve as the most important aromatic platform molecules for development of high-end chemicals. Present work explored a new route for transformation of bio-oil tar into BTX through current-enhanced catalytic conversion (CECC), involving the synergistic effect between the zeolite catalyst and current to promote the deoxygenation and cracking reactions. The proposed transformation shows an excellent BTX aromatics selectivity of 92.9 C-mol% with 25.1 wt.% yield at 400 °C over usual HZSM-5 catalyst. The study of the model compounds revealed that the groups such as methoxy, hydroxyl and methyl in aromatics can be effectively removed in the CECC process. Present transformation potentially provides an important approach for production of the key petrochemicals of BTX and the overall use of bio-oil tar derived from bio-oil or biomass. PMID:23567684

Bi, Peiyan; Yuan, Yanni; Fan, Minghui; Jiang, Peiwen; Zhai, Qi; Li, Quanxin

2013-05-01

397

Steam reforming of tar model compound using Pd catalyst on alumina tube.  

PubMed

Gasification processing of biomass as a renewable energy source generates tar in the product gas. Tar leads to foul-up of the process equipment by corrosion and deposit formation. Catalytic elimination of tars is a crucial step to improve fuel gas quality from the process. In this study, a palladium catalyst on alumina (Pd/Al2O3) was used in steam reforming of benzene as a biomass gasification tar model compound. The reaction was carried out in a laboratory-scale tube reactor made of stainless steel to study the effect of reaction temperature, catalyst loading, quantity of palladium catalyst tubes, steam to carbon ratio (S/C), and residence time on catalytic performance and stability. Pd/Al2O3 showed high efficiency ofbenzene decomposition and enhanced the formation of fuel gas. Hydrogen and carbon conversions increased with reaction temperature. Although the benzene concentration increased from 2000 to 5000 mg/l, the catalytic performance at 600 degrees C and 800 degrees C was similar. 1.0 wt% Pd/Al2O3 showed excellent catalytic activity with the highest hydrogen and carbon conversions of 83% and 81%, respectively at 800 degrees C. This result is attributed to the smooth surface of the palladium, as noted from scanning electron microscopy imaging. An S/C of 2 provided the highest conversion. The addition of catalyst from four and seven tubes did not result in any great difference in terms of benzene cracking efficiency. The fourth cyclic usage of 1.0 wt% Pd/Al2O3 exhibited a higher conversion than that of 0.5 wt%. PMID:23437646

Nisamaneenate, Jurarat; Atong, Duangduen; Sricharoenchaikul, Viboon

2012-12-01

398

Cancer risk from incidental ingestion exposures to PAHs associated with coal-tar-sealed pavement  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent (2009-10) studies documented significantly higher concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in settled house dust in living spaces and soil adjacent to parking lots sealed with coal-tar-based products. To date, no studies have examined the potential human health effects of PAHs from these products in dust and soil. Here we present the results of an analysis of potential cancer risk associated with incidental ingestion exposures to PAHs in settings near coal-tar-sealed pavement. Exposures to benzo[a]pyrene equivalents were characterized across five scenarios. The central tendency estimate of excess cancer risk resulting from lifetime exposures to soil and dust from nondietary ingestion in these settings exceeded 1 × 10–4, as determined using deterministic and probabilistic methods. Soil was the primary driver of risk, but according to probabilistic calculations, reasonable maximum exposure to affected house dust in the first 6 years of life was sufficient to generate an estimated excess lifetime cancer risk of 6 × 10–5. Our results indicate that the presence of coal-tar-based pavement sealants is associated with significant increases in estimated excess lifetime cancer risk for nearby residents. Much of this calculated excess risk arises from exposures to PAHs in early childhood (i.e., 0–6 years of age).

Williams, E. Spencer; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

2012-01-01

399

Thermodynamic examination of trinucleotide bulged RNA in the context of HIV-1 TAR RNA  

PubMed Central

RNA structures contain many bulges and loops that are expected to be sites for inter- and intra-molecular interactions. Nucleotides in the bulge are expected to influence the structure and recognition of RNA. The same stability is assigned to all trinucleotide bulged RNA in the current secondary structure prediction models. In this study thermal denaturation experiments were performed on four trinucleotide bulged RNA, in the context of HIV-1 TAR RNA, to determine whether the bulge sequence affects RNA stability and its divalent ion interactions. Cytosine-rich bulged RNA were more stable than uracil-rich bulged RNA in 1 M KCl. Interactions of divalent ions were more favorable with uracil-rich bulged RNA by ?2 kcal/mol over cytosine-rich bulged RNA. The UCU-TAR RNA (wild type) is stabilized by 1.7 kcal/mol in 9.5 mM Ca2+ as compared with 1 M KCl, whereas no additional gain in stability is measured for CCC-TAR RNA. These results have implications for base substitution experiments traditionally employed to identify metal ion binding sites. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic study to quantify the effect of small sequence changes on RNA stability upon interactions with divalent ions.

Carter-O'Connell, Ian; Booth, David; Eason, Bryan; Grover, Neena

2008-01-01

400

Fast microwave-assisted catalytic gasification of biomass for syngas production and tar removal.  

PubMed

In the present study, a microwave-assisted biomass gasification system was developed for syngas production. Three catalysts including Fe, Co and Ni with Al2O3 support were examined and compared for their effects on syngas production and tar removal. Experimental results showed that microwave is an effective heating method for biomass gasification. Ni/Al2O3 was found to be the most effective catalyst for syngas production and tar removal. The gas yield reached above 80% and the composition of tar was the simplest when Ni/Al2O3 catalyst was used. The optimal ratio of catalyst to biomass was determined to be 1:5-1:3. The addition of steam was found to be able to improve the gas production and syngas quality. Results of XRD analyses demonstrated that Ni/Al2O3 catalyst has good stability during gasification process. Finally, a new concept of microwave-assisted dual fluidized bed gasifier was put forward for the first time in this study. PMID:24508907

Xie, Qinglong; Borges, Fernanda Cabral; Cheng, Yanling; Wan, Yiqin; Li, Yun; Lin, Xiangyang; Liu, Yuhuan; Hussain, Fida; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

2014-03-01

401

DEEP CREEK AND MUD CREEK, TWIN FALLS, IDAHO. WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1986  

EPA Science Inventory

Deep Creek and Mud Creek are located in Twin Falls County near Buhl, Idaho (17040212). From April through October, these creeks convey irrigation drainage water from the western part of the Twin Falls irrigation tract to the Snake River. During 1986, water quality surveys were ...

402

MILK CREEK, TETON COUNTY, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1986  

EPA Science Inventory

Milk Creek, Idaho (17040204) was identified in the Agricultural Pollution Abatement Plans as a second priority stream segment for the reduction of agriculture related pollutants. A water quality study was conducted from March through June 1986 as part of the agricultural plannin...

403

Application of an Ecological Model for the Cibolo Creek Watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The U.S. Army Engineer District, Fort Worth (CESWF) is involved in demon- strating the utility of an ecological model in the performance and interpretation of a comprehensive General Investigations (GI) study of the Cibolo Creek watershed upstream of Interstate 10 near San Antonio, Texas. Partners to the District in this project are the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), U.S.

David Price; Terry McLendon; Cade Coldren

404

Tensleep fault trap, Cottonwood Creek Field, Washakie County, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cottonwood Creek field is in the south end of the Bighorn Basin, 15 miles northeast of Worland, Wyo. The major production in the field, discovered in 1953, is from the Phosphoria Dolomite. The 1972 Tensleep discovery, a fault trap on the north end of Phosphoria productive area, is th subject of this study. For convenience of identifying the specific

Pedry

1975-01-01

405

WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, STOCKNEY CREEK, IDAHO COUNTY, IDAHO. 1986  

EPA Science Inventory

A water quality monitoring study was conducted on Stockney Creek (17060305) for the following purposes: 1) to determine baseline water quality; 2) to document water quality effects of spring and storm agricultural runoff; and 3) to determine whether implementation of Best Manage...

406

Soil chronosequence of brasstown creek, Blue Ridge mountains, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chronosequence of soils on alluvial terraces in the Appalachian highlands of the southeastern United States is identified by simple methods of quantitative soil morphology and chemical analysis. The chronosequence is from Brasstown Creek, a 5th order stream draining 65 km2 of the Blue Ridge Mountains of north Georgia. The portion of the valley studied is about 1 km wide

David S. Leigh

1996-01-01

407

Application of an Ecological Model for the Cibolo Creek Watershed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Army Engineer District, Fort Worth (CESWF) is involved in demon- strating the utility of an ecological model in the performance and interpretation of a comprehensive General Investigations (GI) study of the Cibolo Creek watershed upstream of Inte...

D. Price T. McLendon C. Coldren

2004-01-01

408

Spatial and temporal variation of whirling disease risk in Montana spring creeks and rivers.  

PubMed

Spring creeks are important spawning and rearing areas for wild trout, but the stable flows, cool temperatures, and high nutrient levels that characterize these unique habitats may also make them highly susceptible to establishment and proliferation of the whirling disease pathogen Myxobolus cerebralis. We evaluated the spatial and temporal dynamics in whirling disease risk by using sentinel rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fry in nine different spring creeks and their conjoining rivers or reservoirs in Montana over a 20-month period. Whirling disease risk was high in five of the seven pathogen-positive spring creek study sites; at these sites, prevalence levels exceeded 90% and over 50% of sentinel fry had moderate to high infection severity scores. Spring creeks generally had higher disease prevalence and severity than paired river or reservoir sites. Fine sediment levels varied widely among springs creeks with high and low whirling disease risk, and we found no significant association between fine sediment level and infection severity. The low risk measured for some spring creeks was likely attributable to the pathogen invasion being in its early stages rather than to environmental characteristics limiting the severity of infection. High whirling disease risk occurred over a wide range of temperatures at spring creek sites (4.5-13°C) and river sites (1.7-12.5°C). There was an unusual seasonal cycle of infection in spring creeks, with peak infection levels occurring from late fall to early spring and declining to near zero in late spring to early fall. The low infection risk during spring suggests that spring-spawning trout would be at a low risk of infection, even in spring creeks with otherwise high disease severity. In contrast, fry of fall-spawning trout may be much more susceptible to infection in spring creek environments. PMID:23025590

Neudecker, Ryen A; McMahon, Thomas E; Vincent, E Richard

2012-12-01

409

1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and silt sluice gate (center), main canal headworks (to right), view to northwest - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

410

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

411

121. Credit JE. Galpin Creek ditch, a feeder leading water ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

121. Credit JE. Galpin Creek ditch, a feeder leading water to the Keswick ditch, supplying Volta powerhouse. (JE, v. 12 1902 p. 235). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

412

Detail view of 850 plate girder span directly over creek, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of 85-0 plate girder span directly over creek, looking west. - New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, Elk Creek Trestle, Spanning Elk Creek, south of Elk Park Road, Lake City, Erie County, PA

413

Perspective view showing 850 plate girder span directly over creek, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view showing 85-0 plate girder span directly over creek, looking west. - New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, Elk Creek Trestle, Spanning Elk Creek, south of Elk Park Road, Lake City, Erie County, PA

414

2. 1994 AERIAL PERSPECTIVE OF BISHOP CREEK WITH OWENS VALLEY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. 1994 AERIAL PERSPECTIVE OF BISHOP CREEK WITH OWENS VALLEY AND WHITE MOUNTAINS IN BACKGROUND, SOUTH LAKE IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

415

77 FR 10960 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Snake Creek, Islamorada, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2012-0047] Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Snake Creek, Islamorada, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard...from the regulation governing the operation of Snake Creek Bridge, mile 0.5, across Snake Creek, in Islamorada, Florida. The...

2012-02-24

416

59. Credit FM. Flood waters on South Battle Creek next ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

59. Credit FM. Flood waters on South Battle Creek next to powerhouse. Note height of water in relation to tailraces. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

417

General perspective view of the Marion Creek Bridge, view looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General perspective view of the Marion Creek Bridge, view looking southeast. - Marion Creek Bridge, Spanning Marion Creek at Milepoint 66.42 on North Santiam Highway (OR-22), Marion Forks, Linn County, OR

418

Topographic view of the Marion Creek Bridge, view looking westbound ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Topographic view of the Marion Creek Bridge, view looking westbound on the Santiam Highway. - Marion Creek Bridge, Spanning Marion Creek at Milepoint 66.42 on North Santiam Highway (OR-22), Marion Forks, Linn County, OR

419

General perspective view of the Marion Creek Bridge, view looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General perspective view of the Marion Creek Bridge, view looking southwest. - Marion Creek Bridge, Spanning Marion Creek at Milepoint 66.42 on North Santiam Highway (OR-22), Marion Forks, Linn County, OR

420

Biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Research progress report  

SciTech Connect

Biodegradation experiments were conducted to evaluate the mineralization of naphthalene released from coal tar entrapped in microporous silica media. Tests were performed with two coal tars recovered from former manufactured gas plant sites. Results from these tests showed that the degradation end point for naphthalene was significantly lower than the total amount of naphthalene present in coal tar. The role of physico-chemical and biological processes on the rate of biotransformation of naphthalene was evaluated. Mass transfer rates for dissolution of naphthalene from entrapped coal tar were measured in batch, flow-through systems. The rate of naphthalene mass transfer from the coal tar was found to be significantly greater than the rate of naphthalene biomineralization in batch slurry reactors. This implied that the rate acting factor for the biodegradation process was related to biokinetic phenomena rather than mass transfer processes. Further tests indicated that conditions inhibitory to bacteria limited the biodegradation of naphthalene, and in some cases the inhibition was reversible upon dilution of the reactor contents.

Ghoshal, S.; Ramaswami, A.; Luthy, R.G.

1994-02-07

421

Study of LANDSAT-D thematic mapper performance as applied to hydrocarbon exploration. [Southern Ontario, Lawton, Oklahoma; Owl Creek, Wyoming; Washington, D.C.; and Death Valley California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved delineation of known oil and gas fields in southern Ontario and a spectacularly high amount of structural information on the Owl Creek, Wyoming scene were obtained from analysis of TM data. The use of hue, saturation, and value image processing techniques on a Death Valley, California scene permitted direct comparison of TM processed imagery with existing 1:250,000 scale geological maps of the area and revealed small outcrops of Tertiary volcanic material overlying Paleozoic sections. Analysis of TM data over Lawton, Oklahoma suggests that the reducing chemical environment associated with hydrocarbon seepage change ferric iron to soluble ferrous iron, allowing it to be leached. Results of the band selection algorithm show a suprising consistency, with the 1,4,5 combination selected as optimal in most cases.

Everett, J. R. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

422

Relationship of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yield of cigarettes  

SciTech Connect

The data from consecutive surveys of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study (1981-1988) were used to evaluate the relationship in cigarette smokers of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO) yields of the cigarette. There were 690 subjects who reported smoking regularly in at least one survey, over age 15. After adjustment for intensity and duration of smoking and for depth of inhalation, the risk of chronic phlegm, cough, and dyspnea were not related to the tar and nicotine yields. In 414 subjects with pulmonary function tested in at least one of the three surveys the spirometric indices used were significantly related to the daily dose of tar, nicotine, and CO (product of the cigarette yield and daily number of cigarettes smoked). The effects were more pronounced for past than for current doses. However, the differentiation of pulmonary function due to various yields of cigarettes was small in comparison to the difference in pulmonary function between smokers and nonsmokers.

Krzyzanowski, M.; Sherrill, D.L.; Paoletti, P.; Lebowitz, M.D. (National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland))

1991-02-01

423

Paleontology, paleoclimatology and paleoecology of the late middle miocene Musselshell Creek flora, Clearwater County Idaho. A preliminary study of a new fossil flora  

SciTech Connect

The Musselshell Creek flora (12.0-10.5 Ma) of northern Idaho is used to reconstruct paleoclimatic and paleoecologic parameters of the Pacific Northwest during the late Middle Miocene. Other megafossil and microfossil floral records spanning 12.0-6.4 Ma are unknown from this region. The Musselshell Creek fossil flora, previously undescribed, is preserved in lacustrine clays and sediments that accumulated in a narrow valley surrounded by rugged terrain. Dominant taxa include dicotyledons and conifers. Most of the leaves are preserved as impressions or compressions. Some fossil leaves retained their original pigmentation, cellular anatomy, and organic constituents. Other fossils include excellent remains of pollen and spores, dispersed leaf cuticle, pyritized wood, and disarticulated fish bones. A destructive statistical analysis of one block of sediment, approximately 30 cm x 45 cm (1.5 sq. ft) recovered 14 orders, 23 families, and 34 genera of spermatophyte plant fossils. These floral elements are compared with two other earlier Miocene floras which were similarly sampled. Common megafossil genera include Quercus, Zizy-phoides, Taxodium, Alnus, Castanea, Magnolia, Acer, Ex-bucklandia, Sequoia, Populus, and Betula. The rare occurrence of Ginkgo leaves is a first record of this taxon in the Idaho Miocene. Additional plant taxa, are represented by palynomorphs. Common pollen taxa are Pinus, Abies, Carya, Quercus, and Tilia. Most of the megafossil and microfossil flora assemblage is characteristic of a streambank to floodplain environment that existed in a warm to cool temperate climate similar to the modern Mid-Atlantic coast of the United States. 47 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Baghai, N.L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Jorstad, R.B. [Eastern Illinois Univ., Charleston, IL (United States)

1995-10-01

424

Low-Temperature-Tar Content of Bituminous Materials. Part 2: Dense Tarmacadam Basecourse with Crushed Rock Aggregate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a laboratory study, using the Marshall Test procedure, of dense tarmacadam basecourse made with entirely crushed rock aggregate and road tars of both low- and high-temperature carbonization sources, i.e. of low and high densities, wi...

1979-01-01

425

MUTAGENICITY OF THE FRACTIONATED ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL, CIGARETTE SMOKE CONDENSATE, COKE OVEN, AND ROOFING TAR IN THE AMES ASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

Mobile and stationary sources emit particle-bound organics that have demonstrated mutagenicity. The objective of this study was to measure the mutagenicity of the fractionated organic emissions from diesel, cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), coke oven and roofing tar in the Ames a...

426

Variability in base streamflow and water quality of streams and springs in Otter and Rosebud Creek basins, southeastern Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The results of three base-flow studies conducted on Otter and Rosebud Creeks during 1977, 1978, and 1983 are summarized and compared to assess the variability of base-flow magnitude and water quality during years of widely different precipitation. Chemical analyses for springs in these basins also are presented to provide and indication of the areal and temporal variability of groundwater quality. Base-flow magnitudes in Otter and Rosebud Creeks vary considerably in response to precipitation of the previous year. Maximum observed differences in base-flow magnitudes between the study years were 3.8 cu ft/sec in Otter Creek and 53 cu ft/sec in Rosebud Creek. Predominant ions of base streamflow are sodium, magnesium, and sulfate in Otter Creek and magnesium, calcium, sodium, sulfate, and bicarbonate in Rosebud Creek. Dissolved solids concentrations varied considerably, with maximum differences between study years of about 1,200 mg/L in Otter Creek and about 3,200 mg/L in Rosebud Creek. The ionic composition of springs in the Otter and Rosebud Creek basins is generally similar to that of the streams. Dissolved solids concentrations of the springs vary largely throughout each basin; however, there was little variability between sampling years at individual springs. (USGS)

Lambing, J. H.; Ferreira, R. F.

1986-01-01

427

Fossil Creek Fish Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents results of 2009 annual post-project (i.e., stream renovation, native fish repatriation, and flow restoration) fish monitoring conducted by Marsh & Associates under contract to Bureau of Reclamation. The study was commissioned and impl...

J. A. Stefferud P. C. Marsh S. E. Stefferud

2010-01-01

428

Mass transfer and biodegradation of PAH compounds from coal tar. Quarterly technical report, January--March 1993  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the role of physico-chemical mass transfer processes on the rate of biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds released from non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) coal tar present at residual saturation within a microporous medium. A simplified coupled dissolution-degradation model is developed that describes the concurrent mass transfer and biokinetic processes occurring in the system. Model results indicate that a dimensionless Damkohler number can be utilized to distinguish between systems that are mass transfer limited, and those that are limited by biological phenomena. The Damkohler number is estimated from independent laboratory experiments that measure the rates of aqueous phase dissolution and biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Experimental data for Stroudsburg coal tar imbibed within 236 {mu}m diameter silica particles yield Damkohler numbers smaller than unity, indicating, for the particular system under study, that the overall rate of biotransformation of naphthalene is not limited by the mass transfer of naphthalene from coal tar to the bulk aqueous phase. There is a need for investigation of mass transfer for larger particles and/or other PAH compounds, and study of microbial rate-limiting phenomena including toxicity, inhibition and competitive substrate utilization.

Ramaswami, A.; Ghoshal, S.; Luthy, R.G.

1994-09-01

429

Mass transfer and biodegradation of PAH compounds from coal tar. Quarterly technical report, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

This study, examines the role of physico-chemical mass transfer processes on the rate of biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds released from non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) coal tar present at residual saturation within a microporous medium. A simplified coupled dissolution-degradation model is developed that describes the concurrent mass transfer and biokinetic processes occurring in the system. Model results indicate that a dimensionless Damkohler number can be utilized to distinguish between systems that are mass transfer limited, and those that are limited by biological phenomena. The Damkohler number is estimated from independent laboratory experiments that measure the rates of aqueous phase dissolution and biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Experimental data for Stroudsburg coal tar imbibed within 236 {mu}m diameter silica particles yield Damkohler numbers smaller than unity, indicating, for the particular system under study, that the overall rate of biotransformation of naphthalene is not limited by the mass transfer of naphthalene from coal tar to the bulk aqueous phase. There is a need for investigation of mass transfer for larger particles and/or other PAH compounds, and study, of microbial rate-limiting phenomena including toxicity, inhibition and competitive substrate utilization.

Ramaswami, A.; Ghoshal, S.; Luthy, R.G.

1994-09-01

430

Hydrographic characterization of two tidal creeks with implications for watershed land use, flushing times, and benthic production  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many coastal ecosystems are undergoing anthropogenic stress from large increases in population and urbanization. In many regions changes in freshwater and material inputs to the coastal zone are altering the biogeochemical and biological capacities of ecosystems. Despite increased watershed inputs, large tidal volumes and flushing indicative of macrotidal estuaries can modulate the fate of introduced materials masking some of the symptoms of eutrophication. The Land Use Coastal Ecosystem Study (LU-CES) examined linkages between land use and environmental properties of Malind and Okatee Creeks in South Carolina from 2001 to 2004. The objectives of this particular study were to assess the hydrography of the two macrotidal creek ecosystems, explore differences in dissolved oxygen (DO), and develop a better understanding of the variations in primary and benthic secondary production in southeastern creek ecosystems. Depth, pH, salinity, and DO were reduced and more variable in Malind Creek than in Okatee Creek, although both creeks had strong semidiurnal frequencies in salinity time signatures. While time series analyses of DO saturation in Malind Creek revealed a dominant semidiurnal pattern, Okatee Creek had a distinctly diel DO pattern. The strongly semidiurnal fluctuations in DO and reduced flushing time indicated that biological processes were not fast enough to influence DO in Malind Creek. The Okatee Creek system had a much greater storage volume, a wider marsh, and a dominant 25-h DO frequency. These attributes contributed to an estimated 8-10 times more phytoplankton-based carbon in Okatee Creek and twice the annual benthic production. As expected from their proximity to the upland, low surface area, and high organic content, both ecosystems were net heterotrophic. This fundamental understanding of tidal creek hydrography is being used to help define linkages among differential watershed land uses, flushing characteristics, and levels of biological production in coastal ecosystems of the southeastern United States. ?? 2007 Estuarine Research Federation.

Buzzelli, C.; Holland, A. F.; Sanger, D. M.; Conrads, P. C.

2007-01-01

431

2. CONTEXTUAL ELEVATION VIEW OF BRIDGE OVERLOOKING PLEASANTS VALLEY CREEK; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. CONTEXTUAL ELEVATION VIEW OF BRIDGE OVERLOOKING PLEASANTS VALLEY CREEK; VIEW TO EAST. - Pleasants Valley Road Bridge, Spanning Pleasants Creek at Pleasants Valley Road, Vacaville, Solano County, CA

432

Fungicidal value of wood tar from pyrolysis of treated wood.  

PubMed

The objective of the paper was to estimate the fungicidal value of wood tar extracted as a product of pyrolysis of wood previously treated with either creosote oil or CCB-type salt preservative. The effectiveness of wood treated with one of these two wood tar residuals was compared to the effectiveness of wood treated with virgin creosote oil (type WEI-B) and an untreated control. Wood was impregnated with alcohol solutions of the two extracted preservatives or virgin creosote oil and then subjected to the Coniophora puteana, Poria placenta and Coriolus versicolor fungi. The fungicidal values of the investigated preservatives were determined with the use of the short agar-block method and the aging test according to the standard EN 84. It was found that wood tar extracted by pyrolysis of old creosote-treated wood and then used to treat wood may have potential as a preservative for wood protection or as a component of preservatives. PMID:17011772

Mazela, Bart?omiej

2007-01-01

433

Feasibility of coal tar biodegradation by land treatment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Coal tar, a by-product of coal gasification, contains monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) which have been identified as carcinogens. Billions of gallons of this waste have been disposed of at numerous gas manufacturing facilities in the United States. The treatment of tar-contaminated soil by bacterial degradation has shown great promise, since one-, two-, and three-ring PAH can be readily degraded by bacteria. Research was carried out to establish whether 4- and 5-ring PAH could also be degraded by bacteria. The data indicated that 4-ring PAH could degrade when dissolved in a hydrocarbon carrier or when applied to soil as a component of coal tar. Experiments to stimulate the bacterial degradation of benzo(a)pyrene, a 5-ring PAH, were unsuccessful.

Fogel, S.

1987-09-01

434

Coal tar phototoxicity: characteristics of the smarting reaction  

SciTech Connect

The properties and ultraviolet exposure parameters of tar smarts were examined in an effort to elucidate the mechanisms involved. It was show that irradiation with 1 minimal smarting dose (MSD) of UVA immediately following tar removal lowered the MSD for 6 h, demonstrated by subsequent challenge with UVA. Following 3 MSDs this memory effect was demonstrable for 24 h. The smarting reaction was area dependent--smaller areas of exposure require higher doses of UVA to induce smarting. Smarting followed reciprocity over a 6-fold range of irradiances (2-12.5 mW/cm2) but higher irradiances required higher doses of UVA, perhaps due to a delay in the recognition and reporting of smarting. The smarting reaction and delayed erythema due to UVA and tar were equally blocked by sunscreen.

Diette, K.M.; Gange, R.W.; Stern, R.S.; Arndt, K.A.; Parrish, J.A.

1985-04-01

435

29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1915.1002...EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term....

2010-07-01

436

29 CFR 1926.1102 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1926.1102...CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1102 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term....

2010-07-01

437

29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Labor 7 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1915.1002...EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term....

2009-07-01

438

29 CFR 1926.1102 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Labor 8 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1926.1102...CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1102 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term....

2009-07-01

439

Floods on Roseberry Creek, Wacker Branch, and three unnamed tributaries to Roseberry Creek in the vicinity of Scottsboro, Alabama. Flood report  

SciTech Connect

The study was requested by the city to provide information reflecting current flood conditions in order for the community to better administer its floodplain management program and to qualify for participation in the regular phase of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). This report updates and expands the coverage of a previous TVA report published in April 1967. Profiles and flooded area and floodway maps are provided for Roseberry Creek, Wacker Branch, and three previously unstudied tributaries to Roseberry Creek.

Not Available

1982-10-01

440

Meta-analysis of lung cancer in asphalt roofing and paving workers with external adjustment for confounding by coal tar  

SciTech Connect

The study's objectives were to update Partanen's and Boffetta's 1994 meta-analysis of lung cancer among roofing and paving asphalt workers and explore the role of coal tar in explaining the statistical heterogeneity among these studies. Information retrieval strategies and eligibility criteria were defined for identifying the epidemiologic studies to be included in the analysis. The relative risk ratio (RR) for lung cancer was selected as the effect measure of interest. Coal tar bias factors were developed and used to externally adjust each eligible study's published RR for confounding by coal tar. The meta-Relative Risk (meta-RR) and its variance were estimated by general variance-based methods. Heterogeneity of the RRs was assessed by heterogeneity chi-square and I{sup 2} tests. The results from this update were similar to those in Partanen's and Boffetta's original meta-analysis. Although the meta-RRs for the roofers and the pavers were no longer statistically significantly different from one another, significant heterogeneity remained within each of the coal tar-adjusted sectors. Meta-analysis of non-experimental epidemiologic studies is subject to significant uncertainties as is externally correcting studies for confounding. Given these uncertainties, the specific quantitative estimates in this (or any similar) analysis must be viewed with caution. Nevertheless, this analysis provides support for the hypothesis proposed by several major reviewers that confounding by coal tar-related PAH exposures may explain most or all of the lung cancer risks found in the epidemiologic literature on asphalt roofing and paving workers.

Fayerweather, W.E. [Owens Corning, Toledo, OH (United States). Epidemiology & Data Management

2007-07-01

441

Jupiter Formed with More Tar than Ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elemental abundances in Jupiter determined from Galileo probe measurements are compared to recently revised solar system abundances. When normalized to the abundance of sulfur, the most abundant refractory rock-forming element reliably determined in Jupiter's atmosphere by the Galileo probe, abundances of argon, krypton, and xenon are 1 times solar, the observed oxygen is depleted by a factor of 4, and carbon is enriched 1.7 times. The fairly uncertain nitrogen abundance ranges from 1 to 3 times solar. The oxygen abundance in Jupiter derived from the observed atmospheric water abundance is only a lower limit to the total planetary oxygen because oxygen is also bound to rock-forming elements such as magnesium or silicon sequestered deep in the planet. The sulfur abundance constrains the amount of rock-forming elements on Jupiter. Considering the amount of oxygen bound to silicate rock, the total oxygen abundance on Jupiter of 0.47 times solar system indicates an overall oxygen depletion by about a factor of 2. The hydrogen and helium abundances in the Jovian atmosphere are depleted (0.48 and 0.39 times solar system, respectively). These relative depletions may indicate the extent of hydrogen and helium partitioning from the molecular envelope into Jupiter's metallic layer. A formation scenario for Jupiter is proposed to explain the relative oxygen depletion and, at the same time, the relative carbon enrichment. In essence, the model assumes that at the time of Jupiter's formation, abundant carbonaceous matter was present near 5.2 AU rather than abundant water ice, increasing the surface mass density of solids in the solar nebula accretion disk. Carbonaceous matter, which has high sticking probabilities, was the agent that sped up accumulation of solid matter of proto-Jupiter. This led to runaway accretion of the planet. Major consequences of this scenario are that the water ice condensation front (the snow line) typically placed near 5.2 AU in solar nebula models must be replaced by a carbonaceous condensation/evaporation front (the ``tar line'') and that the snow line is located farther out in the solar nebula.

Lodders, Katharina

2004-08-01

442

Luminescence monitoring of oil or tar contamination for industrial hygiene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synfuel plants produce potentially carcinogenic oils and tars. Exposure of workers to these tars and oils is difficult to avoid completely and occurs via direct contact with dirty surfaces or condensation of escaped fumes onto or within the body. Surface skin measurements are made directly with a near-ultraviolet luminoscope employing a fiber optics lightguide and a stethoscopic cap pressed against the skin. This instrument is especially suitable for measuring ng to ?g/cm 2 amounts of residual contamination remaining on the surface of the skin after washing. To minimize the potential for carcinogenicity, the excitating ultraviolet light intensity is only 1/100 th that of sunlight.

Gammage, Richard B.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

1980-09-01

443

Proposed water treatment approach for commercial tar sand wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

Waters produced during the steamflood extraction of bitumen from tar sand require treatment before they can be recycled as feedwater for steam generation. The characterization of two waters from commercial-scale tar sand operations indicates that the levels of hardness, oil and grease, silica, suspended solids, and iron must be reduced before these waters can be reused in the bitumen extraction process. The Western Research Institute proposes two treatment methods (electrocoagulation and ultrafiltration) that may, when used in conjunction with standard practices, improve the efficiency of the overall treatment process. 21 refs., 3 tabs.

Kocornik, D.

1986-09-01

444

Big Hill Lake, Big Hill Creek, Kansas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project is located in Labette County, Kansas, on Big Hill Creek. Action consists of the construction of a lake for flood control, water supply, and recreation. Damages resulting from flooding in the creek below the dam will largely be eliminated and a...

1972-01-01

445

Alturas Lake Creek Flow Augmentation: Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two alternatives were outlined in the first statement of work as possibilities for flow augmentation in Alturas Lake Creek. The alternatives were to raise the level of Alturas Lake and to acquire necessary water rights in Alturas Lake Creek. The first alt...

L. Everson

1987-01-01

446

33 CFR 117.737 - Oldmans Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oldmans Creek. 117.737 Section 117.737 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.737 Oldmans Creek. The draws of the US30 bridge,...

2013-07-01

447

33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the S117-S133 Bridge, mile...

2010-07-01

448

33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the S117-S133 Bridge, mile...

2009-07-01

449

Pine Creek Ranch; Annual Report 2002.  

SciTech Connect

This report gives information about the following four objectives: OBJECTIVE 1--Gather scientific baseline information for monitoring purposes and to assist in the development of management plans for Pine Creek Ranch; OBJECTIVE 2--Complete and implement management plans; OBJECTIVE 3--Protect, manage and enhance the assets and resources of Pine Creek Ranch; and OBJECTIVE 4--Deliverables.

Berry, Mark E.

2003-02-01

450

Aquatic biology of the Redwood Creek and Mill Creek drainage basins, Redwood National Park, Humboldt and Del Norte counties, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 2-year study of the aquatic biota in the Redwood Creek and Mill Creek drainage basins of Redwood National Park indicated that the aquatic productivity is low. Densities of coliform bacteria were low except in Prairie Creek, a tributary to Redwood Creek, where a State park, county fish hatchery, grazing land, lumber mill, and scattered residential areas are potential sources of fecal coliform bacteria. Benthic invertebrate data indicated a diverse fauna which varied considerably between streams and among stream sections. Noteworthy findings include: (1) benthic invertebrates rapidly recolonized the streambed following a major storm, and (2) man-caused disruption or sedimentation of the streambed during low flow can result in drastic reductions of the benthic invertebrate community. Seven species of fish representing species typically found in northern California coastal streams were captured during the study. Nonparametric statistical tests indicate that condition factors of steelhead trout were significantly larger at sampling stations with more insolation, regardless of drainage basin land-use history. Periphyton and phytoplankton communities were diverse, variable in numbers, and dominated by diatoms. Seston concentrations were extremely variable between stations and at each station sampled. The seston is influenced seasonally by aquatic productivity at each station and amount of allochthonous material from the terrestrial ecosystem. Time-series analysis of some seston data indicated larger and sharper peak concentrations being flushed from the logged drainage basin than from the control drainage basin. (USGS)

Iwatsubo, Rick T.; Averett, R. C.

1981-01-01

451

Temperature impact on the formation of tar from biomass pyrolysis in a free-fall reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar evolution was measured as a function of temperature during wood pyrolysis in a free-fall reactor operated at near atmospheric pressure. The yields of total tar and phenolic compounds were markedly reduced whereas aromatic compounds increased with increasing temperature between 700 and 900°C. The chemical distribution of principal tar constituents at selected time points was obtained by intermittent sampling using

Qizhuang Yu; Claes Brage; Guanxing Chen; Krister Sjöström

1997-01-01

452

Criteria for a Recommended Standard. Occupational Exposure to Coal Tar Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NIOSH recommends that occupational exposure to coal tar products in the workplace be controlled so that employees are not exposed to coal tar, coal tar pitch, creosote, or mixtures of these substances at a concentration greater than 0.1 milligrams per cub...

1977-01-01

453

29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

2010-07-01

454

29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

2009-07-01

455

Evaluation of in-situ recovery of tar sands. [Field tests; economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several field tests of in-situ recovery of tar and heavy oil expose the difficulty of achieving an acceptable economic process. The technical problems encountered in achieving successful projects are: adequate communication between wells, mobilization of the tar and maintenance of production wells. If currently available technology for the recovery of tar sand is to compete economically with world prices for

R. L. Arscott; A. David

1977-01-01

456

Switching to ultralow nicotine cigarettes: Effects of different tar yields and blocking of olfactory cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve female smokers smoked two of each of three types of cigarettes in three sessions. One cigarette was smoked with and the other one without nose blocking. Total puff volumes increased for ultralow tar\\/nicotine (tn) cigarettes as compared with habitual regular tar\\/ nicotine (TN) cigarettes and regular tar\\/ultralow nicotine (Tn) cigarettes, as the result of an increase in the number

B. Baldinger; M. Hasenfratz; K. Bättig

1995-01-01

457

77 FR 48431 - Safety Zone for Fireworks Display, Pamlico and Tar Rivers; Washington, NC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for Fireworks Display, Pamlico and Tar Rivers; Washington, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard...temporary safety zone on the Pamlico and Tar Rivers, Washington, NC. This action is necessary...vessels from a portion of the Pamlico River and Tar River during Beaufort...

2012-08-14

458

Effect of feed source in the hot water processing of Utah tar sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processing strategy for the effective separation of bitumen from low grade (< 10% by wt bitumen) Utah tar sands by a hot water process differs significantly from that used for the processing of high grade (> 10% by wt bitumen) Utah tar sands. Excellent separations (coefficient of separation = 0.9) can be achieved for high grade Utah tar sands

J. D. Miller; M. Misra

1979-01-01

459

Preparation of Coal Tar Pitch Based Mesoporous Activated Carbon by Template and KOH Activation Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesoporous activated carbons (MACs) were prepared by template synthesis and KOH activation, using modified coal tar pitch and nanosized silica respectively as carbon precursor and imprinting template. The effects of the dispersion of the nanosized silica template in coal tar pitch, the washing procedures, and the mixing ratio of coal tar pitch to template(C\\/T) on the porous properties of MACs

Lei Mao; Shitang Tong; Xiaohua Zhang; Mingxia Fan; Liu Wan; Charles Q. Jia

2011-01-01

460

Coal gasification and tar-conversion reactions over calcium oxide. Quarterly progress report, August 1, 1981-October 31, 1981  

SciTech Connect

The present research was undertaken to investigate the role and potential application of calcium oxide chemistry in gasification and pyrolysis of coal. Specific objectives are to study: (1) the relative selectivity of thermal reactions over calcium oxide, compared to other solids, in converting pyrolysis tar to light hydrocarbons and char; (2) the change in mutagenicity of the tars produced by pyrolysis over calcium oxide; (3) the effect of calcium oxide on methane and hydrogen production; and (4) the gasification rate of carbon deposited on calcium oxide; and (5) the change, if any, of the activity of calcium oxide with the time of use and with regeneration. Within this reporting period, major progress has been made on the design, specification and procurement of equipment for a laboratory scale research apparatus to obtain data on the above objectives. This research is important to the US coal gasification program because it could identify strategies for reducing tar and increasing light gas formation in first generation gasification and advanced gasification reactors, especially moving and fluidizing bed equipment, and for improving the by-product value of those tars that do form. The net result could be improved operability and economics for available coal gasification equipment and for processes now under development.

Longwell, J.P.; Chang, C.S.; Peters, W.A.

1982-01-01

461

Commercial steam reforming catalysts to improve biomass gasification with steam-oxygen mixtures. 2: Catalytic tar removal  

SciTech Connect

Eight different commercial catalysts, nickel based, for steam reforming of naphthas and of natural gas are tested in biomass gasification for hot gas cleanup and conditioning. They were manufactured by BASF AG, ICI-Katalco, UCI, and Haldor Topsoee a/s. The catalysts were tested in a slip flow after a biomass gasifier of fluidized bed type at small pilot-plant scale (10--20 kg of biomass/h). The gasifying agent used is steam-oxygen mixtures. A guard bed containing a calcined dolomite is used to decrease the tar content in the gas at the inlet of the catalytic bed. Main variables studied are catalyst type, bed temperature, H{sub 2}O + O{sub 2} to biomass feed ratio, and time-on-stream. All catalysts for reforming of naphthas show to be very active and useful for tar removal and gas conditioning (in biomass gasification). 98% tar removal is easily obtained with space velocities of 14,000 h{sup {minus}1} (n.c.). No catalysts deactivation is found in 48 h-on-stream tests when the catalyst temperature is relatively high (780--830 C). Using a simple first-order kinetic model for the overall tar removal reaction, apparent energies of activation (of around 58 kJ/mol) and preexponential factors are obtained for the most active catalysts.

Aznar, M.P.; Caballero, M.A.; Gil, J.; Martin, J.A. [Univ. of Saragossa (Spain). Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.] [Univ. of Saragossa (Spain). Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.; Corella, J. [Univ. Complutense of Madrid (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.] [Univ. Complutense of Madrid (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1998-07-01