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1

Tar Creek study, Sargent oil field, Santa Clara County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Field work in the Tar Creek area of Sargent oil field was performed June 26 to 28, 2000. The Santa Clara County study area is located in Sections, 30, 31, and 32, Township 11 South, Range 4 East, M.D.B&M; and in Sections 25 and 36, Township 11 South, Range 3 East, M.D.B.&M., north and south of Tar Creek, west of Highway 101. The work was a cooperative effort of the California Department of Conservation's Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (DOGGR), California Geological Survey (CGS), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the project was to map the stratigraphy and geologic structure (David Wagner, CGS); sample oil for age dating (Les Magoon, USGS); and search for undocumented wells plus conduct a GPS survey of the area (Bill Fedasko, J.P. Carnahan, and Ross Brunetti, DOGGR)

Wagner, David L.; Fedasko, Bill; Carnahan, J.R.; Brunetti, Ross; Magoon, Leslie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Stanley, Richard G.

2002-01-01

2

Effect of Transport and Aging Processes on Metal Speciation in Iron Oxyhydroxide Aggregates, Tar Creek Superfund Site, Oklahoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the cessation of mining activity in the late 20th century, Tar Creek Superfund Site was left highly contaminated by Pb, Zn, and Cd. Tar Creek, which flows through the site and into the Neosho River, has been studied extensively because of its potential to transport metals from the mining site to downstream communities. Previous research identified aggregated iron oxyhydroxide material, which forms when mine seepage mixes with Tar Creek surface water, as a major transport vector of metals. Frequent flooding in Tar Creek deposits aggregates on downstream floodplains, where wetting and drying processes alter the speciation of iron and other metals. This study seeks to better quantify those changes and to determine how transport and aging affects the human and ecological health risk. Sequential extractions of aggregate samples collected from the creek demonstrate that Fe is present in both amorphous (10-35% of Fe extracted) and more crystalline (8-23% of Fe extracted) phases. Substantial portions of heavy metals sorb to amorphous iron oxyhydroxide phases (accounting for 10-30% of Pb and Zn extracted) but are not associated with more crystalline iron oxide phases (representing only 1% or less of the Pb and Zn extracted). Samples have a high organic matter content (18-25% mass loss on ignition), but only Fe was significantly extracted by the oxidizing step targeting organic matter (1-2% of Pb and Zn extracted, but 10-26% of Fe extracted). The majority of metals were extracted by the soluble or residual steps. If metals and organic matter inhibit transformation of amorphous iron oxyhydroxide material to nano and crystalline iron oxides, then a steady-state volume of amorphous iron oxyhydroxide material with a high total sorption capacity may exist within Tar Creek, enhancing the metal flux accommodated by this transport mechanism. Once transported downstream and deposited on floodplains, however, it is hypothesized that repeated changes in soil matrix composition and thermodynamic conditions could facilitate a transformation to more crystalline iron phases and increase metal bioavailability. While preliminary data from in-creek aggregates show no clear trend in mineralogical composition with downstream transport, only the furthest downstream samples have 2-line ferrihydrite in amounts detectable by XRD.

Estes, E. R.; Schaider, L. A.; Shine, J. P.; Brabander, D. J.

2010-12-01

3

TAR CREEK SUPERFUND SITE REMEDIATION: COMBINED ROLES FOR BIOMASS, POULTRY LITTER, FLY ASH AND FLU GAS DESULFURIZATION RESIDUES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Tar Creek Superfund site in Northeastern Oklahoma is a large area contaminated from 100 years of lead and zinc mining. In this proposal we focus on developing surface coverage and remediation methods for the 45 million cubic yards of mine tailings, known as chat. The chat h...

4

Flow cytometric analysis of red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta) from Tar Creek Superfund Site.  

PubMed

Tar Creek Superfund Site (TCSFS) was heavily mined from the 1890s to 1970 and currently is contaminated with lead, zinc, and cadmium. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to measure variation in nuclear DNA content of red blood cells collected from Trachemys scripta living within TCSFS and reference sites, Lake Carl Blackwell (LCB) and Sequoyah National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR). We also used atomic absorption spectrometry to measure Pb in blood and carapace and Cd in blood samples of turtles from TCSFS and SNWR. Mean coefficients of variation around the G(1) peak ranged from 5.33 to 5.48 and showed no significant difference between contaminated and reference populations; however, there was a significantly higher frequency of aneuploidy at TCSFS when compared with both reference populations. Blood Pb levels were not significantly different between TCSFS and SNWR populations. Pb levels in carapace samples did not differ significantly between sites; however, Pb levels were higher in carapace than blood for both populations. Blood Cd was significantly higher in animals at TCSFS than SNWR. PMID:17364238

Hays, Kimberly A; McBee, Karen

2007-05-01

5

Boulder Creek Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Boulder Creek runs literally in the backyard of Donnelly Elementary School and happens to be on the EPA list of impaired water bodies. Therefore, a unique opportunity for problem solving opened the door to an exciting chance for students to become scientists, while also becoming active in their community. With the help of the Idaho Department of…

Bingaman, Deirdre; Eitel, Karla Bradley

2010-01-01

6

Boulder Creek Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boulder Creek runs literally in the backyard of Donnelly Elementary School and happens to be on the EPA list of impaired water bodies. Therefore, a unique opportunity for problem solving opened the door to an exciting chance for students to become scienti

Deirdre Bingaman

2010-02-01

7

Case Study: Goose Creek CISD  

E-print Network

GOOSE CREEK CISD FINANCIALS • $4,866,124 project • $600k annual savings • 5,954,383 kWh annual savings IMPROVEMENTS • Lighting and water efficiency, computer power management, HVAC, controls redesign case study McKinstry first worked with Goose...

White, D.

2014-01-01

8

Chemical analyses of stream sediment in the Tar Creek basin of the Picher mining area, northeast Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chemical analyses are presented for 47 sediment samples from the Tar Creek drainage in the Picher mining area of northeast Oklahoma. The samples were taken in December 1983, June 1984, and June 1985. All of the samples were taken downstream from mine-water discharge points of abandoned lead and zinc mines. The 34 samples taken in December 1983 and June 1984 were analyzed semiquantitatively by emission spectrography for 64 elements and quantitatively for cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, sulfur, zinc, and organic carbon. The 13 samples taken in June 1985 were analyzed quantitatively for aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, phosphorus, lead, sulfur, silicon, titanium, vanadium, zinc, and organic carbon.

Parkhurst, David L.; Doughten, Michael; Hearn, Paul P.

1988-01-01

9

Boulder Creek: A Virtual Field Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents a field lesson that is designed to enhance classroom education about urban resource management issues. The lesson consists of web materials and a self-guided field study of Boulder Creek, located in Boulder, Colorado. By completing this field lesson, students can learn about the tremendous benefits and dangers posed by an important urban-aquatic resource (Boulder Creek). The field study of Boulder Creek has three objectives: to study human-environment interactions in Boulder, CO, to learn basic techniques of fieldwork in geography, and to understand how natural hazards affect life in Boulder, CO. Although the lesson is built around a field excursion to the Boulder Creek area, the information contained in the preview link could stand on its own as an educational tool. Additionally, the information in the preview section includes questions that students can answer without going into the field. For those who are in the Boulder area and can travel to Boulder Creek, twelve stops have been chosen to supplement the online preview material. A map and questions are available for this field excursion. The web site also provides a forum for students to discuss their opinions on human-environment interactions pertaining to the Boulder Creek area.

A. Hill

10

Beaver Creek Watershed: A Case Study of Adaptive  

E-print Network

1 Beaver Creek Watershed: A Case Study of Adaptive Governance Presented by: Jennifer Joice April 23 and sustainability · Apply this tool to the Beaver Creek Watershed Partnership · Modify and tweak tool according to feedback Beaver Creek Watershed Beaver Creek Watershed Association · Formed in March of 2003, the effort

Gray, Matthew

11

Tar mobilization studies for a carbonate reservoir in Saudia Arabia  

SciTech Connect

The presence of tar material in some parts of a Saudi Arabian carbonate reservoir affects somewhat both production of light oil, as well as hindering water injection used for pressure maintenance. Therefore, mobilization of some of this tar material will enhance reservoir permeability, especially around the wellbores, and will have a positive impact on oil production. Application of non-thermal methods is the most desirable way to achieve this. Lab analyses indicate that the viscosity of this tar material is much higher than any heavy tar currently being produced (such as Athabasca tar). Moreover, the weight % of strong aromatic solvent-insoluble tar material is 3 to 45 wt% of the total organic matter which varies between 1.0 to 5.5 wt% of the total weight of various rock samples tested. In addition Results of core flood tests indicate that: (a) injection of 1 wt% NaOH in water displayed an optimum effect on mobilizing both soluble and insoluble tar material from the core samples and enhancing the permeability significantly; (b) additional permeability enhancement was observed by injection of an aromatic solvent such as toluene or a diluted surfactant solution (more than 1000-fold increase in permeability was observed); (c) acidizing core samples which contain large quantities of tar material did not improve the permeability as this caused migration of some tar material which was released by the dissolution of the rock matrix. This then acted as a pore-blocking material, since tar is not soluble in injected acid solution.

Sarbar, M.; Alqam, M. [Lab. R& D Center, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

1995-12-31

12

Study on characteristics of several Chinese tar sands  

SciTech Connect

The characteristics of tar sands from Karamay and Erlian, China, have been investigated, and the effects of various factors on bitumen recovery have been assessed. These two tar sands contain about 8-10% bitumen. Bitumen recovered from Karamay tar sands has a lower content of resin, asphaltene, and sulfur than bitumen from Erlian. Hot water extraction is effective for the former, but ineffective for the latter. Furthermore, pyrolysis of tar sands has been carried out using Rock-Eval apparatus. Pyrolysis models have been developed which give a satisfactory fit to experimental data.

Wang Jianqiu; Li Shuyuan; Tan Huaping [Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China)] [and others

1995-12-31

13

Study on tar generated from downdraft gasification of oil palm fronds.  

PubMed

One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3) in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC) unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928?g/Nm3 and 1.923?g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study. PMID:24526899

Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Kueh, Soo Chuan; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar

2014-01-01

14

Study on Tar Generated from Downdraft Gasification of Oil Palm Fronds  

PubMed Central

One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3) in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC) unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928?g/Nm3 and 1.923?g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study. PMID:24526899

Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Kueh, Soo Chuan; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar

2014-01-01

15

OROFINO CREEK STUDY, CLEARWATER COUNTY IDAHO, 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on Orofino Creek in Clearwater County, Idaho (17060306) to determine the present condition of the stream and to assess the impact of point and nonpoint sources. The study involved approximately bi-monthly monitoring for the...

16

MORES CREEK STUDY, BOISE COUNTY, IDAHO, 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on Mores Creek in Boise County, Idaho (17050112) to determine the present water quality of the stream and obtain background information on effluent limitations development for Idaho City. The study was designed for approxim...

17

CAMAS CREEK STUDY, CAMAS COUNTY, IDAHO. 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Eutrophication Survey on Magic Reservoir determined that Camas Creek in Camas County, Idaho (17040220) contributed roughly 45% of the total phosphorus load and 34% of the total nitrogen load into Magic Reservoir. From this finding, a water quality study was conducte...

18

DEARY CREEK STUDY, LATAH COUNTY, IDAHO. 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on Mount Deary Creek in Latah County, Idaho (17060306) to determine the present water quality of the stream and to obtain background information to determine effluent limitations for the City of Deary. The survey involved t...

19

ELK CREEK STUDY, IDAHO COUNTY IDAHO, 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1979, the American River, the Red River, and Elk Creek in Idaho County (17060305) were studied to determine their present water quality and to obtain background information on effluent limitations development for the Elk City sewage treatment plant. Quarterly monit...

20

Microbial community structure and biodegradation activity of particle-associated bacteria in a coal tar contaminated creek  

SciTech Connect

The Chattanooga Creek Superfund site (Chattanooga, TN) is one of the most polluted waterways in the southeastern U.S. with high polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in the sediments. PAHs associate with suspended solids in the water column, and may be redeposited onto the floodplain. These suspended particles represent an interesting but understudied environment for PAH-degrading microbial communities. This study tested the hypotheses that particle-associated bacterial (PAB) communities have genotypic potential (PAH-dioxygenase genes) and activity (naphthalene and pyrene mineralization), and can contribute to natural attenuation of PAHs in Chattanooga Creek. Upstream of the Superfund site, mineralization ranged from 0.2 to 2.0% of added {sup 14}C-naphthalene and 0 to 0.1% {sup 14}C-pyrene (after 40 h), with first order biodegradation rate constants (k{sub 1}) ranging from 1.09 to 9.18 x 10{sup -5} h{sup -1} and 0 to 1.13 x 10{sup -6} h{sup -1}, respectively. Mineralization was significantly greater in PAB communities within the contaminated zone, with 11.8 to 31.2% {sup 14}C-naphthalene (k{sup 1} 5.34 to 14.2 x 10-4 h{sup -1}) and 1.3 to 6.6% {sup 14}C-pyrene mineralized (k{sub 1} 2.89 to 15.0 x 10{sup -5} h{sup -1}). Abundances of nagAc (naphthalene dioxygenase) and nidA (pyrene dioxygenase) genes indicated that PAB communities harbored populations with genetic potential for both low- and high-molecular weight PAH degradation, and quantification of Mycobacterium 16S rDNA genes indicated that PAH-degrading mycobacteria are also prevalent in this environment. Phylogenetic comparisons (T-RFLPs) between PAB and sediments indicated these microbial communities were taxonomically distinct, but shared some functional similarities, namely PAH catabolic genotypes, mineralization capabilities, and community structuring along a contamination gradient. 38 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Jennifer M. DeBruyn; Gary S. Sayler [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology and Department of Microbiology

2009-05-01

21

PECONIC ESTUARY PROGRAM TIDAL CREEK STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

EEA evaluated ten tidal creeks throughout the Peconic Estuary representing a wide range of watershed variables. Primary focus was directed towards the collection and analysis of the macrobenthic invertebrate communities of these ten tidal creeks. Analysis of the macrobenthic comm...

22

STUDY OF COMPOSITION OF NIGERIAN TAR SAND BITUMEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compositional characterization techniques developed for high-boiling heavy ends of petroleum have been applied to Nigerian tar sand bitumen. The bitumen was subjected to ion-exchange and ferric chloride coordination chromatography to separate acids, bases and neutral nitrogen compounds. The remaining Hydrocarbon plus fraction was separated into saturates, monoarmatics, diaromatics and polyaromatic plus polar compounds on dual packed column of silica -

OKECHUKWU UKWUOMA

1999-01-01

23

Optical, Physical and Chemical Properties of Tar Balls Observed During the Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study  

SciTech Connect

The Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study of summer 2002 (YACS) occurred during an active fire season in the western U. S., and provided an opportunity to investigate many unresolved issues related to the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols. Single particle analysis was performed on field collected aerosol samples using an array of electron microscopy techniques. Amorphous carbon spheres, or “tar balls”, were present in samples collected during episodes of high particle light scattering coefficients that occurred during the peak of a smoke/haze event. The highest concentrations of light-absorbing carbon from a dual-wavelength aethalometer (? = 370 and 880 nm) occurred during periods when the particles were predominantly tar balls, indicating they do absorb light in the UV and near-IR range of the solar spectrum. Closure experiments of mass concentrations and light scattering coefficients during periods dominated by tar balls did not require any distinct assumptions of organic carbon molecular weight correction factors, density, or refractive index compared to periods dominated by other types of organic carbon aerosols. Measurements of the hygroscopic behavior of tar balls using an environmental SEM indicate that tar balls do not exhibit deliquescence, but do uptake some water at high (~83 %) relative humidity. The ability of tar balls to efficiently scatter and absorb light, and to absorb water has important implications for their role in regional haze and climate fence.

Hand, Jenny L.; Malm, W. C.; Laskin, Alexander; Day, D. E.; Lee, Tae-bum; Wang, Chong M.; Carrico, C. E.; Carrillo, John R.; Cowin, James P.; Collett, J. G.; Iedema, Martin J.

2005-11-09

24

Final Independent External Peer Review Report Leon Creek Watershed Feasibility Study, San Antonio,  

E-print Network

Final Independent External Peer Review Report Leon Creek Watershed Feasibility Study, San Antonio Peer Review Report Leon Creek Watershed Feasibility Study, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas Independent External Peer Review Report Leon Creek Watershed Feasibility Study, San Antonio, Bexar County

US Army Corps of Engineers

25

Optical, physical, and chemical properties of tar balls observed during the Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study of summer 2002 (YACS) occurred during an active fire season in the western United States and provided an opportunity to investigate many unresolved issues related to the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols. Single particle analysis was performed on field-collected aerosol samples using an array of electron microscopy techniques. Amorphous carbon spheres, or “tar balls,”

J. L. Hand; W. C. Malm; A. Laskin; D. Day; T. Lee; C. Wang; C. Carrico; J. Carrillo; J. P. Cowin; J. Collett; M. J. Iedema

2005-01-01

26

Skin cancer in patients with psoriasis treated with coal tar. A 25-year follow-up study  

SciTech Connect

For many years, crude coal tar has been used for the treatment of psoriasis. The possible carcinogenic effect of crude coal tar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Goeckerman regimen), considered individually or in combination, has been of some concern to physicians. A 25-year follow-up study was completed on 280 patients with psoriasis who were hospitalized and treated with crude coal tar and UV radiation at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn, during the years 1950 through 1954. The results of this study suggest that the incidence of skin cancer is not appreciably increased above the expected incidence for the general population when patients are treated with coal tar ointments. It seems that the Goeckerman regimen (topical crude coal tar combined with UV radiation) can be used with minimal risk for skin cancer in the treatment of psoriasis.

Pittelkow, M.R.; Perry, H.O.; Muller, S.A.; Maughan, W.Z.; O'Brien, P.C.

1981-08-01

27

Gold Creek: Preserving an Environmental Studies Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to a Board of Trustees request for information and recommendations concerning the future use of the Gold Creek property owned by the Los Angeles Community College District, this report emphasizes that the use of this site for instructional field experiences enhances the quality of environmental education for the district's diverse…

Brooks, Suzanne

28

Solvent extraction of southern US tar sands  

SciTech Connect

The socioeconomic aspects of the tar sands recovery were investigated by Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. Mineral Resources Institute at the University of Alabama conducted characterization and beneficiation studies on Alabama tar sands. Two sources in the state were identified, namely, Black Wax Hill and Spring Creek. Samples were obtained, beneficiated, then shared with the University of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas conducted research in three areas, namely, solvation and characterization of the tar sands phase equilibria as well as the design and operation of a bench-scale batch model. In the solvation studies, the results indicate that grinding the tar sands too fine results in downstream processing problems. Also, preliminary indications are that the beneficiation step may not be necessary in the solvation of the bitumen. The phase equilibria of the heptane/brine/isopropyl alcohol/XTOL{trademark} system is very complex. The salt concentration of the brine is significant in the partitioning of the isopropanol and heptane. Equilibrium data for some of the various combinations of chemical constituents have been obtained. Also included are appendices: statistical data on highways; petrography; Dean-Starke technique; FTIR and NMR spectra; FORTRAN computer program for GC; simulation of flash behavior for IPA/brine/fatty acid/N-C{sub 7} mixture; and previous progress reports. 32 figs., 28 tabs.

Not Available

1989-05-01

29

TAR SPOT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tar spot of grasses, also known as black leaf spot, is found on most members of the Poaceae. Tar spot appears principally on perennial grasses in moist, shaded areas and is rare on wheat and other annuals. It is found primarily in temperate regions. The disease is readily recognized by its glossy...

30

LAPWAI CREEK STUDY, LEWIS AND NEZ PERCE COUNTIES, IDAHO. 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

During Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on the Lapwai Creek in Nez Perce and Lewis Counties, Idaho (17060306) to obtain background information on nonpoint source pollution impacts and for effluent limitation development. The study involved approximately bi-mo...

31

JORDAN CREEK STUDY, OWYHEE COUNTY, ID IN 1975-1976  

EPA Science Inventory

A set of 3 intensive surveys was completed on Jordan Creek in Owyhee County, ID (17050108) during August and October 1975 and June 1976. Studies were conducted to determine the water quality condition of the stream and to assess the impact of pollution sources. The study includ...

32

Study of the Horsepen Creek Stream System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To prepare for this lab activity, there are several preceding lectures on the basics of the hydrologic cycle, river systems, and sediment transport. We also introduce the watershed, including city maps of the land use in the area of the creek. Students read the relevant chapter in the textbook beforehand. Students collect the field data from the stream during the first week, and the second week focuses on teaching them to analyze the data, and to use spreadsheets to graph their results. A very detailed, formal report is handed in by each student at the culmination of the project. The field experience requires students to collect and analyze data from four different stations along a local, impacted creek system. At each location students measure velocity and cross-sectional area, which they use to calculate the stream discharge. Students also collect data on the sediments by sieving and weighing samples, which they later use to generate cumulative sediment distribution curves. Water quality collected at each site includes total coliform, turbidity, nitrate concentrations, pH, dissolved oxygen, and temperature. Students are required to discuss all of these factors in their final report, and to assess whether the data are 'as expected' from the lectures and the reading. In addition, students develop and test their own hypothesis about the system. For example, they might choose to investigate whether sites with higher flow velocities correlate with higher sediment sizes. This activity reinforces specific concepts about streamflow and sediment transport, and also illustrates how the field of geology contributes to our understanding of the interaction of humans and their environment.

Angela Moore

33

Preliminary Studies on the Recovery of Bitumen from Nigerian Tar Sands: I. Beneficiation and Solvent Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solvent extraction of bitumen from Nigerian tar sands using toluene has been investigated. Pulverization of the tar sands followed by agglomeration in a mechanical shaker resulted in spherical agglomerates having higher bitumen contents than the mined tar sand. The extent of beneficiation was 4% and 19% for the high grade and low grade sands, respectivelyTemperature, agitation, and tar sand\\/solvent (S\\/L)

BAYONILE ADEMODI; TOKS OSHINOWO; SIKIRU A. SANNI; OLUKAYODE F. DAWODU

1987-01-01

34

SF6 Tracer Release Study: A Contaminant Fate Study in Newtown Creek  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newtown Creek is a 5.5km creek that discharges into the East River, a 25km strait connecting Long Island Sound to the north and the New York Harbor to the south. Surface runoff dominates the freshwater input into the creek, for natural tributaries no longer exist. The areas directly adjacent to the creek are highly industrialized, and New York City's largest Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) discharges directly into creek. In August 2004, we injected sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) into Newtown creek to study the fate of oil seeping into the creek from an underground oil spill and the fate of nutrient rich effluent from the WPCP. We monitored SF6 in Newtown Creek, the East River, and the Upper Bay of New York Harbor for 7 consecutive days following the injection in order to investigate the spreading patterns and transport mechanics of waters exiting the creek, and to determine the ultimate fate of the contaminants/solutes originating in Newtown Creek. Dissolved oxygen (DO) measurements were collected simultaneously with SF6 measurements. A strong DO gradient exists in the creek, where waters in the upper reaches are anoxic. We use SF6 data to calculate mean residence times for Newtown Creek waters. SF6 was detected above background concentrations approximately 15km to the south of the creek at the Verrazano Bridge only 1 day after the tracer injection. By combining the movements of the SF6 distribution, the position of the oxygen gradient, and the residence time of Newtown Creek water, we can determine a lower boundary for oxygen consumption rates.

Schmieder, P. J.; Ho, D. T.; Peter, S.; Simpson, H. J.; Flores, S.; Dugan, W. A.

2004-12-01

35

JIM FORD CREEK STUDY, CLEARWATER COUNTY IDAHO. 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on Jim Ford Creek in Clearwater County, Idaho (17060306) to assess the impact of the City of Weippe and Timberline High School discharges, to assess nonpoint source impacts, and to determine the present water quality of the ...

36

Environmental Forensics : Compound Specific Isotope Analysis Of PAHs. Study Of A Former Coal Tar Plant.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable carbon isotopic fingerprints of PAHs obtained by GC-IRMS have often been used in source apportionment studies. The use of PAHs in environmental forensics relies on the assumption that carbon isotopic fractionation caused by microbial degradation is less significant for these heavy molecular weight compounds than for lighter molecules such as chlorinated solvents or BTEX. Carbon isotopic fractionation of PAHs during degradation is still not well understood. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of CSIA of PAHs for environmental forensics applications at a complex (hydrogeology affected by tidal fluxes) former coal tar plant. In this work, soil samples from a tar works site were analyzed. The tar works operated on the site over a period of sixty years. A source apportionment study was first carried out based on 90 target PAHs quantified by GC-MS. These results were then compared to carbon isotope fingerprints. The separation of compounds of interest from co-extracted interfering peaks is a crucial prerequisite of CSIA by GC-IRMS. Hence, a sample preparation method which allowed the determination of precise carbon isotope signatures for up to 35 compounds per soil extract was developed, validated and applied to the samples previously analyzed by GC- MS. Although most soil samples were shown to be related to the point source tar contamination, PAHs ratios and principal component analysis of abundances highlighted some samples with unusual patterns, suggesting the input of a second source of contaminants. However, no statistically significant variation of the isotopic fingerprints of heavy molecular weight PAHs of these samples was observed. This was inconsistent with the first diagnosis. Since evidence was provided that most samples were only affected by a single source of contaminants, carbon isotopic fractionation was investigated in-situ. Importantly, naphthalene and 2- and 1- methylnaphthalenes isotopic fractionation was observed in a vertical soil profile. Results of this study highlight advantages and limitations of CSIA of PAHs in environmental forensics studies and confirm the potential of this technique for deciphering new degradation pathways of lighter PAHs.

Assal, A.; Doherty, R.; Dickson, K.; Kalin, R. M.

2008-12-01

37

Dynamic Sediment Modeling: A Case Study at Walnut Creek, Iowa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep channel bed incision and severe channel bank erosion, which have strong effects on the evolution of channel and watershed morphology, are becoming serious problems in natural rivers and streams in Iowa as a result of wide distribution of loess soil material, agricultural activity, river training and human intervention. Consequent high sediment concentration can also cause low water quality and jeopardize aquatic habitat. Dynamic modeling of sediment transport in rivers and streams provides a useful tool for monitoring, controlling and forecasting the morphology change and water quality in channels and watersheds. In order to gain insight into sediment transport process, a dynamic sediment model is built for a 7-mile segment of Walnut Creek in Jasper County, Iowa. This creek was intensively surveyed by Iowa Geological Survey Bureau (IGSB) as part of the Walnut Creek Nonpoint Source Monitoring Project. Besides channel geometry data from the survey, hydraulic and sediment data were collected at two gauges upstream and downstream operated by USGS. A software GSTARS3 developed by USGS is adopted to model both channel bed incision and bank erosion which are typical phenomena in Iowa. The dynamic sediment model is calibrated using channel bathymetry data from recent survey conducted by IGSB. Finally, based on forecasting of flow and sediment discharge time series at the upstream and stage time series at the downstream, a sediment forecasting model is developed to see if the stream can go back to the clarity and morphology of original creek. The study on this small surveyed and controlled creek will benefit our research in other Iowa rivers and streams.

Li, Z.; Zhang, Y.

2006-12-01

38

Investigative Study of Conjunctive Use Opportunities in the Stony Creek Fan Aquifer  

E-print Network

#12;Investigative Study of Conjunctive Use Opportunities in the Stony Creek Fan Aquifer Abstract and the underlying, unconfined Stony Creek Fan Aquifer near Orland, CA. Simplifying assumptions are used to simulate Creek Fan. Release magnitude, frequency, and duration are tested to estimate the volume of recharge

Lund, Jay R.

39

The battle of Sailor's Creek: a study in leadership  

E-print Network

Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS Approved by: Chair of Committee, Joseph Dawson Committee Members, James Bradford Joseph Cerami Head... of Department, Walter L. Buenger December 2005 Major Subject: History iii ABSTRACT The Battle of Sailor?s Creek: A Study in Leadership. (December 2005) Cloyd Allen Smith Jr., B.A., Slippery Rock University Chair: Dr. Joseph Dawson...

Smith, Cloyd Allen, Jr.

2007-04-25

40

Topical tar: Back to the future  

SciTech Connect

The use of medicinal tar for dermatologic disorders dates back to the ancient times. Although coal tar is utilized more frequently in modern dermatology, wood tars have also been widely employed. Tar is used mainly in the treatment of chronic stable plaque psoriasis, scalp psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis, either alone or in combination therapy with other medications, phototherapy, or both. Many modifications have been made to tar preparations to increase their acceptability, as some dislike its odor, messy application, and staining of clothing. One should consider a tried and true treatment with tar that has led to clearing of lesions and prolonged remission times. Occupational studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity of tar; however, epidemiologic studies do not confirm similar outcomes when used topically. This article will review the pharmacology, formulations, efficacy, and adverse effects of crude coal tar and other tars in the treatment of selected dermatologic conditions.

Paghdal, K.V.; Schwartz, R.A. [University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States)

2009-08-15

41

Partitioning studies of coal-tar constituents in a two-phase contaminated ground-water system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organic compounds derived from coal-tar wastes in a contaminated aquifer in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, were identified, and their partition coefficients between the tar phase and aqueous phase were determined and compared with the corresponding n-octanol/water partition coefficients. Coal tar contains numerous polycyclic aromatic compounds, many of which are suspected carcinogens or mutagens. Groundwater contamination by these toxic compounds may pose an environmental health hazard in nearby public water-supply wells. Fluid samples from this aquifer developed two phases upon settling: an upper aqueous phase, and a lower oily-tar phase. After separating the phases, polycyclic aromatic compounds in each phase were isolated using complexation with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and identified by fused-silica capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Thirty-one of the polycyclic aromatic compounds were chosen for further study from four different classes: 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 10 nitrogen heterocycles, 5 sulfur heterocycles, and 4 oxygen heterocycles. Within each compound class, the tar/water partition coefficients of these compounds were reasonably comparable with the respective n-octanol/water partition coefficient.

Rostad, C.E.; Pereira, W.E.; Hult, M.F.

1985-01-01

42

Coal tar phototherapy for psoriasis reevaluated: erythemogenic versus suberythemogenic ultraviolet with a tar extract in oil and crude coal tar  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies have questioned the therapeutic value of coal tar versus ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their relative necessity in phototherapy for psoriasis. In this investigation, different aspects of tar phototherapy have been studied in single-blind bilateral paired comparison studies. The effects of 1% crude coal tar were compared with those of petrolatum in conjunction with erythemogenic and suberythemogenic doses of ultraviolet light (UVB) using a FS72 sunlamp tubed cabinet. Crude coal tar was clinically superior to petrolatum with suberythemogenic ultraviolet. With the erythemogenic UVB, petrolatum was equal in efficacy to crude coal tar. Suberythemogenic UVB was also used adjunctively to compare the effects of a 5% concentration of a tar extract in an oil base to 5% crude coal tar in petrolatum or the oil base without tar. The tar extract in oil plus suberythemogenic UVB produced significantly more rapid improvement than the oil base plus UVB. The direct bilateral comparison of equal concentrations of tar extract in oil base versus crude coal tar in petrolatum in a suberythemogenic UV photo regimen revealed no statistical differences between treatments. In a study comparing tar extract in oil and the oil base without ultraviolet radiation, the tar extract in oil side responded more rapidly.

Lowe, N.J.; Wortzman, M.S.; Breeding, J.; Koudsi, H.; Taylor, L.

1983-06-01

43

A parametric study on the factors affecting the froth floatation of Jordanian tar sand utilizing a fluidized bed floatator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different parameters affecting the behavior of froth flotation of Jordanian tar sand, obtained from the Dead Sea area, were studied. This study was performed in a modified fluidized bed floatator. The effects of the addition of a flotation agent, NaOH, temperature and flotation time on the beneficiation of bitumen in the froth were investigated. It was found that the beneficiation

Awni Al-Otoom; Mamdouh Allawzi; Adnan M. Al-Harahsheh; Mohammad Al-Harahsheh; Randa Al-Ghbari; Raeda Al-Ghazo; Husam Al-Saifi

2009-01-01

44

Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch  

Cancer.gov

Coal tar is derived from coal. It is a byproduct of the production of coke, a solid fuel that contains mostly carbon, and coal gas. Coal tar is used primarily for the production of refined chemicals and coal-tar products, such as creosote and coal-tar pitch. Certain preparations of coal tar have long been used to treat various skin conditions, such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.

45

Mineral resources of the Fifteen Mile Creek, Oregon Canyon, Twelve Mile Creek, and Willow Creek Wilderness Study Areas, Malheur and Harney counties, Oregon  

SciTech Connect

The four contiguous study areas are located in a volcanic terrane dominated by tuffs that were erupted from calderas of the McDermitt Caldera complex and the Whitehorse Caldera. None of these areas have identified resources, despite the proximity of mercury, uranium, and lithium mineralization to the south. The southern parts of the Fifteen Mile Creek and the Oregon Canyon Wilderness Study Areas have a low potential for mercury and uranium. The southern parts of the Fifteen Mile Creek, Oregon Canyon, and Willow Creek and the northwestern part of the Oregon Wilderness Study Areas have low potential for antimony, bismuth, mercury, silver,molybdenum, and zinc. In the Oregon Canyon Wilderness Study Area, the tuff of Oregon Canyon and the rim of the caldera of the McDermitt Caldera complex have a low potential for gold and silver in epithermal veins. The study areas have a low potential for zeolite minerals, oil and gas, and geothermal energy throughout, and restricted parts of the study areas have a low potential for pumice, rare-earth elements, zirconium, and decorative building stone.

Peterson, J.A.; Rytuba, J.J.; Plouff, D.; Vercountere, T.L.; Turner, R.L.; Sawatzky, D.L. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)); Leszcykowski, A.M.; Peters, T.J.; Schmauch, S.W.; Winters, R.A. (US Bureau of Mines (US))

1988-01-01

46

Laboratory studies of forward combustion in the tar sand triangle resource  

SciTech Connect

The in situ forward combustion process in a Utah tar sand was evaluated at alternative operating conditions. Five bench-scale tube reactor experiments were conducted to study the effects of the injected air flux in the oil yield, product oil quality, and process efficiency. Air injection fluxes ranged from 16 to 111 scfh/ft/sup 2/ and one test was conducted using steam dilution of the injected air. Regardless of the injected air flux, the oxygen consumption approached 100% and the combustion process became self-sustaining at ignition temperatures around 650-750/sup 0/F (343-399/sup 0/C). After ignition, all of the oxygen reacted with residual coke and the combustion temperatures increased to 1500-900/sup 0/F (815-1035/sup 0/C). Residual coke was the principal source of fuel for the combustion tests since the available coke, as determined by Fischer assay (36-39 wt. % initial bitumen), exceeded the fuel required for combustion. Other factors also indicated residual coke was the principal fuel: (1) oil production ceased before oxygen breakthrough, (2) unburned coke was measured on the lowermost spent sand, and (3) the calculated equivalent H/C ratio of the fuel burned was low.

Romanowski, L.J. Jr.; Thomas, K.P.

1987-01-01

47

Kraut Creek: A summary of results from a scientific study during the Summer of 2006.  

E-print Network

Kraut Creek: A summary of results from a scientific study during the Summer of 2006. By Chris does not have any significant storage areas (e.g. wetlands) to mediate flow. · Kraut Creek shows high in the scientific literature tell sad stories about urbanized streams as being convenient waste removal systems

Thaxton, Christopher S.

48

Water availability for development of major tar sands areas in Utah  

SciTech Connect

The Sutron Corporation, under contract with Colorado State University, has conducted a study for the Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC) to determine the availability of water for future extraction of viscous petroleum (bitumen) from the six major tar sands deposits in Utah. Specifically, the areas are: Asphalt Ridge and Whiterocks, which lie immediately west of Vernal, Utah; P.R. Spring, a large area extending from the Colorado River to the White River along Utah's eastern border; Hill Creek, adjacent to P.R. Spring to the west; Sunnyside, immediately across the Green River from Hill Creek between the Price and Green Rivers; and Tar Sand Triangle, near the confluence of the Colorado and Dirty Devil Rivers. The study, conducted between September and December of 1978, was a fact-finding effort involving the compilation of information from publications of the US Geological Survey (USGS), Utah State Engineer, Utah Department of Natural Resources, and other federal and state agencies. The information covers the general physiographic and geologic features of the total area, the estimated water requirements for tar sands development, the availability of water in each of the six areas, and the legal and sociological restraints and impacts. The conclusions regarding water availability for tar sands development in each of the six areas and specific recommendations related to the development of each area are presented also.

Keefer, T.N.; McQuivey, R.S.

1979-05-01

49

Tar sand  

SciTech Connect

Research on tar sand is briefly discussed. The research program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes a variety of surface extraction schemes. The University of Utah has process development units (PDU) employing fluidized bed, hot, water-assisted, and fluidized-bed/heat-pipe, coupled combustor technology. Considerable process variable test data have been gathered on these systems: (1) a rotary kiln unit has been built recently; (2) solvent extraction processing is being examined; and (3) an advanced hydrogenation upgrading scheme (hydropyrolysis) has been developed. The University of Arkansas, in collaboration with Diversified Petroleum, Inc., has been working on a fatty acid, solvent extraction process. Oleic acid is the solvent/surfactant. Solvent is recovered by adjusting processing fluid concentrations to separate without expensive operations. Western Research Institute has a PDU-scale scheme called the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process, which combines solvent (hot recycle bitumen) and pyrolytic extraction. 14 refs., 19 figs.

McLendon, T.R.; Bartke, T.C.

1990-01-01

50

Size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrographic study of Fe in bitumens derived from tar sands  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on bitumens extracted from tar sands from various locations (Utah, California, Kentucky, and Alberta) that were examined by size exclusion chromatography with on-line element-specific detection to study the Fe concentration as a function of size. In most cases, the resulting profiles exhibit unimodal distributions at relatively large molecular size with very similar times for maximum elution. specifically, Sunnyside (Utah) and McKittrick (California) tar-sand bitumens exhibited very intense maxima consistent with extremely high bulk Fe contents. Arroyo Grande (California) exhibited an additional maximum at very large molecular size. This size behavior of the Fe appears to correlate with the large molecular size Ni and V components eluted under the same conditions.

Reynolds, J.G. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (US)); Biggs, W.R. (Chevron Research Co., Richmond, CA (US))

1992-01-01

51

Water Conservation Study for Manastash Creek Water Users, Kittias County, Washington, Final Report 2002.  

SciTech Connect

Manastash Creek is tributary of the Yakima River and is located southwest and across the Yakima River from the City of Ellensburg. The creek drains mountainous terrain that ranges in elevation from 2,000 feet to over 5,500 feet and is primarily snowmelt fed, with largest flows occurring in spring and early summer. The creek flows through a narrow canyon until reaching a large, open plain that slopes gently toward the Yakima River and enters the main stem of the Yakima River at river mile 154.5. This area, formed by the alluvial fan of the Creek as it leaves the canyon, is the subject of this study. The area is presently dominated by irrigated agriculture, but development pressures are evident as Ellensburg grows and develops as an urban center. Since the mid to late nineteenth century when irrigated agriculture was established in a significant manner in the Yakima River Basin, Manastash Creek has been used to supply irrigation water for farming in the area. Adjudicated water rights dating back to 1871 for 4,465 acres adjacent to Manastash Creek allow appropriation of up to 26,273 acre-feet of creek water for agricultural irrigation and stock water. The diversion of water from Manastash Creek for irrigation has created two main problems for fisheries. They are low flows or dewatered reaches of Manastash Creek and fish passage barriers at the irrigation diversion dams. The primary goal of this study, as expressed by Yakama Nation and BPA, is to reestablish safe access in tributaries of the Yakima River by removing physical barriers and unscreened diversions and by adding instream flow where needed for fisheries. The goal expressed by irrigators who would be affected by these projects is to support sustainable and profitable agricultural use of land that currently uses Manastash Creek water for irrigation. This study provides preliminary costs and recommendations for a range of alternative projects that will partially or fully meet the goal of establishing safe access for fisheries in Manastash Creek by reducing or eliminating diversions and eliminating fish passage barriers. Further study and design will be necessary to more fully develop the alternatives, evaluate their environmental benefits and impacts and determine the effect on Manastash Creek water users. Those studies will be needed to determine which alternative has the best combination of benefits and costs, and meets the goal of the Manastash Creek water users.

Montgomery Watson Harza (Firm)

2002-12-31

52

Tissue-specific HSP70 levels and reproductive physiological responses in fishes inhabiting a metal-contaminated creek.  

PubMed

The 70-kDa stress protein family (HSP70) plays important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including protein chaperoning, protection against apoptosis, steroidogenesis, and general cellular stress responses in vertebrate organisms, and has also been proposed as a biochemical marker of environmental stress, such as toxicant exposure. The objectives of this study were to determine HSP70 protein expression in head kidney, liver, gill, and ovarian tissues and to examine reproductive physiological responses in female fishes exposed chronically to sublethal metal concentrations. Female black bullhead (Ameiurus melas) and bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) were collected from Tar Creek, Oklahoma (flowing through the Tri-State mining district) and from a nearby reference creek (Lytle Creek) during spring (prespawning; 26.5 +/- 0.95 degrees C water temperature) and winter (ovarian recrudescence; 4.8 +/- 0.80 degrees C water temperature). Aqueous (dissolved and suspended) concentrations of Cd and Zn and liver concentrations of Cd and Zn in both fish species were significantly greater at Tar Creek compared to Lytle Creek. HSP70 expression was consistently elevated in the head kidney of both fish species collected at Tar Creek in comparison to fish collected from the reference creek. In contrast, no consistent differences were observed in HSP70 expression in liver, gill, or ovarian tissues between sites. Significant seasonal differences were observed in expression of HSP70 in gill tissue of both species, in ovarian and liver tissue of bluegill sunfish and in head kidney of black bullhead. Serum testosterone concentration was significantly reduced in sunfish collected from Tar Creek during winter. Gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices were significantly lower in black bullhead collected from Tar Creek during spring, and condition factors were lower in black bullhead collected from Tar Creek during both spring and winter. There was no significant difference in the extent of ovarian follicular cell apoptosis in either species collected during spring. In conclusion, we observed significant tissue specific differences and seasonal variation in expression of HSP70, as well as alterations in circulating testosterone levels in female fish chronically exposed to metals. PMID:12948180

Yoo, J L; Janz, D M

2003-07-01

53

Dual bed reactor for the study of catalytic biomass tars conversion  

SciTech Connect

A dual fixed bed laboratory scale set up has been used to compare the activity of a novel Rh/LaCoO{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst to that of dolomite, olivine and Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, typical catalysts used in fluidized bed biomass gasification, to convert tars produced during biomass devolatilization stage. The experimental apparatus allows the catalyst to be operated under controlled conditions of temperature and with a real gas mixture obtained by the pyrolysis of the biomass carried out in a separate fixed bed reactor operated under a selected and controlled heating up rate. The proposed catalyst exhibits much better performances than conventional catalysts tested. It is able to completely convert tars and also to strongly decrease coke formation due to its good redox properties. (author)

Ammendola, P.; Piriou, B.; Lisi, L.; Ruoppolo, G.; Chirone, R.; Russo, G. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione - CNR, P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

2010-04-15

54

Pyridine and other coal tar constituents as inhibitors of potato polyphenol oxidase: A non-animal model for neurochemical studies  

SciTech Connect

Potato polyphenol oxidase activity was strongly and noncompetitively inhibited by the 'Perov mixture' of coal tar components and by pyridine alone, while phenol competitively inhibited the enzyme. These two inhibitors are structural components of the parkinsonogenic neurotoxin N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). By extension, dopamine and neuromelanin synthesis in the brain may be influenced by the inhibitory effects of such compounds upon the copper-dependent steps of tyrosine metabolism. The non-animal model used in this study may represent an alternative to the use of animal tissues in neurodegenerative disease research.

Henderson, H.M.; Eskin, N.A.M.; Pinsky, C.; Bose, R.; Ashique, A.M. (Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada))

1992-01-01

55

WARM SPRINGS CREEK GEOTHERMAL STUDY, BLAIN COUNTY IDAHO, 1987  

EPA Science Inventory

In the Warm Springs Creek drainage near Ketchum, Idaho (17040219), a leaking pipeline coveys geothermal water through the valley to heat nearby homes as well as to supply a resorts swimming pool. Several domestic wells in close proximity to this line have exhibited increasing fl...

56

Marine ecological habitat: a case study on projected thermal power plant around Dharamtar Creek, India.  

PubMed

Estuaries and tidal creeks, harboring mangroves particularly, face tremendous anthropogenic pressures. Expansion of mega cities and the thermal power plants are generally proposed in the vicinity of estuaries and creek, due to the feasibility of intake and discharge of water for cooling. Discharges from such developments remain constant threat of increasing thermal pollution and affecting the quality of environment. The baseline information on prevailing quality of aquatic environment comes handy for understanding alterations due to such activities. Principle component analysis (PCA) revealed that temperature, pH, salinity, suspended solids, DO, BOD and phaeophytins are major parameters influencing the creek system. Heated effluents may have direct and adverse impacts on these parameters, altering biotic constituents. Hence, periodic and detailed observations are necessary to estimate exact response of biotic communities to changing environment. The present paper is based on case study, projecting a power plant in the vicinity of major mangrove habitats of Dharamtar creek. PMID:21882658

Kulkarni, Vikrant A; Naidu, Velamala S; Jagtap, Tanaji G

2011-03-01

57

Partitioning studies of coal-tar constitutents in a two-phase contaminated ground-water system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic compounds derived from coal-tar wastes in a contaminated aquifer in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, were identified, and their partition coefficients between the tar phase and aqueous phase were determined and compared with the corresponding n-octanol\\/water partition coefficients. Coal tar contains numerous polycyclic aromatic compounds, many of which are suspected carcinogens or mutagens. Groundwater contamination by these toxic compounds may

C. E. Rostad; W. E. Pereira; M. F. Hult

1985-01-01

58

Hydraulic Characteristics of the San Gregorio Creek Drainage Basin, California: a Preliminary Study.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Population pressures within the greater San Francisco Bay Area are forcing development into nearby rural communities, and are impacting local environments. This study of the San Gregorio Creek Watershed is designed as a baseline for evaluating the effect increasing development within the drainage basin has on its river system. We hope to provide evidence for that impact through laboratory and field studies that provide a snap-shot of this drainage basin's current characteristics. The San Gregorio Creek watershed, in the Coast Ranges, is located in the southwestern portion of San Mateo County, California. It drains the western slopes of the Santa Cruz Mountains, in the Coast Ranges into the Pacific Ocean at the town of San Gregorio. Most of its fingertip tributaries flow into the trunk from the north and west, with elevations as high as 2050 feet. The watershed includes an area of approximately 51.6 square miles and San Gregorio Creek, the trunk stream, is roughly 12 miles long. San Gregorio Creek is a fourth order perennial stream. It is fed by a number of major tributaries, the largest of which are Alpine, Mindego, and La Honda creeks. The U.S. Geological Survey maintains a stream gauging station for San Gregorio Creek at the town of San Gregorio, where it has been monitoring stream flows for more than 30 years through its Water Resources Department. The resulting data indicate a mean discharge of 36.4 cfs. Map studies of hydraulic geometry for the drainage basin reveal geometric characteristics for San Gregorio Creek that coincide with similar streams in comparable climatic and environmental settings. Stream table studies are used to further investigate fundamental stream processes. Field studies at selected reaches throughout the drainage basin will document hydraulic characteristics. The results of this study will contribute to more comprehensive studies demonstrateing channel response to changing environmental conditions.

Davis, J. R.; Snow, M. K.; Pestrong, R.; Sklar, L. S.; Vavro, M.; Sawachi, A.; Talapian, E.; Bailey, E.

2004-12-01

59

Additional mineral resources assessment of the Battle Creek, Bruneau River, Deep Creek-Owyhee River, Jarbidge River, Juniper Creek, Little Owyhee River, North Fork Owyhee River, Owyhee River Canyon, South Fork Owyhee River, Upper Deep Creek, and Yatahoney Creek Wilderness Study Areas, Owyhee County, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1984 to 1986, studies were conducted to assess the potential for undiscovered mineral resources in wilderness study areas on the Owyhee Plateau. The results of these studies have been published in a series of U.S. Geological Survey Bulletins. Since that time, low-grade, high-tonnage epithermal hot-spring gold-silver deposits have been recognized in the region north of the wilderness study areas. The recognition that this mineral-deposit model is applicable in the region, coupled with new data that has become available to the U.S. Geological Survey, reinterpretation of existing geochemical data, and known-deposit data suggest that similar deposits may be present elsewhere on the Owyhee Plateau. This report is an additional assessment of the Battle Creek, Bruneau River, Deep Creek-Owyhee River, Jarbidge River, Juniper Creek, Little Owyhee River, North Fork Owyhee River, Owyhee River Canyon, South Fork Owyhee River (ID-016-053), Upper Deep Creek, and Yatahoney Creek Wilderness Study Areas in Idaho Wilderness Study Areas in Idaho in light of those new data.

Diggles, Michael F.; Berger, Byron R.; Vander Meulen, Dean B.; Minor, Scott A.; Ach, Jay A.; Sawlan, Michael G.

1989-01-01

60

Kinetic study of the catalytic carbonization of coal tar pitch-petroleum coke mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The rate of carbonization has important impacts on the energy consumption and the productivity in baking process of reduction anodes. In the present work the carbonization of coal tar pitch-petroleum coke mixtures with catalysts, such as S, AlCl{sub 3}, AlF{sub 3}, and Fe{sub 2}Cp{sub 2}(CO){sub 4}, was investigated by thermogravimetry (TG) and kinetic analysis of the data. It was found that the pyrolysis temperature for non-coking volatiles decreased with catalysts, and that the coke yield of pitch binder increased. Almost all the sulfur and most of the iron from the additives can be removed during heat treatment, while the remaining aluminum in the residues may not be harmful.

Xue, J.; Oeye, H.A. [Norwegian Inst. of Tech., Trondheim (Norway). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry; Soerlie, M. [Elkem a/s Research, Kristiansand (Norway)

1996-10-01

61

Monitored natural attenuation of manufactured gas plant tar mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ground water: a 14-year field study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Site 24 was the subject of a 14-year (5110-day) study of a ground water plume created by the disposal of manufactured gas plant (MGP) tar into a shallow sandy aquifer approximately 25 years prior to the study. The ground water plume in 1988 extended from a well-defined source area to a distance of approximately 400 m down gradient. A system

Edward F. Neuhauser; John A. Ripp; Nicholas A. Azzolina; Eugene L. Madsen; David M. Mauro; Terry Taylor

2009-01-01

62

1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C plant application study report: tar sands oil recovery application  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a study to apply an 1170-MW(t) high-temperature gas-cooled reactor - process steam/cogeneration (HTGR-PS/C) to tar sands oil recovery and upgrading. The raw product recovered from the sands is a heavy, sour bitumen; upgrading, which involves coking and hydrodesulfurization, produces a synthetic crude (refinable by current technology) and petroleum coke. Steam and electric power are required for the recovery and upgrading process. Proposed and commercial plants would purchase electric power from local utilities and obtain from boilers fired with coal and with by-product fuels produced by the upgrading. This study shows that an HTGR-PS/C represents a more economical source of steam and electric power.

Rao, R.; McMain, Jr., A. T.

1981-05-01

63

Cabin Creek Coal Mine studies and the International Joint Commission  

SciTech Connect

In February of 1984, the British Columbia Government granted Sage Creek Coal Limited approval-in-principle for a 2.4 million US tons per year thermal coal mine. The mine was to be located six miles upstream from the International Boundary on Howell and Cabin creeks, tributaries to the North Fork of the Flathead River. The United States and Montana Governments were concerned about the possible effects of this proposed mine on the Flathead River system, Glacier National Park, and Flathead Lake. In response to these concerns, the United States and Canadian Governments requested that the International Joint Commission (IJC) examine the possible impacts of the proposed mine. This reference from the two governments was made to the IJC pursuant to Article IX of the Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909. The reference also asked that the IJC make recommendations that would ensure that the provisions of Article IV of the treaty were respected. This article states that boundary waters, {open_quotes}...shall not be polluted on either side to the injury of health or property on the other.{close_quotes}

Posewitz, J. [Flathead River International Study Board, Helena, MT (United States)

1990-12-31

64

Processing of tar sands  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to an improved process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands comprising first heating the raw tar sands with steam at a temperature sufficient to visbreak a portion of the bitumen without significant thermal cracking thereby producing a vaporous distillate product mixed with steam and lowering the viscosity and specific gravity of the residual bitumen on the heat treated tar sands. The distillate product and steam are cooled and condensed and mixed the heat treated tar sands containing residual beneficiated bitumen to form a slurry. Bitumen is then recovered from the slurry by a hot-water separation process.

Mitchell, T.O.

1984-01-03

65

An experimental study for a combined system of tar sand, oil shale, and olive cake as a potential energy source in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordan is an example of a third world country that is non-oil producing but contains huge reserves of other energy sources such as tar sand, oil shale, and olive cake. Some limited research is available about how to utilize these energy sources in pure form. However, available research does not deal with combinations of these energy sources. This experimental study

M. M Kablan; T. M Alkhamis

1999-01-01

66

Steam-Reforming Characteristics of Heavy and Light Tars Derived from Cellulose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, tar formation and steam-reforming mechanisms are discussed by separating the tars into heavy, middle, and light tars. Cellulose was heated in a drop-tube furnace under an Ar or Ar/steam atmosphere. After the tars were passed through the furnace for thermal cracking and polymerization, they were trapped by filters set at different temperatures (573, 393, and 273 K), and were respectively defined as heavy, middle, and light tars. Incondensable volatiles and gaseous products were measured using gas chromatography with thermal conductivity (GC-TCD), and flame ionization (GC-FID) detectors. The middle and light tars obtained under an Ar atmosphere were first characterized using time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). The analysis showed that the middle tar did not contain any low-boiling-point light tar components, while the light tar did contain them. It was also found that complex species in the tars were separated to a certain degree by changing the trap temperature. Moreover, the formation of heavy tar was quite different from that of the light tar. With increasing temperature, the formation of heavy tar was inhibited, while that of the light tar was enhanced during pyrolysis. The steam-reforming characteristics of these tars were also different. The heavy tar was barely reformed at a low temperature of 873 K, even with a long residence time, while the middle tar was well reformed by steam. While it was difficult to describe the tar formation and steam-reforming characteristics when the tar was considered as a single condensable matter, the tar formation and steam-reforming characteristics were clarified by separating the tars. This study shows that, to prevent tar emissions, the formation of heavy tar, which barely reacts with steam, should be inhibited during pyrolysis by controlling the heating.

Watanabe, Hirotatsu; Morinaga, Yosuke; Okazaki, Ken

67

Thermodynamic studies of a series of homologous HIV-1 TAR RNA ligands reveal that loose binders are stronger Tat competitors than tight ones.  

PubMed

RNA is a major drug target, but the design of small molecules that modulate RNA function remains a great challenge. In this context, a series of structurally homologous 'polyamide amino acids' (PAA) was studied as HIV-1 trans-activating response (TAR) RNA ligands. An extensive thermodynamic study revealed the occurence of an enthalpy-entropy compensation phenomenon resulting in very close TAR affinities for all PAA. However, their binding modes and their ability to compete with the Tat fragment strongly differ according to their structure. Surprisingly, PAA that form loose complexes with TAR were shown to be stronger Tat competitors than those forming tight ones, and thermal denaturation studies demonstrated that loose complexes are more stable than tight ones. This could be correlated to the fact that loose and tight ligands induce distinct RNA conformational changes as revealed by circular dichroism experiments, although nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments showed that the TAR binding site is the same in all cases. Finally, some loose PAA also display promising inhibitory activities on HIV-infected cells. Altogether, these results lead to a better understanding of RNA interaction modes that could be very useful for devising new ligands of relevant RNA targets. PMID:23605042

Pascale, Lise; Azoulay, Stéphane; Di Giorgio, Audrey; Zenacker, Laura; Gaysinski, Marc; Clayette, Pascal; Patino, Nadia

2013-06-01

68

Thermodynamic studies of a series of homologous HIV-1 TAR RNA ligands reveal that loose binders are stronger Tat competitors than tight ones  

PubMed Central

RNA is a major drug target, but the design of small molecules that modulate RNA function remains a great challenge. In this context, a series of structurally homologous ‘polyamide amino acids’ (PAA) was studied as HIV-1 trans-activating response (TAR) RNA ligands. An extensive thermodynamic study revealed the occurence of an enthalpy–entropy compensation phenomenon resulting in very close TAR affinities for all PAA. However, their binding modes and their ability to compete with the Tat fragment strongly differ according to their structure. Surprisingly, PAA that form loose complexes with TAR were shown to be stronger Tat competitors than those forming tight ones, and thermal denaturation studies demonstrated that loose complexes are more stable than tight ones. This could be correlated to the fact that loose and tight ligands induce distinct RNA conformational changes as revealed by circular dichroism experiments, although nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments showed that the TAR binding site is the same in all cases. Finally, some loose PAA also display promising inhibitory activities on HIV-infected cells. Altogether, these results lead to a better understanding of RNA interaction modes that could be very useful for devising new ligands of relevant RNA targets. PMID:23605042

Pascale, Lise; Azoulay, Stéphane; Di Giorgio, Audrey; Zenacker, Laura; Gaysinski, Marc; Clayette, Pascal; Patino, Nadia

2013-01-01

69

Eagle Lake Rainbow Trout Spawner Migration Study 2006 Report to the Pine Creek CRMP  

E-print Network

Eagle Lake Rainbow Trout Spawner Migration Study ­ 2006 Report to the Pine Creek CRMP 15 November , and Ken Weaver6 1 Wildlife, Fish, & Conservation Biology Department, University of California Davis 2 Service, Susanville, CA Lassen County Publication #12;Eagle Lake Rainbow Trout Spawner Migration Study

Thompson, Lisa C.

70

Mineral resources of the Spring Creek Canyon Wilderness Study Area, Iron County, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986 and 1987 the US Geological Survey and the US Bureau of Mines appraised the mineral resources and the mineral resource potential of the Spring Creek Canyon Wilderness Study Area in southwestern Utah. This study area contains principally Mesozoic sedimentary rocks exposed along the Hurricane Fault and in canyons adjacent to Zion National Park. Inferred subeconomic resources of common

R. E. Van Loenen; H. R. Jr. Blank; E. G. Sable; G. K. Lee; K. L. Cook; J. E. Zelten

1989-01-01

71

An Integrative Approach Towards Understanding Ecological Responses to Dam Removal: The Manatawny Creek Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dam removal has been proposed as an effective method of river restoration, but few integrative studies have examined ecological responses to the removal of dams. In 1999, we initiated an interdisciplinary study to determine ecological responses to the removal of a 2 m high dam on lower Manatawny Creek in southeastern Pennsylvania. We used an integrative monitoring program to assess

Karen L. Bushaw-Newton; David D. Hart; James E. Pizzuto; James R. Thomson; Jennifer Egan; Jeffrey T. Ashley; Thomas E. Johnson; Richard J. Horwitz; Melissa Keeley; Joy Lawrence; Don Charles; Catherine Gatenby; Daniel A. Kreeger; Tim Nightengale; Roger L. Thomas; David J. Velinsky

2002-01-01

72

HANGMEN CREEK, BENEWAH COUNTY, IDAHO - POST BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IMPLEMENTATION STUDY, 1989-1990  

EPA Science Inventory

A study completed in 1982 established the baseline water quality status of Hangman Creek, Idaho (17010306) and recommended land management changes for the watershed. The main objective of this follow-up study was to evaluate differences in water quality for the 1981-1982 baselin...

73

BIG CANYON CREEK STUDY, LEWIS AND NEZ PERCE COUNTIES, IDAHO, 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In the 1979 water year, a water quality study was completed on Big Canyon Creek in Lewis and Nez Perce Counties, Idaho (17060306). The study was conducted to obtain background information for development of effluent limitations for the Cities of Peck and Nezperce and to determin...

74

Fuels from tar sands  

SciTech Connect

A general discussion of the tar sand resource in the US in presented. The difficulties and uncertainties associated with the development of synfuels are discussed. Predictions are made concerning the development of the tar sands resource in the US and Canada during the next 15 years.

Woods, L.M.

1986-03-01

75

BIG CREEK SUB-WATERSHED STUDY: WATER AND BED SEDIMENT QUALITY RELATIONAL TO PESTICIDE AND NUTRIENT CONCENTRATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The City of Alpharetta, Georgia was awarded a 319(h) grant in 1999 for the study of water and bed sediment quality relational to pesticide and nutrient concentrations in the Big Creek sub-watershed. After changes in personnel and the work plan, monitoring began on the project in April 2004. Big Creek has a watershed area of 103 square miles and is

Rebecca Shelton

2007-01-01

76

Effect of cavitation on the properties of coal-tar pitch as studied by gas-liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect

The applicability of the cavitation-wave effect to coal-tar pitch processing is considered. The results of the GLC analysis of the test material before and after rotor-pulsation cavitation treatment are given. The organic matter of coal-tar pitch was found to degrade upon cavitation; as a result of this, the yields of light and medium fractions considerably increased. 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

M.I. Baikenov; T.B. Omarbekov; S.K. Amerkhanova (and others) [Buketov State University, Karaganda (Kazakhstan)

2008-02-15

77

Blake Rose, Noah Edwards, Tyson Bancroft Hydrological Study of Connaught Creek, Glacier National Park,  

E-print Network

Pass, Glacier National Park, British Columbia · Balu Valley is the main drainage basin SupplyingBlake Rose, Noah Edwards, Tyson Bancroft Hydrological Study of Connaught Creek, Glacier National by snow pack, glacier melt, groundwater and precipitation · Provides drinking water for the Roger pass

Smith, Dan

78

Production of oil from Intermountain West tar sands deposits  

SciTech Connect

Six tar sand deposits in the Intermountain West, each containing more than one billion barrels of oil in place, are identified. All of these deposits are in eastern Utah and contain a total of twenty-eight billion barrels of oil. The names of the six deposits arranged in descending order of desirability for large-scale surface-mining oil recovery operations are as follows: Sunnyside, Tar Sand Triangle, Asphalt Ridge, P.R. Spring, Circle Cliffs, and Hill Creek. An overview of each deposit is presented including geology, surface-mining variables, chemical processing variables, environmental aspects, and economics. A comparison of Utah tar sands and Athabasca, Alberta, Canada tar sands is also presented.

Glassett, J.M.; Glassett, J.A.

1976-03-01

79

Mineral resources of the Spring Creek Canyon Wilderness Study Area, Iron County, Utah  

SciTech Connect

In 1986 and 1987 the US Geological Survey and the US Bureau of Mines appraised the mineral resources and the mineral resource potential of the Spring Creek Canyon Wilderness Study Area in southwestern Utah. This study area contains principally Mesozoic sedimentary rocks exposed along the Hurricane Fault and in canyons adjacent to Zion National Park. Inferred subeconomic resources of common variety sand, sandstone, and limestone occur in this study area. The Spring Creek Canyon Wilderness Study Area has a moderate potential for undiscovered resources of oil and gas in small fields. This study area has a low potential for all metals (including copper, silver, and uranium) and geothermal resources. There is no potential for coal or gypsum.

Van Loenen, R.E.; Blank, H.R. Jr.; Sable, E.G.; Lee, G.K.; Cook, K.L.; Zelten, J.E.

1989-01-01

80

Dynamic Sediment Modeling in Iowa Streams and Rivers: A Case Study at Walnut Creek  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep channel bed incision and severe channel bank erosion, which have strong effects on the evolution of channel and watershed morphology, are becoming serious problems in natural rivers and streams in Iowa as a result of wide distribution of loess soil material, agricultural activity, river training and human intervention. Consequent high sediment concentration can also cause low water quality and jeopardize aquatic habitat. Dynamic modeling of sediment transport in rivers and streams provides a useful tool for monitoring, controlling and forecasting the morphology change and water quality in channels and watersheds. In order to gain insight into sediment transport process, a dynamic sediment model is built for a 7-mile segment of Walnut Creek in Jasper County, Iowa. This creek was intensively surveyed by Iowa Geological Survey Bureau (IGSB) as part of the Walnut Creek Nonpoint Source Monitoring Project. Besides channel geometry data from the survey, hydraulic and sediment data were collected at two gauges upstream and downstream operated by USGS. A software GSTARS3 developed by USGS is adopted to model both channel bed incision and bank erosion which are typical phenomena in Iowa. The dynamic sediment model is calibrated using channel bathymetry data from recent survey conducted by IGSB. Finally, based on forecasting of flow and sediment discharge time series at the upstream and stage time series at the downstream, a sediment forecasting model is developed to see if the stream can go back to the clarity and morphology of original creek. The study on this small surveyed and controlled creek will benefit our research in other Iowa rivers and streams.

Li, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Skopec, M.

2004-12-01

81

Tar sands` asphaltic mixes  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results obtained from the laboratory investigation aimed at determining the possibility of making asphaltic mixes of acceptable quality for road surfacing, from raw tar sands (as they occur in nature). The tar sand samples consist mainly of fine sand, water, and bitumen. Five different types of asphaltic mixes were produced from tar sands and superheated aggregates. On the basis of Marshall and indirect tensile (Brazilian) tests carried out on the produced asphaltic mixes, the investigation revealed that raw tar sands are good material for the production of asphaltic mixes. The results of the investigation also suggest that for a given mix set, there may be correlation between maximum value of Marshall stability and maximum indirect tensile strength.

Akinrogunde, E.A. [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany)

1995-12-31

82

Data from the surface-water hydrologic investigations of the Hay Creek Study Area, Montana, and the West Branch Antelope Creek Study Area, North Dakota, October 1976 through April 1982  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data are provided for the Hay Creek study area near Wibaux, Montana, and the West Branch Antelope Creek study area near Beulah, North Dakota. The report contains data on the following: Air temperature, relative humidity, wind direction, wind run, solar radiation, precipitation, soil temperature, snowpack temperature, snowpack density and moisture content, streamflow, water quality, soil moisture, land use, and basin characteristics. Detailed descriptions of the location of the data-collection sites, instrumentation, and methods used to collect data are included. (USGS)

Emerson, Douglas G.; Norbeck, Steven W.; Boespflug, Kelvin L.

1983-01-01

83

Nitrogen and Carbon Isotope Studies of a Bat Guano Core From Eagle Creek Cave, Arizona, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios were studied in a stratified deposit of guano of Mexican Free-tailed bats in Eagle Creek Cave, Arizona, U.S.A. Little diagenetic change was observed over the 25-year time span of the guano deposit. High aridity and reduced circulation of air in the cave are hypothesized to have slowed the normally rapid decomposition of the excreta and

Hiroshi Mizutani; Donald A. McFarlane; Yuko Kabaya

1992-01-01

84

Tar loads on Omani beaches  

SciTech Connect

Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches.

Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T. (National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt))

1991-11-01

85

Final safety assessment of Coal Tar as used in cosmetics.  

PubMed

Coal Tar is a semisolid by-product obtained in the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, which functions in cosmetic products as a cosmetic biocide and denaturant--antidandruff agent is also listed as a function, but this is considered an over-the-counter (OTC) drug use. Coal Tar is a nearly black, viscous liquid, heavier than water, with a naphthalene-like odor and a sharp burning taste, produced in cooking ovens as a by-product in the manufacture of coke. Crude Coal Tar is composed of 48% hydrocarbons, 42% carbon, and 10% water. In 2002, Coal Tar was reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in four formulations, all of which appear to be OTC drug products. Coal Tar is monographed by the FDA as Category I (safe and effective) OTC drug ingredient for use in the treatment of dandruff, seborrhoea, and psoriasis. Coal Tar is absorbed through the skin of animals and humans and is systemically distributed. In short-term studies, mice fed a diet containing Coal Tar found it unpalatable, but no adverse effects were reported other than weight loss; rats injected with Coal Tar experienced malaise in one study and decreased water intake and increased liver weights in another; rabbits injected with Coal Tar residue experienced eating avoidance, respiratory difficulty, sneezing, and weight loss. In a subchronic neurotoxicity study using mice, a mixture of phenols, cresols, and xylenols at concentrations approximately equal to those expected in Coal Tar extracts produced regionally selective effects, with a rank order of corpus striatum > cerebellum > cerebral cortex. Coal Tar applied to the backs of guinea pigs increases epidermal thickness. Painting female rabbits with tar decreases the absolute and relative weights of the ovaries and decreased the number of interstitial cells in the ovary. Four therapeutic Coal Tar preparations used in the treatment of psoriasis were mutagenic in the Ames assay. Urine and blood from patients treated with Coal Tar were genotoxic in bacterial assays. Coal Tar was genotoxic in a mammalian genotoxicity assay and induced DNA adducts in various tissue types. Chronic exposure of mice to Coal Tar significantly decreased survival and liver neoplasms were seen in a significant dose-related trend; in other studies using mice lung tumors and perianal skin cancers were found. Coal Tar was comedogenic in three small clinical studies. Folliculitis is associated with the prolonged use of some tars. Several published reports describe cases of contact sensitivity to Coal Tar. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which make up Coal Tar, are photosensitizers and cause phototoxicity by an oxygen-dependent mechanism. A retrospective study of the reproductive toxicity of Coal Tar in humans compared exposed women to controls and found little difference in spontaneous abortion and congenital disorders. Cancer epidemiology studies of patients who have received Coal Tar therapy of one form or other have failed to link treatment with an increase in the risk of cancer. Although the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel believes that Coal Tar use as an antidandruff ingredient in OTC drug preparations is adequately addressed by the FDA regulations, the Panel also believes that the appropriate concentration of use of Coal Tar in cosmetic formulations should be that level that does not have a biological effect in the user. Additional data needed to make a safety assessment include product types in which Coal Tar is used (other than as an OTC drug ingredient), use concentrations, and the maximum concentration that does not induce a biological effect in users. PMID:18830861

2008-01-01

86

Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Field Activities Conducted on Clear and Pete King Creeks, 2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 2001 the Idaho Fisheries Resource Office continued as a cooperator on the Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project on Pete King and Clear creeks. Data relating to supplementation treatment releases, juvenile sampling, juvenile PIT tagging, brood stock spawning and rearing, spawning ground surveys, and snorkel surveys were used to evaluate project data points and augment past data. Due to low adult spring Chinook returns to Kooskia National Fish Hatchery (KNFH) in brood year 1999 there was no smolt supplementation treatment release into Clear Creek in 2001. A 17,014 spring Chinook parr supplementation treatment (containing 1000 PIT tags) was released into Pete King Creek on July 24, 2001. On Clear Creek, there were 412 naturally produced spring Chinook parr PIT tagged and released. Using juvenile collection methods, Idaho Fisheries Resource Office staff PIT tagged and released 320 naturally produced spring Chinook pre-smolts on Clear Creek, and 16 natural pre-smolts on Pete King Creek, for minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam. There were no PIT tag detections of brood year 1999 smolts from Clear or Pete King creeks. A total of 2261 adult spring Chinook were collected at KNFH. Forty-three females were used for supplementation brood stock, and 45 supplementation (ventral fin-clip), and 45 natural (unmarked) adults were released upstream of KNFH to spawn naturally. Spatial and temporal distribution of 37 adults released above the KNFH weir was determined through the use of radio telemetry. On Clear Creek, a total of 166 redds (8.2 redds/km) were observed and data was collected from 195 carcasses. Seventeen completed redds (2.1 redds/km) were found, and data was collected data from six carcasses on Pete King Creek.

Gass, Carrie; Olson, Jim M. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

2004-11-01

87

Manufacture of road paving asphalt using coal tar  

SciTech Connect

Coal tar is a ready source of asphaltenes needed in asphalt production. Coal tar pitch itself, however, is unsuitable for making road-paving asphalt, since the resulting material has low ductility, high temperature sensitivity, and low resistance to wear. For this reason, in England, where replacing imported petroleum with local products was important 10 to 20 years ago, it was required that no more than 10 to 20 percent coal tar pitch be incorporated in road pavement. At higher concentrations, the pitch separates from the petroleum-derived asphalt, causing brittleness and cracking. To make a good asphalt from coal tar pitch, chemical modification or blending with additives appears necessary. In this study, the potentials are for producing road-paving asphalt from coal tar and available inexpensive petroleum fractions are explored. The objective of the study is to develop new uses of coal tar for asphalt production and to free the petroleum residue for upgrading to gasoline and diesel fuels.

Yan, T.Y.

1986-09-01

88

Water quality study of the Riley Creek (Blanchard River, Ottawa, Ohio)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riley Creek in northwest central Ohio is one of the most heavily impacted tributaries in the Blanchard River watershed. Anthropogenic inputs of phosphorus and nitrogen from agriculture have led to heavy eutrophication over the past decades. Because the Blanchard River is part of the Lake Erie basin, controls on phosphorus and nitrogen, among other inputs, are critical for restoration of ecosystem health in Lake Erie. A previous study in the Riley Creek watershed has shown high historical loadings of both nitrogen and phosphorus. Additionally, bacterial impairment has been noted in the watershed, from both municipal sources and failing septic tanks. This study is the most recent data detailing water quality parameters both chemical and microbiological in Riley Creek. This is also the first data set in Riley Creek examining the spectral characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM). From May to August, 2012, dissolved oxygen concentrations at six sites in the watershed declined from a maximum of 13.2 mg/L (154% O2 saturation) to 1.1 mg/L (12.9%). Median dissolved oxygen during the same period was 5.96 mg/L. Water pH was relatively steady, ranging from 8.6 to 7.9, with values generally declining with time. All six sites were found to have nitrate concentrations above the enforcement target (1 mg/L NO3--N) at various times, with four out of 73 samples falling below this value. Dissolved reactive phosphorus was generally low, with concentrations ranging from 0.074 mg P/L to below detection limits (<0.005 mg P/L). Dissolved organic matter concentrations (measured as mg C/L, potassium hydrogen phthalate equivalent) ranged from 24.1 to 3.5 mg C/L (mean = 9.8 ± 3.8 mg C/L), with no apparent temporal trends. Spectral slope ratios, a proxy for molecular mass, were relatively constant at 0.9 ± 0.2, with only intermittent excursions. No correlation to either flow or time was observed. Tests for fecal coliform bacteria were almost universally positive at all sites, with 10 of 69 samples showing a presumptive positive with presence-absence broth. Overall, the health of the Riley Creek watershed appears to be either stable or declining. Phosphorus and nitrogen loadings have not shown any appreciable change over approximately the past decade. Declines in dissolved oxygen were not noted in previous studies, and may signal an emerging problem in the watershed.

Spiese, C. E.; Berry, J. M.

2012-12-01

89

Extracting Oil From Tar Sands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

1984-01-01

90

Preliminary feasibility studies in times of rapid cost escalation. [Oil shale and tar sand industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not the least of the problems delaying the development and commercialization of synthetic fuel processes has been the extraordinary escalation of cost estimates by factors of up to ten in the past eight years. This study identifies and analyzes some of the most important contributing factors that have converged in the last few years. These factors include overoptimism and ill-defined

E. D. Oliver; A. J. Moll

1976-01-01

91

Absorptive removal of biomass tar using water and oily materials.  

PubMed

Water is the most common choice of absorption medium selected in many gasification systems. Because of poor solubility of tar in water, hydrophobic absorbents (diesel fuel, biodiesel fuel, vegetable oil, and engine oil) were studied on their absorption efficiency of biomass tar and compared with water. The results showed that only 31.8% of gravimetric tar was removed by the water scrubber, whereas the highest removal of gravimetric tar was obtained by a vegetable oil scrubber with a removal efficiency of 60.4%. When focusing on light PAH tar removal, the absorption efficiency can be ranked in the following order; diesel fuel>vegetable oil>biodiesel fuel>engine oil>water. On the other hand, an increase in gravimetric tar was observed for diesel fuel and biodiesel fuel scrubbers because of their easy evaporation. Therefore, the vegetable oil is recommended as the best absorbent to be used in gasification systems. PMID:20801021

Phuphuakrat, Thana; Namioka, Tomoaki; Yoshikawa, Kunio

2011-01-01

92

The potential use of tar sand bitumen as paving asphalt  

SciTech Connect

The properties of several tar sand asphalts prepared in past studies by several different investigators were compared with each other and with the properties of petroleum asphalts. These results were reviewed and discussed with regard to the potential use of tar sand bitumen in pavement applications. The data show that tar sand bitumen has good potential for use in highway pavements that meet today's performance specifications. No deficiencies in the tar sand asphalts were found that would be expected to seriously affect performance. On the other hand, the data indicate that some tar sand asphalts may have superior aging characteristics, being relatively resistant to oxidative age hardening compared with typical petroleum asphalts. Asphalt-aggregate mixtures prepared using two tar sand asphalts also showed acceptable strength properties and excellent resistance to moisture-induced damage.

Petersen, J.C.

1987-01-01

93

CSO DISINFECTION PILOT STUDY: SPRING CREEK CSO STORAGE FACILITY UPGRADE  

EPA Science Inventory

This research summary presents the results of a pilot-scale disinfection study performed for the New York City Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) under a contract to Camp Dresser & McKee of Woodbury, New York. The main ob...

94

Microcosm studies of microbial degradation in a coal tar distillate plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigation of a groundwater plume containing up to 24 g l -1 phenolic compounds suggested that over a period of nearly 50 years, little degradation had occurred despite the presence of a microbial community and electron acceptors within the core of the plume. In order to study the effect of contaminant concentration on degradation behaviour, laboratory microcosm experiments were performed under aerobic and anaerobic conditions at four different concentrations obtained by diluting contaminated with uncontaminated groundwater. The microcosms contained groundwater with total phenols at ca. 200, 250, 660 and 5000 mg l -1, and aquifer sediment that had been acclimatised within the plume for several months. The microcosms were operated for a period of 390-400 days along with sterile controls to ascertain whether degradation was microbially mediated or abiotic. Under aerobic conditions, degradation only occurred at concentrations up to 660 mg l -1 total phenols. At phenol concentrations below 250 mg l -1, a benzoquinone intermediate, thought to originate from the degradation of 2,5-dimethylphenol, was isolated and identified. This suggested an unusual degradative pathway for this compound; its aerobic degradation more commonly proceeding via catecholic intermediates. Under anaerobic conditions, degradation only occurred in the most dilute microcosm (total phenols 195 mg l -1) with a loss of p-cresol accompanied by a nonstoichiometric decrease in nitrate and sulphate. By inference, iron(III) from the sediment may also have been used as a terminal electron acceptor, in which case the amount of biologically available iron released was calculated as 1.07 mg Fe(III)/g of sediment. The study shows that natural attenuation is likely to be stimulated by dilution of the plume.

Harrison, I.; Williams, G. M.; Higgo, J. J. W.; Leader, R. U.; Kim, A. W.; Noy, D. J.

2001-12-01

95

Thermal Recovery From Tar Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of the progress made in developing improved technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands, it is logical to assume that as the world's supply of light and heavy oil is depleted, production of synthetic oil from the bitumen resources in tar sands will accelerate. As most of the known deposits of tar sands were discovered by

Maurice Carrigy

1983-01-01

96

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 5  

SciTech Connect

This volume is in support of the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the Oak Ridge Reservation (for more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities there). It addresses the quality assurance objectives for measuring the data, presents selected historical data, contains data from several discrete water characterization studies, provides data supporting the sediment characterization, and contains data related to several biota characterization studies.

NONE

1996-03-01

97

TAR SANDS LEACHATE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

An inhouse research project was conducted by the EPA's Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory (IERL) at the T&E Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio, to provide information concerning the potential for release of contaminants to groundwater from in-situ and above-ground processed t...

98

A comparison of zeolite and dolomite as gasification tar-cracking catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Unconverted liquid products produced during steam gasification of coal are heavy tars. The object of this study was to compare a zeolite with dolomite as tar-cracking catalysts. Up to 75% of ale tars from a lignite and a subbituminous coal were cracked to lower molecular weight compounds by use of a heated catalyst bed. Collection of the tars downstream of the catalyst bed resulted in approximately 50% less tar from the test with dolomite as the catalyst than with zeolite. Simulated distillations of the tars showed more effective cracking with the dolomite than with the zeolite.

Timpe, R.C.; Young, B.C. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

1995-12-31

99

A comparison of dolomite and a zeolite for use as gasification tar-cracking catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Unconverted liquid products produced during steam gasification of coal are heavy tars. The object of this study was to compare a zeolite with dolomite as tar-cracking catalysts. Up to 75% of the tars from a lignite and a subbituminous coal were cracked to lower molecular weight compounds by use of a heated catalyst bed. Collection of the tars downstream of the catalyst bed showed that approximately 50% less tar resulted from the test with dolomite as the catalyst than that obtained with zeolite. Simulated distillations of the tars showed more effective cracking with the dolomite than with the zeolite.

Timpe, R.C.; Young, B.C. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

1995-12-31

100

Mobilization of Manufactured Gas Plant Tar with Alkaline Flushing Solutions  

PubMed Central

This experimental study investigates the use of alkaline and alkaline-polymer solutions for the mobilization of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars. Tar-aqueous interfacial tensions (IFTs) and contact angles were measured, and column flushing experiments were conducted. NaOH solutions (0.01–1 wt.%) were found to significantly reduce tar-aqueous IFT. Contact angles indicated a shift to strongly water-wet, then to tar-wet conditions as NaOH concentration increased. Column experiments were conducted with flushing solutions containing 0.2, 0.35, and 0.5% NaOH, both with and without xanthan gum (XG). Between 10 and 44% of the residual tar was removed by solutions containing only NaOH, while solutions containing both NaOH and XG removed 81–93% of the tar with final tar saturations as low as 0.018. The mechanism responsible for the tar removal is likely a combination of reduced IFT, a favorable viscosity ratio, and tar bank formation. Such an approach may have practical applications and would be significantly less expensive than surfactant-based methods. PMID:22091957

Hauswirth, Scott C.; Birak, Pamela Schultz; Rylander, Seth C.; Miller, Cass T.

2011-01-01

101

VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS  

SciTech Connect

This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

1997-07-01

102

Collection of short papers on Beaver Creek watershed studies in West Tennessee, 1989-94  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey began a scientific investigation to evaluate the effect of agricultural activities on water quality and the effectiveness of agricultural best management practices in the Beaver Creek watershed, West Tennessee. The project is being conducted jointly with other Federal, State, county agencies, the farming community, and academic institutions, in support of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Hydrologic Unit Area program. The Beaver Creek project has evolved into a long-term watershed assessment and monitoring program. In 1991, a grant was received to develop and evaluate sampling strategies for higher order streams. During the summer of 1992, a reconnaissance of water-quality conditions for the shallow aquifers in Shelby, Tipton, Fayette, and Haywood Counties was conducted and included 89 domestic wells in the Beaver Creek watershed. Results from this effort lead to the development of a 1-year program to evaluate cause- and-effect relations that can explain the observed water-quality conditions for the shallow aquifers in the watershed. In 1992 the USGS, in cooperation with the Soil Conservation Service and the Shelby County Soil Conservation District, began an evaluation of in-stream processes and in-stream resource-management systems. In 1993, a biomonitoring program was established in the watershed. This collection of eight articles and abstracts was originally published in the American Water Resources Association National Symposium on Water Quality Proceedings for the national conference held in Chicago in 1994 and describes what has been learned in the study to date.

Doyle, W. Harry., (compiler); Baker, Eva G.

1995-01-01

103

Comparative anti-dandruff efficacy between a tar and a non-tar shampoo.  

PubMed

A randomized double-blind clinical study was conducted on two groups of 30 volunteers using either a non-tar shampoo (2% salicylic acid, 0.75% piroctone olamine and 0.5% elubiol) or a 0.5% coal tar shampoo. Subjects were diagnosed as having moderate to marked dandruff. The study consisted of a 3-week washout, followed by a 4-week treatment and a 4-week posttreatment regression phase. The clinical evaluations and subject self-assessments showed that the non-tar shampoo was as effective as the tar shampoo. Both received high approval ratings (> or =70%). Biometrological methods proved to be more sensitive than clinical evaluations to assess the efficacy of the shampoos. The non-tar shampoo yielded a significantly better reduction of Malassezia spp. counts (p<0.02) during the treatment phase and reduced the spontaneous increase in squamometry values (p< 0.01) during the posttreatment phase. It is concluded that a formulation associating salicylic acid, piroctone olamine and elubiol exhibited increased beneficial effects compared to the coal tar shampoo. PMID:10773717

Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E; Vroome, V; Lin, G C; Appa, Y

2000-01-01

104

Examination of eastern oil shale disposal problems - the Hope Creek field study  

SciTech Connect

A field-based study of problems associated with the disposal of processed Eastern oil shale was initiated in mid-1983 at a private research site in Montgomery County, Kentucky. The study (known as the Hope Creek Spent Oil Shale Disposal Project) is designed to provide information on the geotechnical, revegetation/reclamation, and leachate generation and composition characteristics of processed Kentucky oil shales. The study utilizes processed oil shale materials (retorted oil shale and reject raw oil shale fines) obtained from a pilot plant run of Kentucky oil shale using the travelling grate retort technology. Approximately 1000 tons of processed oil shale were returned to Kentucky for the purpose of the study. The study, composed of three components, is described. The effort to date has concentrated on site preparation and the construction and implementation of the field study research facilities. These endeavors are described and the project direction in the future years is defined.

Koppenaal, D.W.; Kruspe, R.R.; Robl, T.L.; Cisler, K.; Allen, D.L.

1985-02-01

105

Preliminary hydrologic budget studies, Indian Creek watershed and vicinity, Western Paradox Basin, Utah  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary quantitative estimates of ground-water discharge into the Colorado River System in the western Paradox Basin were prepared on the basis of existing climatological and streamflow records. Ground-water outflow to the river was deduced as a residual from hydrologic budget equations for two different study areas: (1) the region between gaging stations at Cisco, Green River, and Hite, Utah; and (2) the Indian Creek watershed. An empirical correlation between recharge rates and precipitation amounts derived for several basins in eastern Nevada was applied to estimate recharge amounts for the Indian Creek watershed. A simple Darcian flow model was then used to approximate the ground-water flux outward from the watershed for comparison. Salinity measurements in the Colorado River were also used to approximate ground-water outflow to a river reach in Cataract Canyon in order to provide another comparison with the hydrologic budget results. Although these estimates should be considered only gross approximations, all approaches used provide values of ground-water outflow that are much less than estimates of similar parameters provided by the US Geological Survey in recent hydrologic reconnaissance reports. Estimates contained herein will be refined in future numerical modeling and data collection studies.

Thackston, J.W.; Mangarella, P.A.; Preslo, L.M.

1986-05-01

106

Model Experiments of Steam Stimulation in Nigerian Tar Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of producing heavy oil from the Nigerian tar sand deposit by steam stimulation was investigated in the laboratory using a scaled and five unseated physical models (tar sands packs). The effect of oil saturation and different matrix grain size on oil recovery were also studied.A fabricated 91·44 cm (diameter), 33 cm (high) high pressure cast iron vessel (prototype

O. OMOLE; D. A. OMOLARA

1988-01-01

107

Environmental flow studies of the Fort Collins Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey-Cherry Creek, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At the request of the U.S. Forest Service, an instream flow assessment was conducted at Cherry Creek, Ariz., to investigate habitat for native and introduced fish species and to describe the beneficial use of a possible instream flow water right. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fort Collins Science Center performed an intensive field study of two sections of Cherry Creek in September 2008 to provide base data for hydrodynamic simulation of the flow conditions in the stream. The USGS Arizona Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, at the University of Arizona School of Natural Resources, conducted a survey of the habitat requirements of the resident fish species in Cherry Creek and provided the habitat suitability criteria used in this study. The habitat suitability criteria were combined with hydrodynamic simulation results to quantify fish habitat for the full range of daily flow experienced in the creek and to produce maps of habitat occurrence for those flows. The flow record at the Cherry Creek stream gage was used to generate habitat response values over time. The long-term habitat response was incorporated into an Excel (Registered) spreadsheet to allow evaluation of habitat occurrence with and without an instream water right under different hypothetical water withdrawal scenarios. The spreadsheet displays information about the time sequence of habitat events, the duration of critical events, and habitat retention.

Waddle, Terry J.; Bovee, Ken D.

2010-01-01

108

Thermocatalytic treatment of biomass tar model compounds via radio frequency.  

PubMed

A new effective RF tar thermocatalytic treatment process with low energy intensive has been proposed to remove tar from biomass gasification. Toluene and naphthalene as biomass tar model compounds were removed via both thermal and catalytic treatment over a wide temperature range from 850 °C to 1200 °C and 450 °C to 900 °C, respectively at residence time of 0-0.7 s. Thermal characteristics of the new technique are also described in this paper. This study clearly clarified that toluene was much easier to be removed than naphthalene. Soot was found as the final product of thermal treatment of the tar model and completely removed during catalytic treatment. Radical reactions generated by RF non-thermal effect improve the tar removal. The study showed that Y-zeolite has better catalytic activity compared to dolomite on toluene and naphthalene removal due to its acidic nature and large surface area, even at lower reaction temperature of about 550 °C. PMID:23567671

Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z A; Bakar, M Z A

2013-05-01

109

Bitumen recovery from tar sands  

SciTech Connect

A process for recovering bitumen from tar sands wherein the tar sands are pretreated with a diluent, such as kerosene in the preferred embodiment, to lower the viscosity of the bitumen such that it is in the range of about 5 to about 20 poise at the digestion temperature. The tar sands are then digested at a temperature in the range of about 45/sup 0/ C. to about 60/sup 0/ C. and at a pH of about 7.8 to about 8.6. The tar sands are then transferred to a flotation cell where the bitumen-rich concentrate is separated from the sand.

Miller, J.D.; Hupka, J.

1984-09-11

110

Preliminary study of heavy metal pollution from Fe-Al oxides in Peihuang Creek, North Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) is not active since late Pleistocene but the post-volcanic activities, such as hot spring and sulfur gas, still widespread around the volcano province. Peihuang Creek is the main watershed system in TVG. The creek water is characterized by higher temperature, low pH values (3.0-4.5) and high SO4 content (60-400 ppm) due to the mixing of hotspring. This would promote the geochemical interaction between water and andesitic rocks and results in waters with highly enriched iron, aluminum and silica. These elements prefer to form suspended colloidal particles in water and adsorb heavy metals. Once the pH of water increases under oxidation condition, the colloid would precipitate in the form of ochre colored powder on the riverbed. The previous study reports that the arsenic content can reach as high as hundreds ppm. It is very important to evaluate the desorption behavior of heavy metals, especially for the study area with highly developed agriculture. For the preliminary analysis, five samples of ochre colored powder were sampled along the creek. The results of XRF demonstrate that the powder is mainly composed of iron, aluminum and silica, which is Fe-Al hydroxide. The iron content of Fe-Al hydroxide decreases from 63% to 25% while the aluminum and silica contents gradually increase from 5% to 20% and from 9% to 30%, respectively. To evaluate the desorption of heavy metals, the sequential extraction procedure was conducted. In the first step for determining leachable metals, the Fe-Al oxides were extracted with deionized water in the room temperature for one week. All of the metals are in ppb level except copper. For determining reducible phase, Step 2 used reagent solution of 0.5 mol/L hydroxylamine hydrochloride, which was adjusted to pH=2 with ultrapure nitric acid, for one week. The extracted chromium, arsenic, lead and copper are in the dangerous level of tens to hundreds ppm. It is believed that only very small amounts of heavy metals were extracted due to extraordinary high content of Fe oxide in the powder. These metals would be expected to be released under reducing conditions. And, more extraction methods simulating different natural and anthropogenic environment will be performed in the future research. Rare earth elements (REE) are an excellent indicator of adsorption/desorption geochemistry and were also determined in this study. The results demonstrate a light REE enriched pattern, which reveals that the Fe-Al oxides prefer to bind metals with low ionic potential. In addition, a positive cerium anomaly indicates an oxidation condition during the precipitation of Fe-Al oxides.

Lai, B.

2012-12-01

111

Summary and Synthesis of Mercury Studies in the Cache Creek Watershed, California, 2000-01  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report summarizes the principal findings of the Cache Creek, California, components of a project funded by the CALFED Bay?Delta Program entitled 'An Assessment of Ecological and Human Health Impacts of Mercury in the Bay?Delta Watershed.' A companion report summarizes the key findings of other components of the project based in the San Francisco Bay and the Delta of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. These summary documents present the more important findings of the various studies in a format intended for a wide audience. For more in-depth, scientific presentation and discussion of the research, a series of detailed technical reports of the integrated mercury studies is available at the following website: .

Domagalski, Joseph L.; Slotton, Darell G.; Alpers, Charles N.; Suchanek, Thomas H.; Churchill, Ronald; Bloom, Nicolas; Ayers, Shaun M.; Clinkenbeard, John

2004-01-01

112

Analyses and description of geochemical samples, Mill Creek Wilderness Study Area, Giles County, Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Semiquantitative emission spectrographic analyses for 64 elements on 62 stream sediment and 71 rock samples from Mill Creek Wilderness Study area, Giles County, Virginia, are reported here in detail. Locations for all samples are given in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. Brief descriptions of rock samples are also included. Rocks analysed are mostly sandstone. Samples of hematitic sandstone of the Rose Hill Formation and limonite-cemented sandstone of the Rocky Gap Sandstone contain high values of iron; these rocks are submarginal iron resources. Some of the same iron-rich samples have a little more barium, copper, cobalt, lead, silver, and/or zinc then is in average sandstone, but they do not suggest the presence of economic deposits of these metals. No other obviously anomalous values related to mineralized rock are present in the data.

Mei, Leung; Lesure, Frank Gardner

1978-01-01

113

Hell Creek  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Hell Creek and underlying Fox Hills Formations are present at the land surface along the margins of the Williston Basin, but otherwise are the deepest bedrock aquifers that are commonly used in the basin....

114

Evaluating coal tar-water partitioning coefficient estimation methods and solute-solvent molecular interactions in tar phase.  

PubMed

Equilibrium partitioning coefficients between an industrial coal tar sample and water (KCT/w) were determined for 41 polar and nonpolar solutes in batch systems. Together with literature values, 69 KCT/w data were analyzed using the following model approaches: Raoult's law, the single parameter linear free energy relationship (SPLFER) with octanol-water partitioning coefficients (Kow), the linear solvation energy relationships (LSERs), SPARC and COSMOtherm. Estimations by Raoult's law and the SPLFER agreed well with the experimental log KCT/w values for the investigated coal tar, with root mean square errors (RMSE) of 0.31 and 0.33, respectively. LSER resulted in as good estimations (RMSE=0.29) as the previous two. The LSER analysis revealed significant hydrogen (H)-bond acceptor properties of the studied coal tar phase. Using naphthalene as a surrogate solvent for the coal tar phase, SPARC and COSMOtherm provided fairly good predictions (RMSE of 0.63 and 0.65, respectively) of log KCT/w, without any additional empirical parameter. Further calculations using SPARC and COSMOtherm for partitioning between water and other tar-components (e.g., benzofuran, phenol and quinoline) suggested that minor components in coal tar do not significantly influence KCT/w of nonpolar solutes, and that Raoult's law and the SPLFER thus may be generally applied to these types of solutes, e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkylbenzenes, regardless of coal tar compositions. In contrast, partitioning of H-bonding solutes (e.g., phenols) can significantly vary depending on the amount of polar tar-components such as N-heterocyclic aromatic compounds. Therefore, the presented successful applications of Raoult's law and SPLFER to the studied coal tar could be a special case, and these simple approaches may not provide reasonable estimations for partitioning of H-bonding solutes from compositionally different coal tars. PMID:18649918

Endo, Satoshi; Xu, Wanjing; Goss, Kai-Uwe; Schmidt, Torsten C

2008-09-01

115

Centrifuge treatment of coal tar  

SciTech Connect

New technology is required for the removal of water and heavy fractions from regular coal tar. Centrifuges offer the best option. Purification of coal tar by means of centrifuges at OAO NLMK permits the production of pitch coke or electrode pitch that complies with current standards.

L.A. Kazak; V.Z. Kaidalov; L.F. Syrova; O.S. Miroshnichenko; A.S. Minakov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15

116

Monitored natural attenuation of manufactured gas plant tar mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ground water: a 14-year field study  

SciTech Connect

Site 24 was the subject of a 14-year (5110-day) study of a ground water plume created by the disposal of manufactured gas plant (MGP) tar into a shallow sandy aquifer approximately 25 years prior to the study. The ground water plume in 1988 extended from a well-defined source area to a distance of approximately 400 m down gradient. A system of monitoring wells was installed along six transects that ran perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the plume centerline. The MGP tar source was removed from the site in 1991 and a 14-year ground water monitored natural attenuation (MNA) study commenced. The program measured the dissolved mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs and PAHs) periodically over time, which decreased significantly over the 14-year period. Naphthalene decreased to less than 99% of the original dissolved mass, with mass degradation rates of 0.30 per year (half-life 2.3 years). Bulk attenuation rate constants for plume centerline concentrations over time ranged from 0.33 {+-} 0.09 per year (half-life 2.3 {+-} 0.8 years) for toluene and 0.45 {+-} 0.06 per year (half-life 1.6 {+-} 0.2 years) for naphthalene. The hydrogeologic setting at Site 24, having a sandy aquifer, shallow water table, clay confining layer, and aerobic conditions, was ideal for demonstrating MNA. However, these results demonstrate that MNA is a viable remedial strategy for ground water at sites impacted by MAHs and PAHs after the original source is removed, stabilized, or contained.

Neuhauser, E.F.; Ripp, J.A.; Azzolina, N.A.; Madsen, E.L.; Mauro, D.M.; Taylor, T. [Foth Infrastructure & Environment LLC, Green Bay, WI (United States)

2009-07-01

117

In situ recovery of oil from Utah tar sand: a summary of tar sand research at the Laramie Energy Technology Center  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work done by the United States Department of Energy's Laramie Energy Technology Center from 1971 through 1982 to develop technology for future recovery of oil from US tar sands. Work was concentrated on major US tar sand deposits that are found in Utah. Major objectives of the program were as follows: determine the feasibility of in situ recovery methods applied to tar sand deposits; and establish a system for classifying tar sand deposits relative to those characteristics that would affect the design and operation of various in situ recovery processes. Contents of this report include: (1) characterization of Utah tar sand; (2) laboratory extraction studies relative to Utah tar sand in situ methods; (3) geological site evaluation; (4) environmental assessments and water availability; (5) reverse combustion field experiment, TS-1C; (6) a reverse combustion followed by forward combustion field experiment, TS-2C; (7) tar sand permeability enhancement studies; (8) two-well steam injection experiment; (9) in situ steam-flood experiment, TS-1S; (10) design of a tar sand field experiment for air-stream co-injection, TS-4; (11) wastewater treatment and oil analyses; (12) economic evaluation of an in situ tar sand recovery process; and (13) appendix I (extraction studies involving Utah tar sands, surface methods). 70 figs., 68 tabs.

Marchant, L.C.; Westhoff, J.D.

1985-10-01

118

CALPUFF and AERMOD model validation study in the near field: Martins Creek revisited.  

PubMed

This paper describes a near-field validation study involving the steady-state, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guideline model AERMOD and the nonsteady-state puff model CALPUFF. Relative model performance is compared with field measurements collected near Martins Creek, PA-a rural, hilly area along the Pennsylvania-New Jersey border. The principal emission sources in the study were two coal-fired power plants with tall stacks and buoyant plumes. Over 1 yr of sulfur dioxide measurements were collected at eight monitors located at or above the two power plants' stack tops. Concurrent meteorological data were available at two sites. Both sites collected data 10 m above the ground. One of the sites also collected sonic detection and ranging measurements up to 420 m above ground. The ability of the two models to predict monitored sulfur dioxide concentrations was assessed in a four-part model validation. Each part of the validation applied different criteria and statistics to provide a comprehensive evaluation of model performance. Because of their importance in regulatory applications, an emphasis was placed on statistics that demonstrate the model's ability to reproduce the upper end of the concentration distribution. On the basis of the combined results of the four-part validation (i.e., weight of evidence), the performance of CALPUFF was judged to be superior to that of AERMOD. PMID:21751581

Dresser, Alan L; Huizer, Robert D

2011-06-01

119

Technical review of managed underground storage of water study of the upper Catherine Creek watershed, Union County, northeastern Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Because of water diversions during summer, flow in Catherine Creek, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River in northeastern Oregon, is insufficient to sustain several aquatic species for which the stream is listed as critical habitat. A feasibility study for managed underground storage (MUS) in the upper Catherine Creek watershed in Union County, Oregon, was undertaken by Anderson Perry and Associates, Inc., to address the issue of low flows in summer. The results of the study were released as a report titled “Upper Catherine Creek Storage Feasibility Study for Grande Ronde Model Watershed,” which evaluated the possibility of diverting Catherine Creek streamflow during winter (when stream discharge is high), storing the water by infiltration or injection into an aquifer adjacent to the stream, and discharging the water back to the stream in summer to augment low flows. The method of MUS would be accomplished using either (1) aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) that allows for the injection of water that meets drinking-water-quality standards into an aquifer for later recovery and use, or (2) artificial recharge (AR) that involves the intentional addition of water diverted from another source to a groundwater reservoir. Concerns by resource managers that the actions taken to improve water availability for upper Catherine Creek be effective, cost-efficient, long-term, and based on sound analysis led the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation to request that the U.S. Geological Survey conduct an independent review and evaluation of the feasibility study. This report contains the results of that review. The primary objectives of the Anderson Perry and Associates study reviewed here included (1) identifying potentially fatal flaws with the concept of using AR and (or) ASR to augment the streamflow of Catherine Creek, (2) identifying potentially favorable locations for augmenting streamflow, (3) developing and evaluating alternatives for implementing AR and (or) ASR, and (4) identifying next steps and estimated costs for implementation. The Anderson Perry study was not intended as a comprehensive evaluation of feasibility, but, rather, an effort to develop a concept and preliminary evaluation of feasibility. Additionally, the feasibility study was limited to using existing data from which additional data needs were to be identified. The feasibility study mostly accomplished the goals of identifying potential fatal flaws and developing a project implementation plan. However, a more practical discussion of conclusions regarding the feasibility, likelihood for success, achievement of goals, and overall project costs could have received greater emphasis and would be of value to decision makers. With regard to objective (2), the subject report analyzed information from several possible sites examined for an MUS system. Sufficient cause is provided in the subject report to identify the basalt aquifer in the Milk Creek sub-area as having the greatest potential for MUS. Therefore, this review is primarily focused on the Milk Creek sub-area and the basalt aquifer.

Snyder, Daniel T.

2014-01-01

120

The potential use of tar sand bitumen as paving asphalt  

SciTech Connect

In this paper several research reports describing the preparation of potential paving asphalts from tar sand bitumen are reviewed and the results of the studies compared. The tar sand asphalts described in the studies were prepared from 1) hot water-recovered bitumen from deposits near San Luis Obispo, California (Edna deposits), and deposits near Vernal and Sunnyside, Utah; and 2) bitumen recovered from the Northwest Asphalt Ridge deposits near Vernal, Utah, by both in situ steamflood and in situ combustion recovery processes. Important properties of the tar sand asphalts compare favorably with those of specification petroleum asphalts. Laboratory data suggest that some tar sand asphalts may have superior aging characteristics and produce more water-resistant paving mixtures than typical petroleum asphalts.

Petersen, J.C.

1988-01-01

121

BEAVER CREEK WILDERNESS, KENTUCKY.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Beaver Creek Wilderness, Kentucky, was studied. Coal is the most important mineral resource in the Beaver Creek Wilderness. The coal is tentatively ranked as high-volatile A bituminous, and like coal of this rank in nearby mining areas, it is primarily suitable for use as steam coal. The coal resources are estimated to total 8. 31 million short tons in beds greater than 14 in. thick. Nonmetallic minerals present in the Wilderness include limestone, shale, clay, and sandstone; these commodities are abundant outside the wilderness. The information available is not adequate for the assessment of the oil and gas resource potential of the Beaver Creek Wilderness. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources.

Englund, K.J.; Hammack, R.W.

1984-01-01

122

Beaver Creek Wilderness, Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

The Beaver Creek Wilderness, Kentucky, was studied in 1980 by the USGS and USBM. Coal is the most important mineral resource in the Beaver Creek Wilderness. The coal is tentatively ranked as high-volatile A bituminous, and like coal of this rank in nearby mining areas, it is primarily suitable for use as steam coal. The coal resources are estimated to total 8.31 million short tons in beds greater than 14 in. thick. Nonmetallic minerals present in the Wilderness include limestone, shale, clay, and sandstone; these commodities are abundant outside the wilderness. The information available is not adequate for the assessment of the oil and gas resource potential of the Beaver Creek Wilderness. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources.

Englund, K.J.; Hammack, R.W.

1984-01-01

123

Roberts Creek Study Forest: the effects of shelterwood harvesting and blowdown  

E-print Network

CONTACT: Robert Hudson, P.Geo., Ph.D., Research Hydrologist, Vancouver Forest Region, 250-751-7114 Rob-treatment levels. Sediment con- centrations during subsequent storm events later in the post-harvesting season that in a creek in the interior of BC, suspended sediment loading increased four to 12 times over levels

124

IMPACT OF URBANIZATION ON THE HYDROLOGY OF THE POCONO CREEK WATERSHED: A MODEL STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Pocono Creek watershed located in Monroe County, PA, is threatened by high population growth and urbanization. Of concern specifically is the potential impact of future developments in the watershed on the reduction of base flow and the consequent risk of degradation of wild ...

125

Watershed management for erosion and sedimentation control Case Study: Goodwin Creek, Panola County, MS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Goodwin Creek watershed is located within the loessal hills of northern Mississippi, a region of high erosion risk and elevated watershed sediment yields. This manuscript combines a regional history of land management and conservation issues from the time of European settlement to present with a...

126

The Australian tar derby: the origins and fate of a low tar harm reduction programme  

PubMed Central

Objective: To document the development of the low tar harm reduction programme in Australia, including tobacco industry responses. Data sources: Tobacco industry documents, retail tobacco journals, newspapers, medical journals, and Anti-Cancer Council of Victoria (ACCV) newsletters and archival records. Study selection: Documents on the strategies and knowledge bases of the ACCV, other Australian health authorities, and the tobacco industry. Results: The ACCV built a durable system for measuring and publicising the tar and nicotine yields of Australian cigarettes and influencing their development. The tobacco industry initially sought to block the development of this system but later appeared to cooperate with it, as is evidenced by the current market dominance of low tar brands. However, behind the scenes, the industry used its substantial knowledge advantage regarding compensatory smoking and its ability to re-engineer cigarettes to gain effective control of the system and subvert the ACCV's objectives. Conclusions: Replacement of the low tar programme with new means of minimising the harms from cigarette smoking should be a policy priority for the Australian government. This will require regulation, rather than further voluntary agreements, and stringent monitoring of successor programmes will be necessary. PMID:14645950

King, W; Carter, S; Borland, R; Chapman, S; Gray, N

2003-01-01

127

Warm Springs Creek, Idaho  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Warm Springs Creek is a tributary of the Big Wood River in south-central Idaho. It is one of eight sites at which the USGS is conducting an ecological assessment during the summer of 2014. Study results will be published in 2015....

128

Restoring Lower Rock Creek  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief video describes how Lower Rock Creek’s location between two National Wild and Scenic Rivers caused Kentucky environmentalists to choose the creek as a target for acid mine drainage remediation.

KET

2011-01-11

129

south santa clara valley hIstorIcal ecoloGy stuDy including Soap lake, the upper pajaro river, and llagaS, uvaS-carnadero, and pacheco creekS  

E-print Network

south santa clara valley hIstorIcal ecoloGy stuDy including Soap lake, the upper pajaro river Francisco f i n a l r e P o r T m a Y 2 0 0 8 inCluding SoaP lake, The uPPer PaJaro riVer, and llagaS, u Study, including Soap Lake, the Upper Pajaro River, and Llagas, Uvas-Carnadero, and Pacheco Creeks

130

Paleontological overview of oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.  

SciTech Connect

In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the ''Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005,'' Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. In addition, Congress declared that both research- and commercial-scale development of oil shale and tar sands should (1) be conducted in an environmentally sound manner using management practices that will minimize potential impacts, (2) occur with an emphasis on sustainability, and (3) benefit the United States while taking into account concerns of the affected states and communities. To support this declaration of policy, Congress directed the Secretary of the Interior to undertake a series of steps, several of which are directly related to the development of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands. One of these steps was the completion of a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) to analyze the impacts of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands, with an emphasis on the most geologically prospective lands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. For oil shale, the scope of the PEIS analysis includes public lands within the Green River, Washakie, Uinta, and Piceance Creek Basins. For tar sands, the scope includes Special Tar Sand Areas (STSAs) located in Utah. This paleontological resources overview report was prepared in support of the Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and PEIS, and it is intended to be used by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) regional paleontologists and field office staff to support future projectspecific analyses. Additional information about the PEIS can be found at http://ostseis.anl.gov.

Murphey, P. C.; Daitch, D.; Environmental Science Division

2009-02-11

131

Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

2010-03-09

132

LIGHTNING CREEK, PACK RIVER, AND SAND CREEK, BONNER COUNTY, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY SUMMARY, 1978  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1978, water quality studies were conducted on Lightning Creek, Pack River, and Sand Creek in Bonner County, Idaho (17010214, 17010213) to determine the present status of the streams. Water quality in Lightning Creek was generally very high. No violations of standa...

133

Chemistry of manganese precipitation in Pinal Creek, Arizona, USA: A laboratory study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater underlying the valley of Pinal Creek downstream from Globe, Arizona, has been contaminated by low-pH metal-enriched wastewater from copper mining and ore processing at Miami, Arizona. At present, the acidity and most of the dissolved metal content, except for Mn, of the wastewater is removed by reactions with carbonate and other solids in the alluvial aquifer before the neutralized contaminated water enters the creek channel and becomes surface flow. Where flow in the creek is perennial, Mn-bearing precipitates are formed in the stream bed and in some places in the subsurface. As an aid to understanding the processes involved and explaining the mineralogy of the precipitates, closely controlled laboratory redox titration experiments were performed on samples of surface flow and groundwater taken near the head of perennial flow in the creek. The high content of dissolved Ca, Mg, Mn and COP 2 species in the neutralized contaminated groundwater caused precipitation of some of the Mn as kutnahorite, (Mn, Mg)Ca(CO 3) 2, when the experimental system was held between pH 8.5 and 9.0 while CO 2-free air was bubbled into the solution. Hausmannite and manganite also were precipitated, in somewhat lower amounts. When the concentrations of dissolved CO 2 species in the groundwater sample were decreased before the experiment was started, the Mn precipitated was predominantly in the oxides hausmannite and manganite. In some of the experimental titrations clinoenstatite, (MgSiO 3), was precipitated. After titrations were stopped the solutions and precipitates were allowed to stand, with limited access to the atmosphere, for several months. During this aging period the degree of oxidation of the precipitated Mn increased and in one precipitate from an experimental solution the Ca + Mn 4+ oxides todorokite and takanelite were identified. These oxides also have been identified in streambed precipitates. Some of these precipitates also gave X-ray diffraction reflections for kutnahorite. Thermodynamic feasibilities of eight potential chemical reactions forming solid phases of interest were evaluated by calculating their respective reaction affinities attained during titration and aging. The results are in general agreement with the indications for the presence of these species given by X-ray and electron diffraction. The presence of carbonates in precipitated encrustations formed from groundwater below the land surface and their occurrence in manganese oxide crusts that precipitate from the creek water, also are predicted by these results.

Hem, John D.; Lind, Carol J.

1994-03-01

134

Chemistry of manganese precipitation in Pinal Creek, Arizona, USA: A laboratory study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Groundwater underlying the valley of Pinal Creek downstream from Globe, Arizona, has been contaminated by low-pH metal-enriched wastewater from copper mining and ore processing at Miami, Arizona. At present, the acidity and most of the dissolved metal content, except for Mn, of the wastewater is removed by reactions with carbonate and other solids in the alluvial aquifer before the neutralized contaminated water enters the creek channel and becomes surface flow. Where flow in the creek is perennial, Mn-bearing precipitates are formed in the stream bed and in some places in the subsurface. As an aid to understanding the processes involved and explaining the mineralogy of the precipitates, closely controlled laboratory redox titration experiments were performed on samples of surface flow and groundwater taken near the head of perennial flow in the creek. The high content of dissolved Ca, Mg, Mn and COP2 species in the neutralized contaminated groundwater caused precipitation of some of the Mn as kutnahorite, (Mn, Mg)Ca(CO3)2, when the experimental system was held between pH 8.5 and 9.0 while CO2-free air was bubbled into the solution. Hausmannite and manganite also were precipitated, in somewhat lower amounts. When the concentrations of dissolved CO2 species in the groundwater sample were decreased before the experiment was started, the Mn precipitated was predominantly in the oxides hausmannite and manganite. In some of the experimental titrations clinoenstatite, (MgSiO3), was precipitated. After titrations were stopped the solutions and precipitates were allowed to stand, with limited access to the atmosphere, for several months. During this aging period the degree of oxidation of the precipitated Mn increased and in one precipitate from an experimental solution the Ca + Mn4+ oxides todorokite and takanelite were identified. These oxides also have been identified in streambed precipitates. Some of these precipitates also gave X-ray diffraction reflections for kutnahorite. Thermodynamic feasibilities of eight potential chemical reactions forming solid phases of interest were evaluated by calculating their respective reaction affinities attained during titration and aging. The results are in general agreement with the indications for the presence of these species given by X-ray and electron diffraction. The presence of carbonates in precipitated encrustations formed from groundwater below the land surface and their occurrence in manganese oxide crusts that precipitate from the creek water, also are predicted by these results. ?? 1994.

Hem, J.D.; Lind, C.J.

1994-01-01

135

The artifcial catchment Chicken Creek as a tool to study initial ecosystem development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The artificial catchment Chicken Creek was constructed in 2005 to study the increasingly complex interactions of processes and structures during initial development of ecosystems. The 6ha area serves as the central research site for the Transregional Collaborative Research Center 38. Both internal and external factors could be identified as driving forces for the formation of structures and patterns in the artificial catchment during the first five years of development. Initial structures formed by the construction process (e.g. catchment morphology, subsurface structures like clay dams and dumping cones, caterpillar tracks at the surface) and initial substrate characteristics (e.g. texture, geochemistry) were decisive both for the distribution and flow of precipitation water and for vegetation succession. External factors like episodic events (e.g. heavy thunderstorms) triggered erosion and dissection during this initial phase, promoted by the low vegetation cover and the unconsolidated sandy substrate. These processes resulted in transport and redistribution of water and sediment within the catchment, mainly along the main slope, and the formation of new structural elements like gullies and channels, a sedimentation fan above and sediments within the pond. As a result, we observed an overall differentiation of the site, e.g. with respect to water availability and texture redistribution, into areas with abrasion or accumulation processes dominating and areas with stable surfaces. During further development, both external factors and processes within the catchment continued to influence the site. For example, beside the initial soil seed bank, the surrounding environment of the catchment clearly affected species invasion. The dissection and stability of surfaces may be an important factor for the establishment of plants and habitats as well as for the formation of vegetation patterns and biological soil crusts. The transformation of the initial geo-system into areas with evolving terrestrial or aquatic characteristics and from a very episodic to a more permanent stream network and discharge, together with the observed vegetation dynamics increased site diversity and heterogeneity with respect to water and nutrient availability and transformation processes compared to the more homogenous conditions at point zero. We expect that these more permanent structures and patterns established after five years will greatly influence the future development of the catchment with respect to e.g. input and accumulation of soil organic matter, nitrogen input and availability by symbiotic microbial N-fixation, development of root systems and soil food webs, weathering and soil formation, element cycling, and the water and element budget at the catchment scale.

Schaaf, W.; Elmer, M.; Fischer, A.; Gerwin, W.; Nenov, R.

2011-12-01

136

Restoring Fossil Creek  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of an ongoing environmental project and partnership with a local university, high school students monitor changes to Fossil Creek in Arizona. Components of the project include fish behavior studies, responses to fishing, water chemistry measurements, aquatic invertebrate studies, photographic recording, riparian habitat transects, and small mammal trapping transects. The data collected will ultimately provide an invaluable annual record for students, working scientists, and the wider community as changes are monitored over time.

Carri J. LeRoy

2004-07-01

137

Hydraulic testing plan for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatability technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. The ultimate goal of this effort is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium, technetium, nitrate, and several metals from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. This project directly supports the BCV Feasibility Study. Part of the Treatability Study, Phase II Hydraulic Performance Testing, will produce hydraulic and treatment performance data required to design a long-term treatment system. This effort consists of the installation and testing of two groundwater collection systems: a trench in the vicinity of GW-835 and an angled pumping well adjacent to NT-1. Pumping tests and evaluations of gradients under ambient conditions will provide data for full-scale design of treatment systems. In addition to hydraulic performance, in situ treatment chemistry data will be obtained from monitoring wells installed in the reactive media section of the trench. The in situ treatment work is not part of this test plan. This Hydraulic Testing Plan describes the location and installation of the trench and NT-1 wells, the locations and purpose of the monitoring wells, and the procedures for the pumping tests of the trench and NT-1 wells.

NONE

1997-09-01

138

MODELLING THE LOW-TAR BIG GASIFICATION CONCEPT Lars Andersen, Brian Elmegaard, Bjrn Qvale, Ulrik Henriksen  

E-print Network

/gasification chamber. In this paper, mathematical models and results from initial tests of a laboratory Low-Tar BIG on the system. 2. A thermodynamic Low-Tar BIG model. This model is based on mass and heat balance be- tween four from this study and compares the results to actual laboratory tests. The study shows, that the Low

139

An insoluble residue study of the Cretaceous Cow Creek Limestone of Central Texas  

E-print Network

of several samples from basal limestones within the Hammett Snale. McQueen (1931) was the first to publish methods of preparation, terminology, and the practical applica ion of insoluble residues to surf'ace and subsuri'ace correlation. Ireland (1936...AN INSOLUBLE RESIDUE S'zi3Y OF HE CRETACEOUS COW CREEK LIMESTONE OF CENTRAL TEKAS A Thesis WILLIAM ROGERS MORTON Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas AL& University in partial I'ulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MAST...

Morton, William Rogers

1967-01-01

140

Phase 1 report on the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Bear Creek Valley (BCV) is located within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation and encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes associated with past operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The BCV Remedial Investigation determined that disposal of wastes at the S-3 Site, Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG) has caused contamination of both deep and shallow groundwater. The primary contaminants include uranium, nitrate, and VOCs, although other metals such as aluminum, magnesium, and cadmium persist. The BCV feasibility study will describe several remedial options for this area, including both in situ and ex situ treatment of groundwater. This Treatability Study Phase 1 Report describes the results of preliminary screening of treatment technologies that may be applied within BCV. Four activities were undertaken in Phase 1: field characterization, laboratory screening of potential sorbents, laboratory testing of zero valent iron products, and field screening of three biological treatment systems. Each of these activities is described fully in technical memos attached in Appendices A through G.

NONE

1997-04-01

141

A study of post-thermal recovery of the macroinvertebrate community of Four Mile Creek, June 1985--September 1987. [Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

Four Mile Creek is one of several streams at the Savannah River Site which has received thermal effluents ({le}70{degrees}C water) from nuclear production operations. From 1955--mid-1985, Four Mile Creek received thermal effluent from C-Reactor as well as non-thermal discharges from F and H Separation Areas. Total discharges from all of these facilities was about ten times higher than the natural flow of the creek (Firth et al. 1986). All water being discharged into Four Mile Creek was originally pumped from the Savannah River. This study reports the results of the artificial substrate sampling of macroinvertebrate communities of Four Mile Creek from June 1985 through September 1987, when sampling was terminated. Macroinvertebrate taxa richness, densities, and biomass data from this study are compared to Four Mile data collected prior to the shutdown of C-Reactor (Kondratieff and Kondratieff 1985 and Firth et al. 1986), and to comparable macroinvertebrate data from other Savannah River Site streams. 29 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

Lauritsen, D.; Starkel, W.; Specht, W.

1989-11-01

142

Transverse Aeolian Ridges (TARs) on Mars II: Distributions, orientations, and ages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transverse Aeolian Ridges (TARs), 10 m scale, ripple-like aeolian bedforms with simple morphology, are widespread on Mars but it is unknown what role they play in Mars' wider sediment cycle. We present the results of a survey of all Mars Global Surveyor Narrow angle images in a pole-to-pole study area, 45° longitude wide. Following on from the classification scheme and preliminary surveys of Balme et al. (Balme, M.R., Berman, D.C., Bourke, M.C., Zimbelman, J.R. [2008a]. Geomorphology 101, 703-720) and Wilson and Zimbelman (Wilson, S.A., Zimbelman, J.R. [2004]. J. Geophys. Res. 109 (E10). doi: 10.1029/2004JE002247) we searched more than 10,000 images, and found that over 2000 reveal at least 5% areal cover by TARs. The mean TAR areal cover in the study area is about 7% (3% in the northern hemisphere and 11% in the southern hemisphere) but TARs are not homogenously distributed - they are concentrated in the mid-low latitudes and almost absent poleward of 35°N and 55°S. We found no clear correlation between TAR distribution and any of thermal inertia, kilometer-scale roughness, or elevation. We did find that TARs are less common at extremes of elevation. We found that TARs are most common near the equator (especially in the vicinity of Meridiani Planum, in which area they have a distinctive "barchan-like" morphology) and in large southern-hemisphere impact craters. TARs in the equatorial band are usually associated with outcrops of layered terrain or steep slopes, hence their relative absence in the northern hemisphere. TARs in the southern hemisphere are most commonly associated with low albedo, intercrater dune fields. We speculate that the mid-latitude mantling terrain (e.g., Mustard, J.F., Cooper, C.D., Rifkin, M.K. [2001]. Nature 412, 411-414; Kreslavsky, M.A., Head, J.W. [2002]. J. Geophys. Res. 29 (15). doi: 10.1029/2002GL015392) could also play a role in covering TARs or inhibiting saltation. We compared TAR distribution with general circulation model (GCM) climate data for both surface wind shear stress and wind direction. We performed GCM runs at various obliquity values to simulate the effects of changing obliquity on recent Mars climate. We found good general agreement between TAR orientation and GCM wind directions from present day obliquity conditions in many cases, but found no good correlation between wind shear stress and TAR distribution. We performed preliminary high resolution crater count studies of TARs in both equatorial and southern intracrater dunefield settings and compared these to superposition relationships between TARs and large dark dunes. Our results show that TARs near dunefield appear to be younger than TARs in the equatorial regions. We infer that active saltation from the large dunes keeps TARs active, but that TARs are not active under present day condition when distal to large dunes - perhaps supporting the interpretation that TARs are granule ripples. We conclude that local geology, rather than wind strength, controls TAR distribution, but that their orientation matches present-day regional wind patterns in most cases. We suggest that TARs are likely most (perhaps only) active today when they are proximal to large dark dune fields.

Berman, Daniel C.; Balme, Matthew R.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Zimbelman, James R.

2011-05-01

143

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1: Main text  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

NONE

1996-06-01

144

Effect of wastewater treatment processes on the pyrolysis properties of the pyrolysis tars from sewage sludges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pyrolysis properties of five different pyrolysis tars, which the tars from 1# to 5# are obtained by pyrolyzing the sewage sludges of anaerobic digestion and indigestion from the A2/O wastewater treatment process, those from the activated sludge process and the indigested sludge from the continuous SBR process respectively, were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis at a heating rate of 10 °C/min in the nitrogen atmosphere. The results show that the pyrolysis processes of the pyrolysis tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5# all can be divided into four stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, heavy polar organic compounds decomposition, heavy organic compounds decomposition and the residual organic compounds decomposition. However, the process of 4# pyrolysis tar is only divided into three stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, decomposition of heavy polar organic compounds and the residual heavy organic compounds respectively. Both the sludge anaerobic digestion and the "anaerobic" process in wastewater treatment processes make the content of light organic compounds in tars decrease, but make that of heavy organic compounds with complex structure increase. Besides, both make the pyrolysis properties of the tars become worse. The pyrolysis reaction mechanisms of the five pyrolysis tars have been studied with Coats-Redfern equation. It shows that there are the same mechanism functions in the first stage for the five tars and in the second and third stage for the tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5#, which is different with the function in the second stage for 4# tar. The five tars are easy to volatile.

Wu, Xia; Xie, Li-Ping; Li, Xin-Yu; Dai, Xiao-Hong; Fei, Xue-Ning; Jiang, Yuan-Guang

2011-06-01

145

A long-term monitoring study of chlorophyll, microbial contaminants, and pesticides in a coastal residential stormwater pond and its adjacent tidal creek.  

PubMed

Stormwater ponds are commonly used in residential and commercial areas to control flooding. The accumulation of urban contaminants in stormwater ponds can lead to water-quality problems including nutrient enrichment, chemical contamination, and bacterial contamination. This study presents 5 years of monitoring data assessing water quality of a residential subdivision pond and adjacent tidal creek in coastal South Carolina, USA. The stormwater pond is eutrophic, as described by elevated concentrations of chlorophyll and phosphorus, and experiences periodic cyanobacterial blooms. A maximum monthly average chlorophyll concentration of 318.75 ?g/L was measured in the stormwater pond and 227.63 ?g/L in the tidal creek. Fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) levels were measured in both the pond and the tidal creek that exceeded health and safety standards for safe recreational use. A maximum monthly average FCB level of 1,247 CFU/100 mL was measured in the stormwater pond and 12,850 CFU/100 mL in the tidal creek. In addition, the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria and pathogenic bacteria were detected. Low concentrations of herbicides (atrazine and 2,4-D: ), a fungicide (chlorothalonil), and insecticides (pyrethroids and imidacloprid) were measured. Seasonal trends were identified, with the winter months having the lowest concentrations of chlorophyll and FCB. Statistical differences between the stormwater pond and the tidal creek were also noted within seasons. The tidal creek had higher FCB levels than the stormwater pond in the spring and summer, whereas the stormwater pond had higher chlorophyll levels than the tidal creek in the summer and fall seasons. Chlorophyll and FCB levels in the stormwater pond were significantly correlated with monthly average temperature and total rainfall. Pesticide concentrations were also significantly correlated with temperature and rainfall. Pesticide concentrations in the stormwater pond were significantly correlated with pesticide concentrations in the adjacent tidal creek. Chlorophyll and FCB levels in the tidal creek, however, were not significantly correlated with levels in the pond. While stormwater ponds are beneficial in controlling flooding, they may pose environmental and human health risks due to biological and chemical contamination. Management to reduce residential runoff may improve water quality in coastal stormwater ponds and their adjacent estuarine ecosystems. PMID:21409361

DeLorenzo, Marie E; Thompson, Brian; Cooper, Emily; Moore, Janet; Fulton, Michael H

2012-01-01

146

A process for producing carbonaceous matter from tar sand, oil shale and olive cake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many countries which do not produce oil are rich with other sources of energy that are not fully utilized, such as tar sand, oil shale and olive cake. Limited previous work was done on producing carbonaceous matter and separating volatile matter from combinations of tar sand, oil shale and olive cake. In this study, a process is designed and tested

T. M Alkhamis; M. M Kablan

1999-01-01

147

Phase partition of organic pollutants between coal tar and water under variable experimental conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

On some abandoned manufactured-gas plant sites the presence of a particular non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL), namely coal tar, represents a potential source of groundwater pollution. The aim of this study was to characterise the phase partition of aromatic pollutants between coal tar and water. Batch trials have been carried out in order to evaluate the state of phase partition equilibrium

Borhane Mahjoub; Emmanuel Jayr; Rémy Bayard; Rémy Gourdon

2000-01-01

148

Difference in PAH release processes from tar-oil contaminated soil materials with similar contamination history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar-oil contaminated sites, for example, former manufactured gas- and tar-processing sites, pose a continuing threat to soil and groundwater in Europe. In this study, the release processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of five soil materials from four locations in Germany are discussed. All materials were investigated by means of column outflow experiments. Variable flow conditions were applied to reveal

Markus Wehrer; Kai Uwe Totsche

2009-01-01

149

Final Independent External Peer Review Report Bubbly Creek Ecosystem Restoration  

E-print Network

Final Independent External Peer Review Report Bubbly Creek Ecosystem Restoration Feasibility Study National Planning Center of Expertise for Ecosystem Restoration Mississippi Valley Division Contract No. W Report Bubbly Creek Ecosystem Restoration Feasibility Study Prepared by Battelle 505 King Avenue Columbus

US Army Corps of Engineers

150

Hydrological Study of Connaught Creek, Glacier National Park, British Columbia; Changes in stage, discharge, and sedimentation over a 43 hour period  

E-print Network

Hydrological Study of Connaught Creek, Glacier National Park, British Columbia; Changes in stage Pass in Glacier National Park, British Columbia. Previous studies have been conducted on neighboring........................................................................................................8 4.2 Glacial Melt, Snow Melt and Climate Pertaining to Streamflow ............................9 5

Smith, Dan

151

Lewin estimates 2 billion barrels of US tar sand recoverable at mid $20/bbl  

SciTech Connect

In 1983, Lewin and Associates prepared a report which established that the US tar sands resource amounts to over 60 billion barrels of bitumen in-place. However, no estimate was made of the technically or economically recoverable portion of this resource. More recent work carried out by Lewin for the US Department of Energy presents an appraisal of technically and economically recoverable tar sands. The paper describes the tar sand resource in-place, tar sand recovery models used in the study, engineering cost models, the economics of the steam soak prospect, and the economics of a surface mining prospect. The results of the Lewin study show that 5.7 billion barrels of domestic tar sand are technically recoverable, using cyclic steam injection and surface extractive mining. Of this, 4.9 billion barrels are technically recoverable from surface mining methods, with 0.8 billion recoverable from steam soak applications. 1 figure, 3 tables.

Not Available

1986-12-01

152

Atmospheric tar balls from biomass burning in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric tar balls (TBs) are spherical, organic aerosol particles that occur in smoke from biomass burning (BB). They absorb sunlight and thereby cause warming of the atmosphere. This study reports a transmission electron microscope (TEM) study of TBs from BB smoke samples collected within minutes to hours from emission in a tropical area of Mexico. Their spherical shapes as seen

Kouji Adachi; Peter R. Buseck

2011-01-01

153

Remediation of Former Manufactured Gas Plant Tars Using Alkaline Flushing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remediation of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars in the subsurface is particularly difficult due to the wetting behavior and high viscosities of these dense non-aqueous liquids (DNAPLs). Alkaline flooding is a technique which has proven effective in improving the recovery of crude oils, which share some characteristics with FMGP tars. For this study, we measured the effect of NaOH solutions on interfacial tension and conducted column experiments to investigate the feasibility of applying this technique to FMGP tars. The pendant drop technique was used to measure interfacial tensions for solutions ranging from 0-1% NaOH. Column experiments were conducted by contaminating sands with tars recovered from a FMGP then flushing the columns with NaOH solutions. A final, 70% v/v ethanol cosolvent flush was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a two-stage remediation approach. The mass removal of tar, as well as 26 individual PAHs, was measured, along with the aqueous phase mass flux of PAHs after each flushing stage. The interfacial tension was reduced from about 20 mN/m with pure water to a minimum of 0.05 mN/m at a concentration of 0.1% NaOH. In the column experiments, alkaline flushing resulted in a 50% reduction of the residual saturation. Aqueous phase PAH concentrations, however, were similar before and after the alkaline flushing stage. The combination of alkaline and cosolvent flushing resulted in an overall reduction of 95% of the total mass of the 16 EPA PAHs. Final aqueous phase concentrations were reduced significantly for lower molecular weight PAHs, but increased slightly for the higher molecular weight compounds, likely due to their increased mole fraction within the remaining tar. Additional work is being conducted to improve the effectiveness of the alkaline flushing through the use of surfactants and polymers.

Hauswirth, S.; Rylander, S.; Birak, P. S.; Miller, C. T.

2010-12-01

154

Solvent extraction of bitumen from tar sands  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the measurement of mass transfer rates for the extraction of bitumen from tar sands using organic solvents. The experiment was carried out in an agitated vessel using a six-blade turbine mixer on a laboratory scale. To facilitate the determination of absolute mass transfer coefficients, tar sands were specially prepared in the form of spherical particles so that mass transfer area can be computed. The variables investigated in the study included: (1) solvent type (kerosene, toluene, benzene), (2) stirrer speed, 25 rpm to 1000 rpm, and (3) particle diameter, 0.4 cm to 1.2 cm. The results indicated that solvency power varied markedly with the various solvents used and that high aromatic content promoted rapid dissolution when compared with paraffinic solvents. The mass transfer rates increased with increasing stirrer speed in accordance with the relationship: k {alpha} N{sup 0.56} where k is the mass transfer coefficient and N the stirrer speed. Increasing particle diameter also resulted in decreased mass transfer rates. The results were satisfactorily correlated in terms of a Frossling type equation, Sh {alpha} Re{sub p}{sup a}Sc{sup b}.

Hoon, A.Y.; Thomas, S. [Univ. of West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago)

1995-12-31

155

Respiratory effects of lowering tar and nicotine levels of cigarettes smoked by young male middle tar smokers. I. Design of a randomised controlled trial.  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to investigate the effect on respiratory health of male middle tar smokers changing the tar and nicotine levels of the cigarettes they smoke for a six month period. DESIGN--This was a randomised controlled trial. Middle tar smokers were randomly allocated to smoke one of three different types of cigarette (low tar, middle nicotine; middle tar, middle nicotine; and low tar, low nicotine) in place of their usual cigarette for a six month period. Main outcome measures were assessment of respiratory health by documenting respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow rates, and of nicotine inhalation by measuring the urinary excretion of nicotine metabolites. SETTING--21 local authority districts of England. SUBJECTS--Participants were male middle tar smokers aged 18-44 years. MAIN RESULTS--Postal questionnaires were sent to 265,016 individuals selected from the electoral registers of 21 local authority districts of England; 64% of questionnaires were returned revealing 7736 men aged 18-44 years who smoked only middle tar cigarettes. Of these, 7029 (90%) were sent a health warning and 707 (10%) were not; the latter acted as a control group to assess the effect of the health warning. Of the 7029 men who had received a health warning and were visited at the recruitment stage, 2666 agreed and were eligible to participate in the trial although only 1541 (58% of those who agreed and were eligible) actually started smoking the study cigarettes; 643 men (24% of those willing to participate at the beginning of the trial and 42% of those who actually started smoking the study cigarettes) completed the trial smoking the study cigarettes. Of these, 213 were in the low tar middle nicotine group, 220 were in the middle tar middle nicotine group, and 210 were in the low tar low nicotine group. CONCLUSIONS--This study shows the feasibility of identifying and recruiting sufficient numbers of male middle tar smokers, with adequate numbers completing the trial, to detect any changes in respiratory health over a six month period. PMID:1645086

Withey, C H; Papacosta, A O; Swan, A V; Fitzsimons, B A; Burney, P G; Colley, J R; Holland, W W

1992-01-01

156

Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3. Appendix E  

SciTech Connect

This document contains Appendix E: Toxicity Information and Uncertainty Analysis, description of methods, from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

NONE

1995-09-01

157

Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1. Main text  

SciTech Connect

This is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

NONE

1995-09-01

158

GREEN RIVER AIR QUALITY MODEL DEVELOPMENT: METEOROLOGICAL DATA - AUGUST 1980 FIELD STUDY IN THE PICEANCE CREEK BASIN OIL SHALE RESOURCES AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

Special meteorological and air quality studies were conducted during August 1980 in the Piceance Creek Basin oil shale resource area of Northwestern Colorado as part of the EPA-sponsored Green River Ambient Model Assessment program. The objective of the limited field program was ...

159

St. Vrain Creek  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

St. Vrain Creek below Boulder Creek at Hwy 119 near Longmont, CO; Bob Brandle, Cory Stephens, Matt Nicotra, and Kevin Scofield measure discharge and install temporary streamgage replacing nearby damaged streamgage....

160

Toxicity assessment of sludge fluid associated with tar sand tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted in an effort to assess the toxicity of fluid emanating from potential sludges produced as a result of the “hot water extraction process”; employed in extracting oil from tar sand deposits in Alberta. A further attempt was made to identify specific components and\\/or properties which might be responsible for any toxicity observed in the emanating sludge

Mostafa A. Warith; Raymond N. Yong

1994-01-01

161

Tar pollution of Sierra Leone beaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE widespread occurrence of pelagic tar and plastic wastes in parts of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans has been described previously1. Extensive and considerable fouling of the sandy beaches of Sierra Leone by tar lumps has now been observed at Lumley, Sussex, No. 2, Toke and Mamah villages (Fig. 1) during the past 14 months (June, 1973 to July, 1974).

Wazir Okera

1974-01-01

162

Characterization of a Utah tar sand bitumen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary characterization of a Utah tar sand bitumen has been made using methods developed for high boiling petroleum fractions. The characterization includes information about the major compound types which can be compared with similar data for other tar sand bitumens and, more importantly, can be correlated with data from petroleum samples for which refining characteristics are known. Examination of

J. W. Bunger

1976-01-01

163

Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief introduction and…

Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

2009-01-01

164

An evaluation of the potential end uses of a Utah tar sand bitumen. [Tar sand distillate  

SciTech Connect

To date the commercial application of tar sand deposits in the United States has been limited to their use as paving materials for county roads, parking lots, and driveways because the material, as obtained from the quarries, does not meet federal highway specifications. The bitumen in these deposits has also been the subject of upgrading and refining studies to produce transportation fuels, but the results have not been encouraging from an economic standpoint. The conversion of tar sand bitumen to transportation fuels cannot compete with crude oil refining. The purposes of this study were two-fold. The first was to produce vacuum distillation residues and determine if their properties met ASTM asphalt specifications. The second was to determine if the distillates could serve as potential feedstocks for the production of aviation turbine fuels. The bitumen used for this study was the oil produced during an in situ steamflood project at the Northwest Asphalt Ridge (Utah) tar sand deposit. Two distillation residues were produced, one at +316/sup 0/C and one at +399/sup 0/C. However, only the lower boiling residue met ASTM specifications, in this case as an AC-30 asphalt. The original oil sample met specifications as an AC-5 asphalt. These residue samples showed some unique properties in the area of aging; however, these properties need to be investigated further to determine the implications. It was also suggested that the low aging indexes and high flow properties of the asphalts may be beneficial for pavements that require good low-temperature performance. Two distillate samples were produced, one at IBP-316/sup 0/C and one at IBP-399/sup 0/C. The chemical and physical properties of these samples were determined, and it was concluded that both samples appear to be potential feedstocks for the production of aviation turbine fuels. However, hydrogenation studies need to be conducted and the properties of the finished fuels determined to verify the prediction. 14 refs., 12 tabs.

Thomas, K.P.; Harnsberger, P.M.; Guffey, F.D.

1986-09-01

165

TOXICITY PERSISTENCE IN PRICKLY PEAR CREEK, MONTANA  

EPA Science Inventory

Instream toxicity tests using the larval fathead minnow Pimephales promelas and the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia reticulata were conducted on Prickly Pear Creek, Montana waters to study toxicity persistence in a stream. The toxicity source was Spring Creek, a tributary of Prickly Pear...

166

Investigation of subsurface tar-sand deposits in western Kentucky. A preliminary study of the Big Clifty Sandstone Member of the Golconda Formation (Mississippian) in Butler County and parts of Edmonson, Grayson, Logan, and Warren Counties. Information Circular 7, Series XI, 1982  

SciTech Connect

Tar sands (also referred to as asphaltic sandstones, heavy-oil deposits, or bitumen-impregnated sandstones) in western Kentucky have been recognized as a potential mineral resource for over 100 years. Past commercial development has been restricted largely to use as paving material. However, because of the ever-expanding demands for energy, these deposits have become the subject of increasing interest as a potential petroleum resource. Previous studies have provided estimates of the potential resources of shallow mineable tar-sand deposits; these investigations have concentrated on the outcrop areas where tar sands are present at or near the surface. Data on subsurface deposits have been lacking, however, and currently no reports are available which evaluate the potential oil resources associated with the occurrences of deeper tar-sand deposits in western Kentucky. The Kentucky Geological Survey has initiated a project to inventory and evaluate the oil-resource potential of asphaltic sandstones in the subsurface of western Kentucky. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the subsurface occurrences of asphaltic sandstones in the Big Clifty Sandstone Member of the Golconda Formation in a portion of the tar-sand area of western Kentucky. This evaluation is based on a compilation of published information and data available in the files of the Kentucky Geological Survey. Acquisition of new data, primarily by core drilling, will be necessary before any reliable estimate of the total volume of this potential oil resource can be attempted.

Williams, D.A.; Noger, M.C.; Gooding, P.J.

1982-01-01

167

CHARACTERIZATION OF MERCURY CONTAMINATION AT THE EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK SITE, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE: A CASE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Historic accidental release of mercury-contaminated material associated with nuclear weapons production at East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) resulted in stream and floodplain contamination. he EFPC is designated as an Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) operable unit under the Comprehensive ...

168

A new approach for molecular diagnosis of TAR syndrome.  

PubMed

Thrombocytopenia-absent radius (TAR) syndrome is a rare genetic disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. In most patients chromosomes at 1q21.1 harbor a 200-kb deletion consisted of many genes, including RBM8A. We aimed to examine a cost-effective method for investigation a consanguineous family clinically diagnosed as TAR syndrome. A comprehensive sequencing of RBM8A identified several SNPs including two low-frequency regulatory SNPs (rs139428292 and rs201779890) in the father, the mother and the proband in which they carried A/G, G/- and A/- alleles for rs139428292, respectively. They also had G/G genotype in the father, G/- in both mother and proband for rs201779890. In addition a SNP (rs872786) was found in mother as T/- allele while father and proband have possessed A/A and A/- alleles, respectively. Further investigation determined a rare null allele in the proband using quantitative real-time PCR. We concluded that compound inheritance of a rare null allele and one of the two low-frequency noncoding SNPs (rs139428292) in RBM8A are crucial for TAR syndrome. Quantitative real-time PCR and Sanger sequencing may recruit for molecular diagnosis of TAR rather than molecular cytogenetic study. PMID:24769264

Yassaee, Vahid R; Hashemi-Gorji, Feyzollah; Soltani, Ziba; Poorhosseini, Seyed Mohammad

2014-06-01

169

Catalytic Tar Reduction for Assistance in Thermal Conversion of Space Waste for Energy Production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Trash to Gas (TtG) project investigates technologies for converting waste generated during spaceflight into various resources. One of these technologies was gasification, which employed a downdraft reactor designed and manufactured at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for the conversion of simulated space trash to carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide would then be converted to methane for propulsion and water for life support systems. A minor byproduct of gasification includes large hydrocarbons, also known as tars. Tars are unwanted byproducts that add contamination to the product stream, clog the reactor and cause complications in analysis instrumentation. The objective of this research was to perform reduction studies of a mock tar using select catalysts and choose the most effective for primary treatment within the KSC downdraft gasification reactor. Because the KSC reactor is operated at temperatures below typical gasification reactors, this study evaluates catalyst performance below recommended catalytic operating temperatures. The tar reduction experimentation was observed by passing a model tar vapor stream over the catalysts at similar conditions to that of the KSC reactor. Reduction in tar was determined using gas chromatography. Tar reduction efficiency and catalyst performances were evaluated at different temperatures.

Caraccio, Anne Joan; Devor, Robert William; Hintze, Paul E.; Muscatello, Anthony C.; Nur, Mononita

2014-01-01

170

Steel Creek wildlife: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987  

SciTech Connect

Reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek below L-Lake were assessed in monthly or quarterly sampling programs. Thirty-eight species of reptiles or amphibians were collected during 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment, and in the delta and channel. Juvenile turtles and alligators, and larval amphibians were observed or collected during the study, indicating continued reproduction in Steel Creek. The reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek show no indication of any effect due to the impoundment of the lake or the operation of L-Reactor. Waterfowl and associated birds in Steel Creek below L-Lake were observed, in conjunction with other sampling programs, during winter--spring and fall--winter migrations. Nine species of waterfowl and five species of associated birds were observed in 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment and in the delta and channel.

Giffin, M.A.; Patterson, K.K.

1988-03-01

171

Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall aims of this research study were to generate novel design data and to develop an equilibrium stage-based thermodynamic model of a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system for the removal of model tar compounds (benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene) found in biomass producer gas. The specific objectives were to design, fabricate and evaluate a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system and to optimize the design and operating variables; i.e., packed bed height, vegetable oil type, solvent temperature, and solvent flow rate. The experimental wet packed bed scrubbing system includes a liquid distributor specifically designed to distribute a high viscous vegetable oil uniformly and a mixing section, which was designed to generate a desired concentration of tar compounds in a simulated air stream. A method and calibration protocol of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was developed to quantify tar compounds. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Statistical analysis showed that both soybean and canola oils are potential solvents, providing comparable removal efficiency of tar compounds. The experimental height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) was determined as 0.11 m for vegetable oil based scrubbing system. Packed bed height and solvent temperature had highly significant effect (p0.05) effect on the removal of model tar compounds. The packing specific constants, Ch and CP,0, for the Billet and Schultes pressure drop correlation were determined as 2.52 and 2.93, respectively. The equilibrium stage based thermodynamic model predicted the removal efficiency of model tar compounds in the range of 1-6%, 1-4% and 1-2% of experimental data for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, respectively, for the solvent temperature of 30° C. The NRTL-PR property model and UNIFAC for estimating binary interaction parameters are recommended for modeling absorption of tar compounds in vegetable oils. Bench scale experimental data from the wet scrubbing system would be useful in the design and operation of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system. The process model, validated using experimental data, would be a key design tool for the design and optimization of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system.

Bhoi, Prakashbhai Ramabhai

172

Pulse Dipolar ESR of Doubly Labeled Mini TAR DNA and Its Annealing to Mini TAR RNA.  

PubMed

Pulse dipolar electron-spin resonance in the form of double electron electron resonance was applied to strategically placed, site-specifically attached pairs of nitroxide spin labels to monitor changes in the mini TAR DNA stem-loop structure brought on by the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein NCp7. The biophysical structural evidence was at Ångstrom-level resolution under solution conditions not amenable to crystallography or NMR. In the absence of complementary TAR RNA, double labels located in both the upper and the lower stem of mini TAR DNA showed in the presence of NCp7 a broadened distance distribution between the points of attachment, and there was evidence for several conformers. Next, when equimolar amounts of mini TAR DNA and complementary mini TAR RNA were present, NCp7 enhanced the annealing of their stem-loop structures to form duplex DNA-RNA. When duplex TAR DNA-TAR RNA formed, double labels initially located 27.5 Å apart at the 3'- and 5'-termini of the 27-base mini TAR DNA relocated to opposite ends of a 27 bp RNA-DNA duplex with 76.5 Å between labels, a distance which was consistent with the distance between the two labels in a thermally annealed 27-bp TAR DNA-TAR RNA duplex. Different sets of double labels initially located 26-27 Å apart in the mini TAR DNA upper stem, appropriately altered their interlabel distance to ?35 Å when a 27 bp TAR DNA-TAR RNA duplex formed, where the formation was caused either through NCp7-induced annealing or by thermal annealing. In summary, clear structural evidence was obtained for the fraying and destabilization brought on by NCp7 in its biochemical function as an annealing agent and for the detailed structural change from stem-loop to duplex RNA-DNA when complementary RNA was present. PMID:25692594

Sun, Yan; Borbat, Peter P; Grigoryants, Vladimir M; Myers, William K; Freed, Jack H; Scholes, Charles P

2015-02-17

173

VALIDITY OF EFFLUENT AND AMBIENT TOXICITY TESTS FOR PREDICTING BIOLOGICAL IMPACT, SKELETON CREEK, ENID, OKLAHOMA  

EPA Science Inventory

Skeleton Creek was studied in August, 1983 and was the fourth site study. A small creek, Boggy Creek receives discharges from both an oil refinery and a publicly owned treatment works (POTW) prior to its confluence with Skeleton Creek. A fertilizer processing plant discharge is l...

174

Application of organic geochemistry to coastal tar residues from central California  

SciTech Connect

Tar residues are common on the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. These coastal tar residues have been washed ashore and usually occur on headlands near the high-tide line. In this study, 18 coastal tar residues were collected and analyzed to determine their carbon isotopic compositions and values of selected biomarker ratios. All of the residues have very heavy ({sup 13}C-enriched) carbon isotopic compositions spanning a narrow range ({delta}{sup 13}C = {minus}22.2 to {minus}23.4{per{underscore}thousand}), and 28,30-bisnorhopane is present in all samples. These same geochemical characteristics are found in Monterey Formation oils from which the coastal tar residues were likely derived. These coastal residues could result from natural seeps or from accidental spills. Statistically the coastal tar residues can be organized into three groups, each of which may represent different spill or seep events. Seven samples of potential local representative sources for the tar residues were examined, but none could account for the coastal tars.

Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Hostettler, F.D.; Lorenson, T.D.

2000-01-01

175

The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report, July 1990--July 1991  

SciTech Connect

Contents of this report include the following: executive summary; characterization of the native bitumen from the Whiterocks oil sand deposit; influence of carboxylic acid content on bitumen viscosity; water based oil sand separation technology; extraction of bitumen from western oil sands by an energy-efficient thermal method; large- diameter fluidized bed reactor studies; rotary kiln pyrolysis of oil sand; catalytic upgrading of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; ebullieted bed hydrotreating and hydrocracking; super critical fluid extraction; bitumen upgrading; 232 references; Appendix A--Whiterocks tar sand deposit bibliography; Appendix B--Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit bibliography; and Appendix C--University of Utah tar sands bibliography.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1992-04-01

176

Bonding energies of bitumen to tar sand mineral  

SciTech Connect

The bonding energy of bitumen in a tar sand was found by algebraically adding the heat of dissolution of bitumen on tar sand, heat of dissolution of recovered bitumen and the heat of wetting of extracted tar sand mineral. The value for an Asphalt Ridge tar sand was found to be 270 cal/mole. 6 refs., 3 figs.

Ensley, E.K.; Scott, M.A.

1986-03-01

177

5. Laurel Creek Road, revetment wall and creek. Great ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Laurel Creek Road, revetment wall and creek. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

178

Buck Creek River Flow Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buck Creek flowing through Springfield Ohio has a number of low-head dams currently in place that cause safety issues and sometimes make it impossible for recreational boaters to pass through. The safety issues include the back eddies created by the dams that are known as drowning machines and the hydraulic jumps. In this study we are modeling the flow of

Yasas Dhanapala; Elizabeth George; John Ritter

2009-01-01

179

Noncontraceptive estrogens and mortality: long-term follow-up of women in the Walnut Creek Study.  

PubMed

The effect of postmenopausal estrogen use on mortality is an important and controversial subject. To address it, we analyzed data from a ten- to 13-year mortality follow-up of the 3437 women enrolled in the Walnut Creek Contraceptive Drug Study who never used either estrogens or oral contraceptives and the 2656 women who used estrogens but not oral contraceptives. By 1983, 109 estrogen users and 110 nonusers had died. After adjusting for age, mortality in estrogen users (1.64 per 1000 woman-years) was lower than in nonusers (2.06 per 1000 woman-years) for all categories of cause of death except cancer. The lower mortality from accidents, suicide, and homicide in estrogen users has no plausible biologic explanation, and the observation suggests that life-style differences between estrogen users and nonusers account at least in part for their lower mortality. On the other hand, the observation that the relative risk of mortality due to cardiovascular disease was 0.5 in estrogen users, after adjustment for age and other cardiovascular disease risk factors, is suggestive. PMID:3627576

Petitti, D B; Perlman, J A; Sidney, S

1987-09-01

180

Travels of the Cache Creek Terrane: a paleomagnetic, geobarometric and 40Ar\\/ 39Ar study of the Jurassic Fourth of July Batholith, Canadian Cordillera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Middle Jurassic Fourth of July Batholith and cross-cutting mafic dikes have been studied geochronologically, geobarometrically and paleomagnetically to estimate subsequent tectonic motion of the Cache Creek Terrane (CCT) in the northern Canadian Cordillera. 40Ar\\/39Ar hornblende ages from a granodiorite phase are similar to U–Pb zircon ages and indicate rapid cooling of the batholith upon intrusion, suggesting that the magnetization

Michael J Harris; David T. A Symons; William H Blackburn; Craig J. R Hart; Mike Villeneuve

2003-01-01

181

Gain-loss study of lower San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River, San Antonio, Texas, May-October 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five streamflow gain-loss measurement surveys were made along lower San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River from Mitchell Street to South Loop 410 east of Kelly Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas, during May?October 1999. All of the measurements were made during dry periods, when stormwater runoff was not occurring and effects of possible bank storage were minimized. San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River were divided into six subreaches, and streamflow measurements were made simultaneously at the boundaries of these subreaches so that streamflow gains or losses and estimates of inflow from or outflow to shallow ground water could be quantified for each subreach. There are two possible sources of ground-water inflow to lower San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River east of Kelly Air Force Base. One source is direct inflow of shallow ground water into the streams. The other source is ground water that enters tributaries that flow into the San Antonio River. The estimated mean direct inflow of ground water to the combined San Pedro Creek and San Antonio River study reach was 3.0 cubic feet per second or 1.9 million gallons per day. The mean tributary inflow of ground water was estimated to be 1.9 cubic feet per second or 1.2 million gallons per day. The total estimated inflow of shallow ground water was 4.9 cubic feet per second or 3.2 million gallons per day. The amount of inflow from springs and seeps (estimated by observation) is much less than the amount of direct ground-water inflow estimated from the gain-loss measurements. Therefore, the presence of springs and seeps might not be a reliable indicator of the source of shallow ground water entering the river. Most of the shallow ground water that enters the San Antonio River from tributary inflow enters from the west side, through Concepcion Creek, inflows near Riverside Golf Course, and Six-Mile Creek.

Ockerman, Darwin J.

2002-01-01

182

A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Little and Big Lick creeks, Blackford and Delaware counties, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A digital computer model was used to predict alternatives for future waste loadings on Little Lick and Big Lick Creeks, Blackford and Delaware Counties, IN, that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The model parameters included atmospheric reaeration, carbonaceous and nitrogenous biochemical-oxygen demand, and benthic-oxygen demand. The model was calibrated with data collected during three water-quality surveys at low flow. During these surveys, in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentrations averaged less than 3 mg/L, well below the State minimum requirement of 5.0 mg/L. The model indicated that these low concentrations were caused by high waste loadings, lack of dilution, low reaeration, and benthic-oxygen demand. The summer waste-assimilation study assumed that future reductions in discharge loadings would decrease carbonaceous and benthic decay and increase nitrogenous decay. This study indicated that projected effluent waste loads that would provide acceptable in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentrations are highly dependent on rates of nitrification. Ammonia toxicity became the limiting water-quality criterion at low nitrification rates. The winter waste-assimilation study indicated that projected dissolved-oxygen concentrations in Little Lick and Big Lick Creeks did not fall below the State standard. Owing to a lack of dilution, however, ammonia-nitrogen concentrations would violate in-stream toxicity standards in both Little Lick and Big Lick Creeks. (USGS)

Peters, James G.; Crawford, Charles G.; Wilber, William G.

1980-01-01

183

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 4. Information related to the feasibility study and ARARs. Appendixes G, H, I  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

NONE

1996-03-01

184

Polycondensates of sulfonated coal tar fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for the polycondensation of sulfonated coal tar fraction having a distillation range of about 200° to 240°C at normal pressure, in the presence of about molar ratio of formaldehyde is described comprising: (a) sulfonating a coal tar fraction having a distillation range of about 200° - 240°C at normal pressure, having about 85% to 95% naphthalene the remaining

S. Cukier; M. D. Jr. Camp

1988-01-01

185

Laboratory evaluation of selected tar sand asphalts  

SciTech Connect

Three tar sand asphalts of similar grades prepared from one syncrude by three different refining methods were characterized by tests commonly used to specify paving asphalts together with certain special tests. Asphalt-aggregate mixtures were prepared using these asphalts and tested in the laboratory to determine strength stiffness stability, tensile properties, temperature effects and water susceptibility. Comparison of the tar sand asphalt properties to conventional petroleum asphalt properties reveal no striking differences.

Button, J.W.; Epps, J.A.; Gallaway, B.M.

1980-12-01

186

Treating tar sands formations with dolomite  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may include dolomite and hydrocarbons. Methods may include providing heat at less than the decomposition temperature of dolomite from one or more heaters to at least a portion of the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids are mobilized in the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

2010-06-08

187

Field characterization report on Phase 1 of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

A treatability study is being performed to investigate the practicability of using passive, in situ treatment systems to remove contaminants from the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Characterization Area (CA). This draft document is a report of the site characterization results and is part of Phase 1 of this study. Field activities performed are outlined in Bear Creek Valley Passive Surface Water Treatment Technology Demonstrations, Phase 1, Site Characterization. The focus of the characterization was to obtain sufficient site-specific data on hydrogeology of NT-1, NT-2, and upper Bear Creek (above its confluence with NT-1) to support selection of groundwater capture and treatment systems in Phases 2 and 3. Groundwater samples from the S-3 Site and NT-1 area were also collected for the principal investigators to test during Phase 1 laboratory work. Three contaminant migration pathways were delineated in the S-3 Area. Each is described and briefly characterized by field observations and analysis of surface and groundwater collected within each pathway.

NONE

1997-04-01

188

Shell Creek Summers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality provided…

Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

2005-01-01

189

Upgrading producer gas quality from rubber wood gasification in a radio frequency tar thermocatalytic treatment reactor.  

PubMed

This study focused on improving the producer gas quality using radio frequency (RF) tar thermocatalytic treatment reactor. The producer gas containing tar, particles and water was directly passed at a particular flow rate into the RF reactor at various temperatures for catalytic and thermal treatments. Thermal treatment generates higher heating value of 5.76 MJ Nm(-3) at 1200°C. Catalytic treatments using both dolomite and Y-zeolite provide high tar and particles conversion efficiencies of about 97% on average. The result also showed that light poly-aromatic hydrocarbons especially naphthalene and aromatic compounds particularly benzene and toluene were still found even at higher reaction temperatures. Low energy intensive RF tar thermocatalytic treatment was found to be effective for upgrading the producer gas quality to meet the end user requirements and increasing its energy content. PMID:24185417

Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z A

2013-12-01

190

ASSESSING ECOLOGICAL RISK IN WATERSHEDS: A CASE STUDY OF PROBLEM FORMULATION IN THE BIG DARBY CREEK WATERSHED, OHIO, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

The Big Darby Creek watershed, a highly valued ecosystem in central Ohio, USA, threatened by intensive agriculture and suburban encroachment, served as an example of how case specifics can be applied to refine and direct the planning and problem formulation stage of the U.S. Env...

191

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1, main text  

SciTech Connect

This document is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit (CR/PC OU), an off-site OU associated with environmental restoration activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). As a result of past, present, and potential future releases of hazardous substances into the environment, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List in December 1989 (54 FR 48184). Sites on this list must be investigated for possible remedial action, as required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9601, et seq.). This report documents the findings of the remedial investigation of this OU and the feasibility of potential remedial action alternatives. These studies are authorized by Sect. 117 of CERCLA and were conducted in accordance with the requirements of the National Contingency Plan (40 CFR Part 300). DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) have entered into a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), as authorized by Sect. 120 of CERCLA and Sects. 3008(h) and 6001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (42 U.S.C. 6901, et seq.). The purpose of this agreement is to ensure a coordinated and effective response for all environmental restoration activities occurring at the ORR. In addition to other responsibilities, the FFA parties mutually define the OU boundaries, set remediation priorities, establish remedial investigation priorities and strategies, and identify and select remedial actions. A copy of this FFA is available from the DOE Information Resource Center in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

NONE

1996-03-01

192

Flood discharges and hydraulics near the mouths of Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, studied the frequency and magnitude of flooding near the mouths of five tributaries to the New River in the New River Gorge National River. The 100-year peak discharge at each tributary was determined from regional frequency equations. The 100-year discharge at Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek was 3,400 cubic feet per second, 640 cubic feet per second, 8,200 cubic feet per second, 7,100 cubic feet per second, and 9,400 cubic feet per second, respectively. Flood elevations for each tributary were determined by application of a steady-state, one-dimensional flow model. Manning's roughness coefficients for the stream channels ranged from 0.040 to 0.100. Bridges that would be unable to contain the 100-year flood within the bridge opening included: the State Highway 82 bridge on Wolf Creek, the second Fayette County Highway 25 bridge upstream from the confluence with New River on Dunloup Creek, and an abandoned log bridge on Mill Creek.

Wiley, J.B.

1994-01-01

193

Analysis of coal tar pitch and smoke extract components and their cytotoxicity on human bronchial epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Coal tar pitch and its smoke are considered hazardous by-products and common pollutant generated from coal industry processing. In this study, coal tar pitch and its smoke extracts were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with dimethylsulfoxide. We identified only 0.3025% of components in the total coal tar pitch using GC/MS. Among 18 identified compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has the highest relative abundance (0.19%). The remaining components were composed of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds and alkenes. In contrast, among 38 coal tar pitch smoke extract constituents that have been profiled, 87.91% were PAHs, and the remaining 12.09% were composed of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds and alkenes. The cytotoxic effect of coal tar pitch and its smoke extracts on BEAS-2B cells were also evaluated by MTT assay. BEAS-2B cells exposed to coal tar pitch showed a non dose-dependent U-shaped cytotoxicity with a dosage for maximal inhibitory of 3.75 mg/L. In contrast, BEAS-2B cells exposed to coal tar pitch smoke extracts showed a dose dependent cytotoxicity with a LC(50) of 8.64 mg/L. Our study demonstrated the significant different composition and cytotoxicity of coal tar pitch and its extracts, suggesting two different underlying mechanisms that are pending future investigation. PMID:21194834

Li, Zhitao; Wu, Yongjun; Zhao, Yong; Wang, Lixia; Zhu, Hansong; Qin, Lijuan; Feng, Feifei; Wang, Wei; Wu, Yiming

2011-02-28

194

Coal Tar, Pine Tar and Sulfonated Shale Oil Preparations: Comparative Activity, Efficacy and Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Tar and sulfonated shale oil preparations are used in the treatment of a variety of inflammatory skin diseases, including psoriasis vulgaris; due to the high polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content of tars, a possible relationship with cancer in humans has been postulated. On the other hand, the purity of sulfonated shale oils concerning PAHs guarantees a good tolerability during

M.-H. Schmid; H. C. Korting

1996-01-01

195

Sensitivity of Orographic Moist Convection to Landscape Variability: A Study of the Buffalo Creek, Colorado, Flash Flood Case of 1996.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of numerical experiments with a high-resolution mesoscale model were conducted to study the convective rainfall event that caused the 1996 Buffalo Creek, Colorado, flash flood. Different surface conditions and treatments of land surface physics were utilized to assess the sensitivity of this orographic moist convection to local and regional landscape forcing.Given accurate large-scale synoptic conditions at the lateral boundaries, the mesoscale model with a convection-resolving grid shows reasonably good skill in simulating this convective event with a lead time of up to 12 h. Sensitivity experiments show that a primary reason for this success is the use of an advanced land surface model that provides time-varying soil-moisture fields. This land surface model plays an important role in capturing the complex interactions among the land surface, the PBL, cloud-modulated radiation, and precipitation. For the case simulated, such interactions contribute to the temporal and spatial distribution of surface heating at small scales, and the convective triggering and development.Tests show that the landscape variability at small and large scales significantly affects the location and intensity of the moist convection. For example, on timescales of 6 to 12 h, differences in initial soil moisture associated with irrigation in the plains affect the evolution of the convection near the Continental Divide. Also, the surface modification by a wildfire burn influences the path of the major convective event that caused the flash flood.A watershed-based quantitative-precipitation-forecast skill score is proposed and employed. The relative success with which this severe thunderstorm is simulated over complex terrain provides some hope that the careful treatment of land surface physics in convection-resolving models can perhaps provide some useful level of predictability.

Chen, Fei; Warner, Thomas T.; Manning, Kevin

2001-11-01

196

Structural determinants of TAR RNA-DNA annealing in the absence and presence of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein  

PubMed Central

Annealing of the TAR RNA hairpin to the cTAR DNA hairpin is required for the minus-strand transfer step of HIV-1 reverse transcription. HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) plays a crucial role by facilitating annealing of the complementary hairpins. To gain insight into the mechanism of NC-mediated TAR RNA–DNA annealing, we used structural probes (nucleases and potassium permanganate), gel retardation assays, fluorescence anisotropy and cTAR mutants under conditions allowing strand transfer. In the absence of NC, cTAR DNA-TAR RNA annealing depends on nucleation through the apical loops. We show that the annealing intermediate of the kissing pathway is a loop–loop kissing complex involving six base-pairs and that the apical stems are not destabilized by this loop–loop interaction. Our data support a dynamic structure of the cTAR hairpin in the absence of NC, involving equilibrium between both the closed conformation and the partially open ‘Y’ conformation. This study is the first to show that the apical and internal loops of cTAR are weak and strong binding sites for NC, respectively. NC slightly destabilizes the lower stem that is adjacent to the internal loop and shifts the equilibrium toward the ‘Y’ conformation exhibiting at least 12 unpaired nucleotides in its lower part. PMID:21724607

Kanevsky, Igor; Chaminade, Françoise; Chen, Yingying; Godet, Julien; René, Brigitte; Darlix, Jean-Luc; Mély, Yves; Mauffret, Olivier; Fossé, Philippe

2011-01-01

197

Placing Reedy Creek Improvement District in Central Florida: A Case Study in Uneven Geographical Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is primarily about the theory of uneven geographical development. In an era when it is proclaimed that, through globalization, the world has become flat, the unevenness of economic and social development is often overlooked or suppressed. As the nexus between global and local processes, the urban space often becomes the site of conflict between those defining the hegemonic

Kristine Bezdecny

2011-01-01

198

Comparison of tar sands and phosphatic clay tailings properties, disposal, and reclamation options  

SciTech Connect

The tar sands industry of northern Alberta, much like the phosphate mining industry of Florida, is having to deal with the long term management of a fine-grained tailings waste. The production of synthetic crude from surface deposits of tar sands results in a combined tailings mixture of sand, bitumen, and clay. The phosphate industry bonification process separates the clay and sand waste streams at the plant and these materials are generally deposited in separate disposal areas. Both the tar sands fine tailings and the waste phosphatic clays exhibit engineering characteristics associated with highly plastic clays. This behavior is typically characterized by large changes in void ratio and permeability with changes in effective stress. Recent technology exchanges between the phosphate and tar sands industries reveal some encouraging opportunities for waste disposal and reclamation planning in the tar sands industry. Studies involving the mixing of mature fine oil sands tailings and sand (with and without chemical additives) have provided some improvements in the tar sands tailings material consolidation and permeability properties.

Ericson, W.A.; Carrier, W.D. III [BCI, Lakeland, FL (United States); Burns, R. [Suncor, Alberta (Canada)

1995-12-31

199

Clear creek/central city mine waste exposure study. Part 1. Smuggler Mountain Site. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and the Colorado Department of Health conducted a study to assess the extent of lead exposure. The primary objective of the study was to determine whether the Smuggler Mountain Superfund site residents had elevated blood lead levels. Other objectives were to identify the factors (environmental behavioral, and socioeconomic) which might have contributed to lead exposure in the community and to compare the results with those studies of other mining sites. The mean blood lead level of children from 6 months through 71 months of age was 3.0ug/dL. In children less than 6 years of age, there were no cases of lead poisoning as defined by the 1991 Centers for Disease Control guidelines. Thirty-six percent of the variability in the blood lead levels of children 6 through 71 months of age was explained by self reported behaviors of not washing hands before eating and allowing pets in the house.

Terracciano, G.J.

1992-09-01

200

Value engineering study report on Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Project. Alternative No. 3  

SciTech Connect

The project under study is Alternative No. 3 as identified in the Feasibility Study dated August 1994. This alternative is identified as Excavation and Disposal of Commercial/DOE, Other, and Residential Remedial Unit Soil. The assumptions used for generating baseline costs are discussed in site associated costs. It is further described as follows: Soils with mercury concentrations greater than 200 ppM in the Commercial/DOE and Other Remedial Units and greater than 180 ppM in the Residential Remedial Unit [41,300m{sup 3} (54,000yd{sup 3} a volume equivalent to approximately 6,750 dump truck loads)] would be excavated and disposed of in an approved, lined landfill at Y-12 with leachate collection and possible pretreatment of the leachate before discharge. Because 0.6 ha (1.5 acres) of wetland would be destroyed, wetlands banking would occur, whereby a 1.8-ha (4.5-acre) wetland would be constructed on DOE-owned land near K-25. Borrow soil would be obtained from the Y-12 West End Borrow Area or from excess soil located at Y-12 landfills to fill the excavation. It is estimated that 7.3 ha (18.2 acres, and area about the size of 17 football fields) of habitat would be adversely affected. This alternative would use BMPs to minimize any adverse affects and to comply substantively with regulatory requirements.

NONE

1995-08-01

201

Hepatics of the Turkey Creek Unit of the Big Thicket National Preserve: a floristic and ecological study  

E-print Network

the understory is characterized by guercus falcata and g. stellata. No distinctive shrub species occur, although Tiex vomitoria and Coznus florida may be present. Prickly pear (~0 untia species) may be present in the herbaceous layer. Wetland ine savanna (WPS... pine oak forest occupies the upper portion of slopes within Turkey Creek Unit. This forest is taller in stature and has a more closed canopy than the upland forests. It is characterised by ~nereus falcata and Pinus echinata in the overstory. Other...

Bazan, Evangelina

1980-01-01

202

Creating a Research Experience in an Undergraduate Geophysics Course: Integrated Geophysical Study of the Silver Creek Fault, Santa Clara Valley, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An undergraduate geophysics course at the San Jose State University was redesigned to focus on providing students with an integrated research experience that included both formative and summative assessments of learning. To this end, the students carried out four geophysical studies (gravity, magnetic, refraction, and reflection) across the inferred location of the Silver Creek fault, which is buried by the Quaternary alluvium of the Santa Clara Valley within walking distance of the university. The seismic experiments were made possible with equipment loaned by Geometrics Inc. and seismic and borehole data first acquired during a joint study by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Santa Clara Valley Water District. Three field reports, one produced after each of the first three field experiments, provided formative assessment of each student's understanding of the geophysical method, its application to the primary research objective of defining the location and structure of the Silver Creek fault, and their ability to produce a manuscript of professional quality. After each of the field reports, students were required to rewrite the report, based on feedback provided by the instructor, as well as incorporate the analysis and interpretation of the subsequent geophysical study. Students also modified conclusions of the preceding surveys in order to produce an internally consistent interpretation with each new analysis. Regional geologic relations and borehole data provided additional constraints to interpretations based on the geophysical analyses. For summative assessment, students submitted a final manuscript that had undergone three revisions as well as presented an integrated geophysical study of the Silver Creek fault based on the four geophysical experiments. The quality of the field reports showed marked improvement with each successive submission during the semester and were significantly better than in previous versions of the course, which featured various projects that did not lend themselves to significant revision and improvement after initial grading by the instructor.

Reed, D. L.; Williams, R.

2006-12-01

203

A retrospective study of the chemical analysis cost for the remediation of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

A retrospective study of the remediation of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee was completed. The study was conducted by reviewing the public Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act record documents associated with the remediation of LEFPC and through discussions with the project staff involved or familiar with the project. The remediation took place in two phases. The first phase involved the excavation of about 5,560 yd{sup 3} of soil at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) locations in 1996. The second phase involved the excavation of 39,200 yd{sup 3} at another NOAA location and at the Bruner location in 1997. For the entire project (remedial investigation through cleanup), a total of 7,708 samples (1 sample for each 5.8 yd{sup 3} of soil remediated) were analyzed for mercury. The project obtained special regulatory approval to use two methods for the determination of mercury in soils that are not part of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act SW-846 methods manual. The mercury analysis cost was $678,000, which represents 9.6% of the cleanup cost. During the cleanup phase of the project, an on-site laboratory was used. The estimated cost savings that the on-site laboratory provided fall into two categories: direct reduction of costs associated with chemical analysis and sample shipment totaling approximately $38,000, which represents a 5.3% savings relative to the estimated cost of using an off-site laboratory, and savings in the amount of $890,000 (12.5% of the $7.1 M cleanup cost), associated with expediting execution of the cleanup work by providing rapid (< 3 hours) sample result turnaround time. The manner in which the analytical services were procured for the LEFPC project suggest that the development of new chemical analysis technology must address deployment, performance, regulatory, robustness, reliability, and business appropriateness factors if the technology is to be used in environmental remediation.

Klatt, L.N.

1998-06-01

204

The search for a source rock for the giant Tar Sand triangle accumulation, southeastern Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A large proportion (about 36%) of the world's oil resource is contained in accumulations of heavy oil or tar. In these large deposits of degraded oil, the oil in place represents only a fraction of what was present at the time of accumulation. In many of these deposits, the source of the oil is unknown, and the oil is thought to have migrated over long distances to the reservoirs. The Tar Sand triangle in southeastern Utah contains the largest tar sand accumulation in the United States, with 6.3 billion bbl of heavy oil estimated to be in place. The deposit is thought to have originally contained 13-16 billion bbl prior to the biodegradation, water washing, and erosion that have taken place since the middle - late Tertiary. The source of the oil is unknown. The tar is primarily contained within the Lower Permian White Rim Sandstone, but extends into permeable parts of overlying and underlying beds. Oil is interpreted to have migrated into the White Rim sometime during the Tertiary when the formation was at a depth of approximately 3500 m. This conclusion is based on integration of fluid inclusion analysis, time-temperature reconstruction, and apatite fission-track modeling for the White Rim Sandstone. Homogenization temperatures cluster around 85-90??C for primary fluid inclusions in authigenic, nonferroan dolomite in the White Rim. The fluid inclusions are associated with fluorescent oil-bearing inclusions, indicating that dolomite precipitation was coeval with oil migration. Burial reconstruction suggests that the White Rim Sandstone reached its maximum burial depth from 60 to 24 Ma, and that maximum burial was followed by unroofing from 24 to 0 Ma. Time-temperature modeling indicates that the formation experienced temperatures of 85-90??C from about 35 to 40 Ma during maximum burial. Maximum formation temperatures of about 105-110??C were reached at about 24 Ma, just prior to unroofing. Thermal modeling is used to examine the history of potential source rocks for the White Rim oil. The most attractive potential sources for White Rim oil include beds within one or more of the following formations: the Proterozoic Chuar Group, which is present in the subsurface southwest of the Tar Sand triangle; the Mississippian Delle Phosphatic Member of the Deseret Limestone and equivalent formations, the Permian Kaibab Limestone, the Sinbad Limestone Member of the Triassic Moenkopi Formation, and the Jurassic Arapien Shale, Twin Creek Limestone, and Carmel Formation, which are present west of the Tar Sand triangle; the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation in the Paradox basin east of the Tar Sand triangle; and the Permian Park City Formation northwest of the Tar Sand triangle. Each formation has a high total organic carbon content and is distributed over a wide enough geographic area to have provided a huge volume of oil. Source beds in all of the formations reached thermal maturity at times prior to or during the time that migration into the White Rim is interpreted to have occurred. Based on all available data, the most likely source for the Tar Sand triangle appears to be the Mississippian Delle Phosphatic Member of the Deseret Limestone. Secondary migration out of the Delle is interpreted to have occurred during the Cretaceous, during Sevier thrusting. Subsequent tertiary migration into the Tar Sand triangle reservoir is interpreted to have occurred later, during middle Tertiary Laramide deformation.

Huntoon, J.E.; Hansley, P.L.; Naeser, N.D.

1999-01-01

205

Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons including mobilized hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

2012-06-05

206

Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

2010-06-08

207

Hot Springs Creek  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientist Jennifer Lewicki measures the discharge along a tributary to Hot Springs Creek, Akutan Island, Alaska. Steam (upper left) rises from 3 high-temperature springs that discharge into the tributary....

208

The Silver Creek Preserve  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Before The Nature Conservancy established the Silver Creek Preserve, the watershed had been degraded by years of livestock grazing and overfishing. Preserve managers have been concerned about sedimentation, increasing stream temperatures, and invasive species. To measure the effectiveness of their ...

209

Electrofishing on Lookout Creek  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists electrofishing on the Lookout Creek near the Blue River, OR. The fish they collected were analyzed for mercury content and added to the data base that the National Fish Mercury Model is based on. ...

210

Tar sands. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning mining of tar sands and the recovery of bitumen and other materials from tar sands. The physical and chemical properties of tar sands are discussed, and the economics of their use are considered. Processes include alkaline extraction, water cracking, catalytic cracking, and in situ combustion. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-05-01

211

Recovery of bituminous products from tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acidic solvent compositions and method for separating bituminous products from tar sands which do not require a high shear environment employing such acidic solvent compositions are disclosed. The acidic solvent compositions comprise from about 15 to about 30 volume percent of an aqueous amine modified acidic constituent having a pH value of less than about 1, from about 1 to

1984-01-01

212

Process for extracting oil from tar sands  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for the extraction of oil and bitumen fractions from tar sands. It comprises: heating the tar sands within the range of about seventy degrees Fahrenheit (70{degrees} F.) to about one hundred fifty five degrees Fahrenheit (155{degrees} F.); mixing the mined tar sands with an aqueous solution of water soluble separation chemicals that induce separation of the oil and bitumen from the sand under such temperature conditions, the chemicals being such that they also induce separation of the oil and bitumen from the water and separation chemicals. The separation chemicals comprise an aqueous solution of an effective amount of water conditioner, wetting agents and a coupling agent selected from the group consisting of sulfonated fatty acid salts; holding the mined tar sands and the separation chemicals for a sufficient period of time under sufficient quiescent conditions that the oil and bitumen become substantially separated from the sands, the separated oil and bitumen floating on the water and the sand sinking in the water; segregation of the oil or bitumen fractions from the water and separation chemicals and retention of the fractions for use as a chemical resource.

Hall, J.B.; Russo, A.

1990-10-30

213

Oil from shale and tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book provides a comprehensive survey of methods for processing oil shales and tar sands based on U.S. patent literature. Detailed technical information on most processes patented since 1960 is given; some methods for which patents were issued prior to 1960 are included. Oil shale retorting processes using gas combustion and solid heat transfer media are described. Hot water, cold

E. M. Perrini

1975-01-01

214

A Solvent Extraction Process for Tar Sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process has been investigated for solvent extraction of bitumen from Sunnyside, Utah, tar sands. The Sunnyside deposit, in east central Utah, has 1 to 2 billion barrels of geological reserves with a richness of 6 to 10 wtX bitumen. In this process, the ore is crushed and the bitumen is dissolved from the mineral in mix tanks. The bitumen

R. J. Graham; J. J. Helstrom; R. L. Mehlberg

1987-01-01

215

Aspects of Tar Sands Development in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of Nigerian massive reserves of crude bitumen and associated heavy oil is imminent in view of the impacts that the huge importation of these materials and their products have on the nation's economy, coupled with the depleting reserves of Nigerian conventional oil. This article reviews the extent of the tar sands resources in Nigeria and highlights the appropriate production

V. A. ADEWUSI

1992-01-01

216

Hydrology and Flood Profiles of Duck Creek and Jordan Creek Downstream from Egan Drive, Juneau, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrologic and hydraulic updates for Duck Creek and the lower part of Jordan Creek in Juneau, Alaska, included computation of new estimates of peak streamflow magnitudes and new water-surface profiles for the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods. Computations for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence interval flood magnitudes for both streams used data from U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations weighted with regional regression equations for southeast Alaska. The study area for the hydraulic model consisted of three channels: Duck Creek from Taku Boulevard near the stream's headwaters to Radcliffe Road near the end of the Juneau International Airport runway, an unnamed tributary to Duck Creek from Valley Boulevard to its confluence with Duck Creek, and Jordan Creek from a pedestrian bridge upstream from Egan Drive to Crest Street at Juneau International Airport. Field surveys throughout the study area provided channel geometry for 206 cross sections, and geometric and hydraulic characteristics for 29 culverts and 15 roadway, driveway, or pedestrian bridges. Hydraulic modeling consisted of application of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) for steady-state flow at the selected recurrence intervals using an assumed high tide of 20 feet and roughness coefficients refined by calibration to measured water-surface elevations from a 2- to 5-year flood that occurred on November 21, 2005. Model simulation results identify inter-basin flow from Jordan Creek to the southeast at Egan Drive and from Duck Creek to Jordan Creek downstream from Egan Drive at selected recurrence intervals.

Curran, Janet H.

2007-01-01

217

Selected hydrologic data for Fountain Creek and Monument Creek basins, east-central Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Selected hydrologic data were collected during 1986, 1987, and 1988 by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Fountain Creek and Monument Creek basins, east-central Colorado. The data were obtained as part of a study to determine the present and projected effects of wastewater discharges on the two creeks. The data, which are available for 129 surface-water sites, include: (1) About 1,100 water quality analyses; (2) about 420 measurements of discharge, (3) characteristics of about 50 dye clouds associated with measurements of traveltime and reaeration , and (4) about 360 measurements of channel geometry. (USGS)

Kuhn, Gerhard; Ortiz, Roderick F.

1989-01-01

218

TarFisDock: a web server for identifying drug targets with docking approach  

PubMed Central

TarFisDock is a web-based tool for automating the procedure of searching for small molecule–protein interactions over a large repertoire of protein structures. It offers PDTD (potential drug target database), a target database containing 698 protein structures covering 15 therapeutic areas and a reverse ligand–protein docking program. In contrast to conventional ligand–protein docking, reverse ligand–protein docking aims to seek potential protein targets by screening an appropriate protein database. The input file of this web server is the small molecule to be tested, in standard mol2 format; TarFisDock then searches for possible binding proteins for the given small molecule by use of a docking approach. The ligand–protein interaction energy terms of the program DOCK are adopted for ranking the proteins. To test the reliability of the TarFisDock server, we searched the PDTD for putative binding proteins for vitamin E and 4H-tamoxifen. The top 2 and 10% candidates of vitamin E binding proteins identified by TarFisDock respectively cover 30 and 50% of reported targets verified or implicated by experiments; and 30 and 50% of experimentally confirmed targets for 4H-tamoxifen appear amongst the top 2 and 5% of the TarFisDock predicted candidates, respectively. Therefore, TarFisDock may be a useful tool for target identification, mechanism study of old drugs and probes discovered from natural products. TarFisDock and PDTD are available at . PMID:16844997

Li, Honglin; Gao, Zhenting; Kang, Ling; Zhang, Hailei; Yang, Kun; Yu, Kunqian; Luo, Xiaomin; Zhu, Weiliang; Chen, Kaixian; Shen, Jianhua; Wang, Xicheng; Jiang, Hualiang

2006-01-01

219

Effect of tar fractions from coal gasification on nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia and nickel-gadolinium doped ceria solid oxide fuel cell anode materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The allowable tar content in gasification syngas is one of the key questions for the exploitation of the full potential of fuel cell concepts with integrated gasification systems. A better understanding of the interaction between tars and the SOFC anodes which leads to carbon formation and deposition is needed in order to design systems where the extent of gas cleaning operations is minimized. Model tar compounds (toluene, benzene, naphthalene) have been used in experimental studies to represent those arising from biomass/coal gasification. However, the use of toluene as a model tar overestimates the negative impact of a real gasification tar on SOFC anode degradation associated with carbon formation. In the present work, the effect of a gasification tar and its distillation fractions on two commercially available fuel cell anodes, Ni/YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia) and Ni/CGO (gadolinium doped ceria), is reported. A higher impact of the lighter tar fractions was observed, in terms of more carbon formation on the anodes, in comparison with the whole tar sample. The characterization of the recovered tars after contact with the anode materials revealed a shift towards a heavier molecular weight distribution, reinforcing the view that these fractions have reacted on the anode.

Lorente, E.; Berrueco, C.; Millan, M.; Brandon, N. P.

2013-11-01

220

Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak) in a laboratory screw type reactor and secondary thermal/catalytic tar decomposition.  

PubMed

Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak cartons) in a laboratory apparatus using a flow screw type reactor and a secondary catalytic reactor for tar cracking was studied. The pyrolysis experiments were realized at temperatures ranging from 650 °C to 850 °C aimed at maximizing of the amount of the gas product and reducing its tar content. Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields at different conditions was obtained. The presence of H2, CO, CH4, CO2 and light hydrocarbons, HCx, in the gas product was observed. The Aluminum foil was easily separated from the solid product. The rest part of char was characterized by proximate and elemental analysis and calorimetric measurements. The total organic carbon in the tar product was estimated by elemental analysis of tars. Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used for catalytic thermal tar decomposition. Three series of experiments (without catalyst in a secondary cracking reactor, with dolomite and with AFRC) at temperatures of 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 °C were carried out. Both types of catalysts have significantly affected the content of tars and other components in pyrolytic gases. The effect of catalyst on the tetrapack distribution into the product yield on the composition of gas and on the total organic carbon in the tar product is presented in this work. PMID:23428565

Haydary, J; Susa, D; Dudáš, J

2013-05-01

221

Atmospheric tar balls: aged primary droplets from biomass burning?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric tar balls are particles of special morphology and composition that are abundant in the plumes of biomass smoke. These particles form a specific subset of brown carbon (BrC) which has been shown to play a significant role in atmospheric shortwave absorption and thus climate forcing. Formerly tar balls were hypothesized to be formed in secondary processes in the atmosphere from lignin pyrolysis products. Based on their typical size distributions, morphology, chemical characteristics and other features we now suggest that tar balls are initially produced by the emission of primary tar droplets upon biomass burning. To verify our hypothesis tar balls were produced under laboratory conditions with the total exclusion of flame processes. An all-glass apparatus was designed and tar ball particles were generated from liquid tar obtained previously by dry distillation of wood. The size range, morphology and the chemical composition of the laboratory-generated tar ball particles were similar to those observed in biomass smoke plumes or elsewhere in the atmosphere. Based on our results and the chemical and physical characteristics of tar we suggest that tar balls can be formed by the chemical transformation of emitted primary tar droplets.

Tóth, A.; Hoffer, A.; Nyir?-Kósa, I.; Pósfai, M.; Gelencsér, A.

2013-12-01

222

Investigation of coal tar mobility at a former MGP site  

SciTech Connect

The presence of coal tar in the subsurface of former manufactured gas plant sites poses an environmental hazard and a potential threat to public health. Coal tar can release various chemical compounds that are transported into the groundwater. Before any efforts can be made to remove coal tar from contaminated subsurface soils, it is recommended to characterize coal tar properties and composition and to delineate the residual saturation point between mobile and immobile coal tar. This paper presents a new innovative field device, the Res-SAT field tool, and laboratory procedures that can be used to determine the saturation-capillary pressure relationship for a soil-water coal-tar system and the critical pressure for coal tar mobility.

Moo-Young, H.K.; Mo, X.H.; Waterman, R.; Coleman, A.; Saroff, S. [California State University Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

2009-11-15

223

Characterization of the HIV-1 TAR RNA-Tat peptide and drug interactions by on-line acoustic wave sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents the application of the thickness shear-mode (TSM) acoustic wave sensor to the study of RNA-protein and RNA-drug interactions at the solid-liquid interface. The binding of the human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 Tat protein to the trans-activation responsive RNA element (TAR) has been studied using this sensor. Data from such measurements show that the sensor is able to discriminate between different Tat peptides derived from the parent protein based on size. The effects of mutations introduced at specific sites in the protein and RNA on the TAR-Tat binding have also been examined in detail. Reduced level of response in acoustic parameters due to mutations was observed indicating that the decrease in binding in response to site specific mutations can be acoustically detected. Data from acoustic wave sensor measurements indicate that the TAR-Tat binding is also affected by ionic strength. Both the frequency and motional resistance signals show periodic responses when varying concentrations of salt are introduced on a TAR-modified surface. The binding of the two molecules seems to be a function of the response of the nucleic acid to salt concentrations. The kinetics of binding of Tat peptides to TAR RNA and to a bulge mutant analogue (MTAR) is also examined from the rate of change of the series resonant frequency. Results from such analysis illustrate longer Tat peptides formed more stable complexes with TAR RNA and exhibited increased discrimination between mutant and wild type TAR. The binding of two aminoglycoside antibiotics, neomycin and streptomycin, to TAR RNA and their effectiveness in preventing TAR-Tat complex formation has been studied in detail. Binding affinity is directly correlated with the inhibitory potency of these molecules and the TSM sensor shows that neomycin exhibits at least a ten fold greater affinity to TAR and that it is also a more potent inhibitor than streptomycin. The results from this research involving TAR-Tat and TAR-drug interactions compare well with those reported in the literature using other non-biosensor techniques. Thus, acoustic physics offers considerable potential for detailed biophysical analysis of nucleic acid-ligand binding and for screening of small molecule interactions with nucleic acids.

Tassew, Nardos Gobena

224

Use of coal tar pitch and petroleum bitumen in the production of thermally expanded graphite (Short Communication)  

SciTech Connect

The applicability of coal tar pitch and petroleum bitumen to the production of thermally expanded graphite was studied. The dependence of the coefficient of thermal expansion and the specific surface area on the amount of added substances was examined.

T.P. Miloshenko; O.Yu. Fetisova; M.L. Shchipko; B.N. Kuznetsov [Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russia). Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology

2008-06-15

225

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 5. Appendixes J, K, L, M, and N-other supporting information  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 5 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

NONE

1996-06-01

226

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3: Appendixes E and F -- Risk assessment information  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

NONE

1996-06-01

227

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 3. Risk assessment information. Appendixes E, F  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 3 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

NONE

1996-03-01

228

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 2. Biota and representative concentrations of contaminants. Appendixes A, B, C, D  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OU`s). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

NONE

1996-03-01

229

Baseline Characteristics of Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anadromous fish populations historically have found healthy habitat in Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska. Concern regarding potential degradation to the habitat by urban development within the Mendenhall Valley led to a cooperative study among the City and Borough of Juneau, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, and the U.S. Geological Survey, that assessed current hydrologic, water-quality, and physical-habitat conditions of the stream corridor. Periods of no streamflow were not uncommon at the Jordan Creek below Egan Drive near Auke Bay stream gaging station. Additional flow measurements indicate that periods of no flow are more frequent downstream of the gaging station. Although periods of no flow typically were in March and April, streamflow measurements collected prior to 1999 indicate similar periods in January, suggesting that no flow conditions may occur at any time during the winter months. This dewatering in the lower reaches likely limits fish rearing and spawning habitat as well as limiting the migration of juvenile salmon out to the ocean during some years. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations may not be suitable for fish survival during some winter periods in the Jordan Creek watershed. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured as low as 2.8 mg/L at the gaging station and were measured as low as 0.85 mg/L in a tributary to Jordan Creek. Intermittent measurements of pH and dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the mid-reaches of Jordan Creek were all within acceptable limits for fish survival, however, few measurements of these parameters were made during winter-low-flow conditions. One set of water quality samples was collected at six different sites in the Jordan Creek watershed and analyzed for major ions and dissolved nutrients. Major-ion chemistry showed Jordan Creek is calcium bicarbonate type water with little variation between sampling sites.

Host, Randy H.; Neal, Edward G.

2004-01-01

230

A photographic method for estimating wear of coal tar sealcoat from parking lots  

SciTech Connect

Coal-tar-based sealcoat has been recognized as an important source of PAHs to the environment through wear and transport via stormwater runoff. Sealcoat removal rates have not been measured or even estimated in the literature due to the complex array of physical and chemical process involved. A photographic study was conducted that incorporates all sources of wear using 10 coal tar-sealed parking lots in Austin, Texas, with sealcoat age ranging from 0 to 5 years. Randomly located photographs from each parking lot were analyzed digitally to quantify black sealed areas versus lighter colored unsealed areas at the pixel level. The results indicate that coal tar sealcoat wears off of the driving areas of parking lots at a rate of approximately 4.7% per year, and from the parking areas of the lots at a rate of approximately 1.4% per year. The overall annual loss of sealcoat was calculated at 2.4%. This results in an annual delivery to the environment of 0.51 g of PAHs per m{sup 2} of coal tar-sealed parking lot. These values provide a more robust and much higher estimate of loading of PAHs from coal tar sealcoated parking lots when compared to other available measures. 20 refs., 6 figs.

Mateo Scoggins; Tom Ennis; Nathan Parker; Chris Herrington [Watershed Protection and Development Review Department, Austin, TX (United States). Environmental Resource Management Division

2009-07-01

231

Tar reduction in pyrolysis vapours from biomass over a hot char bed.  

PubMed

The behaviour of pyrolysis vapours over char was investigated in order to maximise tar conversion for the development of a new fixed bed gasifier. Wood samples were decomposed at a typical pyrolysis temperature (500 degrees C) and the pyrolysis vapours were then passed directly through a tar cracking zone in a tubular reactor. The product yields and properties of the condensable phases and non-condensable gases were studied for different bed lengths of char (0-450 mm), temperatures (500-800 degrees C), particle sizes (10 and 15 mm) and nitrogen purge rates (1.84-14.70 mm/s). The carbon in the condensable phases showed about 66% reduction by a 300 mm long char section at 800 degrees C, compared to that for pyrolysis at 500 degrees C. The amount of heavy condensable phase decreased with increasing temperature from about 18.4 wt% of the biomass input at 500 degrees C to 8.0 wt% at 800 degrees C, forming CO, H(2) and other light molecules. The main mode of tar conversion was found to be in the vapour phase when compared to the results without the presence of char. The composition of the heavy condensable phase was simplified into much fewer secondary and tertiary tar components at 800 degrees C. Additional measures were required to maximise the heterogeneous effect of char for tar reduction. PMID:19604685

Gilbert, P; Ryu, C; Sharifi, V; Swithenbank, J

2009-12-01

232

Effects of model coal tar components on adhesion strength of polyurethane coating on steel plate  

SciTech Connect

In order to study the effects of coal tar components on the adhesion strength of a heavy duty anticorrosive coating formed with tar-urethane resin oil on a steel plate, polyurethane coatings that were compounded with 15 kinds of polycyclic aromatic compounds as model coal tar components were prepared. In the model coal tar, components, naphthalene, quinoline, 2-naphthol, and phenanthrene showed good compatibility with polyurethane. To test their heavy duty anticorrosive properties, tensile adhesion strength of the cured coatings prepared with the compatible model coal tar components was measured, and the change in tensile adhesion strength as a function of time during salt-water spray treatment was measured. We found that the systems compounded with naphthalene, 2-naphthol, and phenanthrene showed good properties in an ordinary state for adhesion strength. However, only the system with 2-naphthol was found to have good properties in the change of tensile adhesion strength as a function or time during salt-water spray treatment. The curing time of the system with 2-naphthol was slower than that or the others, i.e., we found an inverse proportion between curing speed and adhesion durability. We also measured the dynamic viscoelasticity of cured coatings.

Yokoyama, N.; Fujino, K. [Nippon Steel Chemical Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). R& amp; D Labs.

2005-04-15

233

The Blacktail Creek Tuff: an analytical and experimental study of rhyolites from the Heise volcanic field, Yellowstone hotspot system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magma storage conditions of the 6.62 Ma Blacktail Creek Tuff eruption, belonging to the Heise volcanic field (6.62-4.45 Ma old) of the Yellowstone hotspot system, have been investigated by combining thermobarometric and experimental approaches. The results from different geothermometers (e.g., Fe-Ti oxides, feldspar pairs, apatite and zircon solubility, and Ti in quartz) indicate a pre-eruptive temperature in the range 825-875 °C. The temperature estimated using two-pyroxene pairs varies in a range of 810-950 °C, but the pyroxenes are probably not in equilibrium with each other, and the analytical results of melt inclusion in pyroxenes indicate a complex history for clinopyroxene, which hosts two compositionally different inclusion types. One natural Blacktail Creek Tuff rock sample has been used to determine experimentally the equilibrium phase assemblages in the pressure range 100-500 MPa and a water activity range 0.1-1.0. The experiments have been performed at fluid-present conditions, with a fluid phase composed of H2O and CO2, as well as at fluid-absent conditions. The stability of the quartzo-feldspathic phases is similar in both types of experiments, but the presence of mafic minerals such as biotite and clinopyroxene is strongly dependent on the experimental approach. Possible explanations are given for this discrepancy which may have strong impacts on the choice of appropriate experimental approaches for the determination of magma storage conditions. The comparison of the composition of natural phases and of experimentally synthesized phases confirms magma storage temperatures of 845-875 °C. Melt water contents of 1.5-2.5 wt% H2O are required to reproduce the natural Blacktail Creek Tuff mineral assemblage at these temperatures. Using the Ti-in-quartz barometer and the Qz-Ab-Or proportions of natural matrix glasses, coexisting with quartz, plagioclase and sanidine, the depth of magma storage is estimated to be in a pressure range between 130 and 250 MPa.

Bolte, Torsten; Holtz, Francois; Almeev, Renat; Nash, Barbara

2015-02-01

234

Proceedings of the 1986 tar sands symposium  

SciTech Connect

The 1986 Tar Sand Symposium was sponsored by the Laramie Project Office of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, US Department of Energy, and hosted by the Western Research Institute, University of Wyoming Research Corporation, in Jackson, Wyoming, on July 7 to 10, 1986. The 10-session symposium included 36 presentations describing research, development, and commercial application of tar sand technologies of the US, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, Switzerland, and Venezuela. Over 80 participants represented the US, Canada, Germany, Japan, and Switzerland. The papers printed in the proceedings have been reproduced from camera-ready manuscripts furnished by the authors. The papers have not been referred, nor have they been edited extensively. All papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

Westhoff, J.D.; Marchant, L.C. (eds.)

1986-10-01

235

Aspects of tar sands development in Nigeria  

SciTech Connect

Development of Nigerian massive reserves of crude bitumen and associated heavy oil is imminent in view of the impacts that the huge importation of these materials and their products have on the nation's economy, coupled with the depleting reserves of Nigeria and highlights the appropriate production technology options and their environmental implications. The utilization potentials of these resources are also enumerated, as well as the government's role in achieving accelerated, long-term tar sands development in the country.

Adewusi, V.A. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (NG))

1992-07-01

236

A NEW PROCESS FOR TAR SAND RECOVERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extraction process for bitumen recovery from tar sand has been developed using an alkaline solution (e.g., NaOH, Na2SiO3) and sonication at a low temperature and ambient atmosphere. The bitumen recovered thus far is extraordinarily low in ash content and virtually free of metal and asphaltene, with an average gravity of 15° API for 95% cumulative recovery (based on carbon

KAZEM M. SADEGHI; MOHAMMAD-ALI SADEGHI; JIH-FEN KUO; LONG-KUAN JANG; JIUNN-REN LIN; TEH FU YEN

1992-01-01

237

Chemical composition of high resin petroleum tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data from physico-chemical methods (elemental analysis, IR, NMR spectroscopy, etc.) and integral structural analysis are used to calculate the average structural parameters and to determine structural-molecular models of compounds contained in commercial tar of West Siberian, Romashkino and Arlan petroleums. The high molar mass compounds of the petroleums examined were characterized by unique principles of structural-molecular organization of corresponding

O. G. Popov; I. A. Posadov; D. A. Rozental; L. A. Kornilova

1984-01-01

238

US tar sand oil recovery projects - 1984  

SciTech Connect

With a temporarily stable world oil price, which is lower than estimated values for most unconventional liquid hydrocarbon fuels, interest and activity in US tar sands has declined. Data are reported for 52 projects involving in situ, mining and plant extraction, and modified in situ technologies. The data include operator name, project location, project status (completed, current, or planned), project type (commercial or pilot) and, reservoir and oil characteristics.

Marchant, L.C.

1985-02-01

239

Exploration for tar sands in western Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

Bitumen-impregnated sandstones are described along the eastern and southeastern rim of the Eastern Interior (Illinois) Basin in western Kentucky. Development in Kentucky to date has been from surface and near-surface deposits for almost exclusive use as a paving material. Published reserve estimates of western Kentucky deposits indicate more than 450 million metric tons of shallow strippable tar sands having equivalent bitumen content of 35 to 55 liters per metric ton. 16 refs.

McGrain, P.; Ponsetto, L.R.

1981-01-01

240

Alturas Lake Creek Flow Augmentation, 1986 Final Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two alternatives were outlined in the first statement of work as possibilities for flow augmentation in Alturas Lake Creek. The alternatives were to raise the level of Alturas Lake and to acquire necessary water rights in Alturas Lake Creek. The first alternative considered in the study was raising the water level at Alturas Lake with a low head dam. Raising

John Andrews; John Lloyd; Bert Webster

1987-01-01

241

Results from preliminary tributary experiment Brush Creek, June 1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short field experiment was planned and executed on June 11-15, 1984 at Brush Creek, Colorado, to make a preliminary study of tributary flow into Brush Creek. This period was selected because of the prospect of a short window in June of unperturbed nocturnal drainage flow (which turned out to fortunately be the case) and the presence of a full

W. Porch; P. Gudiksen; R. Fritz; J. Thorpe; R. Hosker; C. Nappo

1984-01-01

242

ROCK CREEK, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1970-1984  

EPA Science Inventory

The study was designed to determine the characteristics and amounts of industrial and municipal wastes discharged to Rock Creek, Idaho (17040212) and subsequently into the Snake River and to evaluate the effects of these wastes on the biota and water quality of Rock Creek. Indus...

243

A Creek to Bay Biological Assessment in Oakland, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2007, the Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program (SWAMP) assessed the impact of trash on water quality in the Peralta Creek which is located in the Fruitvale district of Oakland, CA. This 2011 follow-up study will take further steps in evaluating the physical and biological impacts of pollution and human development on Peralta Creek and in the San Leandro Bay, where the Creek empties into the larger San Francisco Bay estuary. This study will utilize two forms of biological assessment in order to determine the level of water quality and ecosystem health of Peralta Creek and San Leandro Bay in Oakland, California. A Rapid Bioassesment Protocal (RBP) will be used as the method of biological assessment for Peralta Creek. RBP uses a biotic index of benthic macroinvertebrates to provide a measure of a water body's health. Larval trematodes found in two mud snails (Ilynassa obsoleta and Cerithidea californica) will be used to evaluate the health of the San Leandro Bay. Due to the complex life cycle of trematodes, the measure of trematode diversity and richness in host species serves as an indicator of estuarine health (Huspeni 2005). We have completed the assessment of one section of Peralta Creek, located at 2465 34th Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601. Abundance results indicate a moderately healthy creek because there were high levels of pollution tolerant benthic macroinvertebrates. The tolerant group of benthic macroinvertebrates includes such organisms as flatworms, leeches, and scuds. This is possibly due to this section of the creek being pumped up to the surface from culverts impacting the macroinvertebrate's life cycle. Another contributing factor to creek health is the amount of organic debris found in the creek, which inhibits the flow and oxygenation of the water, allowing for more pollution tolerant aquatic insects to persist. Further investigation is being conducted to fully assess the Peralta Creek watershed; from the preliminary results one can surmise that runoff from the watershed that leads into the bay may reflect a moderately healthy San Leandro Bay.

Ahumada, E.; Ramirez, N.; Lopez, A.; Avila, M.; Ramirez, J.; Arroyo, D.; Bracho, H.; Casanova, A.; Pierson, E.

2011-12-01

244

Manufacturing Battle Creek  

E-print Network

to the manufacturing sector in Western Michigan. In addition to serving as director of the MRC, Dr. Patten is alsoManufacturing Research Center Kalamazoo Battle Creek The College of Engineering and Applied Sciences The Supporting manufacturing industries by providing opportunities for collaboration with faculty

de Doncker, Elise

245

Byrne Creek Power Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Byrne Creek Power Project was submitted in response to the US Synthetic Fuels Corporation's (SFC) 4th General Solicitation. The project represents the first commercial application of underground coal gasification (UCG) technology in the US. A 2 phase approach consisting of an engineering burn (EVB) prior to design finalization and construction of the commercial facility has been proposed to the

A. E. Humphrey; D. D. Fischer; D. L. Whitman

1985-01-01

246

Water, Rivers and Creeks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Luna B. Leopold's intent in Water, Rivers and Creeks was to provide a nontechnical primer on hydrology and water resources, and he succeeded admirably. The terse style is reminiscent of the mystery writer Mickey Spillane, though the content is complex science expounded in simple terms. ``Part I, Hydrology and Morphology,'' makes up the first two thirds of the book, and

Robert D. Mac

1998-01-01

247

Waller Creek Urban Redevelopment  

E-print Network

curtipendula - Sideoats Grama Muhlenbergia lindheimeir - Creek Muhly Panicum Virgatum - Switchgrass Schizachyrium scoparium - Little Bluestem Sorghastrum nutans - Indiangrass Elymus virginicus - Virginia Wildrye Rhizomaceous Plants, Grasses, Wildflowers Ruellia... drummondiana - Drummond Ruellia Justicia americana - Waterwillow Elymus virginicus - Virginia Wildrye Physostegia correllii - Correll's False Dragonhead Cephalanthus occidentalis - Buttonbush Cinna arundinacea - Woodland Cane Deep-rooted Shrubs and Perennials...

McDonald, S.

2013-01-01

248

WILLOW CREEK RECLAMATION PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

Working in cooperation with the EPA, Colorado Division of Minerals and Geology, and others, the Willow Creek Reclamation Committee (WCRC) will investigate the sources and character of water entering the mine workings on the Amethyst vein near the town of Creede, Colorado. Activi...

249

Sampling and analysis plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatment technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. This project directly supports Alternative 5 of the base action in the BCV Feasibility Study and indirectly supports other alternatives through proof of concept. In that role, the ultimate goal is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium and nitrate from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. A secondary goal is the concurrent removal of technetium and several metals that affect ecological risk. This project is intended to produce hydraulic and treatment performance data required to design the treatment system to reach those goals. This project will also generate information that can be applied at other facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation. This report is the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for the field work component of Phase II of the BCV Treatability Study. Field work for this phase of the BCV Treatability Study consists of environmental and media testing. The SAP addresses environmental sampling at the S-3 Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be taken from groundwater, surface water, seeps, effluent from test columns, effluent from an algal mat reactor, and effluent from a pilot-scale wetland. Groundwater, surface water, and seeps will be monitored continuously for field parameters and sampled for analytical parameters during pump tests conducted periodically during the investigation. In-field continuous flow tests will be conducted over an extended time period (5 weeks) to generate data on long-term treatment effects on potential treatment effects on potential treatment media including sorbents and zero valent iron, over 28 weeks for constructed wetlands treatment, and over 24 weeks for algal mats treatment.

NONE

1997-09-01

250

Analysis of geothermal electric-power generation at Big Creek Hot Springs, Lemhi County, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Big Creek Hot Springs was evaluated as a source of electrical power for the Blackbird Cobalt Mine, approximately 13 miles south of the hot spring. An evaluaton of the geothermal potential of Big Creek Hot Springs, a suggested exploration program and budget, an engineering feasibility study of power generation at Big Creek Hot Springs, an economic analysis of the modeled power generating system, and an appraisal of the institutional factors influencing development at Big Creek Hot Springs are included.

Struhsacker, D.W. (ed.)

1981-01-01

251

Responses of tidal creek macrobenthic communities to the effects of watershed development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of watershed development on macrobenthic communities in tidal creeks of Charleston Harbor,\\u000a South Carolina, U.S. Two types of creeks were evaluated: upland creeks which drained watersheds consisting of at least 15%\\u000a terrestrial land cover, and salt marsh creeks which drained no upland habitat (i.e., only intertidal habitat). Samples of\\u000a macrobenthic organisms were taken along the

Scott B. Lerberg; A. Frederick Holland; Denise M. Sanger

2000-01-01

252

Should We Dam Nanticoke Creek?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this decision-making exercise, students investigate what would occur if a dam were built along Nanticoke Creek, a real stream just north of West Corners near the Village of Endicott, New York. They will use topographic maps to determine how much area would be flooded by the new reservoir, to study river drainages, and to consider the impacts of dams on a region. They must also consider rivers in the context of their relation to humankind. The exercise can be extended to other, more local locations having similar topography.

Philip Childs

253

Analysis of geothermal electric-power generation at Big Creek Hot Springs, Lemhi County, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Big Creek Hot Springs was evaluated as a source of electrical power for the Blackbird Cobalt Mine, approximately 13 miles south of the hot spring. An evaluaton of the geothermal potential of Big Creek Hot Springs, a suggested exploration program and budget, an engineering feasibility study of power generation at Big Creek Hot Springs, an economic analysis of the modeled

Struhsacker

1981-01-01

254

Natural and Anthropogenic Controls on the Ecosystem Services Provided by Dissolved Organic Matter: A Case Study of the Boulder Creek Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) performs a number of vital functions in aquatic ecosystems, playing a substantial role in carbon and nitrogen cycles and the bioavailability of metals as well as generally affecting water chemistry. Additionally, it is considered the main cause of the the formation of harmful disinfection byproducts during water treatment processes. Because DOM is vital for ecosystem functioning, but potentially problematic for some direct human uses of water, it proves a complex case study for the application of the ecosystem services framework. To add to the complexity, human behavior can affect the amount and composition of DOM in water. Increasing concentrations of DOM have been observed in many areas of Northern Europe and North America. Hypotheses which have been suggested to explain these increased concentrations include changing land use, thawing peatlands, increased nitrogen deposition, and a lessening of acid rain, a particularly interesting idea because it would be an unintended consequence of a policy designed to protect other ecosystem functions. This multi-year study investigates DOM in the Boulder Creek Watershed in Colorado to better understand seasonal cycling of DOM and the link between DOM in the river and organic matter in the catchment, which is a substantial DOM source. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to analyze the chemical character of the DOM in an attempt to elucidate the watershed processes driving changes in DOM concentration. Because flow in Boulder Creek is partially controlled by Barker dam and reservoir, this study site provides an opportunity to investigate both natural DOM cycling and the impact of an anthropogenic influence. By better understanding DOM cycling and the ecosystem services it provides, we can better predict how DOM dynamics may shift in the future and be prepared to adjust our behavior and water treatment processes accordingly.

Gabor, R. S.; McKnight, D. M.

2011-12-01

255

Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 2. Appendixes A, B, C, D  

SciTech Connect

This document contains appendices A (water characterization), B (sediment characterization), C (biota Characterization), D (applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements) from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

NONE

1995-09-01

256

Adsorption of nicotine and tar from the mainstream smoke of cigarettes by oxidized carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adsorption of nicotine and tar from the mainstream smoke (MS) by the filter tips filled respectively with oxidized carbon nanotubes (O-CNTs), activated carbon and zeolite (NaY) has been investigated. O-CNTs show exceptional removal efficiency and their adsorption mechanism is investigated. Capillary condensation of some ingredients from MS in the inner hole of O-CNTs is observed and may be the primary reason for their superior removal efficiency. The effect of O-CNTs mass on the removal efficiencies is also studied and the results show that about 20-30 mg O-CNTs per cigarette can effectively remove most of nicotine and tar.

Chen, Zhigang; Zhang, Lisha; Tang, Yiwen; Jia, Zhijie

2006-02-01

257

Rapid report Glacial trees from the La Brea tar pits show physiological constraints  

E-print Network

glacial period, low CO2, tree rings. Summary · While studies of modern plants indicate negative responsesRapid report Glacial trees from the La Brea tar pits show physiological constraints of low CO2 trees, further suggesting limiting [CO2] in glacial plants. · This study provides some of the first

Nippert, Jesse

258

Using Landsat and a Bayesian hard classifier to study forest change in the Salmon Creek Watershed area from 1972-2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Salmon Creek Watershed in Sonoma County, California, USA, is home to a variety of wildlife, and many of its residents are mindful of their place in its ecology. In the past half century, several of its native and rare species have become threatened, endangered, or extinct, most notably the once common Coho salmon and Chinook salmon. The cause of this decline is believed to be a combination of global climate change, local land use, and land cover change. More specifically, the clearing of forested land to create vineyards, as well as other agricultural and residential uses, has led to a decline in biodiversity and habitat structure. I studied sub-scenes of Landsat data from 1972 to 2013 for the Salmon Creek Watershed area to estimate forest cover over this period. I used a maximum likelihood hard classifier to determine forest area, a Mahalanobis distance soft classifier to show the software's uncertainty in classification, and manually digitized forest cover to test and compare results for the 2013 30 m image. Because the earliest images were lower spatial resolution, I also tested the effects of resolution on these statistics. The images before 1985 are at 60 m spatial resolution while the later images are at 30 m resolution. Each image was processed individually and the training data were based on knowledge of the area and a mosaic of aerial photography. Each sub-scene was classified into five categories: water, forest, pasture, vineyard/orchard, and developed/barren. The research shows a decline in forest area from 1972 to around the mid-1990s, then an increase in forest area from the mid-1990s to present. The forest statistics can be helpful for conservation and restoration purposes, while the study on resolution can be helpful for landscape analysis on many levels.

Mullis, David Stone

259

Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak) in a laboratory screw type reactor and secondary thermal/catalytic tar decomposition  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Pyrolysis of aseptic packages was carried out in a laboratory flow reactor. ? Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields was obtained. ? Composition of the pyrolysis products was estimated. ? Secondary thermal and catalytic decomposition of tars was studied. ? Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used. - Abstract: Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak cartons) in a laboratory apparatus using a flow screw type reactor and a secondary catalytic reactor for tar cracking was studied. The pyrolysis experiments were realized at temperatures ranging from 650 °C to 850 °C aimed at maximizing of the amount of the gas product and reducing its tar content. Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields at different conditions was obtained. The presence of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and light hydrocarbons, HCx, in the gas product was observed. The Aluminum foil was easily separated from the solid product. The rest part of char was characterized by proximate and elemental analysis and calorimetric measurements. The total organic carbon in the tar product was estimated by elemental analysis of tars. Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used for catalytic thermal tar decomposition. Three series of experiments (without catalyst in a secondary cracking reactor, with dolomite and with AFRC) at temperatures of 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 °C were carried out. Both types of catalysts have significantly affected the content of tars and other components in pyrolytic gases. The effect of catalyst on the tetrapack distribution into the product yield on the composition of gas and on the total organic carbon in the tar product is presented in this work.

Haydary, J., E-mail: juma.haydary@stuba.sk [Institute of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia); Susa, D.; Dudáš, J. [Institute of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia)

2013-05-15

260

Geology and resources of the Tar Sand Triangle, southeastern Utah  

SciTech Connect

The Tar Sand Triangle is located in southeastern Utah between the Dirty Devil and Colorado Rivers and covers an area of about 200 square miles. The geology of the area consists of gently northwest dipping strata exposed in the box canyons and slopes of the canyonlands morphology. Strata in the area range in age from Jurassic to Permian. The majority of tar sand saturation is found in the Permian White Rim Sandstone Member of the Cutler Formation. The White Rim Sandstone Member consists of a clean, well-sorted sandstone which was deposited in a shallow marine environment. Resources were calculated from analytical data from the three coreholes drilled by the Laramie Energy Technology Center and other available data. The total in-place resources, determined from this study, are 6.3 billion barels. Previous estimates ranged from 2.9 to 16 million barrels. More coring and analyses will be necessary before a more accurate determination of resources can be attempted. 8 references, 11 figures, 7 tables.

Dana, G.F.; Oliver, R.L.; Elliott, J.R.

1984-05-01

261

A Conceptual Model for Stream Restoration in Western New York: A Developing Case Study in the Elton Creek Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The practice of ecosystem restoration is still often viewed as an "art" versus a science. This view is further fueled by the manner in which many restoration projects are identified and implemented- on a case by case basis with little documentation on the drivers of the ecosystems in question or the establishment of success criteria once the project is complete. While monitoring data may exist to quantify the existing conditions of a stream (biological, chemical, and physical), these data are not always easily translated into design criteria for restoration. Rather, most restoration designs rely upon best professional judgment by highly experienced practitioners. Various agencies in Western New York have completed numerous stream restoration projects in the region to improve in-stream habitat and address impaired streams. In order to capture these successful restoration practices in a manner that can be translated to other streams in the region and inform future restoration designs, a conceptual framework is proposed for the Western New York region. The conceptual framework will identify the ecosystem drivers in the stream riparian corridors and discuss trajectories of these ecosystems. A project site on Elton Creek near Delevan, New York has been selected as a test case for applying this conceptual framework. The focus of this paper will be on determining the drivers of the stream ecosystem through the use of rapid geomorphic assessments. The results of two rapid geomorphic assessment methods be presented and contrasted in the context of the conceptual framework.

Rabideau, A.; Blersch, S. S.

2009-05-01

262

Travels of the Cache Creek Terrane: a paleomagnetic, geobarometric and 40Ar/ 39Ar study of the Jurassic Fourth of July Batholith, Canadian Cordillera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Middle Jurassic Fourth of July Batholith and cross-cutting mafic dikes have been studied geochronologically, geobarometrically and paleomagnetically to estimate subsequent tectonic motion of the Cache Creek Terrane (CCT) in the northern Canadian Cordillera. 40Ar/ 39Ar hornblende ages from a granodiorite phase are similar to U-Pb zircon ages and indicate rapid cooling of the batholith upon intrusion, suggesting that the magnetization age is coincident with the 173-Ma crystallization age. Argon ages of biotite from the granodiorite and two mafic dikes have similar ages of ˜165 Ma, which dates cooling through ˜280 °C. Aluminum-in-hornblende geobarometry indicates differential uplift of the batholith across a north-south fault zone along Atlin Lake with >6 km more uplift on its eastern side. Also, the eastern side has been tilted downward to the south-southwest by ˜9°. Combined paleomagnetic data from 20 granitoid and 11 mafic dike sites yield an in situ paleopole at 55°W, 63°N ( dp=5°, dm=5°) and a tilt-corrected paleopole at 81°W, 55°N ( dp=5°, dm=6°). Compared to the 173-Ma reference pole for the North American craton, the tilt-corrected pole suggests a significant southward translation of 16.1±3.7° and a significant clockwise rotation of 107±7°. The translation estimate is similar to the Jurassic Teslin Crossing pluton in the Stikine Terrane, however, the rotation estimate is very different. This could indicate that the Cache Creek Terrane was at a similar latitude of the Stikine Terrane, but the two were not yet amalgamated.

Harris, Michael J.; Symons, David T. A.; Blackburn, William H.; Hart, Craig J. R.; Villeneuve, Mike

2003-02-01

263

Design of a groundwater model to determine the feasibility of extending an artificial salmon-spawning stream: case study for Marx Creek, near Hyder, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marx Creek is a groundwater-fed, artificial salmon-spawning stream near Hyder, Alaska. The purpose of this project was to develop a groundwater flow model to predict baseflow to a proposed 450-m extension of Marx Creek. To accomplish this purpose, water levels were monitored in 20 monitor wells and discharge measurements were recorded from Marx Creek. These data were used to create a three-dimensional groundwater flow model using Visual MODFLOW. Three predictive simulations were run after the model was calibrated to groundwater levels and stream discharge measurements. The proposed extension was added to the calibrated model during the first simulation, resulting in simulated baseflow to the extension stream exceeding simulated baseflow to the existing Marx Creek by 39 %. Sections of Marx Creek were removed from the model during the second simulation, resulting in a 5 % increase in simulated baseflow to the extension stream. A 32-cm reduction in the water table was simulated during the third simulation, resulting in an 18 % decrease in simulated baseflow to the extension stream. These modeling results were used by Tongass National Forest personnel to determine that baseflow to the proposed extension would likely be sufficient to provide habitat conducive to salmon spawning. The extension stream was constructed and portions of Marx Creek were decommissioned during the summer of 2008. It was observed that there is comparable or greater discharge in the extension stream than there was in the decommissioned sections of Marx Creek, although neither discharge nor stream stage measurements have yet been collected.

Nelson, T. P.; Lachmar, T. E.

2013-09-01

264

Integrated Geophysical Monitoring Program to Study Flood Performance and Incidental CO2 Storage Associated with a CO2 EOR Project in the Bell Creek Oil Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center, is working with Denbury Onshore LLC to determine the effect of a large-scale injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into a deep clastic reservoir for the purpose of simultaneous CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and to study incidental CO2 storage at the Bell Creek oil field located in southeastern Montana. This project will reduce CO2 emissions by more than 1 million tons a year while simultaneously recovering an anticipated 30 million barrels of incremental oil. The Bell Creek project provides a unique opportunity to use and evaluate a comprehensive suite of technologies for monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) of CO2 on a large-scale. The plan incorporates multiple geophysical technologies in the presence of complementary and sometimes overlapping data to create a comprehensive data set that will facilitate evaluation and comparison. The MVA plan has been divided into shallow and deep subsurface monitoring. The deep subsurface monitoring plan includes 4-D surface seismic, time-lapse 3-D vertical seismic profile (VSP) surveys incorporating a permanent borehole array, and baseline and subsequent carbon-oxygen logging and other well-based measurements. The goal is to track the movement of CO2 in the reservoir, evaluate the recovery/storage efficiency of the CO2 EOR program, identify fluid migration pathways, and determine the ultimate fate of injected CO2. CO2 injection at Bell Creek began in late May 2013. Prior to injection, a monitoring and characterization well near the field center was drilled and outfitted with a distributed temperature-monitoring system and three down-hole pressure gauges to provide continuous real-time data of the reservoir and overlying strata. The monitoring well allows on-demand access for time-lapse well-based measurements and borehole seismic instrumentation. A 50-level permanent borehole array of 3-component geophones was installed in a second monitoring well. A pre-injection series of carbon-oxygen logging across the reservoir was acquired in 35 wells. The baseline 3-D surface seismic survey was acquired in September 2012. A 3-D VSP incorporating two wells and 2 square miles of overlapping seismic coverage in the middle of the field was acquired in May 2013. Initial iterations of geologic modeling and reservoir simulation of the field have been completed. Currently, passive seismic monitoring with the permanent borehole array is being conducted during injection. Interpretation results from the baseline surface 3-D survey and preliminary results from the baseline 3-D VSP are being evaluated and integrated into the reservoir model. The PCOR Partnership's philosophy is to combine site characterization, modeling, and monitoring strategies into an iterative process to produce descriptive integrated results. The comprehensive effort at Bell Creek will allow a comparison of the effectiveness of several complementary geophysical and well-based methods in meeting the goals of the deep subsurface monitoring effort.

Burnison, S. A.; Ditty, P.; Gorecki, C. D.; Hamling, J. A.; Steadman, E. N.; Harju, J. A.

2013-12-01

265

Grandparents Oppose Tar Sands Alberta tar sands are estimated to be 240 GtC (gigatons of carbon); see Intergovernmental Panel  

E-print Network

Grandparents Oppose Tar Sands Alberta tar sands are estimated to be 240 GtC (gigatons of carbon was 28% of global oil use for the cumulative amounts over the past 200 years. So Alberta tar sands that tar sands are not so great that we need to be concerned about their effect on climate. They argue

Hansen, James E.

266

Assessment of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in the Autauga Creek watershed, Autauga County, Alabama, 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Only four families within the Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera orders were found during a 1999 survey of aquatic macroinvertebrates in Autauga Creek, Autauga County, Alabama, by the Alabama Department of Environmental Management. The low number of taxa of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera families indicated that the aquatic macroinvertebrate community was in poor condition, and the creek was placed on the Alabama Department of Environmental Management 303(d) list. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in 2009 to provide data for the Alabama Department of Environmental Management and other water management agencies to re-evaluate aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in Autauga Creek to see if they meet Alabama Department of Environmental Management water-quality criteria. Aquatic macroinvertebrate communities were evaluated at three sites in the Autauga Creek watershed. Macroinvertebrates were sampled at two sites on Autauga Creek and one on Bridge Creek, the largest tributary to Autauga Creek. Water-quality field parameters were assessed at 11 sites. During the 2009 sampling, 12 families within the orders of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera were found at the Alabama Department of Environmental Management's assessment site whereas only four were found in 1999. The upstream site on Autauga Creek had consistently higher numbers of taxa than the Bridge Creek site and the lower site on Autauga Creek which is the Alabama Department of Environmental Management's assessment site. Chironomid richness was noticeably higher on the two Autauga Creek sites than the Bridge Creek site.

Mooty, Will S.; Gill, Amy C.

2011-01-01

267

Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials  

SciTech Connect

This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

Stauffer, H.C.

1981-01-01

268

43 CFR 3141.2 - Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas. 3141.2 Section 3141.2 Public...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.2 Prelease exploration...

2012-10-01

269

43 CFR 3141.2 - Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas. 3141.2 Section 3141.2 Public...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.2 Prelease exploration...

2011-10-01

270

43 CFR 3141.2 - Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas. 3141.2 Section 3141.2 Public...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.2 Prelease exploration...

2014-10-01

271

43 CFR 3141.2 - Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas. 3141.2 Section 3141.2 Public...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.2 Prelease exploration...

2013-10-01

272

Simulation of Water Quality in the Tull Creek and West Neck Creek Watersheds, Currituck Sound Basin, North Carolina and Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study of the Currituck Sound was initiated in 2005 to evaluate the water chemistry of the Sound and assess the effectiveness of management strategies. As part of this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to simulate current sediment and nutrient loadings for two distinct watersheds in the Currituck Sound basin and to determine the consequences of different water-quality management scenarios. The watersheds studied were (1) Tull Creek watershed, which has extensive row-crop cultivation and artificial drainage, and (2) West Neck Creek watershed, which drains urban areas in and around Virginia Beach, Virginia. The model simulated monthly streamflows with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients of 0.83 and 0.76 for Tull Creek and West Neck Creek, respectively. The daily sediment concentration coefficient of determination was 0.19 for Tull Creek and 0.36 for West Neck Creek. The coefficient of determination for total nitrogen was 0.26 for both watersheds and for dissolved phosphorus was 0.4 for Tull Creek and 0.03 for West Neck Creek. The model was used to estimate current (2006-2007) sediment and nutrient yields for the two watersheds. Total suspended-solids yield was 56 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. Total nitrogen export was 45 percent lower, and total phosphorus was 43 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. A management scenario with filter strips bordering the main channels was simulated for Tull Creek. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool model estimated a total suspended-solids yield reduction of 54 percent and total nitrogen and total phosphorus reductions of 21 percent and 29 percent, respectively, for the Tull Creek watershed.

Garcia, Ana Maria

2009-01-01

273

Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Colmenares, Tulio Rafael (Houston, TX); Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX); Marino, Marian (Houston, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Ryan, Robert Charles (Houston, TX); Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Dombrowski, Robert James (Houston, TX); Jaiswal, Namit (Houston, TX)

2009-12-22

274

Chemical composition of high resin petroleum tar  

SciTech Connect

The data from physico-chemical methods (elemental analysis, IR, NMR spectroscopy, etc.) and integral structural analysis are used to calculate the average structural parameters and to determine structural-molecular models of compounds contained in commercial tar of West Siberian, Romashkino and Arlan petroleums. The high molar mass compounds of the petroleums examined were characterized by unique principles of structural-molecular organization of corresponding typical fragments, which include similar naphthene-aromatic condensed systems of five-to-six rings; the results explain the possibility of mutual transitions of high molar mass petroleum compounds as well as the katagenic transformations of petroleum during processing. 12 references, 8 tables.

Popov, O.G.; Posadov, I.A.; Rozental, D.A.; Kornilova, L.A.

1984-01-01

275

Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX

2010-01-12

276

BENCH SCALE FIXATION OF SOILS FROM THE TACOMA TAR PITS SUPRFUND SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents the results of bench-scale soil fixation study conducted with materials from the Tacoma Tar Pits SuperfundSite. Chemical fixation (also called stabilization/solidification)is a relatively new technique for remediating contaminated soils. It entails both immo...

277

Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat, polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), and environmental health  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have identified coal-tar-based sealcoat-the black, viscous liquid sprayed or painted on asphalt pavement such as parking lots-as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in urban areas for large parts of the Nation. Several PAHs are suspected human carcinogens and are toxic to aquatic life.

Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.

2011-01-01

278

MUTAGENICITY OF COAL TAR PAINTS USED IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity of coal tar paints used for coating drinking water tanks and pipes, as a preliminary screening for potential genotoxic hazards associated with leaching of mutagens into drinking water during water storage and distribution. To...

279

Processing of Arroyo Grande tar sand using the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE copyright ) process  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study are to (1) evaluate the applications of the ROPE{copyright} process to a California tar sand using the screw pyrolysis reactor-process development unit (SPR-PDU) reactor, (2) produce kinetics data for the recycle product oil-spent sand interaction, and (3) produce oil for end-use evaluation. 6 refs., 1 fig., 23 tabs.

King, S.B.

1989-12-01

280

PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING OF U.S. TAR SANDS: AN ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Factors traceable to the increasing shortfall in U.S. production of natural crude have rekindled interests in U.S. tar sands as a source of synthetic fuel. Reported here are the results of a preliminary study to assess the potential primary environmental impacts of production and...

281

Alexander Creek in the Susitna Basin  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Researchers with the Alaska Fish and Game travel along Alexander Creek in the Susitna Basin of south-central Alaska. The team is on their way to a back country base-camp for a study examining the preferred diet of invasive northern pike (Esox lucius).  ...

282

Bereavement Rituals in the Muscogee Creek Tribe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative, collective case study explores bereavement rituals in the Muscogee Creek tribe. Data from interviews with 27 participants, all adult members of the tribe, revealed consensus on participation in certain bereavement rituals. Common rituals included (a) conducting a wake service the night before burial; (b) never leaving the body alone…

Walker, Andrea C.; Balk, David E.

2007-01-01

283

Grieving in the Muscogee Creek Tribe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative, collective case study explores grieving in the Muscogee Creek tribe. Data from interviews with 27 participants, all adult members of the tribe, reveal tendencies in patterns of grieving. Commonalities include (a) individual strength and certainty of recovery; (b) focus on giving to others in the family and coping as a family unit;…

Walker, Andrea C.

2008-01-01

284

Buck Creek River Flow Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Buck Creek flowing through Springfield Ohio has a number of low-head dams currently in place that cause safety issues and sometimes make it impossible for recreational boaters to pass through. The safety issues include the back eddies created by the dams that are known as drowning machines and the hydraulic jumps. In this study we are modeling the flow of Buck Creek using topographical and flow data provided by the Geology Department of Wittenberg University. The flow is analyzed using Hydraulic Engineering Center - River Analysis System software (HEC-RAS). As the first step a model of the river near Snyder Park has been created with the current structure in place for validation purposes. Afterwards the low-head dam is replaced with four drop structures with V-notch overflow gates. The river bed is altered to reflect plunge pools after each drop structure. This analysis will provide insight to how the flow is going to behave after the changes are made. In addition a sediment transport analysis is also being conducted to provide information about the stability of these structures.

Dhanapala, Yasas; George, Elizabeth; Ritter, John

2009-04-01

285

Treatability study on the Bear Creek Valley characterization area at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Phase II work plan for S-3 site contaminated groundwater interception--in-field media evaluation and groundwater capture methods  

SciTech Connect

A treatability study is being conducted to support implementation:of early actions at the S-3 Site in the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Characterization Area (CA). The objectives of the early actions Will be (1) to reduce concentrations of uranium and nitrate in Bear Creek and (2) to reduce contaminants of concern in North Tributary (NT)-1 and NT-2. The BCV CA is located within the US DOE`s Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. Hazardous and radioactive materials from the Y-12 Plant operations were, disposed of at various sites within BCV. Groundwater and surface water in the BCV CA have been contaminated. The remedial investigation (RI) for the BCV CA identified that the greatest mass flux of contaminants from the various sources migrates via groundwater at the source and discharges to surface water in Bear Creek and its tributaries. In the RI, the combined discharge from the S-3 Site and the Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY) was identified as accounting for 75% of the cancer risk and more than 80% of the chemical toxicity to Potential downgradient human receptors. In addition, the S-3 Site has caused degradation of surface water quality in upper Bear Creek and two of its tributaries. The BCV CA treatability study focuses on capture and treatment of shallow groundwater before it discharges to tributary waters. The objectives Of treatment of this groundwater are (1) to reduce the concentrations of uranium and nitrate in NT-1 and Bear Creek such that the concentrations of these chemicals in surface water and groundwater are reduced to acceptable levels, (2) to reduce the concentrations of nitrate and metals, and reduce the overall concentration of total dissolved solids; and (3) to hydraulically contain the plume of contaminated, groundwater that is moving in bedrock in the Nolichucky Shale such that the rate of contaminant discharge will be reduced in the long term. The objective of Phase II is to produce conceptual designs for treatment system configurations.

NONE

1996-12-01

286

Folding at two different scales of the Paradox anticline in the Ordovician Cool Creek Formation, Arbuckle Group, Slick Hills, southwestern Oklahoma: A paleomagnetic fold test study.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The carbonates in the Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle Group, part of the southern Oklahoma aulacogen, has been the subject of previous paleomagnetic studies with a focus primarily on their origin of the magnetizations. Most previous studies indicate late Paleozoic magnetizations that reside in hematite. However, Elmore et al. (1988) conducted a paleomagnetic study of the Arbuckle Group carbonates from the Slick Hills area utilizing six sites from a north-plunging tightly folded Paradox anticline. Alternating field and thermal demagnetization results from their study indicated a post-tilting remanence that resides primarily in magnetite. Also, based on the difference between the observed and expected remanence directions, they suggested a possible 30° block rotation. As a continuation of their work, this paleomagnetic study was conducted to corroborate the observed 30° rotations utilizing more sites from the Paradox anticline and the use of a more sensitive 2G Cryogenic magnetometer. In addition, the major focus of this paleomagnetic study is to examine the relationship between the timing of remanence acquisition with respect to the primary (F1) and the secondary (F2) folds of the Paradox anticline. To this extent, oriented samples of carbonates have been collected from the Ordovician Cool Creek Formation of the Paradox anticline from the Slick Hills area from both the F1 and the F2 folds. Low temperature demagnetization protocols have been carried out on these samples to remove the effects of multidomain magnetite grains thereby isolating better the characteristic remanence components. Post-low temperature cleaning, the thermal step-demagnetization procedure isolates primarily two components: 1.) a low-temperature steep downward viscous remanent magnetization; and, 2.) a high-temperature characteristic remanent magnetization component, residing primarily in magnetite, with shallow remanence directions scattered towards the east-south-east to south-east. Fold test results indicate a post-tilting remanence for the F1 major folding of the Paradox anticline similar to that observed by Elmore et al. (1988). However, an interesting new observation is the paleomagnetic fold test results from the F2 fold that indicates a syntilting remanent magnetization. In addition, the south-easterly scattered shallow remanence directions from these Ordovician Cool Creek carbonates substantiates a possible 30° rotation that is likely attributed to the left-lateral wrench faulting observed in this area.

Pannalal, S. J.; Zechmeister, M. S.; Elmore, D. R.

2007-12-01

287

33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation... Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida,...

2010-07-01

288

33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation... Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida,...

2011-07-01

289

33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation... Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida,...

2012-07-01

290

33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation... Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida,...

2014-07-01

291

33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation... Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida,...

2013-07-01

292

USGS Scientist Taking Measurements Along Bear Creek  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS Scientist Taking Measurements Along Bear Creek - Photo taken by Heidi Koontz, USGS Communications, Friday, Sept. 13. USGS scientist Ben Glass conducting current profiler measurements along Bear Creek near Bear Creek Lake in Morrison, Colo....

293

The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1990-07-01

294

The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands  

SciTech Connect

Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1990-07-01

295

48 CFR Appendix to Part 1252 - Tar Matrix  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tar Matrix Appendix to Part 1252 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...CONTRACT CLAUSES Pt. 1252, App. Appendix to Part 1252—Tar Matrix ER27DE05.000 ER27DE05.001 ER27DE05.002 [70...

2010-10-01

296

Biomass Gasifier Tars : Their Nature, Formation, and Conversion  

SciTech Connect

The main purpose of this review is to update the information on gasification tar, the most cumbersome and problematic parameter in any gasification commercialization effort. The work aims to present to the community the scientific and practical aspects of tar formation and conversion (removal) during gasification as a function of the various technological and technical parameters and variables.

T.A. Milne, N. Abatzaglou, and R.J. Evans.

1998-11-01

297

PIGE-PIXE analysis of Nigerian tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a rapidly growing vast country, there is need in Nigeria to develop alternative energy sources to meet its ever increasing energy demands. Tar sands apart from its popular use as a source of asphaltic material for road surfacing is a new energy raw material in Nigeria. The immense industrial applications and utilization of the by-products of tar sands provide

S. O. Olabanji; A. M. I. Haque; S. Fazinic; R. Cherubini; G. Moschini

1994-01-01

298

Biomass Gasifier ''Tars'': Their Nature, Formation, and Conversion  

SciTech Connect

The main purpose of this review is to update the information on gasification tar, the most cumbersome and problematic parameter in any gasification commercialization effort. The work aims to present to the community the scientific and practical aspects of tar formation and conversion (removal) during gasification as a function of the various technological and technical parameters and variables.

Milne, T. A.; Evans, R. J. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Abatzaglou, N. (Kemestrie, Inc.)

1998-11-01

299

Click Dimers To Target HIV TAR RNA Conformation Sunil Kumar,  

E-print Network

(fluorescence resonance energy transfer) competitive assay, circular dichroism (CD), and UV thermal denaturation temperature (Tm) of the HIV TAR RNA up to 10 °C. Ethidium bromide displacement (FID) and a FRET competition assay revealed nanomolar binding affinity between neomycin dimers and HIV TAR RNA, while in case

Stuart, Steven J.

300

Textural characteristics of the Nigerian tar sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive tar sands with reserves of about 41 billion barrels of oil are known to occur in Cretaceous terrigenous sediments in Ondo and Ogun States of Nigeria. The hydrocarbon occurs in two predominantly sandy zones separated by an 8 m thick oil shale. The lower (Horizon Y) is mostly quartz sand, 3-26 m thick. It shows an upward fining of grains and increased consolidation updip. The upper Horizon X is 10-22 m of sandstone with interbedded shales and siltstones. The sands are loosely consolidated. Cementing material is lacking, the grains being held together largely by the tarry oil. Porosity is about 30% and mean oil saturation in both zones is 12%. The recorded clay content (2-7%) is considerably lower than the average for Athabasca, Canada (10-25%) and may enhance the settling properties of the tailing ponds. The sands are water-wet, fine- to medium-grained, moderately well sorted, mesokurtic and positively skewed to near symmetrical. The Nigerian tar sands compare closely with the Athabasca sands in all the above textural parameters. They would thus be expected to show identical response to mining processing, except for the influence of higher ground-water table and the high humidity and ambient temperatures in Nigeria.

Enu, E. I.

1985-05-01

301

Observation of HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Protein induced TAR DNA melting at the single molecule level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reverse transcription of the HIV-1 RNA genome involves several nucleic acid rearrangement steps, and the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) plays a key role in this process. NC is a nucleic acid chaperone protein, which facilitates the formation of the most stable nucleic acid structures. Single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (SM-FRET) measurements enable us to observe the NC-induced conformational fluctuations of a transactivation response region (TAR) DNA hairpin, which is part of the initial product of reverse transcription known as minus-strand strong-stop DNA. SM-FRET studies show that the majority of conformational fluctuations of the fluorescently-labeled TAR DNA hairpin in the presence of NC occur in <100 ms. A single molecule explores a wide range of confomations unpon NC binding, with fluctuations encompassing as many as 40 bases in both arms of the hairpin. No conformational fluctuations are observed with the dye-labeled TAR DNA hairpin in the absence of NC or when a labeled TAR DNA hairpin variant lacking bulges and internal loops is analyzed in the presence of NC. This study represents the first real-time observation of NC-mediated nucleic acid conformational fluctuations, revealing new insights into NC's nucleic acid chaperone activity.

Cosa, Gonzalo; Harbron, Elizabeth; O'Connor, Donald; Musier-Forsyth, Karin; Barbara, Paul

2003-03-01

302

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000.degree. F. in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs.

Westhoff, James D. (Laramie, WY); Harak, Arnold E. (Laramie, WY)

1989-01-01

303

Atmospheric Tar Balls: Particles From Biomass and Biofuel Burning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

'Tar balls,' amorphous carbonaceous spherules that are locally abundant in the tropospheric aerosol through biomass and biofuel burning, form a distinct group of particles, readily identifiable with electron microscopy. They differ from soot in lacking a turbostratic microstructure, and their morphology and composition (~90 mol% carbon) renders them distinct from other carbonaceous particles. Tar balls are abundant in slightly aged (minutes to hours) biomass smoke, indicating that they likely form by gas-to-particle conversion within smoke plumes. Although the material of tar balls is initially hygroscopic, the particles become largely insoluble through free radical polymerization of their organic molecules. Tar balls are primarily externally mixed with other particle types, and they do not appreciably increase in size during aging. When they coagulate with water-bearing particles, their material may partly dissolve and no longer be recognizable as distinct particles. Tar balls may slightly absorb sunlight. They are a widespread and previously unrecognized type of carbonaceous (organic) atmospheric particle.

Posfai, M.; Gelencser, A.; Simonics, R.; Arato, K.; Li, J.; Hobbs, P. V.; Buseck, P. R.

2003-12-01

304

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus or utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000{degrees}F in a burner to remove residual char nd produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capital and operating costs.

Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

1989-11-14

305

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

1988-05-04

306

+2 Valence Metal Concentrations in Lion Creek, Oakland, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven major creeks exist within the City of Oakland, California. These creeks all flow in the southwest direction from forested hills down through densely populated streets where they become susceptible to urban runoff. Lion Creek has been diverted to engineered channels and underground culverts and runs directly under our school (Roots International) before flowing into the San Leandro Bay. One branch of the creek begins near an abandoned sulfur mine. Previous studies have shown that extremely high levels of lead, arsenic and iron exist in this portion of the creek due to acid mine drainage. In this study +2 valence heavy metals concentration data was obtained from samples collected from a segment of the creek located approximately 2.8 miles downstream from the mine. Concentrations in samples collected at three different sites along this segment ranged between 50 ppb and 100 ppb. We hypothesize that these levels are related to the high concentration of +2 valence heavy metals at the mining site. To test this hypothesis, we have obtained samples from various locations along the roughly 3.75 miles of Lion Creek that are used to assess changes in heavy metals concentration levels from the mining site to the San Leandro Bay.

Vazquez, P.; Zedd, T.; Chagolla, R.; Dutton-Starbuck, M.; Negrete, A.; Jinham, M.; Lapota, M.

2012-12-01

307

Determination of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yields in the mainstream smoke of selected international cigarettes  

PubMed Central

Objective: Survey of nicotine, tar, and carbon monoxide (CO) smoke deliveries from 77 cigarette brands purchased in 35 countries was conducted using a standardised machine smoking method. The goal of this study was to determine regional variations and differences in the tar, nicotine, and CO smoke yields of a cigarette brand manufactured by a leading transnational corporation and of non-US locally popular cigarette brands. Design: The majority of the cigarettes were purchased in each of the participating countries by delegate members of the World Health Organization and forwarded to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for analysis. Smoke deliveries were determined using a standardised smoking machine method and subsequent gravimetric and gas chromatography analysis. Results: The smoke deliveries varied widely. Mainstream smoke deliveries varied from 6.8 to 21.6 mg tar/cigarette, 0.5 to 1.6 mg nicotine/cigarette, and 5.9 to 17.4 mg CO/cigarette. In addition to the smoke deliveries, the cigarettes were examined to determine physical parameters such as filter composition, length, and ventilation levels. Conclusion: Analysis of the smoke deliveries suggested that cigarettes from the Eastern Mediterranean, Southeast Asia, and Western Pacific WHO regions tended to have higher tar, nicotine, and CO smoke deliveries than did brands from the European, American, or African WHO regions surveyed. PMID:14985595

Calafat, A; Polzin, G; Saylor, J; Richter, P; Ashley, D; Watson, C

2004-01-01

308

Effect of the bioemulsifier emulsan on naphthalene mineralization from coal tar in aqueous systems  

SciTech Connect

Coal tar in aerobic aqueous systems was treated with purified emulsan, the anionic heteropolysaccharide bioemulsifier produced by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1; with inocula of various concentrations of stationary phase RAG-1 cells; or with cell-free broth from stationary phase RAG-1 cultures. Naphthalene mineralization by a mixed PAH-degrading population was measured by recovering {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolved during biotransformation of the [{sup 14}C]naphthalene-labeled coal tar. There was no evidence of naphthalene mineralization by RAG- 1 cells alone. The addition of emulsan, RAG-1 inocula, or cell-free broth to systems containing the PAH-degrading population did not significantly affect naphthalene mineralization in any of the systems tested. Coal tar in these experiments was present either as a free dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), or as DNAPL imbibed into microporous silica particles. Emulsification of the tar was not observed in either case. The presence or absence of microporous silica did not affect the extent or rate of naphthalene mineralization, nor did the concentration of RAG-1 inocula or the amount of broth added. The addition of cell-free broth, emulsan, or RAG-1 cells late in the experiments did not yield significantly different results compared to initial addition of these substances. Thus, emulsan and related fractions from RAG-1 cultures were ineffective in altering naphthalene mineralization in this study.

Skubal, K.L.; Luthy, R.G.

1994-09-01

309

Time scales of organic contaminant dissolution from complex source zones: coal tar pools vs. blobs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater contamination due to complex organic mixtures such as coal tar, creosote and fuels is a widespread problem in industrialized regions. Although most compounds in these mixtures are biodegradable, the contaminant sources are very persistent for many decades after the contamination occurred (e.g., more than 100 years ago at gasworks sites). This limited bioavailability is due to slow dissolution processes. This study presents results from a large scale tank experiment (8 m long) on the long-term (354 days) dissolution kinetics of BTEX and PAHs from a 2.5 m long coal tar pool and 0.5 m long (smear) zone containing coal tar blobs distributed in a coarse sand. The results indicate (1) that Raoult's law holds for estimation of the saturation aqueous concentrations of the coal tar constituents, (2) that for the dissolution of smear zones longer than approximately 0.1 m and with more than 3-5% residual saturation, the local equilibrium assumption is valid and (3) that although very small (<0.1 mm), the transverse vertical dispersivity dominates the pool dissolution processes. Typical time scales for removal of the pollutants from the blob zone and the pool are in the order of a few weeks to more than 10,000 years, respectively.

Eberhardt, Christina; Grathwohl, Peter

2002-11-01

310

Shell Creek Summers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What would motivate high school students to donate valuable summer vacation time to do science research?--the opportunity to make a difference! The Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group (SCWIG) was formed to identify and promote needed conservation practices within a local watershed, and turned to the high school science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality. Since 2002, for the past three summers, in this ongoing project, students collect water quality data and report their findings to the three involved community organizations.

Mark Seier

2005-04-01

311

Wallace Creek Field Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains model class exercises which instructors may find useful as class assignments to accompany class trips to the Wallace Creek site. These exercises are designed for college-level students who have had some background in geology and a general background of fault mechanics and earthquake geology. Particular questions in these exercises requires the students to conduct certain exercises or participate in appropriate discussions regarding geomorphology and slip rates. Five figures necessary to complete certain parts of the exercises are available for downloading.

312

Deep Creek Road Banded Siltite  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Outcrop of the banded siltite unit of the Apple Creek Formation of the Lemhi Group, in the Lemhi sub-basin of the Mesoproterozoic Belt Basin. This exposure is along the Deep Creek road, southeast of the Blackbird cobalt-copper mine area, in the Salmon River Mountains of east-central Idaho. USGS inte...

313

Yuccas in Pine Creek Canyon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Mojave Desert, home to drought-tolerant plants like yuccas, gradually mixes with loblolly pine ecosystems in Pine Creek Canyon. Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Rock Cany...

314

Chollas in Pine Creek Canyon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Mojave Desert, home to drought-tolerant plants like Cholla cacti, gradually mixes with loblolly pine ecosystems in Pine Creek Canyon. Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Roc...

315

FEASIBILITY OF ELK CREEK ACID MINE DRAINAGE ABATEMENT PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted within the Elk Creek Watershed, West Virginia to determine the technical and economic feasibility of three acid mine drainage abatement techniques. Alkaline regarding and slurry trench construction were established as technically and economically viable abat...

316

Neutron activation study of the elementary composition of edible sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus Lamarck) in marine creek area polluted by city sewages of Marseille (France).  

PubMed

Neutron activation study of elementary composition (Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Th, U and Zn) was performed on edible sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus Lamarck) from marine creek area polluted by city sewages from Marseille (France) after a purifying plant was brought into operation. Concentration levels were higher in soft organic parts (alimentary canals and gonads) for all the elements except for Sr which showed a strong affinity for calcareous parts (tests, spines and masticating apparatus). Certain elements present in the soft organic parts are rarely found in the hard parts. More than half the elements studied show higher concentrations in Marseille samples than in the referential region of Port-Cros National Park (France). That must be due to sewage rejection for a large number of them. This hypothesis is confirmed with regard to elements the values of which decrease significantly with the distance from the sewage emission point, e.g. Cr, Fe and Zn, and a little less for Ag, Ba, Ce, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm and Th. These results raise a question: has that artificial change on the elementary composition any toxicological effects on the urchin populations? This question is discussed. PMID:7549790

Augier, H; Park, W K; Ronneau, C

1995-06-01

317

Recent Approaches to Modeling Transport of Mercury in Surface Water and Groundwater - Case Study in Upper East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, TN - 13349  

SciTech Connect

In this case study, groundwater/surface water modeling was used to determine efficacy of stabilization in place with hydrologic isolation for remediation of mercury contaminated areas in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Watershed in Oak Ridge, TN. The modeling simulates the potential for mercury in soil to contaminate groundwater above industrial use risk standards and to contribute to surface water contamination. The modeling approach is unique in that it couples watershed hydrology with the total mercury transport and provides a tool for analysis of changes in mercury load related to daily precipitation, evaporation, and runoff from storms. The model also allows for simulation of colloidal transport of total mercury in surface water. Previous models for the watershed only simulated average yearly conditions and dissolved concentrations that are not sufficient for predicting mercury flux under variable flow conditions that control colloidal transport of mercury in the watershed. The transport of mercury from groundwater to surface water from mercury sources identified from information in the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System was simulated using a watershed scale model calibrated to match observed daily creek flow, total suspended solids and mercury fluxes. Mercury sources at the former Building 81-10 area, where mercury was previously retorted, were modeled using a telescopic refined mesh with boundary conditions extracted from the watershed model. Modeling on a watershed scale indicated that only source excavation for soils/sediment in the vicinity of UEFPC had any effect on mercury flux in surface water. The simulations showed that colloidal transport contributed 85 percent of the total mercury flux leaving the UEFPC watershed under high flow conditions. Simulation of dissolved mercury transport from liquid elemental mercury and adsorbed sources in soil at former Building 81-10 indicated that dissolved concentrations are orders of magnitude below a target industrial groundwater concentration beneath the source and would not influence concentrations in surface water at Station 17. This analysis addressed only shallow concentrations in soil and the shallow groundwater flow path in soil and unconsolidated sediments to UEFPC. Other mercury sources may occur in bedrock and transport though bedrock to UEFPC may contribute to the mercury flux at Station 17. Generally mercury in the source areas adjacent to the stream and in sediment that is eroding can contribute to the flux of mercury in surface water. Because colloidally adsorbed mercury can be transported in surface water, actions that trap colloids and or hydrologically isolate surface water runoff from source areas would reduce the flux of mercury in surface water. Mercury in soil is highly adsorbed and transport in the groundwater system is very limited under porous media conditions. (authors)

Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary [Professional Project Services, Inc., Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States)] [Professional Project Services, Inc., Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States); Tachiev, Georgio [Florida International University, Applied Research Center 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100 Miami Florida 33174 (United States)] [Florida International University, Applied Research Center 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100 Miami Florida 33174 (United States); Malek-Mohammadi, Siamak [Bradley University, 413A Jobst Hall, Preoria, IL 61625 (United States)] [Bradley University, 413A Jobst Hall, Preoria, IL 61625 (United States)

2013-07-01

318

Characterization of alkanes, hopanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tar-balls collected from the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

The East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia faces the South China Sea and is vulnerable to oil pollution because of intense petroleum production activities in the area. The South China Sea is also a favored route for supertankers carrying crude oil to the Far East. Consequently, oil spills can occur, causing pollution and contamination in the surrounding areas. Residual oil spills stranded on coastal beaches usually end up as tar-balls. Elucidating the sources of tar-balls using a molecular marker approach is essential in assessing environmental impacts and perhaps settling legal liabilities for affected parties. This study utilizes a multimodal molecular marker approach through the use of diagnostic ratios of alkanes, hopanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to determine the source, distribution and weathering of tar-balls. Hopane ratios (e.g., C29/C30, and summation C31-C35/C30 ratios) were used to identify the sources of tar-balls. The weathering effects were distinguished by using alkanes, namely the unresolved complex mixture (UCM) and low molecular weight/high molecular weight (L/H) ratios. Similarly, PAHs were also used for the determination of weathering processes undergone by the tar-balls. This multimodal molecular marker gave a very strong indication of the sources of tar-balls in this study. For example, 16 out of 17 samples originated from South East Asian Crude Oil (SEACO) with one sample from Merang, Terengganu originating from North Sea Oil (Troll). The TRME-2 sample may have come from a supertanker's ballast water discharge. The second possibility is that the tar-ball may have been transported via oceanographic currents. All 'weathered' sample characterizations were based on the presence of UCM and other ratios. The multimodal molecular marker approach applied in this study has enabled us to partially understand the transport behavior of tar-balls in the marine environment and has revealed insights into the weathering process of tar-balls. PMID:18328505

Chandru, Kuhan; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Anita, Sofia; Shahbazi, Azadeh; Sakari, Mahyar; Bahry, Pourya Shahpoury; Mohamed, Che Abd Rahim

2008-05-01

319

Kiowa Creek Switching Station  

SciTech Connect

The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1990-03-01

320

Ship Creek bioassessment investigations  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

1995-06-01

321

Phenolates determinations on coal-tar fractions  

SciTech Connect

In 1969, following a laboratory investigation, MMK adopted a potentiometric procedure for determining the phenols and alkali contents of grad A phenolates as a control laboratory procedure for the processes of extracting phenols from coal-tar fractions. The results obtained by the two procedures (Table 1) indicate that they are equally accurate; however, the potentiometric procedure is preferable because as already stated it simultaneously gives not only the phenols but also the alkali and sodium carbonate contents, both of which are very important in controlling the extraction of phenols from the various fractions. Another merit of the potentiometric procedure is its speed; the results are available within 15 min, including sample preparation and calculation.

Gorelov, P.N.; Andronova, N.I.

1981-01-01

322

Class I cultural resource overview for oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming.  

SciTech Connect

In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the 'Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005', Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is developing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) to evaluate alternatives for establishing commercial oil shale and tar sands leasing programs in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. This PEIS evaluates the potential impacts of alternatives identifying BLM-administered lands as available for application for commercial leasing of oil shale resources within the three states and of tar sands resources within Utah. The scope of the analysis of the PEIS also includes an assessment of the potential effects of future commercial leasing. This Class I cultural resources study is in support of the Draft Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and is an attempt to synthesize archaeological data covering the most geologically prospective lands for oil shale and tar sands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. This report is based solely on geographic information system (GIS) data held by the Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPOs). The GIS data include the information that the BLM has provided to the SHPOs. The primary purpose of the Class I cultural resources overview is to provide information on the affected environment for the PEIS. Furthermore, this report provides recommendations to support planning decisions and the management of cultural resources that could be impacted by future oil shale and tar sands resource development.

O'Rourke, D.; Kullen, D.; Gierek, L.; Wescott, K.; Greby, M.; Anast, G.; Nesta, M.; Walston, L.; Tate, R.; Azzarello, A.; Vinikour, B.; Van Lonkhuyzen, B.; Quinn, J.; Yuen, R.; Environmental Science Division

2007-11-01

323

Atmospheric tar balls: aged primary droplets from biomass burning?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric tar balls are particles of special morphology and composition that are fairly abundant in the plumes of biomass smoke. These particles form a specific subset of brown carbon (BrC) which has been shown to play a significant role in atmospheric shortwave absorption and, by extension, climate forcing. Here we suggest that tar balls are produced by the direct emission of liquid tar droplets followed by heat transformation upon biomass burning. For the first time in atmospheric chemistry we generated tar-ball particles from liquid tar obtained previously by dry distillation of wood in an all-glass apparatus in the laboratory with the total exclusion of flame processes. The particles were perfectly spherical with a mean optical diameter of 300 nm, refractory, externally mixed, and homogeneous in the contrast of the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. They lacked any graphene-like microstructure and exhibited a mean carbon-to-oxygen ratio of 10. All of the observed characteristics of laboratory-generated particles were very similar to those reported for atmospheric tar-ball particles in the literature, strongly supporting our hypothesis regarding the formation mechanism of atmospheric tar-ball particles.

Tóth, A.; Hoffer, A.; Nyir?-Kósa, I.; Pósfai, M.; Gelencsér, A.

2014-07-01

324

FY 80 Tar Sands Program first quarterly report, January 1980  

SciTech Connect

Research and development efforts in support of the Tar Sands program well completions and stimulation subactivity and new and novel concepts task have been initiated. The objectives of the well completion and stimulation efforts are to carry out research and development in areas with significant for long-range tar sand extraction development as well as provide potential interaction and support of the near-term tar sand field experiments. Evaluation testing of packers and computational analysis of well bore insulation for tar sands steam recovery injection wells have been investigated this quarter. Production well completions for the tar sand steam drive experiment have been examined, and a program to measure downhole steam quality in the experiment is under development. Initial examination of the application of the DOE downhole steam generator program to tar sand reservoirs has commenced. The examination of new and novel concepts for extraction of tar sands has been initiated. An overburden replacement technique was evaluated both computationally and in a laboratory scale experiment. Analyses of both microwave heating and in situ hydrogenation are being initiated.

Fox, R.L.; Wayland, J.R.

1980-05-01

325

Social-Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia: Generalization of Effects of the Training of Affect Recognition (TAR)  

PubMed Central

In the last decade, several social cognitive remediation programs have been developed for use in schizophrenia. Though existing evidence indicates that such programs can improve social cognition, which is essential for successful social functioning, it remains unclear whether the improvements generalize to social cognitive domains not primarily addressed by the intervention and whether the improved test performance transfers into everyday social functioning. The present study investigated whether, beyond its known effects on facial affect recognition, the Training of Affect Recognition (TAR) has effects on prosodic affect recognition, theory of mind (ToM) performance, social competence in a role-play task, and more general social and occupational functioning. Thirty-eight inpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of treatment with the TAR—primarily targeted at facial affect recognition—or Cognitive Remediation Training (CRT)—primarily targeted at neurocognition. Intention-to-treat analyses found significantly larger pre–post improvements with TAR than with CRT in prosodic affect recognition, ToM, and social competence and a trend effect in global social functioning. However, the effects on ToM and social competence were no longer significant in the smaller group of patients who completed treatment according to protocol. Results suggest that TAR effects generalize to other social cognitive domains not primarily addressed. TAR may also enhance social skills and social functioning, although this has to be confirmed. Results are discussed with regard to the need to improve functional outcome in schizophrenia against the background of current evidence from other social cognitive remediation approaches. PMID:21860049

Wölwer, Wolfgang; Frommann, Nicole

2011-01-01

326

Understanding the fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons from coal tar within gasholders.  

PubMed

Coal tars have been identified as posing a threat to human health due to their toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic characteristics. Workers involved in former gasholders decommissioning are potentially exposed to relevant concentrations of volatile and semi-volatile hydrocarbons upon opening up derelict tanks and during tar excavation/removal. While information on contaminated sites air-quality and its implications on medium-long term exposure is available, acute exposure issues associated with the execution of critical tasks are less understood. Calculations indicated that the concentration of a given contaminant in the gasholder vapour phase only depends on the coal tar composition, being only barely affected by the presence of water in the gasholder and the tar volume/void space ratio. Fugacity modelling suggested that risk-critical compounds such as benzene, naphthalene and other monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may gather in the gasholder air phase at significant concentrations. Gasholder emissions were measured on-site and compared with the workplace exposure limits (WELs) currently in use in UK. While levels for most of the toxic compounds were far lower than WELs, benzene air-concentrations where found to be above the accepted threshold. In addition due to the long exposure periods involved in gasholder decommissioning and the significant contribution given by naphthalene to the total coal tar vapour concentration, the adoption of a WEL for naphthalene may need to be considered to support operators in preventing human health risk at the workplace. The Level I fugacity approach used in this study demonstrated its suitability for applications to sealed environments such as gasholders and its further refining could provide a useful tool for land remediation risk assessors. PMID:18657318

Coulon, Frédéric; Orsi, Roberto; Turner, Claire; Walton, Chris; Daly, Paddy; Pollard, Simon J T

2009-02-01

327

Health and safety plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety (H&S) concerns and requirements for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be collected from effluent following treatment tests of extraction columns, algal mats, and mature wetlands supplied by surface water locations and existing groundwater monitoring well locations. The project Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. It is the responsibility of the project managers, field manager, and site health and safety officer (SHSO) to determine that the requirements of this HASP are sufficiently protective. If it is determined that the requirements of this HASP are not sufficiently protective, a field change order(s) (FCO) will be prepared. FCOs will include a completed job hazard analysis or similar worksheet to ensure complete hazard assessment. FCOs must be approved by the Environmental Management and Enrichment Facilities (EMEF) project manager, EMEF H&S manager, subcontractor project or field manager, and subcontractor H&S representative. As a minimum, FCOs will be prepared if additional tasks will be performed or if contaminant exposure is anticipated.

NONE

1997-05-01

328

Carbazole Is a Naturally Occurring Inhibitor of Angiogenesis and Inflammation Isolated from Antipsoriatic Coal Tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal tar is one of the oldest and an effective treatment for psoriasis. Coal tar has been directly applied to the skin, or used in combination with UV light as part of the Goeckerman treatment. The use of coal tar has caused long-term remissions in psoriasis, but has fallen out of favor because the treatment requires hospitalization and coal tar

Jack L. Arbiser; Baskaran Govindarajan; Traci E. Battle; Rebecca Lynch; David A. Frank; Masuko Ushio-Fukai; Betsy N. Perry; David F. Stern; G. Tim Bowden; Anquan Liu; Eva Klein; Pawel J. Kolodziejski; N. Tony Eissa; Chowdhury F. Hossain; Dale G. Nagle

2006-01-01

329

A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Cedar Creek, Dekalb and Allen counties, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A digital model calibrated to conditions in Cedar Creek was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The model indicates that the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the Auburn wastewater effluent and nitrification are the most significant factors affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentration in Cedar Creek during summer low flows. The observed dissolved-oxygen concentration of the Auburn wastewater effluent was low and averaged 30 percent of saturation. Projected nitrogenous biochemical-oxygen demand loads, from the Indiana State Board of Health, for the Auburn and Waterloo wastewater-treatment facilities will result in violations of the current instream dissolved-oxygen standard (5 mg/l), even with an effluent dissolved-oxygen concentration of 80 percent saturation. Natural streamflow for Cedar Creek upstream from the confluence of Willow and Little Cedar Creeks is small compared with the waste discharge, so benefits of dilution for Waterloo and Auburn are minimal. The model also indicates that, during winter low flows, ammonia toxicity, rather than dissolved oxygen, is the limiting water-quality criterion in the reach of Cedar Creek downstream from the wastewater-treatment facility at Auburn and the confluence of Garrett ditch. Ammonia-nitrogen concentrations predicted for 1978 through 2000 downstream from the Waterloo wastewater-treatment facility do not exceed Indiana water-quality standards for streams. Calculations of the stream 's assimilative capacity indicate that future waste discharge in the Cedar Creek basin will be limited to the reaches between the Auburn wastewater-treatment facility and County Road 68. (Kosco-USGS)

Wilber, William G.; Peters, J.G.; Ayers, M.A.; Crawford, C.G.

1979-01-01

330

Waste management plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley Treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This Waste Management Plan (WMP) for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study addresses waste management requirements for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The study is intended to produce treatment performance data required to design a treatment system for contaminated groundwater. The treatability study will consist of an evaluation of various treatment media including continuous column tests, with up to six columns being employed to evaluate the performance of different media in the treatment of groundwater; an evaluation of the dentrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of a wetland system; and the long-term dentrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of algal mats. Additionally, the treatability study involves installation of a trench and incline well to evaluate and assess hydraulic impacts of pumping groundwater. The Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) covers the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. The Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety concerns and requirements for the proposed sampling activities. This WMP identifies the types and estimates the volumes of various wastes that may be generated during the proposed treatability studies. The approach to managing waste outlined in this WMP emphasizes the following points: (1) management of the waste generated in a manner that is protective of human health and the environment; (2) minimization of waste generation, thereby reducing unnecessary costs and usage of limited permitted storage and disposal capacities; and (3) compliance with federal, state, and site requirements. Prior sampling at the site has detected organic, radioactive, and metals contamination in groundwater and surface water. Proposed field operations are not expected to result in worker exposures greater than applicable exposure or action limits.

NONE

1997-09-01

331

The Effect of Landuse and Other External Factors on Water Quality Within two Creeks in Northern Kentucky  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to monitor the water quality in two creeks in Northern Kentucky. These are the Banklick Creek in Kenton County and the Woolper Creek in Boone County, Kentucky. The objective was to evaluate the effect of landuse and other external factors on surface water quality. Landuse within the Banklick watershed is industrial, forest and residential

S. Boateng

2006-01-01

332

Panther Creek Upstream of Big Deer Creek, central Idaho  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Panther Creek was severely damaged by heavy metals released from mining and milling activities at the former Blackbird Mine. USGS and other scientists compiled a 30-year record of recovery of the stream’s fish and macroinvertebrate populations....

333

GEE CREEK WILDERNESS, TENNESSEE.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mine and prospect surveys, it was determined that the Gee Creek Wilderness, Tennessee has little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. Iron ore was formerly mined, but the deposits are small, have a high phosphorous content, and are inaccessible. Shale, suitable for brick or lightweight aggregate, and sandstone, which could be utilized for crushed stone or sand, are found in the area, but are also found in areas closer to potential markets. The geologic setting precludes the presence of oil and gas resources in the surface rocks, but the possibility of finding natural gas at depth below the rocks exposed in the area cannot be discounted. Geophysical exploration would be necessary to define the local structure in rocks at depth to properly evaluate the potential of the area for gas.

Epstein, Jack B.; Gazdik, Gertrude C.

1984-01-01

334

Water, Rivers and Creeks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Luna B. Leopold's intent in Water, Rivers and Creeks was to provide a nontechnical primer on hydrology and water resources, and he succeeded admirably. The terse style is reminiscent of the mystery writer Mickey Spillane, though the content is complex science expounded in simple terms. “Part I, Hydrology and Morphology,” makes up the first two thirds of the book, and in this section, Leopold develops hydrologic and geomorphic concepts and principles using analogies with items common to any household. Garden hoses, dishpans, bath tubs, and sieves provide illuminating examples of the effects of channel storage on stream flow, water tables and the movement of groundwater, sustainable yield and the storage equation, and the infiltration/percolation process.

Mac, Robert D.

335

The C-Terminus of Transmembrane Helix 2 (TM2) of the Escherichia coli Tar Chemorecptor Determines Signal Output and Ligand Sensitivity  

E-print Network

THE C-TERMINUS OF TRANSMEMBRANE HELIX 2 (TM2) OF THE ESCHERICHIA COLI TAR CHEMORECPTOR DETERMINES SIGNAL OUTPUT AND LIGAND SENSITIVITY A Dissertation by CHRISTOPHER A. ADASE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies... HAMP domain, although there are almost always some aromatic residues in this region. The question thus becomes what properties of this aromatic anchor are necessary for proper signal transduction. In this dissertation, I studied the effect on Tar...

Adase, Christopher A. 1981-

2012-11-20

336

AFF4 binding to Tat-P-TEFb indirectly stimulates TAR recognition of super elongation complexes at the HIV promoter  

PubMed Central

Superelongation complexes (SECs) are essential for transcription elongation of many human genes, including the integrated HIV-1 genome. At the HIV-1 promoter, the viral Tat protein binds simultaneously to the nascent TAR RNA and the CycT1 subunit of the P-TEFb kinase in a SEC. To understand the preferential recruitment of SECs by Tat and TAR, we determined the crystal structure of a quaternary complex containing Tat, P-TEFb, and the SEC scaffold, AFF4. Tat and AFF4 fold on the surface of CycT1 and interact directly. Interface mutations in the AFF4 homolog AFF1 reduced Tat–AFF1 affinity in vivo and Tat-dependent transcription from the HIV promoter. AFF4 binding in the presence of Tat partially orders the CycT1 Tat–TAR recognition motif and increases the affinity of Tat-P-TEFb for TAR 30-fold. These studies indicate that AFF4 acts as a two-step filter to increase the selectivity of Tat and TAR for SECs over P-TEFb alone. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02375.001 PMID:24843025

Schulze-Gahmen, Ursula; Lu, Huasong; Zhou, Qiang; Alber, Tom

2014-01-01

337

Influence of the presence of PAHs and coal tar on naphthalene sorption in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mobility of the most water-soluble polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene in contaminated soils from manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites or other similar sites is influenced not only by the naturally occurring soil organic matter (SOM) but also, and in many cases mostly, by the nature and concentration of coal tar xenobiotic organic matter (XOM) and other PAH molecules present in the medium under various physical states. The objective of the present study was to quantify the effects of these factors using batch experiments, in order to simulate naphthalene transport in soil-tar-water systems using column experiments. Naphthalene sorption was studied in the presence of (i) solid coal tar particles, (ii) phenanthrene supplied as pure crystals, in the aqueous solution or already sorbed onto the soil, (iii) fluoranthene as pure crystals, and (iv) an aqueous solution of organic molecules extracted from a liquid tar. All experiments were conducted under abiotic conditions using short naphthalene/sorbent contact times of 24-60 h. Although these tests do not reflect true equilibrium conditions which usually take more time to establish, they were used to segregate relatively rapid sorption phenomena ("pseudo equilibrium") from slow sorption and other aging phenomena. For longer contact times, published data have shown that experimental biases due to progressive changes in the characteristics of the soil and the solution may drastically modify the affinity of the solutes for the soil. Slow diffusion in the microporosity and in dense organic phases may also become significant over the long term, along with some irreversible aging phenomena which have not been addressed in this work. Results showed that PAHs had no effect on naphthalene sorption when present in the aqueous solution or as pure crystals, due to their low solubility in water. Adsorbed phenanthrene was found to reduce naphthalene adsorption only when present at relatively high concentrations (about 120 mg/kg) in the soil. In contrast, experiments carried out with coal tar particles revealed a significant effect. Naphthalene sorption appeared to be proportional to the amount of coal tar added to the sand or soil, and a much higher affinity of naphthalene for XOM ( Koc above 2000 cm 3/g) than SOM ( Koc around 300 cm 3/g) was observed. Naphthalene transport in the columns of sand or soil spiked with coal tar particles was simulated very satisfactorily with a dual double-domain model. Around 90% of naphthalene retention by coal tar was found to occur within the organic phase, suggesting a phase partition process which may be explained by the amorphous nature of the XOM and its extreme affinity for naphthalene. For SOM, however, which is present as porous microaggregates of clay and humic substances, with less affinity for naphthalene, only 1/3 of naphthalene retention was found to occur within the organic phase, underlining the significant role of surface adsorption in the short term behavior of naphthalene in soil. For longer contact times, the model simulations proposed in the present study should be coupled to slow sorption, aging and biodegradation models to describe long-term behavior of naphthalene in soil-tar-water systems.

Bayard, Rémy; Barna, Ligia; Mahjoub, Borhane; Gourdon, Rémy

2000-11-01

338

Floodplain and wetlands assessment of the White Oak Creek Embayment  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the proposed methods for dealing with contaminants that have accumulated in White Oak Creek, White Oak Lake, and the White Oak Creek Embayment as a result of process releases and discharges from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Alternative methods of cleaning up the area which were considered in accordance with regulatory guidelines are listed, and information supporting the selected methods is provided. Also included are results of a site survey conducted at the White Oak Creek Embayment and the expected effects of the proposed control structures on the floodplain and wetlands. The appendix contains figures showing the nine cross-sections of the stream channel surveyed during studies of the White Oak Creek area.

Not Available

1991-07-01

339

The contribution of low tar cigarettes to environmental tobacco smoke  

SciTech Connect

A series of low tar cigarettes (LTC) were smoked and the quantities of condensable mainstream (inhaled) and sidestream (between puffs) smoke compounds were determined and compared to those produced by a high tar, nonfilter cigarette. It was found that the LTC produced large quantities of sidestream smoke condensates, about equal to the high tar cigarette, and contained very high levels of toxic or cocarcinogenic phenols. On an equal weight basis, the LTC emitted more of these hazardous compounds into sidestream and environmental tobacco smoke. Higher smoke yields of a flavor additive and a sugar degradation product indicated addition of such compounds during the manufacture of LTC. It was concluded that, compared to a high tar cigarette, smoking LTC may be better for the smoker, but not for the nearby nonsmoker. Information should be developed to allow smokers to choose LTC that produce lower levels of hazardous compounds in their environmentally emitted sidestream smoke.

Chortyk, O.T.; Schlotzhauer, W.S. (Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA (USA))

1989-05-01

340

Heats of dissolution of tar sand bitumen in various solvents  

SciTech Connect

The dissolution of tar sand bitumen from a tar sand matrix was examined using three solvents: (1) dichloromethane, a polar-polarizable solvent; (2) toluene, a nonpolar-polarizable solvent; and (3) hexane, a nonpolar-nonpolarizable solvent. The dichloromethane had the highest dissolution energy, followed by toluene, with hexane having the lowest dissolution energy. These data were combined with heat of dissolution of recovered bitumen and heat of wetting of spent sand to calculate the bonding energy between bitumen and the mineral matrix. The interfacial bonding energy between tar sand bitumen and the mineral matrix was found to be in the region of 0 to 0.09 cal/g of bitumen, which is very small. This conclusion may find application in recovery of energy or bitumen from bitumen-wet tar sand deposits. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

Ensley, E.K.; Scott, M.

1988-05-01

341

Painful and petechial rash after injecting black tar heroin.  

PubMed

Abstract A painful petechial rash developed in a patient after the subcutaneous or intravenous injection of reported black tar heroin. Additional history and the appearance of the skin lesion suggested otherwise. PMID:25597468

Hendrickson, R G

2015-02-01

342

33 CFR 117.831 - Pamlico and Tar Rivers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.831 Pamlico and Tar Rivers. The draws of the US17-264 bridge, mile 37.2 at Washington, and...

2013-07-01

343

33 CFR 117.831 - Pamlico and Tar Rivers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.831 Pamlico and Tar Rivers. The draws of the US17-264 bridge, mile 37.2 at Washington, and...

2012-07-01

344

33 CFR 117.831 - Pamlico and Tar Rivers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.831 Pamlico and Tar Rivers. The draws of the US17-264 bridge, mile 37.2 at Washington, and...

2010-07-01

345

33 CFR 117.831 - Pamlico and Tar Rivers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.831 Pamlico and Tar Rivers. The draws of the US17-264 bridge, mile 37.2 at Washington, and...

2011-07-01

346

33 CFR 117.831 - Pamlico and Tar Rivers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.831 Pamlico and Tar Rivers. The draws of the US17-264 bridge, mile 37.2 at Washington, and...

2014-07-01

347

FY 80 Tar Sands program. Second quarterly report, April 1980  

SciTech Connect

The research and development efforts in support of the Tar Sands program reservoir access and alternate extraction activities that were initiated last quarter have been continued and expanded. The development of a short course on the utilization of specialized drilling technology to Tar Sands has been investigated. The steam quality sampler is undergoing laboratory testing. Plans for a Tar Sands enhanced permeability workshop have been initiated. A special report on possible application of sand control methods to the Tar Sands steam injection test (TS-1S) experiment has been prepared. The first stage of the analysis of rf and microwave heating has been completed. The results of a series of laboratory experiments on in-situ hydrogenation are presented.

Wayland, J.R.; Fox, R.L.

1980-09-01

348

Cloning and characterization of a novel cellular protein, TDP-43, that binds to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 TAR DNA sequence motifs.  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gene expression is modulated by both viral and cellular factors. A regulatory element in the HIV-1 long terminal repeat known as TAR, which extends from nucleotides -18 to +80, is critical for the activation of gene expression by the transactivator protein, Tat. RNA transcribed from TAR forms a stable stem-loop structure which serves as the binding site for both Tat and cellular factors. Although TAR RNA is critical for Tat activation, the role that TAR DNA plays in regulating HIV-1 gene expression is not clear. Several studies have demonstrated that TAR DNA can bind cellular proteins, such as UBP-1/LBP-1, which repress HIV-1 gene expression and other factors which are involved in the generation of short, nonprocessive transcripts. In an attempt to characterize additional cellular factors that bind to TAR DNA, a lambda gt11 expression cloning strategy involving the use of a portion of TAR DNA extending from -18 to +28 to probe a HeLa cDNA library was used. We identified a cDNA, designated TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43), which encodes a cellular factor of 43 kDa that binds specifically to pyrimidine-rich motifs in TAR. Antibody to TDP-43 was used in gel retardation assays to demonstrate that endogenous TDP-43, present in HeLa nuclear extract, also bound to TAR DNA. Although TDP-43 bound strongly to double-stranded TAR DNA via its ribonucleoprotein protein-binding motifs, it did not bind to TAR RNA extending from +1 to +80. To determine the function of TDP-43 in regulating HIV-1 gene expression, in vitro transcription analysis was performed. TDP-43 repressed in vitro transcription from the HIV-1 long terminal repeat in both the presence and absence of Tat, but it did not repress transcription from other promoters such as the adenovirus major late promoter. In addition, transfection of a vector which expressed TDP-43 resulted in the repression of gene expression from an HIV-1 provirus. These results indicate that TDP-43 is capable of modulating both in vitro and in vivo HIV-1 gene expression by either altering or blocking the assembly of transcription complexes that are capable of responding to Tat. PMID:7745706

Ou, S H; Wu, F; Harrich, D; García-Martínez, L F; Gaynor, R B

1995-01-01

349

Water Quality Monitoring in the Buck Creek Watershed and Facilitation of Buck Creek Watershed Partnership  

E-print Network

The “Water Quality Monitoring in the Buck Creek Watershed and Facilitation of Buck Creek Watershed Partnership” project was developed to continue water quality monitoring on Buck Creek and to continue to engage watershed stakeholders during the Buck...

Gregory, L.; Dyer, P.

350

Lagrangian Sampling of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent in Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek,  

E-print Network

Lagrangian Sampling of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent in Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile of wastewater treatment plant effluent in Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa, during the summer...................................................................................................................... 5 Acidic Organic Wastewater Compounds

351

Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu (Houston, TX); Wellington, Scott Lee (Bellaire, TX)

2010-03-16

352

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 4. Appendixes G, H, and I and information related to the feasibility study and ARARs  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 4 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

NONE

1996-06-01

353

2. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF COMMUNITY KITCHEN. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF COMMUNITY KITCHEN. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Eagle Creek Recreation Area, Historic Columbia River Highway at Eagle Creek, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

354

Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, looking NW. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

355

A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Clear Creek, Monroe County, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A digital model calibrated to conditions in Clear Creek, Monroe County, IN, was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The Winston Thomas wastewater-treatment facility is the only point-source waste load affecting the modeled reach of Clear Creek. A new waste-water-treatment facility under construction at Dillman Road (river mile 13.78) will replace the Winston Thomas wastewater-treatment facility (river mile 16.96) in 1980. Natural streamflow during the summer and annual 7-day, 10-year low flow is zero, so no benefit from dilution is provided. The model indicates that ammonia-nitrogen toxicity is the most significant factor affecting the stream water quality during summer and winter low flows. The ammonia-nitrogen concentration of the wastewater effluent exceeds the maximum total ammonia-nitrogen concentration of 2.5 milligrams per liter for summer months (June through August) and 4.0 milligrams per liter for winter months (November through March) required for Indiana streams. Nitrification, benthic-oxygen demand, and algal respiration were the most significant factors affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentration in Clear Creek during the model calibration. Nitrification should not significantly affect the dissolved-oxygen concentration in Clear Creek during summer low flows when the ammonia-nitrogen toxicity standards are met. (USGS)

Wilber, William G.; Crawford, C.G.; Peters, J.G.; Girardi, F.P.

1979-01-01

356

Variability of Polychaete Secondary Production in Intertidal Creek Networks along a Stream-Order Gradient  

PubMed Central

Dendritic tidal creek networks are important habitats for sustaining biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in salt marsh wetlands. To evaluate the importance of creek heterogeneity in supporting benthic secondary production, we assess the spatial distribution and secondary production of a representative polychaete species (Dentinephtys glabra) in creek networks along a stream-order gradient in a Yangtze River estuarine marsh. Density, biomass, and secondary production of polychaetes were found to be highest in intermediate order creeks. In high order (3rd and 4th) creeks, the density and biomass of D. glabra were higher in creek edge sites than in creek bottom sites, whereas the reverse was true for low order (1st and 2nd) creeks. Secondary production was highest in 2nd order creeks (559.7 mg AFDM m?2 year?1) and was ca. 2 folds higher than in 1st and 4th order creeks. Top fitting AIC models indicated that the secondary production of D. glabra was mainly associated with geomorphological characters including cross-sectional area and bank slope. This suggests that hydrodynamic forces are essential factors influencing secondary production of macrobenthos in salt marshes. This study emphasizes the importance of microhabitat variability when evaluating secondary production and ecosystem functions. PMID:24817092

Chu, Tianjiang; Sheng, Qiang; Wang, Sikai; Wu, Jihua

2014-01-01

357

Atmospheric Tar Balls: Particles from Biomass and Biofuel Burning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tar balls are amorphous, carbonaceous spherules that occur in the tropospheric aerosol as a result of biomass and biofuel burning. They form a distinct group of particles with diameters typically between 30 and 500 nm and readily identifiable with electron microscopy. Their lack of a turbostratic microstructure distinguishes them from soot, and their morphology and composition (approximately 90 mol% carbon) renders them distinct from other carbonaceous particles. Tar balls are particularly abundant in slightly aged (minutes to hours old) biomass smoke, indicating that they likely form by gas-to-particle conversion within smoke plumes. The material of tar balls is initially hygroscopic; however, the particles become largely insoluble as a result of free radical polymerization of their organic molecules. Consequently, tar balls are primarily externally mixed with other particle types, and they do not appreciably increase in size during aging. When tar balls coagulate with water-bearing particles, their material may partly dissolve and no longer be recognizable as distinct particles. Tar balls may contain organic compounds that absorb sunlight. They are an important, previously unrecognized type of carbonaceous (organic) atmospheric particle.

Posfai, Mihaly; Gelencser, Andras; Simonics, Renata; Arato, Krisztina; Li, Jia; Hobbs, Peter V.; Buseck, Peter R.

2004-01-01

358

Atmospheric tar balls: Particles from biomass and biofuel burning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Tar balls" are amorphous, carbonaceous spherules that occur in the tropospheric aerosol as a result of biomass and biofuel burning. They form a distinct group of particles with diameters typically between 30 and 500 nm and readily identifiable with electron microscopy. Their lack of a turbostratic microstructure distinguishes them from soot, and their morphology and composition (˜90 mol % carbon) renders them distinct from other carbonaceous particles. Tar balls are particularly abundant in slightly aged (minutes to hours old) biomass smoke, indicating that they likely form by gas-to-particle conversion within smoke plumes. The material of tar balls is initially hygroscopic; however, the particles become largely insoluble as a result of free radical polymerization of their organic molecules. Consequently, tar balls are primarily externally mixed with other particle types, and they do not appreciably increase in size during aging. When tar balls coagulate with water-bearing particles, their material may partly dissolve and no longer be recognizable as distinct particles. Tar balls may contain organic compounds that absorb sunlight. They are an important, previously unrecognized type of carbonaceous (organic) atmospheric particle.

Pósfai, MiháLy; GelencséR, AndráS.; Simonics, RenáTa; Arató, Krisztina; Li, Jia; Hobbs, Peter V.; Buseck, Peter R.

2004-03-01

359

Channel stability of Turkey Creek, Nebraska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Channelization on Turkey Creek and its receiving stream, the South Fork Big Nemaha River, has disturbed the equilibrium of Turkey Creek and has led to channel-stability problems, such as degradation and channel widening, which pose a threat to bridges and land adjacent to the stream. As part of a multiagency study, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel stability at two bridge sites on upper and middle portions of Turkey Creek by analyzing streambed-elevation data for gradation changes, comparing recent cross-section surveys and historic accounts, identifying bank-failure blocks, and analyzing tree-ring samples. These results were compared to gradation data and trend results for a U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near the mouth of Turkey Creek from a previous study. Examination of data on streambed elevations reveals that degradation has occurred. The streambed elevation declined 0.5 m at the upper site from 1967-97. The streambed elevation declined by 3.2 m at the middle site from 1948-97 and exposed 2 m of the pilings of the Nebraska Highway 8 bridge. Channel widening could not be verified at the two sites from 1967-97, but a historic account indicates widening at the middle site to be two to three times that of the 1949 channel width. Small bank failures were evident at the upper site and a 4-m-wide bank failure occurred at the middle site in 1987 according to tree ring analyses. Examination of streambed-elevation data from a previous study at the lower site reveals a statistically significant aggrading trend from 1958-93. Further examination of these data suggests minor degradation occurred until 1975, followed by aggradation.

Rus, David L.; Soenksen, Philip J.

1998-01-01

360

A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Silver Creek, Clark and Floyd counties, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Indiana State Board of Health is developing a State water-quality management plan that includes establishing limits for wastewater effluents discharged into Indiana streams. A digital model calibrated to conditions in Silver Creek was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. Effluents from the Sellersburg and Clarksville-North wastewater-treatment facilities are the only point-source waste loads that significantly affect the water quality in the modeled segment of Silver Creek. Model simulations indicate that nitrification is the most significant factor affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentration in Silver Creek during summer and winter low flows. Natural streamflow in Silver Creek during the summer and annual 7-day, 10-year low flow is zero, so no benefit from dilution is provided. Present ammonia-nitrogen and dissolved-oxygen concentrations of effluent from the Sellersburg and Clarksville-North wastewater-treatment facilities will violate current Indiana water-quality standards for ammonia toxicity and dissolved oxygen during summer and winter low flows. The current biochemical-oxygen demand limits for the Sellersburg and Clarksville-North wastewater-treatment facilities are not sufficient to maintain an average dissolved-oxygen concentration of at least 5 milligrams per liter, the State 's water-quality standard for streams. Calculations of the stream 's assimilative capacity indicate that Silver Creek cannot assimilate additional waste loadings and meet current Indiana water-quality standards. (Kosco-USGS)

Wilber, William G.; Crawford, Charles G.; Peters, James G.

1979-01-01

361

A Synoptic Study of Fecal-Indicator Bacteria in the Wind River, Bighorn River, and Goose Creek Basins, Wyoming, June-July 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A synoptic study of fecal-indicator bacteria was conducted during June and July 2000 in the Wind River, Bighorn River, and Goose Creek Basins in Wyoming as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program for the Yellowstone River Basin. Fecal-coliform concentrations ranged from 2 to 3,000 col/100 mL (colonies per 100 milliliters) for 100 samples, and Escherichia coli concentrations ranged from 1 to 2,800 col/100 mL for 97 samples. Fecal-coliform concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit for a single sample for recreational contact with water in 37.0 percent of the samples. Escherichia coli concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit for a single sample for moderate use, full-body recreational contact with water in 38.1 percent of the samples and the recommended limit for infrequent use, full-body recreational contact with water in 24.7 percent of the samples. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations varied by basin. Samples from the Bighorn River Basin had the highest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 340 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 300 col/100 mL. Samples from the Wind River Basin had the lowest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 50 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 62 col/100 mL. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations varied by land cover. Samples from sites with an urban land cover had the highest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 540 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 420 col/100 mL. Maximum concentrations for fecal coliform of 3,000 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 2,800 col/100 mL were in samples from sites with an agricultural land cover. The lowest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 130 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 67 col/100 mL were for samples from sites with a forested land cover. A strong and positive relation existed between fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (Spearman's Rho value of 0.976). The majority of the fecal coliforms were Escherichia coli during the synoptic study. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations were not correlated to streamflow, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conduc-tance, and alkalinity. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations were moderately correlated with turbidity (Spearman's Rho values of 0.662 and 0.640 for fecal coliform and Escherichia coli, respectively) and sediment (Spearman's Rho values of 0.628 and 0.636 for fecal coliform and Escherichia coli, respectively). Escherichia coli isolates analyzed by discriminant analysis of ribotype patterns for samples from the Bighorn River at Basin, Wyoming, and Bitter Creek near Garland, Wyoming, in the Bighorn River Basin were determined to be from nonhuman and human sources. Using a confidence interval of 90 percent, more of the isolates from both sites were classified as being from nonhuman than human sources; however, both samples had additional isolates that were classified as unknown sources. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Clark, Melanie L.; Gamper, Merry E.

2003-01-01

362

Page Museum La Brea Tar Pits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Page Museum La Brea Tar Pits is one of the world’s most famous fossil localities, recognized for having the largest and most diverse assemblage of extinct Ice Age plants and animals in the world. Visitors can learn about Los Angeles as it was between 10,000 and 40,000 years ago, during the last Ice Age, when animals such as saber-toothed cats and mammoths roamed the Los Angeles Basin. Through windows at the Page Museum Laboratory, visitors can watch bones being cleaned and repaired. Outside the Museum, in Hancock Park, life-size replicas of several extinct mammals are featured. The online Return to the Ice Age Exploration Guide is an extensive tutorial covering La Brea Geology, Geologic Time, Asphalt Deposits, Fossil Burial and Conditions of Fossilization, as well as La Brea Flora and Fauna and Human Exploration and Excavations. PDF versions are also available for download. There is also online information about the research efforts of the Museum, as well as pictures and information about the excavation site and findings.

363

Elementary GLOBE Unit: Discoveries at Willow Creek  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, the GLOBE Kids, on their second visit to Willow Creek, discover why the creek looks different. They learn about making observations, measuring water temperature and speed, and looking for critters in the water. In Activity 1, 'Magnify That', students will be able to identify a magnifying lens and its purpose. They will be able to explain how the same object looks different when using the unaided eye and then using a magnifying lens. In Activity 2, 'Measure Up', students will learn how to make nonstandard and standard linear measurements. They will test their estimates and record their results. In Activity 3, 'Water Wonders', students will have an understanding of what aquatic macroinvertebrates are, what kinds of adaptations they have for their environment, and why scientists study them.

2006-01-01

364

Migration and natural fate of a coal tar creosote plume. 1. Overview and plume development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A volume of sand containing coal tar creosote was emplaced below the water table at CFB Borden to investigate natural attenuation processes for complex biodegradable mixtures. Coal tar creosote is a mixture of more than 200 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds and phenolic compounds. A representative group of seven compounds was selected for detailed study: phenol, m-xylene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, 1-methylnaphthalene, dibenzofuran and carbazole. Movement of groundwater through the source led to the development of a dissolved organic plume, which was studied over a 4-year period. Qualitative plume observations and mass balance calculations indicated two key conclusions: (1) compounds from the same source can display distinctly different patterns of plume development and (2) mass transformation was a major influence on plume behaviour for all observed compounds.

King, Mark W. G.; Barker, James F.

1999-10-01

365

Progressive nodular histiocytoma associated with thrombocytopenia with absent radii (TAR syndrome) and angiofibromas.  

PubMed

A 50-year-old woman was admitted due to a long-standing history of cutaneous lesions, which were gradually increasing in number and size, located on the trunk and extremities. Histological studies confirmed the initial clinical diagnosis of histiocytomas. Moreover, the patient had numerous smooth erythematous papules on her chin and around her nose, which were diagnosed histologically as angiofibromas. The patient had congenital phocomelia. Analytical and imaging studies revealed the presence of bilateral phocomelia due to absent radii and thrombocytopenia (TAR syndrome). Multiple histiocytomas in a normolipaemic patient bring up several differential diagnoses. Slow progressive evolution without spontaneous resolution and a scattered distribution on the trunk and extremities suggest the diagnosis of progressive nodular histiocytoma. To our knowledge progressive nodular histiocytoma has not been reported previously associated either with TAR syndrome or with angiofibromas. These entities are uncommon, thus their association may not be due to chance. PMID:16874423

Rosón, Elena; Flórez, Angeles; Feal, Carlos; De La Torre, Carlos; García-Doval, Ignacio; Abalde, Teresa; Cruces, Manuel

2006-01-01

366

Paleoflood investigations for Cherry Creek Basin, Eastern Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1950 when Cherry Creek dam, which is located in Denver. Colorado, was completed, the design flood was 5,126 m3/s. Two recent probable maximum flood (PMF) estimates for the dam range from 14,840 to 18,750 m 3/s demonstrate the uncertainty in estimating extreme flooding in eastern Colorado. PMF difference is due in part to a lack of extreme rainfall and flood data in eastern Colorado. A paleoflood study was conducted to assist dam-safety officials in assessing the risk of large floods in Cherry Creek basin. An envelope curve encompassing maximum contemporary floods (19 sites) and paleofloods (99 sites) was developed for Cherry Creek basin streams; paleoflood data reflect maximum flooding during the last few hundred to many thousands of years. Maximum paleofloods in Cherry Creek range from about 1,050 m 3/s near Franktown (in about 5,000 to at least 10,000 years), about 2,100 m3/s near Melvin (in about 1,500 to 5,000 years), and about 2,270 m3/s at Cherry Creek Reservoir (also in about 1,500 to 5,000 years). Flood-frequency relations for Cherry Creek, which incorporate paleoflood data, indicate the 10,000-year flood (10-4 annual exceedence probability) ranges from about 1,200 m3/s (near Franktown) to about 2,200 m3/s (near Melvin). PMF estimates are about six to eight times larger than paleofloods in Cherry Creek basin. Additional research in flood hydrometeorology is needed to help dam safety officials evaluate potential safety problems related to large floods in Cherry Creek basin. Copyright ASCE 2004.

Jarrett, R.D.

2004-01-01

367

Importance of heterocylic aromatic compounds in monitored natural attenuation for coal tar contaminated aquifers: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NSO heterocycles (HET) are typical constituents of coal tars. However, HET are not yet routinely monitored, although HET are relatively toxic coal tar constituents. The main objectives of the study is therefore to review previous studies and to analyse HET at coal tar polluted sites in order to assess the relevance of HET as part of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) or any other long-term monitoring programme. Hence, natural attenuation of typical HET (indole, quinoline, carbazole, acridine, methylquinolines, thiophene, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, benzofuran, dibenzofuran, methylbenzofurans, dimethylbenzofurans and xanthene) were studied at three different field sites in Germany. Compound-specific plume lengths were determined for all main contaminant groups (BTEX, PAH and HET). The results show that the observed plume lengths are site-specific and are above 250 m, but less than 1000 m. The latter, i.e. the upper limit, however mainly depends on the level of investigation, the considered compound, the lowest measured concentration and/or the achieved compound-specific detection limit and therefore cannot be unequivocally defined. All downstream contaminant plumes exhibited HET concentrations above typical PAH concentrations indicating that some HET are generally persistent towards biodegradation compared to other coal tar constituents, which results in comparatively increased field-derived half-lives of HET. Additionally, this study provides a review on physicochemical and toxicological parameters of HET. For three well investigated sites in Germany, the biodegradation of HET is quantified using the centre line method (CLM) for the evaluation of bulk attenuation rate constants. The results of the present and previous studies suggest that implementation of a comprehensive monitoring programme for heterocyclic aromatic compounds is relevant at sites, if MNA is considered in risk assessment and for remediation.

Blum, Philipp; Sagner, Anne; Tiehm, Andreas; Martus, Peter; Wendel, Thomas; Grathwohl, Peter

2011-11-01

368

Potential hydrologic impacts of a tar-sand industry in 11 special tar sand areas in eastern Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

About 93 percent of the Nation 's estimated 30 billion barrels of crude oil in tar sand deposits is in 11 tar-sand deposits in eastern Utah that were chosen for leasing by the Federal government. The Tar Sand Triangle area, which contains about 15 billion barrels of oil, is the largest. This area and the Sunnyside and P R Springs areas contain more than three-fourths of the Utah reserves. About 88,000 acre-feet of water per year would be required for a commercial tar-sand industry producing about 365,000 barrels per day. At this rate, most of the recoverable oil would be mined within 30 years. About 22,000 acre-feet of water per year would be required for a commercial tar-sand industry producing about 83,000 barrels per day. Impacts on local hydrology would be greatest in the Tar Sand Triangle, Sunnyside, and P R Springs areas. Impacts could be minimized with proper construction of surface facilities to decrease erosion, sediment transport, and impoundment of mining and retort water. Increases in salinity of the Colorado River at Imperial Dam, Ariz.-Calif., could be about 3 milligrams per liter, with a peak of 9 milligrams per liter, for a 365 ,000-barrel-per-day industry and less than 1 milligram per liter , with a peak of 2 milligrams per liter, for an 83 ,000-barrel-per-day industry. (USGS)

Lindskov, K.L.

1983-01-01

369

NITROGEN COMPOUND DISTRIBUTION AND FUEL INCOMPATIBILITY REACTIONS IN A TAR SAND DERIVED MIDDLE DISTILLATE FUEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high paraffin, high nitrogen, low sulfur jet fuel derived from Athabasca tar sands was studied. The organo-nitrogen compounds in the fuel were isolated by mild acid extraction followed by silica-gel adsorption. Three extracts were derived from this fuel: a basic nitrogen compounds extract, BNC, in methylene chloride, a non-basic nitrogen compounds extract, NBNC, in methyl alcohol and an NBNC

Janet M. Hughes; Erna J. Beal; George W. Mushrush

1995-01-01

370

Torsional guided-wave attenuation in coal-tar-enamel-coated, buried piping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attenuation of the fundamental torsional guided waves in a coal-tar-enamel-coated pipe was investigated experimentally over a 5–30-kHz frequency range and up to a 1.7-m soil cover. The attenuation coefficients in the coated pipe above the ground were an order of magnitude greater than in bare pipe and, over the frequency range studied, it increased approximately linearly with frequency. Soil cover

H Kwun; S. Y Kim; M. S Choi; S. M Walker

2004-01-01

371

Biological oxidation of organic constituents in tar-sand combustion-process water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was performed to characterize a sample of reverse-forward, tar-sand combustion process water, and to conduct an initial evaluation of activated sludge treatment of the process water. No pretreatment of the waste water was considered necessary prior to biological oxidation other than addition of ca. 0.006M caustic\\/L influent to maintain reactor pH in the desired range of 7.0-7.5. The

M. F. Torpy; R. G. Luthy; L. A. Raphaelian

1983-01-01

372

Effects of multiple effluents on resident fish from Junction Creek, Sudbury, Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Junction Creek in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada receives effluent from three metal mining effluents (MMEs), as well as urban run-off and municipal sewage treatment plant (STP) discharges. The present study examined organismal and sub-organismal end-points in prespawning fathead minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas) and creek chub (CC; Semotilus atromaculatus) collected in May 2004 from Junction Creek. Metal body burdens of Cd, Cu,

Lynn P. Weber; Monique G. Dubé; Carrie J. Rickwood; Kimberlea Driedger; Cam Portt; Christine Brereton; David M. Janz

2008-01-01

373

True in-situ bed preparation: oil shale and tar sand  

SciTech Connect

In 1978, a detailed study was conducted to evaluate the status of the bed preparation technology that had been developed for true in-situ processing of oil shale. It was concluded that the two techniques which had received the bulk of the attention in prior field experimentation, namely the wellbore springing and hydraulic/explosive fracturing concepts, both had inherent traits which would prevent them from being useful in practical applications. In the current paper, the previous results are reviewed to determine whether or not they are also applicable to tar sand. The conclusion reached is that neither technique would be practical for preparing a tar sands deposit for in-situ processing.

Boade, R. R.

1980-01-01

374

Skylab-EREP studies in computer mapping of terrain in the Cripple Creek-Canon City area of Colorado  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multispectral-scanner data from satellites are used as input to computers for automatically mapping terrain classes of ground cover. Some major problems faced in this remote-sensing task include: (1) the effect of mixtures of classes and, primarily because of mixtures, the problem of what constitutes accurate control data, and (2) effects of the atmosphere on spectral responses. The fundamental principles of these problems are presented along with results of studies of them for a test site of Colorado, using LANDSAT-1 data.

Smedes, H. W.; Ranson, K. J.; Holstrom, R. L.

1975-01-01

375

Steam reforming of tar model compound using Pd catalyst on alumina tube.  

PubMed

Gasification processing of biomass as a renewable energy source generates tar in the product gas. Tar leads to foul-up of the process equipment by corrosion and deposit formation. Catalytic elimination of tars is a crucial step to improve fuel gas quality from the process. In this study, a palladium catalyst on alumina (Pd/Al2O3) was used in steam reforming of benzene as a biomass gasification tar model compound. The reaction was carried out in a laboratory-scale tube reactor made of stainless steel to study the effect of reaction temperature, catalyst loading, quantity of palladium catalyst tubes, steam to carbon ratio (S/C), and residence time on catalytic performance and stability. Pd/Al2O3 showed high efficiency ofbenzene decomposition and enhanced the formation of fuel gas. Hydrogen and carbon conversions increased with reaction temperature. Although the benzene concentration increased from 2000 to 5000 mg/l, the catalytic performance at 600 degrees C and 800 degrees C was similar. 1.0 wt% Pd/Al2O3 showed excellent catalytic activity with the highest hydrogen and carbon conversions of 83% and 81%, respectively at 800 degrees C. This result is attributed to the smooth surface of the palladium, as noted from scanning electron microscopy imaging. An S/C of 2 provided the highest conversion. The addition of catalyst from four and seven tubes did not result in any great difference in terms of benzene cracking efficiency. The fourth cyclic usage of 1.0 wt% Pd/Al2O3 exhibited a higher conversion than that of 0.5 wt%. PMID:23437646

Nisamaneenate, Jurarat; Atong, Duangduen; Sricharoenchaikul, Viboon

2012-12-01

376

Microbial Diversity in Natural Asphalts of the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits?  

PubMed Central

Bacteria commonly inhabit subsurface oil reservoirs, but almost nothing is known yet about microorganisms that live in naturally occurring terrestrial oil seeps and natural asphalts that are comprised of highly recalcitrant petroleum hydrocarbons. Here we report the first survey of microbial diversity in ca. 28,000-year-old samples of natural asphalts from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, CA. Microbiological studies included analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences and DNA encoding aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases from two tar pits differing in chemical composition. Our results revealed a wide range of phylogenetic groups within the Archaea and Bacteria domains, in which individual taxonomic clusters were comprised of sets of closely related species within novel genera and families. Fluorescent staining of asphalt-soil particles using phylogenetic probes for Archaea, Bacteria, and Pseudomonas showed coexistence of mixed microbial communities at high cell densities. Genes encoding dioxygenases included three novel clusters of enzymes. The discovery of life in the tar pits provides an avenue for further studies of the evolution of enzymes and catabolic pathways for bacteria that have been exposed to complex hydrocarbons for millennia. These bacteria also should have application for industrial microbiology and bioremediation. PMID:17416692

Kim, Jong-Shik; Crowley, David E.

2007-01-01

377

Cancer risk from incidental ingestion exposures to PAHs associated with coal-tar-sealed pavement  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent (2009-10) studies documented significantly higher concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in settled house dust in living spaces and soil adjacent to parking lots sealed with coal-tar-based products. To date, no studies have examined the potential human health effects of PAHs from these products in dust and soil. Here we present the results of an analysis of potential cancer risk associated with incidental ingestion exposures to PAHs in settings near coal-tar-sealed pavement. Exposures to benzo[a]pyrene equivalents were characterized across five scenarios. The central tendency estimate of excess cancer risk resulting from lifetime exposures to soil and dust from nondietary ingestion in these settings exceeded 1 × 10–4, as determined using deterministic and probabilistic methods. Soil was the primary driver of risk, but according to probabilistic calculations, reasonable maximum exposure to affected house dust in the first 6 years of life was sufficient to generate an estimated excess lifetime cancer risk of 6 × 10–5. Our results indicate that the presence of coal-tar-based pavement sealants is associated with significant increases in estimated excess lifetime cancer risk for nearby residents. Much of this calculated excess risk arises from exposures to PAHs in early childhood (i.e., 0–6 years of age).

Williams, E. Spencer; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

2012-01-01

378

Fast microwave-assisted catalytic gasification of biomass for syngas production and tar removal.  

PubMed

In the present study, a microwave-assisted biomass gasification system was developed for syngas production. Three catalysts including Fe, Co and Ni with Al2O3 support were examined and compared for their effects on syngas production and tar removal. Experimental results showed that microwave is an effective heating method for biomass gasification. Ni/Al2O3 was found to be the most effective catalyst for syngas production and tar removal. The gas yield reached above 80% and the composition of tar was the simplest when Ni/Al2O3 catalyst was used. The optimal ratio of catalyst to biomass was determined to be 1:5-1:3. The addition of steam was found to be able to improve the gas production and syngas quality. Results of XRD analyses demonstrated that Ni/Al2O3 catalyst has good stability during gasification process. Finally, a new concept of microwave-assisted dual fluidized bed gasifier was put forward for the first time in this study. PMID:24508907

Xie, Qinglong; Borges, Fernanda Cabral; Cheng, Yanling; Wan, Yiqin; Li, Yun; Lin, Xiangyang; Liu, Yuhuan; Hussain, Fida; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

2014-03-01

379

Indications of mineral zoning in a fossil hydrothermal system at the Meager Creek geothermal prospect, British Columbia, Canada, from induced polarization studies  

SciTech Connect

By measuring the induced-polarization parameters m (chargeability) and tau (time-constant) we have found evidence that the center of a presumed fossil hydrothermal system at Meager Creek, British Columbia, lies south of the main manifestation of the present-day convective hydrothermal system. What implication this finding has for development of the present-day system is unknown. However, some of the fractures formed during the development of the fossil hydrothermal system may serve as conduits for fluids of the present-day system. The analysis is limited by the lack of availability of a good subsurface distribution of core samples. Nevertheless, a surface induced-polarization survey is expected to yield information about the geometry of the fossil system. Such knowledge would have implications not only for Meager Creek but for other hydrothermal systems of Cascades volcano type. 16 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

Ward, S.H.; Zhao, J.X.; Groenwald, J.; Moore, J.N.

1985-05-01

380

Ecological effects of contaminants and remedial actions in Bear Creek  

SciTech Connect

Ecological studies of the Bear Creek watershed, which drains the area surrounding several Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities, were initiated in May 1984 and are continuing at present. These studies consisted of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek, and they were followed by a presently ongoing monitoring phase that involves reduced sampling intensities. The characterization phase utilized two approaches: (1) instream sampling of benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek to identify spatial and temporal patterns in distribution and abundance and (2) laboratory bioassays on water samples from Bear Creek and selected tributaries to identify potential sources of toxicity to biota. The monitoring phase of the ecological program relates to the long-term goals of identifying and prioritizing contaminant sources and assessing the effectiveness of remedial actions. It continues activities of the characterization phase at less frequent intervals. The Bear Greek Valley is a watershed that drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in Bear Creek Valley resulted in contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Extensive remedial actions have been proposed at waste sites, and some of the have been implemented or are now underway. The proposed study plan consists of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek in the first year followed by a reduction in sampling intensity during the monitoring phase of the plan. The results of sampling conducted from May 1984 through early 1989 are presented in this report.

Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Burris, J.A. (C. E. Environmental, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States))

1992-01-01

381

A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Wildcat Creek, Howard County, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Indiana State Board of Health is developing a water-quality management plan that includes establishing limits for wastewater effluents discharged into Indiana streams. A digital model calibrated to conditions in Wildcat Creek was used to predict alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The model indicates that benthic-oxygen demand is the most significant factor affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentrations in Wildcat Creek during summer low flows. The Indiana stream dissolved-oxygen standard should not be violated if the Kokomo wastewater-treatment facility meets its current National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit restrictions (average monthly 5-day biochemical-oxygen demand of 5 milligrams per liter and maximum weekly 5-day biochemical-oxygen demand of 7.5 milligrams per liter) and benthic-oxygen demand becomes negligible. Ammonia-nitrogen toxicity may also be a water-quality limitation in Wildcat Creek. Ammonia-nitrogen waste loads for the Kokomo wastewater-treatment facility, projected by the Indiana State Board of Health, will result in stream ammonia-nitrogen concentrations that exceed the State standard (2.5 milligrams per liter during summer months and 4.0 milligrams per liter during winter months). (Kosco-USGS)

Crawford, Charles G.; Wilber, William G.; Peters, James G.

1979-01-01

382

A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Little Laughery Creek, Ripley and Franklin counties, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A digital model calibrated to conditions in Little Laughery Creek triutary and Little Laughery Creek, Ripley and Franklin Counties, Ind., was used to predict alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. Natural streamflow during the summer and annual 7-day, 10-year low flow is zero. Headwater flow upstream from the wastewater-treatment facilities consists solely of process cooling water from an industrial discharger. This flow is usually less than 0.5 cubic foot per second. Consequently, benefits from dilution are minimal. As a result, current and projected ammonia-nitrogen concentrations from the municipal discharges will result in in-stream ammonia-nitrogen concentrations that exceed the Indiana ammonia-nitrogen toxicity standards (maximum stream ammonia-nitrogen concentrations of 2.5 and 4.0 milligrams per liter during summer and winter low flows, respectively). Benthic-oxygen demand is probably the most significant factor affecting Little Laughery Creek and is probably responsible for the in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentration being less than the Indiana stream dissolved-oxygen standard (5.0 milligrams per liter) during two water-quality surveys. After municipal dischargers complete advanced waste-treatment facilities, benthic-oxygen demand should be less significant in the stream dissolved-oxygen dynamics. (USGS)

Crawford, Charles G.; Wilber, William G.; Peters, James G.

1980-01-01

383

High numbers of Vibrio vulnificus in tar balls collected from oiled areas of the north-central Gulf of Mexico following the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill.  

PubMed

The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill was the largest oil spill in USA history releasing approximately 4.9 million barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Soon after the spill started, tar balls and other forms of weathered oil appeared in large numbers on beaches in Mississippi and Alabama. In this study, we analyzed tar balls for total aerobic bacterial (TAB) counts and also for the presence of Vibrio vulnificus, a human pathogen known to be abundant in the Gulf Coast environment and capable of causing severe wound infections by contact with contaminated surfaces. Our results showed that TAB counts were significantly higher in tar balls than in sand and seawater collected at the same location. In addition, V. vulnificus numbers were 10× higher in tar balls than in sand and up to 100× higher than in seawater. Densities of V. vulnificus were higher than 10(5) colony forming units/g of tar ball in all samples analyzed. Our data suggest that tar balls can act as reservoirs for bacteria including human pathogens. PMID:22109669

Tao, Zhen; Bullard, Stephen; Arias, Covadonga

2011-12-01

384

Assessment of tar pollution on the United Arab emirates beaches  

SciTech Connect

In light of the inadequate information concerning stranded tar on the southwest beaches of the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, particularly following the massive oil releases during the Gulf War, the present investigation was designed to provide reference-integrated information on the nature, location, and levels of stranded tar balls on the beaches of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The recorded levels appeared to be higher than expected or previously reported. The tar distribution pattern, in addition to the degree of weathering, indicates that the massive oil release during the Gulf War did not reach the UAE shorelines. The highest reported levels of stranded tar ever recorded in the Arabian Gulf at Jabal Dhannah apparently originated from oil spills and tankers' ballast water at the main oil terminal at the Al-Ruwaiss oil refinery some 10 km to the east. The surprising, relatively high levels of stranded tar on the beaches of the Gulf of Oman were solely attributed to the heavy navigation traffic close to the shorelines. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Abu-Hilal, A.H.; Khordagui, H.K. (United Arab Emirates Univ., Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates))

1993-01-01

385

Biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Research progress report  

SciTech Connect

Biodegradation experiments were conducted to evaluate the mineralization of naphthalene released from coal tar entrapped in microporous silica media. Tests were performed with two coal tars recovered from former manufactured gas plant sites. Results from these tests showed that the degradation end point for naphthalene was significantly lower than the total amount of naphthalene present in coal tar. The role of physico-chemical and biological processes on the rate of biotransformation of naphthalene was evaluated. Mass transfer rates for dissolution of naphthalene from entrapped coal tar were measured in batch, flow-through systems. The rate of naphthalene mass transfer from the coal tar was found to be significantly greater than the rate of naphthalene biomineralization in batch slurry reactors. This implied that the rate acting factor for the biodegradation process was related to biokinetic phenomena rather than mass transfer processes. Further tests indicated that conditions inhibitory to bacteria limited the biodegradation of naphthalene, and in some cases the inhibition was reversible upon dilution of the reactor contents.

Ghoshal, S.; Ramaswami, A.; Luthy, R.G.

1994-02-07

386

77 FR 42714 - Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Resources, LLC; and Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC. e. Name of...Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek...the project's dam and draw water through a new 48-inch-diameter...application must be accompanied by proof of service on all persons...

2012-07-20

387

VARS2 and TARS2 Mutations in Patients with Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathies  

PubMed Central

By way of whole-exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous missense mutation in VARS2 in one subject with microcephaly and epilepsy associated with isolated deficiency of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complex I and compound heterozygous mutations in TARS2 in two siblings presenting with axial hypotonia and severe psychomotor delay associated with multiple MRC defects. The nucleotide variants segregated within the families, were absent in Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) databases and are predicted to be deleterious. The amount of VARS2 and TARS2 proteins and valyl-tRNA and threonyl-tRNA levels were decreased in samples of afflicted patients according to the genetic defect. Expression of the corresponding wild-type transcripts in immortalized mutant fibroblasts rescued the biochemical impairment of mitochondrial respiration and yeast modeling of the VARS2 mutation confirmed its pathogenic role. Taken together, these data demonstrate the role of the identified mutations for these mitochondriopathies. Our study reports the first mutations in the VARS2 and TARS2 genes, which encode two mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, as causes of clinically distinct, early-onset mitochondrial encephalopathies. PMID:24827421

Diodato, Daria; Melchionda, Laura; Haack, Tobias B; Dallabona, Cristina; Baruffini, Enrico; Donnini, Claudia; Granata, Tiziana; Ragona, Francesca; Balestri, Paolo; Margollicci, Maria; Lamantea, Eleonora; Nasca, Alessia; Powell, Christopher A; Minczuk, Michal; Strom, Tim M; Meitinger, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger; Lamperti, Costanza; Zeviani, Massimo; Ghezzi, Daniele

2014-01-01

388

Relationship of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yield of cigarettes  

SciTech Connect

The data from consecutive surveys of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study (1981-1988) were used to evaluate the relationship in cigarette smokers of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO) yields of the cigarette. There were 690 subjects who reported smoking regularly in at least one survey, over age 15. After adjustment for intensity and duration of smoking and for depth of inhalation, the risk of chronic phlegm, cough, and dyspnea were not related to the tar and nicotine yields. In 414 subjects with pulmonary function tested in at least one of the three surveys the spirometric indices used were significantly related to the daily dose of tar, nicotine, and CO (product of the cigarette yield and daily number of cigarettes smoked). The effects were more pronounced for past than for current doses. However, the differentiation of pulmonary function due to various yields of cigarettes was small in comparison to the difference in pulmonary function between smokers and nonsmokers.

Krzyzanowski, M.; Sherrill, D.L.; Paoletti, P.; Lebowitz, M.D. (National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland))

1991-02-01

389

33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. The area within the...

2010-07-01

390

33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. The area within the...

2014-07-01

391

33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. The area within the...

2013-07-01

392

33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. The area within the...

2012-07-01

393

33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. The area within the...

2011-07-01

394

Metasedimentary Rocks at the Apple Creek Formation  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientist Art Bookstrom looks at puzzling sedimentary structures in metasedimentary rocks of the Apple Creek Formation, near the Jackass prospect, near Iron Creek, in the southeastern part of the Idaho cobalt belt, in east-central Idaho....

395

33 CFR 117.573 - Stoney Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.573 Stoney Creek. The draw of the Stoney Creek (S173) bridge, mile 0.9, in Riviera shall open on...

2014-07-01

396

PINE CREEK, NEZ PERCE COUNTY, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1986  

EPA Science Inventory

A water quality monitoring study was conducted on Pine Creek (17060306), from February 20, 1985 to February 23, 1986. Objectives of the study were to determine baseline water quality of Pine Creek and its tributaries and to document the effects of storm runoff on water quality. ...

397

The frequency of channel-forming discharges in a tributary of Upper Big Walnut Creek, Ohio  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The goal of this study was to determine the frequency and magnitude of annual out-of-bank discharges in Sugar Creek, a tributary of the Upper Big Walnut Creek, in Ohio. To address this goal: a stream geomorphology study was conducted; measured discharge data at a downstream location were used to dev...

398

Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

1995-04-01

399

Physical and chemical characteristics of Alabama tar sands  

SciTech Connect

The tar sand deposits of northwest Alabama contain large reserves of oil, part of which may one day be tapped to supplement conventional oil production. The largest reserves occur in the Hartselle Sandstone and Price Mountain Formation, both of Mississippian age. Commercial developments of Alabama's tar sand deposits have been limited to operations in west-central Colbert County. Here to surface mine the material for use as road construction material. No attempt has been made to establish a commercial-scale oil extraction operation. The Hartselle Sandstone has the best potential for future oil extraction operations. Total reserves have been estimated to be in the order of about 3 billion barrels of oil in place. Much of Alabama's tar sand resource occurs in deposits that are relatively thin, lean, and somewhat discontinuous. The degree of oil saturation in the Hartselle Sandstone has a wide variation that is apparently related to lithofacies.

Wilson, G.V.

1983-01-01

400

Mass transfer and biodegradation of PAH compounds from coal tar. Quarterly technical report, January--March 1993  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the role of physico-chemical mass transfer processes on the rate of biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds released from non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) coal tar present at residual saturation within a microporous medium. A simplified coupled dissolution-degradation model is developed that describes the concurrent mass transfer and biokinetic processes occurring in the system. Model results indicate that a dimensionless Damkohler number can be utilized to distinguish between systems that are mass transfer limited, and those that are limited by biological phenomena. The Damkohler number is estimated from independent laboratory experiments that measure the rates of aqueous phase dissolution and biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Experimental data for Stroudsburg coal tar imbibed within 236 {mu}m diameter silica particles yield Damkohler numbers smaller than unity, indicating, for the particular system under study, that the overall rate of biotransformation of naphthalene is not limited by the mass transfer of naphthalene from coal tar to the bulk aqueous phase. There is a need for investigation of mass transfer for larger particles and/or other PAH compounds, and study of microbial rate-limiting phenomena including toxicity, inhibition and competitive substrate utilization.

Ramaswami, A.; Ghoshal, S.; Luthy, R.G.

1994-09-01

401

Mass transfer and biodegradation of PAH compounds from coal tar. Quarterly technical report, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

This study, examines the role of physico-chemical mass transfer processes on the rate of biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds released from non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) coal tar present at residual saturation within a microporous medium. A simplified coupled dissolution-degradation model is developed that describes the concurrent mass transfer and biokinetic processes occurring in the system. Model results indicate that a dimensionless Damkohler number can be utilized to distinguish between systems that are mass transfer limited, and those that are limited by biological phenomena. The Damkohler number is estimated from independent laboratory experiments that measure the rates of aqueous phase dissolution and biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Experimental data for Stroudsburg coal tar imbibed within 236 {mu}m diameter silica particles yield Damkohler numbers smaller than unity, indicating, for the particular system under study, that the overall rate of biotransformation of naphthalene is not limited by the mass transfer of naphthalene from coal tar to the bulk aqueous phase. There is a need for investigation of mass transfer for larger particles and/or other PAH compounds, and study, of microbial rate-limiting phenomena including toxicity, inhibition and competitive substrate utilization.

Ramaswami, A.; Ghoshal, S.; Luthy, R.G.

1994-09-01

402

Multi-stage air flotation of tar sand wastewater  

SciTech Connect

In 1980, the Department of Energy's Laramie Energy Technology Center conducted a steam-driven tar sand recovery experiment near Vernal, UT which yielded 1,150 barrels of bitumen and 6,250 barrels of process water, which was highly contaminated with emulsified oils and dissolved organics. The process waters were successfully treated by bench-scale, continuous-flow air flotation (AF), but significant amounts of very diluted sludge were generated. The present study investigated the effects of adding a second flotation stage to the AF system to thicken stage I sludge, produce a clean effluent suitable for recycling, and thereby increase the hydraulic efficiency of the system. Key stage II operating variables were polymer dose, air flowrate, and liquid residence time. These were optimized to minimize sludge volume and maximize effluent quality and volume. Total organic carbon and total suspended solids removals in the stage II system were 96 and 99%, respectively. Overall sludge production equalled about 2% of the total influent flow.

Nolan, B.T.; McTernan, W.F.; Asce, A.M.; Laya, C.J.

1986-04-01

403

FIELD EVALUATION OF THE MYRTLE CREEK ADVANCED  

E-print Network

FIELD EVALUATION OF THE MYRTLE CREEK ADVANCED CURVE WARNING SYSTEM Final Report SPR 352 #12;#12;FIELD EVALUATION OF THE MYRTLE CREEK ADVANCED CURVE WARNING SYSTEM SPR 352 Final Report by Robert L's Catalog No. 5. Report Date June 2006 4. Title and Subtitle Field Evaluation of the Myrtle Creek Advanced

Bertini, Robert L.

404

27 CFR 9.211 - Swan Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Swan Creek. 9.211 Section 9.211 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.211 Swan Creek. (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Swan Creek”. For purposes of part 4 of...

2014-04-01

405

27 CFR 9.211 - Swan Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Swan Creek. 9.211 Section 9.211 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.211 Swan Creek. (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Swan Creek”. For purposes of part 4 of...

2012-04-01

406

27 CFR 9.211 - Swan Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Swan Creek. 9.211 Section 9.211 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.211 Swan Creek. (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Swan Creek”. For purposes of part 4 of...

2011-04-01

407

27 CFR 9.211 - Swan Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Swan Creek. 9.211 Section 9.211 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.211 Swan Creek. (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Swan Creek”. For purposes of part 4 of...

2013-04-01

408

27 CFR 9.211 - Swan Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swan Creek. 9.211 Section 9.211 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.211 Swan Creek. (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Swan Creek”. For purposes of part 4 of...

2010-04-01

409

Bacterial Monitoring for the Buck Creek Watershed  

E-print Network

The “Bacterial Monitoring for the Buck Creek Watershed” project was developed in response to the creek’s listing on the Texas Water Quality Inventory and 303(d) List due to a bacterial impairment and subsequent total maximum daily load (TMDL...

410

Meta-analysis of lung cancer in asphalt roofing and paving workers with external adjustment for confounding by coal tar  

SciTech Connect

The study's objectives were to update Partanen's and Boffetta's 1994 meta-analysis of lung cancer among roofing and paving asphalt workers and explore the role of coal tar in explaining the statistical heterogeneity among these studies. Information retrieval strategies and eligibility criteria were defined for identifying the epidemiologic studies to be included in the analysis. The relative risk ratio (RR) for lung cancer was selected as the effect measure of interest. Coal tar bias factors were developed and used to externally adjust each eligible study's published RR for confounding by coal tar. The meta-Relative Risk (meta-RR) and its variance were estimated by general variance-based methods. Heterogeneity of the RRs was assessed by heterogeneity chi-square and I{sup 2} tests. The results from this update were similar to those in Partanen's and Boffetta's original meta-analysis. Although the meta-RRs for the roofers and the pavers were no longer statistically significantly different from one another, significant heterogeneity remained within each of the coal tar-adjusted sectors. Meta-analysis of non-experimental epidemiologic studies is subject to significant uncertainties as is externally correcting studies for confounding. Given these uncertainties, the specific quantitative estimates in this (or any similar) analysis must be viewed with caution. Nevertheless, this analysis provides support for the hypothesis proposed by several major reviewers that confounding by coal tar-related PAH exposures may explain most or all of the lung cancer risks found in the epidemiologic literature on asphalt roofing and paving workers.

Fayerweather, W.E. [Owens Corning, Toledo, OH (United States). Epidemiology & Data Management

2007-07-01

411

Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek Watershed Monitoring Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological monitoring of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, which border the Paducah Site, has been conducted since 1987. Biological monitoring was conducted by University of Kentucky from 1987 to 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 through March 1999. In March 1998, renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System

L. A. Kszos; M. J. Peterson; Ryon; J. G. Smith

1999-01-01

412

Monument Creek hydraulics project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are given some general questions (file "IntroQuestions_07.pdf") related to project design during the class session before the main project is handed out. They need to use their textbook and/or other class resources to attempt to answer these questions and to prepare to discuss them the next class session. These questions concern field reconstruction of flood hydraulics, specifically. of bankfull flow. At this next class session we discuss their answers to the preliminary questions. Students are then given the main project handout (Monument_Ck_Problem_07.pdf). This gives them the general questions to be answered in the project. After reading it, students brainstorm again as a class about how to go about answering the questions. Students then divide themselves into research of three. These teams will synthesize data together and ultimately write up the project together. Each team then sends one member to join members of other teams to do one of the three main aspects of the field or computer work (1) field identification of the bankfull channel and measurement of bankfull channel geometry, (2) field determination of modern channel roughness from modern stream hydraulics (Manning's n is back-calculated from present channel geometry and flow), (3) development of a flood-frequency curve for this reach of Monument Creek from USGS discharge data. These working groups (with one member from each research team) work initially independently in the field and subsequently doing calculations in the lab, or on the computer. Once each working group has completed what it can do on its own, these groups split up and each member of each group carries the groups results back to his/her research team, and explains to the other members of the research team what he/she has done to this point and what results he/she has for the team. The team then works to synthesize he results into an overall answer to the questions posed at the beginning of the lab (confusing enough for you?). Each research team then writes up the results, sometimes (as in 2007) as a lab write up, in other years in scientific paper format. Whether the project is turned in simply as a lab write up or as a scientific paper, students are always asked to assess sources of error and how they might affect the results. Key words: Fluvial geomorphology, fluvial hydraulics, bankfull discharge, flood-frequency analysis Designed for a geomorphology course

Eric Leonard

413

29 CFR 1926.1102 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1926.1102 Section... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1102 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The...

2010-07-01

414

29 CFR 1926.1102 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1926.1102 Section... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1102 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The...

2013-07-01

415

29 CFR 1926.1102 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1926.1102 Section... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1102 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The...

2012-07-01

416

29 CFR 1926.1102 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1926.1102 Section... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1102 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The...

2011-07-01

417

29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1915.1002 Section... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The...

2012-07-01

418

29 CFR 1926.1102 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1926.1102 Section... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1102 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The...

2014-07-01

419

29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1915.1002 Section... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The...

2014-07-01

420

29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1915.1002 Section... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The...

2010-07-01

421

29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1915.1002 Section... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The...

2013-07-01

422

Vehicular fuels and oxychemicals from biomass thermochemical tars  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic hydroprocessing (hydrotreating and hydrocracking) of biomass thermochemical tars can yield mixtures of liquid hydrocarbons and alkyl aromatics of chemical compositions similar to those presently used in diesel and gasoline engine fuels. Phenolics can be coproduced. Compositions of hydroprocessed tars are similar regardless of biomass feedstock used, suggesting that the two-stage process of pyrolysis and hydroprocessing may afford a somewhat universal route to the generation of useful hydrocarbons and oxychemicals from a variety of agricultural and forestry residues. 26 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

Soltes, E.J.; Lin, S.C.K.

1983-01-01

423

Combination of thermal cracking with vacuum distillation of cracked tar  

SciTech Connect

A method of obtaining greater amounts of distillate feedstocks from the heavy gasoil recovered by vacuum distillation of the products of thermal cracking of petroleum resids was examined. At the Novo-Ufa Petroleum Refinery, a two-furnace thermal cracking unit was reconstructed, adding a vacuum section for distillation of the cracked tar. A simplified flow plan of this unit is shown. Vacuum resid from atmospheric-vacuum tubestill units is heated in double-pipe heat exchangers, using heat from the gasoil and cracked tar. The new method makes it possible to curtail production of boiler fuel, expand the resources of feed, and improve the quality of petroleum coke.

Telyashev, G.G.; Gimaev, R.N.; Makhov, A.F.; Usmanov, R.M.; Baimbetov, A.M.; Vafin, I.A.

1987-11-01

424

Proposed water treatment approach for commercial tar sand wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

Waters produced during the steamflood extraction of bitumen from tar sand require treatment before they can be recycled as feedwater for steam generation. The characterization of two waters from commercial-scale tar sand operations indicates that the levels of hardness, oil and grease, silica, suspended solids, and iron must be reduced before these waters can be reused in the bitumen extraction process. The Western Research Institute proposes two treatment methods (electrocoagulation and ultrafiltration) that may, when used in conjunction with standard practices, improve the efficiency of the overall treatment process. 21 refs., 3 tabs.

Kocornik, D.

1986-09-01

425

3-D sedimentological and geophysical studies of clastic reservoir analogs: Facies architecture, reservoir properties, and flow behavior within delta front facies elements of the Cretaceous Wall Creek Member, Frontier Formation, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This project examined the internal architecture of delta front sandstones at two locations within the Turonian-age Wall Creek Member of the Frontier Formation, in Wyoming. The project involved traditional outcrop field work integrated with core-data, and 2D and 3D ground penetrating radar (GPR) imaging from behind the outcrops. The fluid-flow engineering work, handled through a collaborative grant given to PI Chris White at LSU, focused on effects on fluid flow of late-stage calcite cement nodules in 3D. In addition to the extensive field component, the work funded 2 PhD students (Gani and Lee) and resulted in publication of 10 technical papers, 17 abstracts, and 4 internal field guides. PI Bhattacharya also funded an additional 3 PhD students that worked on the Wall Creek sandstone funded separately through an industrial consortium, two of whom graduated in the fall 2006 ((Sadeque and Vakarelov). These additional funds provided significant leverage to expand the work to include a regional stratigraphic synthesis of the Wall Creek Member of the Frontier Formation, in addition to the reservoir-scale studies that DOE directly funded. Awards given to PI Bhattacharya included the prestigious AAPG Distinguished Lecture Award, which involved a tour of about 25 Universities and Geological Societies in the US and Canada in the fall of 2005 and Spring of 2006. Bhattacharya gave two talks, one entitled “Applying Deltaic and Shallow Marine Outcrop Analogs to the Subsurface”, which highlighted the DOE sponsored work and the other titled “Martian River Deltas and the Origin of Life”. The outcrop analog talk was given at about 1/2 of the venues visited.

Janok P. Bhattacharya; George A. McMechan

2007-02-16

426

WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, GEORGETOWN CREEK, BEAR LAKE COUNTY, IDAHO, 1977  

EPA Science Inventory

Georgetown Creek (16010201) drains a small watershed in Bear Lake County. A phosphate fertilizer plant operated in Georgetown Canyon until 1964. This study was conducted to assess water quality of Georgetown Creek as a background for future monitoring. 20 parameters were sampl...

427

WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, BLOOMINGTON CREEK, BEAR LAKE COUNTY, IDAHO, 1977  

EPA Science Inventory

Bloomington Creek (16010201) drains a small watershed in Bear Lake County. A phosphate mine and mill have been proposed for the Bloomington area. This study was conducted to provide background water quality data on Bloomington Creek. 21 parameters were sampled bi-weekly for 1 ...

428

RIPARIAN VEGETATION BASE-LINE ANALYSIS AND MONITORING ALONG BISHOP CREEK, CALIFORNIA1  

E-print Network

RIPARIAN VEGETATION BASE-LINE ANALYSIS AND MONITORING ALONG BISHOP CREEK, CALIFORNIA1 Janet L-line analysis and long-term monitoring study of the riparian system along California's Bishop Creek is being (local geomorphology and hydrology), elevation and substrate characteristics appear to be important

Standiford, Richard B.

429

Spatial Heterogeneity in the Parasite Communities of Creek Chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) in Southeastern Nebraska  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intestinal helminth communities of creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) were studied in the streams of south-eastern Nebraska to characterize spatial variation, to determine whether drainages act as regional species pools, and to examine the spatial patterning of individual parasite species within and among drainages. Creek chub were sampled in the summer of 2003 and the spring of 2004 at each

Michael A. Barger

2006-01-01

430

WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, INDIAN CREEK (CANYON COUNTY), IDAHO 1976-1977  

EPA Science Inventory

The Indian Creek drainage (17050114) is located in the Boise River Basin of Southwest Idaho. This study was concerned with the portion of Indian Creek near the Nampa and Caldwell urban areas. Major land uses in the area are associated with urban development and irrigated agricu...

431

A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Sand Creek, Decatur County, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A digital model calibrated to conditions in Sand Creek near Greensburg, Ind., was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The only point-source waste load affecting Sand Creek in the vicinity of Greensburg is the Greensburg wastewater-treatment facility. Non-point, unrecorded waste loads seemed to be significant during three water-quality surveys done by the Indiana State Board of Health. Natural streamflow in Sand Creek during the summer and annual 7-day, 10-year low flow is zero so no benefit from dilution is provided. Effluent ammonia-nitrogen concentrations from the Greensburg wastewater-treatment facility will not meet Indiana water-quality standards during summer and winter low flows. To meet the water-quality standard the wastewater-effluent would be limited to a maximum total ammonia-nitrogen concentration of 2.5 mg/l for summer months (June through August) and 4.0 mg/l for winter months (November through March). Model simulations indicate that benthic-oxygen demand, nitrification, and the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the wastewater effluent are the most significant factors affecting the in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentration during summer low flows. The model predicts that with a benthic-oxygen demand of 1.5 grams per square meter per day at 20C the stream has no additional waste-load assimilative capacity. Present carbonaceous biochemical-oxygen demand loads from the Greensburg wastewater-treatment facility will not result in violations of the in-stream dissolved-oxygen standard (5 mg/l) during winter low flows. (Kosco-USGS)

Wilber, William G.; Crawford, Charles G.; Peters, James G.

1979-01-01

432

Yucca in Pine Creek Canyon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Rock Canyon is a National Conservation Area managed by the Bureau of Land Management, located just outside of Las Vegas, Nevada. It is part of...

433

Sunset in Pine Creek Canyon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Rock Canyon is a National Conservation Area managed by the Bureau of Land Management, located just outside of Las Vegas, Nevada. It is part of...

434

Manzanita in Pine Creek Canyon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Rock Canyon is a National Conservation Area managed by the Bureau of Land Management, located just outside of Las Vegas, Nevada. It is part of...

435

Trout Creek Mountain project, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Trout Creek Mountain experience is an example of how the land and the people can win by building bridges of understanding and common interest between concerned constituencies. Love of the land, its natural resources, and realization of a need for changing grazing practices to reverse the degradation of riparian areas were the common interests that caused environmentalists, ranchers, the

Doc Hatfield; Connie Hatfield

1995-01-01

436

Sunset over Pine Creek Canyon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Rock Canyon is a National Conservation Area managed by the Bureau of Land Management, located just outside of Las Vegas, Nevada. It is part of...

437

OXYGEN AERATION AT NEWTOWN CREEK  

EPA Science Inventory

A successful initial feasibility investigation of oxygen aeration at the 0.11-cu m/sec (2.5-mgd) municipal wastewater treatment plant in Batavia, New York, prompted a larger demonstration at New York City's 13.6-cu m/sec (310-mgd) Newtown Creek Plant. A 34-mo evaluation was perfo...

438

SOUTH PEACE 2007 Dawson Creek  

E-print Network

and services to make the students' stay more enjoyable. It's hoped the pilot project will help aid in nursing Loretta Moller BSW Social Work Julie Odynak BScN Nursing Elizabeth Ollenberger BSW Social Work Danielle in Tumbler Ridge, Chetwynd, Hudson's Hope, Dawson Creek, Pouce Coupe, and the surrounding rural areas

Northern British Columbia, University of

439

29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

2010-07-01

440

Smokers' knowledge and understanding of advertised tar numbers: health policy implications.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. This article examines health policy implications of providing smokers with numerical tar yield information in cigarette advertising. METHODS. Results of a national probability telephone survey regarding smokers' knowledge and understanding of numerical tar yields and deliveries are reported. RESULTS. Few smokers knew the tar level of their own cigarettes (the exception being smokers of 1- to 5-mg tar cigarettes), and a majority could not correctly judge the relative tar levels of cigarettes. Smokers were unsure whether switching to lower-tar cigarettes would reduce their personal health risks. Many smokers relied on absolute numbers in making trade-offs between number of cigarettes smoked and their tar levels, thus confusion machine-rated tar-yields with actual amounts ingested. CONCLUSIONS. The wisdom of the present method of providing tar and nicotine numbers in ads and recommendations for modifying the test protocol are now under discussion. This research indicates that these tar numbers and their implications are poorly understood. The paper recommends revisions in tar ratings to make them more useful and a required statement on cigarette packages to more explicitly relate tar levels to major health risks. PMID:8561236

Cohen, J B

1996-01-01

441

Properties of Utah tar sands, south Seep Ridge area, P. R. Spring deposit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bureau of Mines analyzed three cores from the south Seep Ridge area jf the P. R. Spring tar sand deposit of northeastern Utah. Four tar sand zones are indicated in the area. The zones range in average thickness from 13 to 24 ft. The total net thickness of the tar sand in the three coreholes ranges from 71 to

L. A. Johnson; L. C. Marchant; C. Q. Cupps

1975-01-01

442

Thermal controls on biodegradation around the Peace River tar sands: Paleo-pasteurization to the west  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bitumens of the Alberta tar sands share a similar primary source rock, but exhibit varying levels of degradation. In the Peace River tar sands area, the wide range of API gravity and sulphur content in Lower Cretaceous reservoirs is investigated in terms of biodegradation processes, using detailed geochemical analyses, burial history modelling and charge\\/degrade modelling. Decreasing tar sand degradation to

Jennifer Adams; Cindy Riediger; Martin Fowler; Steve Larter

2006-01-01

443

The White House & Tar Sands Remarks in front of the White House on 29 August 2011.  

E-print Network

The White House & Tar Sands Remarks in front of the White House on 29 August 2011. Notes intended% of unconventional resources (blue) Figure 1 helps make clear why the tar sands and other unconventional fossil fuels) resources. Supporters of UFF development argue that only 15% of the tar sands resource is economically

Hansen, James E.

444

29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

2012-07-01

445

29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

2011-07-01

446

29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

2013-07-01

447

FEASIBILITY OF IN-SITU COMBUSTION OF TAR FROM A TARMAT Sidqi A. Abu-Khamsin  

E-print Network

FEASIBILITY OF IN-SITU COMBUSTION OF TAR FROM A TARMAT RESERVOIR Sidqi A. Abu-Khamsin Department Combustion-tube tests were conducted on a tar of physical and chemical characteristics similar to a natural, 19 to 25% water saturation and 21 to 32% tar saturation. In runs with distilled water, a combustion

Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

448

29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. ...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. ...1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the fused...

2014-07-01

449

Commercial steam reforming catalysts to improve biomass gasification with steam-oxygen mixtures. 2: Catalytic tar removal  

SciTech Connect

Eight different commercial catalysts, nickel based, for steam reforming of naphthas and of natural gas are tested in biomass gasification for hot gas cleanup and conditioning. They were manufactured by BASF AG, ICI-Katalco, UCI, and Haldor Topsoee a/s. The catalysts were tested in a slip flow after a biomass gasifier of fluidized bed type at small pilot-plant scale (10--20 kg of biomass/h). The gasifying agent used is steam-oxygen mixtures. A guard bed containing a calcined dolomite is used to decrease the tar content in the gas at the inlet of the catalytic bed. Main variables studied are catalyst type, bed temperature, H{sub 2}O + O{sub 2} to biomass feed ratio, and time-on-stream. All catalysts for reforming of naphthas show to be very active and useful for tar removal and gas conditioning (in biomass gasification). 98% tar removal is easily obtained with space velocities of 14,000 h{sup {minus}1} (n.c.). No catalysts deactivation is found in 48 h-on-stream tests when the catalyst temperature is relatively high (780--830 C). Using a simple first-order kinetic model for the overall tar removal reaction, apparent energies of activation (of around 58 kJ/mol) and preexponential factors are obtained for the most active catalysts.

Aznar, M.P.; Caballero, M.A.; Gil, J.; Martin, J.A. [Univ. of Saragossa (Spain). Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.] [Univ. of Saragossa (Spain). Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.; Corella, J. [Univ. Complutense of Madrid (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.] [Univ. Complutense of Madrid (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1998-07-01

450

Water Quality in Courtland Creek, East Oakland, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Courtland Creek is a tributary of the larger East Creek system that runs southeast from the Oakland Hills down to the San Leandro Bay in Oakland, California. In an effort to assess the overall health of Courtland Creek our team conducted a water quality research study. Stream water samples were collected from 4 sites between MacArthur Avenue (describe geographically as not all readers are familiar with Oakland geography) and Thompson Avenue (describe geographically as not all readers are familiar with Oakland geography) at accessible sections of this largely culverted stream. Dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, and chlorine concentrations in were measured using wet chemistry procedures. Analysis of collected samples indicates that dissolved oxygen levels in the stream are sufficient for invertebrates, ranging from 5 and 9 parts per million (ppm). Nitrate levels were significantly high, with concentrations ranging from 15 and 40 ppm. Other chemical species associated with waste products--ammonia, nitrite, and phosphate--also were present, but at low concentrations. Small amounts of chlorine also were found in waters of the creek system. The presence of high concentrations of nitrate, together with chlorine, suggests that untreated sewage may be leaking into Courtland Creek at an unidentified location.

Bracho, H.; Ahumada, A.; Hernandez, G.; Quintero, D.; Ramirez, J.; Ramirez, L.; Pham, T.; Holt, J.; Johnson, A.; Rubio, E.; Ponce, X.; Medina, S.; Limon, S.

2013-12-01

451

Biogeochemical characterisation of a coal tar distillate plume.  

PubMed

The distillation of acidified coal tars for up to 50 years has given rise to a phenol plume approximately 500 m long, 50 m deep and containing up to 15 g l(-1) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the Triassic Sandstones aquifer. A conceptual biogeochemical model based on chemical and microbiological analysis of groundwater samples has been developed as a preliminary to more detailed studies of the controls on natural attenuation. While the development of redox zones and the production of methane and carbon dioxide provide evidence of natural attenuation, it appears that degradation is slow. The existence of sulphate in the plume indicates that this electron acceptor has not been depleted and that consequently methanogenesis is probably limited. Based on a simple estimate of sulphate input concentration, a half-life of about 15 years has been estimated for sulphate reduction. Geochemical modelling predicts that increased alkalinity within the plume has not led to carbonate precipitation, and thus within the limits of accuracy of the measurement, alkalinity may reflect the degree of biodegradation. This implies a loss of around 18% of the DOC over a 30-year period. Despite limited degradation, microbial studies show that there are diverse microbial communities in the aquifer with the potential for both anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation. Microbial activity was found to be greatest at the leading edge of the plume where DOC concentrations are 60 mg l(-1) or less, but activity could still be observed in more contaminated samples even though cells could not be cultured. The study suggests that degradation may be limited by the high phenol concentrations within the core of the plume, but that once diluted by dispersion, natural attenuation may proceed. More detailed studies to confirm these initial findings are identified and form the basis of associated papers. PMID:11820470

Williams, G M; Pickup, R W; Thornton, S F; Lerner, D N; Mallinson, H E; Moore, Y; White, C

2001-12-15

452

Glove permeation by shale oil and coal tar extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vapor penetration of shale oil and coal tar extract through protective gloves composed of either polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, vinyl, latex, neoprene, Buna-N, acrylonitrile, natural rubber, or nitrile rubber was tested and measured. We used flame ionization techniques to determine the permeation characteristics of the gloves. Neoprene, Buna-N, acrylonitrile and nitrile gloves offered the best protection against the vapors tested.

G. O. Nelson; G. J. Carlson; A. L. Buerer

1980-01-01

453

Glove permeation by shale oil and coal tar extract  

SciTech Connect

The vapor penetration of shale oil and coal tar extract through protective gloves composed of either polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, vinyl, latex, neoprene, Buna-N, acrylonitrile, natural rubber, or nitrile rubber was tested and measured. We used flame ionization techniques to determine the permeation characteristics of the gloves. Neoprene, Buna-N, acrylonitrile and nitrile gloves offered the best protection against the vapors tested.

Nelson, G.O.; Carlson, G.J.; Buerer, A.L.

1980-02-14

454

CHARACTERIZATION AND POTENTIAL UTILIZATION OF WHITEROCKS (UTAH) TAR SAND BITUMEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The native Whiterocks (Utah) tar sand bitumen was separated into several boiling range fractions for detailed analysis and characterization. The lighter fraction (477-617 K) was evaluated for use as a transportation fuel and the residues (>617 K and >728 K) were evaluated for use as road asphalts. The 617 K plus residue from the Whiterocks bitumen can be classified as

Chi Hslng Tsai; Milind D. Deo; Francis V. Hanson; Alex G. Oblad

1991-01-01

455

Thermal visbreaking of heavy oil from the Nigerian tar sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mild thermal visbreaking of heavy oil from the Nigerian tar sand was conducted at several temperatures for different lengths of time in the laboratory. The viscosity of the oil was found to reduce with thermal treatment. The reduction in viscosity was investigated deterministically in relation to the changes in the chemical composition of the oil after the mild thermal treatment.

O Omole; M. N Olieh; T Osinowo

1999-01-01

456

Supercritical-Fluid Extraction of Oil From Tar Sands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New supercritical solvent mixtures have been laboratory-tested for extraction of oil from tar sands. Mixture is circulated through sand at high pressure and at a temperature above critical point, dissolving organic matter into the compressed gas. Extract is recovered from sand residues. Low-temperature super-critical solvents reduce energy consumption and waste-disposal problems.

Compton, L. E.

1982-01-01

457

SULFUR TOLERANT CATALYSTS FOR BIOMASS TAR REMOVAL - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

In this Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project, NexTech Materials proposes a catalytic reforming approach to remove waste tar from gasified biomass on nickel-based catalysts. Biomass gasification is a potential renewable route to producing electricity, liquid fue...

458

TAR Channel Access Mechanism For VANET Safety-Critical Situations  

E-print Network

TAR Channel Access Mechanism For VANET Safety-Critical Situations Ines Khoufi, Bachar Wehbi, Anis Abstract-- Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) is among the most relevant forms of mobile ad-hoc networks. VANET helps improving traffic safety and efficiency. By exchanging information between each others

Boyer, Edmond

459

Release of polyaromatic hydrocarbons from coal tar contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

A variety of process wastes generated from manufactured gas production (MGP) have contaminated soils and groundwater at production and disposal sites. Coal tar, consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons present as a nonaqueous phase liquid, makes up a large portion of MGP wastes. Of the compounds in coal tar, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the major constituents of environmental concern due to their potential mutagenic and carcinogenic hazards. Characterization of the release of PAHs from the waste-soil matrix is essential to quantifying long-term environmental impacts in soils and groundwater. Currently, conservative estimates for the release of PAHs to the groundwater are made assuming equilibrium conditions and using relationships derived from artificially contaminated soils. Preliminary work suggests that aged coal tar contaminated soils have much lower rates of desorption and a greater affinity for retaining organic contaminants. To obtain better estimates of desorption rates, the release of PAHs from a coal tar soil was investigated using a flow-interruption, miscible displacement technique. Methanol/water solutions were employed to enhance PAH concentrations above limits of detection. For each methanol/water solution employed, a series of flow interrupts of varying times was invoked. Release rates from each methanol/water solution were estimated from the increase in concentration with duration of flow interruption. Aqueous-phase release rates were then estimated by extrapolation using a log-linear cosolvency model.

Priddy, N.D.; Lee, L.S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Agronomy

1996-11-01

460

CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR PARTICULATE AND TAR EMISSIONS FROM COAL CONVERTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a characterization of solid and tar particulate emissions in raw product gases from several types of coal gasifiers, in terms of their total quantities, chemical composition, and size distribution. Fixed-bed gasifiers produce the smallest particulate l...