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1

Tar Creek study, Sargent oil field, Santa Clara County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Field work in the Tar Creek area of Sargent oil field was performed June 26 to 28, 2000. The Santa Clara County study area is located in Sections, 30, 31, and 32, Township 11 South, Range 4 East, M.D.B&M; and in Sections 25 and 36, Township 11 South, Range 3 East, M.D.B.&M., north and south of Tar Creek, west of Highway 101. The work was a cooperative effort of the California Department of Conservation's Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (DOGGR), California Geological Survey (CGS), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the project was to map the stratigraphy and geologic structure (David Wagner, CGS); sample oil for age dating (Les Magoon, USGS); and search for undocumented wells plus conduct a GPS survey of the area (Bill Fedasko, J.P. Carnahan, and Ross Brunetti, DOGGR)

Wagner, David L.; Fedasko, Bill; Carnahan, J.R.; Brunetti, Ross; Magoon, Leslie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Stanley, Richard G.

2002-01-01

2

Effect of Transport and Aging Processes on Metal Speciation in Iron Oxyhydroxide Aggregates, Tar Creek Superfund Site, Oklahoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the cessation of mining activity in the late 20th century, Tar Creek Superfund Site was left highly contaminated by Pb, Zn, and Cd. Tar Creek, which flows through the site and into the Neosho River, has been studied extensively because of its potential to transport metals from the mining site to downstream communities. Previous research identified aggregated iron oxyhydroxide material, which forms when mine seepage mixes with Tar Creek surface water, as a major transport vector of metals. Frequent flooding in Tar Creek deposits aggregates on downstream floodplains, where wetting and drying processes alter the speciation of iron and other metals. This study seeks to better quantify those changes and to determine how transport and aging affects the human and ecological health risk. Sequential extractions of aggregate samples collected from the creek demonstrate that Fe is present in both amorphous (10-35% of Fe extracted) and more crystalline (8-23% of Fe extracted) phases. Substantial portions of heavy metals sorb to amorphous iron oxyhydroxide phases (accounting for 10-30% of Pb and Zn extracted) but are not associated with more crystalline iron oxide phases (representing only 1% or less of the Pb and Zn extracted). Samples have a high organic matter content (18-25% mass loss on ignition), but only Fe was significantly extracted by the oxidizing step targeting organic matter (1-2% of Pb and Zn extracted, but 10-26% of Fe extracted). The majority of metals were extracted by the soluble or residual steps. If metals and organic matter inhibit transformation of amorphous iron oxyhydroxide material to nano and crystalline iron oxides, then a steady-state volume of amorphous iron oxyhydroxide material with a high total sorption capacity may exist within Tar Creek, enhancing the metal flux accommodated by this transport mechanism. Once transported downstream and deposited on floodplains, however, it is hypothesized that repeated changes in soil matrix composition and thermodynamic conditions could facilitate a transformation to more crystalline iron phases and increase metal bioavailability. While preliminary data from in-creek aggregates show no clear trend in mineralogical composition with downstream transport, only the furthest downstream samples have 2-line ferrihydrite in amounts detectable by XRD.

Estes, E. R.; Schaider, L. A.; Shine, J. P.; Brabander, D. J.

2010-12-01

3

Flow cytometric analysis of red-eared slider turtles ( Trachemys scripta ) from Tar Creek Superfund Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar Creek Superfund Site (TCSFS) was heavily mined from the 1890s to 1970 and currently is contaminated with lead, zinc, and\\u000a cadmium. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to measure variation in nuclear DNA content of red blood cells collected from Trachemys scripta living within TCSFS and reference sites, Lake Carl Blackwell (LCB) and Sequoyah National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR). We also

Kimberly A. Hays; Karen McBee

2007-01-01

4

TAR CREEK SUPERFUND SITE REMEDIATION: COMBINED ROLES FOR BIOMASS, POULTRY LITTER, FLY ASH AND FLU GAS DESULFURIZATION RESIDUES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Tar Creek Superfund site in Northeastern Oklahoma is a large area contaminated from 100 years of lead and zinc mining. In this proposal we focus on developing surface coverage and remediation methods for the 45 million cubic yards of mine tailings, known as chat. The chat h...

5

Chemical analyses of stream sediment in the Tar Creek basin of the Picher mining area, northeast Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chemical analyses are presented for 47 sediment samples from the Tar Creek drainage in the Picher mining area of northeast Oklahoma. The samples were taken in December 1983, June 1984, and June 1985. All of the samples were taken downstream from mine-water discharge points of abandoned lead and zinc mines. The 34 samples taken in December 1983 and June 1984 were analyzed semiquantitatively by emission spectrography for 64 elements and quantitatively for cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, sulfur, zinc, and organic carbon. The 13 samples taken in June 1985 were analyzed quantitatively for aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, phosphorus, lead, sulfur, silicon, titanium, vanadium, zinc, and organic carbon.

Parkhurst, David L.; Doughten, Michael; Hearn, Paul P.

1988-01-01

6

Boulder Creek: A Virtual Field Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents a field lesson that is designed to enhance classroom education about urban resource management issues. The lesson consists of web materials and a self-guided field study of Boulder Creek, located in Boulder, Colorado. By completing this field lesson, students can learn about the tremendous benefits and dangers posed by an important urban-aquatic resource (Boulder Creek). The field study of Boulder Creek has three objectives: to study human-environment interactions in Boulder, CO, to learn basic techniques of fieldwork in geography, and to understand how natural hazards affect life in Boulder, CO. Although the lesson is built around a field excursion to the Boulder Creek area, the information contained in the preview link could stand on its own as an educational tool. Additionally, the information in the preview section includes questions that students can answer without going into the field. For those who are in the Boulder area and can travel to Boulder Creek, twelve stops have been chosen to supplement the online preview material. A map and questions are available for this field excursion. The web site also provides a forum for students to discuss their opinions on human-environment interactions pertaining to the Boulder Creek area.

Hill, A.; Solem, Michael

7

Emissions of tar-containing binders: a laboratory study.  

PubMed

In Switzerland, hot recycling of tar-containing pavements is a subject of much dispute between environmentalists, road authorities and constructors. The main reason for this controversy comes from a lack of knowledge about the amount of hazardous compounds emitted, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the resulting health risk for road workers. On this background we decided to initiate a research project to study the emission behaviour of tar-containing materials. Mixtures of tar and bitumen with variable PAH content were heated in an open reactor flask at different temperatures to identify and quantify the key parameters of PAH emissions. The expected linear correlation between PAH concentration in the fumes and in the binder was found only for binder mixtures with PAH concentrations above 5000 ppm. This was traced back to the problem that a change of the PAH content in the binder was always accompanied by a change of other parameters, like viscosity. In the experiments with temperature variation, emissions of individual PAHs correlated well with vapor pressure. However, for Naphthalene and, in a lesser degree, for 3-ring PAHs too, a partial depletion of these compounds in the vapour was observed in some experiments. The effect is a slower increase with temperature for these compounds compared to 4-6-ring PAHs. This is one reason why the commonly used set of EPA-PAHs, which includes naphthalene and 3-ring PAHs, is considered inappropriate for the assessment of the health hazard in the case of tar-containing materials in hot recycling. PMID:17365290

Hugener, Martin; Emmenegger, Lukas; Mattrel, Peter

2007-02-15

8

Tar Creek: implementation of Superfund. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Commerce, Transportation, and Tourism of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session, June 14, 1982  

SciTech Connect

Nine state and federal witnesses testified in Tulsa, Oklahoma on the situation at the Tar Creek mining dump site and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) efforts to work with state and local officials to find a solution to the health and safety threats of the site designated as the nation's most-hazardous waste site. One issue under consideration was whether Tar Creek, which contains mining rather than chemical wastes, qualifies for Superfund money. Additional materials submitted for the record by federal and state agencies follow the testimony. (DCK)

Not Available

1982-01-01

9

MORES CREEK STUDY, BOISE COUNTY, IDAHO, 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on Mores Creek in Boise County, Idaho (17050112) to determine the present water quality of the stream and obtain background information on effluent limitations development for Idaho City. The study was designed for approxim...

10

OROFINO CREEK STUDY, CLEARWATER COUNTY IDAHO, 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on Orofino Creek in Clearwater County, Idaho (17060306) to determine the present condition of the stream and to assess the impact of point and nonpoint sources. The study involved approximately bi-monthly monitoring for the...

11

ELK CREEK STUDY, IDAHO COUNTY IDAHO, 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1979, the American River, the Red River, and Elk Creek in Idaho County (17060305) were studied to determine their present water quality and to obtain background information on effluent limitations development for the Elk City sewage treatment plant. Quarterly monit...

12

CAMAS CREEK STUDY, CAMAS COUNTY, IDAHO. 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Eutrophication Survey on Magic Reservoir determined that Camas Creek in Camas County, Idaho (17040220) contributed roughly 45% of the total phosphorus load and 34% of the total nitrogen load into Magic Reservoir. From this finding, a water quality study was conducte...

13

DEARY CREEK STUDY, LATAH COUNTY, IDAHO. 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on Mount Deary Creek in Latah County, Idaho (17060306) to determine the present water quality of the stream and to obtain background information to determine effluent limitations for the City of Deary. The survey involved t...

14

Study on Tar Generated from Downdraft Gasification of Oil Palm Fronds  

PubMed Central

One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3) in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC) unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928?g/Nm3 and 1.923?g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study. PMID:24526899

Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Kueh, Soo Chuan; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar

2014-01-01

15

Study on tar generated from downdraft gasification of oil palm fronds.  

PubMed

One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3) in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC) unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928?g/Nm3 and 1.923?g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study. PMID:24526899

Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Kueh, Soo Chuan; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar

2014-01-01

16

A Laboratory Study of Wilmington Tar Zone CO2 Injection Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors conducted a laboratory study of heavy-oil recovery by COâ injection to support the Wilmington, CA tar zone COâ injection project operated by Long Beach Oil Development Co. The study comprised (1) phase behavior of Wilmington tar zone reservoir oil and COâ, and (2) phase behavior of the oil and the refinery gas used for the field project, (3)

Vega Sankur; J. L. Creek; S. S. DiJulio; A. S. Emanuel

1986-01-01

17

Emissions of tar-containing binders: field studies.  

PubMed

This study describes the measurement of emissions during field construction of asphalt pavements using tar-containing recycled asphalt pavement (RAP), which is known to release harmful substances, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). At three different test sites, the main emission sources were identified and the total emission rates of fumes and PAHs of the paving process were determined. For this purpose, the paver was temporarily enclosed. While the screed area was the main emission source, the hopper area and freshly compacted pavement were also significant. In comparison with previous laboratory tests, the binder composition and the resulting emissions were comparable, except for Naphthalene. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as a representative for carcinogenic PAHs was identified as a good leading compound, correlating well with the toxicity weighted sum of PAHs. In contrast, the unweighted, mass related sum of all EPA PAHs does not seem to be a good parameter to assess workplace concentrations because emissions by mass are dominated by the less hazardous 2-, 3- and 4-ring PAHs. Workplace concentrations for bitumen fumes and PAHs were below limit values in all three field studies. However, the margin was not large and the field tests were done under favourable meteorological conditions. Therefore, we suggest maintaining the current Swiss limit of 5000 mg EPA-PAH per kg binder in the RAP-containing hot mix. PMID:19085592

Hugener, Martin; Emmenegger, Lukas; Mattrel, Peter

2009-01-01

18

CITICO CREEK WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, TENNESSEE.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mineral-resource survey of the Citico Creek Wilderness Study Area, in easternmost Tennessee, indicated that the area offers little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Geochemical sampling found traces of gold, copper, cobalt, barium, arsenic, lead, zinc, and thorium in rocks, stream sediments, and panned concentrates, but not in sufficient quantities to indicate the presence of metallic mineral deposits. The only apparent resources are nonmetallic commodities including rock suitable for construction materials, and small amounts of sand and gravel; however, these commodities are found in abundance outside the study area. The potential for oil and natural gas at great depths could not be evaluated by this study. Deep drilling would test the potential for hydrocarbon resources underlying the metamorphic rocks.

Slack, John F.; Behum, Paul T.

1984-01-01

19

FLINT CREEK RANGE WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mineral survey of the Flint Creek Range Wilderness study area, Montana shows the presence of mineral deposits. By far the most important are low-grade, potentially large, contact-metamorphic tungsten deposits. A large stockwork molybdenum deposit is probably low in grade. The areas of these tungsten and molybdenum deposits have substantiated mineral-resource potential. A multimillion ton phosphate-rock deposit occurs in an area of substantiated resource potential in the Permian Phosphoria Formation in the south-central part of the study area. Deposits of massive quartz, perhaps suitable for smelter flux, a demonstrated resource. Small scattered silver- and gold-bearing veins are present, but no resource potential was identified.

Ericksen, George E.; Marks, Lawrence Y.

1984-01-01

20

A feasibility study to use coal tar contaminated soil in asphalt cement mixture production  

SciTech Connect

Coal tars are the residues produced during the gasification of coal. Traditionally, coal tars were buried onsite at the power plants or left as residuals in the bottom of gas holders. Currently, there are more than 1,500 such historic sites which will undergo site assessment in the near future. The use of coal tar residuals in asphalt-based products could result in greatly reduced disposal costs, in comparison to current methods of disposal. Present disposal practice of coal tar contaminated residuals includes disposal in hazardous waste landfills or incineration. Treatment and disposal costs are reported to be as much as $1,000/ton for current coal tar contaminated residuals disposal options. This feasibility study was performed to determine the use of coal tar contaminated soil (CTCS) in bituminous materials to produce hot asphalt mix. Mixtures of varying composition of CTCS and bituminous material were produced to perform TCLP. The air emissions during the mixing process were captured and analyzed. In this study, a bench scale investigation was performed to identify and quantify the emissions from heating the CTCS at the mixer temperature. The pilot scale investigations were performed by replacing reclaimable asphalt pavement (RAP) with CTCS during the hot asphalt mix production. The investigations were performed on two types of mixtures; using CTCS as the direct additive in the first type, and using SS-1 (slow setting asphalt emulsion) stabilized CTCS as an additive in the second type.

Dulam, C.S.; Hoag, G.E.; Dahmani, A.; Nadim, F. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States). Environmental Research Inst.

1996-11-01

21

Solid-phase synthesis and thermal denaturation study of cyclic PNAs targeting the HIV-1 TAR RNA loop.  

PubMed

Cyclic PNAs targeting the HIV-1 TAR RNA loop have been synthesized following a convenient solid-phase strategy which allows on-resin cyclisation. UV-monitored thermal denaturation studies demonstrate that these cyclic PNAs are able to strongly interact with their TAR RNA target, very likely through the formation of a six-base pair stable complex, involving the TAR RNA loop. PMID:17826994

Upert, Gregory; Mehiri, Mohamed; Di Giorgio, Audrey; Condom, Roger; Patino, Nadia

2007-11-01

22

TR-019 Hydrology March 2002 Roberts Creek Study Forest  

E-print Network

TR-019 Hydrology March 2002 Roberts Creek Study Forest: effects of partial retention harvesting, 250-751-7001 Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife Abstract

23

A Case-Control Study of Asphalt and Tar Exposure and Lung Cancer in Minorities  

PubMed Central

Objectives Considerable controversy surrounds the carcinogenic potential of asphalt and tar. Since minority individuals may have had relatively high historical exposures, we investigated asphalt and tar exposure and lung cancer risk among African Americans and Latino Americans. Methods We conducted a case-control study of lung cancer among African Americans and Latino Americans in the San Francisco Bay area (422 cases, 894 controls). A questionnaire was used to obtain detailed work histories and exposure information. Self-reported exposure to asphalt and tar as well as other factors (eg. smoking, automobile exhaust, and asbestos) were evaluated as predictors of lung cancer risk. Potential effect modification by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 was also explored. Results Self-reported duration of exposure to asphalt and tar was associated with a statistically significant excess risk of lung cancer in the overall population (OR: 1.11, 95%CI: 1.01–1.22), evaluating risk per year of exposure. Years of exposure to automobile exhaust (OR: 1.02, 95%CI: 1.00–1.05) and asbestos (OR: 1.04, 95%CI: 1.02–1.06) were also associated with statistically significant elevations in risk. In Latino Americans, the lung cancer risks associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-related exposures were consistently higher in the CYP1A1 wildtype subjects as compared to the variant genotype subjects, and the interaction was statistically significant for smoking and the CYP1A1 M2 polymorphism (p-valueinteraction=0.02). Conclusions These data are consistent with the literature suggesting that exposure to asphalt and tar may increase risk of lung cancer. However, it was not possible to separate the effects and asphalt and tar in this study. PMID:21882217

McClean, Michael D.; Kelsey, Karl T.; Sison, Jennette D; Quesenberry, Charles P; Wrensch, Margaret R; Wiencke, John K.

2011-01-01

24

Gold Creek: An Environmental Studies Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description is provided of the Gold Creek Ecological Reserve, 240 acres of undisturbed land in Northeast Los Angeles County, which serves the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD) as an outdoor laboratory for students and faculty in numerous disciplines. Section I provides introductory information on the reserve and its features, which…

Woodley, Laurel

25

Gold Creek: Preserving an Environmental Studies Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to a Board of Trustees request for information and recommendations concerning the future use of the Gold Creek property owned by the Los Angeles Community College District, this report emphasizes that the use of this site for instructional field experiences enhances the quality of environmental education for the district's diverse…

Brooks, Suzanne

26

FIELD DESCRIPTION Water Oil/Tar Sediment Tissue STUDYNAME Study Name X X X X  

E-print Network

FIELD DESCRIPTION Water Oil/Tar Sediment Tissue STUDYNAME Study Name X X X X QCBATCH Laboratory analysis Group ID X X X X EXSAMPID Investigator's sample identifier X X X X SAMPDATE Date sample collected as YYYYMMDD X X X X SAMPTIME Time sample collected as HH:MM X X X X SITEID Site identifier X X X X STUDYID

27

Skin cancer in patients with psoriasis treated with coal tar. A 25-year follow-up study  

SciTech Connect

For many years, crude coal tar has been used for the treatment of psoriasis. The possible carcinogenic effect of crude coal tar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Goeckerman regimen), considered individually or in combination, has been of some concern to physicians. A 25-year follow-up study was completed on 280 patients with psoriasis who were hospitalized and treated with crude coal tar and UV radiation at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn, during the years 1950 through 1954. The results of this study suggest that the incidence of skin cancer is not appreciably increased above the expected incidence for the general population when patients are treated with coal tar ointments. It seems that the Goeckerman regimen (topical crude coal tar combined with UV radiation) can be used with minimal risk for skin cancer in the treatment of psoriasis.

Pittelkow, M.R.; Perry, H.O.; Muller, S.A.; Maughan, W.Z.; O'Brien, P.C.

1981-08-01

28

JORDAN CREEK STUDY, OWYHEE COUNTY, ID IN 1975-1976  

EPA Science Inventory

A set of 3 intensive surveys was completed on Jordan Creek in Owyhee County, ID (17050108) during August and October 1975 and June 1976. Studies were conducted to determine the water quality condition of the stream and to assess the impact of pollution sources. The study includ...

29

LAPWAI CREEK STUDY, LEWIS AND NEZ PERCE COUNTIES, IDAHO. 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

During Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on the Lapwai Creek in Nez Perce and Lewis Counties, Idaho (17060306) to obtain background information on nonpoint source pollution impacts and for effluent limitation development. The study involved approximately bi-mo...

30

Study of the Horsepen Creek Stream System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To prepare for this lab activity, there are several preceding lectures on the basics of the hydrologic cycle, river systems, and sediment transport. We also introduce the watershed, including city maps of the land use in the area of the creek. Students read the relevant chapter in the textbook beforehand. Students collect the field data from the stream during the first week, and the second week focuses on teaching them to analyze the data, and to use spreadsheets to graph their results. A very detailed, formal report is handed in by each student at the culmination of the project. The field experience requires students to collect and analyze data from four different stations along a local, impacted creek system. At each location students measure velocity and cross-sectional area, which they use to calculate the stream discharge. Students also collect data on the sediments by sieving and weighing samples, which they later use to generate cumulative sediment distribution curves. Water quality collected at each site includes total coliform, turbidity, nitrate concentrations, pH, dissolved oxygen, and temperature. Students are required to discuss all of these factors in their final report, and to assess whether the data are 'as expected' from the lectures and the reading. In addition, students develop and test their own hypothesis about the system. For example, they might choose to investigate whether sites with higher flow velocities correlate with higher sediment sizes. This activity reinforces specific concepts about streamflow and sediment transport, and also illustrates how the field of geology contributes to our understanding of the interaction of humans and their environment.

Angela Moore

31

SF6 Tracer Release Study: A Contaminant Fate Study in Newtown Creek  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newtown Creek is a 5.5km creek that discharges into the East River, a 25km strait connecting Long Island Sound to the north and the New York Harbor to the south. Surface runoff dominates the freshwater input into the creek, for natural tributaries no longer exist. The areas directly adjacent to the creek are highly industrialized, and New York City's largest Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) discharges directly into creek. In August 2004, we injected sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) into Newtown creek to study the fate of oil seeping into the creek from an underground oil spill and the fate of nutrient rich effluent from the WPCP. We monitored SF6 in Newtown Creek, the East River, and the Upper Bay of New York Harbor for 7 consecutive days following the injection in order to investigate the spreading patterns and transport mechanics of waters exiting the creek, and to determine the ultimate fate of the contaminants/solutes originating in Newtown Creek. Dissolved oxygen (DO) measurements were collected simultaneously with SF6 measurements. A strong DO gradient exists in the creek, where waters in the upper reaches are anoxic. We use SF6 data to calculate mean residence times for Newtown Creek waters. SF6 was detected above background concentrations approximately 15km to the south of the creek at the Verrazano Bridge only 1 day after the tracer injection. By combining the movements of the SF6 distribution, the position of the oxygen gradient, and the residence time of Newtown Creek water, we can determine a lower boundary for oxygen consumption rates.

Schmieder, P. J.; Ho, D. T.; Peter, S.; Simpson, H. J.; Flores, S.; Dugan, W. A.

2004-12-01

32

SANTA CREEK, BENEWAH COUNTY, IDAH - EFFLUENT LIMITATION STUDY. 1986  

EPA Science Inventory

A water quality study was initiated on Santa Creek, Idaho (17010304) to determine if new effluent limitations are necessary for the discharge from the City of Emida wastewater lagoon. The City of Emida provides secondary treatment of domestic sewage in an unaerated facultative l...

33

JIM FORD CREEK STUDY, CLEARWATER COUNTY IDAHO. 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on Jim Ford Creek in Clearwater County, Idaho (17060306) to assess the impact of the City of Weippe and Timberline High School discharges, to assess nonpoint source impacts, and to determine the present water quality of the ...

34

CASE STUDY: SEISMIC RETROFIT OF TUTTLE CREEK DAM1 Francke C. Walberg3  

E-print Network

1 CASE STUDY: SEISMIC RETROFIT OF TUTTLE CREEK DAM1 2 Francke C. Walberg3 URS Corporation4 8300 August 1, 201242 #12;2 CASE STUDY: SEISMIC RETROFIT OF TUTTLE CREEK DAM43 44 By: Francke C. Walberg1 Bellew11 47 48 49 ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the seismic retrofit of Tuttle Creek Dam near Manhattan

35

Criteria for coal-tar seal coats on airport pavements. Volume 2. Laboratory and field studies. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Because coal tars are resistant to gasoline and jet fuel, they have been used for many years as a protective coating on asphalt pavements for airport parking areas, ramps, taxiways and runways. Applications include both coal tar emulsions and rubberized coal tar emulsions, applied with sand to provide skid resistance and stability to the seal costs. Volume II of the report includes the results of an experimental Laboratory and field investigation conducted at the University of Nevada at Reno. The focus on the University program was to develop test procedures that would measure workability, scuff, adhesion and fuel resistance properties of coal tar emulsion seal coats. This program developed a method for designing seal coat formulations test procedures that could be used for quality assurance purposes. Volume II includes the test data generated in the study, including measurements made on field sections.

Shook, J.E.; Jenkins, S.W.; Gardiner, M.S.; Newcomb, D.E.; Epps, J.A.

1990-01-01

36

A study on the effect of heat treatment temperature on mesophase development in coal tar pitch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, a zero quinoline insoluble (QI) isotropic coal tar pitch was taken for the preparation of mesophase pitch. The pitch was heated in inert atmosphere at different heat treatment temperatures keeping same heating rate and soaking time to study the formation, growth and coalescence of mesophase spheres in the pitch. Such pitches were characterized for insoluble content (QI & TI), mesophase content, sulphur content, weight loss in inert atmosphere, softening point, coking value (CVC), C/H ratio etc. Results show that the insoluble content (QI & TI) and mesophase content of pitch increase with increase of heat treatment temperature.

Soni, Neha; Shah, Raviraj K.; Shrivastava, Rakesh; Datar, Manoj

2013-06-01

37

A laboratory study of Wilmington tar zone CO/sub 2/ injection project  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory study of heavy oil recovery by CO/sub 2/ injection was undertaken in support of the Wilmington Tar Zone CO/sub 2/ Injection project operated by Long Beach Oil Development Company. The work included: - Phase behavior of Tar Zone reservoir oil and CO/sub 2/. - Phase behavior of Tar Zone reservoir oil and the refinery gas (82% CO/sub 2/ - 18% N/sub 2/) used for the field project. - Viscosity measurements of oil-gas mixtures. - Reservoir condition displacements of oil by CO/sub 2/ and by refinery gas. - Equation of state characterization of phase behavior. - Computer simulation of gas-oil displacements. Saturation pressures and swelling factors were measured for oil-gas mixtures for up to 60 mol % CO/sub 2/ and for up to 50 mol % refinery gas. These measurements show that N/sub 2/ is substantially less soluble in oil than CO/sub 2/. Viscosity measurements show that the viscosity reduction is a function of pressure and the total gas dissolved in the oil. Four reservoir condition corefloods were completed: - Refinery gas injection at 0.22:1 WAG ratio, followed by waterflood. - Continuous CO/sub 2/ injection followed by waterflood. - Continuous refinery gas injection followed by waterflood. - Refinery gas injection at 1:1 WAG ratio, followed by waterflood. These floods showed that 1) the recovery efficiency of CO/sub 2/ is higher than that of the refinery gas for continuous or low WAG injection and 2) the recovery efficiency of the refinery gas at 1:1 WAG is about twice that of continuous injection. The corefloods were modeled with a finite difference compositional simulator. Predictions agree with the experimental results.

Sankur, V.; Creek, J.L.; DiJulio, S.S.; Emanuel, A.S.

1984-04-01

38

A laboratory study of Wilmington tar zone CO/sub 2/ injection project  

SciTech Connect

The authors conducted a laboratory study of heavy-oil recovery by CO/sub 2/ injection to support the Wilmington, CA tar zone CO/sub 2/ injection project operated by Long Beach Oil Development Co. The study comprised (1) phase behavior of Wilmington tar zone reservoir oil and CO/sub 2/, and (2) phase behavior of the oil and the refinery gas used for the field project, (3) viscosity measurements of oil/gas mixtures, (4) reservoir-condition displacements of oil by CO/sub 2/ and by refinery gas, (5) equation-of-state characterization of phase behavior, and (6) computer simulation of gas/oil displacements. Saturation pressures and swelling factors were measured for oil/gas mixtures, which showed that N/sub 2/ is substantially less soluble in oil than is CO/sub 2/. Viscosity measurements show that the viscosity reduction is a function of pressure and of the total gas dissolved in the oil. Four reservoir-condition corefloods showed that the recovery efficiency of CO/sub 2/ is higher than that of the refinery gas for continuous or low WAG injection, and the recovery efficiency of the refinery gas at 1:1 WAG is about twice that of continuous injection. The corefloods were modeled with a finite-difference compositional simulator. Predictions agree with the experimental results.

Sankur, V.; Creek, J.L.; DiJulio, S.S.; Emanuel, A.S.

1986-01-01

39

Case study of worker exposure to coal tar containing paving materials on a routine paving project in Iowa  

SciTech Connect

The potential for unknown exposure of present day highway paving workers to coal tar products is of concern to the asphalt paving industry. A case study describing this type of situation is the subject of this report. The project specifications called for the contractor to pulverize and re-compact the three 230 mm of existing pavement and then pave the pulverized layer with a new HMA layer. Discovery of the presence of mix containing coal tar in the bottom 75 mm of the existing pavement led to a redesign of the project. A decision was made to mill only the upper most 75 to 87 mm of pavement to isolate the coal tar mix from the workers. Initial analysis of bitumen extracted from cores of the top 88 mm of pavement did not show the presence of coal tar chemicals. However, samplers mounted on the equipment for 6 hrs during the redesigned milling process shoed the presence of coal tar type chemicals extracted form the bitumen coated dust particles capture don the samplers using infrared and GC/MS analysis.

Reinke, G.; Glidden, S. [Mathy Technology and Engineering Services, Onalaska, WI (United States)

2007-01-15

40

Topical tar: Back to the future  

SciTech Connect

The use of medicinal tar for dermatologic disorders dates back to the ancient times. Although coal tar is utilized more frequently in modern dermatology, wood tars have also been widely employed. Tar is used mainly in the treatment of chronic stable plaque psoriasis, scalp psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis, either alone or in combination therapy with other medications, phototherapy, or both. Many modifications have been made to tar preparations to increase their acceptability, as some dislike its odor, messy application, and staining of clothing. One should consider a tried and true treatment with tar that has led to clearing of lesions and prolonged remission times. Occupational studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity of tar; however, epidemiologic studies do not confirm similar outcomes when used topically. This article will review the pharmacology, formulations, efficacy, and adverse effects of crude coal tar and other tars in the treatment of selected dermatologic conditions.

Paghdal, K.V.; Schwartz, R.A. [University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States)

2009-08-15

41

Topical tar: back to the future.  

PubMed

The use of medicinal tar for dermatologic disorders dates back to the ancient times. Although coal tar is utilized more frequently in modern dermatology, wood tars have also been widely employed. Tar is used mainly in the treatment of chronic stable plaque psoriasis, scalp psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis, either alone or in combination therapy with other medications, phototherapy, or both. Many modifications have been made to tar preparations to increase their acceptability, as some dislike its odor, messy application, and staining of clothing. One should consider a tried and true treatment with tar that has led to clearing of lesions and prolonged remission times. Occupational studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity of tar; however, epidemiologic studies do not confirm similar outcomes when used topically. This article will review the pharmacology, formulations, efficacy, and adverse effects of crude coal tar and other tars in the treatment of selected dermatologic conditions. PMID:19185953

Paghdal, Kapila V; Schwartz, Robert A

2009-08-01

42

Coal tar phototherapy for psoriasis reevaluated: erythemogenic versus suberythemogenic ultraviolet with a tar extract in oil and crude coal tar  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies have questioned the therapeutic value of coal tar versus ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their relative necessity in phototherapy for psoriasis. In this investigation, different aspects of tar phototherapy have been studied in single-blind bilateral paired comparison studies. The effects of 1% crude coal tar were compared with those of petrolatum in conjunction with erythemogenic and suberythemogenic doses of ultraviolet light (UVB) using a FS72 sunlamp tubed cabinet. Crude coal tar was clinically superior to petrolatum with suberythemogenic ultraviolet. With the erythemogenic UVB, petrolatum was equal in efficacy to crude coal tar. Suberythemogenic UVB was also used adjunctively to compare the effects of a 5% concentration of a tar extract in an oil base to 5% crude coal tar in petrolatum or the oil base without tar. The tar extract in oil plus suberythemogenic UVB produced significantly more rapid improvement than the oil base plus UVB. The direct bilateral comparison of equal concentrations of tar extract in oil base versus crude coal tar in petrolatum in a suberythemogenic UV photo regimen revealed no statistical differences between treatments. In a study comparing tar extract in oil and the oil base without ultraviolet radiation, the tar extract in oil side responded more rapidly.

Lowe, N.J.; Wortzman, M.S.; Breeding, J.; Koudsi, H.; Taylor, L.

1983-06-01

43

Mineral resources of the Fifteen Mile Creek, Oregon Canyon, Twelve Mile Creek, and Willow Creek Wilderness Study Areas, Malheur and Harney counties, Oregon  

SciTech Connect

The four contiguous study areas are located in a volcanic terrane dominated by tuffs that were erupted from calderas of the McDermitt Caldera complex and the Whitehorse Caldera. None of these areas have identified resources, despite the proximity of mercury, uranium, and lithium mineralization to the south. The southern parts of the Fifteen Mile Creek and the Oregon Canyon Wilderness Study Areas have a low potential for mercury and uranium. The southern parts of the Fifteen Mile Creek, Oregon Canyon, and Willow Creek and the northwestern part of the Oregon Wilderness Study Areas have low potential for antimony, bismuth, mercury, silver,molybdenum, and zinc. In the Oregon Canyon Wilderness Study Area, the tuff of Oregon Canyon and the rim of the caldera of the McDermitt Caldera complex have a low potential for gold and silver in epithermal veins. The study areas have a low potential for zeolite minerals, oil and gas, and geothermal energy throughout, and restricted parts of the study areas have a low potential for pumice, rare-earth elements, zirconium, and decorative building stone.

Peterson, J.A.; Rytuba, J.J.; Plouff, D.; Vercountere, T.L.; Turner, R.L.; Sawatzky, D.L. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)); Leszcykowski, A.M.; Peters, T.J.; Schmauch, S.W.; Winters, R.A. (US Bureau of Mines (US))

1988-01-01

44

Study on kinetic model of microwave thermocatalytic treatment of biomass tar model compound.  

PubMed

Kinetic model parameters for toluene conversion under microwave thermocatalytic treatment were evaluated. The kinetic rate constants were determined using integral method based on experimental data and coupled with Arrhenius equation for obtaining the activation energies and pre-exponential factors. The model provides a good agreement with the experimental data. The kinetic model was also validated with standard error of 3% on average. The extrapolation of the model showed a reasonable trend to predict toluene conversion and product yield both in thermal and catalytic treatments. Under microwave irradiation, activation energy of toluene conversion was lower in the range of 3-27 kJ mol(-1) compared to those of conventional heating reported in the literatures. The overall reaction rate was six times higher compared to conventional heating. As a whole, the kinetic model works better for tar model removal in the absence of gas reforming within a level of reliability demonstrated in this study. PMID:24231266

Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z A

2014-01-01

45

Hydrodynamic and geomorphological controls on suspended sediment transport in mangrove creek systems, a case study: Cocoa Creek, Townsville, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In tide-dominated sedimentary systems, close relationships exist between tidal hydrodynamics, sediment transport and geomorphology. Tropical coastlines contain many tide-dominated mangrove creeks, yet few studies to date have examined the detail of such relationships for these environments. Time-series observations of tidal height, currents and suspended sediment concentrations were taken between 1992 and 1996 in Cocoa Creek, a mangrove creek system near Townsville, NE Australia. The creek and surrounding mangrove swamps and salt flats were surveyed with an echo-sounder and total survey station, respectively. For 'within-channel' tides, the flood tide is always the fastest, at up to 0.5 m s -1. In contrast, for overbank tides (i.e. tidal height > + 1.5 m Australian Height Datum, AHD) ebb currents are fastest in July, December and January, but flood currents are fastest in August and September, at up to 1 m s -1 in both cases. The tidal asymmetry of overbank tides in Cocoa Creek is controlled by the interaction between offshore tidal forcing and the intertidal storage effect of the mangrove swamps and salt flats, with the result being that during certain periods of the year there tends to be a predominance of either faster flood or ebb velocities on overbank tides. Significant tidal suspended sediment transport in the channel is only initiated at overbank height. On overbank tides, measured net suspended sediment fluxes in the channel are mostly seaward-directed (up to 180 t per tidal cycle). However, the net flux measured over a neap-spring period may be either landwards or seawards (up to 465 and 60 t, respectively). Furthermore, on the larger overbank tides (where the maximum tidal height >+1.85 m AHD) net sediment fluxes may be reduced because of a limited supply of available material. Thus hydrodynamic and sediment sampling durations of up to a month may not be representative of long-term trends. Given that our large dataset has not identified a clear long-term net transport direction within the creek system, we conclude tentatively that the geomorphology of Cocoa Creek may be near a long-term equilibrium.

Bryce, S.; Larcombe, P.; Ridd, P. V.

2003-03-01

46

Tar sand  

SciTech Connect

Research on tar sand is briefly discussed. The research program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes a variety of surface extraction schemes. The University of Utah has process development units (PDU) employing fluidized bed, hot, water-assisted, and fluidized-bed/heat-pipe, coupled combustor technology. Considerable process variable test data have been gathered on these systems: (1) a rotary kiln unit has been built recently; (2) solvent extraction processing is being examined; and (3) an advanced hydrogenation upgrading scheme (hydropyrolysis) has been developed. The University of Arkansas, in collaboration with Diversified Petroleum, Inc., has been working on a fatty acid, solvent extraction process. Oleic acid is the solvent/surfactant. Solvent is recovered by adjusting processing fluid concentrations to separate without expensive operations. Western Research Institute has a PDU-scale scheme called the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process, which combines solvent (hot recycle bitumen) and pyrolytic extraction. 14 refs., 19 figs.

McLendon, T.R.; Bartke, T.C.

1990-01-01

47

Tar sands  

SciTech Connect

The four largest oil sand deposits contain over 90% of the world's known heavy oil. The total heavy oil and bitumen in place, estimated at nearly 6 trillion barrels is almost entirely concentrated in western Canada, principally Alberta, and eastern Venezuela. The known tar sand resource in the United States consists of about 550 occurrences located in 22 states. The total oil in place in 39 of these occurrences is estimated to be between 23.7 billion and 32.7 billion barrels. At least 90% of this resource is located in Utah. Other significant deposits are in Texas, New Mexico, California, and Kentucky. Bituminous sand deposits and petroleum-impregnated rocks are found in Malagasy, Albania, Rumania, the USSR, and Trinidad. 4 figures, 2 tables. (DP)

Wennekers, J.H.N.

1981-10-01

48

An Exploratory Study of Inhalers and Injectors Who Used Black Tar Heroin  

PubMed Central

Aims To undertake an exploratory study to examine the characteristics of patients in narcotic treatment programs who started their use of black tar heroin either as inhalers or as injectors and to compare them with those who started as inhalers but shifted to injecting. Other studies in this area have used subjects using other forms of heroin more amenable to inhaling. Participants, Design, and Measurement A purposive sample of 199 patients in 6 methadone programs in Texas were interviewed in 2002-2003 using a structured instrument. Findings At admission to treatment, those who were heroin inhalers were more likely to be African American, to live with their families, to have income from wages, and to report fewer days of problems on most of the ASI measures. Those who shifted from inhaling to injecting were more likely to be Hispanic and to have had mental health problems that interfered with their lives and to have had less nurturing while growing up. Injectors were older at this treatment admission, had more treatment episodes and more times in jail, and were more likely to have hepatitis C, AIDS, or gonorrhea. There were high levels of physical and mental problems and histories of traumatization as children and adults for almost all the respondents. Males were as likely as females to have been sexually abused as children or as adults. Conclusions The high rates of mental and physical problems among all the clients interviewed showed the need for comprehensive services to be delivered within the substance abuse treatment programs. Histories of trauma and sexual abuse should be addressed for both male and female clients. PMID:21552428

Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Spence, Richard T.

2011-01-01

49

Dual bed reactor for the study of catalytic biomass tars conversion  

SciTech Connect

A dual fixed bed laboratory scale set up has been used to compare the activity of a novel Rh/LaCoO{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst to that of dolomite, olivine and Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, typical catalysts used in fluidized bed biomass gasification, to convert tars produced during biomass devolatilization stage. The experimental apparatus allows the catalyst to be operated under controlled conditions of temperature and with a real gas mixture obtained by the pyrolysis of the biomass carried out in a separate fixed bed reactor operated under a selected and controlled heating up rate. The proposed catalyst exhibits much better performances than conventional catalysts tested. It is able to completely convert tars and also to strongly decrease coke formation due to its good redox properties. (author)

Ammendola, P.; Piriou, B.; Lisi, L.; Ruoppolo, G.; Chirone, R.; Russo, G. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione - CNR, P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

2010-04-15

50

WARM SPRINGS CREEK GEOTHERMAL STUDY, BLAIN COUNTY IDAHO, 1987  

EPA Science Inventory

In the Warm Springs Creek drainage near Ketchum, Idaho (17040219), a leaking pipeline coveys geothermal water through the valley to heat nearby homes as well as to supply a resorts swimming pool. Several domestic wells in close proximity to this line have exhibited increasing fl...

51

The battle of Sailor's Creek: a study in leadership  

E-print Network

The Battle of Sailor's Creek, 6 April 1865, has been overshadowed by Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House several days later, yet it is an example of the Union military war machine reaching its apex of war making ability during the Civil War...

Smith, Cloyd Allen, Jr.

2007-04-25

52

Marine ecological habitat: a case study on projected thermal power plant around Dharamtar Creek, India.  

PubMed

Estuaries and tidal creeks, harboring mangroves particularly, face tremendous anthropogenic pressures. Expansion of mega cities and the thermal power plants are generally proposed in the vicinity of estuaries and creek, due to the feasibility of intake and discharge of water for cooling. Discharges from such developments remain constant threat of increasing thermal pollution and affecting the quality of environment. The baseline information on prevailing quality of aquatic environment comes handy for understanding alterations due to such activities. Principle component analysis (PCA) revealed that temperature, pH, salinity, suspended solids, DO, BOD and phaeophytins are major parameters influencing the creek system. Heated effluents may have direct and adverse impacts on these parameters, altering biotic constituents. Hence, periodic and detailed observations are necessary to estimate exact response of biotic communities to changing environment. The present paper is based on case study, projecting a power plant in the vicinity of major mangrove habitats of Dharamtar creek. PMID:21882658

Kulkarni, Vikrant A; Naidu, Velamala S; Jagtap, Tanaji G

2011-03-01

53

Additional mineral resources assessment of the Battle Creek, Bruneau River, Deep Creek-Owyhee River, Jarbidge River, Juniper Creek, Little Owyhee River, North Fork Owyhee River, Owyhee River Canyon, South Fork Owyhee River, Upper Deep Creek, and Yatahoney Creek Wilderness Study Areas, Owyhee County, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1984 to 1986, studies were conducted to assess the potential for undiscovered mineral resources in wilderness study areas on the Owyhee Plateau. The results of these studies have been published in a series of U.S. Geological Survey Bulletins. Since that time, low-grade, high-tonnage epithermal hot-spring gold-silver deposits have been recognized in the region north of the wilderness study areas. The recognition that this mineral-deposit model is applicable in the region, coupled with new data that has become available to the U.S. Geological Survey, reinterpretation of existing geochemical data, and known-deposit data suggest that similar deposits may be present elsewhere on the Owyhee Plateau. This report is an additional assessment of the Battle Creek, Bruneau River, Deep Creek-Owyhee River, Jarbidge River, Juniper Creek, Little Owyhee River, North Fork Owyhee River, Owyhee River Canyon, South Fork Owyhee River (ID-016-053), Upper Deep Creek, and Yatahoney Creek Wilderness Study Areas in Idaho Wilderness Study Areas in Idaho in light of those new data.

Diggles, Michael F.; Berger, Byron R.; Vander Meulen, Dean B.; Minor, Scott A.; Ach, Jay A.; Sawlan, Michael G.

1989-01-01

54

south santa clara valley hIstorIcal ecoloGy stuDy including Soap lake, the upper pajaro river, and llagaS, uvaS-carnadero, and pacheco creekS  

E-print Network

, and llagaS, uvaS-carnadero, and pacheco creekS p r e p a r e d f o r t h e S a n t a c l a r a v a l l e y w Creek Llagas Creek Uvas-Carnadero Cr. Uvas-Carnadero Cr. S A N M A R T I N San Felipe Lake Tequisquita Study, including Soap Lake, the Upper Pajaro River, and Llagas, Uvas-Carnadero, and Pacheco Creeks

55

BIG CANYON CREEK STUDY, LEWIS AND NEZ PERCE COUNTIES, IDAHO, 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In the 1979 water year, a water quality study was completed on Big Canyon Creek in Lewis and Nez Perce Counties, Idaho (17060306). The study was conducted to obtain background information for development of effluent limitations for the Cities of Peck and Nezperce and to determin...

56

HANGMEN CREEK, BENEWAH COUNTY, IDAHO - POST BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IMPLEMENTATION STUDY, 1989-1990  

EPA Science Inventory

A study completed in 1982 established the baseline water quality status of Hangman Creek, Idaho (17010306) and recommended land management changes for the watershed. The main objective of this follow-up study was to evaluate differences in water quality for the 1981-1982 baselin...

57

Mineral resources of the Spring Creek Canyon Wilderness Study Area, Iron County, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986 and 1987 the US Geological Survey and the US Bureau of Mines appraised the mineral resources and the mineral resource potential of the Spring Creek Canyon Wilderness Study Area in southwestern Utah. This study area contains principally Mesozoic sedimentary rocks exposed along the Hurricane Fault and in canyons adjacent to Zion National Park. Inferred subeconomic resources of common

R. E. Van Loenen; H. R. Jr. Blank; E. G. Sable; G. K. Lee; K. L. Cook; J. E. Zelten

1989-01-01

58

Thermodynamic studies of a series of homologous HIV-1 TAR RNA ligands reveal that loose binders are stronger Tat competitors than tight ones  

PubMed Central

RNA is a major drug target, but the design of small molecules that modulate RNA function remains a great challenge. In this context, a series of structurally homologous ‘polyamide amino acids’ (PAA) was studied as HIV-1 trans-activating response (TAR) RNA ligands. An extensive thermodynamic study revealed the occurence of an enthalpy–entropy compensation phenomenon resulting in very close TAR affinities for all PAA. However, their binding modes and their ability to compete with the Tat fragment strongly differ according to their structure. Surprisingly, PAA that form loose complexes with TAR were shown to be stronger Tat competitors than those forming tight ones, and thermal denaturation studies demonstrated that loose complexes are more stable than tight ones. This could be correlated to the fact that loose and tight ligands induce distinct RNA conformational changes as revealed by circular dichroism experiments, although nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments showed that the TAR binding site is the same in all cases. Finally, some loose PAA also display promising inhibitory activities on HIV-infected cells. Altogether, these results lead to a better understanding of RNA interaction modes that could be very useful for devising new ligands of relevant RNA targets. PMID:23605042

Pascale, Lise; Azoulay, Stéphane; Di Giorgio, Audrey; Zenacker, Laura; Gaysinski, Marc; Clayette, Pascal; Patino, Nadia

2013-01-01

59

Steam-Reforming Characteristics of Heavy and Light Tars Derived from Cellulose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, tar formation and steam-reforming mechanisms are discussed by separating the tars into heavy, middle, and light tars. Cellulose was heated in a drop-tube furnace under an Ar or Ar/steam atmosphere. After the tars were passed through the furnace for thermal cracking and polymerization, they were trapped by filters set at different temperatures (573, 393, and 273 K), and were respectively defined as heavy, middle, and light tars. Incondensable volatiles and gaseous products were measured using gas chromatography with thermal conductivity (GC-TCD), and flame ionization (GC-FID) detectors. The middle and light tars obtained under an Ar atmosphere were first characterized using time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). The analysis showed that the middle tar did not contain any low-boiling-point light tar components, while the light tar did contain them. It was also found that complex species in the tars were separated to a certain degree by changing the trap temperature. Moreover, the formation of heavy tar was quite different from that of the light tar. With increasing temperature, the formation of heavy tar was inhibited, while that of the light tar was enhanced during pyrolysis. The steam-reforming characteristics of these tars were also different. The heavy tar was barely reformed at a low temperature of 873 K, even with a long residence time, while the middle tar was well reformed by steam. While it was difficult to describe the tar formation and steam-reforming characteristics when the tar was considered as a single condensable matter, the tar formation and steam-reforming characteristics were clarified by separating the tars. This study shows that, to prevent tar emissions, the formation of heavy tar, which barely reacts with steam, should be inhibited during pyrolysis by controlling the heating.

Watanabe, Hirotatsu; Morinaga, Yosuke; Okazaki, Ken

60

Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Field Activities Conducted on Clear and Pete King Creeks, 2002 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 2002 the Idaho Fisheries Resource Office continued working as a cooperator on the Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project on Pete King and Clear creeks. Data relating to supplementation treatment releases, juvenile sampling, juvenile PIT tagging, broodstock spawning and rearing, spawning ground surveys, and snorkel surveys were used to evaluate the project data points and augment past data. Supplementation treatments included the release of 51,329 left ventral-clipped smolts into Clear Creek (750 were PIT tagged), and 12,000 unmarked coded-wire tagged parr into Pete King Creek (998 were PIT tagged). Using juvenile collection methods, Idaho Fisheries Resource Office staff PIT tagged and released 579 naturally produced spring chinook juveniles in Clear Creek, and 54 on Pete King Creek, for minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam. For Clear Creek, minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam of hatchery produced supplementation and naturally produced PIT tagged smolts, were 36.0%, and 53.1%, respectively. For Pete King Creek, minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam, of hatchery produced supplementation smolts and naturally produced smolts PIT tagged as parr and presmolts, were 18.8%, and 8.3%, respectively. Adults collected for broodstock in 2002 represented the final adult broodstock group collected for the ISS project. Twenty-six ventral clipped, and 28 natural adult spring chinook were transported above the weir. Monitoring and evaluation of spawning success was continued on Clear and Pete King creeks. A total of 69 redds were counted and 79 carcasses were recovered on Clear Creek. Two redds were observed and no carcasses were collected on Pete King Creek.

Bretz, Justin K.; Olson, Jill M. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

2003-03-01

61

Basics of compounding with tars.  

PubMed

Tar has been used throughout history for numerous purposes; from sealing the hulls of ships to sealing roofs of dwellings and even for medical purposes. Produced by destructive distillation, commonly used tars are prepared from coal and wood. Coal tar, juniper tar, and pine tar are used for various medical purposes as described in the article. Also presented are the various characteristics and uses of each tar, along with commercial products and numerous compounding formulas. Techniques used to compound with tars are also presented. PMID:24459787

Allen, Loyd V

2013-01-01

62

Water quality study of the Riley Creek (Blanchard River, Ottawa, Ohio)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riley Creek in northwest central Ohio is one of the most heavily impacted tributaries in the Blanchard River watershed. Anthropogenic inputs of phosphorus and nitrogen from agriculture have led to heavy eutrophication over the past decades. Because the Blanchard River is part of the Lake Erie basin, controls on phosphorus and nitrogen, among other inputs, are critical for restoration of ecosystem health in Lake Erie. A previous study in the Riley Creek watershed has shown high historical loadings of both nitrogen and phosphorus. Additionally, bacterial impairment has been noted in the watershed, from both municipal sources and failing septic tanks. This study is the most recent data detailing water quality parameters both chemical and microbiological in Riley Creek. This is also the first data set in Riley Creek examining the spectral characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM). From May to August, 2012, dissolved oxygen concentrations at six sites in the watershed declined from a maximum of 13.2 mg/L (154% O2 saturation) to 1.1 mg/L (12.9%). Median dissolved oxygen during the same period was 5.96 mg/L. Water pH was relatively steady, ranging from 8.6 to 7.9, with values generally declining with time. All six sites were found to have nitrate concentrations above the enforcement target (1 mg/L NO3--N) at various times, with four out of 73 samples falling below this value. Dissolved reactive phosphorus was generally low, with concentrations ranging from 0.074 mg P/L to below detection limits (<0.005 mg P/L). Dissolved organic matter concentrations (measured as mg C/L, potassium hydrogen phthalate equivalent) ranged from 24.1 to 3.5 mg C/L (mean = 9.8 ± 3.8 mg C/L), with no apparent temporal trends. Spectral slope ratios, a proxy for molecular mass, were relatively constant at 0.9 ± 0.2, with only intermittent excursions. No correlation to either flow or time was observed. Tests for fecal coliform bacteria were almost universally positive at all sites, with 10 of 69 samples showing a presumptive positive with presence-absence broth. Overall, the health of the Riley Creek watershed appears to be either stable or declining. Phosphorus and nitrogen loadings have not shown any appreciable change over approximately the past decade. Declines in dissolved oxygen were not noted in previous studies, and may signal an emerging problem in the watershed.

Spiese, C. E.; Berry, J. M.

2012-12-01

63

Tar loads on Omani beaches  

SciTech Connect

Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches.

Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T. (National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt))

1991-11-01

64

Final safety assessment of Coal Tar as used in cosmetics.  

PubMed

Coal Tar is a semisolid by-product obtained in the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, which functions in cosmetic products as a cosmetic biocide and denaturant--antidandruff agent is also listed as a function, but this is considered an over-the-counter (OTC) drug use. Coal Tar is a nearly black, viscous liquid, heavier than water, with a naphthalene-like odor and a sharp burning taste, produced in cooking ovens as a by-product in the manufacture of coke. Crude Coal Tar is composed of 48% hydrocarbons, 42% carbon, and 10% water. In 2002, Coal Tar was reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in four formulations, all of which appear to be OTC drug products. Coal Tar is monographed by the FDA as Category I (safe and effective) OTC drug ingredient for use in the treatment of dandruff, seborrhoea, and psoriasis. Coal Tar is absorbed through the skin of animals and humans and is systemically distributed. In short-term studies, mice fed a diet containing Coal Tar found it unpalatable, but no adverse effects were reported other than weight loss; rats injected with Coal Tar experienced malaise in one study and decreased water intake and increased liver weights in another; rabbits injected with Coal Tar residue experienced eating avoidance, respiratory difficulty, sneezing, and weight loss. In a subchronic neurotoxicity study using mice, a mixture of phenols, cresols, and xylenols at concentrations approximately equal to those expected in Coal Tar extracts produced regionally selective effects, with a rank order of corpus striatum > cerebellum > cerebral cortex. Coal Tar applied to the backs of guinea pigs increases epidermal thickness. Painting female rabbits with tar decreases the absolute and relative weights of the ovaries and decreased the number of interstitial cells in the ovary. Four therapeutic Coal Tar preparations used in the treatment of psoriasis were mutagenic in the Ames assay. Urine and blood from patients treated with Coal Tar were genotoxic in bacterial assays. Coal Tar was genotoxic in a mammalian genotoxicity assay and induced DNA adducts in various tissue types. Chronic exposure of mice to Coal Tar significantly decreased survival and liver neoplasms were seen in a significant dose-related trend; in other studies using mice lung tumors and perianal skin cancers were found. Coal Tar was comedogenic in three small clinical studies. Folliculitis is associated with the prolonged use of some tars. Several published reports describe cases of contact sensitivity to Coal Tar. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which make up Coal Tar, are photosensitizers and cause phototoxicity by an oxygen-dependent mechanism. A retrospective study of the reproductive toxicity of Coal Tar in humans compared exposed women to controls and found little difference in spontaneous abortion and congenital disorders. Cancer epidemiology studies of patients who have received Coal Tar therapy of one form or other have failed to link treatment with an increase in the risk of cancer. Although the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel believes that Coal Tar use as an antidandruff ingredient in OTC drug preparations is adequately addressed by the FDA regulations, the Panel also believes that the appropriate concentration of use of Coal Tar in cosmetic formulations should be that level that does not have a biological effect in the user. Additional data needed to make a safety assessment include product types in which Coal Tar is used (other than as an OTC drug ingredient), use concentrations, and the maximum concentration that does not induce a biological effect in users. PMID:18830861

2008-01-01

65

CSO DISINFECTION PILOT STUDY: SPRING CREEK CSO STORAGE FACILITY UPGRADE  

EPA Science Inventory

This research summary presents the results of a pilot-scale disinfection study performed for the New York City Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) under a contract to Camp Dresser & McKee of Woodbury, New York. The main ob...

66

Properties of Utah tar sands: Threemile Canyon area, P. R. Spring deposit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of detailed analyses of 4 cores from the Threemile Canyon area in the P.R. Spring tar sand deposit in Utah are reported by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. The cores were obtained by the Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey as part of a 17-corehole evaluation program in the P.R. Spring, Hill Creek, and Rim Rock tar sand deposits. Average

L. C. Marchant; L. A. Johnson; C. Q. Cupps

1974-01-01

67

An insoluble residue study of the Cretaceous Cow Creek Limestone of Central Texas  

E-print Network

rendered by Drs. M. C. Schroeder, D. K. Device, and W. R. Bryant and Mr. J. D. Simpson during preparation of this thesis are gratefully acknowledged. The Cow Creek Limestone was suggested for study by Mr. D. H. Camnbell whose aid was thorough- ly...-size Fraction 28 Quartz Feldspar. Chert Trace minerals Constituents of the Silt-clay Fraction FELDSPAR AND CHERT ? QUARTZ RATIOS ZONATION AND CORRELATION. 28 29 31 32 36 39 Field Evidence. The upper cross-bedded limestone. The middle arenaceous...

Morton, William Rogers

1967-01-01

68

Tar contamination on beaches in Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar pollution on Curaçao beaches was monitored at 10 stations around the island on monthly visits for 14 months. Accumulated tar at stations in coastal areas susceptible to tar pollution (the wave-exposed northeast coast and the industrial, central south-west coast) averaged 954 ± 779 g m?1 (SD), excluding the most grossly polluted study site. Two wave-sheltered southwest coast beaches lying

Adolphe O. Debrot; John E. Bradshaw; Aubrey B. Tiel

1995-01-01

69

Absorptive removal of biomass tar using water and oily materials.  

PubMed

Water is the most common choice of absorption medium selected in many gasification systems. Because of poor solubility of tar in water, hydrophobic absorbents (diesel fuel, biodiesel fuel, vegetable oil, and engine oil) were studied on their absorption efficiency of biomass tar and compared with water. The results showed that only 31.8% of gravimetric tar was removed by the water scrubber, whereas the highest removal of gravimetric tar was obtained by a vegetable oil scrubber with a removal efficiency of 60.4%. When focusing on light PAH tar removal, the absorption efficiency can be ranked in the following order; diesel fuel>vegetable oil>biodiesel fuel>engine oil>water. On the other hand, an increase in gravimetric tar was observed for diesel fuel and biodiesel fuel scrubbers because of their easy evaporation. Therefore, the vegetable oil is recommended as the best absorbent to be used in gasification systems. PMID:20801021

Phuphuakrat, Thana; Namioka, Tomoaki; Yoshikawa, Kunio

2011-01-01

70

Collection of short papers on Beaver Creek watershed studies in West Tennessee, 1989-94  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey began a scientific investigation to evaluate the effect of agricultural activities on water quality and the effectiveness of agricultural best management practices in the Beaver Creek watershed, West Tennessee. The project is being conducted jointly with other Federal, State, county agencies, the farming community, and academic institutions, in support of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Hydrologic Unit Area program. The Beaver Creek project has evolved into a long-term watershed assessment and monitoring program. In 1991, a grant was received to develop and evaluate sampling strategies for higher order streams. During the summer of 1992, a reconnaissance of water-quality conditions for the shallow aquifers in Shelby, Tipton, Fayette, and Haywood Counties was conducted and included 89 domestic wells in the Beaver Creek watershed. Results from this effort lead to the development of a 1-year program to evaluate cause- and-effect relations that can explain the observed water-quality conditions for the shallow aquifers in the watershed. In 1992 the USGS, in cooperation with the Soil Conservation Service and the Shelby County Soil Conservation District, began an evaluation of in-stream processes and in-stream resource-management systems. In 1993, a biomonitoring program was established in the watershed. This collection of eight articles and abstracts was originally published in the American Water Resources Association National Symposium on Water Quality Proceedings for the national conference held in Chicago in 1994 and describes what has been learned in the study to date.

Doyle, W. Harry., (compiler); Baker, Eva G.

1995-01-01

71

Environmental flow studies of the Fort Collins Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey-Cherry Creek, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At the request of the U.S. Forest Service, an instream flow assessment was conducted at Cherry Creek, Ariz., to investigate habitat for native and introduced fish species and to describe the beneficial use of a possible instream flow water right. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fort Collins Science Center performed an intensive field study of two sections of Cherry Creek in September 2008 to provide base data for hydrodynamic simulation of the flow conditions in the stream. The USGS Arizona Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, at the University of Arizona School of Natural Resources, conducted a survey of the habitat requirements of the resident fish species in Cherry Creek and provided the habitat suitability criteria used in this study. The habitat suitability criteria were combined with hydrodynamic simulation results to quantify fish habitat for the full range of daily flow experienced in the creek and to produce maps of habitat occurrence for those flows. The flow record at the Cherry Creek stream gage was used to generate habitat response values over time. The long-term habitat response was incorporated into an Excel (Registered) spreadsheet to allow evaluation of habitat occurrence with and without an instream water right under different hypothetical water withdrawal scenarios. The spreadsheet displays information about the time sequence of habitat events, the duration of critical events, and habitat retention.

Waddle, Terry J.; Bovee, Ken D.

2010-01-01

72

Preliminary hydrologic budget studies, Indian Creek watershed and vicinity, Western Paradox Basin, Utah  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary quantitative estimates of ground-water discharge into the Colorado River System in the western Paradox Basin were prepared on the basis of existing climatological and streamflow records. Ground-water outflow to the river was deduced as a residual from hydrologic budget equations for two different study areas: (1) the region between gaging stations at Cisco, Green River, and Hite, Utah; and (2) the Indian Creek watershed. An empirical correlation between recharge rates and precipitation amounts derived for several basins in eastern Nevada was applied to estimate recharge amounts for the Indian Creek watershed. A simple Darcian flow model was then used to approximate the ground-water flux outward from the watershed for comparison. Salinity measurements in the Colorado River were also used to approximate ground-water outflow to a river reach in Cataract Canyon in order to provide another comparison with the hydrologic budget results. Although these estimates should be considered only gross approximations, all approaches used provide values of ground-water outflow that are much less than estimates of similar parameters provided by the US Geological Survey in recent hydrologic reconnaissance reports. Estimates contained herein will be refined in future numerical modeling and data collection studies.

Thackston, J.W.; Mangarella, P.A.; Preslo, L.M.

1986-05-01

73

Mineral resources of the Owl Creek Wilderness Study Area, Hot Springs County, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, 710 acres of the Owl Creek Wilderness Study Area were studied for mineral endowment. Field and labortory studies were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines. A search of U.S. Bureau of Land Management, State, and county records showed no current or previous mining claim activity and, other than common-variety sand and gravel, no mineral resources were identified during field examination of the study area. Sand and gravel is classified as an inferred subeconomic resource; however, the remoteness of the area precludes much usage of the material. About two-thirds of the study area is under lease for oil and gas. The entire study area has moderate resource potential for undiscovered oil and gas and low resource potential for undiscovered metals, coal, zeolites, and geothermal energy.

Bove, D.J.; Carlson, R.R.; Kulik, D.M.; Lundby, W.

1989-01-01

74

Mineral resources of the Owl Creek Wilderness Study Area, Hot Springs County, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the US Bureau of Land Management, 710 acres of the Owl Creek Wilderness Study Area were studied for mineral endowment. Field and laboratory studies were conducted by the US Geological Survey and the US Bureau of Mines. A search of US Bureau of Land Management, State, and County records showed no current or previous mining claim activity and, other than common-variety sand and gravel, no mineral resources were identified during field examination of this study area. Sand and gravel is classified as an inferred subeconomic resource; however, the remoteness of this area precludes much usage of this material. About two-thirds of this study area is under lease for oil and gas. This entire study area has a moderate resource potential for undiscovered oil and gas and a low resource potential for undiscovered metals, coal, zeolites, and geothermal energy.

Bove, D.J.; Carlson, R.R.; Kulik, D.M.; Lundby, W.

1989-01-01

75

Examination of eastern oil shale disposal problems - the Hope Creek field study  

SciTech Connect

A field-based study of problems associated with the disposal of processed Eastern oil shale was initiated in mid-1983 at a private research site in Montgomery County, Kentucky. The study (known as the Hope Creek Spent Oil Shale Disposal Project) is designed to provide information on the geotechnical, revegetation/reclamation, and leachate generation and composition characteristics of processed Kentucky oil shales. The study utilizes processed oil shale materials (retorted oil shale and reject raw oil shale fines) obtained from a pilot plant run of Kentucky oil shale using the travelling grate retort technology. Approximately 1000 tons of processed oil shale were returned to Kentucky for the purpose of the study. The study, composed of three components, is described. The effort to date has concentrated on site preparation and the construction and implementation of the field study research facilities. These endeavors are described and the project direction in the future years is defined.

Koppenaal, D.W.; Kruspe, R.R.; Robl, T.L.; Cisler, K.; Allen, D.L.

1985-02-01

76

Mobilization of Manufactured Gas Plant Tar with Alkaline Flushing Solutions  

PubMed Central

This experimental study investigates the use of alkaline and alkaline-polymer solutions for the mobilization of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars. Tar-aqueous interfacial tensions (IFTs) and contact angles were measured, and column flushing experiments were conducted. NaOH solutions (0.01–1 wt.%) were found to significantly reduce tar-aqueous IFT. Contact angles indicated a shift to strongly water-wet, then to tar-wet conditions as NaOH concentration increased. Column experiments were conducted with flushing solutions containing 0.2, 0.35, and 0.5% NaOH, both with and without xanthan gum (XG). Between 10 and 44% of the residual tar was removed by solutions containing only NaOH, while solutions containing both NaOH and XG removed 81–93% of the tar with final tar saturations as low as 0.018. The mechanism responsible for the tar removal is likely a combination of reduced IFT, a favorable viscosity ratio, and tar bank formation. Such an approach may have practical applications and would be significantly less expensive than surfactant-based methods. PMID:22091957

Hauswirth, Scott C.; Birak, Pamela Schultz; Rylander, Seth C.; Miller, Cass T.

2011-01-01

77

Assessing the health of an urban stream: a case study of Suzhou Creek in Shanghai, China.  

PubMed

Restoration of urban streams and rivers has increased rapidly in developing countries in recent years. Estimating river health provides a new perspective on evaluating the ecological conditions of streams and rivers. The Suzhou Creek restoration project in Shanghai, China is a milestone for environmental protection. Based on the environmental and ecological data, including 17 indicators in five categories, collected from March 11 to April 20, 2007, the river health index (RHI) for Suzhou Creek was constructed and analysed to quantify the ecosystem of this urban river after a restoration project. The RHI scores of 34 sites ranged from 19.24 to 33.36, i.e. from poor to good. There were no significant RHI differences among stream orders, while differences in land use resulted in significant differences in channel flow status (B12), channel alteration (B21), channel sinuosity (B22), bank stability (B23), bank profile type (B25) and riparian vegetative zone width (B31). River restoration led to improved hydrological condition and channel physical form, while ammonia nitrogen (B44) and indicator scores of the presence of macro-invertebrate families (B51) were the lowest of any indicator. This case study supports the use of river health assessment as a supplement to water quality analysis in China. PMID:22234643

Che, Yue; Yang, Kai; Wu, Enuo; Shang, Zhaoyi; Xiang, Weining

2012-12-01

78

Comparative anti-dandruff efficacy between a tar and a non-tar shampoo.  

PubMed

A randomized double-blind clinical study was conducted on two groups of 30 volunteers using either a non-tar shampoo (2% salicylic acid, 0.75% piroctone olamine and 0.5% elubiol) or a 0.5% coal tar shampoo. Subjects were diagnosed as having moderate to marked dandruff. The study consisted of a 3-week washout, followed by a 4-week treatment and a 4-week posttreatment regression phase. The clinical evaluations and subject self-assessments showed that the non-tar shampoo was as effective as the tar shampoo. Both received high approval ratings (> or =70%). Biometrological methods proved to be more sensitive than clinical evaluations to assess the efficacy of the shampoos. The non-tar shampoo yielded a significantly better reduction of Malassezia spp. counts (p<0.02) during the treatment phase and reduced the spontaneous increase in squamometry values (p< 0.01) during the posttreatment phase. It is concluded that a formulation associating salicylic acid, piroctone olamine and elubiol exhibited increased beneficial effects compared to the coal tar shampoo. PMID:10773717

Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E; Vroome, V; Lin, G C; Appa, Y

2000-01-01

79

Preliminary study of heavy metal pollution from Fe-Al oxides in Peihuang Creek, North Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) is not active since late Pleistocene but the post-volcanic activities, such as hot spring and sulfur gas, still widespread around the volcano province. Peihuang Creek is the main watershed system in TVG. The creek water is characterized by higher temperature, low pH values (3.0-4.5) and high SO4 content (60-400 ppm) due to the mixing of hotspring. This would promote the geochemical interaction between water and andesitic rocks and results in waters with highly enriched iron, aluminum and silica. These elements prefer to form suspended colloidal particles in water and adsorb heavy metals. Once the pH of water increases under oxidation condition, the colloid would precipitate in the form of ochre colored powder on the riverbed. The previous study reports that the arsenic content can reach as high as hundreds ppm. It is very important to evaluate the desorption behavior of heavy metals, especially for the study area with highly developed agriculture. For the preliminary analysis, five samples of ochre colored powder were sampled along the creek. The results of XRF demonstrate that the powder is mainly composed of iron, aluminum and silica, which is Fe-Al hydroxide. The iron content of Fe-Al hydroxide decreases from 63% to 25% while the aluminum and silica contents gradually increase from 5% to 20% and from 9% to 30%, respectively. To evaluate the desorption of heavy metals, the sequential extraction procedure was conducted. In the first step for determining leachable metals, the Fe-Al oxides were extracted with deionized water in the room temperature for one week. All of the metals are in ppb level except copper. For determining reducible phase, Step 2 used reagent solution of 0.5 mol/L hydroxylamine hydrochloride, which was adjusted to pH=2 with ultrapure nitric acid, for one week. The extracted chromium, arsenic, lead and copper are in the dangerous level of tens to hundreds ppm. It is believed that only very small amounts of heavy metals were extracted due to extraordinary high content of Fe oxide in the powder. These metals would be expected to be released under reducing conditions. And, more extraction methods simulating different natural and anthropogenic environment will be performed in the future research. Rare earth elements (REE) are an excellent indicator of adsorption/desorption geochemistry and were also determined in this study. The results demonstrate a light REE enriched pattern, which reveals that the Fe-Al oxides prefer to bind metals with low ionic potential. In addition, a positive cerium anomaly indicates an oxidation condition during the precipitation of Fe-Al oxides.

Lai, B.

2012-12-01

80

Pine Creek and Eagle Lake Rainbow Trout Study 2007 Spawner Migration,  

E-print Network

and Rearing Survey, and Bogard Spring Creek Brook Trout Removal Experiment Report to the Pine Creek ELRT given the apparent high level of competition from brook trout? The overall goal of the project the temporary removal of competing non-native brook trout. In spring 2007 stream flows were low

Thompson, Lisa C.

81

Higher temperature coal tar enamel fights corrosion  

SciTech Connect

High temperatures create new challenges for pipeline coatings. Cracking, adhesion breakdown and electrochemical corrosion are accelerated by higher service temperatures. A new epoxy primer/coal tar pipeline coating system utilizes the latent heat of the coal tar application to fully cure the newly developed primer to achieve outstanding bonding integrity and high temperature cathodic disbondment resistance. A key reason for this overall high performance is the marriage of a newly developed epoxy primer that provides outstanding adhesion with coal tar enamel, which provides excellent long-term water resistance. The paper describes experimental studies, pilot plant application, cathodic disbondment testing, and results from hot water soak tests and the low temperature cracking test.

Johnson, J.R.; Henegar, S.; Roder, B. [Reilly Industries, Inc., Indianapolis, IN (United States)

1996-10-01

82

Hell Creek  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Hell Creek and underlying Fox Hills Formations are present at the land surface along the margins of the Williston Basin, but otherwise are the deepest bedrock aquifers that are commonly used in the basin....

83

The specific hydrolysis of HIV1 TAR RNA element with the anti-TAR hammerhead ribozyme: structural and functional implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main transcriptional regulator of the human immunodeficiency virus is the Tat protein, which recognises and binds to a fragment RNA at the 5? end of viral mRNA, named transactivation response element (TAR) RNA. Extensive mutagenesis studies have shown that a region of TAR RNA important for Tat binding involves a set of nucleotides surrounding a characteristic UCU nucleotide bulge.

Eliza Wyszko; Miroslawa Z Barciszewska; Rolf Bald; Volker A Erdmann; Jan Barciszewski

2001-01-01

84

Environmental stability of PAH source indices in pyrogenic tars  

SciTech Connect

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental contaminants found in soil, sediments, and airborne particulates. The majority of PAHs found in modern soils and sediments arise from myriad anthropogenic petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. Tars and tar products such as creosote produced from the industrial pyrolysis of coal or oil at former manufactured gas plants (MGPs) or in coking retorts are viscous, oily substances that contain significant concentrations of PAH, usually in excess of 30% w/w. Pyrogenic tars and tar products have unique PAH patterns (source signatures) that are a function of their industrial production. Among pyrogenic materials, certain diagnostic ratios of environmentally recalcitrant 4-, 5- and 6-ring PAHs have been identified as useful environmental markers for tracking the signature of tars and petroleum in the environment. The use of selected PAH source ratios is based on the concept that PAHs with similar properties (i.e., molecular weight, partial pressure, solubility, partition coefficients, and biotic/abiotic degradation) will weather at similar rates in the environment thereby yielding stable ratios. The stability of more than 30 high molecular weight PAH ratios is evaluated during controlled studies of tar evaporation and aerobic biodegradation. The starting materials in these experiments consisted of relatively unweathered tars derived from coal and petroleum, respectively. The PAH ratios from these laboratory studies are compared to those measured in PAH residues found in tar-contaminated soils at a former MGP that operated with a carburetted water gas process.

Uhler, A.D.; Emsbo-Mattingly, S.D. [New Fields Environmental Forensics Practice, Rockland, MA (United States)

2006-04-15

85

Thermocatalytic treatment of biomass tar model compounds via radio frequency.  

PubMed

A new effective RF tar thermocatalytic treatment process with low energy intensive has been proposed to remove tar from biomass gasification. Toluene and naphthalene as biomass tar model compounds were removed via both thermal and catalytic treatment over a wide temperature range from 850 °C to 1200 °C and 450 °C to 900 °C, respectively at residence time of 0-0.7 s. Thermal characteristics of the new technique are also described in this paper. This study clearly clarified that toluene was much easier to be removed than naphthalene. Soot was found as the final product of thermal treatment of the tar model and completely removed during catalytic treatment. Radical reactions generated by RF non-thermal effect improve the tar removal. The study showed that Y-zeolite has better catalytic activity compared to dolomite on toluene and naphthalene removal due to its acidic nature and large surface area, even at lower reaction temperature of about 550 °C. PMID:23567671

Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z A; Bakar, M Z A

2013-05-01

86

Juniper tar poisoning.  

PubMed

Juniper tar (cade oil) is distilled from the branches and wood of Juniperus oxycedrus. It contains etheric oils, triterpene and phenols, and is used for many purposes in folk medicine. A case is reported of a previously healthy man who ingested a spoonful of home-made extract of Juniperus oxycedrus. The poisoning caused fever, severe hypotension, renal failure, hepatotoxicity, and severe cutaneous burns on the face. After supportive and symptomatic treatment, the patient improved and was discharged in a good condition on the eleventh day. PMID:15732446

Koruk, Suda Tekin; Ozyilkan, Esin; Kaya, Pinar; Colak, Dilsen; Donderici, Omer; Cesaretli, Yildirim

2005-01-01

87

Centrifuge treatment of coal tar  

SciTech Connect

New technology is required for the removal of water and heavy fractions from regular coal tar. Centrifuges offer the best option. Purification of coal tar by means of centrifuges at OAO NLMK permits the production of pitch coke or electrode pitch that complies with current standards.

L.A. Kazak; V.Z. Kaidalov; L.F. Syrova; O.S. Miroshnichenko; A.S. Minakov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15

88

Mineral resources of the Fish Creek Canyon, Road Canyon, and Mule Canyon Wilderness Study Areas, San Juan County, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book reports the Fish Creek Canyon (UT-060-204), Road Canyon(UT-060-201), and Mule Canyon (UT-060-205B) Wilderness Study Areas, which comprise 40,160 acres, 52,420 acres, and 5,990 acres, respectively, studied for their mineral endowment. A search of federal, state, and county records showed no current or previous mining-claim activity. No mineral resources were identified during field examination of the study areas. Sandstone

D. J. Bove; D. R. Shawe; G. K. Lee; W. F. Hanna; R. E. Jeske

1989-01-01

89

In situ recovery of oil from Utah tar sand: a summary of tar sand research at the Laramie Energy Technology Center  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work done by the United States Department of Energy's Laramie Energy Technology Center from 1971 through 1982 to develop technology for future recovery of oil from US tar sands. Work was concentrated on major US tar sand deposits that are found in Utah. Major objectives of the program were as follows: determine the feasibility of in situ recovery methods applied to tar sand deposits; and establish a system for classifying tar sand deposits relative to those characteristics that would affect the design and operation of various in situ recovery processes. Contents of this report include: (1) characterization of Utah tar sand; (2) laboratory extraction studies relative to Utah tar sand in situ methods; (3) geological site evaluation; (4) environmental assessments and water availability; (5) reverse combustion field experiment, TS-1C; (6) a reverse combustion followed by forward combustion field experiment, TS-2C; (7) tar sand permeability enhancement studies; (8) two-well steam injection experiment; (9) in situ steam-flood experiment, TS-1S; (10) design of a tar sand field experiment for air-stream co-injection, TS-4; (11) wastewater treatment and oil analyses; (12) economic evaluation of an in situ tar sand recovery process; and (13) appendix I (extraction studies involving Utah tar sands, surface methods). 70 figs., 68 tabs.

Marchant, L.C.; Westhoff, J.D.

1985-10-01

90

InSAR Studies of Crustal Deformation Near Jakobshavn Isbrae, Greenland and Cane Creek Anticline, Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will present studies of two kinds of crustal deformation phenomena using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technique. Jakobshavn Isbrae, one of the largest outlet glaciers in Greenland, has been undergoing significant thinning and acceleration in recent years (Thomas, et al, 2003; Joughin et al, 2004). We use InSAR to measure crustal uplift in the ice-free bedrock area near the mouth of the glacier from 2002 to 2007, caused by the removal of the ice load. We will discuss the possibility of using the crustal deformation measurement to improve the estimation of mass loss rate of Jakobshavn Isbrae. Orbital error correction using empirical models and GPS data as ground control points will also be discussed. Since 1970s, potash ore has been mined from about 3000 feet underneath the Cane Creek anticline in southeastern Utah, using a system combining solution mining and solar evaporation. The barren and arid conditions in this area are ideal for InSAR measurements. Ground coherence is well maintained, even for time spans larger than 5 years. Interferograms formed by using ERS-1/2 SAR data show that the ground surface was subsiding steadily with a rate of 10~15 mm/yr in the period of 1992 to 2002. Detailed results, including time series studies of the subsidence rate and shape and their relation to mining activities will be provided.

Liu, L.; Wahr, J.; Howat, I.; Khan, S. A.; Joughin, I.

2007-12-01

91

Cigarette smoking, tar yields, and non-fatal myocardial infarction: 14,000 cases and 32,000 controls in the United Kingdom. The International Studies of Infarct Survival (ISIS) Collaborators.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To assess the effects of cigarette smoking on the incidence of non-fatal myocardial infarction, and to compare tar in different types of manufactured cigarettes. METHODS--In the early 1990s responses to a postal questionnaire were obtained from 13,926 survivors of myocardial infarction (cases) recently discharged from hospitals in the United Kingdom and 32,389 of their relatives (controls). Blood had been obtained from cases soon after admission for the index myocardial infarction and was also sought from the controls. 4923 cases and 6880 controls were current smokers of manufactured cigarettes with known tar yields. Almost all tar yields were 7-9 or 12-15 mg/cigarette (mean 7.5 mg for low tar (< 10 mg) and 13.3 for medium tar (> or = 10 mg). The cited risk ratios were standardised for age and sex and compared myocardial infarction rates in current cigarette smokers with those in non-smokers who had not smoked cigarettes regularly in the past 10 years. RESULTS--At ages 30-49 the rates of myocardial infarction in smokers were about five times those in non-smokers (as defined); at ages 50-59 they were three times those in non-smokers, and even at ages 60-79 they were twice as great as in non-smokers (risk ratio 6.3, 4.7, 3.1, 2.5, and 1.9 at 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79 respectively; each 2P < 0.00001). After standardisation for age, sex, and amount smoked, the rate of non-fatal myocardial infarction was 10.4% (SD 5.4) higher in medium tar than in low tar cigarette smokers (2P = 0.06). This percentage was not significantly greater at ages 30-59 (16.6% (7.1)) than at 60-79 (1.0% (8.5)). In both age ranges the difference in risk between cigarette smokers and non-smokers was much larger than the difference between one type of cigarette and another (risk ratio 3.39 and 3.95 at ages 30-59 for smokers of similar numbers of low and of medium tar cigarettes, and risk ratio 2.35 and 2.37 at ages 60-79). Most possible confounding factors that could be tested for were similar in low and medium tar users, with no significant differences in blood lipid or albumin concentrations. CONCLUSION--The present study indicates that the imminent change of tar yields in the European Union to comply with an upper limit of 12 mg/cigarette will not increase (and may somewhat decrease) the incidence of myocardial infarction, unless they indirectly help perpetuate tobacco use. Even low tar cigarettes still greatly increase rates of myocardial infarction, however, especially among people in their 30s, 40s, and 50s, and far more risk is avoided by not smoking than by changing from one type of cigarette to another. PMID:7647641

Parish, S.; Collins, R.; Peto, R.; Youngman, L.; Barton, J.; Jayne, K.; Clarke, R.; Appleby, P.; Lyon, V.; Cederholm-Williams, S.

1995-01-01

92

Seepage study for unnamed tributary to Alder Creek, Stevens County, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of seepage measurements in the Alder Creek basin, Stevens County, Wash., shows that approximately 50% of 0.2 cubic foot per second taken from an unnamed tributary and used for the 1978 irrigation season would have reached Alder Creek as surface flow. Differences in discharge and specific conductance are explained by the basin geology, physical characteristics, climate, and water use. Only general conclusions could be made from data collected for five seepage measurements because irrigation activities could not be scheduled to allow the hydrologic system to reach equilibrium. (USGS)

Carpenter, P.J.; Drost, B.W.

1979-01-01

93

Reduction of Ammonia and Tar in Pressurized Biomass Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The present paper intended to present the results of parametric study of the formation of ammonia and tar under pressurized gasification conditions. By the use of multivariate data analysis, the effects of operating parameters were determined and their influences could be quantified. In order to deal with cases in which high levels of ammonia and tar were produced, study of catalytic hot gas cleaning was performed, aiming to discuss the removal efficiency and test catalysts.

Wang, W.; Olofsson, G.

2002-09-19

94

Watershed management for erosion and sedimentation control Case Study: Goodwin Creek, Panola County, MS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Goodwin Creek watershed is located within the loessal hills of northern Mississippi, a region of high erosion risk and elevated watershed sediment yields. This manuscript combines a regional history of land management and conservation issues from the time of European settlement to present with a...

95

IMPACT OF URBANIZATION ON THE HYDROLOGY OF THE POCONO CREEK WATERSHED: A MODEL STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Pocono Creek watershed located in Monroe County, PA, is threatened by high population growth and urbanization. Of concern specifically is the potential impact of future developments in the watershed on the reduction of base flow and the consequent risk of degradation of wild ...

96

CURRICULUM STUDY FOR THE PROPOSED CONSOLIDATION OF FLAT CREEK, HEATH SPRINGS, KERSHAW HIGH SCHOOLS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ONE OF THE FUNCTIONS OF THE SOUTH CAROLINA REGION 5 EDUCATIONAL SERVICES CENTER IS TO ASSIST SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN THE ASSESSMENT OF EDUCATIONAL NEEDS. THE SERVICE CENTER WAS REQUESTED TO FORMULATE THE NECESSARY CURRICULUM FOR THE CONSOLIDATION OF FLAT CREEK, HEATH SPRINGS, AND KERSHAW HIGH SCHOOLS, HAVING A COMBINED ENROLLMENT OF 502 STUDENTS IN…

BROWN, STUART R.

97

Final Independent External Peer Review Report Leon Creek Watershed Feasibility Study, San Antonio,  

E-print Network

, Feasibility Report Prepared by Battelle 505 King Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43201 for Department of the Army U, Bexar County, Texas, Feasibility Report Prepared by Battelle Memorial Institute Prepared for Department BATTELLE | February 14, 2014 This page is intentionally left blank. #12;Leon Creek IEPR | Final IEPR Report

US Army Corps of Engineers

98

Warm Springs Creek, Idaho  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Warm Springs Creek is a tributary of the Big Wood River in south-central Idaho. It is one of eight sites at which the USGS is conducting an ecological assessment during the summer of 2014. Study results will be published in 2015....

99

Restoring Lower Rock Creek  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief video describes how Lower Rock Creek’s location between two National Wild and Scenic Rivers caused Kentucky environmentalists to choose the creek as a target for acid mine drainage remediation.

2010-12-10

100

south santa clara valley hIstorIcal ecoloGy stuDy including Soap lake, the upper pajaro river, and llagaS, uvaS-carnadero, and pacheco creekS  

E-print Network

, and llagaS, uvaS-carnadero, and pacheco creekS p r e p a r e d f o r t h e S a n t a c l a r a v a l l e y wCreek Llagas Creek Llagas Creek Uvas-Carnadero Cr. Uvas-Carnadero Cr. S A N M A R T I N San Felipe Lake river, and llagaS, uvaS-carnadero, and pacheco creekS #12;Grossinger, rM, ee Beller, Mn salomon

101

Chemical and isotopic studies of granitic Archean rocks, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming: Geochronology of an Archean granite, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rubidium-strontium analyses of whole-rock samples of an Archean granite from the Owl Creek Mountains, Wyo., indicate an intrusive age of 2640 {plus minus} 125 Ma. Muscovite-bearing samples give results suggesting that these samples were altered about 2300 Ma. This event may have caused extensive strontium loss from the rocks as potassium feldspar was altered to muscovite. Alteration was highly localized

C. E. Hedge; K. R. Simmons; J. S. Stuckless

1986-01-01

102

LIGHTNING CREEK, PACK RIVER, AND SAND CREEK, BONNER COUNTY, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY SUMMARY, 1978  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1978, water quality studies were conducted on Lightning Creek, Pack River, and Sand Creek in Bonner County, Idaho (17010214, 17010213) to determine the present status of the streams. Water quality in Lightning Creek was generally very high. No violations of standa...

103

Chemistry of manganese precipitation in Pinal Creek, Arizona, USA: A laboratory study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Groundwater underlying the valley of Pinal Creek downstream from Globe, Arizona, has been contaminated by low-pH metal-enriched wastewater from copper mining and ore processing at Miami, Arizona. At present, the acidity and most of the dissolved metal content, except for Mn, of the wastewater is removed by reactions with carbonate and other solids in the alluvial aquifer before the neutralized contaminated water enters the creek channel and becomes surface flow. Where flow in the creek is perennial, Mn-bearing precipitates are formed in the stream bed and in some places in the subsurface. As an aid to understanding the processes involved and explaining the mineralogy of the precipitates, closely controlled laboratory redox titration experiments were performed on samples of surface flow and groundwater taken near the head of perennial flow in the creek. The high content of dissolved Ca, Mg, Mn and COP2 species in the neutralized contaminated groundwater caused precipitation of some of the Mn as kutnahorite, (Mn, Mg)Ca(CO3)2, when the experimental system was held between pH 8.5 and 9.0 while CO2-free air was bubbled into the solution. Hausmannite and manganite also were precipitated, in somewhat lower amounts. When the concentrations of dissolved CO2 species in the groundwater sample were decreased before the experiment was started, the Mn precipitated was predominantly in the oxides hausmannite and manganite. In some of the experimental titrations clinoenstatite, (MgSiO3), was precipitated. After titrations were stopped the solutions and precipitates were allowed to stand, with limited access to the atmosphere, for several months. During this aging period the degree of oxidation of the precipitated Mn increased and in one precipitate from an experimental solution the Ca + Mn4+ oxides todorokite and takanelite were identified. These oxides also have been identified in streambed precipitates. Some of these precipitates also gave X-ray diffraction reflections for kutnahorite. Thermodynamic feasibilities of eight potential chemical reactions forming solid phases of interest were evaluated by calculating their respective reaction affinities attained during titration and aging. The results are in general agreement with the indications for the presence of these species given by X-ray and electron diffraction. The presence of carbonates in precipitated encrustations formed from groundwater below the land surface and their occurrence in manganese oxide crusts that precipitate from the creek water, also are predicted by these results. ?? 1994.

Hem, J.D.; Lind, C.J.

1994-01-01

104

The artifcial catchment Chicken Creek as a tool to study initial ecosystem development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The artificial catchment Chicken Creek was constructed in 2005 to study the increasingly complex interactions of processes and structures during initial development of ecosystems. The 6ha area serves as the central research site for the Transregional Collaborative Research Center 38. Both internal and external factors could be identified as driving forces for the formation of structures and patterns in the artificial catchment during the first five years of development. Initial structures formed by the construction process (e.g. catchment morphology, subsurface structures like clay dams and dumping cones, caterpillar tracks at the surface) and initial substrate characteristics (e.g. texture, geochemistry) were decisive both for the distribution and flow of precipitation water and for vegetation succession. External factors like episodic events (e.g. heavy thunderstorms) triggered erosion and dissection during this initial phase, promoted by the low vegetation cover and the unconsolidated sandy substrate. These processes resulted in transport and redistribution of water and sediment within the catchment, mainly along the main slope, and the formation of new structural elements like gullies and channels, a sedimentation fan above and sediments within the pond. As a result, we observed an overall differentiation of the site, e.g. with respect to water availability and texture redistribution, into areas with abrasion or accumulation processes dominating and areas with stable surfaces. During further development, both external factors and processes within the catchment continued to influence the site. For example, beside the initial soil seed bank, the surrounding environment of the catchment clearly affected species invasion. The dissection and stability of surfaces may be an important factor for the establishment of plants and habitats as well as for the formation of vegetation patterns and biological soil crusts. The transformation of the initial geo-system into areas with evolving terrestrial or aquatic characteristics and from a very episodic to a more permanent stream network and discharge, together with the observed vegetation dynamics increased site diversity and heterogeneity with respect to water and nutrient availability and transformation processes compared to the more homogenous conditions at point zero. We expect that these more permanent structures and patterns established after five years will greatly influence the future development of the catchment with respect to e.g. input and accumulation of soil organic matter, nitrogen input and availability by symbiotic microbial N-fixation, development of root systems and soil food webs, weathering and soil formation, element cycling, and the water and element budget at the catchment scale.

Schaaf, W.; Elmer, M.; Fischer, A.; Gerwin, W.; Nenov, R.

2011-12-01

105

Legacy contaminant bioaccumulation in rock crabs in Sydney Harbour during remediation of the Sydney Tar Ponds, Nova Scotia, Canada.  

PubMed

Concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, metals and lipids in hepatopancreas of rock crabs (Cancer irroratus) were measured in Sydney Harbour (SH) for one year prior to remediation and three years of remediation of the Sydney Tar Ponds (STP), Nova Scotia. Low level concentrations of PCBs and metals were measured, although PAHs were mostly undetected. Metal concentrations showed little spatio-temporal variability, although highest concentrations of As, Cd and Cu were measured at reference stations furthest from the STP remediation site. Mercury concentrations were at least an order of magnitude lower than Canadian guidelines. Moderately elevated PCB concentrations were detected in crabs near Muggah Creek, but these were generally not higher than those measured during baseline. Despite remediation activities, current contaminant burdens measured in crabs were much lower than previously reported in other studies of crabs and lobster in industrial harbours in eastern Canada, due in part to natural recovery of SH sediments. PMID:24119312

Walker, Tony R; MacAskill, Devin; Weaver, Peter

2013-12-15

106

Restoring Fossil Creek  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of an ongoing environmental project and partnership with a local university, high school students monitor changes to Fossil Creek in Arizona. Components of the project include fish behavior studies, responses to fishing, water chemistry measurements, aquatic invertebrate studies, photographic recording, riparian habitat transects, and small mammal trapping transects. The data collected will ultimately provide an invaluable annual record for students, working scientists, and the wider community as changes are monitored over time.

Leroy, Carri J.; Marks, Jane C.; Vlieg, Julie; Flaccus, Kathleen

2004-07-01

107

Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

2010-03-09

108

A study of post-thermal recovery of the macroinvertebrate community of Four Mile Creek, June 1985--September 1987. [Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

Four Mile Creek is one of several streams at the Savannah River Site which has received thermal effluents ({le}70{degrees}C water) from nuclear production operations. From 1955--mid-1985, Four Mile Creek received thermal effluent from C-Reactor as well as non-thermal discharges from F and H Separation Areas. Total discharges from all of these facilities was about ten times higher than the natural flow of the creek (Firth et al. 1986). All water being discharged into Four Mile Creek was originally pumped from the Savannah River. This study reports the results of the artificial substrate sampling of macroinvertebrate communities of Four Mile Creek from June 1985 through September 1987, when sampling was terminated. Macroinvertebrate taxa richness, densities, and biomass data from this study are compared to Four Mile data collected prior to the shutdown of C-Reactor (Kondratieff and Kondratieff 1985 and Firth et al. 1986), and to comparable macroinvertebrate data from other Savannah River Site streams. 29 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

Lauritsen, D.; Starkel, W.; Specht, W.

1989-11-01

109

Phase 1 report on the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Bear Creek Valley (BCV) is located within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation and encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes associated with past operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The BCV Remedial Investigation determined that disposal of wastes at the S-3 Site, Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG) has caused contamination of both deep and shallow groundwater. The primary contaminants include uranium, nitrate, and VOCs, although other metals such as aluminum, magnesium, and cadmium persist. The BCV feasibility study will describe several remedial options for this area, including both in situ and ex situ treatment of groundwater. This Treatability Study Phase 1 Report describes the results of preliminary screening of treatment technologies that may be applied within BCV. Four activities were undertaken in Phase 1: field characterization, laboratory screening of potential sorbents, laboratory testing of zero valent iron products, and field screening of three biological treatment systems. Each of these activities is described fully in technical memos attached in Appendices A through G.

NONE

1997-04-01

110

Mineral resources of the Fish Creek Canyon, Road Canyon, and Mule Canyon Wilderness Study Areas, San Juan County, Utah  

SciTech Connect

This book reports the Fish Creek Canyon (UT-060-204), Road Canyon(UT-060-201), and Mule Canyon (UT-060-205B) Wilderness Study Areas, which comprise 40,160 acres, 52,420 acres, and 5,990 acres, respectively, studied for their mineral endowment. A search of federal, state, and county records showed no current or previous mining-claim activity. No mineral resources were identified during field examination of the study areas. Sandstone and sand and gravel have no unique qualities but could have limited local use for road metal or other construction purposes. However, similar materials are abundant outside the study areas. The three study areas have moderate resource potential for undiscovered oil and gas and low resource potential for undiscovered metals, including uranium and thorium, coal, and geothermal energy.

Bove, D.J.; Shawe, D.R.; Lee, G.K.; Hanna, W.F. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)); Jeske, R.E. (US Bureau of Mines (US))

1989-01-01

111

A long-term monitoring study of chlorophyll, microbial contaminants, and pesticides in a coastal residential stormwater pond and its adjacent tidal creek.  

PubMed

Stormwater ponds are commonly used in residential and commercial areas to control flooding. The accumulation of urban contaminants in stormwater ponds can lead to water-quality problems including nutrient enrichment, chemical contamination, and bacterial contamination. This study presents 5 years of monitoring data assessing water quality of a residential subdivision pond and adjacent tidal creek in coastal South Carolina, USA. The stormwater pond is eutrophic, as described by elevated concentrations of chlorophyll and phosphorus, and experiences periodic cyanobacterial blooms. A maximum monthly average chlorophyll concentration of 318.75 ?g/L was measured in the stormwater pond and 227.63 ?g/L in the tidal creek. Fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) levels were measured in both the pond and the tidal creek that exceeded health and safety standards for safe recreational use. A maximum monthly average FCB level of 1,247 CFU/100 mL was measured in the stormwater pond and 12,850 CFU/100 mL in the tidal creek. In addition, the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria and pathogenic bacteria were detected. Low concentrations of herbicides (atrazine and 2,4-D: ), a fungicide (chlorothalonil), and insecticides (pyrethroids and imidacloprid) were measured. Seasonal trends were identified, with the winter months having the lowest concentrations of chlorophyll and FCB. Statistical differences between the stormwater pond and the tidal creek were also noted within seasons. The tidal creek had higher FCB levels than the stormwater pond in the spring and summer, whereas the stormwater pond had higher chlorophyll levels than the tidal creek in the summer and fall seasons. Chlorophyll and FCB levels in the stormwater pond were significantly correlated with monthly average temperature and total rainfall. Pesticide concentrations were also significantly correlated with temperature and rainfall. Pesticide concentrations in the stormwater pond were significantly correlated with pesticide concentrations in the adjacent tidal creek. Chlorophyll and FCB levels in the tidal creek, however, were not significantly correlated with levels in the pond. While stormwater ponds are beneficial in controlling flooding, they may pose environmental and human health risks due to biological and chemical contamination. Management to reduce residential runoff may improve water quality in coastal stormwater ponds and their adjacent estuarine ecosystems. PMID:21409361

DeLorenzo, Marie E; Thompson, Brian; Cooper, Emily; Moore, Janet; Fulton, Michael H

2012-01-01

112

Final Independent External Peer Review Report Bubbly Creek Ecosystem Restoration  

E-print Network

Final Independent External Peer Review Report Bubbly Creek Ecosystem Restoration Feasibility Study National Planning Center of Expertise for Ecosystem Restoration Mississippi Valley Division Contract No. W Report Bubbly Creek Ecosystem Restoration Feasibility Study Prepared by Battelle 505 King Avenue Columbus

US Army Corps of Engineers

113

Trap-efficiency study, Highland Creek flood retarding reservoir near Kelseyville, California, water years 1966-77  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This investigation is part of a nationwide study of trap efficiency of detention reservoirs. In this report, trap efficiency was computed from reservoir inflow and outflow sediment data and from reservoir survey and outflow data. Highland Creek Reservoir is a flood retarding reservoir located in Lake County, near Kelseyville, California. This reservoir has a maximum storage capacity of 3,199 acre-feet and permanent pool storage of 921 acre-feet. Mean annual rainfall for the 14.1-square-mile drainage area above Highland Creek Dam was 29 inches during the December 1965 to September 1977 study period. Resultant mean annual runoff was 17,100 acre-feet. Total reservoir inflow for the 11.8-year study period was 202,000 acre-feet, transporting an estimated 126,000 tons (10,700 tons per year) of suspended sediment. Total reservoir outflow for the same period was 188,700 acre-feet, including 15,230 tons (1,290 tons per year) of sediment. Estimated trap efficiency for the study period was 88%, based on estimated sediment inflow and measured sediment outflow. Reservoir surveys made in December 1965 and April 1972 revealed a storage capacity loss of 35.8 acre-feet during the 6.3-year period. Computed by using an estimated specific weight, this loss represents 54,600 tons of deposited sediment. Sediment outflow during the same period was 8,890 tons. Trap efficiency for the survey period was 86%. (USGS)

Trujillo, L.F.

1980-01-01

114

Transverse Aeolian Ridges (TARs) on Mars II: Distributions, orientations, and ages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transverse Aeolian Ridges (TARs), 10 m scale, ripple-like aeolian bedforms with simple morphology, are widespread on Mars but it is unknown what role they play in Mars' wider sediment cycle. We present the results of a survey of all Mars Global Surveyor Narrow angle images in a pole-to-pole study area, 45° longitude wide. Following on from the classification scheme and preliminary surveys of Balme et al. (Balme, M.R., Berman, D.C., Bourke, M.C., Zimbelman, J.R. [2008a]. Geomorphology 101, 703-720) and Wilson and Zimbelman (Wilson, S.A., Zimbelman, J.R. [2004]. J. Geophys. Res. 109 (E10). doi: 10.1029/2004JE002247) we searched more than 10,000 images, and found that over 2000 reveal at least 5% areal cover by TARs. The mean TAR areal cover in the study area is about 7% (3% in the northern hemisphere and 11% in the southern hemisphere) but TARs are not homogenously distributed - they are concentrated in the mid-low latitudes and almost absent poleward of 35°N and 55°S. We found no clear correlation between TAR distribution and any of thermal inertia, kilometer-scale roughness, or elevation. We did find that TARs are less common at extremes of elevation. We found that TARs are most common near the equator (especially in the vicinity of Meridiani Planum, in which area they have a distinctive "barchan-like" morphology) and in large southern-hemisphere impact craters. TARs in the equatorial band are usually associated with outcrops of layered terrain or steep slopes, hence their relative absence in the northern hemisphere. TARs in the southern hemisphere are most commonly associated with low albedo, intercrater dune fields. We speculate that the mid-latitude mantling terrain (e.g., Mustard, J.F., Cooper, C.D., Rifkin, M.K. [2001]. Nature 412, 411-414; Kreslavsky, M.A., Head, J.W. [2002]. J. Geophys. Res. 29 (15). doi: 10.1029/2002GL015392) could also play a role in covering TARs or inhibiting saltation. We compared TAR distribution with general circulation model (GCM) climate data for both surface wind shear stress and wind direction. We performed GCM runs at various obliquity values to simulate the effects of changing obliquity on recent Mars climate. We found good general agreement between TAR orientation and GCM wind directions from present day obliquity conditions in many cases, but found no good correlation between wind shear stress and TAR distribution. We performed preliminary high resolution crater count studies of TARs in both equatorial and southern intracrater dunefield settings and compared these to superposition relationships between TARs and large dark dunes. Our results show that TARs near dunefield appear to be younger than TARs in the equatorial regions. We infer that active saltation from the large dunes keeps TARs active, but that TARs are not active under present day condition when distal to large dunes - perhaps supporting the interpretation that TARs are granule ripples. We conclude that local geology, rather than wind strength, controls TAR distribution, but that their orientation matches present-day regional wind patterns in most cases. We suggest that TARs are likely most (perhaps only) active today when they are proximal to large dark dune fields.

Berman, Daniel C.; Balme, Matthew R.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Zimbelman, James R.

2011-05-01

115

St. Vrain Creek  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

St. Vrain Creek below Boulder Creek at Hwy 119 near Longmont, CO; Bob Brandle, Cory Stephens, Matt Nicotra, and Kevin Scofield measure discharge and install temporary streamgage replacing nearby damaged streamgage....

116

Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3. Appendix E  

SciTech Connect

This document contains Appendix E: Toxicity Information and Uncertainty Analysis, description of methods, from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

NONE

1995-09-01

117

Effect of wastewater treatment processes on the pyrolysis properties of the pyrolysis tars from sewage sludges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pyrolysis properties of five different pyrolysis tars, which the tars from 1# to 5# are obtained by pyrolyzing the sewage sludges of anaerobic digestion and indigestion from the A2/O wastewater treatment process, those from the activated sludge process and the indigested sludge from the continuous SBR process respectively, were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis at a heating rate of 10 °C/min in the nitrogen atmosphere. The results show that the pyrolysis processes of the pyrolysis tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5# all can be divided into four stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, heavy polar organic compounds decomposition, heavy organic compounds decomposition and the residual organic compounds decomposition. However, the process of 4# pyrolysis tar is only divided into three stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, decomposition of heavy polar organic compounds and the residual heavy organic compounds respectively. Both the sludge anaerobic digestion and the "anaerobic" process in wastewater treatment processes make the content of light organic compounds in tars decrease, but make that of heavy organic compounds with complex structure increase. Besides, both make the pyrolysis properties of the tars become worse. The pyrolysis reaction mechanisms of the five pyrolysis tars have been studied with Coats-Redfern equation. It shows that there are the same mechanism functions in the first stage for the five tars and in the second and third stage for the tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5#, which is different with the function in the second stage for 4# tar. The five tars are easy to volatile.

Wu, Xia; Xie, Li-Ping; Li, Xin-Yu; Dai, Xiao-Hong; Fei, Xue-Ning; Jiang, Yuan-Guang

2011-06-01

118

GREEN RIVER AIR QUALITY MODEL DEVELOPMENT: METEOROLOGICAL DATA - AUGUST 1980 FIELD STUDY IN THE PICEANCE CREEK BASIN OIL SHALE RESOURCES AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

Special meteorological and air quality studies were conducted during August 1980 in the Piceance Creek Basin oil shale resource area of Northwestern Colorado as part of the EPA-sponsored Green River Ambient Model Assessment program. The objective of the limited field program was ...

119

Restoring Fossil Creek  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fossil Creek had been dammed for the past 90 years, and plans were underway to restore the stream. The creek runs through Central Arizona and flows from the high plateaus to the desert, cutting through the same formations that form the Grand Canyon. This article discusses the Fossil Creek monitoring project. In this project, students and teachers…

Flaccus, Kathleen; Vlieg, Julie; Marks, Jane C.; LeRoy, Carri J.

2004-01-01

120

TOXICITY PERSISTENCE IN PRICKLY PEAR CREEK, MONTANA  

EPA Science Inventory

Instream toxicity tests using the larval fathead minnow Pimephales promelas and the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia reticulata were conducted on Prickly Pear Creek, Montana waters to study toxicity persistence in a stream. The toxicity source was Spring Creek, a tributary of Prickly Pear...

121

Remediation of Former Manufactured Gas Plant Tars Using Alkaline Flushing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remediation of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars in the subsurface is particularly difficult due to the wetting behavior and high viscosities of these dense non-aqueous liquids (DNAPLs). Alkaline flooding is a technique which has proven effective in improving the recovery of crude oils, which share some characteristics with FMGP tars. For this study, we measured the effect of NaOH solutions on interfacial tension and conducted column experiments to investigate the feasibility of applying this technique to FMGP tars. The pendant drop technique was used to measure interfacial tensions for solutions ranging from 0-1% NaOH. Column experiments were conducted by contaminating sands with tars recovered from a FMGP then flushing the columns with NaOH solutions. A final, 70% v/v ethanol cosolvent flush was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a two-stage remediation approach. The mass removal of tar, as well as 26 individual PAHs, was measured, along with the aqueous phase mass flux of PAHs after each flushing stage. The interfacial tension was reduced from about 20 mN/m with pure water to a minimum of 0.05 mN/m at a concentration of 0.1% NaOH. In the column experiments, alkaline flushing resulted in a 50% reduction of the residual saturation. Aqueous phase PAH concentrations, however, were similar before and after the alkaline flushing stage. The combination of alkaline and cosolvent flushing resulted in an overall reduction of 95% of the total mass of the 16 EPA PAHs. Final aqueous phase concentrations were reduced significantly for lower molecular weight PAHs, but increased slightly for the higher molecular weight compounds, likely due to their increased mole fraction within the remaining tar. Additional work is being conducted to improve the effectiveness of the alkaline flushing through the use of surfactants and polymers.

Hauswirth, S.; Rylander, S.; Birak, P. S.; Miller, C. T.

2010-12-01

122

Solvent extraction of bitumen from tar sands  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the measurement of mass transfer rates for the extraction of bitumen from tar sands using organic solvents. The experiment was carried out in an agitated vessel using a six-blade turbine mixer on a laboratory scale. To facilitate the determination of absolute mass transfer coefficients, tar sands were specially prepared in the form of spherical particles so that mass transfer area can be computed. The variables investigated in the study included: (1) solvent type (kerosene, toluene, benzene), (2) stirrer speed, 25 rpm to 1000 rpm, and (3) particle diameter, 0.4 cm to 1.2 cm. The results indicated that solvency power varied markedly with the various solvents used and that high aromatic content promoted rapid dissolution when compared with paraffinic solvents. The mass transfer rates increased with increasing stirrer speed in accordance with the relationship: k {alpha} N{sup 0.56} where k is the mass transfer coefficient and N the stirrer speed. Increasing particle diameter also resulted in decreased mass transfer rates. The results were satisfactorily correlated in terms of a Frossling type equation, Sh {alpha} Re{sub p}{sup a}Sc{sup b}.

Hoon, A.Y.; Thomas, S. [Univ. of West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago)

1995-12-31

123

TARS-HT1 and TARS-HT2 heat-tolerant dry bean germplasm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

TARS-HT1 (Reg no. __, PI ___) and TARS-HT2 (Reg no. __, PI ___) are heat tolerant dark red and light red, respectively, kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) developed cooperatively by the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station (TARS), the University of Puerto Rico, Cornell University, and th...

124

Relationship Between the Composition and Interfacial Tension of Former Manufactured Gas Plant Tars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars pose significant environmental hazards and present a challenge to regulators and industry professionals. The tars, which were produced as a byproduct of the gas manufacturing process, were frequently released into the environment through improper disposal or leaks in plant infrastructure. The interfacial tension (IFT) is a primary factor controlling the mobility of tars in porous media, and is therefore important to understand for both predicting the migration of tars and designing remediation strategies. In this study, we characterized nine field-collected FMGP tars and a commercially available coal tar by means of chemical extractions (asphaltenes, resins, acids, and bases), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Additionally, the IFT and contact angle of each tar was determined for a pH range of 3-11. The IFT was found to be similar for all tars at pH 5 and 7 regardless of composition. Slight decreases in IFT at lower pH were correlated with higher concentrations of extractable bases, which consisted primarily of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic aromatic compounds. Much greater reductions of IFT were observed at high pH. These reductions were found to be associated with the presence of carbonyl or carboxyl groups in the asphaltenes. It is likely that the larger size of the asphaltene molecules (as compared to the extractable compounds) resulted in species with greater surface activity when ionized.

Hauswirth, S.; Birak, P. S.; Miller, C. T.

2011-12-01

125

CHARACTERIZATION OF MERCURY CONTAMINATION AT THE EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK SITE, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE: A CASE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Historic accidental release of mercury-contaminated material associated with nuclear weapons production at East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) resulted in stream and floodplain contamination. he EFPC is designated as an Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) operable unit under the Comprehensive ...

126

7 CFR 3201.76 - Asphalt and tar removers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Asphalt and tar removers. 3201.76 ...Designated Items § 3201.76 Asphalt and tar removers. (a) Definition...Cleaning agents designed to remove asphalt or tar from equipment, roads,...

2013-01-01

127

7 CFR 3201.76 - Asphalt and tar removers.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Asphalt and tar removers. 3201.76 ...Designated Items § 3201.76 Asphalt and tar removers. (a) Definition...Cleaning agents designed to remove asphalt or tar from equipment, roads,...

2014-01-01

128

Steel Creek wildlife: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987  

SciTech Connect

Reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek below L-Lake were assessed in monthly or quarterly sampling programs. Thirty-eight species of reptiles or amphibians were collected during 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment, and in the delta and channel. Juvenile turtles and alligators, and larval amphibians were observed or collected during the study, indicating continued reproduction in Steel Creek. The reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek show no indication of any effect due to the impoundment of the lake or the operation of L-Reactor. Waterfowl and associated birds in Steel Creek below L-Lake were observed, in conjunction with other sampling programs, during winter--spring and fall--winter migrations. Nine species of waterfowl and five species of associated birds were observed in 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment and in the delta and channel.

Giffin, M.A.; Patterson, K.K.

1988-03-01

129

VALIDITY OF EFFLUENT AND AMBIENT TOXICITY TESTS FOR PREDICTING BIOLOGICAL IMPACT, SKELETON CREEK, ENID, OKLAHOMA  

EPA Science Inventory

Skeleton Creek was studied in August, 1983 and was the fourth site study. A small creek, Boggy Creek receives discharges from both an oil refinery and a publicly owned treatment works (POTW) prior to its confluence with Skeleton Creek. A fertilizer processing plant discharge is l...

130

Tar pollution of Sierra Leone beaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE widespread occurrence of pelagic tar and plastic wastes in parts of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans has been described previously1. Extensive and considerable fouling of the sandy beaches of Sierra Leone by tar lumps has now been observed at Lumley, Sussex, No. 2, Toke and Mamah villages (Fig. 1) during the past 14 months (June, 1973 to July, 1974).

Wazir Okera

1974-01-01

131

JiTT - La Brea Tar Pits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

1) What is "tar" and how does it form? 2) List the animals that have been uncovered in the tar pits that you didn't know were native to North America. Why do you think these animals are now extinct? ...

Guertin, Laura

132

Coal tar phototoxicity: kinetics and exposure parameters  

SciTech Connect

Two manifestations of coal tar phototoxicity were examined: delayed erythema and skin pain (tar smarts) by quantifying the amount (dose) of UVA and exposure conditions required to induce these phenomena in normal human skin. The minimal UVA dose required to induce delayed erythema (minimal phototoxic dose or MPD) and the minimal UVA dose required to induce an immediate smarting reaction (minimal smarting dose or MSD) were recorded in 32 subjects in a variety of settings. A log-log dose-response model described the relation between the interval of time tar was left on the skin and lowering of MPD. We examined 4 different methods of tar removal and showed that several methods using more than water alone were equally effective--judging by resultant phototoxicity. The time between tar removal and UVA irradiation is important. Even 30 min was sufficient for the MPD to increase from 3.77 +/- 1.55 to 6.1 +/- 4.0 J/cm2. The smarting reaction shows a similar dependence on the time interval between tar removal and exposure. The mean MSD was less than the mean MPD at all times tested. Both manifestations of coal tar phototoxicity, reduced delayed erythema threshold and susceptibility to the smarting reaction, persisted at least 30 h after tar removal.

Diette, K.M.; Gange, R.W.; Stern, R.S.; Arndt, K.A.; Parrish, J.A.

1983-10-01

133

Coyote Creek Geologic Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are required to make field observations, collect data and then create a detailed geologic map and report for a small area (approximately 1 sq. mile) on the edge of the Tularosa Basin in south central New Mexico. The study area is located within the Tularosa NE quadrangle, but maps from the Cat Mountain quadrangle to the East are also useful. Gently dipping carbonate and siliciclastic beds, igneous intrusions, bioherms and a normal fault are present in the study area along Coyote Creek, a few miles north of Tularosa, NM. The creek generally runs parallel to dip, allowing relatively easy access to inclined strata. Bioherm(s) are present in the lower section. Several dikes are present running both parallel and perpendicular to sedimentary bed strike. One is very non-resistant to weathering, creating unusual troughs as it passes through the carbonate bioherms. A sill is present in the upper section and a N/S trending normal fault roughly parallels strike of sedimentary beds.

Walsh, Timothy R.

134

Coal tar-containing asphalt - resource or hazardous waste?  

SciTech Connect

Coal tar was used in Sweden for the production of asphalt and for the drenching of stabilization gravel until 1973. The tar has high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), some of which may be strongly carcinogenic. Approximately 20 million tonnes of tar-containing asphalt is present in the public roads in Sweden. Used asphalt from rebuilding can be classified as hazardous waste according to the Swedish Waste Act. The cost of treating the material removed as hazardous waste can be very high due to the large amount that has to be treated, and the total environmental benefit is unclear. The transport of used asphalt to landfill or combustion will affect other environmental targets. The present project, based on three case studies of road projects in Sweden, evaluates the consequences of four scenarios for handling the material: reuse, landfill, biological treatment, and incineration. The results show that reuse of the coal tar-containing materials in new road construction is the most favorable alternative in terms of cost, material use, land use, energy consumption, and air emissions.

Andersson-Skold, Y.; Andersson, K.; Lind, B.; Claesson, A.; Larsson, L.; Suer, P.; Jacobson, T. [SGI, Gothenburg (Sweden)

2007-09-30

135

A long-term monitoring study of chlorophyll, microbial contaminants, and pesticides in a coastal residential stormwater pond and its adjacent tidal creek  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stormwater ponds are commonly used in residential and commercial areas to control flooding. The accumulation of urban contaminants\\u000a in stormwater ponds can lead to water-quality problems including nutrient enrichment, chemical contamination, and bacterial\\u000a contamination. This study presents 5 years of monitoring data assessing water quality of a residential subdivision pond and\\u000a adjacent tidal creek in coastal South Carolina, USA. The stormwater

Marie E. DeLorenzo; Brian Thompson; Emily Cooper; Janet Moore; Michael H. Fulton

136

Gain-loss study of lower San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River, San Antonio, Texas, May-October 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five streamflow gain-loss measurement surveys were made along lower San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River from Mitchell Street to South Loop 410 east of Kelly Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas, during May?October 1999. All of the measurements were made during dry periods, when stormwater runoff was not occurring and effects of possible bank storage were minimized. San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River were divided into six subreaches, and streamflow measurements were made simultaneously at the boundaries of these subreaches so that streamflow gains or losses and estimates of inflow from or outflow to shallow ground water could be quantified for each subreach. There are two possible sources of ground-water inflow to lower San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River east of Kelly Air Force Base. One source is direct inflow of shallow ground water into the streams. The other source is ground water that enters tributaries that flow into the San Antonio River. The estimated mean direct inflow of ground water to the combined San Pedro Creek and San Antonio River study reach was 3.0 cubic feet per second or 1.9 million gallons per day. The mean tributary inflow of ground water was estimated to be 1.9 cubic feet per second or 1.2 million gallons per day. The total estimated inflow of shallow ground water was 4.9 cubic feet per second or 3.2 million gallons per day. The amount of inflow from springs and seeps (estimated by observation) is much less than the amount of direct ground-water inflow estimated from the gain-loss measurements. Therefore, the presence of springs and seeps might not be a reliable indicator of the source of shallow ground water entering the river. Most of the shallow ground water that enters the San Antonio River from tributary inflow enters from the west side, through Concepcion Creek, inflows near Riverside Golf Course, and Six-Mile Creek.

Ockerman, Darwin J.

2002-01-01

137

Impact of Asphaltenes and Resins on the Wetting Characteristics of Tars at Former Manufactured Gas Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tars produced as a byproduct of coal and oil gasification at manufactured gas plants (MGPs) during the 19th and early 20th centuries were often released into the environment through poor disposal practices or leaks in holding tanks and piping. These tars are persistent contaminants, leaching polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into groundwater and posing a significant risk to human and ecological health. MGP tars also have several properties that make them notoriously difficult to remediate. They are denser than water, so they can migrate to depths which make direct removal difficult or impossible, and their relatively high viscosities and ability to alter the wetting characteristics of porous media result in inefficient removal by traditional pump-and-treat methods. In this study, we investigate the last of these properties. Previous studies have linked wetting changes to asphaltenes---polar, high molecular weight compounds present in the tars. However, we have conducted qualitative bottle tests for tar samples collected from two former MGPs which indicate that there is no direct correlation between asphaltene concentration and the tendency to alter wetting characteristics of porous media. To better understand the factors controlling wetting behavior, we isolate asphaltenes and resins, another class of polar compounds, from a tar sample and recombine them with the remaining PAH mixture to create a series of tars of varying composition. We assess the relative impact of each of the fractions on wettability through contact angle measurements conducted at three different pHs.

Hauswirth, S. C.; Birak, P. S.; Rylander, S.; Pedit, J. A.; Miller, C. T.

2008-12-01

138

Catalytic Tar Reduction for Assistance in Thermal Conversion of Space Waste for Energy Production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Trash to Gas (TtG) project investigates technologies for converting waste generated during spaceflight into various resources. One of these technologies was gasification, which employed a downdraft reactor designed and manufactured at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for the conversion of simulated space trash to carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide would then be converted to methane for propulsion and water for life support systems. A minor byproduct of gasification includes large hydrocarbons, also known as tars. Tars are unwanted byproducts that add contamination to the product stream, clog the reactor and cause complications in analysis instrumentation. The objective of this research was to perform reduction studies of a mock tar using select catalysts and choose the most effective for primary treatment within the KSC downdraft gasification reactor. Because the KSC reactor is operated at temperatures below typical gasification reactors, this study evaluates catalyst performance below recommended catalytic operating temperatures. The tar reduction experimentation was observed by passing a model tar vapor stream over the catalysts at similar conditions to that of the KSC reactor. Reduction in tar was determined using gas chromatography. Tar reduction efficiency and catalyst performances were evaluated at different temperatures.

Caraccio, Anne Joan; Devor, Robert William; Hintze, Paul E.; Muscatello, Anthony C.; Nur, Mononita

2014-01-01

139

Pulse Dipolar ESR of Doubly Labeled Mini TAR DNA and Its Annealing to Mini TAR RNA.  

PubMed

Pulse dipolar electron-spin resonance in the form of double electron electron resonance was applied to strategically placed, site-specifically attached pairs of nitroxide spin labels to monitor changes in the mini TAR DNA stem-loop structure brought on by the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein NCp7. The biophysical structural evidence was at Ångstrom-level resolution under solution conditions not amenable to crystallography or NMR. In the absence of complementary TAR RNA, double labels located in both the upper and the lower stem of mini TAR DNA showed in the presence of NCp7 a broadened distance distribution between the points of attachment, and there was evidence for several conformers. Next, when equimolar amounts of mini TAR DNA and complementary mini TAR RNA were present, NCp7 enhanced the annealing of their stem-loop structures to form duplex DNA-RNA. When duplex TAR DNA-TAR RNA formed, double labels initially located 27.5 Å apart at the 3'- and 5'-termini of the 27-base mini TAR DNA relocated to opposite ends of a 27 bp RNA-DNA duplex with 76.5 Å between labels, a distance which was consistent with the distance between the two labels in a thermally annealed 27-bp TAR DNA-TAR RNA duplex. Different sets of double labels initially located 26-27 Å apart in the mini TAR DNA upper stem, appropriately altered their interlabel distance to ?35 Å when a 27 bp TAR DNA-TAR RNA duplex formed, where the formation was caused either through NCp7-induced annealing or by thermal annealing. In summary, clear structural evidence was obtained for the fraying and destabilization brought on by NCp7 in its biochemical function as an annealing agent and for the detailed structural change from stem-loop to duplex RNA-DNA when complementary RNA was present. PMID:25692594

Sun, Yan; Borbat, Peter P; Grigoryants, Vladimir M; Myers, William K; Freed, Jack H; Scholes, Charles P

2015-02-17

140

Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall aims of this research study were to generate novel design data and to develop an equilibrium stage-based thermodynamic model of a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system for the removal of model tar compounds (benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene) found in biomass producer gas. The specific objectives were to design, fabricate and evaluate a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system and to optimize the design and operating variables; i.e., packed bed height, vegetable oil type, solvent temperature, and solvent flow rate. The experimental wet packed bed scrubbing system includes a liquid distributor specifically designed to distribute a high viscous vegetable oil uniformly and a mixing section, which was designed to generate a desired concentration of tar compounds in a simulated air stream. A method and calibration protocol of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was developed to quantify tar compounds. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Statistical analysis showed that both soybean and canola oils are potential solvents, providing comparable removal efficiency of tar compounds. The experimental height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) was determined as 0.11 m for vegetable oil based scrubbing system. Packed bed height and solvent temperature had highly significant effect (p0.05) effect on the removal of model tar compounds. The packing specific constants, Ch and CP,0, for the Billet and Schultes pressure drop correlation were determined as 2.52 and 2.93, respectively. The equilibrium stage based thermodynamic model predicted the removal efficiency of model tar compounds in the range of 1-6%, 1-4% and 1-2% of experimental data for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, respectively, for the solvent temperature of 30° C. The NRTL-PR property model and UNIFAC for estimating binary interaction parameters are recommended for modeling absorption of tar compounds in vegetable oils. Bench scale experimental data from the wet scrubbing system would be useful in the design and operation of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system. The process model, validated using experimental data, would be a key design tool for the design and optimization of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system.

Bhoi, Prakashbhai Ramabhai

141

A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Little and Big Lick creeks, Blackford and Delaware counties, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A digital computer model was used to predict alternatives for future waste loadings on Little Lick and Big Lick Creeks, Blackford and Delaware Counties, IN, that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The model parameters included atmospheric reaeration, carbonaceous and nitrogenous biochemical-oxygen demand, and benthic-oxygen demand. The model was calibrated with data collected during three water-quality surveys at low flow. During these surveys, in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentrations averaged less than 3 mg/L, well below the State minimum requirement of 5.0 mg/L. The model indicated that these low concentrations were caused by high waste loadings, lack of dilution, low reaeration, and benthic-oxygen demand. The summer waste-assimilation study assumed that future reductions in discharge loadings would decrease carbonaceous and benthic decay and increase nitrogenous decay. This study indicated that projected effluent waste loads that would provide acceptable in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentrations are highly dependent on rates of nitrification. Ammonia toxicity became the limiting water-quality criterion at low nitrification rates. The winter waste-assimilation study indicated that projected dissolved-oxygen concentrations in Little Lick and Big Lick Creeks did not fall below the State standard. Owing to a lack of dilution, however, ammonia-nitrogen concentrations would violate in-stream toxicity standards in both Little Lick and Big Lick Creeks. (USGS)

Peters, James G.; Crawford, Charles G.; Wilber, William G.

1980-01-01

142

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 4. Information related to the feasibility study and ARARs. Appendixes G, H, I  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

NONE

1996-03-01

143

Application of organic geochemistry to coastal tar residues from central California  

SciTech Connect

Tar residues are common on the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. These coastal tar residues have been washed ashore and usually occur on headlands near the high-tide line. In this study, 18 coastal tar residues were collected and analyzed to determine their carbon isotopic compositions and values of selected biomarker ratios. All of the residues have very heavy ({sup 13}C-enriched) carbon isotopic compositions spanning a narrow range ({delta}{sup 13}C = {minus}22.2 to {minus}23.4{per{underscore}thousand}), and 28,30-bisnorhopane is present in all samples. These same geochemical characteristics are found in Monterey Formation oils from which the coastal tar residues were likely derived. These coastal residues could result from natural seeps or from accidental spills. Statistically the coastal tar residues can be organized into three groups, each of which may represent different spill or seep events. Seven samples of potential local representative sources for the tar residues were examined, but none could account for the coastal tars.

Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Hostettler, F.D.; Lorenson, T.D.

2000-01-01

144

Relationship between cigarette yields, puffing patterns, and smoke intake: evidence for tar compensation?  

PubMed Central

The relationship between cigarette yields (of nicotine, tar, and carbon monoxide), puffing patterns, and smoke intake was studied by determining puffing patterns and measuring blood concentrations of nicotine and carboxy-haemoglobin (COHb) in a sample of 55 smokers smoking their usual brand of cigarette. Regression analyses showed that the total volume of smoke puffed from a cigarette was a more important determinant of peak blood nicotine concentration than the nicotine or tar yield of the cigarette, its length, or the reported number of cigarettes smoked on the test day. There was evidence of compensation for a lower tar yield over and above any compensation for nicotine. When nicotine yield was controlled for, smokers of lower-tar cigarettes not only puffed more smoke from their cigarettes than smokers of higher-tar cigarettes but they also had higher plasma nicotine concentrations, suggesting that they were compensating for the reduced delivery of tar by puffing and inhaling a greater volume of smoke. The results based on the COHb concentrations were consistent with this interpretation. If an adequate intake of tar proves to be one of the main motives for smoking, then developing a cigarette that is acceptable to smokers and also less harmful to their health will be much more difficult. PMID:6819031

Sutton, S R; Russell, M A; Iyer, R; Feyerabend, C; Saloojee, Y

1982-01-01

145

Understanding the stability of pyrolysis tars from biomass in a view point of free radicals.  

PubMed

Fast pyrolysis of biomass has attracted increasing attention worldwide to produce bio-tars that can be upgraded into liquid fuels and chemicals. However, the bio-tars are usually poor in quality and stability and are difficult to be upgraded. To better understand the nature of the bio-tars, this work reveals radical concentration of tars derived from pyrolysis of two kinds of biomass. The tars were obtained by condensing the pyrolysis volatiles in 3s. It shows that the tars contain large amounts of radicals, at a level of 10(16)spins/g, and are able to generate more radicals at temperatures of 573K or higher, reaching a level of 10(19)spins/g at 673K in less than 30min. The radical generation in the tar samples is attributed to the formation of THF insoluble matters (coke), which also contain radicals. The radical concentrations of the aqueous liquids obtained in pyrolysis are also studied. PMID:24507874

He, Wenjing; Liu, Qingya; Shi, Lei; Liu, Zhenyu; Ci, Donghui; Lievens, Caroline; Guo, Xiaofen; Liu, Muxin

2014-03-01

146

The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report, July 1990--July 1991  

SciTech Connect

Contents of this report include the following: executive summary; characterization of the native bitumen from the Whiterocks oil sand deposit; influence of carboxylic acid content on bitumen viscosity; water based oil sand separation technology; extraction of bitumen from western oil sands by an energy-efficient thermal method; large- diameter fluidized bed reactor studies; rotary kiln pyrolysis of oil sand; catalytic upgrading of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; ebullieted bed hydrotreating and hydrocracking; super critical fluid extraction; bitumen upgrading; 232 references; Appendix A--Whiterocks tar sand deposit bibliography; Appendix B--Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit bibliography; and Appendix C--University of Utah tar sands bibliography.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1992-04-01

147

Shell Creek Summers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality provided…

Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

2005-01-01

148

Reduction of tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide intake in low tar smokers.  

PubMed Central

Blood nicotine, cotinine, and carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) concentrations were measured in 392 smokers (255 women and 137 men) of "middle tar" (17-22 mg), "low to middle" (11-16 mg), and "low tar" (less than 11 mg) cigarettes. Since tar intake cannot yet be measured directly, we devised an index to estimate it based on the use of measured levels of an intake marker (eg, blood nicotine) and the ratio of the tar to marker yields of the cigarettes. This approach was validated by its ability to enhance the prediction of levels of one marker by use of another. In a practical test, using COHb and the CO/nicotine yield ratio of the cigarettes, the mean blood nicotine concentration of the low tar smokers was predicted to be 31.9 ng/ml compared with the measured mean of 31.8 ng/ml. Our main findings were that despite substantial compensatory increases in inhalation, the low tar smokers took in about 25% less tar, about 15% less nicotine, and about 10% less carbon monoxide than smokers of middle and low to middle tar cigarettes. These results indicate that low tar cigarettes of the type available in Britain since the late 1970s are likely to prove less harmful than other brands. Monitoring of smoke intakes could supplement epidemiological approaches and provide earlier evidence of whether changing cigarette designs lead to any significant dosage reduction that could affect the risk of disease. PMID:3711773

Russell, M A; Jarvis, M J; Feyerabend, C; Saloojee, Y

1986-01-01

149

Sensitivity of Orographic Moist Convection to Landscape Variability: A Study of the Buffalo Creek, Colorado, Flash Flood Case of 1996.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of numerical experiments with a high-resolution mesoscale model were conducted to study the convective rainfall event that caused the 1996 Buffalo Creek, Colorado, flash flood. Different surface conditions and treatments of land surface physics were utilized to assess the sensitivity of this orographic moist convection to local and regional landscape forcing.Given accurate large-scale synoptic conditions at the lateral boundaries, the mesoscale model with a convection-resolving grid shows reasonably good skill in simulating this convective event with a lead time of up to 12 h. Sensitivity experiments show that a primary reason for this success is the use of an advanced land surface model that provides time-varying soil-moisture fields. This land surface model plays an important role in capturing the complex interactions among the land surface, the PBL, cloud-modulated radiation, and precipitation. For the case simulated, such interactions contribute to the temporal and spatial distribution of surface heating at small scales, and the convective triggering and development.Tests show that the landscape variability at small and large scales significantly affects the location and intensity of the moist convection. For example, on timescales of 6 to 12 h, differences in initial soil moisture associated with irrigation in the plains affect the evolution of the convection near the Continental Divide. Also, the surface modification by a wildfire burn influences the path of the major convective event that caused the flash flood.A watershed-based quantitative-precipitation-forecast skill score is proposed and employed. The relative success with which this severe thunderstorm is simulated over complex terrain provides some hope that the careful treatment of land surface physics in convection-resolving models can perhaps provide some useful level of predictability.

Chen, Fei; Warner, Thomas T.; Manning, Kevin

2001-11-01

150

Mill Creek Summit Lovejoy Buttes  

E-print Network

Mill Creek Summit Lovejoy Buttes Piute Butte Alpine Butte near-Black Butte Lovejoy Buttes Mill Creek Summit Piute Butte Alpine Butte near-Black Butte Lovejoy Buttes Mill Creek Summit Piute Butte Llano Figure 6. Sample Seismogram from M3 Hector Mine Aftershock Mill Creek Summit Lovejoy Buttes Piute

151

Environ. Sci. Technol. 1993, 27, 2831-2843 Coal Tar Dissolution in Water-Miscible Solvents: Experimental Evaluation  

E-print Network

Environ. Sci. Technol. 1993, 27, 2831-2843 Coal Tar Dissolution in Water-Miscible Solvents-misciblesolventsonthe solubility of coal tar. This study investigated this effect and the extent to whichmulticomponent coaltar data and Raoult's law assumption for aqueous solubility. For three solvents, n-butylamine,acetone,and 2

Peters, Catherine A.

152

A novel biomass air gasification process for producing tar-free higher heating value fuel gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass is a promising sustainable energy source. A tar-free fuel gas can be obtained in a properly designed biomass gasification process. In the current study, a tar-free biomass gasification process by air was proposed. This concept was demonstrated on a lab-scale fluidized bed using sawdust under autothermic conditions. This lab-scale model gasifier combined two individual regions of pyrolysis, gasification, and

Yan Cao; Yang Wang; John T. Riley; Wei-Ping Pan

2006-01-01

153

Upgrading producer gas quality from rubber wood gasification in a radio frequency tar thermocatalytic treatment reactor.  

PubMed

This study focused on improving the producer gas quality using radio frequency (RF) tar thermocatalytic treatment reactor. The producer gas containing tar, particles and water was directly passed at a particular flow rate into the RF reactor at various temperatures for catalytic and thermal treatments. Thermal treatment generates higher heating value of 5.76 MJ Nm(-3) at 1200°C. Catalytic treatments using both dolomite and Y-zeolite provide high tar and particles conversion efficiencies of about 97% on average. The result also showed that light poly-aromatic hydrocarbons especially naphthalene and aromatic compounds particularly benzene and toluene were still found even at higher reaction temperatures. Low energy intensive RF tar thermocatalytic treatment was found to be effective for upgrading the producer gas quality to meet the end user requirements and increasing its energy content. PMID:24185417

Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z A

2013-12-01

154

Value engineering study report on Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Project. Alternative No. 3  

SciTech Connect

The project under study is Alternative No. 3 as identified in the Feasibility Study dated August 1994. This alternative is identified as Excavation and Disposal of Commercial/DOE, Other, and Residential Remedial Unit Soil. The assumptions used for generating baseline costs are discussed in site associated costs. It is further described as follows: Soils with mercury concentrations greater than 200 ppM in the Commercial/DOE and Other Remedial Units and greater than 180 ppM in the Residential Remedial Unit [41,300m{sup 3} (54,000yd{sup 3} a volume equivalent to approximately 6,750 dump truck loads)] would be excavated and disposed of in an approved, lined landfill at Y-12 with leachate collection and possible pretreatment of the leachate before discharge. Because 0.6 ha (1.5 acres) of wetland would be destroyed, wetlands banking would occur, whereby a 1.8-ha (4.5-acre) wetland would be constructed on DOE-owned land near K-25. Borrow soil would be obtained from the Y-12 West End Borrow Area or from excess soil located at Y-12 landfills to fill the excavation. It is estimated that 7.3 ha (18.2 acres, and area about the size of 17 football fields) of habitat would be adversely affected. This alternative would use BMPs to minimize any adverse affects and to comply substantively with regulatory requirements.

NONE

1995-08-01

155

Hydrologic data from the study of acidic contamination in the Miami Wash-Pinal Creek area, Arizona, water years 1994-96  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since 1984, hydrologic data have been collected as part of a U.S. Geological Survey study of the occurrence and movement of acidic contamination in the aquifer and streams of the Pinal Creek drainage basin near Globe, Arizona. Ground-water data from that study are presented for water years 1994, 1995, and 1996 and include location, construction information, site plans, water levels, chemical and physical field measurements, and selected chemical analyses of water samples for nine monitoring well groups. Monthly precipitation data and long-term precipitation statistics are presented for two sites.

Konieczki, Alice D.; Angeroth, Cory E.

1997-01-01

156

Oxygen and hydrogen isotope study of minerals from metapelitic rocks, staurolite to sillimanite zones, Mica Creek, British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen and hydrogen isotope analyses have been made of coexisting quartz, ilmenite, muscovite, and biotite from Late Precambrian metapelitic rocks, staurolite-kyanite to K-feldspar-muscovite-sillimanite zones, from Mica Creek, British Columbia. The delta¹⁸O and delta D values of these minerals are generally uniform and do not decrease significantly with increasing metamorphic grade. This implies that there has not been significant infiltration of

J. R. Bowman; E. D. Ghent

1985-01-01

157

Hot Springs Creek  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientist Jennifer Lewicki measures the discharge along a tributary to Hot Springs Creek, Akutan Island, Alaska. Steam (upper left) rises from 3 high-temperature springs that discharge into the tributary....

158

The Silver Creek Preserve  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Before The Nature Conservancy established the Silver Creek Preserve, the watershed had been degraded by years of livestock grazing and overfishing. Preserve managers have been concerned about sedimentation, increasing stream temperatures, and invasive species. To measure the effectiveness of their ...

159

Benthic macroinvertebrate richness along Sausal Creek, Oakland, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sausal Creek, 5.0 km long, is one of the principal watercourses in Oakland, California. The headwaters of Sausal Creek arise in the Oakland Hills and the creek flows southwestward through the city, discharging into the tidal canal that separates the island of Alameda from Oakland; the creek ultimately flows into San Francisco Bay. Due to the presence of rainbow trout, the stream health of Sausal Creek is a local conservation priority. In the present study, a survey of benthic macroinvertebrates in the creek was conducted and possible correlations between environmental variables and taxonomic richness were analyzed. Three stations along the creek were sampled using a 30.5cm 500 micron aquatic d-net, and temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen levels were measured in creek samples obtained at each station. Temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen levels remained constant along the creek. Taxonomic richness was highest at the upstream site of Palo Seco, located in an eastern section of the creek, and furthest downstream at Dimond Park, in the western portion of the creek. The Monterrey site, just west of Palo Seco was found to be significantly low in benthic macroinvertebrates. The Palo Seco and Monterrey sites are separated by Highway 13 and storm drain inputs may bring contaminants into the creek at this site. At the Monterrey site Sausal Creek follows the Hayward Fault, gas emissions or change in substrate may also affect the local population of benthic invertebrates. Further research will be conducted to determine what factors are contributing to this local anomaly.

Lara, D.; Ahumada, E.; Leon, Y.; Bracho, H.; Telles, C.

2012-12-01

160

Remote sensor application studies report, July 1, 1968 to June 30, 1969: Remote sensing reconnaissance, Mill creek area, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Remote Sensor Application Studies program, infrared images and several kinds of photographs were obtained on reconnaissance flights over two areas in the Arbuckle Mountains near Mill Creek, Oklahoma. These data were used in a preliminary investigation (1) to determine the diagnostic reflection and emission characteristics of various rock types, and (2) io evaluate the perturbing influence of atmospheric conditions, surface coatings, rock texture, and topography on the observed reflected and emitted energy in the thermal infrared (8-14?) part of the spectrum

Rowan, L.C.; Offield, T.W.; Watson, Kenneth; Cannon, P.J.; Watson, R.D.

1970-01-01

161

Traditional Tar Production from the Anatolian Black Pine [Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe var. pallasiana] and its usages in Afyonkarahisar, Central Western Turkey  

PubMed Central

Background Tar is one example of a plant product used in folk medicine and it is obtained from Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe, which is very common in the West Anatolian Region. Old trees that are good for kindling and have thick trucks are preferred to obtain tar. Tar is used not only as traditional medicine but also for protection against both endoparasites and ectoparasites. The objective of this study was to record the traditional method of obtaining tar and its usages in Afyonkarahisar which is located in the Western Anatolian Region of Turkey. Methods In order to record the traditional methods of obtaining tar, we visited the villages of Do?lat, Kürtyurdu and Çata??l in Afyonkarahisar (Turkey) June-July, 2012. Ethnobotanical data about the method of collection and traditional usages of tar were obtained through informal interviews with 26 participants (16 men and 10 women). Data concerning the method of tar collection and its traditional usages were recorded and photographed. Results The traditional method for obtaining tar from Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana by local people was recorded and the local usages (curing ear pain in children, osteomyelitis, wounds, ulcers, eczema, acne, alopecia, fungus, foot-and-mouth disease in animals, mouth sores in sheep and goats, protection against endo- and ectoparasites, repellent for snakes, mice, flies (Tabanus bovinus) and ticks, and the prevention of water leakage from roofs) of tar are described. Conclusion In this study, the traditional method for obtaining tar and the traditional usages of tar are explained. Documentation of the method of obtaining tar and its traditional usages may contribute to scientific research on the benefits and usages of tar in medicine, veterinary medicine, as well as other fields. PMID:24673846

2014-01-01

162

Best management practices plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is currently under a Federal Agreement to define soil and groundwater contamination and develop remedies to protect human health and the environment. The western end of the site is known to have a former nitric acid disposal pit that has been remediated and capped. Remedial investigation data indicate this pit was a source of nitrate, uranium, technetium, and other metals contamination in groundwater. The downgradient receptor of this contamination includes Bear Creek and its tributaries. A feasibility study is under way to develop a remedy to prevent further contaminant migration to this receptor. To support the feasibility study, the treatability study is being completed to examine groundwater treatment at the S-3 site. This document serves as the top-level command medium for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study and, as such, will be the primary resource for management and implementation of field activities. Many of the details and standard operating procedures referred to herein can be found in other Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), documents. Several supporting documents specific to this project are also cited. These include the Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP), the Health and Safety Plan (HASP), and the Waste Management Plan (WMP).

NONE

1997-09-01

163

Upper Smith Creek, Alameda Creek watershed, Santa Clara County.  

E-print Network

. top right Biologists identifying fish species collected from Sonoma Creek, Sonoma County. Photo: Tim-water, Napa River ­ Sonoma Creek marsh complex. At each site an effort was made to sample the full range

164

Ground-water levels and flow at selected study sites in the Walnut Creek Management System Evaluation Area, Boone and Story counties, Iowa, 1991-93  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data collected from May 1991 through September 1993 to determine seasonal fluctuations in ground-water levels and to estimate directions of ground-water flow in the saturated zone at selected study sites at the Iowa Management Systems Evaluation Area in the Walnut Creek watershed is presented. The Walnut Creek watershed is located on glacial deposits of Wisconsin Age in central Iowa and includes about 20 square miles. The upper glacial materials that contain the water table appear to be supraglacial till rather than basal glacial tills and contain both oxidized and unoxidized zones. A total of 102 observation wells were installed at 38 well nest locations. Descriptions of the observation wells drilled, the range of water-level fluctuation, and the estimated direction of ground-water movement at each of seven study sites in the watershed are provided. Diagrams of each study site show the location of observation wells and the estimated direction of ground-water flow for a selected date. Data tables include descriptive well logs, well-construction data, and water-level measaurements made between May 1991 and September 1993.

Buchmiller, Robert

1996-01-01

165

Geologic map of the Skull Creek Quadrangle, Moffat County Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Skull Creek quadrangle is in northwestern Colorado a few miles north of Rangely. The prominent structural feature of the Skull Creek quadrangle is the Skull Creek monocline. Pennsylvanian rocks are exposed along the axis of the monocline while hogbacks along its southern flank expose rocks that are from Permian to Upper Cretaceous in age. The Wolf Creek monocline and the Wolf Creek thrust fault, which dissects the monocline, are salient structural features in the northern part of the quadrangle. Little or no mineral potential exists within the quadrangle. A geologic map of the Lazy Y Point quadrangle, which is adjacent to the Skull Creek quadrangle on the west, is also available (Geologic Investigations Series I-2646). This companian map shows similar geologic features, including the western half of the Skull Creek monocline. The geology of this quadrangle was mapped because of its proximity to Dinosaur National Monument. It is adjacent to quadrangles previously mapped to display the geology of this very scenic and popular National Monument. The Skull Creek quadrangle includes parts of the Skull Creek Wilderness Study Area, which was assessed for its mineral resource potential.

Van Loenen, R. E.; Selner, Gary; Bryant, W.A.

1999-01-01

166

Tar sand evaluation using geophysical well logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysical well logging can provide a record of the lithological variations and oil yield of tar sands. Probes lowered into bore holes at the end of insulated cables yield such records as the spontaneous potential log, the focused resistivity log, the gamma-ray log, the acoustic log and the neutron log. The accuracy of correlations between gamma-ray log response and fines

WALTER H. FERTL; GEORGE V. CHILINGARIAN

1978-01-01

167

Chemical, geologic, and hydrologic data from the study of acidic contamination in the Miami Wash-Pinal Creek area, Arizona, water years 1984-87  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Occurrence and movement of acidic contamination in the aquifer and streams of the Pinal Creek basin near Globe, Arizona, is the focus of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey. Groundwater data from that study for water years 1984 to 1987 include location, construction information, and site plans for six groups of monitoring wells, mineralogic and particle-size analyses of drill cuttings, water level measurements, and chemical analyses of water samples from 39 wells. Surface water data for 13 sites in this study include discharge measurements and chemical analysis of water and streambed sediment samples. Monthly discharge data are presented for one site. Monthly precipitation amounts and statistics of long-term precipitation are presented for two sites. (USGS)

Eychaner, J.H.; Rehmann, M.R.; Brown, J.G.

1989-01-01

168

ROCK CREEK, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1970-1984  

EPA Science Inventory

The study was designed to determine the characteristics and amounts of industrial and municipal wastes discharged to Rock Creek, Idaho (17040212) and subsequently into the Snake River and to evaluate the effects of these wastes on the biota and water quality of Rock Creek. Indus...

169

A Creek to Bay Biological Assessment in Oakland, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2007, the Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program (SWAMP) assessed the impact of trash on water quality in the Peralta Creek which is located in the Fruitvale district of Oakland, CA. This 2011 follow-up study will take further steps in evaluating the physical and biological impacts of pollution and human development on Peralta Creek and in the San Leandro Bay, where the Creek empties into the larger San Francisco Bay estuary. This study will utilize two forms of biological assessment in order to determine the level of water quality and ecosystem health of Peralta Creek and San Leandro Bay in Oakland, California. A Rapid Bioassesment Protocal (RBP) will be used as the method of biological assessment for Peralta Creek. RBP uses a biotic index of benthic macroinvertebrates to provide a measure of a water body's health. Larval trematodes found in two mud snails (Ilynassa obsoleta and Cerithidea californica) will be used to evaluate the health of the San Leandro Bay. Due to the complex life cycle of trematodes, the measure of trematode diversity and richness in host species serves as an indicator of estuarine health (Huspeni 2005). We have completed the assessment of one section of Peralta Creek, located at 2465 34th Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601. Abundance results indicate a moderately healthy creek because there were high levels of pollution tolerant benthic macroinvertebrates. The tolerant group of benthic macroinvertebrates includes such organisms as flatworms, leeches, and scuds. This is possibly due to this section of the creek being pumped up to the surface from culverts impacting the macroinvertebrate's life cycle. Another contributing factor to creek health is the amount of organic debris found in the creek, which inhibits the flow and oxygenation of the water, allowing for more pollution tolerant aquatic insects to persist. Further investigation is being conducted to fully assess the Peralta Creek watershed; from the preliminary results one can surmise that runoff from the watershed that leads into the bay may reflect a moderately healthy San Leandro Bay.

Ahumada, E.; Ramirez, N.; Lopez, A.; Avila, M.; Ramirez, J.; Arroyo, D.; Bracho, H.; Casanova, A.; Pierson, E.

2011-12-01

170

The Paint Creek Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a summer program project designed and conducted by a mixed-age group of elementary children. Students collected data to determine whether a local stream was polluted, and interpretations of the data varied. An informational video about the project and the creek was produced. (PVD)

Northrop, David; Vonck, Beth

1998-01-01

171

Camel Creek Minnamoolka  

E-print Network

Islands Islands Family Island Goold Double Point See Inset 2 See Inset 1 BRUCE HW Y KENNEDY PA L MERSTON HERVEYS RANGE DEVELOPMENTAL ROAD HWY KENNEDY H W Y HWY BRUCE HWY BRUCE HWY BRUCE HW Y Burdekin River StarCreek Tr ebonne California Ly nd Hellhole Pac ksad dle Little Star River Ella M ic hael Davidson M eunga

Greenslade, Diana

172

WILLOW CREEK RECLAMATION PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

Working in cooperation with the EPA, Colorado Division of Minerals and Geology, and others, the Willow Creek Reclamation Committee (WCRC) will investigate the sources and character of water entering the mine workings on the Amethyst vein near the town of Creede, Colorado. Activi...

173

Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak) in a laboratory screw type reactor and secondary thermal/catalytic tar decomposition.  

PubMed

Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak cartons) in a laboratory apparatus using a flow screw type reactor and a secondary catalytic reactor for tar cracking was studied. The pyrolysis experiments were realized at temperatures ranging from 650 °C to 850 °C aimed at maximizing of the amount of the gas product and reducing its tar content. Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields at different conditions was obtained. The presence of H2, CO, CH4, CO2 and light hydrocarbons, HCx, in the gas product was observed. The Aluminum foil was easily separated from the solid product. The rest part of char was characterized by proximate and elemental analysis and calorimetric measurements. The total organic carbon in the tar product was estimated by elemental analysis of tars. Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used for catalytic thermal tar decomposition. Three series of experiments (without catalyst in a secondary cracking reactor, with dolomite and with AFRC) at temperatures of 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 °C were carried out. Both types of catalysts have significantly affected the content of tars and other components in pyrolytic gases. The effect of catalyst on the tetrapack distribution into the product yield on the composition of gas and on the total organic carbon in the tar product is presented in this work. PMID:23428565

Haydary, J; Susa, D; Dudáš, J

2013-05-01

174

Investigation of coal tar mobility at a former MGP site  

SciTech Connect

The presence of coal tar in the subsurface of former manufactured gas plant sites poses an environmental hazard and a potential threat to public health. Coal tar can release various chemical compounds that are transported into the groundwater. Before any efforts can be made to remove coal tar from contaminated subsurface soils, it is recommended to characterize coal tar properties and composition and to delineate the residual saturation point between mobile and immobile coal tar. This paper presents a new innovative field device, the Res-SAT field tool, and laboratory procedures that can be used to determine the saturation-capillary pressure relationship for a soil-water coal-tar system and the critical pressure for coal tar mobility.

Moo-Young, H.K.; Mo, X.H.; Waterman, R.; Coleman, A.; Saroff, S. [California State University Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

2009-11-15

175

Analysis of geothermal electric-power generation at Big Creek Hot Springs, Lemhi County, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Big Creek Hot Springs was evaluated as a source of electrical power for the Blackbird Cobalt Mine, approximately 13 miles south of the hot spring. An evaluaton of the geothermal potential of Big Creek Hot Springs, a suggested exploration program and budget, an engineering feasibility study of power generation at Big Creek Hot Springs, an economic analysis of the modeled power generating system, and an appraisal of the institutional factors influencing development at Big Creek Hot Springs are included.

Struhsacker, D.W. (ed.)

1981-01-01

176

LIFE HISTORY OF COHO SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUSKlSUTCH, IN SASHIN CREEK, SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freshwater life of coho salmon, Oncorhynchuskisutch, in Sashin Creek, southeastern Alaska, was studied from the fall of 1963 through the summer of 1968. Additional information on age composition and fecundity of adults returning to Sashin Creek and a nearby stream was collected through the fall of 1972. Some pre-1963 data on coho salmon entering and leaving Sashin Creek were

RICHARD A. CRONE; CARL E. BOND

1976-01-01

177

Characterization of the HIV-1 TAR RNA-Tat peptide and drug interactions by on-line acoustic wave sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents the application of the thickness shear-mode (TSM) acoustic wave sensor to the study of RNA-protein and RNA-drug interactions at the solid-liquid interface. The binding of the human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 Tat protein to the trans-activation responsive RNA element (TAR) has been studied using this sensor. Data from such measurements show that the sensor is able to discriminate between different Tat peptides derived from the parent protein based on size. The effects of mutations introduced at specific sites in the protein and RNA on the TAR-Tat binding have also been examined in detail. Reduced level of response in acoustic parameters due to mutations was observed indicating that the decrease in binding in response to site specific mutations can be acoustically detected. Data from acoustic wave sensor measurements indicate that the TAR-Tat binding is also affected by ionic strength. Both the frequency and motional resistance signals show periodic responses when varying concentrations of salt are introduced on a TAR-modified surface. The binding of the two molecules seems to be a function of the response of the nucleic acid to salt concentrations. The kinetics of binding of Tat peptides to TAR RNA and to a bulge mutant analogue (MTAR) is also examined from the rate of change of the series resonant frequency. Results from such analysis illustrate longer Tat peptides formed more stable complexes with TAR RNA and exhibited increased discrimination between mutant and wild type TAR. The binding of two aminoglycoside antibiotics, neomycin and streptomycin, to TAR RNA and their effectiveness in preventing TAR-Tat complex formation has been studied in detail. Binding affinity is directly correlated with the inhibitory potency of these molecules and the TSM sensor shows that neomycin exhibits at least a ten fold greater affinity to TAR and that it is also a more potent inhibitor than streptomycin. The results from this research involving TAR-Tat and TAR-drug interactions compare well with those reported in the literature using other non-biosensor techniques. Thus, acoustic physics offers considerable potential for detailed biophysical analysis of nucleic acid-ligand binding and for screening of small molecule interactions with nucleic acids.

Tassew, Nardos Gobena

178

Airborne concentrations, skin contamination, and urinary metabolite excretion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among paving workers exposed to coal tar derived road tars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exposure of surface dressing workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was studied. Four different paving sites, at which coal tar-containing binders were applied, were selected as work sites with high exposure levels of PAH. Breathing zone airborne particulates, contamination of the skin with PAH, and 1-hydroxypyrene in urine of the workers involved in chip sealing were determined. Substantial concentrations

FRANS J. JONGENEELEN; PAUL T. J. SCHEEPERS; ANITA GROENENDIJK; LEON A. G. J. M. VAN AERTS; ROB B. M. ANZION; ROBERT P. BOS; SIEBRAND J. VEENSTRA

1988-01-01

179

Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 2. Appendixes A, B, C, D  

SciTech Connect

This document contains appendices A (water characterization), B (sediment characterization), C (biota Characterization), D (applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements) from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

NONE

1995-09-01

180

Effects of model coal tar components on adhesion strength of polyurethane coating on steel plate  

SciTech Connect

In order to study the effects of coal tar components on the adhesion strength of a heavy duty anticorrosive coating formed with tar-urethane resin oil on a steel plate, polyurethane coatings that were compounded with 15 kinds of polycyclic aromatic compounds as model coal tar components were prepared. In the model coal tar, components, naphthalene, quinoline, 2-naphthol, and phenanthrene showed good compatibility with polyurethane. To test their heavy duty anticorrosive properties, tensile adhesion strength of the cured coatings prepared with the compatible model coal tar components was measured, and the change in tensile adhesion strength as a function of time during salt-water spray treatment was measured. We found that the systems compounded with naphthalene, 2-naphthol, and phenanthrene showed good properties in an ordinary state for adhesion strength. However, only the system with 2-naphthol was found to have good properties in the change of tensile adhesion strength as a function or time during salt-water spray treatment. The curing time of the system with 2-naphthol was slower than that or the others, i.e., we found an inverse proportion between curing speed and adhesion durability. We also measured the dynamic viscoelasticity of cured coatings.

Yokoyama, N.; Fujino, K. [Nippon Steel Chemical Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). R& amp; D Labs.

2005-04-15

181

Using Landsat and a Bayesian hard classifier to study forest change in the Salmon Creek Watershed area from 1972-2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Salmon Creek Watershed in Sonoma County, California, USA, is home to a variety of wildlife, and many of its residents are mindful of their place in its ecology. In the past half century, several of its native and rare species have become threatened, endangered, or extinct, most notably the once common Coho salmon and Chinook salmon. The cause of this decline is believed to be a combination of global climate change, local land use, and land cover change. More specifically, the clearing of forested land to create vineyards, as well as other agricultural and residential uses, has led to a decline in biodiversity and habitat structure. I studied sub-scenes of Landsat data from 1972 to 2013 for the Salmon Creek Watershed area to estimate forest cover over this period. I used a maximum likelihood hard classifier to determine forest area, a Mahalanobis distance soft classifier to show the software's uncertainty in classification, and manually digitized forest cover to test and compare results for the 2013 30 m image. Because the earliest images were lower spatial resolution, I also tested the effects of resolution on these statistics. The images before 1985 are at 60 m spatial resolution while the later images are at 30 m resolution. Each image was processed individually and the training data were based on knowledge of the area and a mosaic of aerial photography. Each sub-scene was classified into five categories: water, forest, pasture, vineyard/orchard, and developed/barren. The research shows a decline in forest area from 1972 to around the mid-1990s, then an increase in forest area from the mid-1990s to present. The forest statistics can be helpful for conservation and restoration purposes, while the study on resolution can be helpful for landscape analysis on many levels.

Mullis, David Stone

182

Catalyst specificities in high pressure hydroprocessing of pyrolysis and gasification tars  

SciTech Connect

Over a period of several years, the Department of Forest Science at Texas A and M University has been conducting studies in the hydroprocessing (catalytic high pressure hydrotreating or hydrodeoxygenation accompanied by hydrocracking) of pyrolytic tars produced in biomass pyrolysis and gasification. Upgrading through hydroprocessing results in good yields of volatile hydrocarbon and phenolic products. This paper compares the performance of twenty different catalysts selected for hydroprocessing of a pine pyrolysis oil, describes the use of noble metal catalysts with tars produced from nine different biomass feedstocks (oil from pine pyrolysis and the tars from pine wood chip, pine plywood trim, pecan shell, peanut shell, sugarcane bagasse, corncob, rice hull, and cottonseed hull gasification), and compares the use of several catalysts in a trickle bed reactor for kinetic studies of the hyroprocessing reaction.

Soltes, E.J.; Lin, S.C.K.; Sheu, Y.H.E.

1987-04-01

183

Hydrologic data for Mountain Creek, Trinity River basin, Texas, 1976  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The total drainage area of Mountain Creek, Texas, is 304 sq mi. The stream-gaging stations on Mountain Creek near Cedar Hill and Walnut Creek near Mansfield provide hydrologic data to define runoff characteristics from small drainage basins. They also serve as index stations for inflow into the reservoir and provide operational data for the reservoir. In addition, the station Walnut Creek near Mansfield is equipped with a recording rain gage. The stage station near Duncanville provides data pertinent to operation of the gates in the Mountain Creek Lake Dam. The reservoir-content station at the dam provides records of reservoir state and contents. The stream-gaging station Mountain Creek at Grand Prairie provides records of outflow from Mountain Creek Lake and the basin. Basin outflow for the 1976 water year was 78,660 acre-feet which is only 1,140 acre-feet above the 16-year (1960-76) average of 77,520 acre-feet. Storage in Mountain Creek Lake showed a net gain of 760 acre-feet during the water year. Rainfall over the study area for the 1976 water year was about 32 inches, which is about 2 inches below the long-term mean rainfall (1960-75) for the area. (Woodard-USGS)

Buckner, H.D.

1978-01-01

184

Tidal creek changes at the Sonoma Baylands restoration site  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over the past 150 years, human activity has had a major impact on tidal wetlands adjoining the San Francisco Bay-Delta estuary Growing concern about the effect of this change on the ecology of the estuary has prompted Bay area managers to attempt to reclaim tidal wetlands. The Sonoma Baylands Restoration Project is designed to use dredge material to convert 348 acres from farmland to wetland. This paper describes changes to a tidal creek that flows from that restoration site to San Pablo Bay (north San Francisco Bay) through an existing tidal wetland during different phases of the project. Hydrologic measurements near the bottom of the creek and cross-creek profiles show how the creek responded to non-tidal flow conditions introduced by filling the site with dredge materials. At the time of this study, the creek had deepened by approximately 40 cm but had not widened.

Dingler, John R.; Cacchione, David A.

1998-01-01

185

Design of a groundwater model to determine the feasibility of extending an artificial salmon-spawning stream: case study for Marx Creek, near Hyder, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marx Creek is a groundwater-fed, artificial salmon-spawning stream near Hyder, Alaska. The purpose of this project was to develop a groundwater flow model to predict baseflow to a proposed 450-m extension of Marx Creek. To accomplish this purpose, water levels were monitored in 20 monitor wells and discharge measurements were recorded from Marx Creek. These data were used to create a three-dimensional groundwater flow model using Visual MODFLOW. Three predictive simulations were run after the model was calibrated to groundwater levels and stream discharge measurements. The proposed extension was added to the calibrated model during the first simulation, resulting in simulated baseflow to the extension stream exceeding simulated baseflow to the existing Marx Creek by 39 %. Sections of Marx Creek were removed from the model during the second simulation, resulting in a 5 % increase in simulated baseflow to the extension stream. A 32-cm reduction in the water table was simulated during the third simulation, resulting in an 18 % decrease in simulated baseflow to the extension stream. These modeling results were used by Tongass National Forest personnel to determine that baseflow to the proposed extension would likely be sufficient to provide habitat conducive to salmon spawning. The extension stream was constructed and portions of Marx Creek were decommissioned during the summer of 2008. It was observed that there is comparable or greater discharge in the extension stream than there was in the decommissioned sections of Marx Creek, although neither discharge nor stream stage measurements have yet been collected.

Nelson, T. P.; Lachmar, T. E.

2013-09-01

186

Assessment of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in the Autauga Creek watershed, Autauga County, Alabama, 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Only four families within the Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera orders were found during a 1999 survey of aquatic macroinvertebrates in Autauga Creek, Autauga County, Alabama, by the Alabama Department of Environmental Management. The low number of taxa of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera families indicated that the aquatic macroinvertebrate community was in poor condition, and the creek was placed on the Alabama Department of Environmental Management 303(d) list. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in 2009 to provide data for the Alabama Department of Environmental Management and other water management agencies to re-evaluate aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in Autauga Creek to see if they meet Alabama Department of Environmental Management water-quality criteria. Aquatic macroinvertebrate communities were evaluated at three sites in the Autauga Creek watershed. Macroinvertebrates were sampled at two sites on Autauga Creek and one on Bridge Creek, the largest tributary to Autauga Creek. Water-quality field parameters were assessed at 11 sites. During the 2009 sampling, 12 families within the orders of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera were found at the Alabama Department of Environmental Management's assessment site whereas only four were found in 1999. The upstream site on Autauga Creek had consistently higher numbers of taxa than the Bridge Creek site and the lower site on Autauga Creek which is the Alabama Department of Environmental Management's assessment site. Chironomid richness was noticeably higher on the two Autauga Creek sites than the Bridge Creek site.

Mooty, Will S.; Gill, Amy C.

2011-01-01

187

Technologies for the development of Trinidad`s tar sands  

SciTech Connect

The Petroleum Company of Trinidad and Tobago possesses a tar sand deposit containing an estimated 950 million barrels of bitumen within its leases. The resource is a sand-stone reservoir, the Lower Morne L`Enfer Formation which is of Pliocene age. It spans 12.84 square kilometres (3,179 acres) and occurs as a surface and near surface deposit, of which a substantial portion may be exploitable by a surface mining/extraction type process. Geologically, the Formation was divided into five stratigraphic units A to E in order of decreasing depth. Electric log data indicated that units C and D were the most extensively developed and were the primary ore targets for a mining project. The sensitivity of potential reserves with depth was determined on moving a horizontal line down the resource. Potential mineable reserves increased gradually down to 120 metres (400 feet) sub-surface (30 metres sub-sea), after which it increased dramatically down to 270 metres (900 feet). Stripping ratios, defined as reject to pay, of probable mining projects ranged from 1.0 within the topography above sea-level to a value of about 1.4 to the base of the deposit. Processing of mined tar sands by solvent, aqueous, and thermal extraction was evaluated from tar sand characterization data and laboratory experimentation. Solvent extraction by several locally available solvents: naphtha, condensate, platformate, and kerosene was evaluated through dissolution studies and rotating disk experiments. Platformate, kerosene, and condensate were shown to have solubilities greater than 95% and dissolution fluxes of 2.3 to 9.0 x 10{sup -4} g/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s at 500 rpm. These solvents were predicted to yield recoveries of 0.81 barrels/tonne of bitumen from good grade tar sand. The analysis done for a 25-year project producing 30,000 barrels/day yielded undiscounted supply costs for asphalt of $15.50 and for synthetic crude oil of $19.70 U.S./barrel.

Maharaj, U.S.; Sukhu, H. [Petroleum Co., Pointe-a-Pierre (Trinidad and Tobago)

1995-12-31

188

Integrated Geophysical Monitoring Program to Study Flood Performance and Incidental CO2 Storage Associated with a CO2 EOR Project in the Bell Creek Oil Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center, is working with Denbury Onshore LLC to determine the effect of a large-scale injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into a deep clastic reservoir for the purpose of simultaneous CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and to study incidental CO2 storage at the Bell Creek oil field located in southeastern Montana. This project will reduce CO2 emissions by more than 1 million tons a year while simultaneously recovering an anticipated 30 million barrels of incremental oil. The Bell Creek project provides a unique opportunity to use and evaluate a comprehensive suite of technologies for monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) of CO2 on a large-scale. The plan incorporates multiple geophysical technologies in the presence of complementary and sometimes overlapping data to create a comprehensive data set that will facilitate evaluation and comparison. The MVA plan has been divided into shallow and deep subsurface monitoring. The deep subsurface monitoring plan includes 4-D surface seismic, time-lapse 3-D vertical seismic profile (VSP) surveys incorporating a permanent borehole array, and baseline and subsequent carbon-oxygen logging and other well-based measurements. The goal is to track the movement of CO2 in the reservoir, evaluate the recovery/storage efficiency of the CO2 EOR program, identify fluid migration pathways, and determine the ultimate fate of injected CO2. CO2 injection at Bell Creek began in late May 2013. Prior to injection, a monitoring and characterization well near the field center was drilled and outfitted with a distributed temperature-monitoring system and three down-hole pressure gauges to provide continuous real-time data of the reservoir and overlying strata. The monitoring well allows on-demand access for time-lapse well-based measurements and borehole seismic instrumentation. A 50-level permanent borehole array of 3-component geophones was installed in a second monitoring well. A pre-injection series of carbon-oxygen logging across the reservoir was acquired in 35 wells. The baseline 3-D surface seismic survey was acquired in September 2012. A 3-D VSP incorporating two wells and 2 square miles of overlapping seismic coverage in the middle of the field was acquired in May 2013. Initial iterations of geologic modeling and reservoir simulation of the field have been completed. Currently, passive seismic monitoring with the permanent borehole array is being conducted during injection. Interpretation results from the baseline surface 3-D survey and preliminary results from the baseline 3-D VSP are being evaluated and integrated into the reservoir model. The PCOR Partnership's philosophy is to combine site characterization, modeling, and monitoring strategies into an iterative process to produce descriptive integrated results. The comprehensive effort at Bell Creek will allow a comparison of the effectiveness of several complementary geophysical and well-based methods in meeting the goals of the deep subsurface monitoring effort.

Burnison, S. A.; Ditty, P.; Gorecki, C. D.; Hamling, J. A.; Steadman, E. N.; Harju, J. A.

2013-12-01

189

Simulation of Water Quality in the Tull Creek and West Neck Creek Watersheds, Currituck Sound Basin, North Carolina and Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study of the Currituck Sound was initiated in 2005 to evaluate the water chemistry of the Sound and assess the effectiveness of management strategies. As part of this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to simulate current sediment and nutrient loadings for two distinct watersheds in the Currituck Sound basin and to determine the consequences of different water-quality management scenarios. The watersheds studied were (1) Tull Creek watershed, which has extensive row-crop cultivation and artificial drainage, and (2) West Neck Creek watershed, which drains urban areas in and around Virginia Beach, Virginia. The model simulated monthly streamflows with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients of 0.83 and 0.76 for Tull Creek and West Neck Creek, respectively. The daily sediment concentration coefficient of determination was 0.19 for Tull Creek and 0.36 for West Neck Creek. The coefficient of determination for total nitrogen was 0.26 for both watersheds and for dissolved phosphorus was 0.4 for Tull Creek and 0.03 for West Neck Creek. The model was used to estimate current (2006-2007) sediment and nutrient yields for the two watersheds. Total suspended-solids yield was 56 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. Total nitrogen export was 45 percent lower, and total phosphorus was 43 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. A management scenario with filter strips bordering the main channels was simulated for Tull Creek. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool model estimated a total suspended-solids yield reduction of 54 percent and total nitrogen and total phosphorus reductions of 21 percent and 29 percent, respectively, for the Tull Creek watershed.

Garcia, Ana Maria

2009-01-01

190

75 FR 62112 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the San Juan Creek and Tributaries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Oso Creeks. The San Juan Creek Watershed encompasses approximately 176 square...response to the study authority, an interim watershed feasibility study was prepared in August...evaluations for the downstream portions of the watershed. 3. Objectives. The planning...

2010-10-07

191

Comparative carcinogenic potencies of particulates from diesel engine exhausts, coke oven emissions, roofing tar aerosols and cigarette smoke  

SciTech Connect

Mammalian cell mutagenesis, transformation and skin tumorigenesis assays show similar results in comparing the potencies of diesel, coke oven, roofing tar and cigarette smoke particulates. These assay results are reasonably consistent with the comparative carcinogenic potencies of coke oven and roofing tar emissions and determined by epidemiological studies. The bacterial mutagenesis assay tends to show disproportionately high potencies, particularly with with diesel particulates. (4 refs.)

Albert, R.E.

1983-01-01

192

Hazlit Creek field, Wilkinson County, Mississippi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hazlit Creek field in NW. Wilkinson County, Mississippi, about 30 miles (48 km) south of Natchez, is an excellent example of an Eocene Wilcox oil field discovered by subsurface mapping and stratigraphic studies. The field was discovered in March 1966 and now contains 22 producing oil wells; only 5 dry holes have been drilled north and east of the

G. W. Gulmon; A. T. Jr. Ricci; H. E. Hansen

1972-01-01

193

Alexander Creek in the Susitna Basin  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Researchers with the Alaska Fish and Game travel along Alexander Creek in the Susitna Basin of south-central Alaska. The team is on their way to a back country base-camp for a study examining the preferred diet of invasive northern pike (Esox lucius).  ...

194

Radiocarbon dating of extinct fauna in the Americas recovered from tar pits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have obtained radiocarbon dates by accelerator mass spectrometry on bones of extinct large mammals from tar pits. Results on some samples of Glyptodon and Holmesina (extinct large mammals similar to armadillos) yielded ages of >25 and >21 ka, respectively. We also studied the radiocarbon ages of three different samples of bones from the extinct Cuban ground sloth, Parocnus bownii, which yielded dates ranging from 4960 ± 280 to 11 880 ± 420 yr BP. In order to remove the tar component pretreat the samples sufficiently to obtain reliable dates, we cleaned the samples by Soxhlet extraction in benzene. Resulting samples of collagenous material were often small.

Jull, A. J. T.; Iturralde-Vinent, M.; O'Malley, J. M.; MacPhee, R. D. E.; McDonald, H. G.; Martin, P. S.; Moody, J.; Rincón, A.

2004-08-01

195

Chemical quality of water resources of the Conewango Creek basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report incorporates the data obtained in a study of the chemical quality of the water resources in the Conewango Creek basin, New York. The study was made during the period October 1951 to September 1952.

Beetem, W.A.

1954-01-01

196

USGS Scientist Taking Measurements Along Bear Creek  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS Scientist Taking Measurements Along Bear Creek - Photo taken by Heidi Koontz, USGS Communications, Friday, Sept. 13. USGS scientist Ben Glass conducting current profiler measurements along Bear Creek near Bear Creek Lake in Morrison, Colo....

197

33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.  

... 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation... Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida,...

2014-07-01

198

33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation... Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida,...

2011-07-01

199

33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation... Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida,...

2013-07-01

200

33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation... Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida,...

2012-07-01

201

33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation... Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida,...

2010-07-01

202

Treatability study on the Bear Creek Valley characterization area at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Phase II work plan for S-3 site contaminated groundwater interception--in-field media evaluation and groundwater capture methods  

SciTech Connect

A treatability study is being conducted to support implementation:of early actions at the S-3 Site in the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Characterization Area (CA). The objectives of the early actions Will be (1) to reduce concentrations of uranium and nitrate in Bear Creek and (2) to reduce contaminants of concern in North Tributary (NT)-1 and NT-2. The BCV CA is located within the US DOE`s Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. Hazardous and radioactive materials from the Y-12 Plant operations were, disposed of at various sites within BCV. Groundwater and surface water in the BCV CA have been contaminated. The remedial investigation (RI) for the BCV CA identified that the greatest mass flux of contaminants from the various sources migrates via groundwater at the source and discharges to surface water in Bear Creek and its tributaries. In the RI, the combined discharge from the S-3 Site and the Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY) was identified as accounting for 75% of the cancer risk and more than 80% of the chemical toxicity to Potential downgradient human receptors. In addition, the S-3 Site has caused degradation of surface water quality in upper Bear Creek and two of its tributaries. The BCV CA treatability study focuses on capture and treatment of shallow groundwater before it discharges to tributary waters. The objectives Of treatment of this groundwater are (1) to reduce the concentrations of uranium and nitrate in NT-1 and Bear Creek such that the concentrations of these chemicals in surface water and groundwater are reduced to acceptable levels, (2) to reduce the concentrations of nitrate and metals, and reduce the overall concentration of total dissolved solids; and (3) to hydraulically contain the plume of contaminated, groundwater that is moving in bedrock in the Nolichucky Shale such that the rate of contaminant discharge will be reduced in the long term. The objective of Phase II is to produce conceptual designs for treatment system configurations.

NONE

1996-12-01

203

Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak) in a laboratory screw type reactor and secondary thermal/catalytic tar decomposition  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Pyrolysis of aseptic packages was carried out in a laboratory flow reactor. ? Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields was obtained. ? Composition of the pyrolysis products was estimated. ? Secondary thermal and catalytic decomposition of tars was studied. ? Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used. - Abstract: Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak cartons) in a laboratory apparatus using a flow screw type reactor and a secondary catalytic reactor for tar cracking was studied. The pyrolysis experiments were realized at temperatures ranging from 650 °C to 850 °C aimed at maximizing of the amount of the gas product and reducing its tar content. Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields at different conditions was obtained. The presence of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and light hydrocarbons, HCx, in the gas product was observed. The Aluminum foil was easily separated from the solid product. The rest part of char was characterized by proximate and elemental analysis and calorimetric measurements. The total organic carbon in the tar product was estimated by elemental analysis of tars. Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used for catalytic thermal tar decomposition. Three series of experiments (without catalyst in a secondary cracking reactor, with dolomite and with AFRC) at temperatures of 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 °C were carried out. Both types of catalysts have significantly affected the content of tars and other components in pyrolytic gases. The effect of catalyst on the tetrapack distribution into the product yield on the composition of gas and on the total organic carbon in the tar product is presented in this work.

Haydary, J., E-mail: juma.haydary@stuba.sk [Institute of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia); Susa, D.; Dudáš, J. [Institute of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia)

2013-05-15

204

Geology and resources of the Tar Sand Triangle, southeastern Utah  

SciTech Connect

The Tar Sand Triangle is located in southeastern Utah between the Dirty Devil and Colorado Rivers and covers an area of about 200 square miles. The geology of the area consists of gently northwest dipping strata exposed in the box canyons and slopes of the canyonlands morphology. Strata in the area range in age from Jurassic to Permian. The majority of tar sand saturation is found in the Permian White Rim Sandstone Member of the Cutler Formation. The White Rim Sandstone Member consists of a clean, well-sorted sandstone which was deposited in a shallow marine environment. Resources were calculated from analytical data from the three coreholes drilled by the Laramie Energy Technology Center and other available data. The total in-place resources, determined from this study, are 6.3 billion barels. Previous estimates ranged from 2.9 to 16 million barrels. More coring and analyses will be necessary before a more accurate determination of resources can be attempted. 8 references, 11 figures, 7 tables.

Dana, G.F.; Oliver, R.L.; Elliott, J.R.

1984-05-01

205

+2 Valence Metal Concentrations in Lion Creek, Oakland, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven major creeks exist within the City of Oakland, California. These creeks all flow in the southwest direction from forested hills down through densely populated streets where they become susceptible to urban runoff. Lion Creek has been diverted to engineered channels and underground culverts and runs directly under our school (Roots International) before flowing into the San Leandro Bay. One branch of the creek begins near an abandoned sulfur mine. Previous studies have shown that extremely high levels of lead, arsenic and iron exist in this portion of the creek due to acid mine drainage. In this study +2 valence heavy metals concentration data was obtained from samples collected from a segment of the creek located approximately 2.8 miles downstream from the mine. Concentrations in samples collected at three different sites along this segment ranged between 50 ppb and 100 ppb. We hypothesize that these levels are related to the high concentration of +2 valence heavy metals at the mining site. To test this hypothesis, we have obtained samples from various locations along the roughly 3.75 miles of Lion Creek that are used to assess changes in heavy metals concentration levels from the mining site to the San Leandro Bay.

Vazquez, P.; Zedd, T.; Chagolla, R.; Dutton-Starbuck, M.; Negrete, A.; Jinham, M.; Lapota, M.

2012-12-01

206

Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials  

SciTech Connect

This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

Stauffer, H.C.

1981-01-01

207

Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX

2010-01-12

208

Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Colmenares, Tulio Rafael (Houston, TX); Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX); Marino, Marian (Houston, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Ryan, Robert Charles (Houston, TX); Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Dombrowski, Robert James (Houston, TX); Jaiswal, Namit (Houston, TX)

2009-12-22

209

GC/MS characterization of condensable tars in the output stream of a stirred fixed-bed gasifier  

SciTech Connect

The output stream of the stirred fixed-bed gasifier at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center was sampled for total entrained material. A major portion of the entrained material, in addition to particles, is condensable tar that is subsequently removed from the process gas by wet scrubbing. Characterization of the entrained materials, specifically the tar, is important to establish contaminant levels and to evaluate performance of downstream cleanup units. Samples of tars were collected from the process unit in a combined ice, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen sampler and stored in a refrigerator. The tar samples were then separated into asphaltene, neutral oil, tar acid, and base fractions by solvent extraction using toluene, pentane, sulfuric acid, and potassium hydroxide extraction. Characterization of the fractions obtained from these tars include IR, UV, GC, and GC/MS analysis. The mass spectrometer analysis of the various isolates shows that many individual peaks in the gas chromatograph are in fact mixtures that can be readily identified by the mass spectrometer. It was found that many of the species identified in these fractions were members of aromatic homologous series consisting of parent, mono, di, and tri substituted compounds. Compound identification was made by comparison of the data system library and standard reference spectra. This paper will discuss the instrumental approach and limitation of the GC/MS and the results of the characterization studies of entrained hydrocarbons collected from the gasifier stream.

Lamey, S.C.; McCaskill, K.B.; Smith, R.R.

1981-12-01

210

Shell Creek Summers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What would motivate high school students to donate valuable summer vacation time to do science research?--the opportunity to make a difference! The Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group (SCWIG) was formed to identify and promote needed conservation practices within a local watershed, and turned to the high school science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality. Since 2002, for the past three summers, in this ongoing project, students collect water quality data and report their findings to the three involved community organizations.

Mark Seier

2005-04-01

211

Discoveries at Willow Creek  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this storybook, students learn about making observations, taking scientific measurements and recording their findings in a science journal. In the story, students Simon, Anita and Dennis join Hannah, a local scientist, as they comparing spring and fall observations of changes they see at Willow Creek. This science-based storybook is the one of four under the title Elementary GLOBE. Each book also has companion learning activities that complement the science covered in each story. GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program.

212

Bryant Creek Watershed Atlas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bryant Creek Watershed Project created this online atlas filled with a wealth of information on every aspect of this Missouri watershed -- even for those who do not live near the site. Teachers can find interactive, fun lesson plans for kindergarten through twelfth grade dealing with many aspects of the physical environment. Students will find an abundance of games, quizzes, and interactive modules. By taking the photo tour, visitors can learn about the fascinating unique places connected to the watershed. Users can also find materials on the biologic, historic, social, and recreational aspects of the watershed.

213

Chollas in Pine Creek Canyon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Mojave Desert, home to drought-tolerant plants like Cholla cacti, gradually mixes with loblolly pine ecosystems in Pine Creek Canyon. Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Roc...

214

Yuccas in Pine Creek Canyon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Mojave Desert, home to drought-tolerant plants like yuccas, gradually mixes with loblolly pine ecosystems in Pine Creek Canyon. Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Rock Cany...

215

Deep Creek Road Banded Siltite  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Outcrop of the banded siltite unit of the Apple Creek Formation of the Lemhi Group, in the Lemhi sub-basin of the Mesoproterozoic Belt Basin. This exposure is along the Deep Creek road, southeast of the Blackbird cobalt-copper mine area, in the Salmon River Mountains of east-central Idaho. USGS inte...

216

Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat, polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), and environmental health  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have identified coal-tar-based sealcoat-the black, viscous liquid sprayed or painted on asphalt pavement such as parking lots-as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in urban areas for large parts of the Nation. Several PAHs are suspected human carcinogens and are toxic to aquatic life.

Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.

2011-01-01

217

MUTAGENICITY OF COAL TAR PAINTS USED IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity of coal tar paints used for coating drinking water tanks and pipes, as a preliminary screening for potential genotoxic hazards associated with leaching of mutagens into drinking water during water storage and distribution. To...

218

COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SUMMARY: SOLID WASTES AND BY-PRODUCT TARS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report, one of several data summary reports on the environmental aspects and pollutants specific to coal gasification, addresses characteristics of solid wastes (ash and cyclone dust) and by-product tars and oils analyzed in nine EPA source tests and evaluation studies and li...

219

BENCH SCALE FIXATION OF SOILS FROM THE TACOMA TAR PITS SUPRFUND SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents the results of bench-scale soil fixation study conducted with materials from the Tacoma Tar Pits SuperfundSite. Chemical fixation (also called stabilization/solidification)is a relatively new technique for remediating contaminated soils. It entails both immo...

220

PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING OF U.S. TAR SANDS: AN ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Factors traceable to the increasing shortfall in U.S. production of natural crude have rekindled interests in U.S. tar sands as a source of synthetic fuel. Reported here are the results of a preliminary study to assess the potential primary environmental impacts of production and...

221

FEASIBILITY OF ELK CREEK ACID MINE DRAINAGE ABATEMENT PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted within the Elk Creek Watershed, West Virginia to determine the technical and economic feasibility of three acid mine drainage abatement techniques. Alkaline regarding and slurry trench construction were established as technically and economically viable abat...

222

Ship Creek bioassessment investigations  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

1995-06-01

223

Kiowa Creek Switching Station  

SciTech Connect

The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1990-03-01

224

The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1990-07-01

225

The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands  

SciTech Connect

Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1990-07-01

226

Tar sands program FY80. Annual report, October 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia National Laboratories has the responsibility for assisting the Laramie Energy Technology Center's Tar Sands Program in the areas of reservoir access and alternate extraction concepts. Activities in the first area have concentrated on high-temperature packers, insulated injection string installation, steam quality measurements, sand control, and controlled-source audio magnetotelluric surveying. Also, a tar sands permeability enhancement workshop was held, and

J. R. Wayland; A. J. Mulac; R. L. Fox; L. C. Bartel

1981-01-01

227

Recent Approaches to Modeling Transport of Mercury in Surface Water and Groundwater - Case Study in Upper East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, TN - 13349  

SciTech Connect

In this case study, groundwater/surface water modeling was used to determine efficacy of stabilization in place with hydrologic isolation for remediation of mercury contaminated areas in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Watershed in Oak Ridge, TN. The modeling simulates the potential for mercury in soil to contaminate groundwater above industrial use risk standards and to contribute to surface water contamination. The modeling approach is unique in that it couples watershed hydrology with the total mercury transport and provides a tool for analysis of changes in mercury load related to daily precipitation, evaporation, and runoff from storms. The model also allows for simulation of colloidal transport of total mercury in surface water. Previous models for the watershed only simulated average yearly conditions and dissolved concentrations that are not sufficient for predicting mercury flux under variable flow conditions that control colloidal transport of mercury in the watershed. The transport of mercury from groundwater to surface water from mercury sources identified from information in the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System was simulated using a watershed scale model calibrated to match observed daily creek flow, total suspended solids and mercury fluxes. Mercury sources at the former Building 81-10 area, where mercury was previously retorted, were modeled using a telescopic refined mesh with boundary conditions extracted from the watershed model. Modeling on a watershed scale indicated that only source excavation for soils/sediment in the vicinity of UEFPC had any effect on mercury flux in surface water. The simulations showed that colloidal transport contributed 85 percent of the total mercury flux leaving the UEFPC watershed under high flow conditions. Simulation of dissolved mercury transport from liquid elemental mercury and adsorbed sources in soil at former Building 81-10 indicated that dissolved concentrations are orders of magnitude below a target industrial groundwater concentration beneath the source and would not influence concentrations in surface water at Station 17. This analysis addressed only shallow concentrations in soil and the shallow groundwater flow path in soil and unconsolidated sediments to UEFPC. Other mercury sources may occur in bedrock and transport though bedrock to UEFPC may contribute to the mercury flux at Station 17. Generally mercury in the source areas adjacent to the stream and in sediment that is eroding can contribute to the flux of mercury in surface water. Because colloidally adsorbed mercury can be transported in surface water, actions that trap colloids and or hydrologically isolate surface water runoff from source areas would reduce the flux of mercury in surface water. Mercury in soil is highly adsorbed and transport in the groundwater system is very limited under porous media conditions. (authors)

Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary [Professional Project Services, Inc., Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States)] [Professional Project Services, Inc., Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States); Tachiev, Georgio [Florida International University, Applied Research Center 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100 Miami Florida 33174 (United States)] [Florida International University, Applied Research Center 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100 Miami Florida 33174 (United States); Malek-Mohammadi, Siamak [Bradley University, 413A Jobst Hall, Preoria, IL 61625 (United States)] [Bradley University, 413A Jobst Hall, Preoria, IL 61625 (United States)

2013-07-01

228

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

1988-05-04

229

International Workshop on Interfaces at Bear Creek  

E-print Network

International Workshop on Interfaces at Bear Creek October 20 ­ 24, 2009 Bear Creek Mountain Resort of Community and Economic Development #12;International Workshop on Interfaces at Bear Creek October 20-24, 2009 Bear Creek Mountain Resort Macungie, PA USA WORKSHOP PROGRAM TUESDAY, OCTOBER 20, 2009 3:00 p

Gilchrist, James F.

230

Health and safety plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety (H&S) concerns and requirements for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be collected from effluent following treatment tests of extraction columns, algal mats, and mature wetlands supplied by surface water locations and existing groundwater monitoring well locations. The project Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. It is the responsibility of the project managers, field manager, and site health and safety officer (SHSO) to determine that the requirements of this HASP are sufficiently protective. If it is determined that the requirements of this HASP are not sufficiently protective, a field change order(s) (FCO) will be prepared. FCOs will include a completed job hazard analysis or similar worksheet to ensure complete hazard assessment. FCOs must be approved by the Environmental Management and Enrichment Facilities (EMEF) project manager, EMEF H&S manager, subcontractor project or field manager, and subcontractor H&S representative. As a minimum, FCOs will be prepared if additional tasks will be performed or if contaminant exposure is anticipated.

NONE

1997-05-01

231

What are Tar Balls and How Do They Form? Tar balls, the little, dark-colored pieces of oil that  

E-print Network

crude oils mix with water to form an emulsion that often looks like chocolate pudding. This emulsion patches into smaller pieces, or tar balls. While some tar balls may be as large as pancakes, most are coin on the outside and soft and gooey on the inside, not unlike a toasted marshmallow. Turbulence in the water

232

Nutrient Exchange Between the James River and Hoffler Creek: Final Results from Oceanography 441-442 Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research topic for Oceanography 441-442 in the 2004-2005 academic year is the exchange of nutrients between the James River and Hoffler Creek (creek and marshes). We carried out a 26-hour study of water entering and leaving Hoffler Creek in October 2004, collected sediment cores from marsh and creek areas in November 2004, and collected additional water samples in February

W. Ashley; B. Belmont; C. Flynn; A. Sanford; L. Strange; L. Rich; G. Cutter

233

Effect of the bioemulsifier emulsan on naphthalene mineralization from coal tar in aqueous systems  

SciTech Connect

Coal tar in aerobic aqueous systems was treated with purified emulsan, the anionic heteropolysaccharide bioemulsifier produced by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1; with inocula of various concentrations of stationary phase RAG-1 cells; or with cell-free broth from stationary phase RAG-1 cultures. Naphthalene mineralization by a mixed PAH-degrading population was measured by recovering {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolved during biotransformation of the [{sup 14}C]naphthalene-labeled coal tar. There was no evidence of naphthalene mineralization by RAG- 1 cells alone. The addition of emulsan, RAG-1 inocula, or cell-free broth to systems containing the PAH-degrading population did not significantly affect naphthalene mineralization in any of the systems tested. Coal tar in these experiments was present either as a free dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), or as DNAPL imbibed into microporous silica particles. Emulsification of the tar was not observed in either case. The presence or absence of microporous silica did not affect the extent or rate of naphthalene mineralization, nor did the concentration of RAG-1 inocula or the amount of broth added. The addition of cell-free broth, emulsan, or RAG-1 cells late in the experiments did not yield significantly different results compared to initial addition of these substances. Thus, emulsan and related fractions from RAG-1 cultures were ineffective in altering naphthalene mineralization in this study.

Skubal, K.L.; Luthy, R.G.

1994-09-01

234

A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Cedar Creek, Dekalb and Allen counties, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A digital model calibrated to conditions in Cedar Creek was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The model indicates that the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the Auburn wastewater effluent and nitrification are the most significant factors affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentration in Cedar Creek during summer low flows. The observed dissolved-oxygen concentration of the Auburn wastewater effluent was low and averaged 30 percent of saturation. Projected nitrogenous biochemical-oxygen demand loads, from the Indiana State Board of Health, for the Auburn and Waterloo wastewater-treatment facilities will result in violations of the current instream dissolved-oxygen standard (5 mg/l), even with an effluent dissolved-oxygen concentration of 80 percent saturation. Natural streamflow for Cedar Creek upstream from the confluence of Willow and Little Cedar Creeks is small compared with the waste discharge, so benefits of dilution for Waterloo and Auburn are minimal. The model also indicates that, during winter low flows, ammonia toxicity, rather than dissolved oxygen, is the limiting water-quality criterion in the reach of Cedar Creek downstream from the wastewater-treatment facility at Auburn and the confluence of Garrett ditch. Ammonia-nitrogen concentrations predicted for 1978 through 2000 downstream from the Waterloo wastewater-treatment facility do not exceed Indiana water-quality standards for streams. Calculations of the stream 's assimilative capacity indicate that future waste discharge in the Cedar Creek basin will be limited to the reaches between the Auburn wastewater-treatment facility and County Road 68. (Kosco-USGS)

Wilber, William G.; Peters, J.G.; Ayers, M.A.; Crawford, C.G.

1979-01-01

235

Waste management plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley Treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This Waste Management Plan (WMP) for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study addresses waste management requirements for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The study is intended to produce treatment performance data required to design a treatment system for contaminated groundwater. The treatability study will consist of an evaluation of various treatment media including continuous column tests, with up to six columns being employed to evaluate the performance of different media in the treatment of groundwater; an evaluation of the dentrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of a wetland system; and the long-term dentrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of algal mats. Additionally, the treatability study involves installation of a trench and incline well to evaluate and assess hydraulic impacts of pumping groundwater. The Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) covers the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. The Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety concerns and requirements for the proposed sampling activities. This WMP identifies the types and estimates the volumes of various wastes that may be generated during the proposed treatability studies. The approach to managing waste outlined in this WMP emphasizes the following points: (1) management of the waste generated in a manner that is protective of human health and the environment; (2) minimization of waste generation, thereby reducing unnecessary costs and usage of limited permitted storage and disposal capacities; and (3) compliance with federal, state, and site requirements. Prior sampling at the site has detected organic, radioactive, and metals contamination in groundwater and surface water. Proposed field operations are not expected to result in worker exposures greater than applicable exposure or action limits.

NONE

1997-09-01

236

GEE CREEK WILDERNESS, TENNESSEE.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mine and prospect surveys, it was determined that the Gee Creek Wilderness, Tennessee has little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. Iron ore was formerly mined, but the deposits are small, have a high phosphorous content, and are inaccessible. Shale, suitable for brick or lightweight aggregate, and sandstone, which could be utilized for crushed stone or sand, are found in the area, but are also found in areas closer to potential markets. The geologic setting precludes the presence of oil and gas resources in the surface rocks, but the possibility of finding natural gas at depth below the rocks exposed in the area cannot be discounted. Geophysical exploration would be necessary to define the local structure in rocks at depth to properly evaluate the potential of the area for gas.

Epstein, Jack B.; Gazdik, Gertrude C.

1984-01-01

237

International Workshop on Interfaces at Bear Creek  

E-print Network

International Workshop on Interfaces at Bear Creek October 2­5, 2012 Bear Creek Mountain Resort Workshop on Interfaces at Bear Creek October 2­5, 2012 Bear Creek Mountain Resort Macungie, PA USA WORKSHOP PROGRAM TUESDAY, OCTOBER 2, 2012 3:00 p.m. - 6:00 p.m. Arrival at the Inn at Bear Creek 6:00 p.m. - 8:00 p

Gilchrist, James F.

238

Floodplain and wetlands assessment of the White Oak Creek Embayment  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the proposed methods for dealing with contaminants that have accumulated in White Oak Creek, White Oak Lake, and the White Oak Creek Embayment as a result of process releases and discharges from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Alternative methods of cleaning up the area which were considered in accordance with regulatory guidelines are listed, and information supporting the selected methods is provided. Also included are results of a site survey conducted at the White Oak Creek Embayment and the expected effects of the proposed control structures on the floodplain and wetlands. The appendix contains figures showing the nine cross-sections of the stream channel surveyed during studies of the White Oak Creek area.

Not Available

1991-07-01

239

Implication of Coal Tar and Asphalt on Black Carbon Quantification in Urban Watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sorption to black carbon (BC) is an important process that controls the transport and fate of persistent organic pollutants in aquatic environments. Efforts have been made to measure BC in different environmental matrices including aerosols, soils, and sediments; however, few studies have attempted to evaluate BC in dust from urban streets or parking lots, which can be an important BC source in urban lake sediments. Methods to quantify BC in soils and sediments usually involve the removal of non-BC carbonaceous materials with chemical and/or thermal oxidation followed by elemental analysis. The presence of coal tar pitch and asphalt in urban pavement dust is hypothesized to potentially result in an overestimate of BC. The primary objectives of this research are to identify the distribution of BC in a small urban watershed and to investigate the potential interference from coal tar and asphalt on BC quantification by method intercomparison. Samples were collected from the Lake Como watershed in Fort Worth, Texas. They include dust from coal-tar-sealed and unsealed parking lots and residential streets, soils from residential and commercial areas, stream bed sediments, and lake sediment cores. After density separation, samples were subjected to sequential chemical treatments and thermal treatment. Commercial coal tar pitch and asphalt products were subjected to these same treatments for comparison. BC contents quantified with chemical treatment and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375°C (CTO-375) were compared with those characterized using organic petrography. The chemical treatment predicted greater BC contents than organic petrography in all samples, and the greatest difference is in the sealed parking lot dust. CTO-375 method also predicted greater BC content in this sample than organic petrography. Commercial coal tar pitch was resistant to thermal oxidation and both coal tar pitch and asphalt were resistant to the chemical treatment. These results indicate that chemical and thermal treatments can overestimate BC contents due to the chemical and thermal resistance of these materials. We recommend that interference from coal tar pitch and asphalt be considered when chemical or thermal oxidation methods are applied to quantify BC in urban environments, where urban runoff from parking lots and paved streets plays an important source role.

Yang, Y.; Werth, C. J.; Ligouis, B.; Razzaque, M.

2008-12-01

240

75 FR 5631 - Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Environmental Assessment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. 50-482; NRC-2010-0032] Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Environmental Assessment...Facility Operating License No. NPF-42, issued to Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation...

2010-02-03

241

77 FR 56238 - Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Application for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. 50-382; NRC-2012-0212] Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Application for Amendment...or the Commission) has granted the request of Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation (the...

2012-09-12

242

Water Quality Monitoring in the Buck Creek Watershed and Facilitation of Buck Creek Watershed Partnership  

E-print Network

The “Water Quality Monitoring in the Buck Creek Watershed and Facilitation of Buck Creek Watershed Partnership” project was developed to continue water quality monitoring on Buck Creek and to continue to engage watershed stakeholders during the Buck...

Gregory, L.; Dyer, P.

243

Atmospheric tar balls: aged primary droplets from biomass burning?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric tar balls are particles of special morphology and composition that are fairly abundant in the plumes of biomass smoke. These particles form a specific subset of brown carbon (BrC) which has been shown to play a significant role in atmospheric shortwave absorption and, by extension, climate forcing. Here we suggest that tar balls are produced by the direct emission of liquid tar droplets followed by heat transformation upon biomass burning. For the first time in atmospheric chemistry we generated tar-ball particles from liquid tar obtained previously by dry distillation of wood in an all-glass apparatus in the laboratory with the total exclusion of flame processes. The particles were perfectly spherical with a mean optical diameter of 300 nm, refractory, externally mixed, and homogeneous in the contrast of the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. They lacked any graphene-like microstructure and exhibited a mean carbon-to-oxygen ratio of 10. All of the observed characteristics of laboratory-generated particles were very similar to those reported for atmospheric tar-ball particles in the literature, strongly supporting our hypothesis regarding the formation mechanism of atmospheric tar-ball particles.

Tóth, A.; Hoffer, A.; Nyir?-Kósa, I.; Pósfai, M.; Gelencsér, A.

2014-07-01

244

Class I cultural resource overview for oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming.  

SciTech Connect

In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the 'Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005', Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is developing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) to evaluate alternatives for establishing commercial oil shale and tar sands leasing programs in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. This PEIS evaluates the potential impacts of alternatives identifying BLM-administered lands as available for application for commercial leasing of oil shale resources within the three states and of tar sands resources within Utah. The scope of the analysis of the PEIS also includes an assessment of the potential effects of future commercial leasing. This Class I cultural resources study is in support of the Draft Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and is an attempt to synthesize archaeological data covering the most geologically prospective lands for oil shale and tar sands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. This report is based solely on geographic information system (GIS) data held by the Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPOs). The GIS data include the information that the BLM has provided to the SHPOs. The primary purpose of the Class I cultural resources overview is to provide information on the affected environment for the PEIS. Furthermore, this report provides recommendations to support planning decisions and the management of cultural resources that could be impacted by future oil shale and tar sands resource development.

O'Rourke, D.; Kullen, D.; Gierek, L.; Wescott, K.; Greby, M.; Anast, G.; Nesta, M.; Walston, L.; Tate, R.; Azzarello, A.; Vinikour, B.; Van Lonkhuyzen, B.; Quinn, J.; Yuen, R.; Environmental Science Division

2007-11-01

245

Acute effects of smoking of cigarettes with different tar content on plasma oxidant/antioxidant status.  

PubMed

In this study, acute effects of two different types of cigarette smoking on plasma oxidant/antioxidant status were investigated. For this purpose, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and antioxidant potential (AOP) values were measured in the plasma samples before and after cigarette smoking at fasting. After the first blood sample was obtained, second and third samples were withdrawn at 1.5 h and 3 h. In the first group, subjects smoked five cigarettes with full flavor (FF), and in the second group, five cigarettes with full-flavor low tar (FFLT). Quality classification is made mainly on the basis of tar content of the products. The cigarette with 23 mg tar is defined as FF and that with 12 mg tar as FFLT. MDA level was found to be significantly increased in the 1.5-h plasma samples of both groups, but the increase was greater in the FF group. AOP values, however, were found to be lower in the 3-h plasma samples of both groups, but the decrease was greater in the FF group compared with the FFLT group. It appears that acute smoking causes oxidant stress in blood plasma once exposed to smoke, and then this effect (MDA) begins to decrease. On the other hand, AOP is lowered due to oxidant stress created by smoke. With regard to the types of cigarettes, the FF product seems to be more oxidant than the FFLT product. Our results suggest that antioxidant supplementation might be beneficial for the smokers to cope with the oxidant load derived from cigarette smoke. It is also clearly seen from these results that cigarette manufacturers should reduce tar/nicotine ratio in their products in order to lessen the toxic effects of smoking without causing increased need to smoke. PMID:10880149

Durak, I; Bingöl, N K; Avci, A; Cimen, M Y; Kaçmaz, M; Karaca, L; Oztürk, H S

2000-07-01

246

TAR independent activation of the human immunodeficiency virus in phorbol ester stimulated T lymphocytes.  

PubMed Central

Multiple regulatory elements in the human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat (HIV LTR) are required for activation of HIV gene expression. Previous transfection studies of HIV LTR constructs linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene indicated that multiple regulatory regions including the enhancer, SP1, TATA and TAR regions were important for HIV gene expression. To characterize these regulatory elements further, mutations in these regions were inserted into both the 5' and 3' HIV LTRs and infectious proviral constructs were assembled. These constructs were transfected into either HeLa cells, Jurkat cells or U937 cells in both the presence and absence of phorbol esters which have previously been demonstrated to activate HIV gene expression. Viral gene expression was assayed by the level of p24 gag protein released from cultures transfected with the proviral constructs. Results in all cell lines indicated that mutations of the SP1, TATA and the TAR loop and stem secondary structure resulted in marked decreases in gene expression while mutations of the enhancer motif or TAR primary sequence resulted in only slight decreases. However, viruses containing mutations in either the TAR loop sequences or stem secondary structure which were very defective for gene expression in untreated Jurkat cells, gave nearly wild-type levels of gene expression in phorbol ester-treated Jurkat cells but not in phorbol ester-treated HeLa or U937 cells. High level gene expression of these TAR mutant constructs in phorbol ester-treated Jurkat cells was eliminated by second site mutations in the enhancer region or by disruption of the tat gene.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. PMID:2124973

Harrich, D; Garcia, J; Mitsuyasu, R; Gaynor, R

1990-01-01

247

A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Clear Creek, Monroe County, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A digital model calibrated to conditions in Clear Creek, Monroe County, IN, was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The Winston Thomas wastewater-treatment facility is the only point-source waste load affecting the modeled reach of Clear Creek. A new waste-water-treatment facility under construction at Dillman Road (river mile 13.78) will replace the Winston Thomas wastewater-treatment facility (river mile 16.96) in 1980. Natural streamflow during the summer and annual 7-day, 10-year low flow is zero, so no benefit from dilution is provided. The model indicates that ammonia-nitrogen toxicity is the most significant factor affecting the stream water quality during summer and winter low flows. The ammonia-nitrogen concentration of the wastewater effluent exceeds the maximum total ammonia-nitrogen concentration of 2.5 milligrams per liter for summer months (June through August) and 4.0 milligrams per liter for winter months (November through March) required for Indiana streams. Nitrification, benthic-oxygen demand, and algal respiration were the most significant factors affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentration in Clear Creek during the model calibration. Nitrification should not significantly affect the dissolved-oxygen concentration in Clear Creek during summer low flows when the ammonia-nitrogen toxicity standards are met. (USGS)

Wilber, William G.; Crawford, C.G.; Peters, J.G.; Girardi, F.P.

1979-01-01

248

Quantification of mine-drainage inflows to Little Cottonwood Creek, Utah, using a tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historic mining in Little Cottonwood Canyon in Utah has left behind many mine drainage tunnels that discharge water to Little Cottonwood Creek. To quantify the major sources of mine drainage to the stream, synoptic sampling was conducted during a tracer injection under low flow conditions (September 1998). There were distinct increases in discharge downstream from mine drainage and major tributary

B. Kimball; R. Runkel; L. Gerner

2001-01-01

249

Channel stability of Turkey Creek, Nebraska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Channelization on Turkey Creek and its receiving stream, the South Fork Big Nemaha River, has disturbed the equilibrium of Turkey Creek and has led to channel-stability problems, such as degradation and channel widening, which pose a threat to bridges and land adjacent to the stream. As part of a multiagency study, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel stability at two bridge sites on upper and middle portions of Turkey Creek by analyzing streambed-elevation data for gradation changes, comparing recent cross-section surveys and historic accounts, identifying bank-failure blocks, and analyzing tree-ring samples. These results were compared to gradation data and trend results for a U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near the mouth of Turkey Creek from a previous study. Examination of data on streambed elevations reveals that degradation has occurred. The streambed elevation declined 0.5 m at the upper site from 1967-97. The streambed elevation declined by 3.2 m at the middle site from 1948-97 and exposed 2 m of the pilings of the Nebraska Highway 8 bridge. Channel widening could not be verified at the two sites from 1967-97, but a historic account indicates widening at the middle site to be two to three times that of the 1949 channel width. Small bank failures were evident at the upper site and a 4-m-wide bank failure occurred at the middle site in 1987 according to tree ring analyses. Examination of streambed-elevation data from a previous study at the lower site reveals a statistically significant aggrading trend from 1958-93. Further examination of these data suggests minor degradation occurred until 1975, followed by aggradation.

Rus, David L.; Soenksen, Philip J.

1998-01-01

250

Paleoflood investigations for Cherry Creek Basin, Eastern Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1950 when Cherry Creek dam, which is located in Denver. Colorado, was completed, the design flood was 5,126 m3/s. Two recent probable maximum flood (PMF) estimates for the dam range from 14,840 to 18,750 m 3/s demonstrate the uncertainty in estimating extreme flooding in eastern Colorado. PMF difference is due in part to a lack of extreme rainfall and flood data in eastern Colorado. A paleoflood study was conducted to assist dam-safety officials in assessing the risk of large floods in Cherry Creek basin. An envelope curve encompassing maximum contemporary floods (19 sites) and paleofloods (99 sites) was developed for Cherry Creek basin streams; paleoflood data reflect maximum flooding during the last few hundred to many thousands of years. Maximum paleofloods in Cherry Creek range from about 1,050 m 3/s near Franktown (in about 5,000 to at least 10,000 years), about 2,100 m3/s near Melvin (in about 1,500 to 5,000 years), and about 2,270 m3/s at Cherry Creek Reservoir (also in about 1,500 to 5,000 years). Flood-frequency relations for Cherry Creek, which incorporate paleoflood data, indicate the 10,000-year flood (10-4 annual exceedence probability) ranges from about 1,200 m3/s (near Franktown) to about 2,200 m3/s (near Melvin). PMF estimates are about six to eight times larger than paleofloods in Cherry Creek basin. Additional research in flood hydrometeorology is needed to help dam safety officials evaluate potential safety problems related to large floods in Cherry Creek basin. Copyright ASCE 2004.

Jarrett, R.D.

2004-01-01

251

A review of the primary measures for tar elimination in biomass gasification processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar formation is one of the major problems to deal with during biomass gasification. Tar condenses at reduced temperature, thus blocking and fouling process equipments such as engines and turbines. Considerable efforts have been directed on tar removal from fuel gas. Tar removal technologies can broadly be divided into two approaches; hot gas cleaning after the gasifier (secondary methods), and

Lopamudra Devi; Krzysztof J Ptasinski; Frans J. J. G Janssen

2003-01-01

252

A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Silver Creek, Clark and Floyd counties, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Indiana State Board of Health is developing a State water-quality management plan that includes establishing limits for wastewater effluents discharged into Indiana streams. A digital model calibrated to conditions in Silver Creek was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. Effluents from the Sellersburg and Clarksville-North wastewater-treatment facilities are the only point-source waste loads that significantly affect the water quality in the modeled segment of Silver Creek. Model simulations indicate that nitrification is the most significant factor affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentration in Silver Creek during summer and winter low flows. Natural streamflow in Silver Creek during the summer and annual 7-day, 10-year low flow is zero, so no benefit from dilution is provided. Present ammonia-nitrogen and dissolved-oxygen concentrations of effluent from the Sellersburg and Clarksville-North wastewater-treatment facilities will violate current Indiana water-quality standards for ammonia toxicity and dissolved oxygen during summer and winter low flows. The current biochemical-oxygen demand limits for the Sellersburg and Clarksville-North wastewater-treatment facilities are not sufficient to maintain an average dissolved-oxygen concentration of at least 5 milligrams per liter, the State 's water-quality standard for streams. Calculations of the stream 's assimilative capacity indicate that Silver Creek cannot assimilate additional waste loadings and meet current Indiana water-quality standards. (Kosco-USGS)

Wilber, William G.; Crawford, Charles G.; Peters, James G.

1979-01-01

253

A Synoptic Study of Fecal-Indicator Bacteria in the Wind River, Bighorn River, and Goose Creek Basins, Wyoming, June-July 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A synoptic study of fecal-indicator bacteria was conducted during June and July 2000 in the Wind River, Bighorn River, and Goose Creek Basins in Wyoming as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program for the Yellowstone River Basin. Fecal-coliform concentrations ranged from 2 to 3,000 col/100 mL (colonies per 100 milliliters) for 100 samples, and Escherichia coli concentrations ranged from 1 to 2,800 col/100 mL for 97 samples. Fecal-coliform concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit for a single sample for recreational contact with water in 37.0 percent of the samples. Escherichia coli concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit for a single sample for moderate use, full-body recreational contact with water in 38.1 percent of the samples and the recommended limit for infrequent use, full-body recreational contact with water in 24.7 percent of the samples. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations varied by basin. Samples from the Bighorn River Basin had the highest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 340 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 300 col/100 mL. Samples from the Wind River Basin had the lowest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 50 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 62 col/100 mL. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations varied by land cover. Samples from sites with an urban land cover had the highest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 540 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 420 col/100 mL. Maximum concentrations for fecal coliform of 3,000 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 2,800 col/100 mL were in samples from sites with an agricultural land cover. The lowest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 130 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 67 col/100 mL were for samples from sites with a forested land cover. A strong and positive relation existed between fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (Spearman's Rho value of 0.976). The majority of the fecal coliforms were Escherichia coli during the synoptic study. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations were not correlated to streamflow, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conduc-tance, and alkalinity. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations were moderately correlated with turbidity (Spearman's Rho values of 0.662 and 0.640 for fecal coliform and Escherichia coli, respectively) and sediment (Spearman's Rho values of 0.628 and 0.636 for fecal coliform and Escherichia coli, respectively). Escherichia coli isolates analyzed by discriminant analysis of ribotype patterns for samples from the Bighorn River at Basin, Wyoming, and Bitter Creek near Garland, Wyoming, in the Bighorn River Basin were determined to be from nonhuman and human sources. Using a confidence interval of 90 percent, more of the isolates from both sites were classified as being from nonhuman than human sources; however, both samples had additional isolates that were classified as unknown sources. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Clark, Melanie L.; Gamper, Merry E.

2003-01-01

254

Effects of multiple effluents on resident fish from Junction Creek, Sudbury, Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Junction Creek in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada receives effluent from three metal mining effluents (MMEs), as well as urban run-off and municipal sewage treatment plant (STP) discharges. The present study examined organismal and sub-organismal end-points in prespawning fathead minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas) and creek chub (CC; Semotilus atromaculatus) collected in May 2004 from Junction Creek. Metal body burdens of Cd, Cu,

Lynn P. Weber; Monique G. Dubé; Carrie J. Rickwood; Kimberlea Driedger; Cam Portt; Christine Brereton; David M. Janz

2008-01-01

255

AFF4 binding to Tat-P-TEFb indirectly stimulates TAR recognition of super elongation complexes at the HIV promoter  

PubMed Central

Superelongation complexes (SECs) are essential for transcription elongation of many human genes, including the integrated HIV-1 genome. At the HIV-1 promoter, the viral Tat protein binds simultaneously to the nascent TAR RNA and the CycT1 subunit of the P-TEFb kinase in a SEC. To understand the preferential recruitment of SECs by Tat and TAR, we determined the crystal structure of a quaternary complex containing Tat, P-TEFb, and the SEC scaffold, AFF4. Tat and AFF4 fold on the surface of CycT1 and interact directly. Interface mutations in the AFF4 homolog AFF1 reduced Tat–AFF1 affinity in vivo and Tat-dependent transcription from the HIV promoter. AFF4 binding in the presence of Tat partially orders the CycT1 Tat–TAR recognition motif and increases the affinity of Tat-P-TEFb for TAR 30-fold. These studies indicate that AFF4 acts as a two-step filter to increase the selectivity of Tat and TAR for SECs over P-TEFb alone. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02375.001 PMID:24843025

Schulze-Gahmen, Ursula; Lu, Huasong; Zhou, Qiang; Alber, Tom

2014-01-01

256

77 FR 73650 - Peabody Trout Creek Reservoir LLC;  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 14446-001] Peabody Trout Creek Reservoir LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...November 30, 2012, Peabody Trout Creek Reservoir LLC (Peabody) filed an application...feasibility of the Peabody Trout Creek Reservoir Hydroelectric Project (Trout Creek...

2012-12-11

257

Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu (Houston, TX); Wellington, Scott Lee (Bellaire, TX)

2010-03-16

258

From selective full-length genes isolation by TAR cloning in yeast to their expression from HAC vectors in human cells.  

PubMed

Transformation-associated recombination (TAR) cloning allows selective isolation of full-length genes and genomic loci as large circular Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs) in yeast. The method has a broad application for structural and functional genomics, long-range haplotyping, characterization of chromosomal rearrangements, and evolutionary studies. In this paper, we describe a basic protocol for gene isolation by TAR as well as a method to convert TAR isolates into Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs) using a retrofitting vector. The retrofitting vector contains a 3' HPRT-loxP cassette to allow subsequent gene loading into a unique loxP site of the HAC-based (Human Artificial Chromosome) gene delivery vector. The benefit of combining the TAR gene cloning technology with the HAC gene delivery system for gene expression studies is discussed. PMID:25239739

Kouprina, Natalay; Lee, Nicholas C O; Kononenko, Artem V; Samoshkin, Alexander; Larionov, Vladimir

2015-01-01

259

Page Museum La Brea Tar Pits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Page Museum La Brea Tar Pits is one of the worldâs most famous fossil localities, recognized for having the largest and most diverse assemblage of extinct Ice Age plants and animals in the world. Visitors can learn about Los Angeles as it was between 10,000 and 40,000 years ago, during the last Ice Age, when animals such as saber-toothed cats and mammoths roamed the Los Angeles Basin. Through windows at the Page Museum Laboratory, visitors can watch bones being cleaned and repaired. Outside the Museum, in Hancock Park, life-size replicas of several extinct mammals are featured. The online Return to the Ice Age Exploration Guide is an extensive tutorial covering La Brea Geology, Geologic Time, Asphalt Deposits, Fossil Burial and Conditions of Fossilization, as well as La Brea Flora and Fauna and Human Exploration and Excavations. PDF versions are also available for download. There is also online information about the research efforts of the Museum, as well as pictures and information about the excavation site and findings.

260

Application of UAS photogrammetry for assessment of flood driven fluvial dynamics of montane stream. Case study - Roklansky creek, Sumava Mts.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current progress in hydrology and fluvial geomorphology is largely based on new field survey and analysis techniques, employing advanced technologies for monitoring the dynamics of the runoff process, field surveying and for remote monitoring of changes in riverbeds and of fluvial dynamics. Application of these techniques allows researchers to obtain information on a significantly higher qualitative level than using traditional methods of field survey and measurement, either in terms of spatial accuracy and resolution, frequency of sampling or qualitative characteristics of acquired data. The contribution demonstrates the potential of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) for analysis of fluvial dynamics of montane stream, driven by flood in combination with other survey techniques, namely the ground LiDAR scanning, digital granulometry and automated water level monitoring. The UAS photogrammetry is employed in the study to acquire high precision DTMs, enabling reconstruction of riverbed and quantitative analysis of volumetric changes related to initial flood events. The hexacopter UAS platform has been used to acquire the data for photogrammetric analysis of complex stretch of stream with historically elevated fluvial dynamics. The photogrammetric reconstruction enabled to build accurate DTM of riverbed and floodplain before and after the initial event and to calculate the extent of volumetric changes. The potential of UAS photogrammetry for fluvio morphological study is in combination with other monitoring and survey techniques, enabling complex analysis of fluvial dynamics. The magnitude, duration and hydrological properties of initial flood event were derived from automated high frequency water level monitoring. The digital granulometry enabled to analyze the structure of sedimentary material in floodplain. The terrestrial LiDAR scanning allows construction of very detailed 3D models of selected fluvial forms, enabling deeper insight into the effects of fluvial dynamics and to verify the spatial information acquired using UAS photogrammetry. The results of above mentioned techniques are applied to build hydrodynamic model explaining threshold conditions for initiation of changes in fluvial morphology of the riverbed in relation to known and theoretical flood magnitude. The presented study proved the UAS photogrammetry to be unique source of spatial information, allowing analysis of dynamics of fluvial systems with unprecedented precision and flexibility. This technique has full potential to bring spatial information to a new qualitative level and in experimental areas with limited availability of spatial information. The preliminary results achieved in the study enabled us to discuss the synergic potential of coupling the UAS photogrammetry, sensor networks and other hydroinformatic techniques to enhance significantly our knowledge on the dynamics of fluvial systems. Key words: UAS photogrmmetry, DTM, fluvial processes, erosion, hydrodynamic modelling

Langhammer, Jakub; Mi?ijovský, Jakub; Hartvich, Filip; Kaiglová, Jana

2014-05-01

261

Ecological effects of contaminants and remedial actions in Bear Creek  

SciTech Connect

Ecological studies of the Bear Creek watershed, which drains the area surrounding several Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities, were initiated in May 1984 and are continuing at present. These studies consisted of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek, and they were followed by a presently ongoing monitoring phase that involves reduced sampling intensities. The characterization phase utilized two approaches: (1) instream sampling of benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek to identify spatial and temporal patterns in distribution and abundance and (2) laboratory bioassays on water samples from Bear Creek and selected tributaries to identify potential sources of toxicity to biota. The monitoring phase of the ecological program relates to the long-term goals of identifying and prioritizing contaminant sources and assessing the effectiveness of remedial actions. It continues activities of the characterization phase at less frequent intervals. The Bear Greek Valley is a watershed that drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in Bear Creek Valley resulted in contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Extensive remedial actions have been proposed at waste sites, and some of the have been implemented or are now underway. The proposed study plan consists of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek in the first year followed by a reduction in sampling intensity during the monitoring phase of the plan. The results of sampling conducted from May 1984 through early 1989 are presented in this report.

Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Burris, J.A. (C. E. Environmental, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States))

1992-01-01

262

Indications of mineral zoning in a fossil hydrothermal system at the Meager Creek geothermal prospect, British Columbia, Canada, from induced polarization studies  

SciTech Connect

By measuring the induced-polarization parameters m (chargeability) and tau (time-constant) we have found evidence that the center of a presumed fossil hydrothermal system at Meager Creek, British Columbia, lies south of the main manifestation of the present-day convective hydrothermal system. What implication this finding has for development of the present-day system is unknown. However, some of the fractures formed during the development of the fossil hydrothermal system may serve as conduits for fluids of the present-day system. The analysis is limited by the lack of availability of a good subsurface distribution of core samples. Nevertheless, a surface induced-polarization survey is expected to yield information about the geometry of the fossil system. Such knowledge would have implications not only for Meager Creek but for other hydrothermal systems of Cascades volcano type. 16 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

Ward, S.H.; Zhao, J.X.; Groenwald, J.; Moore, J.N.

1985-05-01

263

Water Quality of Camp Creek, Costello Creek, and Other Selected Streams on the South Side of Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Camp and Costello Creek watersheds are located on the south side of Denali National Park and Preserve. The Dunkle Mine, an abandoned coal mine, is located near the mouth of Camp Creek. Due to concern about runoff from the mine and its possible effects on the water quality and aquatic habitat of Camp Creek and its receiving stream, Costello Creek, these two streams were studied during the summer runoff months (June to September) in 1999 and 2000 as part of a cooperative study with the National Park Service. Since the south side of Denali National Park and Preserve is part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Cook Inlet Basin study unit, an additional part of this study included analysis of existing water-quality data at 23 sites located throughout the south side of Denali National Park and Preserve to compare with the water quality of Camp and Costello Creeks and to obtain a broader understanding of the water quality in this area of the Cook Inlet Basin. Analysis of water column, bed sediment, fish, invertebrate, and algae data indicate no effects on the water quality of Camp Creek from the Dunkle Mine. Although several organic compounds were found in the streambed of Camp Creek, all concentrations were below recommended levels for aquatic life and most of the concentrations were below the minimum reporting level of 50 ?g/kg. Trace element concentrations of arsenic, chromium, and nickel in the bed sediments of Camp Creek exceeded threshold effect concentrations (TEC), but concentrations of these trace elements were also exceeded in streambed sediments of Costello Creek above Camp Creek. Since the percent organic carbon in Camp Creek is relatively high, the toxicity quotient of 0.55 is only slightly above the threshold value of 0.5. Costello Creek has a relatively low organic carbon content and has a higher toxicity quotient of 1.19. Analysis of the water-quality data for other streams located in the south side of Denali National Park and Preserve indicate similarities to Camp Creek and Costello Creek. Most of the streams are calcium bicarbonate/calcium bicarbonate-sulfate type water with the exception of two streams that are calcium sulfate and magnesium sulfate type water. Trace element concentrations of arsenic, chromium, and nickel in the bed sediments of 9 streams exceeded the TEC or the probable effect concentration (PEC). Seven streams exceeded the threshold value of the toxicity quotient. Analysis of trace element concentrations in bed sediment and basin characteristics for 16 watersheds by cluster and discriminant analysis techniques indicated that the watersheds could be separated into two groups based on their basin characteristics.

Brabets, Timothy P.; Whitman, Matthew S.

2002-01-01

264

33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.  

...Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. The area within the...

2014-07-01

265

33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. The area within the...

2013-07-01

266

33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. The area within the...

2011-07-01

267

33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. The area within the...

2010-07-01

268

33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. The area within the...

2012-07-01

269

33 CFR 117.573 - Stoney Creek.  

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.573 Stoney Creek. The draw of the Stoney Creek (S173) bridge, mile 0.9, in Riviera shall open on...

2014-07-01

270

Metasedimentary Rocks at the Apple Creek Formation  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientist Art Bookstrom looks at puzzling sedimentary structures in metasedimentary rocks of the Apple Creek Formation, near the Jackass prospect, near Iron Creek, in the southeastern part of the Idaho cobalt belt, in east-central Idaho....

271

27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...minute series (1952). (c) Boundaries. The Willow Creek viticultural area is located within portions of Humboldt and Trinity Counties, California. From the point of beginning where the 1,000-foot contour line intersects Kirkham Creek...

2010-04-01

272

A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Wildcat Creek, Howard County, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Indiana State Board of Health is developing a water-quality management plan that includes establishing limits for wastewater effluents discharged into Indiana streams. A digital model calibrated to conditions in Wildcat Creek was used to predict alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The model indicates that benthic-oxygen demand is the most significant factor affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentrations in Wildcat Creek during summer low flows. The Indiana stream dissolved-oxygen standard should not be violated if the Kokomo wastewater-treatment facility meets its current National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit restrictions (average monthly 5-day biochemical-oxygen demand of 5 milligrams per liter and maximum weekly 5-day biochemical-oxygen demand of 7.5 milligrams per liter) and benthic-oxygen demand becomes negligible. Ammonia-nitrogen toxicity may also be a water-quality limitation in Wildcat Creek. Ammonia-nitrogen waste loads for the Kokomo wastewater-treatment facility, projected by the Indiana State Board of Health, will result in stream ammonia-nitrogen concentrations that exceed the State standard (2.5 milligrams per liter during summer months and 4.0 milligrams per liter during winter months). (Kosco-USGS)

Crawford, Charles G.; Wilber, William G.; Peters, James G.

1979-01-01

273

A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Little Laughery Creek, Ripley and Franklin counties, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A digital model calibrated to conditions in Little Laughery Creek triutary and Little Laughery Creek, Ripley and Franklin Counties, Ind., was used to predict alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. Natural streamflow during the summer and annual 7-day, 10-year low flow is zero. Headwater flow upstream from the wastewater-treatment facilities consists solely of process cooling water from an industrial discharger. This flow is usually less than 0.5 cubic foot per second. Consequently, benefits from dilution are minimal. As a result, current and projected ammonia-nitrogen concentrations from the municipal discharges will result in in-stream ammonia-nitrogen concentrations that exceed the Indiana ammonia-nitrogen toxicity standards (maximum stream ammonia-nitrogen concentrations of 2.5 and 4.0 milligrams per liter during summer and winter low flows, respectively). Benthic-oxygen demand is probably the most significant factor affecting Little Laughery Creek and is probably responsible for the in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentration being less than the Indiana stream dissolved-oxygen standard (5.0 milligrams per liter) during two water-quality surveys. After municipal dischargers complete advanced waste-treatment facilities, benthic-oxygen demand should be less significant in the stream dissolved-oxygen dynamics. (USGS)

Crawford, Charles G.; Wilber, William G.; Peters, James G.

1980-01-01

274

The frequency of channel-forming discharges in a tributary of Upper Big Walnut Creek, Ohio  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The goal of this study was to determine the frequency and magnitude of annual out-of-bank discharges in Sugar Creek, a tributary of the Upper Big Walnut Creek, in Ohio. To address this goal: a stream geomorphology study was conducted; measured discharge data at a downstream location were used to dev...

275

Tightening the River Meander-Belt: Application of a Topographic Erodible Corridor Concept Using DEM Raster Analysis. A Case Study of Highland Creek, Ontario.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planimetric river hazard assessments, typically delineated as meander-belts, are complicated in southern Ontario by rivers which are incised into thick glacial sediments. Active and relic floodplain surfaces are topographically diverse, with river terraces commonly observed in the valleys due to deglacial and Holocene incision. Consequently, channels are often in contact with a mixed boundary of alluvial and glaciogenic sediments. Accepted meander-belt delineation procedures and protocols vary between intra-national and international jurisdictions; however, a focus on planimetric mapping and historical techniques is common place. In the southern Ontario context, this type of reach-scale river hazard assessment is important for protection of upland property, erosion risks to valley bottom infrastructure, and delineation of new development limits. Given the ecological and public safety benefits, there is growing acceptance and expectation that river bank erosion processes should be preserved within an erodible corridor, with a decreased emphasis on channel intervention and engineering approaches where possible. However, the use of planimetric meander- belt delineation techniques for incised valley settings frequently meets both practical and conceptual challenges. This study explores the potential for a Topographic Erodible Corridor Concept (TECC) as an improved representation of river evolution compared to the traditional planimetric techniques, particularly in previously glaciated regions. Such a concept would account for differences in erodible volumes of sediment associated with topographic variations within incised river valleys. Application of this concept is investigated using raster analysis of a high resolution digital elevation model (DEM), within widely available GIS software. Initial results from a case study on Highland Creek (Ontario) confirm that the corridor alignment and diverse topography of the incised valley morphology are well represented by a TECC model, which can be translated into a detailed assessment of erosion risks. Erosion rate estimates may still require historical overlay techniques to characterize channel migration rates. However, it is proposed that development of a regional-scale probability distribution of erosion rates may later be integrated into the TECC model to constrain the erodible corridor envelope within typical planning horizons. Such probability distributions may be indexed to reach-scale characteristics such as stream power, boundary material, or basin landuse, for example. Sensitivity of local bank erosion rates to particular channel alignments, processes, and boundary materials may be considered in future TECC models to improve representation of lateral migration processes and avulsion potential. The TECC model also provides a solid framework to integrate geotechnical stable-slope analyses to erodible valley walls for confined valley settings.

Phillips, R. T.

2009-05-01

276

Silica Removal From Steamflood-Produced Water: South Texas Tar Sands Pilot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steamflood-produced waters commonly contain suspended solids, oil, hardness-causing minerals, sulfide, and silica. Removal of these contaminants would make many of these waters suitable for recycling as steamer feedwater. Reuse of steamflood-produced waters increases steamer feedwater supplies and reduces water disposal requirements. This paper describes a field pilot study of silica removal from steamflood-produced water in the south Texas tar sands

S. A. Thomas; M. E. Yost; S. R. Cathey

1987-01-01

277

Bacterial Monitoring for the Buck Creek Watershed  

E-print Network

The “Bacterial Monitoring for the Buck Creek Watershed” project was developed in response to the creek’s listing on the Texas Water Quality Inventory and 303(d) List due to a bacterial impairment and subsequent total maximum daily load (TMDL...

278

Development of Catalytic Tar Decomposition in an Internally Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass gasification in an Internally Circulating Fluidized-bed Gasifier (ICFG) using Ni/Ah03 as tar cracking catalyst is studied at low temperature. Reaction conditions of the catalyst bed are discussed, including catalytic temperature and steam ratio. High energy efficiency and hydrogen-rich, low-tar product gas can be achieved in a properly designed multi-stage gasification process, together with high-performance catalyst. In addition, considering the economical feasibility, a newly-developed Ni-loaded brown coal char is developed and evaluated as catalyst in a lab-scale fluidized bed gasifier with catalyst fixed bed. The new catalyst shows a good ability and a hopeful prospect oftar decomposition, gas quality improvement and catalytic stability.

Xiao, Xianbin; Le, Due Dung; Morishita, Kayoko; Li, Liuyun; Takarada, Takayuki

279

Production of aromatics through current-enhanced catalytic conversion of bio-oil tar.  

PubMed

Biomass conversion into benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) can provide basic feedstocks for the petrochemical industry, which also serve as the most important aromatic platform molecules for development of high-end chemicals. Present work explored a new route for transformation of bio-oil tar into BTX through current-enhanced catalytic conversion (CECC), involving the synergistic effect between the zeolite catalyst and current to promote the deoxygenation and cracking reactions. The proposed transformation shows an excellent BTX aromatics selectivity of 92.9 C-mol% with 25.1 wt.% yield at 400 °C over usual HZSM-5 catalyst. The study of the model compounds revealed that the groups such as methoxy, hydroxyl and methyl in aromatics can be effectively removed in the CECC process. Present transformation potentially provides an important approach for production of the key petrochemicals of BTX and the overall use of bio-oil tar derived from bio-oil or biomass. PMID:23567684

Bi, Peiyan; Yuan, Yanni; Fan, Minghui; Jiang, Peiwen; Zhai, Qi; Li, Quanxin

2013-05-01

280

True in-situ bed preparation: oil shale and tar sand  

SciTech Connect

In 1978, a detailed study was conducted to evaluate the status of the bed preparation technology that had been developed for true in-situ processing of oil shale. It was concluded that the two techniques which had received the bulk of the attention in prior field experimentation, namely the wellbore springing and hydraulic/explosive fracturing concepts, both had inherent traits which would prevent them from being useful in practical applications. In the current paper, the previous results are reviewed to determine whether or not they are also applicable to tar sand. The conclusion reached is that neither technique would be practical for preparing a tar sands deposit for in-situ processing.

Boade, R. R.

1980-01-01

281

Investigating point zero: The artificial catchment 'Chicken Creek' as an observatory to study critical zone structures and processes of the critical zone in an initial ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, earth surface structures reaching from vegetation to the groundwater in the near underground have been termed "critical zone". This zone is "critical" to supporting life on Earth and, thus, the understanding of processes within this zone is of great importance in environmental sciences. Investigating the critical zone requires interdisciplinary and integrative research approaches across the fields of geomorphology, ecology, biology, soil science, hydrology and environmental modeling. A central motivation of the critical zone concept is the need for moving beyond traditional disciplinary boundaries to a more holistic and integrated study of the Earth surface system. However, the critical zone is characterized by complex interactions between abiotic and biotic structures and processes which need to be analyzed for improving our understanding of ecosystem functioning as well as of ecosystem development. To gain a better understanding of these fundamental questions it might be helpful to look at initial ecosystems, i.e. at ecosystems in the initial phase of development. It can be hypothesized that the complexity of a very young ecosystem is lower compared to mature systems and, therefore, structure-process interactions might become more obvious at early than at later stages of development. In this context, an artificial watershed was constructed with well known boundary conditions to investigate the initial ecosystem phase. The catchment ‘Chicken Creek' in Lusatia (Germany; 150 km SE from Berlin) has an area of 6 ha. It was set up with a layer of post-glacial sandy sediments overlying an aquiclude made of clay at the base. These hydrological starting conditions allowed for the formation of a groundwater body within the sandy layer of the experimental catchment. Further, after completion of the construction works in September 2005 the site was left to natural succession and no measures like planting or fertilization were carried out. As the initial phase of ecosystem development is highly dynamic under the prevailing climate conditions and ecosystem structures are formed and altered very rapidly the careful observation of the ongoing processes is essential. Thus, a comprehensive ecological monitoring programme has been started immediately after completion of the watershed to investigate the development and differentiation of structures and processes and their interactions. This paper highlights the conceptual approach of the project and particularly of the artificial watershed. Findings of this comprehensive project over a period of 4 years will be presented.

Hüttl, Reinhard F.; Gerwin, Werner

2010-05-01

282

Monument Creek hydraulics project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are given some general questions (file "IntroQuestions_07.pdf") related to project design during the class session before the main project is handed out. They need to use their textbook and/or other class resources to attempt to answer these questions and to prepare to discuss them the next class session. These questions concern field reconstruction of flood hydraulics, specifically. of bankfull flow. At this next class session we discuss their answers to the preliminary questions. Students are then given the main project handout (Monument_Ck_Problem_07.pdf). This gives them the general questions to be answered in the project. After reading it, students brainstorm again as a class about how to go about answering the questions. Students then divide themselves into research of three. These teams will synthesize data together and ultimately write up the project together. Each team then sends one member to join members of other teams to do one of the three main aspects of the field or computer work (1) field identification of the bankfull channel and measurement of bankfull channel geometry, (2) field determination of modern channel roughness from modern stream hydraulics (Manning's n is back-calculated from present channel geometry and flow), (3) development of a flood-frequency curve for this reach of Monument Creek from USGS discharge data. These working groups (with one member from each research team) work initially independently in the field and subsequently doing calculations in the lab, or on the computer. Once each working group has completed what it can do on its own, these groups split up and each member of each group carries the groups results back to his/her research team, and explains to the other members of the research team what he/she has done to this point and what results he/she has for the team. The team then works to synthesize he results into an overall answer to the questions posed at the beginning of the lab (confusing enough for you?). Each research team then writes up the results, sometimes (as in 2007) as a lab write up, in other years in scientific paper format. Whether the project is turned in simply as a lab write up or as a scientific paper, students are always asked to assess sources of error and how they might affect the results. Key words: Fluvial geomorphology, fluvial hydraulics, bankfull discharge, flood-frequency analysis Designed for a geomorphology course

Leonard, Eric

283

Steam reforming of tar model compound using Pd catalyst on alumina tube.  

PubMed

Gasification processing of biomass as a renewable energy source generates tar in the product gas. Tar leads to foul-up of the process equipment by corrosion and deposit formation. Catalytic elimination of tars is a crucial step to improve fuel gas quality from the process. In this study, a palladium catalyst on alumina (Pd/Al2O3) was used in steam reforming of benzene as a biomass gasification tar model compound. The reaction was carried out in a laboratory-scale tube reactor made of stainless steel to study the effect of reaction temperature, catalyst loading, quantity of palladium catalyst tubes, steam to carbon ratio (S/C), and residence time on catalytic performance and stability. Pd/Al2O3 showed high efficiency ofbenzene decomposition and enhanced the formation of fuel gas. Hydrogen and carbon conversions increased with reaction temperature. Although the benzene concentration increased from 2000 to 5000 mg/l, the catalytic performance at 600 degrees C and 800 degrees C was similar. 1.0 wt% Pd/Al2O3 showed excellent catalytic activity with the highest hydrogen and carbon conversions of 83% and 81%, respectively at 800 degrees C. This result is attributed to the smooth surface of the palladium, as noted from scanning electron microscopy imaging. An S/C of 2 provided the highest conversion. The addition of catalyst from four and seven tubes did not result in any great difference in terms of benzene cracking efficiency. The fourth cyclic usage of 1.0 wt% Pd/Al2O3 exhibited a higher conversion than that of 0.5 wt%. PMID:23437646

Nisamaneenate, Jurarat; Atong, Duangduen; Sricharoenchaikul, Viboon

2012-12-01

284

Cancer risk from incidental ingestion exposures to PAHs associated with coal-tar-sealed pavement  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent (2009-10) studies documented significantly higher concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in settled house dust in living spaces and soil adjacent to parking lots sealed with coal-tar-based products. To date, no studies have examined the potential human health effects of PAHs from these products in dust and soil. Here we present the results of an analysis of potential cancer risk associated with incidental ingestion exposures to PAHs in settings near coal-tar-sealed pavement. Exposures to benzo[a]pyrene equivalents were characterized across five scenarios. The central tendency estimate of excess cancer risk resulting from lifetime exposures to soil and dust from nondietary ingestion in these settings exceeded 1 × 10–4, as determined using deterministic and probabilistic methods. Soil was the primary driver of risk, but according to probabilistic calculations, reasonable maximum exposure to affected house dust in the first 6 years of life was sufficient to generate an estimated excess lifetime cancer risk of 6 × 10–5. Our results indicate that the presence of coal-tar-based pavement sealants is associated with significant increases in estimated excess lifetime cancer risk for nearby residents. Much of this calculated excess risk arises from exposures to PAHs in early childhood (i.e., 0–6 years of age).

Williams, E. Spencer; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

2012-01-01

285

Fast microwave-assisted catalytic gasification of biomass for syngas production and tar removal.  

PubMed

In the present study, a microwave-assisted biomass gasification system was developed for syngas production. Three catalysts including Fe, Co and Ni with Al2O3 support were examined and compared for their effects on syngas production and tar removal. Experimental results showed that microwave is an effective heating method for biomass gasification. Ni/Al2O3 was found to be the most effective catalyst for syngas production and tar removal. The gas yield reached above 80% and the composition of tar was the simplest when Ni/Al2O3 catalyst was used. The optimal ratio of catalyst to biomass was determined to be 1:5-1:3. The addition of steam was found to be able to improve the gas production and syngas quality. Results of XRD analyses demonstrated that Ni/Al2O3 catalyst has good stability during gasification process. Finally, a new concept of microwave-assisted dual fluidized bed gasifier was put forward for the first time in this study. PMID:24508907

Xie, Qinglong; Borges, Fernanda Cabral; Cheng, Yanling; Wan, Yiqin; Li, Yun; Lin, Xiangyang; Liu, Yuhuan; Hussain, Fida; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

2014-03-01

286

Mutagenic potential of water from Pelotas Creek in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resource degradation is one of mankind's greatest worries, as it causes direct and indirect damage to the associated biota. We initiated a water monitoring study in Pelotas Creek in 2003 in order to assess the mutagenic effect of the creek's waters. Allium cepa cells exposed to water samples and a chronically exposed macrophyte were analyzed, through evaluation of the

T. C. O. Santos; L. F. Maciel; K. S. Leal; A. E. N. Bender; T. S. Paiva; G. L. Garcias; M. G. Martino-Roth

2009-01-01

287

RIPARIAN VEGETATION BASE-LINE ANALYSIS AND MONITORING ALONG BISHOP CREEK, CALIFORNIA1  

E-print Network

RIPARIAN VEGETATION BASE-LINE ANALYSIS AND MONITORING ALONG BISHOP CREEK, CALIFORNIA1 Janet L. Nachlinger, Carl A. Fox and Patricia A. Moen2 Presented at the California Riparian Systems Conference-line analysis and long-term monitoring study of the riparian system along California's Bishop Creek is being

Standiford, Richard B.

288

Microbial Water Quality and Sources of Indicator Microorganisms in Goose Creek  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on microbial water quality and sources of indicator microorganisms in Goose Creek located in West Chester, PA. Microbial water quality of Goose Creek was monitored via cultivating and enumerating two indicator microorganisms, Fecal Coliform (FC) and Enterococcus. In addition, source of fecal pollution was predicted using a technology called fatty acid methyl profiling (FAME). Indicator microorganisms are

C. UNLU; L. M. GLOSE; B. A. PUKLIN; M. DURAN

289

Spatial Heterogeneity in the Parasite Communities of Creek Chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) in Southeastern Nebraska  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intestinal helminth communities of creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) were studied in the streams of south-eastern Nebraska to characterize spatial variation, to determine whether drainages act as regional species pools, and to examine the spatial patterning of individual parasite species within and among drainages. Creek chub were sampled in the summer of 2003 and the spring of 2004 at each

Michael A. Barger

2006-01-01

290

3-D sedimentological and geophysical studies of clastic reservoir analogs: Facies architecture, reservoir properties, and flow behavior within delta front facies elements of the Cretaceous Wall Creek Member, Frontier Formation, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This project examined the internal architecture of delta front sandstones at two locations within the Turonian-age Wall Creek Member of the Frontier Formation, in Wyoming. The project involved traditional outcrop field work integrated with core-data, and 2D and 3D ground penetrating radar (GPR) imaging from behind the outcrops. The fluid-flow engineering work, handled through a collaborative grant given to PI Chris White at LSU, focused on effects on fluid flow of late-stage calcite cement nodules in 3D. In addition to the extensive field component, the work funded 2 PhD students (Gani and Lee) and resulted in publication of 10 technical papers, 17 abstracts, and 4 internal field guides. PI Bhattacharya also funded an additional 3 PhD students that worked on the Wall Creek sandstone funded separately through an industrial consortium, two of whom graduated in the fall 2006 ((Sadeque and Vakarelov). These additional funds provided significant leverage to expand the work to include a regional stratigraphic synthesis of the Wall Creek Member of the Frontier Formation, in addition to the reservoir-scale studies that DOE directly funded. Awards given to PI Bhattacharya included the prestigious AAPG Distinguished Lecture Award, which involved a tour of about 25 Universities and Geological Societies in the US and Canada in the fall of 2005 and Spring of 2006. Bhattacharya gave two talks, one entitled “Applying Deltaic and Shallow Marine Outcrop Analogs to the Subsurface”, which highlighted the DOE sponsored work and the other titled “Martian River Deltas and the Origin of Life”. The outcrop analog talk was given at about 1/2 of the venues visited.

Janok P. Bhattacharya; George A. McMechan

2007-02-16

291

Biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Research progress report  

SciTech Connect

Biodegradation experiments were conducted to evaluate the mineralization of naphthalene released from coal tar entrapped in microporous silica media. Tests were performed with two coal tars recovered from former manufactured gas plant sites. Results from these tests showed that the degradation end point for naphthalene was significantly lower than the total amount of naphthalene present in coal tar. The role of physico-chemical and biological processes on the rate of biotransformation of naphthalene was evaluated. Mass transfer rates for dissolution of naphthalene from entrapped coal tar were measured in batch, flow-through systems. The rate of naphthalene mass transfer from the coal tar was found to be significantly greater than the rate of naphthalene biomineralization in batch slurry reactors. This implied that the rate acting factor for the biodegradation process was related to biokinetic phenomena rather than mass transfer processes. Further tests indicated that conditions inhibitory to bacteria limited the biodegradation of naphthalene, and in some cases the inhibition was reversible upon dilution of the reactor contents.

Ghoshal, S.; Ramaswami, A.; Luthy, R.G.

1994-02-07

292

Assessment of tar pollution on the United Arab emirates beaches  

SciTech Connect

In light of the inadequate information concerning stranded tar on the southwest beaches of the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, particularly following the massive oil releases during the Gulf War, the present investigation was designed to provide reference-integrated information on the nature, location, and levels of stranded tar balls on the beaches of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The recorded levels appeared to be higher than expected or previously reported. The tar distribution pattern, in addition to the degree of weathering, indicates that the massive oil release during the Gulf War did not reach the UAE shorelines. The highest reported levels of stranded tar ever recorded in the Arabian Gulf at Jabal Dhannah apparently originated from oil spills and tankers' ballast water at the main oil terminal at the Al-Ruwaiss oil refinery some 10 km to the east. The surprising, relatively high levels of stranded tar on the beaches of the Gulf of Oman were solely attributed to the heavy navigation traffic close to the shorelines. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Abu-Hilal, A.H.; Khordagui, H.K. (United Arab Emirates Univ., Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates))

1993-01-01

293

Yucca in Pine Creek Canyon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Rock Canyon is a National Conservation Area managed by the Bureau of Land Management, located just outside of Las Vegas, Nevada. It is part of...

294

Manzanita in Pine Creek Canyon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Rock Canyon is a National Conservation Area managed by the Bureau of Land Management, located just outside of Las Vegas, Nevada. It is part of...

295

Sunset in Pine Creek Canyon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Rock Canyon is a National Conservation Area managed by the Bureau of Land Management, located just outside of Las Vegas, Nevada. It is part of...

296

Sunset over Pine Creek Canyon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Rock Canyon is a National Conservation Area managed by the Bureau of Land Management, located just outside of Las Vegas, Nevada. It is part of...

297

Sandy Creek Roadless Area, Mississippi  

SciTech Connect

On the basis of a mineral survey of the Sandy Creek Roadless Area by the USGS and USBM in 1981, the area offers little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources but has a probable resource potential for oil and natural gas.

Haley, B.R.; Bitar, R.F.

1984-01-01

298

Oxley Creek Common Brisbane, Australia  

E-print Network

be minor flooding. Path near Pelican Lagoon (MG) #12;A bird walk on Oxley Creek Common The different areas, more if it has food, less if they are just mobbing it. Brown Falcon and Black-shouldered Kite might-lark are also easy to find. Striped Honeyeater have nested in the Hoop Pines around the BBQ. Brown Honeyeater

Queensland, University of

299

Oxley Creek Common Brisbane, Australia  

E-print Network

Pelican Lagoon (MG) #12;A bird walk on Oxley Creek Common The different areas of the Common have been of Torresian Crows, more if it has food, less if they are just mobbing it. A Brown Falcon was regular in 2008 the barbeque. Brown Honeyeater (MG) 2 Walk down to the Canoe Pontoon ­ Area 1 Superb Fairy-wren, White

Queensland, University of

300

Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program  

SciTech Connect

This pamphlet describes Union Oil's shale oil project in the Parachute Creek area of Garfield County, Colorado. The oil shale is estimated to contain 1.6 billion barrels of recoverable oil in the high Mahogany zone alone. Primarily a public relations publication, the report presented contains general information on the history of the project and Union Oil's future plans. (JMT)

Not Available

1981-01-01

301

Analysis of nodal point pollution, variability, and sustainability in mesohaline tidal creeks.  

PubMed

Mesohaline tidal creeks are critical since they may lie at the crossroads of aquatic habitat and urban/sub-urban pressures. The emphasis of this study was to determine the water quality stressor variations within and between tidal creeks and determine whether they serve as nodes of pollutants into the sub-estuary. Measurements of water quality stressors were conducted over a six-year period. The study revealed that characterizing the variability of individual tidal creeks is critical to understanding the process and impacts of stressors in sub-estuarine environments and that the tidal creeks are actually nodal points of sediment and nutrient pollution. This results in hypoxia being controlled within tidal creeks rather than being imported from the parent estuary. The calculated metrics were then used to create a Sustainability Characterization Map. Methods incorporated in this study would be of value to restoration managers, and in the decision-making process of urban and suburban watershed planners. PMID:24997875

Muller, Andrew; Muller, Diana

2014-08-15

302

Water Quality in Courtland Creek, East Oakland, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Courtland Creek is a tributary of the larger East Creek system that runs southeast from the Oakland Hills down to the San Leandro Bay in Oakland, California. In an effort to assess the overall health of Courtland Creek our team conducted a water quality research study. Stream water samples were collected from 4 sites between MacArthur Avenue (describe geographically as not all readers are familiar with Oakland geography) and Thompson Avenue (describe geographically as not all readers are familiar with Oakland geography) at accessible sections of this largely culverted stream. Dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, and chlorine concentrations in were measured using wet chemistry procedures. Analysis of collected samples indicates that dissolved oxygen levels in the stream are sufficient for invertebrates, ranging from 5 and 9 parts per million (ppm). Nitrate levels were significantly high, with concentrations ranging from 15 and 40 ppm. Other chemical species associated with waste products--ammonia, nitrite, and phosphate--also were present, but at low concentrations. Small amounts of chlorine also were found in waters of the creek system. The presence of high concentrations of nitrate, together with chlorine, suggests that untreated sewage may be leaking into Courtland Creek at an unidentified location.

Bracho, H.; Ahumada, A.; Hernandez, G.; Quintero, D.; Ramirez, J.; Ramirez, L.; Pham, T.; Holt, J.; Johnson, A.; Rubio, E.; Ponce, X.; Medina, S.; Limon, S.

2013-12-01

303

A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Sand Creek, Decatur County, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A digital model calibrated to conditions in Sand Creek near Greensburg, Ind., was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The only point-source waste load affecting Sand Creek in the vicinity of Greensburg is the Greensburg wastewater-treatment facility. Non-point, unrecorded waste loads seemed to be significant during three water-quality surveys done by the Indiana State Board of Health. Natural streamflow in Sand Creek during the summer and annual 7-day, 10-year low flow is zero so no benefit from dilution is provided. Effluent ammonia-nitrogen concentrations from the Greensburg wastewater-treatment facility will not meet Indiana water-quality standards during summer and winter low flows. To meet the water-quality standard the wastewater-effluent would be limited to a maximum total ammonia-nitrogen concentration of 2.5 mg/l for summer months (June through August) and 4.0 mg/l for winter months (November through March). Model simulations indicate that benthic-oxygen demand, nitrification, and the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the wastewater effluent are the most significant factors affecting the in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentration during summer low flows. The model predicts that with a benthic-oxygen demand of 1.5 grams per square meter per day at 20C the stream has no additional waste-load assimilative capacity. Present carbonaceous biochemical-oxygen demand loads from the Greensburg wastewater-treatment facility will not result in violations of the in-stream dissolved-oxygen standard (5 mg/l) during winter low flows. (Kosco-USGS)

Wilber, William G.; Crawford, Charles G.; Peters, James G.

1979-01-01

304

Hydrologic Characteristics of Alder Creek, Iron County, Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this study was to determine the hydrologic characteristics of Alder Creek, Iron County, Wisconsin, which are needed by water-resource planners to evaluate a reservoir site proposed by the Whitecap Mountain Corporation on Alder Creek. The hydrologic characteristics estimated were the mean flows, low flows, flood peaks, suspended-sediment discharge, and depth to bedrock. Also included is an estimate of the time required to fill the proposed reservoir. The study was done in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

Holmstrom, B.K.; Gebert, W.A.; Borman, R.G.

1973-01-01

305

Geology and coal resources of the Foidel Creek EMRIA site and surrounding area, Routt County, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Terrigenous clastic sediments of the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group (Campanian) in the southeastern part of the Yampa coal field in Routt County, northwestern Colorado, contain many beds of bituminous coal. Lower, middle, and upper coal groups are recognized. The middle coal group, in the lower coal-bearing member of the Williams Fork Formation, contains two thick, persistent coal beds in the Foidel Creek area. The Wadge coal bed, stratigraphically the higher of the two, reaches thicknesses of 3.7 meters, and is strippable beneath large areas on the south slope of Eckman Park. Coal resources of the Wadge bed in the Foidel Creek area--an area of 134 square kilometers, as defined in this study--are estimated to be 317 million metric tons. The Foidel Creek EMRIA reclamation study site--an area of 10.9 square kilometers--contains about 36.1 million metric tons of Wadge coal, as much as 28.1 million metric tons of which occur beneath overburden 61 meters or less in thickness. About 52 meters lower in the section, the Wolf Creek coal bed locally exceeds 6.1 meters in thickness. Coal resources of the Wolf Creek bed in the Foidel Creek area are estimated to be 434 million metric tons. The Foidel Creek EMRIA reclamation study site contains an estimated 49.7 million metric tons of Wolf Creek coal.

Ryer, Thomas A.

1977-01-01

306

Relationship of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yield of cigarettes  

SciTech Connect

The data from consecutive surveys of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study (1981-1988) were used to evaluate the relationship in cigarette smokers of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO) yields of the cigarette. There were 690 subjects who reported smoking regularly in at least one survey, over age 15. After adjustment for intensity and duration of smoking and for depth of inhalation, the risk of chronic phlegm, cough, and dyspnea were not related to the tar and nicotine yields. In 414 subjects with pulmonary function tested in at least one of the three surveys the spirometric indices used were significantly related to the daily dose of tar, nicotine, and CO (product of the cigarette yield and daily number of cigarettes smoked). The effects were more pronounced for past than for current doses. However, the differentiation of pulmonary function due to various yields of cigarettes was small in comparison to the difference in pulmonary function between smokers and nonsmokers.

Krzyzanowski, M.; Sherrill, D.L.; Paoletti, P.; Lebowitz, M.D. (National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland))

1991-02-01

307

Unconventional pilot steam drive, tar V sand, Long Beach unit, Wilmington Field, CA  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the design, implementation and history of the unconventional pilot steam drive (greater than 2,500 ft measured depth) that has been underway since December 24, 1980 in the Tar reservoir in the Long Beach Unit, Wilmington Field, Los Angeles County, California. This paper describes the project through November 30, 1983. The Tar V reservoir is a series of interbedded sands, siltstones and shales in the Middle Repetto formation of lower Pliocene age. The Tar V reservoir in the Long Beach Unit is approximately 200 acres in areal extent, has a vertical gross thickness of 185 ft and a maximum vertical net oil sand thickness of 90 ft comprised of 8 to 10 separate sand units. Oil in place is estimated at 27 MMbbl of stock tank oil. The study area is 9.2 acres in areal extent with an average net oil sand thickness of 81.7 ft. The pilot steam drive was originally installed as an isolated 5.6 acre inverted 5-spot pattern.

Jung, K.D.

1984-04-01

308

MUTAGENICITY OF THE FRACTIONATED ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL, CIGARETTE SMOKE CONDENSATE, COKE OVEN, AND ROOFING TAR IN THE AMES ASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

Mobile and stationary sources emit particle-bound organics that have demonstrated mutagenicity. The objective of this study was to measure the mutagenicity of the fractionated organic emissions from diesel, cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), coke oven and roofing tar in the Ames a...

309

Coal tar phototoxicity: characteristics of the smarting reaction  

SciTech Connect

The properties and ultraviolet exposure parameters of tar smarts were examined in an effort to elucidate the mechanisms involved. It was show that irradiation with 1 minimal smarting dose (MSD) of UVA immediately following tar removal lowered the MSD for 6 h, demonstrated by subsequent challenge with UVA. Following 3 MSDs this memory effect was demonstrable for 24 h. The smarting reaction was area dependent--smaller areas of exposure require higher doses of UVA to induce smarting. Smarting followed reciprocity over a 6-fold range of irradiances (2-12.5 mW/cm2) but higher irradiances required higher doses of UVA, perhaps due to a delay in the recognition and reporting of smarting. The smarting reaction and delayed erythema due to UVA and tar were equally blocked by sunscreen.

Diette, K.M.; Gange, R.W.; Stern, R.S.; Arndt, K.A.; Parrish, J.A.

1985-04-01

310

Mass transfer and biodegradation of PAH compounds from coal tar. Quarterly technical report, January--March 1993  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the role of physico-chemical mass transfer processes on the rate of biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds released from non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) coal tar present at residual saturation within a microporous medium. A simplified coupled dissolution-degradation model is developed that describes the concurrent mass transfer and biokinetic processes occurring in the system. Model results indicate that a dimensionless Damkohler number can be utilized to distinguish between systems that are mass transfer limited, and those that are limited by biological phenomena. The Damkohler number is estimated from independent laboratory experiments that measure the rates of aqueous phase dissolution and biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Experimental data for Stroudsburg coal tar imbibed within 236 {mu}m diameter silica particles yield Damkohler numbers smaller than unity, indicating, for the particular system under study, that the overall rate of biotransformation of naphthalene is not limited by the mass transfer of naphthalene from coal tar to the bulk aqueous phase. There is a need for investigation of mass transfer for larger particles and/or other PAH compounds, and study of microbial rate-limiting phenomena including toxicity, inhibition and competitive substrate utilization.

Ramaswami, A.; Ghoshal, S.; Luthy, R.G.

1994-09-01

311

Mass transfer and biodegradation of PAH compounds from coal tar. Quarterly technical report, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

This study, examines the role of physico-chemical mass transfer processes on the rate of biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds released from non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) coal tar present at residual saturation within a microporous medium. A simplified coupled dissolution-degradation model is developed that describes the concurrent mass transfer and biokinetic processes occurring in the system. Model results indicate that a dimensionless Damkohler number can be utilized to distinguish between systems that are mass transfer limited, and those that are limited by biological phenomena. The Damkohler number is estimated from independent laboratory experiments that measure the rates of aqueous phase dissolution and biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Experimental data for Stroudsburg coal tar imbibed within 236 {mu}m diameter silica particles yield Damkohler numbers smaller than unity, indicating, for the particular system under study, that the overall rate of biotransformation of naphthalene is not limited by the mass transfer of naphthalene from coal tar to the bulk aqueous phase. There is a need for investigation of mass transfer for larger particles and/or other PAH compounds, and study, of microbial rate-limiting phenomena including toxicity, inhibition and competitive substrate utilization.

Ramaswami, A.; Ghoshal, S.; Luthy, R.G.

1994-09-01

312

33 CFR 334.480 - Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island...  

...Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot...Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot...Archers Creek (between the Broad River and Beaufort River), Ribbon...

2014-07-01

313

Hydrologic data for North Creek, Trinity River basin, Texas, 1978  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report is a compilation of runoff and storage data collected during the 1978 water year in the Mountain Creek basin. Mountain Creek drains the northeast corner of Johnson County, the northwest corner of Ellis County, the southeast corner of Tarrant County, and part of the southwest corner of Dallas County, Tex. The basin is 30 miles long and averages 10 miles in width. The total drainage area at the mouth is 304 square miles. Basin outflow for the 1978 water year was 3,520 acre-feet which is only 5% of the 18-year (1960-78) average of 76,070 acre-feet. Storage in Mountain Creek Lake showed a net loss of 890 acre-feet during the water year. Rainfall over the study area for the 1978 water year was about 24 inches, which is about 10 inches below the mean annual rainfall for the area. (USGS)

Carillo, E.R.

1980-01-01

314

Characterization of water quality and biological communities, Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2007-2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fish Creek, an approximately 25-kilometer-long tributary to Snake River, is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson. Fish Creek is an important water body because it is used for irrigation, fishing, and recreation and adds scenic value to the Jackson Hole properties it runs through. Public concern about nuisance growths of aquatic plants in Fish Creek has been increasing since the early 2000s. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District to characterize the hydrology, water quality, and biologic communities of Fish Creek during 2007–11. The hydrology of Fish Creek is strongly affected by groundwater contributions from the area known as the Snake River west bank, which lies east of Fish Creek and west of Snake River. Because of this continuous groundwater discharge to the creek, land-use activities in the west bank area can affect the groundwater quality. Evaluation of nitrate isotopes and dissolved-nitrate concentrations in groundwater during the study indicated that nitrate was entering Fish Creek from groundwater, and that the source of nitrate was commonly a septic/sewage effluent or manure source, or multiple sources, potentially including artificial nitrogen fertilizers, natural soil organic matter, and mixtures of sources. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate and orthophosphate, which are key nutrients for growth of aquatic plants, generally were low in Fish Creek and occasionally were less than reporting levels (not detected). One potential reason for the low nutrient concentrations is that nutrients were being consumed by aquatic plant life that increases during the summer growing season, as a result of the seasonal increase in temperature and larger number of daylight hours. Several aspects of Fish Creek’s hydrology contribute to higher productivity and biovolume of aquatic plants in Fish Creek than typically observed in streams of its size in Wyoming. Especially in the winter, the proportionately large, continuous gain of groundwater into Fish Creek in the perennial section keeps most of the creek free of ice. Because sunlight can still reach the streambed in Fish Creek and the water is still flowing, aquatic plants continue to photosynthesize in the winter, albeit at a lower level of productivity. Additionally, the cobble and large gravel substrate in Fish Creek provides excellent attachment points for aquatic plants, and when combined with Fish Creek’s channel stability allows rapid growth of aquatic plants once conditions allow during the spring. The aquatic plant community of Fish Creek was different than most streams in Wyoming in that it contains many different macrophytes—including macroalgae such as long streamers of Cladophora, aquatic vascular plants, and moss; most other streams in the state contain predominantly algae. From the banks of Fish Creek, the bottom of the stream sometimes appeared to be a solid green carpet. A shift was observed from higher amounts of microalgae in April/May to higher amounts macrophytes in August and October, and differences in the relative abundance of microalgae and macrophytes were statistically significant between seasons. Differences in dissolved-nitrate concentrations and in the nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratio were significantly different between seasons, as concentrations of dissolved nitrate decreased from April/May to August and October. It is likely that dissolved-nitrate concentrations in Fish Creek were lower in August and October because macrophytes were quickly utilizing the nutrient, and a negative correlation between macro-phytes and nitrate was found. Macroinvertebrates also were sampled because of their role as indicators of water quality and their documented responses to perturbation such as degradation of water quality and habitat. Statistically significant seasonal differences were noted in the macroinvertebrate community. Taxa richness and relative abundance of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera, which tend to be intolerant of water-

Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Peterson, David A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Edmiston, C. Scott; Taylor, Michelle L.; Leemon, Daniel J.

2013-01-01

315

Vehicular fuels and oxychemicals from biomass thermochemical tars  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic hydroprocessing (hydrotreating and hydrocracking) of biomass thermochemical tars can yield mixtures of liquid hydrocarbons and alkyl aromatics of chemical compositions similar to those presently used in diesel and gasoline engine fuels. Phenolics can be coproduced. Compositions of hydroprocessed tars are similar regardless of biomass feedstock used, suggesting that the two-stage process of pyrolysis and hydroprocessing may afford a somewhat universal route to the generation of useful hydrocarbons and oxychemicals from a variety of agricultural and forestry residues. 26 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

Soltes, E.J.; Lin, S.C.K.

1983-01-01

316

Meta-analysis of lung cancer in asphalt roofing and paving workers with external adjustment for confounding by coal tar  

SciTech Connect

The study's objectives were to update Partanen's and Boffetta's 1994 meta-analysis of lung cancer among roofing and paving asphalt workers and explore the role of coal tar in explaining the statistical heterogeneity among these studies. Information retrieval strategies and eligibility criteria were defined for identifying the epidemiologic studies to be included in the analysis. The relative risk ratio (RR) for lung cancer was selected as the effect measure of interest. Coal tar bias factors were developed and used to externally adjust each eligible study's published RR for confounding by coal tar. The meta-Relative Risk (meta-RR) and its variance were estimated by general variance-based methods. Heterogeneity of the RRs was assessed by heterogeneity chi-square and I{sup 2} tests. The results from this update were similar to those in Partanen's and Boffetta's original meta-analysis. Although the meta-RRs for the roofers and the pavers were no longer statistically significantly different from one another, significant heterogeneity remained within each of the coal tar-adjusted sectors. Meta-analysis of non-experimental epidemiologic studies is subject to significant uncertainties as is externally correcting studies for confounding. Given these uncertainties, the specific quantitative estimates in this (or any similar) analysis must be viewed with caution. Nevertheless, this analysis provides support for the hypothesis proposed by several major reviewers that confounding by coal tar-related PAH exposures may explain most or all of the lung cancer risks found in the epidemiologic literature on asphalt roofing and paving workers.

Fayerweather, W.E. [Owens Corning, Toledo, OH (United States). Epidemiology & Data Management

2007-07-01

317

A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for South Fork, Wildcat Creek, Clinton County, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Indiana State Board of Health is developing a State water-quality management plan that includes establishing limits for wastewater effluents discharged into Indiana streams. A digital model calibrated to conditions in South Fork Wildcat Creek was used to predict alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. Natural streamflow during the 7-day, 10-year low flow is zero, so no benefit from dilution is provided. The Indiana State Board of Health 's projected ammonia-nitrogen concentration for the Frankfort wastewater-treatment facility will violate the instream total ammonia-nitrogen standard of 2.5 mg/l and 4.0 mg/l during summer and winter low flows, respectively. The model indicates that nitrification and algal respiration were significant factors affecting the dissolved-oxygen dynamics of South Fork Wildcat Creek during two water-quality surveys. Stream water quality during the two water-quality surveys was degraded by the discharge of wastewater receiving only primary treatment. Benthic deposits resulting from this wastewater discharge seem to exert a considerable oxygen demand. The discharge of partially treated wastewater should be eliminated when a new wastewater-treatment facility becomes operational in mid-1979. Therefore, benthic-oxygen demand due to benthic deposits should become negligible at that time. (Kosco-USGS)

Crawford, Charles G.; Wilber, William G.; Peters, James G.

1979-01-01

318

Impact of variability in coastal fog on photosynthesis and dissolved oxygen levels in shallow water habitats: Salmon Creek estuary case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal fog reduces available light levels that in turn reduce rates of photosynthesis and oxygen production. This effect can be seen in perturbations of the day-night production-respiration cycle that leads to increase and decrease in dissolved oxygen in shallow-water habitats. In well stratified coastal lagoons, a lower layer may be isolated from the atmosphere so that small changes in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) are evident in perturbations of the typical day-night cycle of oxygen concentration. This effect is observed in the summertime, mouth-closed Salmon Creek Estuary, located in Sonoma County (California). Sub-diurnal fluctuations in dissolved oxygen in Salmon Creek Estuary correlate with deviations from the clear-sky diurnal cycle in PAR. Similar effects are observed in other estuaries and the process by which fog controls photosynthesis can be expected to occur throughout coastal California, although the effect may not be easily observable in data collected from open waters where mixing and bloom dynamics are likely to dominate temporal variability in biogenic properties like dissolved oxygen.

Largier, J. L.

2013-12-01

319

Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for Fanno Creek, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban runoff and shows characteristic flashy streamflow and poor water quality commonly associated with urban streams. This data set represents the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), or "greenness" of the Fanno Creek floodplain study area. Aerial photography was used to isolate areas of vegetation based on comparing different bandwidths within the imagery. In this case, the NDVI is calculated as the quotient of the near infrared band minus the red band divided by the near infared plus the red band. NDVI = (NIR - R)/(NIR + R).

Sobieszczyk, Steven

2011-01-01

320

29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

2010-07-01

321

29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

2013-07-01

322

29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

2012-07-01

323

29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

2011-07-01

324

Evaluation of Operations Scenarios for Managing the Big Creek Marsh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetland management in changing climate is important for maintaining sustainable ecosystem as well as for reducing the impact of climate change on the environment as wetlands act as natural carbon sinks. The Big Creek Marsh within the Essex County is a Provincially Significant Wetland (PSW) in Ontario, Canada. The marsh is approximately 900 hectares in area and is primarily fed by streamflow from the Big Creek Watershed. The water level of this wetland has been managed by the stakeholders using a system of pumps, dykes and a controlled outlet to the Lake Erie. In order to adequately manage the Big Creek Marsh and conserve diverse aquatic plant species, Essex Region Conservation Authority (ERCA), Ontario has embarked on developing an Operations Plan to maintain desire water depths during different marsh phases, viz., Open water, Hemi and Overgrown marsh phases. The objective of the study is to evaluate the alternatives for managing water level of the Big Creek Marsh in different marsh phases. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a continuous simulation model was used to simulate streamflow entering into the marsh from the Big Creek watershed. A Water Budget (WB) model was developed for the Big Creek Marsh to facilitate in operational management of the marsh. The WB model was applied to simulate the marsh level based on operations schedules, and available weather and hydrologic data aiming to attain the target water depths for the marsh phases. This paper presents the results of simulated and target water levels, streamflow entering into the marsh, water releasing from the marsh, and water pumping into and out of the marsh under different hydrologic conditions.

Wilson, Ian; Rahman, Masihur; Wychreschuk, Jeremy; Lebedyk, Dan; Bolisetti, Tirupati

2013-04-01

325

Biogeochemical characterisation of a coal tar distillate plume.  

PubMed

The distillation of acidified coal tars for up to 50 years has given rise to a phenol plume approximately 500 m long, 50 m deep and containing up to 15 g l(-1) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the Triassic Sandstones aquifer. A conceptual biogeochemical model based on chemical and microbiological analysis of groundwater samples has been developed as a preliminary to more detailed studies of the controls on natural attenuation. While the development of redox zones and the production of methane and carbon dioxide provide evidence of natural attenuation, it appears that degradation is slow. The existence of sulphate in the plume indicates that this electron acceptor has not been depleted and that consequently methanogenesis is probably limited. Based on a simple estimate of sulphate input concentration, a half-life of about 15 years has been estimated for sulphate reduction. Geochemical modelling predicts that increased alkalinity within the plume has not led to carbonate precipitation, and thus within the limits of accuracy of the measurement, alkalinity may reflect the degree of biodegradation. This implies a loss of around 18% of the DOC over a 30-year period. Despite limited degradation, microbial studies show that there are diverse microbial communities in the aquifer with the potential for both anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation. Microbial activity was found to be greatest at the leading edge of the plume where DOC concentrations are 60 mg l(-1) or less, but activity could still be observed in more contaminated samples even though cells could not be cultured. The study suggests that degradation may be limited by the high phenol concentrations within the core of the plume, but that once diluted by dispersion, natural attenuation may proceed. More detailed studies to confirm these initial findings are identified and form the basis of associated papers. PMID:11820470

Williams, G M; Pickup, R W; Thornton, S F; Lerner, D N; Mallinson, H E; Moore, Y; White, C

2001-12-15

326

Cell Host & Microbe HIV Evades RNA Interference Directed at TAR  

E-print Network

be targeted to improve the efficacy of antiviral therapy. INTRODUCTION Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV- quently, an urgent need exists for new HIV therapies that are less prone to the generation of resistantCell Host & Microbe Article HIV Evades RNA Interference Directed at TAR by an Indirect Compensatory

Schaffer, David V.

327

CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR PARTICULATE AND TAR EMISSIONS FROM COAL CONVERTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a characterization of solid and tar particulate emissions in raw product gases from several types of coal gasifiers, in terms of their total quantities, chemical composition, and size distribution. Fixed-bed gasifiers produce the smallest particulate l...

328

Phytotoxicity and Plant Productivity Analysis of Tar-Enriched Biochars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biochar is one of the three by-products obtained by the pyrolysis of organic material, the other two being syngas and bio-oil. The pyrolysis of biomass has generated a great amount of interest in recent years as all three by-products can be put toward beneficial uses. As part of a larger project designed to evaluate the hydrologic impact of biochar soil amendment, we generated a biochar through fast pyrolysis (less than 2 minutes) of sorghum stock at 600°C. In the initial biochar production run, the char bin was not purged with nitrogen. This inadvertent change in pyrolysis conditions produced a fast-pyrolysis biochar enriched with tars. We chose not to discard this batch, however, and instead used it to test the impact of tar-enriched biochars on plants. A suite of phytotoxicity tests were run to assess the effects of tar-rich biochar on plant germination and plant productivity. We designed the experiment to test for negative effects, using an organic carbon and nutrient-rich, greenhouse- optimized potting medium instead of soil. We used Black Seeded Simpson lettuce (Lactuca sativa) as the test organism. We found that even when tars are present within biochar, biochar amendment up to 10% by weight caused increased lettuce germination rates and increased biomass productivity. In this presentation, we will report the statistical significance of our germination and biomass data, as well as present preliminary data on how biochar amendment affects soil hydrologic properties.

Keller, M. L.; Masiello, C. A.; Dugan, B.; Rudgers, J. A.; Capareda, S. C.

2008-12-01

329

Sandia tar-sands subprogram FY81 annual report  

Microsoft Academic Search

During FY81, Sandia National Laboratories assisted the Laramie Energy Technology Center's Tar Sands Program in the areas of reservoir access and alternate extraction concepts. This report covers the work done in the areas of controlled source audio magnetotelluric mapping, radio-frequency heating instrumentation, and joint US\\/Canadian permeability enhancement.

J. R. Jr

1982-01-01

330

Release of polyaromatic hydrocarbons from coal tar contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

A variety of process wastes generated from manufactured gas production (MGP) have contaminated soils and groundwater at production and disposal sites. Coal tar, consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons present as a nonaqueous phase liquid, makes up a large portion of MGP wastes. Of the compounds in coal tar, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the major constituents of environmental concern due to their potential mutagenic and carcinogenic hazards. Characterization of the release of PAHs from the waste-soil matrix is essential to quantifying long-term environmental impacts in soils and groundwater. Currently, conservative estimates for the release of PAHs to the groundwater are made assuming equilibrium conditions and using relationships derived from artificially contaminated soils. Preliminary work suggests that aged coal tar contaminated soils have much lower rates of desorption and a greater affinity for retaining organic contaminants. To obtain better estimates of desorption rates, the release of PAHs from a coal tar soil was investigated using a flow-interruption, miscible displacement technique. Methanol/water solutions were employed to enhance PAH concentrations above limits of detection. For each methanol/water solution employed, a series of flow interrupts of varying times was invoked. Release rates from each methanol/water solution were estimated from the increase in concentration with duration of flow interruption. Aqueous-phase release rates were then estimated by extrapolation using a log-linear cosolvency model.

Priddy, N.D.; Lee, L.S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Agronomy

1996-11-01

331

SULFUR TOLERANT CATALYSTS FOR BIOMASS TAR REMOVAL - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

In this Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project, NexTech Materials proposes a catalytic reforming approach to remove waste tar from gasified biomass on nickel-based catalysts. Biomass gasification is a potential renewable route to producing electricity, liquid fue...

332

Supercritical-Fluid Extraction of Oil From Tar Sands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New supercritical solvent mixtures have been laboratory-tested for extraction of oil from tar sands. Mixture is circulated through sand at high pressure and at a temperature above critical point, dissolving organic matter into the compressed gas. Extract is recovered from sand residues. Low-temperature super-critical solvents reduce energy consumption and waste-disposal problems.

Compton, L. E.

1982-01-01

333

Study of LANDSAT-D thematic mapper performance as applied to hydrocarbon exploration. [Southern Ontario, Lawton, Oklahoma; Owl Creek, Wyoming; Washington, D.C.; and Death Valley California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved delineation of known oil and gas fields in southern Ontario and a spectacularly high amount of structural information on the Owl Creek, Wyoming scene were obtained from analysis of TM data. The use of hue, saturation, and value image processing techniques on a Death Valley, California scene permitted direct comparison of TM processed imagery with existing 1:250,000 scale geological maps of the area and revealed small outcrops of Tertiary volcanic material overlying Paleozoic sections. Analysis of TM data over Lawton, Oklahoma suggests that the reducing chemical environment associated with hydrocarbon seepage change ferric iron to soluble ferrous iron, allowing it to be leached. Results of the band selection algorithm show a suprising consistency, with the 1,4,5 combination selected as optimal in most cases.

Everett, J. R. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

334

Spatiotemporal Variation in Fish Assemblage Structure in Tropical Floodplain Creeks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biotic assemblages of aquatic floodplain systems have great potential to randomly reshuffle during annual flood periods, and have been described both as stochastically and deterministically assembled. However, only a limited number of studies have been conducted in relatively few habitat types. To evaluate large-bodied fish assemblage structure of floodplain creeks, we used experimental gill nets to sample fishes at sites

David J. Hoeinghaus; Craig A. Layman; D. Albrey Arrington; Kirk O. Winemiller

2003-01-01

335

WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, STOCKNEY CREEK, IDAHO COUNTY, IDAHO. 1986  

EPA Science Inventory

A water quality monitoring study was conducted on Stockney Creek (17060305) for the following purposes: 1) to determine baseline water quality; 2) to document water quality effects of spring and storm agricultural runoff; and 3) to determine whether implementation of Best Manage...

336

Okanogan Focus Watershed Salmon Creek : Annual Report 1999.  

SciTech Connect

During FY 1999 the Colville Tribes and the Okanogan Irrigation District (OID) agreed to study the feasibility of restoring and enhancing anadromous fish populations in Salmon Creek while maintaining the ability of the district to continue full water service delivery to it members.

Lyman, Hilary

1999-11-01

337

Okanogan Focus Watershed Salmon Creek : Annual Report 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

During FY 1999 the Colville Tribes and the Okanogan Irrigation District (OID) agreed to study the feasibility of restoring and enhancing anadromous fish populations in Salmon Creek while maintaining the ability of the district to continue full water service delivery to it members.

Lyman; Hilary

1999-01-01

338

MILK CREEK, TETON COUNTY, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1986  

EPA Science Inventory

Milk Creek, Idaho (17040204) was identified in the Agricultural Pollution Abatement Plans as a second priority stream segment for the reduction of agriculture related pollutants. A water quality study was conducted from March through June 1986 as part of the agricultural plannin...

339

A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Duck Creek, Madison, Tipton, and Hamilton counties, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Indiana State Board of Health is developing a State water-quality plan that includes establishing limits for wastewater effluents discharged into Indiana streams. A digital model calibrated to conditions in Duck Creek was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The major point-source waste load affecting Duck Creek is the Elwood wastewater-treatment facility. Natural streamflow during the low flow is zero, so no benefit from dilution is provided. Natural reaeration at the low-flow condition (approximately 3 cubic feet per second), also low, is estimated to be less than 1 per day (base e at 20 Celsius). Consequently, the wasteload assimilative capacity of the stream is low. Effluent ammonia-nitrogen concentrations, projected by the Indiana State Board of Health, will result in stream ammonia-nitrogen concentrations that exceed the State ammonia-nitrogen toxicity standards (2.5 milligrams per liter from April to October and 4.0 milligrams per liter from November through March). The projected effluent ammonia-nitrogen load will also result in the present Indiana stream dissolved-oxygen standard (5.0 milligrams per liter) not being met. Benthic-oxygen demand may also affect stream water quality. During the summer low-flow, a benthic-oxygen demand of only 0.6 gram per square meter per day would utilize all the streams 's available assimilative capacity. (USGS)

Crawford, Charles G.; Wilber, William G.; Peters, James G.

1980-01-01

340

Paleontology, paleoclimatology and paleoecology of the late middle miocene Musselshell Creek flora, Clearwater County Idaho. A preliminary study of a new fossil flora  

SciTech Connect

The Musselshell Creek flora (12.0-10.5 Ma) of northern Idaho is used to reconstruct paleoclimatic and paleoecologic parameters of the Pacific Northwest during the late Middle Miocene. Other megafossil and microfossil floral records spanning 12.0-6.4 Ma are unknown from this region. The Musselshell Creek fossil flora, previously undescribed, is preserved in lacustrine clays and sediments that accumulated in a narrow valley surrounded by rugged terrain. Dominant taxa include dicotyledons and conifers. Most of the leaves are preserved as impressions or compressions. Some fossil leaves retained their original pigmentation, cellular anatomy, and organic constituents. Other fossils include excellent remains of pollen and spores, dispersed leaf cuticle, pyritized wood, and disarticulated fish bones. A destructive statistical analysis of one block of sediment, approximately 30 cm x 45 cm (1.5 sq. ft) recovered 14 orders, 23 families, and 34 genera of spermatophyte plant fossils. These floral elements are compared with two other earlier Miocene floras which were similarly sampled. Common megafossil genera include Quercus, Zizy-phoides, Taxodium, Alnus, Castanea, Magnolia, Acer, Ex-bucklandia, Sequoia, Populus, and Betula. The rare occurrence of Ginkgo leaves is a first record of this taxon in the Idaho Miocene. Additional plant taxa, are represented by palynomorphs. Common pollen taxa are Pinus, Abies, Carya, Quercus, and Tilia. Most of the megafossil and microfossil flora assemblage is characteristic of a streambank to floodplain environment that existed in a warm to cool temperate climate similar to the modern Mid-Atlantic coast of the United States. 47 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Baghai, N.L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Jorstad, R.B. [Eastern Illinois Univ., Charleston, IL (United States)

1995-10-01

341

Traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek, upper Colorado River basin, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, major highways are often constructed in stream valleys. In the event of a vehicular accident involving hazardous materials, the close proximity of highways to the streams increases the risk of contamination entering the streams. Recent population growth has contributed to increased traffic volume along Colorado highways and has resulted in increased movement of hazardous materials, particularly along Interstate 70. Gore Creek and its major tributary, Black Gore Creek, are vulnerable to such contamination from vehicular accidents along Interstate 70. Gore Creek, major tributary of the Eagle River, drains approximately 102 square miles, some of which has recently undergone significant urban development. The headwaters of Gore Creek originate in the Gore Range in the eastern part of the Gore Creek watershed. Gore Creek flows west to the Eagle River. Beginning at the watershed boundary on Vail Pass, southeast of Vail Ski Resort, Interstate 70 parallels Black Gore Creek and then closely follows Gore Creek the entire length of the watershed. Interstate 70 crosses Gore Creek and tributaries 20 times in the watershed. In the event of a vehicular accident involving a contaminant spill into Gore Creek or Black Gore Creek, a stepwise procedure has been developed for water-resource managers to estimate traveltimes of the leading edge and peak concentration of a conservative contaminant. An example calculating estimated traveltimes for a hypothetical contaminant release in Black Gore Creek is provided. Traveltime measurements were made during May and September along Black Gore Creek and Gore Creek from just downstream from the Black Lakes to the confluence with the Eagle River to account for seasonal variability in stream discharge. Fluorometric dye injection of rhodamine WT and downstream dye detection by fluorometry were used to measure traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek. During the May traveltime measurements, discharges ranged from 82 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) at Black Gore Creek near Minturn (U.S. Geological Survey station number 09066000) to 724 ft3/s at Gore Creek at mouth near Minturn (U.S. Geological Survey station number 09066510), whereas during the September traveltime measurements, discharges ranged from 3.6 ft3/s at Black Gore Creek near Minturn to 62 ft3/s at Gore Creek at mouth near Minturn. Cumulative traveltimes for the peak dye concentration during the May traveltime measurements ranged from 3.45 hours (site 1 to site 3) in Black Gore Creek to 2.50 hours (site 8 to site 12) in Gore Creek, whereas cumulative traveltimes for the peak dye concentration during the September traveltime measurements ranged from 15.33 hours (site 1 to site 3) in Black Gore Creek to 8.65 hours (site 8 to site 12) in Gore Creek. During the September dye injections, beaver dams on Black Gore Creek, between site 1 and the confluence with Gore Creek, substantially delayed movement of the rhodamine WT. Estimated traveltimes were developed using relations established from linear-regression methods of relating measured peak traveltime to discharge during those measurements, which were obtained at Black Gore Creek near Minturn and Gore Creek at mouth near Minturn. Resulting estimated peak traveltimes for Black Gore Creek (sites 1 to 5) ranged from 5.4 to 0.4 hour for 20 to 200 ft3/s and for Gore Creek (sites 5 to 12), 5.5 to 0.3 hour for 20 to 800 ft3/s. Longitudinal-dispersion coefficients that were calculated for selected stream reaches ranged from 17.2 square feet per second at 4 ft3/s between sites 2 and 3 to 650 square feet per second at 144 ft3/s between sites 7 and 8. Longitudinal-dispersion coefficients are necessary variables for future stream-contaminant modeling in the Gore Creek watershed.

Gurdak, Jason J.; Spahr, Norman E.; Szmajter, Richard J.

2002-01-01

342

Is promise of Alberta's tar sands nearing reality  

SciTech Connect

Alberta's far north shares a vital element with Saudi Arabia: Many hundreds of billions of barrels of oil. The Energy Resources and Conservation Board counts one trillion barrels, four to five times above Saudi Arabia's reserves. To date, though, it has not been economic to tap these reserves, which are in the form of tar sands. Now, however, a new process, proven at the pilot stage, finally may transform these resources into a possible competitor to OPEC. Its unpronounceable acronym, SAGD, stands for steam-assisted gravity drainage. The SAGD technique involves a couple of major innovations. First, it reverses the traditional approach. Instead of mining the sands from the surface downward, the systems developed and proven by the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (AOSTRA) starts from the bottom up. The oil is produced from underneath the bedded tar sands. Second, the system is intrinsically small scale. It does not rely upon megaprojects to try to realize economies of scale. The earlier surface-mining projects were sized at 100,000-200,000 barrels per day (b/d). In contrast, the optimum economic scale of the SAGD system is roughly 30,000 b/d, making it a more manageable and less risky technology. SAGD involves the marriage of conventional shaft and tunnel mining with the new precision possible in horizontal drilling. The cost savings are dramatic, and the environmental insult from the operation is greatly reduced. Instead of stripping overburden and then strip-mining the tarry sands, the SAGD technique starts underground with tunnels drilled beneath the tar sands strata. From the tunnels, pairs of horizontal wells are drilled up into the beds. Steam injected into the upper well fluidizes the tar, creating a void, from which the liquid tar flows down into the lower producing well.

Stauffer, T.

1993-10-15

343

DEEP CREEK AND MUD CREEK, TWIN FALLS, IDAHO. WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1986  

EPA Science Inventory

Deep Creek and Mud Creek are located in Twin Falls County near Buhl, Idaho (17040212). From April through October, these creeks convey irrigation drainage water from the western part of the Twin Falls irrigation tract to the Snake River. During 1986, water quality surveys were ...

344

NAME: Salt Creek Estuary Restoration LOCATION: Salt Creek Watershed, Clallam County, Washington  

E-print Network

NAME: Salt Creek Estuary Restoration LOCATION: Salt Creek Watershed, Clallam County, Washington Federal funds $0 PROJECT DESCRIPTION: The Salt Creek Estuary Reconnection project will significantly enhance tidal and fluvial hydrology to 22.5 acres of salt marsh, which will return the salt marsh to its

US Army Corps of Engineers

345

59. Credit FM. Flood waters on South Battle Creek next ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

59. Credit FM. Flood waters on South Battle Creek next to powerhouse. Note height of water in relation to tailraces. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

346

2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

347

1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and silt sluice gate (center), main canal headworks (to right), view to northwest - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

348

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

349

3. Threequarter view of Oak Creek Bridge behind visitor center ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Three-quarter view of Oak Creek Bridge behind visitor center facing southwest - Oak Creek Administrative Center, One half mile east of Zion-Mount Carmel Highway at Oak Creek, Springdale, Washington County, UT

350

6. PLANT 4 COMPLEX SHOWING BISHOP CREEK, AND COTTAGES 121, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. PLANT 4 COMPLEX SHOWING BISHOP CREEK, AND COTTAGES 121, 102, AND GARAGE 131 AT PHOTO-CENTER. VIEW TO NORTH FROM COUNTY ROAD BRIDGE. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

351

2. 1994 AERIAL PERSPECTIVE OF BISHOP CREEK WITH OWENS VALLEY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. 1994 AERIAL PERSPECTIVE OF BISHOP CREEK WITH OWENS VALLEY AND WHITE MOUNTAINS IN BACKGROUND, SOUTH LAKE IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

352

77 FR 10960 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Snake Creek, Islamorada, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2012-0047] Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Snake Creek, Islamorada, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard...from the regulation governing the operation of Snake Creek Bridge, mile 0.5, across Snake Creek, in Islamorada, Florida. The...

2012-02-24

353

Variability in base streamflow and water quality of streams and springs in Otter and Rosebud Creek basins, southeastern Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The results of three base-flow studies conducted on Otter and Rosebud Creeks during 1977, 1978, and 1983 are summarized and compared to assess the variability of base-flow magnitude and water quality during years of widely different precipitation. Chemical analyses for springs in these basins also are presented to provide and indication of the areal and temporal variability of groundwater quality. Base-flow magnitudes in Otter and Rosebud Creeks vary considerably in response to precipitation of the previous year. Maximum observed differences in base-flow magnitudes between the study years were 3.8 cu ft/sec in Otter Creek and 53 cu ft/sec in Rosebud Creek. Predominant ions of base streamflow are sodium, magnesium, and sulfate in Otter Creek and magnesium, calcium, sodium, sulfate, and bicarbonate in Rosebud Creek. Dissolved solids concentrations varied considerably, with maximum differences between study years of about 1,200 mg/L in Otter Creek and about 3,200 mg/L in Rosebud Creek. The ionic composition of springs in the Otter and Rosebud Creek basins is generally similar to that of the streams. Dissolved solids concentrations of the springs vary largely throughout each basin; however, there was little variability between sampling years at individual springs. (USGS)

Lambing, J.H.; Ferreira, R.F.

1986-01-01

354

Endocrine disrupting effects on creek chubs (Semotilus atromaculatus) exposed to agricultural contaminants in the Cedar Creek watershed, northeast Indiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current research that has been performed suggests that agricultural contaminants are potential endocrine disrupters. However, there has been a lack of field studies performed that assesses the endocrine disrupting impacts of synergistic mixes of agrichemicals on wild fishes. Creek chubs (Semotilus atromaculatus ) were collected from four agricultural drainage ditch sites on two occasions (May and June) of 2008. Based

Daragh J Deegan

2010-01-01

355

Evolution of dissolved organic matter during abiotic oxidation of coal tar-comparison with contaminated soils under natural attenuation.  

PubMed

In former coal transformation plants (coking and gas ones), the major organic contamination of soils is coal tar, mainly composed of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Air oxidation of a fresh coal tar was chosen to simulate the abiotic natural attenuation impact on PAC-contaminated soils. Water-leaching experiments were subsequently performed on fresh and oxidized coal tars to study the influence of oxidation on dissolved organic matter (DOM) quality and quantity. The characterization of the DOM was performed using a combination of molecular and spectroscopic techniques (high-performance liquid chromatography-size-exclusion chromatography (HPLC-SEC), 3D fluorescence, and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS)) and compared with the DOM from contaminated soils sampled on the field exposed to natural attenuation for several decades. An increase in the oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compound concentrations was observed with abiotic oxidation both in the coal tar and the associated DOM. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the leachates exceeded pure water solubility limits, suggesting that co-solvation with other soluble organic compounds occurred. Furthermore, emission excitation matrix analysis combined with synchronous fluorescence spectra interpretation and size-exclusion chromatography suggests that oxidation induced condensation reactions which were responsible for the formation of higher-molecular weight compounds and potentially mobilized by water. Thus, the current composition of the DOM in aged soils may at least partly result from (1) a depletion in lower-molecular weight compounds of the initial contamination stock and (2) an oxidative condensation leading to the formation of a higher-molecular weight fraction. Abiotic oxidation and water leaching may therefore be a significant combination contributing to the evolution of coal tar-contaminated soils under natural attenuation. PMID:25146121

Hanser, Ogier; Biache, Coralie; Boulangé, Marine; Parant, Stéphane; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Billet, David; Michels, Raymond; Faure, Pierre

2015-01-01

356

New perspective for the development of Bemolanga Tar Sand Project  

SciTech Connect

As known, Madagascar has available tar sand deposit which is estimated at 3 billions tons. During the past ten years, OMNIS, a stage agency for hydrocarbons exploration, performed studies (prefeasibility and feasibility) the aim of which was to produce a 15,000 BPD of synthetic crude to satisfy domestic petroleum needs this potential resource. In the framework of this project, some bitumen extraction processes were tested at the scales of laboratory and/or pilot-unit (CLARK HOT WATER process, TOSCO process, L.R. process, RTR process, and AOSTRA/Taciuk process). In addition, mining and upgrading engineering evaluations were carried out. The results of these investigations display that an ore open-pit mining exploitation, bitumen extraction and upgrading are technically feasible. Nevertheless, some problems arise for the economy of the whole project which is capital intensive and marginal. In the actual petroleum industry environment, where crude prices continue to drop and no perspective price increase is anticipated in the near future, it is difficult or even impossible to promote the project and attract petroleum companies. This unfavourable situation leads to review and consideration of alternatives for the development of this huge resource which could assist the Malagasy Republic with its economy. After the presentation of the main results issued from Bemolanga syncrude production project, this paper deals with such alternative and attempts to elaborate an outline for a new concept of the development of Bemolanga resource. This preliminary outline, considered in the actual Malagasy economic framework where private national and/or international investment is encouraged, tries to overcome the requirement of a high initial investment cost for an industrial scale plant by an approach via a demonstration unit which produces a road bitumen and could further finance the extension to an industrial syncrude production plant.

Rakoto-Andriantsilavo, M.D.; Lalaharisaina, J.V.; Spariharijaona, A. [Office des Mines Nationales et des Industries Strategiques, Antanarivo (Madagascar)

1995-12-31

357

Thompson Creek, Poway, California THOMPSON CREEK GROUNDWATER SUSTAINABILITY STUDY  

E-print Network

depletion amounts to as much as 280 feet in certain areas. This amount is large compared with four classic textbook examples of groundwater depletion, which range from 150 to 300 feet. Over the past 12 years, has been widely discredited. The obsolescence of the concept of "safe yield" has cast serious doubts

Ponce, V. Miguel

358

Brooker Creek Watershed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study about the environmental challenges facing a watershed in Florida can serve as a model for a watershed module. The study covers all aspects of the watershed, including its geography and hydrology, land use and population, plants and animals, as well as challenges to the quality of the watershed now appearing due to development and use of water from the watershed's streams and aquifers. Materials for students include a watershed quiz, a students' corner with puzzles, games, and links to online resources about watersheds, and tips on how to preserve watershed environments.

359

Lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and house dust in the communities surrounding the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds.  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the residential communities adjacent to the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds, the area considered Canada's worst contaminated site. The tar pond remediation policy has been limited to the site and some residential properties. We compared background concentrations in 91 soil samples taken 5-20 km from the coke oven site with those in soil samples from the three communities surrounding the tar ponds: Whitney Pier, Ashby, and North End. These surrounding communities were statistically different from background regarding arsenic, lead, and PAHs. Twenty percent of the background soil samples and 95% of the tar pond soil samples were above the Canadian health-risk-based soil guidelines for arsenic (12 ppm), and 5% of the background samples and 80% of the tar pond soil samples were above the Canadian guidelines for lead (140 ppm). Regarding dust lead and arsenic loading, the results provide no evidence that Whitney Pier is significantly different than Ashby and North End. Children in these communities are predicted to have a 1-15% chance of blood lead > 10 microg/dL. The results suggest that lead and arsenic found in the homes originate outside. The lead content of paint in the homes was not evaluated, but consideration of painted wood at the doorway did not confound the results of the study. The results indicate that the residential environment has been adversely affected by PAHs, lead, and arsenic and should be considered for remediation. PMID:14698928

Lambert, Timothy W; Lane, Stephanie

2004-01-01

360

The temporal relationship between advertising and sales of low?tar cigarettes  

PubMed Central

Objective and hypothesis To determine whether a temporal relationship exists between the advertising and sales of low?tar cigarettes. It was hypothesised that increases in the advertising of low?tar cigarettes would precede increases in sales for these cigarettes. Methods The themes of cigarette advertisements were reviewed and coded for 20 low?tar cigarette brands advertised in 13 widely read magazines in the US between 1960 and 1996. These 20 brands represented most of the low?tar cigarette advertisements and cigarette sales from 1967 to 1996. Cigarette sales data were obtained from the 1994 Maxwell report that summarises all cigarette sales from 1925 to 1990. If the advertisement referred to the low?tar attributes of the cigarette advertised, the advertisement was coded as having a low?tar theme and was included in the analysis. Results Five different graphical presentations of the relationship between the advertising and sales of the 20 low?tar cigarette brands showed a temporal relationship between low?tar advertising and sales for these brands. This relationship was observed for brands that introduced a low?tar alternative into an existing brand family (eg, Marlboro Light) and for new exclusively low?tar brands (eg, Carlton). Despite large increases in the advertising for the exclusively low?tar brands, sales of these brands remained low relative to sales of the low?tar alternative brands. Conclusions Increases in print advertising of 20 of the most popular low?tar cigarette brands were followed by increases in sales for these cigarettes. Despite increases in the advertising of exclusively low?tar brands in the mid?1970s and early 1980s, the sales of these brands never matched the sales of the low?tar alternative brands. This suggests that it may have been easier to get smokers to switch to low?tar brands within a brand family compared with entirely new low?tar brands. Over the past 30?years, the marketing of low?tar cigarettes as a healthier alternative to higher?tar cigarettes has resulted in these brands dominating the market, and may have kept concerned smokers from quitting. PMID:17130371

Reed, Mark B; Anderson, Christy M; Burns, David M

2006-01-01

361

SHEEP CREEK SEEP CHARACTERIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The materials presented represent an assessment of site conditions related to the LaCrone property seep, located in the NW 1/4 of Section 34, Township 7E, Range 2N, near Harden City, OK. The primary objective of the study was to identify possible source(s) for the saline water, ...

362

Aquatic biology of the Redwood Creek and Mill Creek drainage basins, Redwood National Park, Humboldt and Del Norte counties, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 2-year study of the aquatic biota in the Redwood Creek and Mill Creek drainage basins of Redwood National Park indicated that the aquatic productivity is low. Densities of coliform bacteria were low except in Prairie Creek, a tributary to Redwood Creek, where a State park, county fish hatchery, grazing land, lumber mill, and scattered residential areas are potential sources of fecal coliform bacteria. Benthic invertebrate data indicated a diverse fauna which varied considerably between streams and among stream sections. Noteworthy findings include: (1) benthic invertebrates rapidly recolonized the streambed following a major storm, and (2) man-caused disruption or sedimentation of the streambed during low flow can result in drastic reductions of the benthic invertebrate community. Seven species of fish representing species typically found in northern California coastal streams were captured during the study. Nonparametric statistical tests indicate that condition factors of steelhead trout were significantly larger at sampling stations with more insolation, regardless of drainage basin land-use history. Periphyton and phytoplankton communities were diverse, variable in numbers, and dominated by diatoms. Seston concentrations were extremely variable between stations and at each station sampled. The seston is influenced seasonally by aquatic productivity at each station and amount of allochthonous material from the terrestrial ecosystem. Time-series analysis of some seston data indicated larger and sharper peak concentrations being flushed from the logged drainage basin than from the control drainage basin. (USGS)

Iwatsubo, Rick T.; Averett, R.C.

1981-01-01

363

An ash flow caldera in cross section: Ongoing field and geochemical studies of the Mid-Tertiary Turkey Creek Caldera, Chiricahua Mountains, SE Arizona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic and shallow plutonic (hypabyssal) levels of the Turkey Creek caldera, located in southeast Arizona, are exposed as a consequence of uplift and erosion. The 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and paleomagnetic data indicate that the caldera cycle was relatively short lived and occurred at about 26.9 Ma, coincident with early phases of ductile extension in the southern Basin and Range. The caldera is a transitional calc-alkali to alkalic magmatic system and is similar to other relatively small volcanic-plutonic centers that formed after the main pulse of compressional calc-alkalic magmatism in the Cordillera. Trace element ratios and elemental distribution patterns for Turkey Creek rocks are consistent with origin in a transitional subduction to within-plate extensional setting. Field relations also suggest synextensional magmatism; regional northwest trending high-angle faults offset early caldera rocks but are buried by late moat rhyolite. Caldera collapse accompanied eruption of more than 500 km3 of high-silica rhyolite tuff (the Rhyolite Canyon Tuff). Eruption of the tuff was followed immediately by emplacement of a dacite porphyry intrusion, probably a thick laccolith, into the caldera fill and by extrusion of the dacite porphyry from ring-fracture-hosted feeders. Intracaldera tuff at the roof of the intrusion was metamorphosed and brecciated to produce low-pressure shock-metamorphic effects and was locally melted. Interpretation of the intrusion as an intracaldera laccolith readily explains a lack of floor rocks within the caldera and the absence of intracaldera equivalents of most of the outflow tuff. Intrusion of intracaldera laccoliths may represent a relatively common, though rarely recognized process within calderas. Stratigraphic relations, rare mingled rocks, and overlapping 40Ar/39Ar ages indicate that both high-silica rhyolite magma (Rhyolite Canyon Tuff) and dacite porphyry magma were present in the source reservoir (rhyolite above dacite) and were separated by a sharp interface. Dacite porphyry magma from beneath the interface was drawn up into and erupted from vents that previously fed ash flow eruptions; some dacite porphyry was trapped in and beneath the vents and solidified to form a ring dike at depth. Following an erosional hiatus of ?0.3 m.y., rhyolite was again erupted, filling the caldera moat with ˜135 km3 of mainly aphyric high-silica rhyolite. Gradational contacts with underlying densely welded tuff, relatively large volumes, planiform aspect ratios, and superliquidus temperatures suggest that some of the laminated rhyolites are rheomorphic tuff. Eruption of moat rhyolites records generation of a voluminous new batch of mainly high-silica rhyolite with a distinct geochemical signature.

Du Bray, Edward A.; Pallister, John S.

1991-07-01

364

Flood hydrology for Dry Creek, Lake County, Northwestern Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dry Creek drains about 22.6 square kilometers of rugged mountainous terrain upstream from Tabor Dam in the Mission Range near St. Ignatius, Montana. Because of uncertainty about plausible peak discharges and concerns regarding the ability of the Tabor Dam spillway to safely convey these discharges, the flood hydrology for Dry Creek was evaluated on the basis of three hydrologic and geologic methods. The first method involved determining an envelope line relating flood discharge to drainage area on the basis of regional historical data and calculating a 500-year flood for Dry Creek using a regression equation. The second method involved paleoflood methods to estimate the maximum plausible discharge for 35 sites in the study area. The third method involved rainfall-runoff modeling for the Dry Creek basin in conjunction with regional precipitation information to determine plausible peak discharges. All of these methods resulted in estimates of plausible peak discharges that are substantially less than those predicted by the more generally applied probable maximum flood technique. Copyright ASCE 2004.

Parrett, C.; Jarrett, R.D.

2004-01-01

365

The Lyons Creek boat remains  

E-print Network

, Maryland Historical Trust, as well as Henry M. Miller and the staff of Historic St. Mary's City. I would like to thank the members of my thesis committee, Dr. D. L. Hamilton and Mr. J. Richard Steffy of the Nautical Archaeology Program, and Dr. J. Canup... to be settled by Puritans from Anne Arundel County; however, major patents and surveys were not begun until the 1670s. In 1664, Peter Archer patented one of the earliest tracts on the creek, called "Archer' s Hays. " Henry Cox, probably a descendant of James...

Neyland, Robert Stephen

2012-06-07

366

SANDY CREEK ROADLESS AREA, MISSISSIPPI.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Sandy Creek Roadless Area includes about 3. 7 sq mi in the southeastern part of Adams County, Mississippi. On the basis of a mineral survey, the area offers little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources but has a probable resource potential for oil and natural gas. It is possible that wells drilled deep enough to penetrate the older reservoirs will encounter significant quantities of oil and natural gas in the roadless area. The deposits of gravel, sand, and clay present in the area could be utilized in the construction industry, but similar deposits elsewhere are much closer to available markets.

Haley, Boyd R.; Bitar, Richard F.

1984-01-01

367

33 CFR 117.197 - Sonoma Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sonoma Creek. 117.197 Section 117.197 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.197 Sonoma Creek. The draw of the Northwestern Pacific railroad...

2012-07-01

368

33 CFR 117.197 - Sonoma Creek.  

...Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sonoma Creek. 117.197 Section 117.197 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.197 Sonoma Creek. The draw of the Northwestern Pacific railroad...

2014-07-01

369

33 CFR 117.197 - Sonoma Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sonoma Creek. 117.197 Section 117.197 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.197 Sonoma Creek. The draw of the Northwestern Pacific railroad...

2010-07-01

370

33 CFR 117.197 - Sonoma Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sonoma Creek. 117.197 Section 117.197 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.197 Sonoma Creek. The draw of the Northwestern Pacific railroad...

2011-07-01

371

33 CFR 117.197 - Sonoma Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sonoma Creek. 117.197 Section 117.197 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.197 Sonoma Creek. The draw of the Northwestern Pacific railroad...

2013-07-01

372

Big Canyon Creek Ecological Restoration Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

He-yey, Nez Perce for steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), are a culturally and ecologically significant resource within the Big Canyon Creek watershed; they are also part of the federally listed Snake River Basin Steelhead DPS. The majority of the Big Canyon Creek drainage is considered critical habitat for that DPS as well as for the federally listed Snake River

Lynn Rasmussen; Shannon Richardson

2007-01-01

373

Pine Creek Ranch; Annual Report 2002.  

SciTech Connect

This report gives information about the following four objectives: OBJECTIVE 1--Gather scientific baseline information for monitoring purposes and to assist in the development of management plans for Pine Creek Ranch; OBJECTIVE 2--Complete and implement management plans; OBJECTIVE 3--Protect, manage and enhance the assets and resources of Pine Creek Ranch; and OBJECTIVE 4--Deliverables.

Berry, Mark E.

2003-02-01

374

33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draws of the Baltimore County...

2011-07-01

375

33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draw of the Peninsula Parkway...

2012-07-01

376

33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draw of the Peninsula Parkway...

2013-07-01

377

33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.  

...Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draw of the Peninsula Parkway...

2014-07-01

378

33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draws of the Baltimore County...

2010-07-01

379

Plum Creek Watershed Partnership Progress Reporting  

E-print Network

. Feral Hog IP WQMP IP Kyle TCEQ Grant Lockhart TCEQ Grant GBRA IP Coordination Timeline of Dates Feb- 08Plum Creek Watershed Partnership Progress Reporting Nikki Dictson Texas AgriLife Extension Service Texas Watershed Coordinator Roundtable in Waco January 25, 2012 #12;Plum Creek History Ã? Partnership

380

33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile 0.8,...

2012-07-01

381

33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.  

...Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile 0.8,...

2014-07-01

382

33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile 0.8,...

2010-07-01

383

33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile 0.8,...

2011-07-01

384

33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile 0.8,...

2013-07-01

385

Quality of water and time of travel in Goodwater and Okatoma creeks near Magee, Mississippi  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An intensive quality-of-water study was conducted during a period of generally low streamflow in Goodwater and Okatoma Creeks near Magee, Miss. During the August 12-14, 1980, study, the mean specific conductance of the water at all sites was less than 59 micromhos per centimeter; the dissolved-oxygen concentrations were greater than 5.0 milligrams per liter: pH values ranged from 6.0 to 6.8, and the mean water temperature ranged from 23.0 to 27.0 Celsius. The biochemical oxygen demand and nutrient concentrations at the downstream sampling sites were higher in Goodwater Creek than in Okatoma Creek. The maximum 5-day biochemical oxygen demand was 2.7 milligrams per liter in Goodwater Creek and 1.5 milligrams per liter in Okatoma Creek. The mean concentration of total nitrogen was 1.0 and 0.71 milligrams per liter and the mean total phosphorus concentration was 0.26 and 0.10 milligrams per liter at the downstream sites on Goodwater and Okatoma Creeks, respectively. Fecal coliform densities generally were high at all sites, exceeding 4,000 colonies per 100 milliliters in both Goodwater and Okatoma Creeks. Objectionable concentrations of total cadmium, mercury, iron, and phenol were present in a sample of water. Dieldrin, chlordane, DDD, DDE, and DDT were present in a sample of bottom material collected at the downstream site of Okatoma Creek. The peak concentration of dye injected into Goodwater Creek traveled through a 1.7-mile reach at a rate of 0.3 mile per hour. (USGS)

Kalkhoff, S.J.

1981-01-01

386

Lack of effect of menthol level and type on smokers' estimated mouth level exposures to tar and nicotine and perceived sensory characteristics of cigarette smoke.  

PubMed

Menthol can reduce sensory irritation and it has been hypothesised that this could result in smokers of mentholated cigarettes taking larger puffs and deeper post-puff inhalations thereby obtaining higher exposures to smoke constituents than smokers of non-mentholated cigarettes. The aim of our study was to use part-filter analysis methodology to assess the effects of cigarette menthol loading on regular and occasional smokers of mentholated cigarettes. We measured mouth level exposure to tar and nicotine and investigated the effects of mentholation on smokers' sensory perceptions such as cooling and irritation. Test cigarettes were produced containing no menthol and different loadings of synthetic and natural l-menthol at 1 and 4mg ISO tar yields. A target of 100 smokers of menthol cigarettes and 100 smokers who predominantly smoked non-menthol cigarettes from both 1 and 4mg ISO tar yield categories were recruited in Poland and Japan. Each subject was required to smoke the test cigarette types of their usual ISO tar yield. There were positive relationships between menthol loading and the perceived 'strength of menthol taste' and 'cooling' effect. However, we did not see marked menthol-induced reductions in perceived irritation or menthol-induced increases in mouth level exposure to tar and nicotine. PMID:22634246

Ashley, Madeleine; Dixon, Mike; Sisodiya, Ajit; Prasad, Krishna

2012-08-01

387

Simultaneous upgrading of tar sand bitumen and coal by corefining  

SciTech Connect

A continuous process is described for simultaneously corefining a mixture of comminuted coal and tar sand bitumen to form a liquid refinery feed stock, having improved hydrocarbon content and viscosity and reduced organo-metallic and metal components, which process comprises: (a) combining bitumen substantially separated from tar sands with comminuted raw coal at a coal to liquid weight ratio of from about 1:2 to about 1 to 50 to form a slurry mixture; (b) subjecting the slurry mixture resulting from step (a) to hydrocracking conditions in the absence of added catalyst to produce off-gases and a mixture of co-refined bitumen and coal liquid and coal ash residues; and (c) recovering the corefined improve coal-bitumen liquid as a refinery feedstock.

Hsich, C.R.; Donaldson, W.I.

1988-08-16

388

Process and apparatus for recovery of oil from tar sands  

SciTech Connect

A crude oil product is extracted from a tar sand by first crushing the tar sand as mined and then fine grinding the crushed material in a grinding mill in the presence of a cleansing liquid, such as an aqueous solution of a caustic. The resulting slurry is passed into suitable extractor-classifier equipment, such as that shown in U.S. Pat. No. 3,814,336, in which a body of cleansing liquid is maintained. Agitation of the slurry in such maintained body of cleansing liquid substantially completes removal of the bituminous matter from the sand, and the resulting crude oil and cleansing liquid phase is discharged separately from the sand solid phase. The liquid phase is treated for the removal of residual sand particles and for the separation of residual cleansing liquid from the crude oil. The cleansing liquid so recovered is recycled and the crude oil is passed to further processing or for use as such.

Brewer, J.C.

1982-11-30

389

DOE small business program solicits EOR and tar sands projects  

SciTech Connect

Small Business Innovation Research, SBIR, program awards are made in three phases: 1. approximately 100 fixed-price awards in amounts up to $50,000 for a period of 6 1/2 months; 2. promising results from Phase 1 will result in cost-reimbursable awards during FY1988 in amounts up to $500,000 for a 2-year period; 3. non-Federal capital will be used for commercial application of the research. Methods for enhanced oil recovery and recovery of bitumens from tar sands are being sought only in the following areas: new processes for fluid diversion; innovative tracking of flood fronts in recovery processes; and improved recovery efficiency in heavy oil and tar sand reservoirs. Four award winners for FY1986 are listed and the methods briefly described.

Not Available

1986-12-01

390

Sedimentation of sulfuric acid in acid tars from current production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid tars obtained in treating T-750, KhF-12, and I-8A oils were investigated for purposes of recovering sulfuric acid and asphalt binders from the compositions and of determining the effects of storage time on the recovery. The consumption and sedimentation levels of sulfuric acid during storage for different periods and at different temperatures were assessed. The characteristics of an asphalt binder

T. L. Denisova; A. F. Frolov; A. N. Aminov; S. P. Novosel'tsev

1987-01-01

391

Grandparents Oppose Tar Sands Alberta tar sands are estimated to be 240 GtC (gigatons of carbon); see Intergovernmental Panel  

E-print Network

that only about 40 GtC of the tar sands are presently economically extractable. However, if an addiction to tar sands is established, as it would be with big pipelines, you can be confident that the addiction the potential of people dedicated to a righteous cause to initiate a broader public recognition

Hansen, James E.

392

Effect of nutrient loading on biogeochemical processes in tropical tidal creeks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of increased nutrient loads on biogeochemical processes in macrotidal, mangrove-lined creeks was studied in tropical\\u000a Darwin Harbour, Australia. This study uses an integrative approach involving multiple benthic and pelagic processes as measures\\u000a of ecosystem function, and provides a comparison of these processes in three tidal creeks receiving different loads of treated\\u000a sewage effluent. There were significant differences in

Jodie SmithMichele; Michele A. Burford; Andrew T. Revill; Ralf R. Haese; Julia Fortune

393

Biomass waste gasification - Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of one stage (co-current) and two stage gasification of wood pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Original arrangement with grate-less reactor and upward moving bed of the pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two stage gasification leads to drastic reduction of tar content in gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One stage gasification produces gas with higher LHV at lower overall ER. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Content of ammonia in gas is lower in two stage moving bed gasification. - Abstract: A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW{sub th}. The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950 Degree-Sign C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER = 0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV = 3.15 MJ/Nm{sup 3}), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950 Degree-Sign C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the second stage presented only few mass% of the inlet biomass stream.

Sulc, Jindrich; Stojdl, Jiri; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Svoboda, Karel, E-mail: svoboda@icpf.cas.cz [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR, v.v.i., Rozvojova 135, 165 02 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Smetana, Jiri; Vacek, Jiri [D.S.K. Ltd., Ujezdecek - Dukla 264, 415 01 Teplice I (Czech Republic); Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr [Dept. of Gas, Coke and Air protection, Institute of Chemical Technol., Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

2012-04-15

394

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF WESTERN COAL SURFACE MINING. PART VIII. FISH DISTRIBUTION IN TROUT CREEK, COLORADO, 1975-1976  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted on Trout Creek in northwestern Colorado during 1975-1976 to assess the effects of drainage from an adjacent surface coal mine on the distribution of fishes in the creek, and to relate their distribution to physical and chemical variables. A second objective ...

395

Columbia River Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report \\/ Scotch Creek Wildlife Area, Berg Brothers, and Douglas County Pygmy Rabbit Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Habitat Evaluation Procedure study was conducted to determine baseline habitat units (HUs) on the Scotch Creek, Mineral Hill, Pogue Mountain, Chesaw and Tunk Valley Habitat Areas (collectively known as the Scotch Creek Wildlife Area) in Okanogan County, Sagebrush Flat and the Dormaler property in Douglas County, and the Berg Brothers ranch located in Okanogan County within the Colville Reservation.

Ashley; Paul R

1997-01-01

396

Hydrothermal Tar Mounds in Escanaba Trough, Southern Gorda Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mounds of asphaltic petroleum were located and sampled by the submersible ROV Tiburon at two sites on the 3300-m-deep, sediment-covered floor of Escanaba Trough, southern Gorda Ridge. The northern site (41.01°N) consists of several individual mounds up to 1 m across and 25 cm high that occur within 100 m of active hydrothermal vents and polymetallic sulfide deposits. These mounds are not covered by sediment and serve as solid substrates for anemones and sponges. Fragments of a partly-buried tar mound at the southern site (40.69°N) were recovered near a field of inactive sulfide deposits. The mounds have a lobate morphology in which younger lobes with lustrous surfaces drape over older lobes encrusted by mud and faunal debris. In cross section, individual lobes have dense rinds, softer inner walls, and hollow cores. Coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of tar samples show the presence of a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The aliphatic fractions have homologous n-alkane distributions from n-C12 to n-C36 with Cmax = n-C28, and a distinctive even-over-odd C-number predominance. Epimer ratios for hopanes and steranes indicate hydrocarbons that are relatively immature. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are dominated by high-molecular-weight parent molecules such as pyrene and phenanthrene; alkylated derivatives are minor constituents. The aromatic fractions also contain a large unresolved complex mixture (UCM). The presence of high-molecular-weight PAH (e.g., benzo-pyrene, indeno-pyrene) reflects formation at high temperatures compared to conventional petroleum. Microwave digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analyses of the soluble organic fraction from three tar samples reveal the following concentrations: 0.1 to 0.2 wt% S, 1 to 10 ppm Mg, Al, P, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, and Ba, 1 to 100 ppb Pd and Pt, and 1 to 10 ppb Au. The insoluble residues separated from these samples, analyzed by scanning-electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, contain particles of talc, barite, Fe sulfide, and Fe oxide. Physical characteristics of the Escanaba Trough tar mounds indicate that viscous petroleum flowed onto the sea floor and condensed into solid deposits that accreted by eruption of flow lobes through breakout points on mound surfaces. The occurrence and composition of the tar mounds further indicate a hydrothermal origin for the petroleum, contemporaneous formation with sulfide deposits, and generation by rapid pyrolysis of organic matter in the sediment.

Koski, R. A.; Clague, D. A.; Rosenbauer, R. A.; Hostettler, F. D.; Kvenvolden, K. A.; Lamothe, P. J.

2002-12-01

397

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF NORTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF NORTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX SHOWING BUILDING 108 AT PHOTO RIGHT AND BUILDING 105 AT PHOTO CENTER BEHIND TREE. RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE IS PARTIALLY VISIBLE AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT). VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

398

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF SOUTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF SOUTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX SHOWING THE RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE AT PHOTO RIGHT (TAILRACE IN FOREGROUND), BUILDING 106 NEXT TO THE POWERHOUSE AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER, AND BUILDING 103 AT UPPER PHOTO LEFT ABOVE AND BEHIND BUILDING 106. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

399

81. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING NEW CREEK CHANNEL UNDER CONSTRUCTION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

81. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING NEW CREEK CHANNEL UNDER CONSTRUCTION AT P STREET BEND, FROM 1940 REPORT ON PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT OF ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY, SECTION II (ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY FILE, HISTORY DEPARTMENT ARCHIVES, NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, WASHINGTON, DC). - Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

400

78 FR 64003 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Jump Creek, Succor...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Creek, Succor Creek, and Cow Creek Watersheds Grazing Permit Renewal, Owyhee County...Jump Creek, Succor Creek and Cow Creek Watersheds grazing permit renewal, and by this...Jump Creek, Succor Creek and Cow Creek Watersheds Grazing Permit Renewal Final EIS...

2013-10-25

401

Assessment of Research Needs for Oil Recovery from Heavy-Oil Sources and Tar Sands (FERWG-IIIA)  

SciTech Connect

The Fossil Energy Research Working Group (FERWG), at the request of J.W. Mares (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and A.W. Trivelpiece (Director, Office of Energy Research), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on oil recovery from heavy oil sources and tar sands. These studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of research areas that affect the prospects for oil recovery from these sources. This report summarizes the findings and research recommendations of FERWG.

Penner, S.S.

1982-03-01

402

Early specific free radical-related cytotoxicity of gas phase cigarette smoke and its paradoxical temporary inhibition by tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping studies demonstrated aqueous tar particulate matter (TPM) and gas phase cigarette smoke (GPCS) to behave as different sources of free radicals in cigarette smoke (CS) but their cytotoxic implications have been only assessed in CS due to its relevance to the natural smoking process. Using a sensitive spin trapping detection with 5-(diethoxyphosphoryl)-5-methyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DEPMPO), this

Marcel Culcasi; Agnès Muller; Anne Mercier; Jean-Louis Clément; Olivier Payet; Antal Rockenbauer; Véronique Marchand; Sylvia Pietri

2006-01-01

403

Assessment of Research Needs for Oil Recovery from Heavy-Oil Sources and Tar Sands (FERWG-IIIA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fossil Energy Research Working Group (FERWG), at the request of J.W. Mares (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and A.W. Trivelpiece (Director, Office of Energy Research), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on oil recovery from heavy oil sources and tar sands. These studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of research areas that affect the

Penner

1982-01-01

404

Metal catalysts for steam reforming of tar derived from the gasification of lignocellulosic biomass.  

PubMed

Biomass gasification is one of the most important technologies for the conversion of biomass to electricity, fuels, and chemicals. The main obstacle preventing the commercial application of this technology is the presence of tar in the product gas. Catalytic reforming of tar appears a promising approach to remove tar and supported metal catalysts are among the most effective catalysts. Nevertheless, improvement of catalytic performances including activity, stability, resistance to coke deposition and aggregation of metal particles, as well as catalyst regenerability is greatly needed. This review focuses on the design and catalysis of supported metal catalysts for the removal of tar in the gasification of biomass. The recent development of metal catalysts including Rh, Ni, Co, and their alloys for steam reforming of biomass tar and tar model compounds is introduced. The role of metal species, support materials, promoters, and their interfaces is described. PMID:25455089

Li, Dalin; Tamura, Masazumi; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi

2015-02-01

405

Hydrologic Conditions and Quality of Rainfall and Storm Runoff for Two Agricultural Areas of the Oso Creek Watershed, Nueces County, Texas, 2005-07  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, and Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Corpus Christi, studied hydrologic conditions and quality of rainfall and storm runoff of two (primarily) agricultural areas (subwatersheds) of the Oso Creek watershed in Nueces County, Texas. One area, the upper West Oso Creek subwatershed, is 5,145 acres. The other area, a subwatershed drained by an unnamed Oso Creek tributary (hereinafter, Oso Creek tributary), is 5,287 acres. Rainfall and runoff (streamflow) were continuously monitored at the outlets of the two subwatersheds during October 2005-September 2007. Fourteen rainfall samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients and major inorganic ions. Nineteen composite runoff samples (10 West Oso Creek, nine Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed for nutrients, major inorganic ions, and pesticides. Twenty-two discrete suspended-sediment samples (10 West Oso Creek, 12 Oso Creek tributary) and 13 bacteria samples (eight West Oso Creek, five Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed. These data were used to estimate, for selected constituents, rainfall deposition to and runoff loads and yields from the study subwatersheds. Quantities of fertilizers and pesticides applied in the subwatersheds were compared with quantities of nutrients and pesticides in rainfall and runoff. For the study period, total rainfall was greater than average. Most of the runoff at both subwatershed outlet sites occurred in response to a few specific storm periods. The West Oso Creek subwatershed produced more runoff during the study period than the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed, 10.83 inches compared with 7.28 inches. Runoff response was quicker and peak flows were higher in the West Oso Creek subwatershed than in the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed. Total nitrogen runoff yield for the 2-year study period averaged 2.61 pounds per acre per year from the West Oso Creek subwatershed and 0.966 pound per acre per year from the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed. Total phosphorus yields from the West Oso Creek and the Oso Creek tributary subwatersheds for the 2-year period were 0.776 and 0.498 pound per acre per year. Runoff yields of nitrogen and phosphorus were relatively small compared to inputs of nitrogen in fertilizer and rainfall deposition. Average annual runoff yield of total nitrogen (subwatersheds combined) represents about 2.4 percent of nitrogen applied as fertilizer and nitrogen entering the subwatersheds through rainfall deposition. Average annual runoff yield of total phosphorus (subwatersheds combined) represents about 4.4 percent of the phosphorus in applied fertilizer and rainfall deposition. Suspended-sediment yields from the West Oso Creek subwatershed were more than twice those from the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed. The average suspended-sediment yield from the West Oso Creek subwatershed was 582 pounds per acre per year. The average suspended-sediment yield from the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed was 257 pounds per acre per year. Twenty-two herbicides and eight insecticides were detected in runoff samples collected from the two subwatershed outlet sites. At the West Oso Creek site, 18 herbicides and four insecticides were detected, and at the Oso Creek tributary site, 17 herbicides and six insecticides. Seventeen pesticides were detected in only one sample at low concentrations (near the laboratory reporting level). Atrazine, atrazine degradation byproducts 2-chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine (CIAT) and 2-hydroxy-4-isopropylamino-6-ethylamino-s-triazine (OIET), glyphosate, and glyphosate byproduct aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) were detected in all samples. Of all pesticides detected in runoff, the highest runoff yields were for glyphosate, 0.013 pound per acre per year for the West Oso Creek subwatershed and 0.001 pound per acre per year for the Oso Creek t

Ockerman, Darwin J.

2008-01-01

406

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

Speight, J.G.

1992-01-01

407

Geology of the Middle Beaver Creek area, Mason and Gillespie Counties, Texas  

E-print Network

AREA, NASGR AEG GILhNPIR COGRTIES, TEIAB ABSTRACT The Middle Beaver Creek area is situated on the soutlwsst flank of the Llano ?plift region in Mason and Gillespie Counties, Texas Hooks of Presa?brian, Psleosoie, Mesosois, and Genosois age... ' Figure 1. ? Map of' part of Mason and Gillespie Counties, Texass showing location of' the Middle Beaver Creek Area, on aoetats oosered aerial photographs. In order to aoourateIp locate and plot the oontaots asd faults, the photographs vere studies...

Peterson, Don Hamilton

1959-01-01

408

Reintroduction of Native FishReintroduction of Native Fish Species to Coal CreekSpecies to Coal Creek  

E-print Network

1 Reintroduction of Native FishReintroduction of Native Fish Species to Coal CreekSpecies to Coal Control and Reclamation ActSurface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977of 1977 Coal Creek Watershed Foundation (2000)Coal Creek Watershed Foundation (2000) BackgroundBackground Fish populations in Coal Creek

Gray, Matthew

409

78 FR 5798 - Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC, Grouse Creek Wind Park II, LLC; Notice of Petition for Enforcement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...El13-39-000, QF11-32-001, QF11-33-001] Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC, Grouse Creek Wind Park II, LLC; Notice of Petition for...Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA), Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC and Grouse Creek Wind...

2013-01-28

410

In-Bed Catalytic Tar Reduction in a Dual Fluidized Bed Biomass Steam Gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nickel-enriched catalytic bed material was tested for tar reduction in a 100 kWth dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasifier. Gas composition and tar content were measured after the reactor and compared with data from gasification tests without a catalytic bed material. H2, CO, CO2, and CH4 contents in the product gas, as well as tar conversion rates, are reported

Christoph Pfeifer; Reinhard Rauch; Hermann Hofbauer

2004-01-01

411

Parallels between playbacks and Pleistocene tar seeps suggest sociality in an extinct sabretooth cat, Smilodon.  

PubMed

Inferences concerning the lives of extinct animals are difficult to obtain from the fossil record. Here we present a novel approach to the study of extinct carnivores, using a comparison between fossil records (n=3324) found in Late Pleistocene tar seeps at Rancho La Brea in North America and counts (n=4491) from playback experiments used to estimate carnivore abundance in Africa. Playbacks and tar seep deposits represent competitive, potentially dangerous encounters where multiple predators are lured by dying herbivores. Consequently, in both records predatory mammals and birds far outnumber herbivores. In playbacks, two large social species, lions, Panthera leo, and spotted hyenas, Crocuta crocuta, actively moved towards the sounds of distressed prey and made up 84 per cent of individuals attending. Small social species (jackals) were next most common and solitary species of all sizes were rare. In the La Brea record, two species dominated, the presumably social dire wolf Canis dirus (51%), and the sabretooth cat Smilodon fatalis (33%). As in the playbacks, a smaller social canid, the coyote Canis latrans, was third most common (8%), and known solitary species were rare (<4%). The predominance of Smilodon and other striking similarities between playbacks and the fossil record support the conclusion that Smilodon was social. PMID:18957359

Carbone, Chris; Maddox, Tom; Funston, Paul J; Mills, Michael G L; Grether, Gregory F; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

2009-02-23

412

Steel Creek fish, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The lake has an average width of approximately 600 m and extends along the Steel Creek valley approximately 7000 m from the dam to the headwaters. Water level is maintained at a normal pool elevation of 58 m above mean sea level by overflow into a vertical intake tower that has multilevel discharge gates. The intake tower is connected to a horizontal conduit that passes through the dam and releases water into Steel Creek. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems.

Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

1992-04-01

413

BLACK CREEK CANAL VIRUS INFECTION INSIGMODON HISPIDUSIN SOUTHERN FLORIDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 1,500 small mammals were collected and tested for antibodies cross-reactive to Sin Nombre virus (Hantavirus: Bunyaviridae) at 89 sites in a 1,600 km2 study area of southern Florida. More than 95% of the 123 seropositive animals were cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), suggesting infection by Black Creek Canal Virus, although seroreactive Rattus rattus (5 of 294) and Peromyscus

GREGORY E. GLASS; WALTER LIVINGSTONE; JAMES N. MILLS; W. GARY HLADY; JOSHUA B. FINE; WILLIAM BIGGLER; TREVOR COKE; DWIGHT FRAZIER; STEPHANIE ATHERLEY; PIERRE E. ROLLIN; THOMAS G. KSIAZEK; C. J. PETERS; JAMES E. CHILDS

1998-01-01

414

Surface radiological investigations at two creek receiving runoff from White Wing Scrap Yard, Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

A surface radiological investigation was conducted intermittently from August 1992 July 1993 at two creeks receiving runoff from White Wing Scrap Yard. In this report, the two creeks (both unnamed tributaries of Bear Creek) are, referred to as the east creek and the west creek based on their respective locations relative to White Wing Scrap Yard. The radiological survey of accessible areas at the east creek revealed no detectable gamma exposure rates above typical background levels (8 to 12 {mu}R/h). The very slight elevations in gamma and beta-gamma levels found along the creek were generally associated with outcroppings of shale and typical of naturally occurring radionuclides present in such material. No radiological anomalies were associated with an oily sheen observed on the water at three locations, three 55-gal metal drums in or near the creek, a small pile of metal debris near the creek, or several enclosures used in a 1969 study of animal excretion rates. Radionuclide analysis of three soil samples collected at the east creek demonstrated typical of {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, gross alpha activity, gross beta activity, and {sup 40}K.

Uziel, M.S.; Tiner, P.F.; Williams, J.K.

1994-02-01

415

33 CFR 117.557 - Curtis Creek.  

... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.557 Curtis Creek. The draw of the I695 bridge...open on signal if at least a one-hour notice is given to the Maryland Transportation Authority in Baltimore. [CGD...

2014-07-01

416

33 CFR 117.557 - Curtis Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.557 Curtis Creek. The draw of the I695 bridge...open on signal if at least a one-hour notice is given to the Maryland Transportation Authority in Baltimore. [CGD...

2013-07-01

417

33 CFR 117.571 - Spa Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.571 Spa Creek. The S181 bridge, mile 4.0, at Annapolis, Maryland: (a) From May 1 to October 31, Monday through Friday, except...

2011-07-01

418

33 CFR 117.563 - Marshyhope Creek.  

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.563 Marshyhope Creek. The draw of the S14 bridge, mile 5.8 at Brookview, need not be opened for the...

2014-07-01

419

33 CFR 117.557 - Curtis Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.557 Curtis Creek. The draw of the I695 bridge...open on signal if at least a one-hour notice is given to the Maryland Transportation Authority in Baltimore. [CGD...

2012-07-01

420

33 CFR 117.555 - College Creek.  

...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.555 College Creek. The draws of the Naval Academy highway bridge, mile 0.3 at Annapolis, and the Maryland highway bridge, mile 0.4 at Annapolis, need not be...

2014-07-01

421

33 CFR 117.577 - Weems Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.577 Weems Creek. The draw of the S437 bridge, mile 0.7 at West Annapolis, shall open on signal from...

2011-07-01

422

33 CFR 117.558 - Curtis Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.558 Curtis Creek. (a) The draw of the Pennington...open on signal if at least a one-hour notice is given to the Maryland Transportation Authority in Baltimore....

2011-07-01

423

33 CFR 117.571 - Spa Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.571 Spa Creek. The S181 bridge, mile 0.4, at Annapolis, Maryland: (a) From May 1 to October 31, Monday through Friday, except...

2013-07-01

424

33 CFR 117.555 - College Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.555 College Creek. The draws of the Naval Academy highway bridge, mile 0.3 at Annapolis, and the Maryland highway bridge, mile 0.4 at Annapolis, need not be...

2011-07-01

425

33 CFR 117.557 - Curtis Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.557 Curtis Creek. The draw of the I695 bridge...open on signal if at least a one-hour notice is given to the Maryland Transportation Authority in Baltimore. [CGD...

2011-07-01

426

33 CFR 117.571 - Spa Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.571 Spa Creek. The S181 bridge, mile 4.0, at Annapolis, Maryland: (a) From May 1 to October 31, Monday through Friday, except...

2010-07-01

427

33 CFR 117.555 - College Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.555 College Creek. The draws of the Naval Academy highway bridge, mile 0.3 at Annapolis, and the Maryland highway bridge, mile 0.4 at Annapolis, need not be...

2013-07-01

428

33 CFR 117.555 - College Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.555 College Creek. The draws of the Naval Academy highway bridge, mile 0.3 at Annapolis, and the Maryland highway bridge, mile 0.4 at Annapolis, need not be...

2010-07-01

429

33 CFR 117.571 - Spa Creek.  

...SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.571 Spa Creek. The S181 bridge, mile 0.4, at Annapolis, Maryland: (a) From May 1 to October 31, Monday through Friday, except...

2014-07-01

430

33 CFR 117.555 - College Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.555 College Creek. The draws of the Naval Academy highway bridge, mile 0.3 at Annapolis, and the Maryland highway bridge, mile 0.4 at Annapolis, need not be...

2012-07-01

431

33 CFR 117.563 - Marshyhope Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.563 Marshyhope Creek. The draw of the S14 bridge, mile 5.8 at Brookview, need not be opened for the...

2012-07-01

432

33 CFR 117.563 - Marshyhope Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.563 Marshyhope Creek. The draw of the S14 bridge, mile 5.8 at Brookview, need not be opened for the...

2011-07-01

433

33 CFR 117.557 - Curtis Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.557 Curtis Creek. The draw of the I695 bridge...open on signal if at least a one-hour notice is given to the Maryland Transportation Authority in...

2010-07-01

434

33 CFR 117.577 - Weems Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.577 Weems Creek. The draw of the S437 bridge, mile 0.7 at West Annapolis, shall open on signal from...

2013-07-01

435

33 CFR 117.571 - Spa Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.571 Spa Creek. The S181 bridge, mile 0.4, at Annapolis, Maryland: (a) From May 1 to October 31, Monday through Friday, except...

2012-07-01

436

Wallace Creek Interpretive Trail: A Geologic Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of guides covers the geology, seismology, hydrology, and physical geography of the San Andreas Fault in the area of Wallace Creek in San Luis Obispo County, California. Materials available here include a downloadable trail guide for Wallace Creek; an interactive guide with information on the earthquakes, the fault, and plate tectonics; a downloadable guide from the Geologic Society of America (GSA); and a downloadable self-guided automobile tour for the Carrizo Plain. There are also field exercises which instructors may find useful as class assignments to accompany class trips to the Wallace Creek site, and a link to a bulletin from the GSA that explores the research done at Wallace Creek and explains how the slip rate for the San Andreas fault was measured.

Aron Meltzner

437

Salt Marshes along Little Mosquito Creek  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Salt marshes along Little Mosquito Creek of Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms....

438

Isoseismal Map: 1988 Tennant Creek Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This isoseismal map shows the distribution of Modified Mercalli values compiled from questionnaires distributed after the largest shock of the January 1988 Tennant Creek earthquake, which occurred in Northern Territory, Australia.

439

33 CFR 117.709 - Cheesequake Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.709 Cheesequake Creek...0.0, at Morgan, South Amboy, New Jersey, shall operate as follows...bridge. (b) The draw of the New Jersey Transit Rail Operations...

2012-07-01

440

33 CFR 117.709 - Cheesequake Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.709 Cheesequake Creek...0.0, at Morgan, South Amboy, New Jersey, shall operate as follows...bridge. (b) The draw of the New Jersey Transit Rail Operations...

2011-07-01

441

33 CFR 117.709 - Cheesequake Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.709 Cheesequake Creek...0.0, at Morgan, South Amboy, New Jersey, shall operate as follows...bridge. (b) The draw of the New Jersey Transit Rail Operations...

2013-07-01

442

33 CFR 117.709 - Cheesequake Creek.  

...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.709 Cheesequake Creek...0.0, at Morgan, South Amboy, New Jersey, shall operate as follows...bridge. (b) The draw of the New Jersey Transit Rail Operations...

2014-07-01

443

33 CFR 117.709 - Cheesequake Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.709 Cheesequake Creek...0.0, at Morgan, South Amboy, New Jersey, shall operate as follows...bridge. (b) The draw of the New Jersey Transit Rail Operations...

2010-07-01

444

Weir Control at Beaver Creek below Linton  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Weir control at Beaver Creek below Linton, North Dakota.  For more information on the use of weirs to aid in the determination of streamflow, see volumes 1 and 2 of the USGS Water Supply Paper, Measurement and Computation of Streamflow....

445

Tritium at the Steel Creek Landing  

SciTech Connect

In December 1997 and January 1998, the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) collected routine weekly grab samples from the Savannah River near the Steel Creek Boat Landing.

Arnett, M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Heffner, J.D.; Fledderman, P.D.; Littrell, J.W.; Hayes, D.W.; Dodgen, M.S.

1998-01-01

446

Landowners lead successful Buck Creek restoration  

E-print Network

26 tx H2O Fall 2012 Story by Kathryn S. Boutwell Landowners in the Buck Creek watershed in the Texas Panhandle were the driving force behind the successful restoration of the watershed and its removal from the Texas Commission on Environ....? Located in the Texas Panhandle counties of Donley, Collingsworth and Childress, Buck Creek was originally listed as being impaired for elevated bacteria levels in #30;#29;#29;#29;. Lucas Gregory, the Texas Water Resources Institute?s (TWRI) project...

Boutwell, Kathryn S.

2012-01-01

447

Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations  

DOEpatents

A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

Li, Ruijian (Katy, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

2009-07-21

448

Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation  

DOEpatents

A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation through at least one production well that is located in at least two zones in the formation. The first zone has an initial permeability of at least 1 darcy. The second zone has an initial of at most 0.1 darcy. The two zones are separated by a substantially impermeable barrier.

Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

2013-02-26

449

PAH concentrations in lake sediment decline following ban on coal-tar-based pavement sealants in Austin, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent studies have concluded that coal-tar-based pavement sealants are a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban settings in large parts of the United States. In 2006, Austin, TX, became the first jurisdiction in the U.S. to ban the use of coal-tar sealants. We evaluated the effect of Austin’s ban by analyzing PAHs in sediment cores and bottom-sediment samples collected in 1998, 2000, 2001, 2012, and 2014 from Lady Bird Lake, the principal receiving water body for Austin urban runoff. The sum concentration of the 16 EPA Priority Pollutant PAHs (?PAH16) in dated core intervals and surficial bottom-sediment samples collected from sites in the lower lake declined about 44% from 1998–2005 to 2006–2014 (means of 7980 and 4500 ?g kg–1, respectively), and by 2012–2014, the decline was about 58% (mean of 3320 ?g kg–1). Concentrations of ?PAH16 in bottom sediment from two of three mid-lake sites decreased by about 71 and 35% from 2001 to 2014. Concentrations at a third site increased by about 14% from 2001 to 2014. The decreases since 2006 reverse a 40-year (1959–1998) upward trend. Despite declines in PAH concentrations, PAH profiles and source-receptor modeling results indicate that coal-tar sealants remain the largest PAH source to the lake, implying that PAH concentrations likely will continue to decline as stocks of previously applied sealant gradually become depleted.

Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, Barbara J.

2013-01-01

450

PAH concentrations in lake sediment decline following ban on coal-tar-based pavement sealants in Austin, Texas.  

PubMed

Recent studies have concluded that coal-tar-based pavement sealants are a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban settings in large parts of the United States. In 2006, Austin, TX, became the first jurisdiction in the U.S. to ban the use of coal-tar sealants. We evaluated the effect of Austin's ban by analyzing PAHs in sediment cores and bottom-sediment samples collected in 1998, 2000, 2001, 2012, and 2014 from Lady Bird Lake, the principal receiving water body for Austin urban runoff. The sum concentration of the 16 EPA Priority Pollutant PAHs (?PAH16) in dated core intervals and surficial bottom-sediment samples collected from sites in the lower lake declined about 44% from 1998-2005 to 2006-2014 (means of 7980 and 4500 ?g kg(-1), respectively), and by 2012-2014, the decline was about 58% (mean of 3320 ?g kg(-1)). Concentrations of ?PAH16 in bottom sediment from two of three mid-lake sites decreased by about 71 and 35% from 2001 to 2014. Concentrations at a third site increased by about 14% from 2001 to 2014. The decreases since 2006 reverse a 40-year (1959-1998) upward trend. Despite declines in PAH concentrations, PAH profiles and source-receptor modeling results indicate that coal-tar sealants remain the largest PAH source to the lake, implying that PAH concentrations likely will continue to decline as stocks of previously applied sealant gradually become depleted. PMID:24930435

Van Metre, Peter C; Mahler, Barbara J

2014-07-01

451

The impact of geomorphology of marsh creeks on fish assemblage in Changjiang River estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidal marshes are an important habitat and nursery area for fish. In the past few decades, rapid economic development in the coastal areas of China has led to the interruption and destruction of an increasing number of tidal marshes. The growing interest in tidal marsh restoration has increased the need to understand the relationship between geomorphological features and fish assemblages in the design of marsh restoration projects. We studied temporal variations in, and the effects of creek geomorphological features on, the estuarine tidal creek fish community. Using modified channel nets, we sampled fish monthly from March 2007 to February 2008 from seven tidal creeks along an intertidal channel system in Chongming Dongtan National Nature Reserve. Fourteen creek geomorphological variables were measured or derived to characterize intertidal creek geomorphological features. The Gobiidae, with 10 species, was the most speciesrich family. The most abundant fish species were Liza affinis, Chelon haematocheilus, and Lateolabrax maculatus. The fish community was dominated by juvenile marine transients, which comprised about 80% of the total catch. The highest abundance of fish occurred in June and July, and the highest biomass occurred in December. Canonical redundancy analyses demonstrated that depth, steepness, cross-sectional area, and volume significantly affected the fish species assemblage. L. affinis favored small creeks with high elevations. Synechogobius ommaturus, Acanthogobius luridus, and Carassius auratus preferred deep, steep creeks with a large cross-sectional area and volume. These findings indicate that the geomorphological features of tidal creeks should be considered in the conservation and sustainable management of fish species and in the restoration of salt marshes.

Jin, Binsong; Xu, Wang; Guo, Li; Chen, Jiakuan; Fu, Cuizhang

2014-03-01

452

Hydrologic data for North Creek, Trinity River basin, Texas, 1979  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains rainfall and runoff data collected during the 1979 water year for the 21.6-square mile area above the stream-gaging station North Creek near Jacksboro, Texas. A continuous water-stage recording gage was installed at one representative floodwater-retarding structure (site 28-A) on Oct. 5, 1972. The data are collected to compute the contents, surface area, inflow, and outflow at this site. The stream-gaging station on North Creek near Jacksboro continuously records the water level which, with measurements of streamflow, is used to compute the runoff from the study area. Streamflow records at this gage began on Aug. 8, 1956. Detailed rainfall-runoff computations are included for one storm during the 1979 water year at the stream-gaging station. (USGS)

Kidwell, C.C.

1981-01-01

453

Hydrologic data for Mountain Creek, Trinity River Basin, Texas, 1975  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mountain Creek drains the northeast corner of Johnson County, the northwest corner of Ellis County, the southeast corner of Tarrant County, and part of the southwest corner of Dallas County, Tex. The basin is 30 miles long and averages 10 miles in width. The total drainage area at the mouth is 304 sq mi. Basin outflow for the 1975 water year was 146,400 acre-feet which is 68,880 acre-feet above the 15-year (1960-75) average of 77,520 acre-feet. Storage in Mountain Creek Lake showed a net loss of 150 acre-feet during the water year. Rainfall over the study area for the 1975 water year was about 39 inches, which is about 5 inches above the 15-year mean for the area. (Woodard-USGS)

Buckner, H.D.

1977-01-01

454

Hydrologic data for North Creek Trinity River Basin, Texas, 1976  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains rainfall and runoff data collected during the 1976 water year for a 21.6-square mile area above the stream-gaging station on North Creek near Jacksboro, Texas. A continuous water-stage recording gage was installed at one representative floodwater-retarding structure (site 28-A) on Oct. 5, 1972. The data are used to compute the contents, surface area, inflow, and outflow at this site. The stream-gaging station on North Creek near Jacksboro continuously records the water level which, with measurements of streamflow, is used to compute the runoff from the study area. Streamflow records at this gage began on Aug. 8, 1956. Detailed rainfall-runoff computations, including hydrographs and mass curves, are included for two storm periods during the 1976 water year at the stream-gaging station. (Woodard-USGS)

Kidwell, C.C.

1978-01-01

455

Hydrologic data for North Creek, Trinity River basin, Texas, 1978  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains rainfall and runoff data collected during the 1978 water year for the 21.6-square mile area above the stream-gaging station North Creek near Jacksboro, Texas. A continuous water-stage recording gage was installed at one representative floodwater-retarding structure (site 28-A) on Oct. 5, 1972. The data are collected to compute the contents, surface area, inflow, and outflow at this site. The stream-gaging station on North Creek near Jacksboro continuously records the water level which, with measurements of streamflow, is used to compute the runoff from the study area. Streamflow records at this gage began on Aug. 8, 1956. Detailed rainfall-runoff computations are included for two storm periods during the 1978 water year at the stream-gaging station. (USGS)

Kidwell, C.C.

1980-01-01

456

Rebound of a coal tar creosote plume following partial source zone treatment with permanganate.  

PubMed

The long-term management of dissolved plumes originating from a coal tar creosote source is a technical challenge. For some sites stabilization of the source may be the best practical solution to decrease the contaminant mass loading to the plume and associated off-site migration. At the bench-scale, the deposition of manganese oxides, a permanganate reaction byproduct, has been shown to cause pore plugging and the formation of a manganese oxide layer adjacent to the non-aqueous phase liquid creosote which reduces post-treatment mass transfer and hence mass loading from the source. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of partial permanganate treatment to reduce the ability of a coal tar creosote source zone to generate a multi-component plume at the pilot-scale over both the short-term (weeks to months) and the long-term (years) at a site where there is >10 years of comprehensive synoptic plume baseline data available. A series of preliminary bench-scale experiments were conducted to support this pilot-scale investigation. The results from the bench-scale experiments indicated that if sufficient mass removal of the reactive compounds is achieved then the effective solubility, aqueous concentration and rate of mass removal of the more abundant non-reactive coal tar creosote compounds such as biphenyl and dibenzofuran can be increased. Manganese oxide formation and deposition caused an order-of-magnitude decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Approximately 125 kg of permanganate were delivered into the pilot-scale source zone over 35 days, and based on mass balance estimates <10% of the initial reactive coal tar creosote mass in the source zone was oxidized. Mass discharge estimated at a down-gradient fence line indicated >35% reduction for all monitored compounds except for biphenyl, dibenzofuran and fluoranthene 150 days after treatment, which is consistent with the bench-scale experimental results. Pre- and post-treatment soil core data indicated a highly variable and random spatial distribution of mass within the source zone and provided no insight into the mass removed of any of the monitored species. The down-gradient plume was monitored approximately 1, 2 and 4 years following treatment. The data collected at 1 and 2 years post-treatment showed a decrease in mass discharge (10 to 60%) and/or total plume mass (0 to 55%); however, by 4 years post-treatment there was a rebound in both mass discharge and total plume mass for all monitored compounds to pre-treatment values or higher. The variability of the data collected was too large to resolve subtle changes in plume morphology, particularly near the source zone, that would provide insight into the impact of the formation and deposition of manganese oxides that occurred during treatment on mass transfer and/or flow by-passing. Overall, the results from this pilot-scale investigation indicate that there was a significant but short-term (months) reduction of mass emanating from the source zone as a result of permanganate treatment but there was no long-term (years) impact on the ability of this coal tar creosote source zone to generate a multi-component plume. PMID:18757111

Thomson, N R; Fraser, M J; Lamarche, C; Barker, J F; Forsey, S P

2008-11-14

457

The Flynn Creek Meteorite Impact Site and Changing Views on Impact Cratering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flynn Creek is one of two confirmed meteorite impact sites in Tennessee, USA. The first published mention of the Flynn Creek Structure was by J.M. Safford, Tennessee's State Geologist, in his Geology of Tennessee (1869). Subsequently, the site was investigated briefly in the 1920s and 1930s, but it was only in the 1960s following the founding of the United States Geological Survey's Astrogeological Studies Group as a lead-up to manned lunar exploration that Flynn Creek assumed international importance. This was because it was seen as the best terrestrial analog of a 'typical lunar crater'. As a result, CALTECH graduate student D.J. Roddy used Flynn Creek as the focus of his Ph.D. research, under the supervision of the Group's leader, Gene Shoemaker. After graduating, Roddy continued to conduct on-going investigations at this site up until the time of his death in 2002. Roddy's research has provided a wealth of information regarding the formation and structural features of the Flynn Creek site and shown that the crater was formed during Middle to Late Devonian times as a result of a shallow marine impact. Impact folding and faulting and subsequent uplift and erosion led to the formation of a system of caves at Flynn Creek that is unique among US impact sites.

Ford, J. R. H.; Orchiston, Wayne; Clendening, Ron

2013-07-01

458

Temperature, size, and depth of the magma reservoir for the Taylor Creek Rhyolite, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 55 km3 mid-Tertiary Taylor Creek Rhyolite in southwestern New Mexico consists of 20 lava domes and flows. This rhyolite is metaluminous to weakly peraluminous. Compositional zonation in feldspar phenocrysts is very minor and nonsystematic. The compositions of each feldspar species vary little throughout the suite of analyzed samples. This chemical homogeneity of phenocrysts reflects similar whole-rock homogeneity and suggests that the lavas were tapped from a single large reservoir of magma. Ages of sanidine phenocrysts determined using 40Ar/39Ar indicate that the Taylor Creek Rhyolite lavas were emplaced during a period of less than 0.42 my. and possibly less than 0.13 m.y., which is consistent with the single-reservoir scenario. Two-feldspar geothermometry suggests that Taylor Creek Rhyolite phenocrysts crystallized at about 775??C, at an assumed pressure of 2 kbar. Fe-Ti-oxide geothermometry suggests phenocryst growth at about 800??C. Experimental studies suggest that quartz and potassium-feldspar crystals that grow from H2O-undersaturated granitic magmas should exhibit resorption texture, a texture ubiquitous to Taylor Creek Rhyolite quartz and sanidine phenocrysts. We tentatively conclude that the Taylor Creek Rhyolite magma was H2O undersaturated and subliquidus at an unspecified pressure greater than 0.5 kbar during phenocryst growth and that Taylor Creek Rhyolite pyroclastic deposits formed because volatile saturation developed during the ascent of magma to sites of eruption. -from Authors

Duffield, W.A.; du Bray, E.A.

1990-01-01

459

Hydrologic conditions and water quality of rainfall and storm runoff for two agricultural areas of the Oso Creek watershed, Nueces County, Texas, 2005-08  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, and Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Corpus Christi, studied hydrologic conditions and water quality of rainfall and storm runoff of two primarily agricultural subwatersheds of the Oso Creek watershed in Nueces County, Texas. One area, the upper West Oso Creek subwatershed, is about 5,145 acres. The other area, a subwatershed drained by an unnamed tributary to Oso Creek (hereinafter, Oso Creek tributary), is about 5,287 acres. Rainfall and runoff (streamflow) were continuously monitored at the outlets of the two subwatersheds during the study period October 2005-September 2008. Seventeen rainfall samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients and major inorganic ions. Twenty-four composite runoff water-quality samples (12 at West Oso Creek, 12 at Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed for nutrients, major inorganic ions, and pesticides. Twenty-six discrete suspended-sediment samples (12 West Oso Creek, 14 Oso Creek tributary) and 17 bacteria samples (10 West Oso Creek, 7 Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed. These data were used to estimate, for selected constituents, rainfall deposition to and runoff loads and yields from the two subwatersheds. Quantities of fertilizers and pesticides applied in the two subwatersheds were compared with quantities of nutrients and pesticides in rainfall and runoff. For the study period, total rainfall was greater than average. Most of the runoff from the two subwatersheds occurred in response to a few specific storm periods. The West Oso Creek subwatershed produced more runoff during the study period than the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed, 13.95 inches compared with 9.45 inches. Runoff response was quicker and peak flows were higher in the West Oso Creek subwatershed than in the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed. Total nitrogen runoff yield for the 3-year study period averaged 2.62 pounds per acre per year from the West Oso Creek subwatershed and 0.839 pound per acre per year from the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed. Total phosphorus yields from the West Oso Creek and Oso Creek tributary subwatersheds for the 3-year period were 0.644 and 0.419 pound per acre per year, respectively. Runoff yields of nitrogen and phosphorus were relatively small compared to inputs of nitrogen in fertilizer and rainfall deposition. Average annual runoff yield of total nitrogen (subwatersheds combined) represents about 2.5 percent of nitrogen applied as fertilizer to cropland in the watershed and nitrogen entering the subwatersheds through rainfall deposition. Average annual runoff yield of total phosphorus (subwatersheds combined) represents about 4.0 percent of the phosphorus in applied fertilizer and rainfall deposition. Suspended-sediment yields from the West Oso Creek subwatershed were more than twice those from the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed. The average suspended-sediment yield from the West Oso Creek subwatershed was 522 pounds per acre per year and from the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed was 139 pounds per acre per year. Twenty-four herbicides and eight insecticides were detected in runoff samples collected at the two subwatershed outlets. At the West Oso Creek site, 19 herbicides and 4 insecticides were detected; at the Oso Creek tributary site, 18 herbicides and 6 insecticides were detected. Fourteen pesticides were detected in only one sample at low concentrations (near the laboratory reporting level). Atrazine and atrazine degradation byproduct 2-chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine (CIAT) were detected in all samples. Glyphosate and glyphosate byproduct aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) were detected in all samples collected and analyzed during water years 2006-07 but were not included in analysis for samples collected in water year 2008. Of all pesticides detected in runoff, the highest runoff yields w

Ockerman, Darwin J.; Fernandez, Carlos J.

2010-01-01

460

Creek Women and the "Civilizing" of Creek Society, 1790-1820.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women in traditional Creek society, while making few decisions in the public domain, held almost absolute power in the domestic realm. When a Creek couple married, the husband moved into his wife's house and lived among her clan, her matrilineal kin. The house, household goods, fields, and children belonged to her. Boys were educated by their…

Dysart, Jane E.

461

Maltose-binding protein interacts simultaneously and asymmetrically with both subunits of the Tar chemoreceptor.  

PubMed

The Tar chemotactic signal transducer of Escherichia coli mediates attractant responses to L-aspartate and to maltose. Aspartate binds across the subunit interface of the periplasmic receptor domain of a Tar homodimer. Maltose, in contrast, first binds to the periplasmic maltose-binding protein (MBP), which in its ligand-stabilized closed form then interacts with Tar. Intragenic complementation was used to determine the MBP-binding site on the Tar dimer. Mutations causing certain substitutions at residues Tyr-143, Asn-145, Gly-147, Tyr-149, and Phe-150 of Tar lead to severe defects in maltose chemotaxis, as do certain mutations affecting residues Arg-73, Met-76, Asp-77, and Ser-83. These two sets of mutations defined two complementation groups when the defective proteins were co-expressed at equal levels from compatible plasmids. We conclude that MBP contacts both subunits of the Tar dimer simultaneously and asymmetrically. Mutations affecting Met-75 could not be complemented, suggesting that this residue is important for association of MBP with each subunit of the Tar dimer. When the residues involved in interaction with MBP were mapped onto the crystal structure of the Tar periplasmic domain, they localized to a groove at the membrane-distal apex of the domain and also extended onto one shoulder of the apical region. PMID:9106209

Gardina, P J; Bormans, A F; Hawkins, M A; Meeker, J W; Manson, M D

1997-03-01

462

Method of producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. The heat may be allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation such that

Ramesh Raju Mudunuri; Namit Jaiswal; Harold J. Vinegar; John Michael Karanikas

2010-01-01

463

Response and acclimatisation of symptomless smokers on changing to a low tar, low nicotine cigarette  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten symptomless smokers were switched from their usual cigarette to a low tar, low nicotine test cigarette for two weeks to investigate their immediate response and subsequent acclimatisation to the test cigarette. The tar (T) and nicotine (N) yields of the test cigarettes were T = 3.8 mg, N = 0.6 mg; the median yields of the usual cigarettes were

G Woodman; S P Newman; D Pavia; S W Clarke

1987-01-01

464