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1

REMEDIATION OF THE TAR CREEK SUPERFUND SITE: AN UPDATE1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tar Creek Superfund Site is a portion of an abandoned lead and zinc mining area known as the Tri-State Mining District (OK, KS and MO) and includes approximately 104 km2 of disturbed land and contaminated water resources in extreme northeastern Oklahoma. Underground mining from the 1890s through the 1960s degraded over 1000 surface ha, and produced nearly 500 km

Robert W. Nairn

2

Framing Contests in Environmental Decision-making: A Case Study of the Tar Creek (Oklahoma) Superfund Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: Stakeholder involvement processes have become an important component of environmental decision-making. This study investigated the role that stakeholders operating outside of official stakeholder processes may play in influencing the policy environment. An improved understanding of the public and political influences on environmental policy decisions contributes to the development of more effective an d legitimate policies. Approach: We utilized

Shirley G. Vincent; Thomas E. Shriver

2009-01-01

3

Effect of Transport and Aging Processes on Metal Speciation in Iron Oxyhydroxide Aggregates, Tar Creek Superfund Site, Oklahoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the cessation of mining activity in the late 20th century, Tar Creek Superfund Site was left highly contaminated by Pb, Zn, and Cd. Tar Creek, which flows through the site and into the Neosho River, has been studied extensively because of its potential to transport metals from the mining site to downstream communities. Previous research identified aggregated iron oxyhydroxide material, which forms when mine seepage mixes with Tar Creek surface water, as a major transport vector of metals. Frequent flooding in Tar Creek deposits aggregates on downstream floodplains, where wetting and drying processes alter the speciation of iron and other metals. This study seeks to better quantify those changes and to determine how transport and aging affects the human and ecological health risk. Sequential extractions of aggregate samples collected from the creek demonstrate that Fe is present in both amorphous (10-35% of Fe extracted) and more crystalline (8-23% of Fe extracted) phases. Substantial portions of heavy metals sorb to amorphous iron oxyhydroxide phases (accounting for 10-30% of Pb and Zn extracted) but are not associated with more crystalline iron oxide phases (representing only 1% or less of the Pb and Zn extracted). Samples have a high organic matter content (18-25% mass loss on ignition), but only Fe was significantly extracted by the oxidizing step targeting organic matter (1-2% of Pb and Zn extracted, but 10-26% of Fe extracted). The majority of metals were extracted by the soluble or residual steps. If metals and organic matter inhibit transformation of amorphous iron oxyhydroxide material to nano and crystalline iron oxides, then a steady-state volume of amorphous iron oxyhydroxide material with a high total sorption capacity may exist within Tar Creek, enhancing the metal flux accommodated by this transport mechanism. Once transported downstream and deposited on floodplains, however, it is hypothesized that repeated changes in soil matrix composition and thermodynamic conditions could facilitate a transformation to more crystalline iron phases and increase metal bioavailability. While preliminary data from in-creek aggregates show no clear trend in mineralogical composition with downstream transport, only the furthest downstream samples have 2-line ferrihydrite in amounts detectable by XRD.

Estes, E. R.; Schaider, L. A.; Shine, J. P.; Brabander, D. J.

2010-12-01

4

Field Test of In Situ Soil Amendments at the Tar Creek National Priorities List Superfund Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of soil amendments including diammonium phosphate fertilizer (DAP), municipal biosolids (BS), biosolids compost, and Al- and Fe-based water treatment residuals were tested on Pb-, Zn-, and Cd-contaminated yard soils and tailings at the Tar Creek NPL site in Oklahoma to determine if amendments could restore a vegetative cover and reduce metal availability in situ. For the yard soils,

S. L. Brown; H. Compton; N. T. Basta

2007-01-01

5

Public health assessment (petitioned) for Chattanooga Creek tar deposit (a/k/a Chattanooga Creek), Chattanooga, Hamilton County, Tennessee, Region 4. Cerclis No. TND982119489. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Chattanooga Creek Site is a public health hazard because of past, present, and future human exposure by residents of South Chattanooga to chemical contaminants in sediments, surface water, and fish in Chattanooga Creek. The bacteria and sewage in the creek represents a biological threat to public health. The tar deposits along the creek (the Tennessee Products Site) represents an urgent public health and safety hazard. A public health hazard also exists in the communities surrounding Chattanooga Creek because of past exposure by residents to airborne contaminants. Residents of Alton Park and Piney Woods expose themselves to contamination in the creek by swallowing water and sediments when swimming or bathing in the creek, and by eating the fish. Compounds that present a health threat include, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Exposure to PCBs and PAHs in the creek could cause skin irritations, especially in children.

Not Available

1994-07-18

6

TAR CREEK SUPERFUND SITE REMEDIATION: COMBINED ROLES FOR BIOMASS, POULTRY LITTER, FLY ASH AND FLU GAS DESULFURIZATION RESIDUES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Tar Creek Superfund site in Northeastern Oklahoma is a large area contaminated from 100 years of lead and zinc mining. In this proposal we focus on developing surface coverage and remediation methods for the 45 million cubic yards of mine tailings, known as chat. The chat h...

7

Thompson Creek, Poway, California THOMPSON CREEK GROUNDWATER SUSTAINABILITY STUDY  

E-print Network

Thompson Creek, Poway, California THOMPSON CREEK GROUNDWATER SUSTAINABILITY STUDY Victor M. Ponce be discouraged, or else reduced to an amount consistent with current practices of groundwater sustainability. All of water, including groundwater. A groundwater sustainability study seeks to assess the extent

Ponce, V. Miguel

8

Chemical analyses of stream sediment in the Tar Creek basin of the Picher mining area, northeast Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chemical analyses are presented for 47 sediment samples from the Tar Creek drainage in the Picher mining area of northeast Oklahoma. The samples were taken in December 1983, June 1984, and June 1985. All of the samples were taken downstream from mine-water discharge points of abandoned lead and zinc mines. The 34 samples taken in December 1983 and June 1984 were analyzed semiquantitatively by emission spectrography for 64 elements and quantitatively for cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, sulfur, zinc, and organic carbon. The 13 samples taken in June 1985 were analyzed quantitatively for aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, phosphorus, lead, sulfur, silicon, titanium, vanadium, zinc, and organic carbon.

Parkhurst, David L.; Doughten, Michael; Hearn, Paul P., Jr.

1988-01-01

9

Studies on microbiological degradation of tobacco tar.  

PubMed

A bacterium, strain MR4, was isolated from tobacco tar-contaminated soil and identified as Klebsiella oxytoca based on morphology, physiological and biochemical characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequence. The organism grew optimally at 34 degrees C and pH 7.0 to 7.5. During growth on tobacco tar the isolate produced acid materials, which caused the drop of pH in the cultures. GC/MS analysis indicated that the isolate had the ability to degrade phenolic compounds, heterocyclic compounds, especially nicotine in tobacco tar. The degradation rate of strain MR4 was 75.56% for nicotine, 35.84% to 58.16% for hydroxybenzenes and the other aromatic compounds, 29.15% to 65.56% for heterocyclics, and 35.17% to 82.59% for hydrocarbons. PMID:16287642

Ruan, Aidong; Min, Hang

2005-01-01

10

Boulder Creek: A Virtual Field Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents a field lesson that is designed to enhance classroom education about urban resource management issues. The lesson consists of web materials and a self-guided field study of Boulder Creek, located in Boulder, Colorado. By completing this field lesson, students can learn about the tremendous benefits and dangers posed by an important urban-aquatic resource (Boulder Creek). The field study of Boulder Creek has three objectives: to study human-environment interactions in Boulder, CO, to learn basic techniques of fieldwork in geography, and to understand how natural hazards affect life in Boulder, CO. Although the lesson is built around a field excursion to the Boulder Creek area, the information contained in the preview link could stand on its own as an educational tool. Additionally, the information in the preview section includes questions that students can answer without going into the field. For those who are in the Boulder area and can travel to Boulder Creek, twelve stops have been chosen to supplement the online preview material. A map and questions are available for this field excursion. The web site also provides a forum for students to discuss their opinions on human-environment interactions pertaining to the Boulder Creek area.

Hill, A.; Solem, Michael

11

OROFINO CREEK STUDY, CLEARWATER COUNTY IDAHO, 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on Orofino Creek in Clearwater County, Idaho (17060306) to determine the present condition of the stream and to assess the impact of point and nonpoint sources. The study involved approximately bi-monthly monitoring for the...

12

MORES CREEK STUDY, BOISE COUNTY, IDAHO, 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on Mores Creek in Boise County, Idaho (17050112) to determine the present water quality of the stream and obtain background information on effluent limitations development for Idaho City. The study was designed for approxim...

13

ELK CREEK STUDY, IDAHO COUNTY IDAHO, 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1979, the American River, the Red River, and Elk Creek in Idaho County (17060305) were studied to determine their present water quality and to obtain background information on effluent limitations development for the Elk City sewage treatment plant. Quarterly monit...

14

DEARY CREEK STUDY, LATAH COUNTY, IDAHO. 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on Mount Deary Creek in Latah County, Idaho (17060306) to determine the present water quality of the stream and to obtain background information to determine effluent limitations for the City of Deary. The survey involved t...

15

CAMAS CREEK STUDY, CAMAS COUNTY, IDAHO. 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Eutrophication Survey on Magic Reservoir determined that Camas Creek in Camas County, Idaho (17040220) contributed roughly 45% of the total phosphorus load and 34% of the total nitrogen load into Magic Reservoir. From this finding, a water quality study was conducte...

16

Study on Tar Generated from Downdraft Gasification of Oil Palm Fronds  

PubMed Central

One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3) in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC) unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928?g/Nm3 and 1.923?g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study. PMID:24526899

Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Kueh, Soo Chuan; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar

2014-01-01

17

Goldsborough Creek Smolt Trapping Study, 2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is in the process of removing the severely deteriorating Goldsborough Dam on Goldsborough Creek. The purpose of this project is to restore creek conditions to pre-dam status and to restore fish passage into the upper reach...

B. Missildine

2001-01-01

18

16 WILDCAT CREEK --A SCIENTIFIC STUDY Land Use History  

E-print Network

16 WILDCAT CREEK -- A SCIENTIFIC STUDY Land Use History OVERVIEW P eople have lived along Wildcat to commercial market gardens developed especially by Portuguese, Italian and Irish immigrants. The bottomlands

19

TR-019 Hydrology March 2002 Roberts Creek Study Forest  

E-print Network

TR-019 Hydrology March 2002 Roberts Creek Study Forest: effects of partial retention harvesting, 250-751-7001 Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife Abstract

20

Gold Creek: Preserving an Environmental Studies Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to a Board of Trustees request for information and recommendations concerning the future use of the Gold Creek property owned by the Los Angeles Community College District, this report emphasizes that the use of this site for instructional field experiences enhances the quality of environmental education for the district's diverse…

Brooks, Suzanne

21

Gold Creek: An Environmental Studies Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description is provided of the Gold Creek Ecological Reserve, 240 acres of undisturbed land in Northeast Los Angeles County, which serves the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD) as an outdoor laboratory for students and faculty in numerous disciplines. Section I provides introductory information on the reserve and its features, which…

Woodley, Laurel

22

A Case-Control Study of Asphalt and Tar Exposure and Lung Cancer in Minorities  

PubMed Central

Objectives Considerable controversy surrounds the carcinogenic potential of asphalt and tar. Since minority individuals may have had relatively high historical exposures, we investigated asphalt and tar exposure and lung cancer risk among African Americans and Latino Americans. Methods We conducted a case-control study of lung cancer among African Americans and Latino Americans in the San Francisco Bay area (422 cases, 894 controls). A questionnaire was used to obtain detailed work histories and exposure information. Self-reported exposure to asphalt and tar as well as other factors (eg. smoking, automobile exhaust, and asbestos) were evaluated as predictors of lung cancer risk. Potential effect modification by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 was also explored. Results Self-reported duration of exposure to asphalt and tar was associated with a statistically significant excess risk of lung cancer in the overall population (OR: 1.11, 95%CI: 1.01–1.22), evaluating risk per year of exposure. Years of exposure to automobile exhaust (OR: 1.02, 95%CI: 1.00–1.05) and asbestos (OR: 1.04, 95%CI: 1.02–1.06) were also associated with statistically significant elevations in risk. In Latino Americans, the lung cancer risks associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-related exposures were consistently higher in the CYP1A1 wildtype subjects as compared to the variant genotype subjects, and the interaction was statistically significant for smoking and the CYP1A1 M2 polymorphism (p-valueinteraction=0.02). Conclusions These data are consistent with the literature suggesting that exposure to asphalt and tar may increase risk of lung cancer. However, it was not possible to separate the effects and asphalt and tar in this study. PMID:21882217

McClean, Michael D.; Kelsey, Karl T.; Sison, Jennette D; Quesenberry, Charles P; Wrensch, Margaret R; Wiencke, John K.

2011-01-01

23

Optical, physical, and chemical properties of tar balls observed during the Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study of summer 2002 (YACS) occurred during an active fire season in the western United States and provided an opportunity to investigate many unresolved issues related to the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols. Single particle analysis was performed on field-collected aerosol samples using an array of electron microscopy techniques. Amorphous carbon spheres, or “tar balls,”

J. L. Hand; W. C. Malm; A. Laskin; D. Day; T. Lee; C. Wang; C. Carrico; J. Carrillo; J. P. Cowin; J. Collett; M. J. Iedema

2005-01-01

24

FIELD DESCRIPTION Water Oil/Tar Sediment Tissue STUDYNAME Study Name X X X X  

E-print Network

FIELD DESCRIPTION Water Oil/Tar Sediment Tissue STUDYNAME Study Name X X X X QCBATCH Laboratory analysis Group ID X X X X EXSAMPID Investigator's sample identifier X X X X SAMPDATE Date sample collected as YYYYMMDD X X X X SAMPTIME Time sample collected as HH:MM X X X X SITEID Site identifier X X X X STUDYID

25

Skin cancer in patients with psoriasis treated with coal tar. A 25-year follow-up study  

SciTech Connect

For many years, crude coal tar has been used for the treatment of psoriasis. The possible carcinogenic effect of crude coal tar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Goeckerman regimen), considered individually or in combination, has been of some concern to physicians. A 25-year follow-up study was completed on 280 patients with psoriasis who were hospitalized and treated with crude coal tar and UV radiation at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn, during the years 1950 through 1954. The results of this study suggest that the incidence of skin cancer is not appreciably increased above the expected incidence for the general population when patients are treated with coal tar ointments. It seems that the Goeckerman regimen (topical crude coal tar combined with UV radiation) can be used with minimal risk for skin cancer in the treatment of psoriasis.

Pittelkow, M.R.; Perry, H.O.; Muller, S.A.; Maughan, W.Z.; O'Brien, P.C.

1981-08-01

26

Analytical study on mesocarbon microbeads derived from coal tar pitch  

SciTech Connect

Pitches have been recognized as excellent precursors for carbon materials and their properties are considered to be influential on the properties and function of carbon material. For this reason, their detailed characterization is being required. Successful pitch characterization must satisfy the following points: (1) very complicated pitches can be clearly distinguished; (2) the performance of the final carbon product can be predicted by characterizing the precursor pitch at its molecular level; and (3) a satisfactory explanation can be provided for chemical and physical behavior of pitches for a given utilization process based on their structural differences. Successful pitch characterization is quite difficult to be attained because pitches are very complex mixtures containing several hundred compounds with different functionalities. Thus, the methods for their characterization are limited to the measurements of average structural parameters, such as softening point (SP), H/C atomic ratio, quinoline- and toluene-insoluble (QI and TI) fractions, aromaticity, carbon yield, etc.. Although these parameters can give a fairly good evaluation about pitch quality, they can not always explain why pitches with similar characteristics on traditional characterization techniques display a significantly different behavior. This fact provides a challenging subject in the field of pitch characterization. At the same time, there is a possibility that in a given case satisfactory important factors remain undetected due to the limitation of analytical techniques, thus leading to serious problems in the pitch utilization. Therefore, it seems to be essential to know, for a given utilization of pitches, which of the pitch properties normally measured is important and how this affects the behavior of pitch. Another serious difficulty in pitch characterization is the fact that pitches are normally not completely soluble in solvents. There is no single analytical technique which can provide complete information about structures of pitches. Thus, the combination of different analytical techniques seems to be best for the characterization of such materials. The first objective of this paper is to give an insight into structural features of two kinds of mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) derived from different coal tar pitches, by conducting butylation of MCMB with butyl iodide catalyzed by dibutylzinc and characterizing their butylated products according to conventional techniques. The second one is to differentiate two MCMB in terms of chemical structure based on IR, SEM and Raman spectroscopy. Most of this information is extracted from the authors' earlier and just completed papers, cited in the references.

Zhang, Y.; Murata, S.; Nomura, M.

1999-07-01

27

Study of the Horsepen Creek Stream System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To prepare for this lab activity, there are several preceding lectures on the basics of the hydrologic cycle, river systems, and sediment transport. We also introduce the watershed, including city maps of the land use in the area of the creek. Students read the relevant chapter in the textbook beforehand. Students collect the field data from the stream during the first week, and the second week focuses on teaching them to analyze the data, and to use spreadsheets to graph their results. A very detailed, formal report is handed in by each student at the culmination of the project. The field experience requires students to collect and analyze data from four different stations along a local, impacted creek system. At each location students measure velocity and cross-sectional area, which they use to calculate the stream discharge. Students also collect data on the sediments by sieving and weighing samples, which they later use to generate cumulative sediment distribution curves. Water quality collected at each site includes total coliform, turbidity, nitrate concentrations, pH, dissolved oxygen, and temperature. Students are required to discuss all of these factors in their final report, and to assess whether the data are 'as expected' from the lectures and the reading. In addition, students develop and test their own hypothesis about the system. For example, they might choose to investigate whether sites with higher flow velocities correlate with higher sediment sizes. This activity reinforces specific concepts about streamflow and sediment transport, and also illustrates how the field of geology contributes to our understanding of the interaction of humans and their environment.

Moore, Angela

28

LAPWAI CREEK STUDY, LEWIS AND NEZ PERCE COUNTIES, IDAHO. 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

During Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on the Lapwai Creek in Nez Perce and Lewis Counties, Idaho (17060306) to obtain background information on nonpoint source pollution impacts and for effluent limitation development. The study involved approximately bi-mo...

29

JIM FORD CREEK STUDY, CLEARWATER COUNTY IDAHO. 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on Jim Ford Creek in Clearwater County, Idaho (17060306) to assess the impact of the City of Weippe and Timberline High School discharges, to assess nonpoint source impacts, and to determine the present water quality of the ...

30

SANTA CREEK, BENEWAH COUNTY, IDAH - EFFLUENT LIMITATION STUDY. 1986  

EPA Science Inventory

A water quality study was initiated on Santa Creek, Idaho (17010304) to determine if new effluent limitations are necessary for the discharge from the City of Emida wastewater lagoon. The City of Emida provides secondary treatment of domestic sewage in an unaerated facultative l...

31

Dynamic Sediment Modeling: A Case Study at Walnut Creek, Iowa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep channel bed incision and severe channel bank erosion, which have strong effects on the evolution of channel and watershed morphology, are becoming serious problems in natural rivers and streams in Iowa as a result of wide distribution of loess soil material, agricultural activity, river training and human intervention. Consequent high sediment concentration can also cause low water quality and jeopardize aquatic habitat. Dynamic modeling of sediment transport in rivers and streams provides a useful tool for monitoring, controlling and forecasting the morphology change and water quality in channels and watersheds. In order to gain insight into sediment transport process, a dynamic sediment model is built for a 7-mile segment of Walnut Creek in Jasper County, Iowa. This creek was intensively surveyed by Iowa Geological Survey Bureau (IGSB) as part of the Walnut Creek Nonpoint Source Monitoring Project. Besides channel geometry data from the survey, hydraulic and sediment data were collected at two gauges upstream and downstream operated by USGS. A software GSTARS3 developed by USGS is adopted to model both channel bed incision and bank erosion which are typical phenomena in Iowa. The dynamic sediment model is calibrated using channel bathymetry data from recent survey conducted by IGSB. Finally, based on forecasting of flow and sediment discharge time series at the upstream and stage time series at the downstream, a sediment forecasting model is developed to see if the stream can go back to the clarity and morphology of original creek. The study on this small surveyed and controlled creek will benefit our research in other Iowa rivers and streams.

Li, Z.; Zhang, Y.

2006-12-01

32

A study on the effect of heat treatment temperature on mesophase development in coal tar pitch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, a zero quinoline insoluble (QI) isotropic coal tar pitch was taken for the preparation of mesophase pitch. The pitch was heated in inert atmosphere at different heat treatment temperatures keeping same heating rate and soaking time to study the formation, growth and coalescence of mesophase spheres in the pitch. Such pitches were characterized for insoluble content (QI & TI), mesophase content, sulphur content, weight loss in inert atmosphere, softening point, coking value (CVC), C/H ratio etc. Results show that the insoluble content (QI & TI) and mesophase content of pitch increase with increase of heat treatment temperature.

Soni, Neha; Shah, Raviraj K.; Shrivastava, Rakesh; Datar, Manoj

2013-06-01

33

Laboratory studies to characterize the efficacy of sand capping a coal tar-contaminated sediment.  

PubMed

Placement of a microbial active sand cap on a coal tar-contaminated river sediment has been suggested as a cost effective remediation strategy. This approach assumes that the flux of contaminants from the sediment is sufficiently balanced by oxygen and nutrient fluxes into the sand layer such that microbial activity will reduce contaminant concentrations within the new benthic zone and reduce the contaminant flux to the water column. The dynamics of such a system were evaluated using batch and column studies with microbial communities from tar-contaminated sediment under different aeration and nutrient inputs. In a 30-d batch degradation study on aqueous extracts of coal tar sediment, oxygen and nutrient concentrations were found to be key parameters controlling the degradation rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). For the five PAHs monitored (naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene), degradation rates were inversely proportional to molecular size. For the column studies, where three columns were packed with a 20-cm sand layer on the top of a 5 cm of sediment layer, flow was established to sand layers with (1) aerated water, (2) N(2) sparged water, or (3) HgCl(2)-sterilized N(2) sparged water. After steady-state conditions, PAH concentrations in effluents were the lowest in the aerated column, except for pyrene, whose concentration was invariant with all effluents. These laboratory scale studies support that if sufficient aeration can be achieved in the field through either active and passive means, the resulting microbially active sand layer can improve the water quality of the benthic zone and reduce the flux of many, but not all, PAHs to the water column. PMID:16337673

Hyun, Seunghun; Jafvert, Chad T; Lee, Linda S; Rao, P Suresh C

2006-06-01

34

Flood profile study, Morgan Creek, Linn County, Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this report is to present the results of a study made for a 35,000-foot reach of Morgan Creek. The report shows profiles computed for a large flood under existing conditions and for a smaller flood for two assumed conditions of encroachment. Flood-plain management can benefit from this type of information during future expansion of the urban area. This report is a result of a cooperative agreement between the City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey that provides for the collection and analysis of flood data in, and near, the City of Cedar Rapids.

Schwob, Harlan H.

1970-01-01

35

Coal tar phototherapy for psoriasis reevaluated: erythemogenic versus suberythemogenic ultraviolet with a tar extract in oil and crude coal tar  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies have questioned the therapeutic value of coal tar versus ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their relative necessity in phototherapy for psoriasis. In this investigation, different aspects of tar phototherapy have been studied in single-blind bilateral paired comparison studies. The effects of 1% crude coal tar were compared with those of petrolatum in conjunction with erythemogenic and suberythemogenic doses of ultraviolet light (UVB) using a FS72 sunlamp tubed cabinet. Crude coal tar was clinically superior to petrolatum with suberythemogenic ultraviolet. With the erythemogenic UVB, petrolatum was equal in efficacy to crude coal tar. Suberythemogenic UVB was also used adjunctively to compare the effects of a 5% concentration of a tar extract in an oil base to 5% crude coal tar in petrolatum or the oil base without tar. The tar extract in oil plus suberythemogenic UVB produced significantly more rapid improvement than the oil base plus UVB. The direct bilateral comparison of equal concentrations of tar extract in oil base versus crude coal tar in petrolatum in a suberythemogenic UV photo regimen revealed no statistical differences between treatments. In a study comparing tar extract in oil and the oil base without ultraviolet radiation, the tar extract in oil side responded more rapidly.

Lowe, N.J.; Wortzman, M.S.; Breeding, J.; Koudsi, H.; Taylor, L.

1983-06-01

36

Single-Molecule FRET Studies of HIV TAR-DNA Hairpin Unfolding Dynamics.  

PubMed

We directly measure the dynamics of the HIV trans-activation response (TAR)-DNA hairpin with multiple loops using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) methods. Multiple FRET states are identified that correspond to intermediate melting states of the hairpin. The stability of each intermediate state is calculated from the smFRET data. The results indicate that hairpin unfolding obeys a "fraying and peeling" mechanism, and evidence for the collapse of the ends of the hairpin during folding is observed. These results suggest a possible biological function for hairpin loops serving as additional fraying centers to increase unfolding rates in otherwise stable systems. The experimental and analytical approaches developed in this article provide useful tools for studying the mechanism of multistate DNA hairpin dynamics and of other general systems with multiple parallel pathways of chemical reactions. PMID:25254491

Chen, Jixin; Poddar, Nitesh K; Tauzin, Lawrence J; Cooper, David; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B; Landes, Christy F

2014-10-23

37

Detailed kinetic study of anisole pyrolysis and oxidation to understand tar formation during biomass  

E-print Network

biomass combustion and gasification Milena Nowakowska, Olivier Herbinet, Anthony Dufour, Pierre. Methoxyphenols are one of the main precursors of PAH and soot in biomass combustion and gasification. Keywords: Anisole; Pyrolysis; Oxidation; Tars; Biomass; Kinetic modeling Corresponding author

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

38

South Casper Creek Field: A study in reservoir heterogeneity  

SciTech Connect

The Tensleep Sandstone, an eolian and marine deposit, has produced low-gravity oil at South Casper Creek field (Natrona County, Wyoming) since the 1920s. Until recently, the reservoir was considered a relatively homogeneous sandstone body and was modeled as such for secondary recovery operations initiated during the late 1970s and early 1980s. Poor secondary recovery performance led to extensive reevaluation of the reservoir. Characterization studies by the field operator, Union Oil of California (UNOCAL), and through the Reservoir Characterization Project at the Colorado School of Mines produced an entirely revised picture of the Tensleep interval. Significant stratigraphic, diagenetic, and structural heterogeneities were identified, mapped, and correlated against productivity patterns under pilot steamflood programs. The results of this integrated geologic and geophysical effort are significant and have implications for secondary recovery operations elsewhere in the Tensleep and its regional correlatives.

Montgomery, S.I.

1996-08-01

39

Tar sand  

SciTech Connect

Research on tar sand is briefly discussed. The research program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes a variety of surface extraction schemes. The University of Utah has process development units (PDU) employing fluidized bed, hot, water-assisted, and fluidized-bed/heat-pipe, coupled combustor technology. Considerable process variable test data have been gathered on these systems: (1) a rotary kiln unit has been built recently; (2) solvent extraction processing is being examined; and (3) an advanced hydrogenation upgrading scheme (hydropyrolysis) has been developed. The University of Arkansas, in collaboration with Diversified Petroleum, Inc., has been working on a fatty acid, solvent extraction process. Oleic acid is the solvent/surfactant. Solvent is recovered by adjusting processing fluid concentrations to separate without expensive operations. Western Research Institute has a PDU-scale scheme called the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process, which combines solvent (hot recycle bitumen) and pyrolytic extraction. 14 refs., 19 figs.

McLendon, T.R.; Bartke, T.C.

1990-01-01

40

Influence of laminar flow on preorientation of coal tar pitch structural units: Raman microspectroscopic study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to estimate the role of laminar flow of viscous, aromatic matter of carbonaceous precursor on microtextural preorientation in pregraphitization stage, we performed experiments with coal tar pitch (CTP). The principal hypothesis of preorientation of basic structural units (BSUs) in the case of laminar flow (pressure impregnation of CTP into porous matrix) and secondary release of volatiles during carbonization were studied. Glass microplates, planar porous medium with average distance between single microplates 5 ?m were used as suitable porous matrix. Samples of CTP were carbonized up to 2500 °C. Optical microscopy reveals large flow domains in the sample of cokes carbonized between glass microplates. Raman microspectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) show that at nanometric scale, the samples do not support the proposed hypotheses. With increasing temperature of pyrolysis, the graphitization of CTP impregnated into porous matrix proceeds to lower degree of structural ordering in comparison with single pyrolyzed CTP. This is explained by the release of volatile matter during carbonization in geometrically restricted spaces. More evident structural changes were discovered with the sample of single coke, where parts of fine grain mosaics, relicts of 'so called QI parts', reveal higher structural organization, in comparison with large and prolonged flow domains, similar to flow domains of cokes from microplates.

Urban, O.; Jehli?ka, J.; Pokorný, J.; Rouzaud, J. N.

2003-08-01

41

Water Conservation Study for Manastash Creek Water Users, Kittias County, Washington, Final Report 2002.  

SciTech Connect

Manastash Creek is tributary of the Yakima River and is located southwest and across the Yakima River from the City of Ellensburg. The creek drains mountainous terrain that ranges in elevation from 2,000 feet to over 5,500 feet and is primarily snowmelt fed, with largest flows occurring in spring and early summer. The creek flows through a narrow canyon until reaching a large, open plain that slopes gently toward the Yakima River and enters the main stem of the Yakima River at river mile 154.5. This area, formed by the alluvial fan of the Creek as it leaves the canyon, is the subject of this study. The area is presently dominated by irrigated agriculture, but development pressures are evident as Ellensburg grows and develops as an urban center. Since the mid to late nineteenth century when irrigated agriculture was established in a significant manner in the Yakima River Basin, Manastash Creek has been used to supply irrigation water for farming in the area. Adjudicated water rights dating back to 1871 for 4,465 acres adjacent to Manastash Creek allow appropriation of up to 26,273 acre-feet of creek water for agricultural irrigation and stock water. The diversion of water from Manastash Creek for irrigation has created two main problems for fisheries. They are low flows or dewatered reaches of Manastash Creek and fish passage barriers at the irrigation diversion dams. The primary goal of this study, as expressed by Yakama Nation and BPA, is to reestablish safe access in tributaries of the Yakima River by removing physical barriers and unscreened diversions and by adding instream flow where needed for fisheries. The goal expressed by irrigators who would be affected by these projects is to support sustainable and profitable agricultural use of land that currently uses Manastash Creek water for irrigation. This study provides preliminary costs and recommendations for a range of alternative projects that will partially or fully meet the goal of establishing safe access for fisheries in Manastash Creek by reducing or eliminating diversions and eliminating fish passage barriers. Further study and design will be necessary to more fully develop the alternatives, evaluate their environmental benefits and impacts and determine the effect on Manastash Creek water users. Those studies will be needed to determine which alternative has the best combination of benefits and costs, and meets the goal of the Manastash Creek water users.

Montgomery Watson Harza (Firm)

2002-12-31

42

Tissue-specific HSP70 levels and reproductive physiological responses in fishes inhabiting a metal-contaminated creek.  

PubMed

The 70-kDa stress protein family (HSP70) plays important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including protein chaperoning, protection against apoptosis, steroidogenesis, and general cellular stress responses in vertebrate organisms, and has also been proposed as a biochemical marker of environmental stress, such as toxicant exposure. The objectives of this study were to determine HSP70 protein expression in head kidney, liver, gill, and ovarian tissues and to examine reproductive physiological responses in female fishes exposed chronically to sublethal metal concentrations. Female black bullhead (Ameiurus melas) and bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) were collected from Tar Creek, Oklahoma (flowing through the Tri-State mining district) and from a nearby reference creek (Lytle Creek) during spring (prespawning; 26.5 +/- 0.95 degrees C water temperature) and winter (ovarian recrudescence; 4.8 +/- 0.80 degrees C water temperature). Aqueous (dissolved and suspended) concentrations of Cd and Zn and liver concentrations of Cd and Zn in both fish species were significantly greater at Tar Creek compared to Lytle Creek. HSP70 expression was consistently elevated in the head kidney of both fish species collected at Tar Creek in comparison to fish collected from the reference creek. In contrast, no consistent differences were observed in HSP70 expression in liver, gill, or ovarian tissues between sites. Significant seasonal differences were observed in expression of HSP70 in gill tissue of both species, in ovarian and liver tissue of bluegill sunfish and in head kidney of black bullhead. Serum testosterone concentration was significantly reduced in sunfish collected from Tar Creek during winter. Gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices were significantly lower in black bullhead collected from Tar Creek during spring, and condition factors were lower in black bullhead collected from Tar Creek during both spring and winter. There was no significant difference in the extent of ovarian follicular cell apoptosis in either species collected during spring. In conclusion, we observed significant tissue specific differences and seasonal variation in expression of HSP70, as well as alterations in circulating testosterone levels in female fish chronically exposed to metals. PMID:12948180

Yoo, J L; Janz, D M

2003-07-01

43

An Exploratory Study of Inhalers and Injectors Who Used Black Tar Heroin  

PubMed Central

Aims To undertake an exploratory study to examine the characteristics of patients in narcotic treatment programs who started their use of black tar heroin either as inhalers or as injectors and to compare them with those who started as inhalers but shifted to injecting. Other studies in this area have used subjects using other forms of heroin more amenable to inhaling. Participants, Design, and Measurement A purposive sample of 199 patients in 6 methadone programs in Texas were interviewed in 2002-2003 using a structured instrument. Findings At admission to treatment, those who were heroin inhalers were more likely to be African American, to live with their families, to have income from wages, and to report fewer days of problems on most of the ASI measures. Those who shifted from inhaling to injecting were more likely to be Hispanic and to have had mental health problems that interfered with their lives and to have had less nurturing while growing up. Injectors were older at this treatment admission, had more treatment episodes and more times in jail, and were more likely to have hepatitis C, AIDS, or gonorrhea. There were high levels of physical and mental problems and histories of traumatization as children and adults for almost all the respondents. Males were as likely as females to have been sexually abused as children or as adults. Conclusions The high rates of mental and physical problems among all the clients interviewed showed the need for comprehensive services to be delivered within the substance abuse treatment programs. Histories of trauma and sexual abuse should be addressed for both male and female clients. PMID:21552428

Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Spence, Richard T.

2011-01-01

44

THREE MILE CREEK TOTAL MAXIMUM DAILY LOAD STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The pupose of this project is to establish the allowable loading of pollutants, or other quantifiable parameters for Threemile Creek. These funds will assist ADEM in the preparation of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) for the reduction and elimination of pollution in Threemile C...

45

Dual bed reactor for the study of catalytic biomass tars conversion  

SciTech Connect

A dual fixed bed laboratory scale set up has been used to compare the activity of a novel Rh/LaCoO{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst to that of dolomite, olivine and Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, typical catalysts used in fluidized bed biomass gasification, to convert tars produced during biomass devolatilization stage. The experimental apparatus allows the catalyst to be operated under controlled conditions of temperature and with a real gas mixture obtained by the pyrolysis of the biomass carried out in a separate fixed bed reactor operated under a selected and controlled heating up rate. The proposed catalyst exhibits much better performances than conventional catalysts tested. It is able to completely convert tars and also to strongly decrease coke formation due to its good redox properties. (author)

Ammendola, P.; Piriou, B.; Lisi, L.; Ruoppolo, G.; Chirone, R.; Russo, G. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione - CNR, P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

2010-04-15

46

Seepage study of McLeod Creek and East Canyon Creek near Park City, Summit County, Utah, 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seepage investigations on McLeod Creek downstream of U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station McLeod Creek near Park City, Utah, and its confluence with Kimball Creek during the summer of 2004 indicate that this section of the creek is a gaining reach. The total seepage gains ranged from 1.8 to 2.7 cubic feet per second, or a 32 to 55 percent gain. The apparent average total seepage gain was 2.2 cubic feet per second, or an average 42 percent gain. Seepage investigations from the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station at East Canyon Creek below I-80 Rest Stop near Park City, Utah, to the station at East Canyon Creek near Jeremy Ranch, Utah, indicate that this section of East Canyon Creek is a slightly losing reach. The total seepage losses ranged from -1.2 to -2.0 cubic feet per second. This is a loss of between -18 and -27 percent from discharge measured at the upstream gaging station. The apparent average total seepage loss for the reach was -1.0 cubic feet per second, or -18 percent. Seepage information also was obtained along East Canyon Creek by using water-temperature data recorded in three shallow streambed piezometers. Surface-water temperature also was recorded at these locations. These water-temperature profiles indicate a seepage loss at all three locations along East Canyon Creek. This seepage loss appears to decrease in September and October.

Wilkowske, C.D.

2005-01-01

47

Marine ecological habitat: a case study on projected thermal power plant around Dharamtar Creek, India.  

PubMed

Estuaries and tidal creeks, harboring mangroves particularly, face tremendous anthropogenic pressures. Expansion of mega cities and the thermal power plants are generally proposed in the vicinity of estuaries and creek, due to the feasibility of intake and discharge of water for cooling. Discharges from such developments remain constant threat of increasing thermal pollution and affecting the quality of environment. The baseline information on prevailing quality of aquatic environment comes handy for understanding alterations due to such activities. Principle component analysis (PCA) revealed that temperature, pH, salinity, suspended solids, DO, BOD and phaeophytins are major parameters influencing the creek system. Heated effluents may have direct and adverse impacts on these parameters, altering biotic constituents. Hence, periodic and detailed observations are necessary to estimate exact response of biotic communities to changing environment. The present paper is based on case study, projecting a power plant in the vicinity of major mangrove habitats of Dharamtar creek. PMID:21882658

Kulkarni, Vikrant A; Naidu, Velamala S; Jagtap, Tanaji G

2011-03-01

48

An Integrative Approach Towards Understanding Ecological Responses to Dam Removal: The Manatawny Creek Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dam removal has been proposed as an effective method of river restoration, but few integrative studies have examined ecological responses to the removal of dams. In 1999, we initiated an interdisciplinary study to determine ecological responses to the removal of a 2 m high dam on lower Manatawny Creek in southeastern Pennsylvania. We used an integrative monitoring program to assess

Karen L. Bushaw-Newton; David D. Hart; James E. Pizzuto; James R. Thomson; Jennifer Egan; Jeffrey T. Ashley; Thomas E. Johnson; Richard J. Horwitz; Melissa Keeley; Joy Lawrence; Don Charles; Catherine Gatenby; Daniel A. Kreeger; Tim Nightengale; Roger L. Thomas; David J. Velinsky

2002-01-01

49

BIG CANYON CREEK STUDY, LEWIS AND NEZ PERCE COUNTIES, IDAHO, 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In the 1979 water year, a water quality study was completed on Big Canyon Creek in Lewis and Nez Perce Counties, Idaho (17060306). The study was conducted to obtain background information for development of effluent limitations for the Cities of Peck and Nezperce and to determin...

50

UNDERGROUND MINE DRAINAGE CONTROL SNOWY CREEK-LAUREL RUN, WEST VIRGINIA, FEASIBILITY STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted at the Snowy Creek - Laurel Run basin near Terra Alta, West Virginia, to determine the feasibility of demonstrating mine drainage control by known abatement techniques in abandoned coal mine areas having shallow overburden. The basin contains two abandoned m...

51

Development of Bacteria and Benthic Total Maximum Daily Loads: A Case Study, Linville Creek, Virginia  

Microsoft Academic Search

quality in approximately 22.5% of the state's free-flow- ing streams and rivers for which sufficient data were Two total maximum daily load (TMDL) studies were performed available to assess at least some designated uses. Of the for Linville Creek in Rockingham County, Virginia, to address bacte- approximately 31 076 km (19 310 miles) assessed, some rial and benthic impairments. The

Brian L. Benham; Kevin M. Brannan; Gene Yagow; Rebecca W. Zeckoski; Theo A. Dillaha; Saied Mostaghimi; Jeff W. Wynn

52

Bear Creek: a case study in locating historic site remains in southeast Texas  

E-print Network

) ___________________________ _____________________________ David G. Woodcock David L. Carlson (Member) (Head of Department) December 2004 Major Subject: Anthropology iii ABSTRACT Bear Creek: A Case Study in Locating Historic Site... field office, for her interest and support regarding my research. My committee members, Professor David Woodcock, Dr. David Carlson, and especially my chairman, Dr. Alston Thoms, have been perhaps the most influential individuals in this process. My...

Stahman, Andrea Renee

2006-04-12

53

Thermodynamic studies of a series of homologous HIV-1 TAR RNA ligands reveal that loose binders are stronger Tat competitors than tight ones.  

PubMed

RNA is a major drug target, but the design of small molecules that modulate RNA function remains a great challenge. In this context, a series of structurally homologous 'polyamide amino acids' (PAA) was studied as HIV-1 trans-activating response (TAR) RNA ligands. An extensive thermodynamic study revealed the occurence of an enthalpy-entropy compensation phenomenon resulting in very close TAR affinities for all PAA. However, their binding modes and their ability to compete with the Tat fragment strongly differ according to their structure. Surprisingly, PAA that form loose complexes with TAR were shown to be stronger Tat competitors than those forming tight ones, and thermal denaturation studies demonstrated that loose complexes are more stable than tight ones. This could be correlated to the fact that loose and tight ligands induce distinct RNA conformational changes as revealed by circular dichroism experiments, although nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments showed that the TAR binding site is the same in all cases. Finally, some loose PAA also display promising inhibitory activities on HIV-infected cells. Altogether, these results lead to a better understanding of RNA interaction modes that could be very useful for devising new ligands of relevant RNA targets. PMID:23605042

Pascale, Lise; Azoulay, Stéphane; Di Giorgio, Audrey; Zenacker, Laura; Gaysinski, Marc; Clayette, Pascal; Patino, Nadia

2013-06-01

54

Thermodynamic studies of a series of homologous HIV-1 TAR RNA ligands reveal that loose binders are stronger Tat competitors than tight ones  

PubMed Central

RNA is a major drug target, but the design of small molecules that modulate RNA function remains a great challenge. In this context, a series of structurally homologous ‘polyamide amino acids’ (PAA) was studied as HIV-1 trans-activating response (TAR) RNA ligands. An extensive thermodynamic study revealed the occurence of an enthalpy–entropy compensation phenomenon resulting in very close TAR affinities for all PAA. However, their binding modes and their ability to compete with the Tat fragment strongly differ according to their structure. Surprisingly, PAA that form loose complexes with TAR were shown to be stronger Tat competitors than those forming tight ones, and thermal denaturation studies demonstrated that loose complexes are more stable than tight ones. This could be correlated to the fact that loose and tight ligands induce distinct RNA conformational changes as revealed by circular dichroism experiments, although nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments showed that the TAR binding site is the same in all cases. Finally, some loose PAA also display promising inhibitory activities on HIV-infected cells. Altogether, these results lead to a better understanding of RNA interaction modes that could be very useful for devising new ligands of relevant RNA targets. PMID:23605042

Pascale, Lise; Azoulay, Stephane; Di Giorgio, Audrey; Zenacker, Laura; Gaysinski, Marc; Clayette, Pascal; Patino, Nadia

2013-01-01

55

A study of the synergistic interaction of asbestos fibers with cigarette tar extracts for the generation of hydroxyl radicals in aqueous buffer solution.  

PubMed

Several models attempt to explain the synergistic increase in lung cancer among workers exposed to asbestos fibers, who were smokers at the same time. It is known that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important mediators in asbestos-induced diseases, especially cancer. We studied quantitatively the formation of ROS (by spin trapping with DMPO) in aqueous buffer suspensions containing crocidolite (UICC), chrysotile (UICC and commercial, long fibers) alone, and in combination with aqueous cigarette tar extracts. It was observed that asbestos and cigarette tar act in a cooperative or synergistic way in the generation of hydroxyl radical spin adducts. Grinding of asbestos fibers and addition of EDTA (iron chelator) enhanced the intensity of the ESR signal. This enhancement progressed with time, probably due to the reaction of the extracted iron with the slow released hydrogen peroxide from tar extracts. It was observed a fivefold increase in the ESR signal (for crocidolite and aqueous tar extracts) in the formation of hydroxyl radicals via an iron-catalyzed Fenton reaction. These experimental results are suggest to be strong evidence to the fact that lung cancer has been found in asbestos workers exposed to high concentrations of fibers in the working environment who were smokers, and only rarely in nonsmokers. PMID:8728034

Valavanidis, A; Balomenou, H; Macropoulou, I; Zarodimos, I

1996-01-01

56

Dynamic Sediment Modeling in Iowa Streams and Rivers: A Case Study at Walnut Creek  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep channel bed incision and severe channel bank erosion, which have strong effects on the evolution of channel and watershed morphology, are becoming serious problems in natural rivers and streams in Iowa as a result of wide distribution of loess soil material, agricultural activity, river training and human intervention. Consequent high sediment concentration can also cause low water quality and jeopardize aquatic habitat. Dynamic modeling of sediment transport in rivers and streams provides a useful tool for monitoring, controlling and forecasting the morphology change and water quality in channels and watersheds. In order to gain insight into sediment transport process, a dynamic sediment model is built for a 7-mile segment of Walnut Creek in Jasper County, Iowa. This creek was intensively surveyed by Iowa Geological Survey Bureau (IGSB) as part of the Walnut Creek Nonpoint Source Monitoring Project. Besides channel geometry data from the survey, hydraulic and sediment data were collected at two gauges upstream and downstream operated by USGS. A software GSTARS3 developed by USGS is adopted to model both channel bed incision and bank erosion which are typical phenomena in Iowa. The dynamic sediment model is calibrated using channel bathymetry data from recent survey conducted by IGSB. Finally, based on forecasting of flow and sediment discharge time series at the upstream and stage time series at the downstream, a sediment forecasting model is developed to see if the stream can go back to the clarity and morphology of original creek. The study on this small surveyed and controlled creek will benefit our research in other Iowa rivers and streams.

Li, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Skopec, M.

2004-12-01

57

Data from the surface-water hydrologic investigations of the Hay Creek Study Area, Montana, and the West Branch Antelope Creek Study Area, North Dakota, October 1976 through April 1982  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data are provided for the Hay Creek study area near Wibaux, Montana, and the West Branch Antelope Creek study area near Beulah, North Dakota. The report contains data on the following: Air temperature, relative humidity, wind direction, wind run, solar radiation, precipitation, soil temperature, snowpack temperature, snowpack density and moisture content, streamflow, water quality, soil moisture, land use, and basin characteristics. Detailed descriptions of the location of the data-collection sites, instrumentation, and methods used to collect data are included. (USGS)

Emerson, Douglas G.; Norbeck, Steven W.; Boespflug, Kelvin L.

1983-01-01

58

The effects of construction on water quality: a case study of the culverting of Abram Creek  

Microsoft Academic Search

While sediment is a leading cause of impaired water, studies have shown that construction activities incorporating best management\\u000a practices (BMPs) can be conducted without lasting detrimental effects on water quality. This paper examines the water quality\\u000a impacts of a construction project involving the culverting of a creek to allow for the construction of a runway at an airport\\u000a in Cleveland,

Darci L. Houser; Heidi Pruess

2009-01-01

59

Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Field Activities Conducted on Clear and Pete King Creeks, 2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 2001 the Idaho Fisheries Resource Office continued as a cooperator on the Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project on Pete King and Clear creeks. Data relating to supplementation treatment releases, juvenile sampling, juvenile PIT tagging, brood stock spawning and rearing, spawning ground surveys, and snorkel surveys were used to evaluate project data points and augment past data. Due to low adult spring Chinook returns to Kooskia National Fish Hatchery (KNFH) in brood year 1999 there was no smolt supplementation treatment release into Clear Creek in 2001. A 17,014 spring Chinook parr supplementation treatment (containing 1000 PIT tags) was released into Pete King Creek on July 24, 2001. On Clear Creek, there were 412 naturally produced spring Chinook parr PIT tagged and released. Using juvenile collection methods, Idaho Fisheries Resource Office staff PIT tagged and released 320 naturally produced spring Chinook pre-smolts on Clear Creek, and 16 natural pre-smolts on Pete King Creek, for minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam. There were no PIT tag detections of brood year 1999 smolts from Clear or Pete King creeks. A total of 2261 adult spring Chinook were collected at KNFH. Forty-three females were used for supplementation brood stock, and 45 supplementation (ventral fin-clip), and 45 natural (unmarked) adults were released upstream of KNFH to spawn naturally. Spatial and temporal distribution of 37 adults released above the KNFH weir was determined through the use of radio telemetry. On Clear Creek, a total of 166 redds (8.2 redds/km) were observed and data was collected from 195 carcasses. Seventeen completed redds (2.1 redds/km) were found, and data was collected data from six carcasses on Pete King Creek.

Gass, Carrie; Olson, Jim M. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

2004-11-01

60

Red Wing Creek structure, North Dakota: Petrographical and geochemical studies, and confirmation of impact origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 9 km diameter Red Wing Creek structure, North Dakota, is located within the oil-rich Williston Basin at 47°36'N and 103°33'W. Earlier geophysical studies indicated that this subsurface structure has a central uplift, surrounded by an annular crater moat, and a raised rim. Breccias were encountered during drilling between ˜2000 and 2800 m depth in the central uplift area, and the presence of shatter cone fragments in drill core samples was suggested to indicate an impact origin of the Red Wing Creek structure. We studied the petrographic and geochemical characteristics of samples of well cuttings from two boreholes at the center of the structure: the True Oil 22-27 Burlington Northern and True Oil 11-27 Burlington Northern wells. We found planar deformation features (PDFs) in quartz with up to three sets of different crystallographic orientations in sandstone- and siltstone-dominated samples from the True Oil 11-27 borehole. U-stage measurements of the crystallographic orientations of the PDFs showed the occurrence of the shock-characteristic (0001), ? and ? orientations, with a dominance of (0001) and ? orientations. The relative frequencies of the orientations indicate a shock pressure of at least 12-20 GPa. These results provide unambiguous evidence for shock metamorphism at Red Wing Creek and confirm that the structure was formed by impact.

Koeberl, Christian; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Brandi, Dion

1996-05-01

61

Water quality study of the Riley Creek (Blanchard River, Ottawa, Ohio)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riley Creek in northwest central Ohio is one of the most heavily impacted tributaries in the Blanchard River watershed. Anthropogenic inputs of phosphorus and nitrogen from agriculture have led to heavy eutrophication over the past decades. Because the Blanchard River is part of the Lake Erie basin, controls on phosphorus and nitrogen, among other inputs, are critical for restoration of ecosystem health in Lake Erie. A previous study in the Riley Creek watershed has shown high historical loadings of both nitrogen and phosphorus. Additionally, bacterial impairment has been noted in the watershed, from both municipal sources and failing septic tanks. This study is the most recent data detailing water quality parameters both chemical and microbiological in Riley Creek. This is also the first data set in Riley Creek examining the spectral characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM). From May to August, 2012, dissolved oxygen concentrations at six sites in the watershed declined from a maximum of 13.2 mg/L (154% O2 saturation) to 1.1 mg/L (12.9%). Median dissolved oxygen during the same period was 5.96 mg/L. Water pH was relatively steady, ranging from 8.6 to 7.9, with values generally declining with time. All six sites were found to have nitrate concentrations above the enforcement target (1 mg/L NO3--N) at various times, with four out of 73 samples falling below this value. Dissolved reactive phosphorus was generally low, with concentrations ranging from 0.074 mg P/L to below detection limits (<0.005 mg P/L). Dissolved organic matter concentrations (measured as mg C/L, potassium hydrogen phthalate equivalent) ranged from 24.1 to 3.5 mg C/L (mean = 9.8 ± 3.8 mg C/L), with no apparent temporal trends. Spectral slope ratios, a proxy for molecular mass, were relatively constant at 0.9 ± 0.2, with only intermittent excursions. No correlation to either flow or time was observed. Tests for fecal coliform bacteria were almost universally positive at all sites, with 10 of 69 samples showing a presumptive positive with presence-absence broth. Overall, the health of the Riley Creek watershed appears to be either stable or declining. Phosphorus and nitrogen loadings have not shown any appreciable change over approximately the past decade. Declines in dissolved oxygen were not noted in previous studies, and may signal an emerging problem in the watershed.

Spiese, C. E.; Berry, J. M.

2012-12-01

62

CSO DISINFECTION PILOT STUDY: SPRING CREEK CSO STORAGE FACILITY UPGRADE  

EPA Science Inventory

This research summary presents the results of a pilot-scale disinfection study performed for the New York City Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) under a contract to Camp Dresser & McKee of Woodbury, New York. The main ob...

63

Electron-spin resonance study of mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke: nature of the free radicals in gas-phase smoke and in cigarette tar.  

PubMed Central

Radicals in the gas phase of both mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke have been studied using electron-spin resonance ESR spin-trapping techniques with alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) as the spin trap. The principal radicals we trap appear to be alkoxyl radicals. Mainstream and sidestream gas-phase smoke each have about the same concentration of radicals, about 1 X 10(16) radicals per cigarette (or 5 X 10(14) per puff). These radicals are reactive, yet they appear to be remarkably long-lived: they are still spin trapped from gas-phase smoke after more than 5 min. We propose that a steady-state concentration of reactive radicals exists in gas phase cigarette smoke. We suggest that this steady state is produced by the slow oxidation of nitric oxide (present in high concentrations in smoke and relatively unreactive) to the more reactive nitrogen dioxide, followed by the reaction of nitrogen dioxide with reactive organic molecules in smoke (such as olefins and dienes). Preliminary experiments reported here support this hypothesis. Tar from both mainstream and sidestream smoke contains persistent free radicals that exhibit broad, single-line ESR spectra with g values of 2.003. The tar radical can be extracted into tert-butylbenzene and other organic solvents, and we have applied a variety of fractionation procedures to these solutions. Most of the radicals occur in the fractions that contain the phenolic tobacco leaf pigments. Treatment of alcoholic solutions of tar with base generates a new group of radicals that appear to be semiquinone radicals derived from the oxidation of the phenolic and polyphenolic species in tar. PMID:6297881

Pryor, W A; Prier, D G; Church, D F

1983-01-01

64

Water Conservation Study for Manastash Creek Water Users, Kittias County, Washington, Final Report 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manastash Creek is tributary of the Yakima River and is located southwest and across the Yakima River from the City of Ellensburg. The creek drains mountainous terrain that ranges in elevation from 2,000 feet to over 5,500 feet and is primarily snowmelt fed, with largest flows occurring in spring and early summer. The creek flows through a narrow canyon until

Montgomery Watson Harza

2002-01-01

65

Final safety assessment of Coal Tar as used in cosmetics.  

PubMed

Coal Tar is a semisolid by-product obtained in the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, which functions in cosmetic products as a cosmetic biocide and denaturant--antidandruff agent is also listed as a function, but this is considered an over-the-counter (OTC) drug use. Coal Tar is a nearly black, viscous liquid, heavier than water, with a naphthalene-like odor and a sharp burning taste, produced in cooking ovens as a by-product in the manufacture of coke. Crude Coal Tar is composed of 48% hydrocarbons, 42% carbon, and 10% water. In 2002, Coal Tar was reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in four formulations, all of which appear to be OTC drug products. Coal Tar is monographed by the FDA as Category I (safe and effective) OTC drug ingredient for use in the treatment of dandruff, seborrhoea, and psoriasis. Coal Tar is absorbed through the skin of animals and humans and is systemically distributed. In short-term studies, mice fed a diet containing Coal Tar found it unpalatable, but no adverse effects were reported other than weight loss; rats injected with Coal Tar experienced malaise in one study and decreased water intake and increased liver weights in another; rabbits injected with Coal Tar residue experienced eating avoidance, respiratory difficulty, sneezing, and weight loss. In a subchronic neurotoxicity study using mice, a mixture of phenols, cresols, and xylenols at concentrations approximately equal to those expected in Coal Tar extracts produced regionally selective effects, with a rank order of corpus striatum > cerebellum > cerebral cortex. Coal Tar applied to the backs of guinea pigs increases epidermal thickness. Painting female rabbits with tar decreases the absolute and relative weights of the ovaries and decreased the number of interstitial cells in the ovary. Four therapeutic Coal Tar preparations used in the treatment of psoriasis were mutagenic in the Ames assay. Urine and blood from patients treated with Coal Tar were genotoxic in bacterial assays. Coal Tar was genotoxic in a mammalian genotoxicity assay and induced DNA adducts in various tissue types. Chronic exposure of mice to Coal Tar significantly decreased survival and liver neoplasms were seen in a significant dose-related trend; in other studies using mice lung tumors and perianal skin cancers were found. Coal Tar was comedogenic in three small clinical studies. Folliculitis is associated with the prolonged use of some tars. Several published reports describe cases of contact sensitivity to Coal Tar. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which make up Coal Tar, are photosensitizers and cause phototoxicity by an oxygen-dependent mechanism. A retrospective study of the reproductive toxicity of Coal Tar in humans compared exposed women to controls and found little difference in spontaneous abortion and congenital disorders. Cancer epidemiology studies of patients who have received Coal Tar therapy of one form or other have failed to link treatment with an increase in the risk of cancer. Although the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel believes that Coal Tar use as an antidandruff ingredient in OTC drug preparations is adequately addressed by the FDA regulations, the Panel also believes that the appropriate concentration of use of Coal Tar in cosmetic formulations should be that level that does not have a biological effect in the user. Additional data needed to make a safety assessment include product types in which Coal Tar is used (other than as an OTC drug ingredient), use concentrations, and the maximum concentration that does not induce a biological effect in users. PMID:18830861

2008-01-01

66

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 5  

SciTech Connect

This volume is in support of the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the Oak Ridge Reservation (for more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities there). It addresses the quality assurance objectives for measuring the data, presents selected historical data, contains data from several discrete water characterization studies, provides data supporting the sediment characterization, and contains data related to several biota characterization studies.

NONE

1996-03-01

67

Extracting Oil From Tar Sands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

1984-01-01

68

Catalytic destruction of tars in biomass-derived gases  

SciTech Connect

The Biomass and Municipal Waste Technology Division of the US Department of Energy is sponsoring studies at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory on catalytic destruction of condensible hydrocarbons (tars) in biomass-derived gases. Currently gasifiers generate a significant amount of tars in the product gases. These tars create problems with plugging in downstream equipment and with wastewater treatment. Partial oxidation of the gas stream in a secondary fluid bed of catalyst destroys the tars in biomass-derived gases while increasing the energy content of the product gas by over 20%. Catalysts that remain active for tar destruction are used in the secondary reactor which is specially designed to promote destruction of tars and minimize oxidation of combustible gases such as CO and H/sub 2/. Results of studies with different catalysts which have been tested for this application are described.

Mudge, L K; Baker, E G; Brown, M D; Wilcox, W A

1988-02-01

69

Collection of short papers on Beaver Creek watershed studies in West Tennessee, 1989-94  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey began a scientific investigation to evaluate the effect of agricultural activities on water quality and the effectiveness of agricultural best management practices in the Beaver Creek watershed, West Tennessee. The project is being conducted jointly with other Federal, State, county agencies, the farming community, and academic institutions, in support of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Hydrologic Unit Area program. The Beaver Creek project has evolved into a long-term watershed assessment and monitoring program. In 1991, a grant was received to develop and evaluate sampling strategies for higher order streams. During the summer of 1992, a reconnaissance of water-quality conditions for the shallow aquifers in Shelby, Tipton, Fayette, and Haywood Counties was conducted and included 89 domestic wells in the Beaver Creek watershed. Results from this effort lead to the development of a 1-year program to evaluate cause- and-effect relations that can explain the observed water-quality conditions for the shallow aquifers in the watershed. In 1992 the USGS, in cooperation with the Soil Conservation Service and the Shelby County Soil Conservation District, began an evaluation of in-stream processes and in-stream resource-management systems. In 1993, a biomonitoring program was established in the watershed. This collection of eight articles and abstracts was originally published in the American Water Resources Association National Symposium on Water Quality Proceedings for the national conference held in Chicago in 1994 and describes what has been learned in the study to date.

Doyle, W. Harry., (compiler); Baker, Eva G.

1995-01-01

70

TAR SANDS LEACHATE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

An inhouse research project was conducted by the EPA's Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory (IERL) at the T&E Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio, to provide information concerning the potential for release of contaminants to groundwater from in-situ and above-ground processed t...

71

Examination of eastern oil shale disposal problems - the Hope Creek field study  

SciTech Connect

A field-based study of problems associated with the disposal of processed Eastern oil shale was initiated in mid-1983 at a private research site in Montgomery County, Kentucky. The study (known as the Hope Creek Spent Oil Shale Disposal Project) is designed to provide information on the geotechnical, revegetation/reclamation, and leachate generation and composition characteristics of processed Kentucky oil shales. The study utilizes processed oil shale materials (retorted oil shale and reject raw oil shale fines) obtained from a pilot plant run of Kentucky oil shale using the travelling grate retort technology. Approximately 1000 tons of processed oil shale were returned to Kentucky for the purpose of the study. The study, composed of three components, is described. The effort to date has concentrated on site preparation and the construction and implementation of the field study research facilities. These endeavors are described and the project direction in the future years is defined.

Koppenaal, D.W.; Kruspe, R.R.; Robl, T.L.; Cisler, K.; Allen, D.L.

1985-02-01

72

Mineral resources of the Owl Creek Wilderness Study Area, Hot Springs County, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, 710 acres of the Owl Creek Wilderness Study Area were studied for mineral endowment. Field and labortory studies were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines. A search of U.S. Bureau of Land Management, State, and county records showed no current or previous mining claim activity and, other than common-variety sand and gravel, no mineral resources were identified during field examination of the study area. Sand and gravel is classified as an inferred subeconomic resource; however, the remoteness of the area precludes much usage of the material. About two-thirds of the study area is under lease for oil and gas. The entire study area has moderate resource potential for undiscovered oil and gas and low resource potential for undiscovered metals, coal, zeolites, and geothermal energy.

Bove, D.J.; Carlson, R.R.; Kulik, D.M.; Lundby, W.

1989-01-01

73

Mineral resources of the Owl Creek Wilderness Study Area, Hot Springs County, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the US Bureau of Land Management, 710 acres of the Owl Creek Wilderness Study Area were studied for mineral endowment. Field and laboratory studies were conducted by the US Geological Survey and the US Bureau of Mines. A search of US Bureau of Land Management, State, and County records showed no current or previous mining claim activity and, other than common-variety sand and gravel, no mineral resources were identified during field examination of this study area. Sand and gravel is classified as an inferred subeconomic resource; however, the remoteness of this area precludes much usage of this material. About two-thirds of this study area is under lease for oil and gas. This entire study area has a moderate resource potential for undiscovered oil and gas and a low resource potential for undiscovered metals, coal, zeolites, and geothermal energy.

Bove, D.J.; Carlson, R.R.; Kulik, D.M.; Lundby, W.

1989-01-01

74

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report Sep-Nov 81  

SciTech Connect

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the fall of 1981, Teredo bartschi remained in Oyster Creek despite continuous prolonged outages of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station.

Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

1982-06-01

75

Assessing the health of an urban stream: a case study of Suzhou Creek in Shanghai, China.  

PubMed

Restoration of urban streams and rivers has increased rapidly in developing countries in recent years. Estimating river health provides a new perspective on evaluating the ecological conditions of streams and rivers. The Suzhou Creek restoration project in Shanghai, China is a milestone for environmental protection. Based on the environmental and ecological data, including 17 indicators in five categories, collected from March 11 to April 20, 2007, the river health index (RHI) for Suzhou Creek was constructed and analysed to quantify the ecosystem of this urban river after a restoration project. The RHI scores of 34 sites ranged from 19.24 to 33.36, i.e. from poor to good. There were no significant RHI differences among stream orders, while differences in land use resulted in significant differences in channel flow status (B12), channel alteration (B21), channel sinuosity (B22), bank stability (B23), bank profile type (B25) and riparian vegetative zone width (B31). River restoration led to improved hydrological condition and channel physical form, while ammonia nitrogen (B44) and indicator scores of the presence of macro-invertebrate families (B51) were the lowest of any indicator. This case study supports the use of river health assessment as a supplement to water quality analysis in China. PMID:22234643

Che, Yue; Yang, Kai; Wu, Enuo; Shang, Zhaoyi; Xiang, Weining

2012-12-01

76

Preliminary study of heavy metal pollution from Fe-Al oxides in Peihuang Creek, North Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) is not active since late Pleistocene but the post-volcanic activities, such as hot spring and sulfur gas, still widespread around the volcano province. Peihuang Creek is the main watershed system in TVG. The creek water is characterized by higher temperature, low pH values (3.0-4.5) and high SO4 content (60-400 ppm) due to the mixing of hotspring. This would promote the geochemical interaction between water and andesitic rocks and results in waters with highly enriched iron, aluminum and silica. These elements prefer to form suspended colloidal particles in water and adsorb heavy metals. Once the pH of water increases under oxidation condition, the colloid would precipitate in the form of ochre colored powder on the riverbed. The previous study reports that the arsenic content can reach as high as hundreds ppm. It is very important to evaluate the desorption behavior of heavy metals, especially for the study area with highly developed agriculture. For the preliminary analysis, five samples of ochre colored powder were sampled along the creek. The results of XRF demonstrate that the powder is mainly composed of iron, aluminum and silica, which is Fe-Al hydroxide. The iron content of Fe-Al hydroxide decreases from 63% to 25% while the aluminum and silica contents gradually increase from 5% to 20% and from 9% to 30%, respectively. To evaluate the desorption of heavy metals, the sequential extraction procedure was conducted. In the first step for determining leachable metals, the Fe-Al oxides were extracted with deionized water in the room temperature for one week. All of the metals are in ppb level except copper. For determining reducible phase, Step 2 used reagent solution of 0.5 mol/L hydroxylamine hydrochloride, which was adjusted to pH=2 with ultrapure nitric acid, for one week. The extracted chromium, arsenic, lead and copper are in the dangerous level of tens to hundreds ppm. It is believed that only very small amounts of heavy metals were extracted due to extraordinary high content of Fe oxide in the powder. These metals would be expected to be released under reducing conditions. And, more extraction methods simulating different natural and anthropogenic environment will be performed in the future research. Rare earth elements (REE) are an excellent indicator of adsorption/desorption geochemistry and were also determined in this study. The results demonstrate a light REE enriched pattern, which reveals that the Fe-Al oxides prefer to bind metals with low ionic potential. In addition, a positive cerium anomaly indicates an oxidation condition during the precipitation of Fe-Al oxides.

Lai, B.

2012-12-01

77

Environmental analysis of small rural catchments case study: Melo Creek – MG\\/Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this research was to identify the major environmental impacts occurring in Melo Creek, Minas Gerais, Brazil, especially as regards to its water quality. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Initial evaluation was based on aerial photograph interpretation. All the small creek catchments were delimited and 12 stream segments were chosen for sampling and analyses. The segments had their water

Mariangela G. P. Leite; Maria Augusta G. Fujaco; Eduardo A. S. Barcelos; Gislandro H. T. Gonçalves; Felipe F. Igreja

2007-01-01

78

Higher temperature coal tar enamel fights corrosion  

SciTech Connect

High temperatures create new challenges for pipeline coatings. Cracking, adhesion breakdown and electrochemical corrosion are accelerated by higher service temperatures. A new epoxy primer/coal tar pipeline coating system utilizes the latent heat of the coal tar application to fully cure the newly developed primer to achieve outstanding bonding integrity and high temperature cathodic disbondment resistance. A key reason for this overall high performance is the marriage of a newly developed epoxy primer that provides outstanding adhesion with coal tar enamel, which provides excellent long-term water resistance. The paper describes experimental studies, pilot plant application, cathodic disbondment testing, and results from hot water soak tests and the low temperature cracking test.

Johnson, J.R.; Henegar, S.; Roder, B. [Reilly Industries, Inc., Indianapolis, IN (United States)

1996-10-01

79

Machine-smoking studies of cigarette filter color to estimate tar yield by visual assessment and through the use of a colorimeter.  

PubMed

This paper explores using the intensity of the stain on the end of the filter ("filter color") as a vehicle for estimating cigarette tar yield, both by instrument reading of the filter color and by visual comparison to a template. The correlation of machine-measured tar yield to filter color measured with a colorimeter was reasonably strong and was relatively unaffected by different puff volumes or different tobacco moistures. However, the correlation of filter color to machine-measured nicotine yield was affected by the moisture content of the cigarette. Filter color, as measured by a colorimeter, was generally comparable to filter extraction of either nicotine or solanesol in its correlation to machine-smoked tar yields. It was found that the color of the tar stain changes over time. Panelists could generally correctly order the filters from machine-smoked cigarettes by tar yield using the intensity of the tar stain. However, there was considerable variation in the panelist-to-panelist tar yield estimates. The wide person-to-person variation in tar yield estimates, and other factors discussed in the text could severely limit the usefulness and practicality of this approach for visually estimating the tar yield of machine-smoked cigarettes. PMID:19879915

Morton, Michael J; Williams, David L; Hjorth, Heather B; Smith, Jennifer H

2010-04-01

80

Thermocatalytic treatment of biomass tar model compounds via radio frequency.  

PubMed

A new effective RF tar thermocatalytic treatment process with low energy intensive has been proposed to remove tar from biomass gasification. Toluene and naphthalene as biomass tar model compounds were removed via both thermal and catalytic treatment over a wide temperature range from 850 °C to 1200 °C and 450 °C to 900 °C, respectively at residence time of 0-0.7 s. Thermal characteristics of the new technique are also described in this paper. This study clearly clarified that toluene was much easier to be removed than naphthalene. Soot was found as the final product of thermal treatment of the tar model and completely removed during catalytic treatment. Radical reactions generated by RF non-thermal effect improve the tar removal. The study showed that Y-zeolite has better catalytic activity compared to dolomite on toluene and naphthalene removal due to its acidic nature and large surface area, even at lower reaction temperature of about 550 °C. PMID:23567671

Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z A; Bakar, M Z A

2013-05-01

81

FEASIBILITY OF IN-SITU COMBUSTION OF TAR FROM A TARMAT Sidqi A. Abu-Khamsin  

E-print Network

FEASIBILITY OF IN-SITU COMBUSTION OF TAR FROM A TARMAT RESERVOIR Sidqi A. Abu-Khamsin Department in a previous article (Abu-Khamsin, 2001). In that article, oxidation kinetics of tar were studied as a preliminary step before feasibility of in-situ combustion as a tar-dissipation technique could be established

Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

82

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves and fouling organisms in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Final report, September 1976-December 1982  

SciTech Connect

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves were studied using wood test panels at 20 stations in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Physiological tolerances of three teredinid species were investigated in the laboratory and correlated with field values of temperature, salinity, siltation, precipitation, and plant operations. The interaction of boring and fouling organisms was examined. There is a definite correlation between the operation of the power plant and teredinid outbreaks. Increased salinity and water flow as well as temperature are responsible. After 1976, most of the damage in Oyster Creek was done by the introduced subtropical species Teredo bartschi. It can respond faster than native species to environmental change. Although Oyster Creek contributed larvae to neighboring parts of Barnegat Bay, its role as a breeding ground was limited. Some elements of the fouling community may be antagonistic to shipworm growth. Fouling was increased in both biomass and species richness in Oyster Creek when compared with creek controls, but the fouling community in Oyster Creek was less stable than that in other areas. Lower salinity limits for the teredinids were within the salinity range found in Oyster Creek but not within the range found in the control creeks. 71 references, 9 figures, 39 tables.

Hoagland, K.E.

1983-10-01

83

Machine-smoking studies of cigarette filter color to estimate tar yield by visual assessment and through the use of a colorimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores using the intensity of the stain on the end of the filter (“filter color”) as a vehicle for estimating cigarette tar yield, both by instrument reading of the filter color and by visual comparison to a template. The correlation of machine-measured tar yield to filter color measured with a colorimeter was reasonably strong and was relatively unaffected

Michael J. Morton; David L. Williams; Heather B. Hjorth; Jennifer H. Smith

2010-01-01

84

An insoluble residue study of the Cretaceous Cow Creek Limestone of Central Texas  

E-print Network

-size Fraction 28 Quartz Feldspar. Chert Trace minerals Constituents of the Silt-clay Fraction FELDSPAR AND CHERT ? QUARTZ RATIOS ZONATION AND CORRELATION. 28 29 31 32 36 39 Field Evidence. The upper cross-bedded limestone. The middle arenaceous... in Central Texas 17 5. Feldspar and. chert-quartz ratios and averages plotted for each section 37 6. Zonation and suggested field correlation of the Hickory Creek, Cox Crossing, Hamilton Pool, and Rebecca Creek sections 41 7. Zonation and suggested...

Morton, William Rogers

2012-06-07

85

Does switching to a tobacco-free waterpipe product reduce toxicant intake? A crossover study comparing CO, NO, PAH, volatile aldehydes, tar and nicotine yields  

PubMed Central

Waterpipe (hookah, narghile, shisha) use has become a global phenomenon, with numerous product variations. One variation is a class of products marketed as “tobacco-free” alternatives for the “health conscious user”. In this study toxicant yields from waterpipes smoked using conventional tobacco-based and tobacco-free preparations were compared. A human-mimic waterpipe smoking machine was used to replicate the puffing sequences of 31 human participants who completed two double-blind ad libitum smoking sessions in a controlled clinical setting: once with a tobacco-based product of their choosing and once with a flavor-matched tobacco-free product. Outcome measures included yields of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, volatile aldehydes, nicotine, tar, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Smoke from both waterpipe preparations contained substantial quantities of toxicants. Nicotine yield was the only outcome that differed significantly between preparations. These findings contradict advertising messages that “herbal” waterpipe products are a healthy alternative to tobacco products. PMID:22406330

Shihadeh, Alan; Salman, Rola; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Saliba, Najat; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Blank, Melissa D.; Cobb, Caroline O.; Eissenberg, Thomas

2012-01-01

86

Waste-assimilation study of Koshkonong Creek below sewage-treatment plant at Sun Prairie, Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A waste-load-assimilation study of a reach of Koshkonong Creek below the Sun Prairie, Wisconsin, sewage-treatment-plant outfall indicated that a high level of treatment would be required to meet Wisconsin water-quality standards. To maintain a minimum dissolved-oxygen concentration of 5 mg/liter during the critical summer low-flow period, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical-oxygen demand in waste discharges should not exceed 5 mg/liter and ammonium nitrogen should not exceed 1.5 mg/liter. Advanced treatment with denitrification is required because stream-reaeration coefficients are not high enough to offset deoxygenation caused by an abundance of attached biological slimes. The slimes apparently consumed dissolved oxygen at a rate of about 110 mg/liter per day at the time of the stream survey. During the critical summer low-flow period, natural stream discharge is very small compared to waste-water discharge , so benefits of dilution are insignificant. An evaluation of two proposed alternative waste-water discharge sites indicated that the present discharge site is hydraulically superior to these sites. Stream-reaeration coefficients used in the study were based on measurements using the radioactive-tracer method. (Woodard-USGS)

Grant, R. Stephen

1976-01-01

87

Oyster Creek cycle 10 nodal model parameter optimization study using PSMS  

SciTech Connect

The power shape monitoring system (PSMS) is an on-line core monitoring system that uses a three-dimensional nodal code (NODE-B) to perform nodal power calculations and compute thermal margins. The PSMS contains a parameter optimization function that improves the ability of NODE-B to accurately monitor core power distributions. This functions iterates on the model normalization parameters (albedos and mixing factors) to obtain the best agreement between predicted and measured traversing in-core probe (TIP) reading on a statepoint-by-statepoint basis. Following several statepoint optimization runs, an average set of optimized normalization parameters can be determined and can be implemented into the current or subsequent cycle core model for on-line core monitoring. A statistical analysis of 19 high-power steady-state state-points throughout Oyster Creek cycle 10 operation has shown a consistently poor virgin model performance. The normalization parameters used in the cycle 10 NODE-B model were based on a cycle 8 study, which evaluated only Exxon fuel types. The introduction of General Electric (GE) fuel into cycle 10 (172 assemblies) was a significant fuel/core design change that could have altered the optimum set of normalization parameters. Based on the need to evaluate a potential change in the model normalization parameters for cycle 11 and in an attempt to account for the poor cycle 10 model performance, a parameter optimization study was performed.

Dougher, J.D.

1987-01-01

88

In situ recovery of oil from Utah tar sand: a summary of tar sand research at the Laramie Energy Technology Center  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work done by the United States Department of Energy's Laramie Energy Technology Center from 1971 through 1982 to develop technology for future recovery of oil from US tar sands. Work was concentrated on major US tar sand deposits that are found in Utah. Major objectives of the program were as follows: determine the feasibility of in situ recovery methods applied to tar sand deposits; and establish a system for classifying tar sand deposits relative to those characteristics that would affect the design and operation of various in situ recovery processes. Contents of this report include: (1) characterization of Utah tar sand; (2) laboratory extraction studies relative to Utah tar sand in situ methods; (3) geological site evaluation; (4) environmental assessments and water availability; (5) reverse combustion field experiment, TS-1C; (6) a reverse combustion followed by forward combustion field experiment, TS-2C; (7) tar sand permeability enhancement studies; (8) two-well steam injection experiment; (9) in situ steam-flood experiment, TS-1S; (10) design of a tar sand field experiment for air-stream co-injection, TS-4; (11) wastewater treatment and oil analyses; (12) economic evaluation of an in situ tar sand recovery process; and (13) appendix I (extraction studies involving Utah tar sands, surface methods). 70 figs., 68 tabs.

Marchant, L.C.; Westhoff, J.D.

1985-10-01

89

Mission Canyon (Mississippian) reservoir study, Whitney Canyon-Carter Creek Field, southwestern Wyoming thrust belt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whitney Canyon-Carter Creek field is a giant sour gas and condensate reservoir located in extreme southwestern Wyoming in the Fossil basin area of the Wyoming thrust belt. Discovered in 1977, the field contains 36 wells within an area 13 mi long and 2 mi wide. Porous dolomites of the Mississippian Mission Canyon formation contain over 70% of total proven reserves.

J. L. Sieverding; P. E. Flynn; P. M. Harris

1987-01-01

90

Spread Creek anticline, Teton County, Wyoming: A study in structural form and petroleum exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spread Creek anticline is a large, doubly-plunging, closed anticlinal structure in northeast Teton County, Wyoming. The area of closure is approximately 20 mi long and 2 mi wide. Closure based on surface geoloyy may exceed 2000 ft. No commercial guantities of hydrocarbons have been established by exploratory drilling. Eleven deep exploratory tests and four shallow core holes have been drilled

Blackstone; D. L. Jr

1989-01-01

91

Roberts Creek Study Forest: the effects of shelterwood harvesting and blowdown  

E-print Network

CONTACT: Robert Hudson, P.Geo., Ph.D., Research Hydrologist, Vancouver Forest Region, 250-751-7114 Rob-treatment levels. Sediment con- centrations during subsequent storm events later in the post-harvesting season that in a creek in the interior of BC, suspended sediment loading increased four to 12 times over levels

92

Pre-Dam Removal Monitoring of Goldsborough Creek, Washington: 2000 Smolt Trapping Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Trapping of salmonid (oncorhynchus spp.) smolts was conducted as part of the monitoring plan for the Goldborough Creek, Washington, dam removal and stream restoration project headed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The aim of the current year's monito...

B. R. Missildine, M. T. Celedonia, R. J. Peters

2001-01-01

93

Reduction of Ammonia and Tar in Pressurized Biomass Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The present paper intended to present the results of parametric study of the formation of ammonia and tar under pressurized gasification conditions. By the use of multivariate data analysis, the effects of operating parameters were determined and their influences could be quantified. In order to deal with cases in which high levels of ammonia and tar were produced, study of catalytic hot gas cleaning was performed, aiming to discuss the removal efficiency and test catalysts.

Wang, W.; Olofsson, G.

2002-09-19

94

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Interim report 1 Sep 79-28 Feb 80  

SciTech Connect

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being analyzed. Teredo bartschi caused almost complete destruction of panels in Oyster Creek during the summer of 1979. Reproduction and settlement of this species continued into October. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with T. bartschi in Oyster Creek. The greatest shipworm damage is in Oyster Creek. Heavy mortality occurs in all species during winter, especially in winters such as 1979-80 when the generating station is not operating. Adults of all three species can survive for at least 30 days at salinities from 5 to 45 parts per thousand by weight. They can withstand abrupt salinity changes.

Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.; Turner, R.D.

1980-11-01

95

Investigation of subsurface tar-sand deposits in western Kentucky  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar sands (also referred to as asphaltic sandstones, heavy-oil deposits, or bitumen-impregnated sandstones) in W. Kentucky have been recognized as a potential mineral resource for over 100 yr. These deposits have become the subject of increasing interest as a potential petroleum resource. Previous studies have provided estimates of the potential resources of shallow mineable tar-sand deposits. These investigations have concentrated

D. A. Williams; M. C. Noger; P. J. Gooding

1982-01-01

96

Producing coal tar with a low content of quinoline insolubles  

SciTech Connect

The quality of coal tar has deteriorated recently due to lack of oven capacity and investment, changes in the raw material base, and the adoption of smokeless charging which has greatly increased the proportion of ash in the tar. At the same time, customer requirements have become more stringent, particularly with regard to quinoline insolubles. Plants operating tar centrifuges have shown that water and ash can be removed by as much as 70% and 40% respectively. A study of tar centrifuging rheology has shown that diluents such as toluene and anthracene fractions are essential; toluene is preferred as it operates at a lower temperature. Addition of 30% toluene with 3 min. centrifuging reduces the toluene insolubles, and a longer centrifuging period reduces the quinoline insolubles to admissible levels.

Markov, V.V.; Petropol'skaya, V.M.; Batyeva, T.S.; Semenenko, L.E.; Dedikov, S.I.; Sibirko, V.P.; Storozhenko, O.T.

1984-08-01

97

Chemical and isotopic studies of granitic Archean rocks, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming: Uranium-thorium-lead systematics of an Archean granite from the Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isotopic analyses of apparently unaltered whole-rock samples of a granite from the Owl Creek Mountains, Wyo., yield a lead-lead isochron age of 2730 {plus minus} 35 Ma, which is somewhat older than the age obtained by the rubidium-strontium whole-rock method. Thorium-lead data for the same samples deviate markedly from an isochronal relation; however, calculated initial ²°⁸Pb\\/²°⁴Pb ratios correlate with whole-rock

J. S. Stuckless; I. T. Nkomo; K. A. Butt

1986-01-01

98

Chemical and isotopic studies of granitic Archean rocks, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming: Geochronology of an Archean granite, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rubidium-strontium analyses of whole-rock samples of an Archean granite from the Owl Creek Mountains, Wyo., indicate an intrusive age of 2640 {plus minus} 125 Ma. Muscovite-bearing samples give results suggesting that these samples were altered about 2300 Ma. This event may have caused extensive strontium loss from the rocks as potassium feldspar was altered to muscovite. Alteration was highly localized

C. E. Hedge; K. R. Simmons; J. S. Stuckless

1986-01-01

99

The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands  

SciTech Connect

This report represents the work done during the year of May 8, 1987 to June 9, 1988. This year was the first year of a five-year program. The overall objective of the latter is to advance the technologies for recovering bitumen from the tar sands by thermal and water assisted extraction means and upgrading of bitumen to synthetic crude, and conversion of bitumens to specialty products such as asphalt and resins to levels where realistic evaluations of technical and commercial potential can be made. Additionally, it is desired to have the data at a level which is adequate for design of pilot plants of appropriate size deemed necessary for commercial scale-up of the various processes being studied. The main areas for studies covered in this report are modelling and optimization of the hydropyrolysis process for upgrading bitumens, bitumen recovery by pyrolysis of the circle Cliffs tar sands in a fluid bed, pyrolysis of Whiterocks tar sand in a rotary kiln, modelling of the combustor in the coupled fluidized bed with interbed heat transfer using heat pipes, development of superior diluents for use in the water extraction of Utah's tar sands, and fractionation and characterization of the bitumens from Asphalt Ridge and Sunnyside tar sands. 169 refs., 60 figs., 31 tars.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1989-05-01

100

Hoe Creek groundwater restoration, 1989  

SciTech Connect

During the summer of 1989, approximately 6.5 million gallons of contaminated groundwater were pumped from 23 wells at the Hoe Creek underground coal gasification site, near Gillette, Wyoming. The organic contaminants were removed using activated carbon before the water was sprayed on 15.4 acres at the sites. Approximately 2647 g (5.8 lb) of phenols and 10,714 g (23.6 lb) of benzene were removed from the site aquifers. Phenols, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and naphthalene concentrations were measured in 43 wells. Benzene is the only contaminant at the site exceeds the federal standard for drinking water (5 {mu}g/L). Benzene leaches into the groundwater and is slow to biologically degrade; therefore, the benzene concentration has remained high in the groundwater at the site. The pumping operation affected groundwater elevations across the entire 80-acre site. The water levels rebounded quickly when the pumping operation was stopped on October 1, 1989. Removing contaminated groundwater by pumping is not an effective way to clean up the site because the continuous release of benzene from coal tars is slow. Benzene will continue to leach of the tars for a long time unless its source is removed or the leaching rate retarded through mitigation techniques. The application of the treated groundwater to the surface stimulated plant growth. No adverse effects were noted or recorded from some 60 soil samples taken from twenty locations in the spray field area. 20 refs., 52 figs., 8 tabs.

Renk, R.R.; Crader, S.E.; Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.

1990-01-01

101

Paleontological overview of oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.  

SciTech Connect

In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the ''Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005,'' Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. In addition, Congress declared that both research- and commercial-scale development of oil shale and tar sands should (1) be conducted in an environmentally sound manner using management practices that will minimize potential impacts, (2) occur with an emphasis on sustainability, and (3) benefit the United States while taking into account concerns of the affected states and communities. To support this declaration of policy, Congress directed the Secretary of the Interior to undertake a series of steps, several of which are directly related to the development of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands. One of these steps was the completion of a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) to analyze the impacts of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands, with an emphasis on the most geologically prospective lands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. For oil shale, the scope of the PEIS analysis includes public lands within the Green River, Washakie, Uinta, and Piceance Creek Basins. For tar sands, the scope includes Special Tar Sand Areas (STSAs) located in Utah. This paleontological resources overview report was prepared in support of the Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and PEIS, and it is intended to be used by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) regional paleontologists and field office staff to support future projectspecific analyses. Additional information about the PEIS can be found at http://ostseis.anl.gov.

Murphey, P. C.; Daitch, D.; Environmental Science Division

2009-02-11

102

Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones  

SciTech Connect

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

2010-03-09

103

Mechanisms and kinetics of homogeneous secondary reactions of tar from continuous pyrolysis of wood chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

The change of mass and composition of biomass tar due to homogeneous secondary reactions was experimentally studied by means of a lab reactor system that allows the spatially separated production and conversion of biomass tar. A tarry pyrolysis gas was continuously produced by pyrolysis of wood chips (fir and spruce, 10–40mm diameter) under fixed-bed biomass gasification conditions. Homogeneous secondary tar

Philipp Morf; Philipp Hasler; Thomas Nussbaumer

2002-01-01

104

A study of post-thermal recovery of the macroinvertebrate community of Four Mile Creek, June 1985--September 1987. [Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

Four Mile Creek is one of several streams at the Savannah River Site which has received thermal effluents ({le}70{degrees}C water) from nuclear production operations. From 1955--mid-1985, Four Mile Creek received thermal effluent from C-Reactor as well as non-thermal discharges from F and H Separation Areas. Total discharges from all of these facilities was about ten times higher than the natural flow of the creek (Firth et al. 1986). All water being discharged into Four Mile Creek was originally pumped from the Savannah River. This study reports the results of the artificial substrate sampling of macroinvertebrate communities of Four Mile Creek from June 1985 through September 1987, when sampling was terminated. Macroinvertebrate taxa richness, densities, and biomass data from this study are compared to Four Mile data collected prior to the shutdown of C-Reactor (Kondratieff and Kondratieff 1985 and Firth et al. 1986), and to comparable macroinvertebrate data from other Savannah River Site streams. 29 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

Lauritsen, D.; Starkel, W.; Specht, W.

1989-11-01

105

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1: Main text  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

NONE

1996-06-01

106

Mineral resources of the Fish Creek Canyon, Road Canyon, and Mule Canyon Wilderness Study Areas, San Juan County, Utah  

SciTech Connect

This book reports the Fish Creek Canyon (UT-060-204), Road Canyon(UT-060-201), and Mule Canyon (UT-060-205B) Wilderness Study Areas, which comprise 40,160 acres, 52,420 acres, and 5,990 acres, respectively, studied for their mineral endowment. A search of federal, state, and county records showed no current or previous mining-claim activity. No mineral resources were identified during field examination of the study areas. Sandstone and sand and gravel have no unique qualities but could have limited local use for road metal or other construction purposes. However, similar materials are abundant outside the study areas. The three study areas have moderate resource potential for undiscovered oil and gas and low resource potential for undiscovered metals, including uranium and thorium, coal, and geothermal energy.

Bove, D.J.; Shawe, D.R.; Lee, G.K.; Hanna, W.F. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)); Jeske, R.E. (US Bureau of Mines (US))

1989-01-01

107

A long-term monitoring study of chlorophyll, microbial contaminants, and pesticides in a coastal residential stormwater pond and its adjacent tidal creek.  

PubMed

Stormwater ponds are commonly used in residential and commercial areas to control flooding. The accumulation of urban contaminants in stormwater ponds can lead to water-quality problems including nutrient enrichment, chemical contamination, and bacterial contamination. This study presents 5 years of monitoring data assessing water quality of a residential subdivision pond and adjacent tidal creek in coastal South Carolina, USA. The stormwater pond is eutrophic, as described by elevated concentrations of chlorophyll and phosphorus, and experiences periodic cyanobacterial blooms. A maximum monthly average chlorophyll concentration of 318.75 ?g/L was measured in the stormwater pond and 227.63 ?g/L in the tidal creek. Fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) levels were measured in both the pond and the tidal creek that exceeded health and safety standards for safe recreational use. A maximum monthly average FCB level of 1,247 CFU/100 mL was measured in the stormwater pond and 12,850 CFU/100 mL in the tidal creek. In addition, the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria and pathogenic bacteria were detected. Low concentrations of herbicides (atrazine and 2,4-D: ), a fungicide (chlorothalonil), and insecticides (pyrethroids and imidacloprid) were measured. Seasonal trends were identified, with the winter months having the lowest concentrations of chlorophyll and FCB. Statistical differences between the stormwater pond and the tidal creek were also noted within seasons. The tidal creek had higher FCB levels than the stormwater pond in the spring and summer, whereas the stormwater pond had higher chlorophyll levels than the tidal creek in the summer and fall seasons. Chlorophyll and FCB levels in the stormwater pond were significantly correlated with monthly average temperature and total rainfall. Pesticide concentrations were also significantly correlated with temperature and rainfall. Pesticide concentrations in the stormwater pond were significantly correlated with pesticide concentrations in the adjacent tidal creek. Chlorophyll and FCB levels in the tidal creek, however, were not significantly correlated with levels in the pond. While stormwater ponds are beneficial in controlling flooding, they may pose environmental and human health risks due to biological and chemical contamination. Management to reduce residential runoff may improve water quality in coastal stormwater ponds and their adjacent estuarine ecosystems. PMID:21409361

DeLorenzo, Marie E; Thompson, Brian; Cooper, Emily; Moore, Janet; Fulton, Michael H

2012-01-01

108

Spread Creek anticline, Teton County, Wyoming: A study in structural form and petroleum exploration  

SciTech Connect

Spread Creek anticline is a large, doubly-plunging, closed anticlinal structure in northeast Teton County, Wyoming. The area of closure is approximately 20 mi long and 2 mi wide. Closure based on surface geoloyy may exceed 2000 ft. No commercial guantities of hydrocarbons have been established by exploratory drilling. Eleven deep exploratory tests and four shallow core holes have been drilled on or adjacent to the fold, one of which reached strata of Cambrian age. The axis of the fold migrate to the northeast with depth. For part of the fold, there may be no dip reversal and therefore no closure at the level of the Permian Phosphoria Formation and the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone. Natural gas seeps are probably due to degassing of coal beds near the surface and do not reflect a deep trapped hydrocarbon accumulation.

Blackstone, D.L. Jr. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie (USA))

1989-04-01

109

Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Penney, W.R.

1990-01-01

110

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, March-May 1982  

SciTech Connect

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. The adult population of Teredo bartschi survived the winter and spring of 1981-1982 better than it did previous cold periods without a thermal effluent. Lack of an effluent was due to a prolonged outage of the generating station. There was no spring outbreak of shipworms. The introduced species appears established at one station near but outside of Oyster Creek. Three teredinid species coexist in Oyster Creek. Larvae of T. bartschi and T. navalis have similar responses to reduced salinity. Bankia gouldi is the fastest-growing of the teredinids found in New Jersey, and as the lowest annual mortality.

Hoagland, K.E.

1982-11-01

111

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, 1 March-31 May 1980  

SciTech Connect

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with the introduced T. bartschi in Oyster Creek, at the mouth of Forked River and on the coast of the bay between the two creeks. Heavy mortality occurred in all species during winter and spring when the generating station was not operating. Temperature and salinity tolerance tests begun during April and May, 1980, were not completed by the end of May because the adult shipworms proved to be very resistant to drastic changes in these physical parameters.

Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

1980-12-01

112

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report 1 Jun-31 Aug 80  

SciTech Connect

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being analyzed. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with the introduced T. bartschi in Oyster Creek. Teredo bartschi can withstand higher temperatures than the native species, but all species suffer osmotic stress at 6 parts per thousand by weight.

Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

1981-02-01

113

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Quarterly progress report 1 Dec 80-28 Feb 81  

SciTech Connect

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being analyzed. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with the introduced T. bartschi in Oyster Creek and at the mouth of Forked River. An increase in mortality occurred in January. By February, Teredo bartschi was found only at Bayside.

Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

1981-08-01

114

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Quarterly report, 1 September-30 November 1980  

SciTech Connect

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being analyzed. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with the introduced T. bartschi in Oyster Creek and at the mouth of Forked River.

Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

1981-04-01

115

Overburden characterization and post-burn study of the Hoe Creek, Wyoming underground coal gasification site and comparison with the Hanna, Wyoming site  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1978 the third test (Hoe Creek III) in a series of underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments was completed at a site south of Gillette, Wyoming. The post-burn study of the geology of the overburden and interlayered rock of the two coal seams affected by the experiment is based on the study of fifteen cores. The primary purpose of the

F. C. Ethridge; L. K. Burns; W. G. Alexander; G. N. II Craig; A. D. Youngberg

1983-01-01

116

Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 4. Appendix F  

SciTech Connect

This section contains ecotoxicological profiles for the COPECs for the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The ecotoxicological information is presented for only those endpoints for which the chemicals are COPECs. The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

NONE

1995-09-01

117

Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1. Main text  

SciTech Connect

This is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

NONE

1995-09-01

118

Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3. Appendix E  

SciTech Connect

This document contains Appendix E: Toxicity Information and Uncertainty Analysis, description of methods, from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

NONE

1995-09-01

119

Restoring Fossil Creek  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fossil Creek had been dammed for the past 90 years, and plans were underway to restore the stream. The creek runs through Central Arizona and flows from the high plateaus to the desert, cutting through the same formations that form the Grand Canyon. This article discusses the Fossil Creek monitoring project. In this project, students and teachers…

Flaccus, Kathleen; Vlieg, Julie; Marks, Jane C.; LeRoy, Carri J.

2004-01-01

120

GREEN RIVER AIR QUALITY MODEL DEVELOPMENT: METEOROLOGICAL DATA - AUGUST 1980 FIELD STUDY IN THE PICEANCE CREEK BASIN OIL SHALE RESOURCES AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

Special meteorological and air quality studies were conducted during August 1980 in the Piceance Creek Basin oil shale resource area of Northwestern Colorado as part of the EPA-sponsored Green River Ambient Model Assessment program. The objective of the limited field program was ...

121

Hydrologic data from the study of acidic contamination in the Miami Wash-Pinal Creek area, Arizona, water years 1992-93  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since 1984, hydrologic data have been collected as part of a U.S. Geological Survey study of the occurrence and movement of acidic contamination in the aquifer and streams of the Pinal Creek drainage basin near Globe, Arizona. Ground-water data from that study are presented for water years 1992 and 1993 and include location, construction information, site plans, water levels, chemical and physical field measurements, and selected chemical analyses of water samples for 10 monitoring well groups. During January 1993, a flood occurred in Pinal Creek that resulted in a record peak discharge of 5,700 cubic feet per second. During this flood, well group 450 was destroyed. Surface-water data are presented for 13 sites and include discharge measurements, chemical and physical field measure- ments, and chemical analyses of water. Data from a solute-transport study that was conducted in November 1992 are presented for shallow ground-water and surface-water sites along Pinal Creek. During this study, variations in metal chemistry with distance along Pinal Creek and depth below the streambed were determined and two filter sizes were used to quantify the partitioning of metals between dissolved and particulate phases. Monthly precipi- tation data and long-term precipitation statistics are presented for two sites.

Gellenbeck, D. J.; Hunter, Yvonne R.

1994-01-01

122

THE EFFECT OF PRESSURE ON OXIDATION KINETICS OF TAR FROM A TARMAT RESERVOIR  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF PRESSURE ON OXIDATION KINETICS OF TAR FROM A TARMAT RESERVOIR Sidqi A. Abu of a reservoir tar were studied employing a variable-temperature oxidation reactor. Mixed with clean, loose sand to provide for sustained in-situ combustion in the reservoir. INTRODUCTION Tarmat is a loosely defined term

Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

123

Remediation of Former Manufactured Gas Plant Tars Using Alkaline Flushing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remediation of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars in the subsurface is particularly difficult due to the wetting behavior and high viscosities of these dense non-aqueous liquids (DNAPLs). Alkaline flooding is a technique which has proven effective in improving the recovery of crude oils, which share some characteristics with FMGP tars. For this study, we measured the effect of NaOH solutions on interfacial tension and conducted column experiments to investigate the feasibility of applying this technique to FMGP tars. The pendant drop technique was used to measure interfacial tensions for solutions ranging from 0-1% NaOH. Column experiments were conducted by contaminating sands with tars recovered from a FMGP then flushing the columns with NaOH solutions. A final, 70% v/v ethanol cosolvent flush was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a two-stage remediation approach. The mass removal of tar, as well as 26 individual PAHs, was measured, along with the aqueous phase mass flux of PAHs after each flushing stage. The interfacial tension was reduced from about 20 mN/m with pure water to a minimum of 0.05 mN/m at a concentration of 0.1% NaOH. In the column experiments, alkaline flushing resulted in a 50% reduction of the residual saturation. Aqueous phase PAH concentrations, however, were similar before and after the alkaline flushing stage. The combination of alkaline and cosolvent flushing resulted in an overall reduction of 95% of the total mass of the 16 EPA PAHs. Final aqueous phase concentrations were reduced significantly for lower molecular weight PAHs, but increased slightly for the higher molecular weight compounds, likely due to their increased mole fraction within the remaining tar. Additional work is being conducted to improve the effectiveness of the alkaline flushing through the use of surfactants and polymers.

Hauswirth, S.; Rylander, S.; Birak, P. S.; Miller, C. T.

2010-12-01

124

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, September-November 1981  

SciTech Connect

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the fall of 1981, Teredo bartschi remained in Oyster Creek despite continuous prolonged outages of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. It did not spread to Forked River or Waretown as it had done in other years when the effluent was present. The peak in larval production and settlement of T. bartschi occurred between September and October. Settlement of shipworms occurred on no monthly panels except those in Oyster Creek during the period of this report. Laboratory experiments revealed that T. bartschi becomes inactive at 5/sup 0/C (24/sup 0///sub 00/) and T. navalis shows signs of osmotic stress below 10/sup 0///sub 00/ at 18/sup 0/C. The shipworms in Barnegat Bay do not show a preference for settling at the mudline when the substrate is not limited.

Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

1982-06-01

125

Water quality and chemistry of an alpine stream: a case study of Sneffels Creek, Yankee Boy Basin, Colorado  

E-print Network

debris from Atlas Mine, . 4 Looking down from Mount Sncffels at the head of Sneffels Creek. . . . . . . . . . . 29 5 Glacial features: horns, aretes, rock glacier, till, tarns, cols and cirques. . . . . 31 6 Columnar jointing. 7 Mean monthly... debris from Atlas Mine, . 4 Looking down from Mount Sncffels at the head of Sneffels Creek. . . . . . . . . . . 29 5 Glacial features: horns, aretes, rock glacier, till, tarns, cols and cirques. . . . . 31 6 Columnar jointing. 7 Mean monthly...

Heggie, Tracey Michelle

2012-06-07

126

Nutrient limitation and algal blooms in urbanizing tidal creeks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tidal creeks are commonly found in low energy systems on the East and Gulf Coasts of the United States, and are often subject to intense watershed human development. Many of these creeks are receiving urban and suburban runoff containing nutrients, among other pollutants. During the period 1993–2001, we studied three tidal creeks located in southeastern North Carolina, a rapidly urbanizing

Michael A. Mallin; Douglas C. Parsons; Virginia L. Johnson; Matthew R. McIver; Heather A. CoVan

2004-01-01

127

The Lyons Creek boat remains  

E-print Network

THE LYONS CREEK BOAT REMAINS A Thesis by ROBERT STEPHEN NEYLAND Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A a M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS December 1990 Ma/or Subject...: Anthropology THE LYONS CREEK BOAT REMAINS A Thesis by ROBERT STEPHEN NEYLAND Approved as to style and content by: D. L. Hamilton (Chair of Co it e) J. Richard eff ( mber) John Canu (Member) ~i' . g Vaughn M. Bryant (Head of Department) December...

Neyland, Robert Stephen

2012-06-07

128

Steel Creek wildlife: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987  

SciTech Connect

Reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek below L-Lake were assessed in monthly or quarterly sampling programs. Thirty-eight species of reptiles or amphibians were collected during 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment, and in the delta and channel. Juvenile turtles and alligators, and larval amphibians were observed or collected during the study, indicating continued reproduction in Steel Creek. The reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek show no indication of any effect due to the impoundment of the lake or the operation of L-Reactor. Waterfowl and associated birds in Steel Creek below L-Lake were observed, in conjunction with other sampling programs, during winter--spring and fall--winter migrations. Nine species of waterfowl and five species of associated birds were observed in 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment and in the delta and channel.

Giffin, M.A.; Patterson, K.K.

1988-03-01

129

Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief introduction and…

Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

2009-01-01

130

Conoco's South Texas Tar Sands Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of activities and first pilot results of the South Texas Tar Sands Project. Included is a description of a new process for which a patent has been applied. The process, known as Fracture Assisted Steamflood Technology, or FAST, is a blend of high pressure steam flooding and horizontal fracturing techniques. 169,000 barrels of tar were produced

Oshlo

1981-01-01

131

JiTT - La Brea Tar Pits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

1) What is "tar" and how does it form? 2) List the animals that have been uncovered in the tar pits that you didn't know were native to North America. Why do you think these animals are now extinct? ...

Guertin, Laura

132

Conoco's South Texas Tar Sands Project  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of activities and first pilot results of the South Texas Tar Sands Project. Included is a description of a new process for which a patent has been applied. The process, known as Fracture Assisted Steamflood Technology, or FAST, is a blend of high pressure steam flooding and horizontal fracturing techniques. 169,000 barrels of tar were produced before shutdown in June 1980, with a ratio of 10.6 barrels of steam injected per barrel of tar. The primary application of FAST is in reserviors that contain extremely viscous tar or are thin enough that heat losses to the confining strata are a problem. Commercialization of the project is expected to require large amounts of lead time, capital and manpower. Tar sands activities are said to be synfuels projects rather than an extension of heavy activities. (JMT)

Oshlo, E.L.

1981-06-01

133

Geology and coal resources of the Hanging Woman Creek Study Area, Big Horn and Powder River Counties, Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In an area of 7,200 acres (29 sq km) In the Hanging Woman Creek study area, the Anderson coal bed contains potentially surface minable resources of 378 million short tons (343 million metric tons) of subbituminous C coal that ranges in thickness from 26 to 33 feet (7.9-10.1 m) at depths of less than 200 feet (60 m). Additional potentially surface minable resources of 55 million short tons (50 million metric tons) are contained in the 9-12 foot (2.7-3.7 m) thick Dietz coal bed which lies 50-100 feet (15-30 m) below the Anderson. Analyses of coal from 5 core holes indicates that the Anderson bed contains 0.4 percent sulfur, 5 percent ash, and has a heating value of 8,540 Btu/lb (4,750 Kcal/kg). The trace element content of the coal is generally similar to other coals in the Powder River Basin. The two coal beds are in the Fort Union Formation of Paleocene age which consists of sandstone, siltstone, shale, coal beds, and locally impure limestone. A northeast-trending normal fault through the middle of the area, downthrown on the southeast side, has displaced the generally flat lying strata as much as 300 feet (91 m). Most of the minable coal lies northwest of this fault.

Culbertson, William Craven; Hatch, Joseph R.; Affolter, Ronald H.

1978-01-01

134

Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall aims of this research study were to generate novel design data and to develop an equilibrium stage-based thermodynamic model of a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system for the removal of model tar compounds (benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene) found in biomass producer gas. The specific objectives were to design, fabricate and evaluate a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system and to optimize the design and operating variables; i.e., packed bed height, vegetable oil type, solvent temperature, and solvent flow rate. The experimental wet packed bed scrubbing system includes a liquid distributor specifically designed to distribute a high viscous vegetable oil uniformly and a mixing section, which was designed to generate a desired concentration of tar compounds in a simulated air stream. A method and calibration protocol of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was developed to quantify tar compounds. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Statistical analysis showed that both soybean and canola oils are potential solvents, providing comparable removal efficiency of tar compounds. The experimental height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) was determined as 0.11 m for vegetable oil based scrubbing system. Packed bed height and solvent temperature had highly significant effect (p0.05) effect on the removal of model tar compounds. The packing specific constants, Ch and CP,0, for the Billet and Schultes pressure drop correlation were determined as 2.52 and 2.93, respectively. The equilibrium stage based thermodynamic model predicted the removal efficiency of model tar compounds in the range of 1-6%, 1-4% and 1-2% of experimental data for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, respectively, for the solvent temperature of 30° C. The NRTL-PR property model and UNIFAC for estimating binary interaction parameters are recommended for modeling absorption of tar compounds in vegetable oils. Bench scale experimental data from the wet scrubbing system would be useful in the design and operation of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system. The process model, validated using experimental data, would be a key design tool for the design and optimization of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system.

Bhoi, Prakashbhai Ramabhai

135

Catalytic Tar Reduction for Assistance in Thermal Conversion of Space Waste for Energy Production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Trash to Gas (TtG) project investigates technologies for converting waste generated during spaceflight into various resources. One of these technologies was gasification, which employed a downdraft reactor designed and manufactured at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for the conversion of simulated space trash to carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide would then be converted to methane for propulsion and water for life support systems. A minor byproduct of gasification includes large hydrocarbons, also known as tars. Tars are unwanted byproducts that add contamination to the product stream, clog the reactor and cause complications in analysis instrumentation. The objective of this research was to perform reduction studies of a mock tar using select catalysts and choose the most effective for primary treatment within the KSC downdraft gasification reactor. Because the KSC reactor is operated at temperatures below typical gasification reactors, this study evaluates catalyst performance below recommended catalytic operating temperatures. The tar reduction experimentation was observed by passing a model tar vapor stream over the catalysts at similar conditions to that of the KSC reactor. Reduction in tar was determined using gas chromatography. Tar reduction efficiency and catalyst performances were evaluated at different temperatures.

Caraccio, Anne Joan; Devor, Robert William; Hintze, Paul E.; Muscatello, Anthony C.; Nur, Mononita

2014-01-01

136

Effects of human chromosome 12 on interactions between Tat and TAR of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.  

PubMed Central

Rates of transcriptions of the human immunodeficiency virus are greatly increased by the viral trans activator Tat. In vitro, Tat binds to the 5' bulge of the trans-activation response (TAR) RNA stem-loop, which is present in all viral transcripts. In human cells, the central loop in TAR and its cellular RNA-binding proteins are also critical for the function of Tat. Previously, we demonstrated that in rodent cells (CHO cells), but not in those which contain the human chromosome 12 (CHO12 cells), Tat-TAR interactions are compromised. In this study, we examined the roles of the bulge and loop in TAR in Tat trans activation in these cells. Whereas low levels of trans activation depended solely on interactions between Tat and the bulge in CHO cells, high levels of trans activation depended also on interactions between Tat and the loop in CHO12 cells. Since the TAR loop binding proteins in these two cell lines were identical and different from their human counterpart, the human chromosome 12 does not encode TAR loop binding proteins. In vivo binding competition studies with TAR decoys confirmed that the binding of Tat to TAR is more efficient in CHO12 cells. Thus, the protein(s) encoded on human chromosome 12 helps to tether Tat to TAR via its loop, which results in high levels of trans activation. Images PMID:8083988

Alonso, A; Cujec, T P; Peterlin, B M

1994-01-01

137

A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Little and Big Lick creeks, Blackford and Delaware counties, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A digital computer model was used to predict alternatives for future waste loadings on Little Lick and Big Lick Creeks, Blackford and Delaware Counties, IN, that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The model parameters included atmospheric reaeration, carbonaceous and nitrogenous biochemical-oxygen demand, and benthic-oxygen demand. The model was calibrated with data collected during three water-quality surveys at low flow. During these surveys, in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentrations averaged less than 3 mg/L, well below the State minimum requirement of 5.0 mg/L. The model indicated that these low concentrations were caused by high waste loadings, lack of dilution, low reaeration, and benthic-oxygen demand. The summer waste-assimilation study assumed that future reductions in discharge loadings would decrease carbonaceous and benthic decay and increase nitrogenous decay. This study indicated that projected effluent waste loads that would provide acceptable in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentrations are highly dependent on rates of nitrification. Ammonia toxicity became the limiting water-quality criterion at low nitrification rates. The winter waste-assimilation study indicated that projected dissolved-oxygen concentrations in Little Lick and Big Lick Creeks did not fall below the State standard. Owing to a lack of dilution, however, ammonia-nitrogen concentrations would violate in-stream toxicity standards in both Little Lick and Big Lick Creeks. (USGS)

Peters, James G.; Crawford, Charles G.; Wilber, William G.

1980-01-01

138

Shell Creek Summers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality provided…

Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

2005-01-01

139

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, December 1981-February 1982  

SciTech Connect

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the winter of 1981, the generating station experienced a prolonged outage. The reproductive cycle of the shipworms was not extended. Teredo bartschi was very abundant at one station in Oyster Creek and moderately abundant at a second, but did not exist elsewhere in Barnegat Bay. Some specimens of Teredo bartschi contained larvae in the gills in February. According to laboratory experiments, Teredo navalis is able to remain active at temperatures as low as 4/sup 0/C, whereas T. bartschi ceases activity (withdraws its siphons) at about 13/sup 0/C. 12 tables.

Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

1982-08-01

140

Developments in tar sands in 1981  

SciTech Connect

Activity in tar sands projects during 1981 continued at a very significant pace. The bulk of activity was in Canada, where 38 pilot projects were active, 2 commercial plants continued operations, 1 commercial scheme was canceled, and another was put into the twilight zone. Activity in the United States was low, whereas Venezuelan efforts reflect a firm commitment toward commercial development. The tenacious attitude of both industry and certain governments in the pursuit of tar sands development will keep the greater tar sands dream alive.

Wennekers, J.H.N.

1982-11-01

141

Phytomonitoring and management of tar piles on the Qatari coastal marshes, Arabian Gulf.  

PubMed

Most of the shores in Qatar and other oil producing countries have had a long history of crude oil pollution from different sources. This pilot study was to assess the problem and suggest a management programme for disposing of the collected tar or lessening the impact of tar accumulation. The vegetation on the sites used for dumping tar was used in a field survey to identify bioindicators of tar pollution and of the natural recovery of polluted sites. The phytomonitoring results indicate that recovery of polluted sites can be quite rapid after clean-up and restoration. To facilitate natural plant invasion and colonization, and the restoration of tar piles, the dumping sites must have plant communities with high species diversity and a high percentage of annual plants. Depending on the sand-tar ratio in the piles, artificial seeding of selected plant species (listed) can be applied by using species mixes or single species seeding. Management techniques are suggested to optimize the natural recovery and revegetation of tar-affected coastal marshes. PMID:15091484

Hegazy, A K

1995-01-01

142

Effects of physical and chemical parameters on the tar yield during rapid pyrolysis of wood  

SciTech Connect

Effects of temperature (200-1000{degrees}C), solid residence time (0-30 sec), heating rate (100 to 10,000{degrees}C/s), particle size (50 to 500 {mu}m), and mineral matters on the yield and formation rate of tar from rapid pyrolysis of beech-wood under 1 atm helium pressure were studied. Wood particles were pyrolyzed for known and independently selectable temperature, time, nominal heating rates in an electrical screen beater reactor; and the tar yield was measured as a function of temperature for every parameter tested. The tar yield from pyrolysis of beech-wood was accounted for up to 70% of the original wood above 400{degrees}C. Due to the post-pyrolysis reactions of tar, its yield exhibits a maximum with pyrolysis temperature for almost all the physical parameters tested in this study. Among the physical parameters particle size and among the chemical parameters Na{sup +} cation are more effective in reducing the tar yield than others. The maximum tar yield drops to 37% with larger particle size, and to 32% with particles enriched with Na{sup +} cation. Tar was also analyzed with GPC for the effects of above parameters on the tar molecular weight. The tar molecular weight remains relatively constant (M{sub w} = 300 amu, Mn = 155 amu, and Mz = 483 amu) over the pyrolysis temperature; it increases with heating rate (M{sub w} = 375 amu, Mn = 210 amu, and Mz = 700 amu), but decreases with increasing particle size (M{sub w} = 210 amu, Mn = 110 amu, and Mz = 320 amu) or use of active cations such as K{sup +} and Na{sup +} (M{sub w} = 190 amu, Mn = 100 amu, and Mz = 350 amu).

Nik-Azar, M.; Hajaligol, M.R.; Sohrabi, M. [Amir-Kabir Univ. of Technology, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

1995-12-01

143

Flood discharges and hydraulics near the mouths of Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, studied the frequency and magnitude of flooding near the mouths of five tributaries to the New River in the New River Gorge National River. The 100-year peak discharge at each tributary was determined from regional frequency equations. The 100-year discharge at Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek was 3,400 cubic feet per second, 640 cubic feet per second, 8,200 cubic feet per second, 7,100 cubic feet per second, and 9,400 cubic feet per second, respectively. Flood elevations for each tributary were determined by application of a steady-state, one-dimensional flow model. Manning's roughness coefficients for the stream channels ranged from 0.040 to 0.100. Bridges that would be unable to contain the 100-year flood within the bridge opening included: the State Highway 82 bridge on Wolf Creek, the second Fayette County Highway 25 bridge upstream from the confluence with New River on Dunloup Creek, and an abandoned log bridge on Mill Creek.

Wiley, J. B.

1994-01-01

144

Tumblin CreekTumblin Creek Floodplain:Floodplain  

E-print Network

the creek.Erosion and scour are common along the creek. Tumblin Creek is on the FDEP list of impaired waterTumblin Creek is on the FDEP list of impaired water bodies.bodies. BivensBivens Arm isArm is hypereutrophichypereutrophic Pre-development Post-development FlowRate Rainfall Event HydrographHydrograph Pre vs. Post

Ma, Lena

145

Monitoring the water quality of Sausal Creek, Oakland, Ca.: A comparative study on methods to detect urban pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polluted urban creeks can affect the aquatic ecosystem and the human health of the community. Raw sewage entering a water system, either directly or via a leaking pipe, can spread pathogens such as Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli. Monitoring by regulatory agencies may be inadequate, so testing for sewage leaks by community organizations can be beneficial for locating systems that

Sara Laurin Ash

146

ASSESSING ECOLOGICAL RISK IN WATERSHEDS: A CASE STUDY OF PROBLEM FORMULATION IN THE BIG DARBY CREEK WATERSHED, OHIO, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

The Big Darby Creek watershed, a highly valued ecosystem in central Ohio, USA, threatened by intensive agriculture and suburban encroachment, served as an example of how case specifics can be applied to refine and direct the planning and problem formulation stage of the U.S. Env...

147

Abstract At the time of this study Fossil Creek was being considered as a site for the restoration  

E-print Network

distinct reaches in Fossil creek: a travertine dam forming reach and a reach without travertine dam formation (riffle-pool reach). Decomposition was signifi- cantly faster in the travertine dam forming reach than in the riffle-pool reach. Macroinvertebrates in the leaf packs were more diverse in the trav

148

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, June-August 1982  

SciTech Connect

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. Adult populations of Teredo bartschi existed in both Oyster Creek and Forked River in the summer of 1982, but the species was rare. There was no large settlement of this or any other teredinid species in Barnegat Bay. Teredo navalis was the most common species in the monthly panels. The fouling community reached its maximum yearly diversity in June-July. There was a thermal effluent causing a ..delta..T of 3 to 4/sup 0/C during most of the summer, and salinity in Oyster Creek and Forked River was similar to that of Barnegat Bay. The lack of a shipworm outbreak in 1982 may be related to the low ..delta..T in summer, plus the lack of a thermal effluent in the preceding winter-spring period.

Hoagland, K.E.

1982-12-01

149

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1, main text  

SciTech Connect

This document is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit (CR/PC OU), an off-site OU associated with environmental restoration activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). As a result of past, present, and potential future releases of hazardous substances into the environment, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List in December 1989 (54 FR 48184). Sites on this list must be investigated for possible remedial action, as required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9601, et seq.). This report documents the findings of the remedial investigation of this OU and the feasibility of potential remedial action alternatives. These studies are authorized by Sect. 117 of CERCLA and were conducted in accordance with the requirements of the National Contingency Plan (40 CFR Part 300). DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) have entered into a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), as authorized by Sect. 120 of CERCLA and Sects. 3008(h) and 6001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (42 U.S.C. 6901, et seq.). The purpose of this agreement is to ensure a coordinated and effective response for all environmental restoration activities occurring at the ORR. In addition to other responsibilities, the FFA parties mutually define the OU boundaries, set remediation priorities, establish remedial investigation priorities and strategies, and identify and select remedial actions. A copy of this FFA is available from the DOE Information Resource Center in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

NONE

1996-03-01

150

An Integrated Organic-Inorganic Geochemical Study of the 1.64 Ga Barney Creek Formation in Australia (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemistry and redox structure of the ancient ocean played a key role in influencing the evolution of life throughout Earth’s history. Surface waters in the mid-Proterozoic ocean (~1.0-1.7 billion years old [Ga]) were likely oxygenated, while deeper anoxic waters contained metastable sulfidic (euxinic) zones at intermediate depths, which constitute a hostile aquatic environment for eukaryotes. Hydrocarbon biomarkers provide a means of analyzing both microbial communities and paleoenvironmental redox conditions. Iron (Fe) proxies are the most effective inorganic proxy for delineating ancient euxinia on the local scale and do not require photic-zone depths for the sulfidic waters. Additionally, Fe proxies allow us to distinguish between anoxic and oxic waters and Fe-rich (ferruginous) from euxinic conditions, the latter characterized by free sulfide in the water column. Viewing these parameters in an integrated fashion for the first time, we can explore the backdrop of ocean redox during the evolution of eukaryotes, fully revealing the complex redox structure and paleoecology. A suite of thermally well-preserved mid-Proterozoic sedimentary rocks collected from drill core of the 1.64 Ga Barney Creek Formation, spanning a range of depositional facies, has been studied using detailed biomarker and inorganic geochemical redox proxies. Iron speciation data indicate burial of the sediments under periodically euxinic conditions. Our biomarker data clearly show the presence of two organic facies and include bacterially-derived hopanes and much lower concentrations of dinosteranes with an absence of detectable regular steranes. In addition, in both the free bitumens and corresponding kerogen hydropyrolysates, the pattern of dinosterane isomers to 4?-methyl-24-ethylcholestane abundance is markedly different in the Barney Creek samples compared to typical Phanerozoic methylsterane patterns. Though both dinosteranes and 4?-methyl-24-ethylcholestane are diagnostic of dinoflagellates, 4?-methyl-24-ethylcholestane can also be derived from Prymnesiophyta, which were not primary components of Proterozoic oceans. Collectively, these signals demonstrate that the biomarkers are indigenous to the rock and thus not due to contamination. We found C40 carotenoids indicative of green and purple sulfur bacteria and traditionally viewed as fingerprints of photic zone euxinia. However, the intact carotenoid skeletons were only present in the carbonate-rich facies with significantly lower abundances of aryl isoprenoids being detected in the siltstone/mudstone deeper water facies. Together with sedimentary evidence and other diagnostic saturated hydrocarbon biomarker features found for carbonate intervals, we propose that the green and purple sulfur bacteria were members of layered benthic microbial mats living either on the shallow shelf or in nearshore, hypersaline sabkha settings that were later reworked and transported to the deeper basin. This hypothesis suggests that while euxinic conditions were periodically present in the deepwater marine domain, sulfidic conditions did not extend up to the photic zone. Overall, in line with body fossil evidence from the mid-Proterozoic, we find robust evidence for a low abundance, non-diverse eukaryotic component comprised of dinoflagellate ancestors in the midst of a prokaryotic-dominated microbial environment.

Kelly, A. E.; Love, G. D.; Lyons, T. W.; Anbar, A. D.

2010-12-01

151

Placing Reedy Creek Improvement District in Central Florida: A Case Study in Uneven Geographical Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is primarily about the theory of uneven geographical development. In an era when it is proclaimed that, through globalization, the world has become flat, the unevenness of economic and social development is often overlooked or suppressed. As the nexus between global and local processes, the urban space often becomes the site of conflict between those defining the hegemonic

Kristine Bezdecny

2011-01-01

152

Value engineering study report on Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Project. Alternative No. 3  

SciTech Connect

The project under study is Alternative No. 3 as identified in the Feasibility Study dated August 1994. This alternative is identified as Excavation and Disposal of Commercial/DOE, Other, and Residential Remedial Unit Soil. The assumptions used for generating baseline costs are discussed in site associated costs. It is further described as follows: Soils with mercury concentrations greater than 200 ppM in the Commercial/DOE and Other Remedial Units and greater than 180 ppM in the Residential Remedial Unit [41,300m{sup 3} (54,000yd{sup 3} a volume equivalent to approximately 6,750 dump truck loads)] would be excavated and disposed of in an approved, lined landfill at Y-12 with leachate collection and possible pretreatment of the leachate before discharge. Because 0.6 ha (1.5 acres) of wetland would be destroyed, wetlands banking would occur, whereby a 1.8-ha (4.5-acre) wetland would be constructed on DOE-owned land near K-25. Borrow soil would be obtained from the Y-12 West End Borrow Area or from excess soil located at Y-12 landfills to fill the excavation. It is estimated that 7.3 ha (18.2 acres, and area about the size of 17 football fields) of habitat would be adversely affected. This alternative would use BMPs to minimize any adverse affects and to comply substantively with regulatory requirements.

NONE

1995-08-01

153

Electrofishing on Lookout Creek  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists electrofishing on the Lookout Creek near the Blue River, OR. The fish they collected were analyzed for mercury content and added to the data base that the National Fish Mercury Model is based on. ...

2010-03-17

154

Camel Creek Minnamoolka  

E-print Network

Camel Creek Minnamoolka Rollingsto Mount Garnet Millaa Millaa Kangaroo Hills Valley Of Lagoons Flying Fish Point Ingham Battery Babinda Cardwell Ravenshoe Tully Heads Coral Sea Rockingham Bay R A N G E

Greenslade, Diana

155

Bioventing PAH contamination at the Reilly Tar Site  

SciTech Connect

A pilot-scale bioventing demonstration has been in progress since November 1992 to determine if bioventing is an effective remediation treatment for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The Reilly Tar and Chemical Corporation site in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, was selected for this demonstration. The location is the site of a former coal tar refinery and wood-preserving facility at which creosote in mineral oil served as the primary preservative. The goal of the project is to achieve 10% greater PAH removal over background degradation for each year of the 3-year study. Respiration measurements were made to estimate PAH biodegradation as a means of monitoring the progress of the technology. These measurements indicated that 13.4% and 17.3% degradation of the total PAH was possible during the first year and second year, respectively. Although not all of the respiration can be attributed conclusively to PAH metabolism, strong correlations were found between the PAH concentration and biodegradation rates.

Alleman, B.C.; Hinchee, R.E. [Battelle Columbus, OH (United States); Brenner, R.C.; McCauley, P.T. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States). National Risk Management Research Lab.

1995-12-31

156

Benthic macroinvertebrate richness along Sausal Creek, Oakland, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sausal Creek, 5.0 km long, is one of the principal watercourses in Oakland, California. The headwaters of Sausal Creek arise in the Oakland Hills and the creek flows southwestward through the city, discharging into the tidal canal that separates the island of Alameda from Oakland; the creek ultimately flows into San Francisco Bay. Due to the presence of rainbow trout, the stream health of Sausal Creek is a local conservation priority. In the present study, a survey of benthic macroinvertebrates in the creek was conducted and possible correlations between environmental variables and taxonomic richness were analyzed. Three stations along the creek were sampled using a 30.5cm 500 micron aquatic d-net, and temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen levels were measured in creek samples obtained at each station. Temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen levels remained constant along the creek. Taxonomic richness was highest at the upstream site of Palo Seco, located in an eastern section of the creek, and furthest downstream at Dimond Park, in the western portion of the creek. The Monterrey site, just west of Palo Seco was found to be significantly low in benthic macroinvertebrates. The Palo Seco and Monterrey sites are separated by Highway 13 and storm drain inputs may bring contaminants into the creek at this site. At the Monterrey site Sausal Creek follows the Hayward Fault, gas emissions or change in substrate may also affect the local population of benthic invertebrates. Further research will be conducted to determine what factors are contributing to this local anomaly.

Lara, D.; Ahumada, E.; Leon, Y.; Bracho, H.; Telles, C.

2012-12-01

157

Traditional Tar Production from the Anatolian Black Pine [Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe var. pallasiana] and its usages in Afyonkarahisar, Central Western Turkey  

PubMed Central

Background Tar is one example of a plant product used in folk medicine and it is obtained from Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe, which is very common in the West Anatolian Region. Old trees that are good for kindling and have thick trucks are preferred to obtain tar. Tar is used not only as traditional medicine but also for protection against both endoparasites and ectoparasites. The objective of this study was to record the traditional method of obtaining tar and its usages in Afyonkarahisar which is located in the Western Anatolian Region of Turkey. Methods In order to record the traditional methods of obtaining tar, we visited the villages of Do?lat, Kürtyurdu and Çata??l in Afyonkarahisar (Turkey) June-July, 2012. Ethnobotanical data about the method of collection and traditional usages of tar were obtained through informal interviews with 26 participants (16 men and 10 women). Data concerning the method of tar collection and its traditional usages were recorded and photographed. Results The traditional method for obtaining tar from Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana by local people was recorded and the local usages (curing ear pain in children, osteomyelitis, wounds, ulcers, eczema, acne, alopecia, fungus, foot-and-mouth disease in animals, mouth sores in sheep and goats, protection against endo- and ectoparasites, repellent for snakes, mice, flies (Tabanus bovinus) and ticks, and the prevention of water leakage from roofs) of tar are described. Conclusion In this study, the traditional method for obtaining tar and the traditional usages of tar are explained. Documentation of the method of obtaining tar and its traditional usages may contribute to scientific research on the benefits and usages of tar in medicine, veterinary medicine, as well as other fields. PMID:24673846

2014-01-01

158

Reduced tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure while smoking ultralow- but not low-yield cigarettes  

SciTech Connect

An unresolved public health issue is whether some modern cigarettes are less hazardous than other and whether patients who cannot stop smoking should be advised to switch to lower-yield cigarettes. The authors studied tar (estimated by urine mutagenicity), nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure in habitual smokers switched from their usual brand to high- (15 mg of tar), low- (5 mg of tar), or ultralow-yield (1 mg of tar) cigarettes. There were no differences in exposure comparing high- or low-yield cigarettes, but tar and nicotine exposures were reduced by 49% and 56%, respectively, and carbon monoxide exposure by 36% while smoking ultralow-yield cigarettes. Similarly, in 248 subjects smoking their self-selected brand, nicotine intake, estimated by blood concentrations of its metabolite continine, was 40% lower in those who smoked ultralow but no different in those smoking higher yields of cigarettes. The data indicate that ultralow-yield cigarettes do deliver substantial doses of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide, but that exposure are considerably less than for other cigarettes.

Benowitz, N.L.; Jacob, P. III; Yu, L.; Talcott, R.; Hall, S.; Jones, R.T.

1986-07-11

159

Recognition of HIV-TAR RNA using neomycin-benzimidazole conjugates.  

PubMed

Synthesis of a novel class of compounds and their biophysical studies with TAR-RNA are presented. The synthesis of these compounds was achieved by conjugating neomycin, an aminoglycoside, with benzimidazoles modeled from a B-DNA minor groove binder, Hoechst 33258. The neomycin-benzimidazole conjugates have varying linkers that connect the benzimidazole and neomycin units. The linkers of varying length (5-23 atoms) in these conjugates contain one to three triazole units. The UV thermal denaturation experiments showed that the conjugates resulted in greater stabilization of the TAR-RNA than either neomycin or benzimidazole used in the synthesis of conjugates. These results were corroborated by the FID displacement and tat-TAR inhibition assays. The binding of ligands to the TAR-RNA is affected by the length and composition of the linker. Our results show that increasing the number of triazole groups and the linker length in these compounds have diminishing effect on the binding to TAR-RNA. Compounds that have shorter linker length and fewer triazole units in the linker displayed increased affinity towards the TAR RNA. PMID:24012122

Ranjan, Nihar; Kumar, Sunil; Watkins, Derrick; Wang, Deyun; Appella, Daniel H; Arya, Dev P

2013-10-15

160

Characterization of Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2004-08  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fish Creek, a tributary to the Snake River, is about 15 river miles long and is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson (fig. 1). Public concern about nuisance growths of aquatic plants in Fish Creek has been increasing since the early 2000s. To address this concern, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District, began studying Fish Creek in 2004 to describe the hydrology of the creek and later (2007?08) to characterize the water quality and the biological communities. The purpose of this fact sheet is to summarize the study results from 2004 to 2008.

Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Peterson, David A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Leemon, Daniel J.

2010-01-01

161

Selected hydrologic data for Fountain Creek and Monument Creek basins, east-central Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Selected hydrologic data were collected during 1986, 1987, and 1988 by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Fountain Creek and Monument Creek basins, east-central Colorado. The data were obtained as part of a study to determine the present and projected effects of wastewater discharges on the two creeks. The data, which are available for 129 surface-water sites, include: (1) About 1,100 water quality analyses; (2) about 420 measurements of discharge, (3) characteristics of about 50 dye clouds associated with measurements of traveltime and reaeration , and (4) about 360 measurements of channel geometry. (USGS)

Kuhn, Gerhard; Ortiz, Roderick F.

1989-01-01

162

The search for a source rock for the giant Tar Sand triangle accumulation, southeastern Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A large proportion (about 36%) of the world's oil resource is contained in accumulations of heavy oil or tar. In these large deposits of degraded oil, the oil in place represents only a fraction of what was present at the time of accumulation. In many of these deposits, the source of the oil is unknown, and the oil is thought to have migrated over long distances to the reservoirs. The Tar Sand triangle in southeastern Utah contains the largest tar sand accumulation in the United States, with 6.3 billion bbl of heavy oil estimated to be in place. The deposit is thought to have originally contained 13-16 billion bbl prior to the biodegradation, water washing, and erosion that have taken place since the middle - late Tertiary. The source of the oil is unknown. The tar is primarily contained within the Lower Permian White Rim Sandstone, but extends into permeable parts of overlying and underlying beds. Oil is interpreted to have migrated into the White Rim sometime during the Tertiary when the formation was at a depth of approximately 3500 m. This conclusion is based on integration of fluid inclusion analysis, time-temperature reconstruction, and apatite fission-track modeling for the White Rim Sandstone. Homogenization temperatures cluster around 85-90??C for primary fluid inclusions in authigenic, nonferroan dolomite in the White Rim. The fluid inclusions are associated with fluorescent oil-bearing inclusions, indicating that dolomite precipitation was coeval with oil migration. Burial reconstruction suggests that the White Rim Sandstone reached its maximum burial depth from 60 to 24 Ma, and that maximum burial was followed by unroofing from 24 to 0 Ma. Time-temperature modeling indicates that the formation experienced temperatures of 85-90??C from about 35 to 40 Ma during maximum burial. Maximum formation temperatures of about 105-110??C were reached at about 24 Ma, just prior to unroofing. Thermal modeling is used to examine the history of potential source rocks for the White Rim oil. The most attractive potential sources for White Rim oil include beds within one or more of the following formations: the Proterozoic Chuar Group, which is present in the subsurface southwest of the Tar Sand triangle; the Mississippian Delle Phosphatic Member of the Deseret Limestone and equivalent formations, the Permian Kaibab Limestone, the Sinbad Limestone Member of the Triassic Moenkopi Formation, and the Jurassic Arapien Shale, Twin Creek Limestone, and Carmel Formation, which are present west of the Tar Sand triangle; the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation in the Paradox basin east of the Tar Sand triangle; and the Permian Park City Formation northwest of the Tar Sand triangle. Each formation has a high total organic carbon content and is distributed over a wide enough geographic area to have provided a huge volume of oil. Source beds in all of the formations reached thermal maturity at times prior to or during the time that migration into the White Rim is interpreted to have occurred. Based on all available data, the most likely source for the Tar Sand triangle appears to be the Mississippian Delle Phosphatic Member of the Deseret Limestone. Secondary migration out of the Delle is interpreted to have occurred during the Cretaceous, during Sevier thrusting. Subsequent tertiary migration into the Tar Sand triangle reservoir is interpreted to have occurred later, during middle Tertiary Laramide deformation.

Huntoon, J.E.; Hansley, P.L.; Naeser, N.D.

1999-01-01

163

Ground-water levels and flow at selected study sites in the Walnut Creek Management System Evaluation Area, Boone and Story counties, Iowa, 1991-93  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data collected from May 1991 through September 1993 to determine seasonal fluctuations in ground-water levels and to estimate directions of ground-water flow in the saturated zone at selected study sites at the Iowa Management Systems Evaluation Area in the Walnut Creek watershed is presented. The Walnut Creek watershed is located on glacial deposits of Wisconsin Age in central Iowa and includes about 20 square miles. The upper glacial materials that contain the water table appear to be supraglacial till rather than basal glacial tills and contain both oxidized and unoxidized zones. A total of 102 observation wells were installed at 38 well nest locations. Descriptions of the observation wells drilled, the range of water-level fluctuation, and the estimated direction of ground-water movement at each of seven study sites in the watershed are provided. Diagrams of each study site show the location of observation wells and the estimated direction of ground-water flow for a selected date. Data tables include descriptive well logs, well-construction data, and water-level measaurements made between May 1991 and September 1993.

Buchmiller, Robert

1996-01-01

164

Geometry of Wall Creek sandstones, Salt Creek Oil Field, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern gamma-ray and density well logs at the Salt Creek field define an optimum development of the middle and lower Wall Creek (First Frontier) Sandstone reservoir, which is unusually thick, well sorted, and porous in a belt about 1 mi wide that crosses the Salt Creek anticline in a north-northeasterly trend. The most distinctive aspect of the geometry of this

1986-01-01

165

Tar sands. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning mining of tar sands and the recovery of bitumen and other materials from tar sands. The physical and chemical properties of tar sands are discussed, and the economics of their use are considered. Processes include alkaline extraction, water cracking, catalytic cracking, and in situ combustion. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-05-01

166

Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry

Stauffer

1981-01-01

167

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 3. Risk assessment information. Appendixes E, F  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 3 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

NONE

1996-03-01

168

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3: Appendixes E and F -- Risk assessment information  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

NONE

1996-06-01

169

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 2. Biota and representative concentrations of contaminants. Appendixes A, B, C, D  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OU`s). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

NONE

1996-03-01

170

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 5. Appendixes J, K, L, M, and N-other supporting information  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 5 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

NONE

1996-06-01

171

Manufacturing Battle Creek  

E-print Network

to the manufacturing sector in Western Michigan. In addition to serving as director of the MRC, Dr. Patten is alsoManufacturing Research Center Kalamazoo Battle Creek The College of Engineering and Applied Sciences The Supporting manufacturing industries by providing opportunities for collaboration with faculty

de Doncker, Elise

172

Sampling and analysis plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatment technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. This project directly supports Alternative 5 of the base action in the BCV Feasibility Study, and indirectly supports other alternatives through proof of concept. In that role, the ultimate goal is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium and nitrate from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. A secondary goal is the concurrent removal of technetium and several metals that impact ecological risk. This project is intended to produce hydraulic and treatment performance data required to design the treatment system to reach those goals. This project will also generate information that can be applied at other facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation. This report is the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for the field work component of Phase II of the BCV Treatability Study. Field work for this phase of the BCV Treatability Study consists of media testing. In-field continuous flow tests will be conducted over an extended time period (5 weeks) to generate data on long-term treatment effects on potential treatment media including sorbents and zero valent iron, over 28 weeks for constructed wetlands treatment, and over 24 weeks for algal mats treatment. The SAP addresses environmental sampling at the S-3 Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be taken from groundwater, effluent from test columns, effluent from an algal mat reactor, and effluent from a pilot-scale wetlands. This plan will be implemented as part of the BCV Phase II Treatability Study Best Management Practices Plan and in conjunction with the BCV Phase II Treatability Study Health and Safety Plan and the BCV Phase II Treatability Study Waste Management Plan.

NONE

1997-05-01

173

Atmospheric tar balls: aged primary droplets from biomass burning?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric tar balls are particles of special morphology and composition that are abundant in the plumes of biomass smoke. These particles form a specific subset of brown carbon (BrC) which has been shown to play a significant role in atmospheric shortwave absorption and thus climate forcing. Formerly tar balls were hypothesized to be formed in secondary processes in the atmosphere from lignin pyrolysis products. Based on their typical size distributions, morphology, chemical characteristics and other features we now suggest that tar balls are initially produced by the emission of primary tar droplets upon biomass burning. To verify our hypothesis tar balls were produced under laboratory conditions with the total exclusion of flame processes. An all-glass apparatus was designed and tar ball particles were generated from liquid tar obtained previously by dry distillation of wood. The size range, morphology and the chemical composition of the laboratory-generated tar ball particles were similar to those observed in biomass smoke plumes or elsewhere in the atmosphere. Based on our results and the chemical and physical characteristics of tar we suggest that tar balls can be formed by the chemical transformation of emitted primary tar droplets.

Tóth, A.; Hoffer, A.; Nyir?-Kósa, I.; Pósfai, M.; Gelencsér, A.

2013-12-01

174

A Creek to Bay Biological Assessment in Oakland, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2007, the Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program (SWAMP) assessed the impact of trash on water quality in the Peralta Creek which is located in the Fruitvale district of Oakland, CA. This 2011 follow-up study will take further steps in evaluating the physical and biological impacts of pollution and human development on Peralta Creek and in the San Leandro Bay, where the Creek empties into the larger San Francisco Bay estuary. This study will utilize two forms of biological assessment in order to determine the level of water quality and ecosystem health of Peralta Creek and San Leandro Bay in Oakland, California. A Rapid Bioassesment Protocal (RBP) will be used as the method of biological assessment for Peralta Creek. RBP uses a biotic index of benthic macroinvertebrates to provide a measure of a water body's health. Larval trematodes found in two mud snails (Ilynassa obsoleta and Cerithidea californica) will be used to evaluate the health of the San Leandro Bay. Due to the complex life cycle of trematodes, the measure of trematode diversity and richness in host species serves as an indicator of estuarine health (Huspeni 2005). We have completed the assessment of one section of Peralta Creek, located at 2465 34th Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601. Abundance results indicate a moderately healthy creek because there were high levels of pollution tolerant benthic macroinvertebrates. The tolerant group of benthic macroinvertebrates includes such organisms as flatworms, leeches, and scuds. This is possibly due to this section of the creek being pumped up to the surface from culverts impacting the macroinvertebrate's life cycle. Another contributing factor to creek health is the amount of organic debris found in the creek, which inhibits the flow and oxygenation of the water, allowing for more pollution tolerant aquatic insects to persist. Further investigation is being conducted to fully assess the Peralta Creek watershed; from the preliminary results one can surmise that runoff from the watershed that leads into the bay may reflect a moderately healthy San Leandro Bay.

Ahumada, E.; Ramirez, N.; Lopez, A.; Avila, M.; Ramirez, J.; Arroyo, D.; Bracho, H.; Casanova, A.; Pierson, E.

2011-12-01

175

Investigation of coal tar mobility at a former MGP site  

SciTech Connect

The presence of coal tar in the subsurface of former manufactured gas plant sites poses an environmental hazard and a potential threat to public health. Coal tar can release various chemical compounds that are transported into the groundwater. Before any efforts can be made to remove coal tar from contaminated subsurface soils, it is recommended to characterize coal tar properties and composition and to delineate the residual saturation point between mobile and immobile coal tar. This paper presents a new innovative field device, the Res-SAT field tool, and laboratory procedures that can be used to determine the saturation-capillary pressure relationship for a soil-water coal-tar system and the critical pressure for coal tar mobility.

Moo-Young, H.K.; Mo, X.H.; Waterman, R.; Coleman, A.; Saroff, S. [California State University Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

2009-11-15

176

ROCK CREEK, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1970-1984  

EPA Science Inventory

The study was designed to determine the characteristics and amounts of industrial and municipal wastes discharged to Rock Creek, Idaho (17040212) and subsequently into the Snake River and to evaluate the effects of these wastes on the biota and water quality of Rock Creek. Indus...

177

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station: progress report June-August 1981. Quarterly progress report 1 Jun-31 Aug 81  

SciTech Connect

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the summer of 1981, Teredo bartschi occurred in large numbers at one station in Oyster Creek, but did not appear in significant numbers in Forked River.

Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

1982-01-01

178

Should We Dam Nanticoke Creek?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this decision-making exercise, students investigate what would occur if a dam were built along Nanticoke Creek, a real stream just north of West Corners near the Village of Endicott, New York. They will use topographic maps to determine how much area would be flooded by the new reservoir, to study river drainages, and to consider the impacts of dams on a region. They must also consider rivers in the context of their relation to humankind. The exercise can be extended to other, more local locations having similar topography.

Childs, Philip

179

Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak) in a laboratory screw type reactor and secondary thermal/catalytic tar decomposition.  

PubMed

Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak cartons) in a laboratory apparatus using a flow screw type reactor and a secondary catalytic reactor for tar cracking was studied. The pyrolysis experiments were realized at temperatures ranging from 650 °C to 850 °C aimed at maximizing of the amount of the gas product and reducing its tar content. Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields at different conditions was obtained. The presence of H2, CO, CH4, CO2 and light hydrocarbons, HCx, in the gas product was observed. The Aluminum foil was easily separated from the solid product. The rest part of char was characterized by proximate and elemental analysis and calorimetric measurements. The total organic carbon in the tar product was estimated by elemental analysis of tars. Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used for catalytic thermal tar decomposition. Three series of experiments (without catalyst in a secondary cracking reactor, with dolomite and with AFRC) at temperatures of 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 °C were carried out. Both types of catalysts have significantly affected the content of tars and other components in pyrolytic gases. The effect of catalyst on the tetrapack distribution into the product yield on the composition of gas and on the total organic carbon in the tar product is presented in this work. PMID:23428565

Haydary, J; Susa, D; Dudáš, J

2013-05-01

180

Effect of tar fractions from coal gasification on nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia and nickel-gadolinium doped ceria solid oxide fuel cell anode materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The allowable tar content in gasification syngas is one of the key questions for the exploitation of the full potential of fuel cell concepts with integrated gasification systems. A better understanding of the interaction between tars and the SOFC anodes which leads to carbon formation and deposition is needed in order to design systems where the extent of gas cleaning operations is minimized. Model tar compounds (toluene, benzene, naphthalene) have been used in experimental studies to represent those arising from biomass/coal gasification. However, the use of toluene as a model tar overestimates the negative impact of a real gasification tar on SOFC anode degradation associated with carbon formation. In the present work, the effect of a gasification tar and its distillation fractions on two commercially available fuel cell anodes, Ni/YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia) and Ni/CGO (gadolinium doped ceria), is reported. A higher impact of the lighter tar fractions was observed, in terms of more carbon formation on the anodes, in comparison with the whole tar sample. The characterization of the recovered tars after contact with the anode materials revealed a shift towards a heavier molecular weight distribution, reinforcing the view that these fractions have reacted on the anode.

Lorente, E.; Berrueco, C.; Millan, M.; Brandon, N. P.

2013-11-01

181

Sampling and analysis plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatment technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. This project directly supports Alternative 5 of the base action in the BCV Feasibility Study and indirectly supports other alternatives through proof of concept. In that role, the ultimate goal is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium and nitrate from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. A secondary goal is the concurrent removal of technetium and several metals that affect ecological risk. This project is intended to produce hydraulic and treatment performance data required to design the treatment system to reach those goals. This project will also generate information that can be applied at other facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation. This report is the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for the field work component of Phase II of the BCV Treatability Study. Field work for this phase of the BCV Treatability Study consists of environmental and media testing. The SAP addresses environmental sampling at the S-3 Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be taken from groundwater, surface water, seeps, effluent from test columns, effluent from an algal mat reactor, and effluent from a pilot-scale wetland. Groundwater, surface water, and seeps will be monitored continuously for field parameters and sampled for analytical parameters during pump tests conducted periodically during the investigation. In-field continuous flow tests will be conducted over an extended time period (5 weeks) to generate data on long-term treatment effects on potential treatment effects on potential treatment media including sorbents and zero valent iron, over 28 weeks for constructed wetlands treatment, and over 24 weeks for algal mats treatment.

NONE

1997-09-01

182

Characterization of the HIV-1 TAR RNA-Tat peptide and drug interactions by on-line acoustic wave sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents the application of the thickness shear-mode (TSM) acoustic wave sensor to the study of RNA-protein and RNA-drug interactions at the solid-liquid interface. The binding of the human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 Tat protein to the trans-activation responsive RNA element (TAR) has been studied using this sensor. Data from such measurements show that the sensor is able to discriminate between different Tat peptides derived from the parent protein based on size. The effects of mutations introduced at specific sites in the protein and RNA on the TAR-Tat binding have also been examined in detail. Reduced level of response in acoustic parameters due to mutations was observed indicating that the decrease in binding in response to site specific mutations can be acoustically detected. Data from acoustic wave sensor measurements indicate that the TAR-Tat binding is also affected by ionic strength. Both the frequency and motional resistance signals show periodic responses when varying concentrations of salt are introduced on a TAR-modified surface. The binding of the two molecules seems to be a function of the response of the nucleic acid to salt concentrations. The kinetics of binding of Tat peptides to TAR RNA and to a bulge mutant analogue (MTAR) is also examined from the rate of change of the series resonant frequency. Results from such analysis illustrate longer Tat peptides formed more stable complexes with TAR RNA and exhibited increased discrimination between mutant and wild type TAR. The binding of two aminoglycoside antibiotics, neomycin and streptomycin, to TAR RNA and their effectiveness in preventing TAR-Tat complex formation has been studied in detail. Binding affinity is directly correlated with the inhibitory potency of these molecules and the TSM sensor shows that neomycin exhibits at least a ten fold greater affinity to TAR and that it is also a more potent inhibitor than streptomycin. The results from this research involving TAR-Tat and TAR-drug interactions compare well with those reported in the literature using other non-biosensor techniques. Thus, acoustic physics offers considerable potential for detailed biophysical analysis of nucleic acid-ligand binding and for screening of small molecule interactions with nucleic acids.

Tassew, Nardos Gobena

183

Analysis of geothermal electric-power generation at Big Creek Hot Springs, Lemhi County, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Big Creek Hot Springs was evaluated as a source of electrical power for the Blackbird Cobalt Mine, approximately 13 miles south of the hot spring. An evaluaton of the geothermal potential of Big Creek Hot Springs, a suggested exploration program and budget, an engineering feasibility study of power generation at Big Creek Hot Springs, an economic analysis of the modeled

Struhsacker

1981-01-01

184

Use of coal tar pitch and petroleum bitumen in the production of thermally expanded graphite (Short Communication)  

SciTech Connect

The applicability of coal tar pitch and petroleum bitumen to the production of thermally expanded graphite was studied. The dependence of the coefficient of thermal expansion and the specific surface area on the amount of added substances was examined.

T.P. Miloshenko; O.Yu. Fetisova; M.L. Shchipko; B.N. Kuznetsov [Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russia). Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology

2008-06-15

185

Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 2. Appendixes A, B, C, D  

SciTech Connect

This document contains appendices A (water characterization), B (sediment characterization), C (biota Characterization), D (applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements) from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

NONE

1995-09-01

186

A photographic method for estimating wear of coal tar sealcoat from parking lots.  

PubMed

Coal-tar-based sealcoat has been recognized as an important source of PAHs to the environment through wear and transport via stormwater runoff. Sealcoat removal rates have not been measured or even estimated in the literature due to the complex array of physical and chemical process involved. A photographic study was conducted that incorporates all sources of wear using 10 coal tar-sealed parking lots in Austin, Texas, with sealcoat age ranging from 0 to 5 years. Randomly located photographs from each parking lot were analyzed digitally to quantify black sealed areas vs lighter colored unsealed areas at the pixel level. The results indicate that coal tar sealcoat wears off of the driving areas of parking lots at a rate of approximately 4.7% per year, and from the parking areas of the lots at a rate of approximately 1.4% per year. The overall annual loss of sealcoat was calculated at 2.4%. This results in an annual delivery to the environment of 0.51 g of PAHs per m2 of coal tar-sealed parking lot. These values provide a more robust and much higher estimate of loading of PAHs from coal tar sealcoated parking lots when compared to other available measures. PMID:19673284

Scoggins, Mateo; Ennis, Tom; Parker, Nathan; Herrington, Chris

2009-07-01

187

CANEY CREEK WILDERNESS, ARKANSAS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources identified in the Caney Creek Wilderness, Arkansas, include many small manganese deposits in areas of novaculite, tripoli, shale, and slate. Small amounts of hand-sorted manganese-oxide ore have been recovered from several of the manganese deposits during sporadic mining activity. Additional manganese resources remain in the known deposits, but the amount in any given deposit is small.

Ericksen, George E.; Dunn, Maynard L., Jr.

1984-01-01

188

A Conceptual Model for Stream Restoration in Western New York: A Developing Case Study in the Elton Creek Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The practice of ecosystem restoration is still often viewed as an "art" versus a science. This view is further fueled by the manner in which many restoration projects are identified and implemented- on a case by case basis with little documentation on the drivers of the ecosystems in question or the establishment of success criteria once the project is complete. While monitoring data may exist to quantify the existing conditions of a stream (biological, chemical, and physical), these data are not always easily translated into design criteria for restoration. Rather, most restoration designs rely upon best professional judgment by highly experienced practitioners. Various agencies in Western New York have completed numerous stream restoration projects in the region to improve in-stream habitat and address impaired streams. In order to capture these successful restoration practices in a manner that can be translated to other streams in the region and inform future restoration designs, a conceptual framework is proposed for the Western New York region. The conceptual framework will identify the ecosystem drivers in the stream riparian corridors and discuss trajectories of these ecosystems. A project site on Elton Creek near Delevan, New York has been selected as a test case for applying this conceptual framework. The focus of this paper will be on determining the drivers of the stream ecosystem through the use of rapid geomorphic assessments. The results of two rapid geomorphic assessment methods be presented and contrasted in the context of the conceptual framework.

Rabideau, A.; Blersch, S. S.

2009-05-01

189

Integrated Geophysical Monitoring Program to Study Flood Performance and Incidental CO2 Storage Associated with a CO2 EOR Project in the Bell Creek Oil Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center, is working with Denbury Onshore LLC to determine the effect of a large-scale injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into a deep clastic reservoir for the purpose of simultaneous CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and to study incidental CO2 storage at the Bell Creek oil field located in southeastern Montana. This project will reduce CO2 emissions by more than 1 million tons a year while simultaneously recovering an anticipated 30 million barrels of incremental oil. The Bell Creek project provides a unique opportunity to use and evaluate a comprehensive suite of technologies for monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) of CO2 on a large-scale. The plan incorporates multiple geophysical technologies in the presence of complementary and sometimes overlapping data to create a comprehensive data set that will facilitate evaluation and comparison. The MVA plan has been divided into shallow and deep subsurface monitoring. The deep subsurface monitoring plan includes 4-D surface seismic, time-lapse 3-D vertical seismic profile (VSP) surveys incorporating a permanent borehole array, and baseline and subsequent carbon-oxygen logging and other well-based measurements. The goal is to track the movement of CO2 in the reservoir, evaluate the recovery/storage efficiency of the CO2 EOR program, identify fluid migration pathways, and determine the ultimate fate of injected CO2. CO2 injection at Bell Creek began in late May 2013. Prior to injection, a monitoring and characterization well near the field center was drilled and outfitted with a distributed temperature-monitoring system and three down-hole pressure gauges to provide continuous real-time data of the reservoir and overlying strata. The monitoring well allows on-demand access for time-lapse well-based measurements and borehole seismic instrumentation. A 50-level permanent borehole array of 3-component geophones was installed in a second monitoring well. A pre-injection series of carbon-oxygen logging across the reservoir was acquired in 35 wells. The baseline 3-D surface seismic survey was acquired in September 2012. A 3-D VSP incorporating two wells and 2 square miles of overlapping seismic coverage in the middle of the field was acquired in May 2013. Initial iterations of geologic modeling and reservoir simulation of the field have been completed. Currently, passive seismic monitoring with the permanent borehole array is being conducted during injection. Interpretation results from the baseline surface 3-D survey and preliminary results from the baseline 3-D VSP are being evaluated and integrated into the reservoir model. The PCOR Partnership's philosophy is to combine site characterization, modeling, and monitoring strategies into an iterative process to produce descriptive integrated results. The comprehensive effort at Bell Creek will allow a comparison of the effectiveness of several complementary geophysical and well-based methods in meeting the goals of the deep subsurface monitoring effort.

Burnison, S. A.; Ditty, P.; Gorecki, C. D.; Hamling, J. A.; Steadman, E. N.; Harju, J. A.

2013-12-01

190

Numerical simulation of vortex pyrolysis reactors for condensable tar production from biomass  

SciTech Connect

A numerical study is performed in order to evaluate the performance and optimal operating conditions of vortex pyrolysis reactors used for condensable tar production from biomass. A detailed mathematical model of porous biomass particle pyrolysis is coupled with a compressible Reynolds stress transport model for the turbulent reactor swirling flow. An initial evaluation of particle dimensionality effects is made through comparisons of single- (1D) and multi-dimensional particle simulations and reveals that the 1D particle model results in conservative estimates for total pyrolysis conversion times and tar collection. The observed deviations are due predominantly to geometry effects while directional effects from thermal conductivity and permeability variations are relatively small. Rapid ablative particle heating rates are attributed to a mechanical fragmentation of the biomass particles that is modeled using a critical porosity for matrix breakup. Optimal thermal conditions for tar production are observed for 900 K. Effects of biomass identity, particle size distribution, and reactor geometry and scale are discussed.

Miller, R.S.; Bellan, J. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.

1998-08-01

191

Assessment of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in the Autauga Creek watershed, Autauga County, Alabama, 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Only four families within the Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera orders were found during a 1999 survey of aquatic macroinvertebrates in Autauga Creek, Autauga County, Alabama, by the Alabama Department of Environmental Management. The low number of taxa of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera families indicated that the aquatic macroinvertebrate community was in poor condition, and the creek was placed on the Alabama Department of Environmental Management 303(d) list. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in 2009 to provide data for the Alabama Department of Environmental Management and other water management agencies to re-evaluate aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in Autauga Creek to see if they meet Alabama Department of Environmental Management water-quality criteria. Aquatic macroinvertebrate communities were evaluated at three sites in the Autauga Creek watershed. Macroinvertebrates were sampled at two sites on Autauga Creek and one on Bridge Creek, the largest tributary to Autauga Creek. Water-quality field parameters were assessed at 11 sites. During the 2009 sampling, 12 families within the orders of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera were found at the Alabama Department of Environmental Management's assessment site whereas only four were found in 1999. The upstream site on Autauga Creek had consistently higher numbers of taxa than the Bridge Creek site and the lower site on Autauga Creek which is the Alabama Department of Environmental Management's assessment site. Chironomid richness was noticeably higher on the two Autauga Creek sites than the Bridge Creek site.

Mooty, Will S.; Gill, Amy C.

2011-01-01

192

Bereavement Rituals in the Muscogee Creek Tribe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative, collective case study explores bereavement rituals in the Muscogee Creek tribe. Data from interviews with 27 participants, all adult members of the tribe, revealed consensus on participation in certain bereavement rituals. Common rituals included (a) conducting a wake service the night before burial; (b) never leaving the body alone before burial; (c) enclosing personal items and food in

Andrea C. Walker; David E. Balk

2007-01-01

193

Bereavement Rituals in the Muscogee Creek Tribe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative, collective case study explores bereavement rituals in the Muscogee Creek tribe. Data from interviews with 27 participants, all adult members of the tribe, revealed consensus on participation in certain bereavement rituals. Common rituals included (a) conducting a wake service the night before burial; (b) never leaving the body alone…

Walker, Andrea C.; Balk, David E.

2007-01-01

194

Grieving in the Muscogee Creek Tribe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative, collective case study explores grieving in the Muscogee Creek tribe. Data from interviews with 27 participants, all adult members of the tribe, reveal tendencies in patterns of grieving. Commonalities include (a) individual strength and certainty of recovery; (b) focus on giving to others in the family and coping as a family unit;…

Walker, Andrea C.

2008-01-01

195

33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation... Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida,...

2010-07-01

196

33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation... Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida,...

2011-07-01

197

Treatability study on the Bear Creek Valley characterization area at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Phase II work plan for S-3 site contaminated groundwater interception--in-field media evaluation and groundwater capture methods  

SciTech Connect

A treatability study is being conducted to support implementation:of early actions at the S-3 Site in the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Characterization Area (CA). The objectives of the early actions Will be (1) to reduce concentrations of uranium and nitrate in Bear Creek and (2) to reduce contaminants of concern in North Tributary (NT)-1 and NT-2. The BCV CA is located within the US DOE`s Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. Hazardous and radioactive materials from the Y-12 Plant operations were, disposed of at various sites within BCV. Groundwater and surface water in the BCV CA have been contaminated. The remedial investigation (RI) for the BCV CA identified that the greatest mass flux of contaminants from the various sources migrates via groundwater at the source and discharges to surface water in Bear Creek and its tributaries. In the RI, the combined discharge from the S-3 Site and the Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY) was identified as accounting for 75% of the cancer risk and more than 80% of the chemical toxicity to Potential downgradient human receptors. In addition, the S-3 Site has caused degradation of surface water quality in upper Bear Creek and two of its tributaries. The BCV CA treatability study focuses on capture and treatment of shallow groundwater before it discharges to tributary waters. The objectives Of treatment of this groundwater are (1) to reduce the concentrations of uranium and nitrate in NT-1 and Bear Creek such that the concentrations of these chemicals in surface water and groundwater are reduced to acceptable levels, (2) to reduce the concentrations of nitrate and metals, and reduce the overall concentration of total dissolved solids; and (3) to hydraulically contain the plume of contaminated, groundwater that is moving in bedrock in the Nolichucky Shale such that the rate of contaminant discharge will be reduced in the long term. The objective of Phase II is to produce conceptual designs for treatment system configurations.

NONE

1996-12-01

198

Physical, Chemical, and Toxicological Characterization of Untreated and Treated Tar Sand Wastewaters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the physical, chemical, and toxicological properties of untreated and treated tar sand wastewaters has been completed. One of the waters selected for this study, TS-1S wastewater, was generated during an in situ steam flood experiment conducted...

W. F. McTernan, S. L. Hill, W. E. Blanton

1985-01-01

199

Geology and resources of the Tar Sand Triangle, southeastern Utah  

SciTech Connect

The Tar Sand Triangle is located in southeastern Utah between the Dirty Devil and Colorado Rivers and covers an area of about 200 square miles. The geology of the area consists of gently northwest dipping strata exposed in the box canyons and slopes of the canyonlands morphology. Strata in the area range in age from Jurassic to Permian. The majority of tar sand saturation is found in the Permian White Rim Sandstone Member of the Cutler Formation. The White Rim Sandstone Member consists of a clean, well-sorted sandstone which was deposited in a shallow marine environment. Resources were calculated from analytical data from the three coreholes drilled by the Laramie Energy Technology Center and other available data. The total in-place resources, determined from this study, are 6.3 billion barels. Previous estimates ranged from 2.9 to 16 million barrels. More coring and analyses will be necessary before a more accurate determination of resources can be attempted. 8 references, 11 figures, 7 tables.

Dana, G.F.; Oliver, R.L.; Elliott, J.R.

1984-05-01

200

Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials  

SciTech Connect

This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

Stauffer, H.C.

1981-01-01

201

Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Colmenares, Tulio Rafael (Houston, TX); Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX); Marino, Marian (Houston, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Ryan, Robert Charles (Houston, TX); Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Dombrowski, Robert James (Houston, TX); Jaiswal, Namit (Houston, TX)

2009-12-22

202

Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX

2010-01-12

203

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 LTR TATA and TAR region sequences required for transcriptional regulation.  

PubMed Central

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 LTR is regulated at the transcriptional level by both cellular and viral proteins. Using HeLa cell extracts, multiple regions of the HIV LTR were found to serve as binding sites for cellular proteins. An untranslated region binding protein UBP-1 has been purified and fractions containing this protein bind to both the TAR and TATA regions. To investigate the role of cellular proteins binding to both the TATA and TAR regions and their potential interaction with other HIV DNA binding proteins, oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis of both these regions was performed followed by DNase I footprinting and transient expression assays. In the TATA region, two direct repeats TC/AAGC/AT/AGCTGC surround the TATA sequence. Mutagenesis of both of these direct repeats or of the TATA sequence interrupted binding over the TATA region on the coding strand, but only a mutation of the TATA sequence affected in vivo assays for tat-activation. In addition to TAR serving as the site of binding of cellular proteins, RNA transcribed from TAR is capable of forming a stable stem-loop structure. To determine the relative importance of DNA binding proteins as compared to secondary structure, oligonucleotide-directed mutations in the TAR region were studied. Local mutations that disrupted either the stem or loop structure were defective in gene expression. However, compensatory mutations which restored base pairing in the stem resulted in complete tat-activation. This indicated a significant role for the stem-loop structure in HIV gene expression. To determine the role of TAR binding proteins, mutations were constructed which extensively changed the primary structure of the TAR region, yet left stem base pairing, stem energy and the loop sequence intact. These mutations resulted in decreased protein binding to TAR DNA and defects in tat-activation, and revealed factor binding specifically to the loop DNA sequence. Further mutagenesis which inverted this stem and loop mutation relative to the HIV LTR mRNA start site resulted in even larger decreases in tat-activation. This suggests that multiple determinants, including protein binding, the loop sequence, and RNA or DNA secondary structure, are important in tat-activation and suggests that tat may interact with cellular proteins binding to DNA to increase HIV gene expression. Images PMID:2721501

Garcia, J A; Harrich, D; Soultanakis, E; Wu, F; Mitsuyasu, R; Gaynor, R B

1989-01-01

204

+2 Valence Metal Concentrations in Lion Creek, Oakland, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven major creeks exist within the City of Oakland, California. These creeks all flow in the southwest direction from forested hills down through densely populated streets where they become susceptible to urban runoff. Lion Creek has been diverted to engineered channels and underground culverts and runs directly under our school (Roots International) before flowing into the San Leandro Bay. One branch of the creek begins near an abandoned sulfur mine. Previous studies have shown that extremely high levels of lead, arsenic and iron exist in this portion of the creek due to acid mine drainage. In this study +2 valence heavy metals concentration data was obtained from samples collected from a segment of the creek located approximately 2.8 miles downstream from the mine. Concentrations in samples collected at three different sites along this segment ranged between 50 ppb and 100 ppb. We hypothesize that these levels are related to the high concentration of +2 valence heavy metals at the mining site. To test this hypothesis, we have obtained samples from various locations along the roughly 3.75 miles of Lion Creek that are used to assess changes in heavy metals concentration levels from the mining site to the San Leandro Bay.

Vazquez, P.; Zedd, T.; Chagolla, R.; Dutton-Starbuck, M.; Negrete, A.; Jinham, M.; Lapota, M.

2012-12-01

205

Waste management plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This Waste Management Plant (WMP) for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study addresses waste management requirements for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The study is intended to produce treatment performance data required to design a treatment system for contaminated groundwater. The treatability study will consist of an evaluation of various treatment media including: continuous column tests, with up to six columns being employed to evaluate the performance of different media in the treatment of groundwater; an evaluation of the denitrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of a wetland system; and the long-term denitrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of algal mats. The Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) covers the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. The Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety concerns and requirements for the proposed sampling activities. This WMP identifies the types and estimates the volumes of various wastes that may be generated during the proposed treatability studies. The approach to managing waste outlined in this WMP emphasizes: (1) management of the waste generated in a manner that is protective of human health and the environment; (2) minimization of waste generation, thereby reducing unnecessary costs and usage of limited permitted storage and disposal capacities; and (3) compliance with federal, state, and site requirements. Prior sampling at the site has detected organic, radioactive, and metals contamination in groundwater and surface water. Proposed field operations are not expected to result in worker exposures greater than applicable exposure or action limits.

NONE

1997-05-01

206

43 CFR 3141.2 - Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas. 3141.2 Section 3141.2 Public...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.2 Prelease exploration...

2011-10-01

207

Kiowa Creek Switching Station  

SciTech Connect

The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1990-03-01

208

Ship Creek bioassessment investigations  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

1995-06-01

209

Review of reported tar-sand occurrences and recent projects in Wyoming. [78 occurrences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synopsis is presented of 78 reported occurrences of shallow, oil-impregnated rocks in Wyoming many of which may be tar sands. (Appendices A and B). In most cases, there are only sketchy descriptions of these occurrences, scattered throughout the literature. This paper is a prelude to much needed studies and evaluations of these individual deposits. In addition, brief descriptions of

M. Clark; G. B. Glass

1983-01-01

210

Catalyst specificities in high pressure hydroprocessing of pyrolysis and gasification tars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a period of several years, the Department of Forest Science at Texas A and M University has been conducting studies in the hydroprocessing (catalytic high pressure hydrotreating or hydrodeoxygenation accompanied by hydrocracking) of pyrolytic tars produced in biomass pyrolysis and gasification. Upgrading through hydroprocessing results in good yields of volatile hydrocarbon and phenolic products. This paper compares the performance

E. J. Soltes; S. C. K. Lin; Y. H. E. Sheu

1987-01-01

211

COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SUMMARY: SOLID WASTES AND BY-PRODUCT TARS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report, one of several data summary reports on the environmental aspects and pollutants specific to coal gasification, addresses characteristics of solid wastes (ash and cyclone dust) and by-product tars and oils analyzed in nine EPA source tests and evaluation studies and li...

212

Fungicidal value of wood tar from pyrolysis of treated wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the paper was to estimate the fungicidal value of wood tar extracted as a product of pyrolysis of wood previously treated with either creosote oil or CCB-type salt preservative. The effectiveness of wood treated with one of these two wood tar residuals was compared to the effectiveness of wood treated with virgin creosote oil (type WEI-B) and

Bart?omiej Mazela

2007-01-01

213

Major tar sand and heavy oil deposits of the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for this report has grown with each passing year since the last official tabulation of US tar sands, the 1965 Department of Interior\\/Bureau of Mines Monograph 12 entitled, Surface and Shallow Oil-Impregnated Rocks of the United States. Four important national energy resource objectives are addressed: (1) to develop an updated assessment of US tar sand resources; (2) to

Hammershaimb

1983-01-01

214

Oil shale and tar sands as substitute fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the sheer magnitude of the resources available, coal takes a strong position as the alternate source of fuel supplies when petroleum is unavailable. However oil shale and tar sands are also possibilities, and, indeed, have some advantages over coal. Although Oklahoma has no oil shale deposits, it does have appreciable amounts of tar sands. Oil shale deposits in the

Ball

1974-01-01

215

The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1990-07-01

216

The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands  

SciTech Connect

Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1990-07-01

217

Recent Approaches to Modeling Transport of Mercury in Surface Water and Groundwater - Case Study in Upper East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, TN - 13349  

SciTech Connect

In this case study, groundwater/surface water modeling was used to determine efficacy of stabilization in place with hydrologic isolation for remediation of mercury contaminated areas in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Watershed in Oak Ridge, TN. The modeling simulates the potential for mercury in soil to contaminate groundwater above industrial use risk standards and to contribute to surface water contamination. The modeling approach is unique in that it couples watershed hydrology with the total mercury transport and provides a tool for analysis of changes in mercury load related to daily precipitation, evaporation, and runoff from storms. The model also allows for simulation of colloidal transport of total mercury in surface water. Previous models for the watershed only simulated average yearly conditions and dissolved concentrations that are not sufficient for predicting mercury flux under variable flow conditions that control colloidal transport of mercury in the watershed. The transport of mercury from groundwater to surface water from mercury sources identified from information in the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System was simulated using a watershed scale model calibrated to match observed daily creek flow, total suspended solids and mercury fluxes. Mercury sources at the former Building 81-10 area, where mercury was previously retorted, were modeled using a telescopic refined mesh with boundary conditions extracted from the watershed model. Modeling on a watershed scale indicated that only source excavation for soils/sediment in the vicinity of UEFPC had any effect on mercury flux in surface water. The simulations showed that colloidal transport contributed 85 percent of the total mercury flux leaving the UEFPC watershed under high flow conditions. Simulation of dissolved mercury transport from liquid elemental mercury and adsorbed sources in soil at former Building 81-10 indicated that dissolved concentrations are orders of magnitude below a target industrial groundwater concentration beneath the source and would not influence concentrations in surface water at Station 17. This analysis addressed only shallow concentrations in soil and the shallow groundwater flow path in soil and unconsolidated sediments to UEFPC. Other mercury sources may occur in bedrock and transport though bedrock to UEFPC may contribute to the mercury flux at Station 17. Generally mercury in the source areas adjacent to the stream and in sediment that is eroding can contribute to the flux of mercury in surface water. Because colloidally adsorbed mercury can be transported in surface water, actions that trap colloids and or hydrologically isolate surface water runoff from source areas would reduce the flux of mercury in surface water. Mercury in soil is highly adsorbed and transport in the groundwater system is very limited under porous media conditions. (authors)

Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary [Professional Project Services, Inc., Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States)] [Professional Project Services, Inc., Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States); Tachiev, Georgio [Florida International University, Applied Research Center 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100 Miami Florida 33174 (United States)] [Florida International University, Applied Research Center 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100 Miami Florida 33174 (United States); Malek-Mohammadi, Siamak [Bradley University, 413A Jobst Hall, Preoria, IL 61625 (United States)] [Bradley University, 413A Jobst Hall, Preoria, IL 61625 (United States)

2013-07-01

218

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

1988-05-04

219

GEE CREEK WILDERNESS, TENNESSEE.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mine and prospect surveys, it was determined that the Gee Creek Wilderness, Tennessee has little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. Iron ore was formerly mined, but the deposits are small, have a high phosphorous content, and are inaccessible. Shale, suitable for brick or lightweight aggregate, and sandstone, which could be utilized for crushed stone or sand, are found in the area, but are also found in areas closer to potential markets. The geologic setting precludes the presence of oil and gas resources in the surface rocks, but the possibility of finding natural gas at depth below the rocks exposed in the area cannot be discounted. Geophysical exploration would be necessary to define the local structure in rocks at depth to properly evaluate the potential of the area for gas.

Epstein, Jack, B.; Gazdik, Gertrude, C.

1984-01-01

220

Health and safety plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety (H&S) concerns and requirements for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be collected from effluent following treatment tests of extraction columns, algal mats, and mature wetlands supplied by surface water locations and existing groundwater monitoring well locations. The project Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. It is the responsibility of the project managers, field manager, and site health and safety officer (SHSO) to determine that the requirements of this HASP are sufficiently protective. If it is determined that the requirements of this HASP are not sufficiently protective, a field change order(s) (FCO) will be prepared. FCOs will include a completed job hazard analysis or similar worksheet to ensure complete hazard assessment. FCOs must be approved by the Environmental Management and Enrichment Facilities (EMEF) project manager, EMEF H&S manager, subcontractor project or field manager, and subcontractor H&S representative. As a minimum, FCOs will be prepared if additional tasks will be performed or if contaminant exposure is anticipated.

NONE

1997-05-01

221

A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Cedar Creek, Dekalb and Allen counties, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A digital model calibrated to conditions in Cedar Creek was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The model indicates that the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the Auburn wastewater effluent and nitrification are the most significant factors affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentration in Cedar Creek during summer low flows. The observed dissolved-oxygen concentration of the Auburn wastewater effluent was low and averaged 30 percent of saturation. Projected nitrogenous biochemical-oxygen demand loads, from the Indiana State Board of Health, for the Auburn and Waterloo wastewater-treatment facilities will result in violations of the current instream dissolved-oxygen standard (5 mg/l), even with an effluent dissolved-oxygen concentration of 80 percent saturation. Natural streamflow for Cedar Creek upstream from the confluence of Willow and Little Cedar Creeks is small compared with the waste discharge, so benefits of dilution for Waterloo and Auburn are minimal. The model also indicates that, during winter low flows, ammonia toxicity, rather than dissolved oxygen, is the limiting water-quality criterion in the reach of Cedar Creek downstream from the wastewater-treatment facility at Auburn and the confluence of Garrett ditch. Ammonia-nitrogen concentrations predicted for 1978 through 2000 downstream from the Waterloo wastewater-treatment facility do not exceed Indiana water-quality standards for streams. Calculations of the stream 's assimilative capacity indicate that future waste discharge in the Cedar Creek basin will be limited to the reaches between the Auburn wastewater-treatment facility and County Road 68. (Kosco-USGS)

Wilber, William G.; Peters, J. G.; Ayers, M. A.; Crawford, C. G.

1979-01-01

222

Time scales of organic contaminant dissolution from complex source zones: coal tar pools vs. blobs.  

PubMed

Groundwater contamination due to complex organic mixtures such as coal tar, creosote and fuels is a widespread problem in industrialized regions. Although most compounds in these mixtures are biodegradable, the contaminant sources are very persistent for many decades after the contamination occurred (e.g., more than 100 years ago at gasworks sites). This limited bioavailability is due to slow dissolution processes. This study presents results from a large scale tank experiment (8 m long) on the long-term (354 days) dissolution kinetics of BTEX and PAHs from a 2.5 m long coal tar pool and 0.5 m long (smear) zone containing coal tar blobs distributed in a coarse sand. The results inidicate (1) that Raoult's law holds for estimation of the saturation aqueous concentrations of the coal tar constituents, (2) that for the dissolution of smear zones longer than approximately 0.1 m and with more than 3-5% residual saturation, the local equilibrium assumption is valid and (3) that although very small (< 0.1 mm), the transverse vertical dispersivity dominates the pool dissolution processes. Typical time scales for removal of the pollutants from the blob zone and the pool are in the order of a few weeks to more than 10,000 years, respectively. PMID:12683639

Eberhardt, Christina; Grathwohl, Peter

2002-11-01

223

Toxicity of weathered coal tar for shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) embryos and larvae.  

PubMed

Weathered coal tar collected from the Connecticut River near Holyoke, Massachusetts, was toxic to shortnose sturgeon embryos and larvae in whole sediment flow-through and elutriate static-renewal laboratory exposures. Sterile laboratory sand and clean Connecticut River sand, collected upstream from the coal tar deposits, produced no significant difference in toxicity to sturgeon embryos-larvae, while coal tar-contaminated sediment produced over 95% embryo-larval mortality. Hydrocarbon transfer and subsequent toxicity appeared to be via direct contact of the embryos with contaminated sediment, rather than via exposure to soluble hydrocarbons. This conclusion was supported by exposure of embryos and larvae to elutriates (e.g., water soluble extract) of coal-tar sediments, that resulted in embryo and larval mortality at low molecular weight PAH concentrations-0.47 mg/L, higher than would occur naturally. No decrease in petroleum hydrocarbon concentration was observed in sediments exposed to flowing water for 14 d, supporting the contention that soluble hydrocarbons were not responsible for the observed toxicity in whole sediment exposures under the conditions employed in this study. PMID:8785011

Kocan, R M; Matta, M B; Salazar, S M

1996-08-01

224

Geometry of Wall Creek sandstones, Salt Creek Oil Field, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Modern gamma-ray and density well logs at the Salt Creek field define an optimum development of the middle and lower Wall Creek (First Frontier) Sandstone reservoir, which is unusually thick, well sorted, and porous in a belt about 1 mi wide that crosses the Salt Creek anticline in a north-northeasterly trend. The most distinctive aspect of the geometry of this well-sorted sandstone is its east-sloping clinoform shape in cross section. Detailed well-log control defines (1) moderate paleotopography on the basal Wall Creek regional unconformity, then (2) deposition of a local depositional shelf, shelf-edge, and north-trending slope, and finally (3) deposition of optimum sandstone reservoirs across this local shelf edge and slope by a high-energy current that appears to have flowed obliquely downslope northeastward into deeper water. If similar Wall Creek sandstones were deposited east of the Salt Creek field in the deeper part of the Powder River basin, recent wells, which are being drilled 1 mi apart, are too widely spaced to define the geometry of the individual sandstone bodies. Because of the asymmetric shape of the clinoform sandstones, hydrocarbon shows along the east or west edges of a sandstone have different implications as to the possible location of the center of the sandstone body. Many, but not all, Upper Cretaceous sandstones in this part of the basin have clinoform geometry.

Curry, W.H. III

1986-08-01

225

Waste management plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley Treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This Waste Management Plan (WMP) for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study addresses waste management requirements for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The study is intended to produce treatment performance data required to design a treatment system for contaminated groundwater. The treatability study will consist of an evaluation of various treatment media including continuous column tests, with up to six columns being employed to evaluate the performance of different media in the treatment of groundwater; an evaluation of the dentrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of a wetland system; and the long-term dentrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of algal mats. Additionally, the treatability study involves installation of a trench and incline well to evaluate and assess hydraulic impacts of pumping groundwater. The Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) covers the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. The Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety concerns and requirements for the proposed sampling activities. This WMP identifies the types and estimates the volumes of various wastes that may be generated during the proposed treatability studies. The approach to managing waste outlined in this WMP emphasizes the following points: (1) management of the waste generated in a manner that is protective of human health and the environment; (2) minimization of waste generation, thereby reducing unnecessary costs and usage of limited permitted storage and disposal capacities; and (3) compliance with federal, state, and site requirements. Prior sampling at the site has detected organic, radioactive, and metals contamination in groundwater and surface water. Proposed field operations are not expected to result in worker exposures greater than applicable exposure or action limits.

NONE

1997-09-01

226

The Effect of Landuse and Other External Factors on Water Quality Within two Creeks in Northern Kentucky  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to monitor the water quality in two creeks in Northern Kentucky. These are the Banklick Creek in Kenton County and the Woolper Creek in Boone County, Kentucky. The objective was to evaluate the effect of landuse and other external factors on surface water quality. Landuse within the Banklick watershed is industrial, forest and residential

S. Boateng

2006-01-01

227

78 FR 62616 - Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Project No. 3730-005] Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption...filed September 23, 2013, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company informed the Commission that...

2013-10-22

228

Lagrangian Sampling of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent in Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek,  

E-print Network

Lagrangian Sampling of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent in Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile of wastewater treatment plant effluent in Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa, during the summer...................................................................................................................... 5 Acidic Organic Wastewater Compounds

229

Atmospheric tar balls: aged primary droplets from biomass burning?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric tar balls are particles of special morphology and composition that are fairly abundant in the plumes of biomass smoke. These particles form a specific subset of brown carbon (BrC) which has been shown to play a significant role in atmospheric shortwave absorption and, by extension, climate forcing. Here we suggest that tar balls are produced by the direct emission of liquid tar droplets followed by heat transformation upon biomass burning. For the first time in atmospheric chemistry we generated tar-ball particles from liquid tar obtained previously by dry distillation of wood in an all-glass apparatus in the laboratory with the total exclusion of flame processes. The particles were perfectly spherical with a mean optical diameter of 300 nm, refractory, externally mixed, and homogeneous in the contrast of the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. They lacked any graphene-like microstructure and exhibited a mean carbon-to-oxygen ratio of 10. All of the observed characteristics of laboratory-generated particles were very similar to those reported for atmospheric tar-ball particles in the literature, strongly supporting our hypothesis regarding the formation mechanism of atmospheric tar-ball particles.

Tóth, A.; Hoffer, A.; Nyir?-Kósa, I.; Pósfai, M.; Gelencsér, A.

2014-07-01

230

Class I cultural resource overview for oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming.  

SciTech Connect

In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the 'Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005', Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is developing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) to evaluate alternatives for establishing commercial oil shale and tar sands leasing programs in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. This PEIS evaluates the potential impacts of alternatives identifying BLM-administered lands as available for application for commercial leasing of oil shale resources within the three states and of tar sands resources within Utah. The scope of the analysis of the PEIS also includes an assessment of the potential effects of future commercial leasing. This Class I cultural resources study is in support of the Draft Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and is an attempt to synthesize archaeological data covering the most geologically prospective lands for oil shale and tar sands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. This report is based solely on geographic information system (GIS) data held by the Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPOs). The GIS data include the information that the BLM has provided to the SHPOs. The primary purpose of the Class I cultural resources overview is to provide information on the affected environment for the PEIS. Furthermore, this report provides recommendations to support planning decisions and the management of cultural resources that could be impacted by future oil shale and tar sands resource development.

O'Rourke, D.; Kullen, D.; Gierek, L.; Wescott, K.; Greby, M.; Anast, G.; Nesta, M.; Walston, L.; Tate, R.; Azzarello, A.; Vinikour, B.; Van Lonkhuyzen, B.; Quinn, J.; Yuen, R.; Environmental Science Division

2007-11-01

231

mirTarPri: improved prioritization of microRNA targets through incorporation of functional genomics data.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small (19-25 nt) non-coding RNAs. This important class of gene regulator downregulates gene expression through sequence-specific binding to the 3'untranslated regions (3'UTRs) of target mRNAs. Several computational target prediction approaches have been developed for predicting miRNA targets. However, the predicted target lists often have high false positive rates. To construct a workable target list for subsequent experimental studies, we need novel approaches to properly rank the candidate targets from traditional methods. We performed a systematic analysis of experimentally validated miRNA targets using functional genomics data, and found significant functional associations between genes that were targeted by the same miRNA. Based on this finding, we developed a miRNA target prioritization method named mirTarPri to rank the predicted target lists from commonly used target prediction methods. Leave-one-out cross validation has proved to be successful in identifying known targets, achieving an AUC score up to 0. 84. Validation in high-throughput data proved that mirTarPri was an unbiased method. Applying mirTarPri to prioritize results of six commonly used target prediction methods allowed us to find more positive targets at the top of the prioritized candidate list. In comparison with other methods, mirTarPri had an outstanding performance in gold standard and CLIP data. mirTarPri was a valuable method to improve the efficacy of current miRNA target prediction methods. We have also developed a web-based server for implementing mirTarPri method, which is freely accessible at http://bioinfo.hrbmu.edu.cn/mirTarPri. PMID:23326485

Wang, Peng; Ning, Shangwei; Wang, Qianghu; Li, Ronghong; Ye, Jingrun; Zhao, Zuxianglan; Li, Yan; Huang, Teng; Li, Xia

2013-01-01

232

mirTarPri: Improved Prioritization of MicroRNA Targets through Incorporation of Functional Genomics Data  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small (19–25 nt) non-coding RNAs. This important class of gene regulator downregulates gene expression through sequence-specific binding to the 3?untranslated regions (3?UTRs) of target mRNAs. Several computational target prediction approaches have been developed for predicting miRNA targets. However, the predicted target lists often have high false positive rates. To construct a workable target list for subsequent experimental studies, we need novel approaches to properly rank the candidate targets from traditional methods. We performed a systematic analysis of experimentally validated miRNA targets using functional genomics data, and found significant functional associations between genes that were targeted by the same miRNA. Based on this finding, we developed a miRNA target prioritization method named mirTarPri to rank the predicted target lists from commonly used target prediction methods. Leave-one-out cross validation has proved to be successful in identifying known targets, achieving an AUC score up to 0. 84. Validation in high-throughput data proved that mirTarPri was an unbiased method. Applying mirTarPri to prioritize results of six commonly used target prediction methods allowed us to find more positive targets at the top of the prioritized candidate list. In comparison with other methods, mirTarPri had an outstanding performance in gold standard and CLIP data. mirTarPri was a valuable method to improve the efficacy of current miRNA target prediction methods. We have also developed a web-based server for implementing mirTarPri method, which is freely accessible at http://bioinfo.hrbmu.edu.cn/mirTarPri. PMID:23326485

Li, Ronghong; Ye, Jingrun; Zhao, Zuxianglan; Li, Yan; Huang, Teng; Li, Xia

2013-01-01

233

Understanding the fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons from coal tar within gasholders.  

PubMed

Coal tars have been identified as posing a threat to human health due to their toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic characteristics. Workers involved in former gasholders decommissioning are potentially exposed to relevant concentrations of volatile and semi-volatile hydrocarbons upon opening up derelict tanks and during tar excavation/removal. While information on contaminated sites air-quality and its implications on medium-long term exposure is available, acute exposure issues associated with the execution of critical tasks are less understood. Calculations indicated that the concentration of a given contaminant in the gasholder vapour phase only depends on the coal tar composition, being only barely affected by the presence of water in the gasholder and the tar volume/void space ratio. Fugacity modelling suggested that risk-critical compounds such as benzene, naphthalene and other monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may gather in the gasholder air phase at significant concentrations. Gasholder emissions were measured on-site and compared with the workplace exposure limits (WELs) currently in use in UK. While levels for most of the toxic compounds were far lower than WELs, benzene air-concentrations where found to be above the accepted threshold. In addition due to the long exposure periods involved in gasholder decommissioning and the significant contribution given by naphthalene to the total coal tar vapour concentration, the adoption of a WEL for naphthalene may need to be considered to support operators in preventing human health risk at the workplace. The Level I fugacity approach used in this study demonstrated its suitability for applications to sealed environments such as gasholders and its further refining could provide a useful tool for land remediation risk assessors. PMID:18657318

Coulon, Frédéric; Orsi, Roberto; Turner, Claire; Walton, Chris; Daly, Paddy; Pollard, Simon J T

2009-02-01

234

A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Clear Creek, Monroe County, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A digital model calibrated to conditions in Clear Creek, Monroe County, IN, was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The Winston Thomas wastewater-treatment facility is the only point-source waste load affecting the modeled reach of Clear Creek. A new waste-water-treatment facility under construction at Dillman Road (river mile 13.78) will replace the Winston Thomas wastewater-treatment facility (river mile 16.96) in 1980. Natural streamflow during the summer and annual 7-day, 10-year low flow is zero, so no benefit from dilution is provided. The model indicates that ammonia-nitrogen toxicity is the most significant factor affecting the stream water quality during summer and winter low flows. The ammonia-nitrogen concentration of the wastewater effluent exceeds the maximum total ammonia-nitrogen concentration of 2.5 milligrams per liter for summer months (June through August) and 4.0 milligrams per liter for winter months (November through March) required for Indiana streams. Nitrification, benthic-oxygen demand, and algal respiration were the most significant factors affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentration in Clear Creek during the model calibration. Nitrification should not significantly affect the dissolved-oxygen concentration in Clear Creek during summer low flows when the ammonia-nitrogen toxicity standards are met. (USGS)

Wilber, William G.; Crawford, C. G.; Peters, J. G.; Girardi, F. P.

1979-01-01

235

Channel stability of Turkey Creek, Nebraska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Channelization on Turkey Creek and its receiving stream, the South Fork Big Nemaha River, has disturbed the equilibrium of Turkey Creek and has led to channel-stability problems, such as degradation and channel widening, which pose a threat to bridges and land adjacent to the stream. As part of a multiagency study, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel stability at two bridge sites on upper and middle portions of Turkey Creek by analyzing streambed-elevation data for gradation changes, comparing recent cross-section surveys and historic accounts, identifying bank-failure blocks, and analyzing tree-ring samples. These results were compared to gradation data and trend results for a U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near the mouth of Turkey Creek from a previous study. Examination of data on streambed elevations reveals that degradation has occurred. The streambed elevation declined 0.5 m at the upper site from 1967-97. The streambed elevation declined by 3.2 m at the middle site from 1948-97 and exposed 2 m of the pilings of the Nebraska Highway 8 bridge. Channel widening could not be verified at the two sites from 1967-97, but a historic account indicates widening at the middle site to be two to three times that of the 1949 channel width. Small bank failures were evident at the upper site and a 4-m-wide bank failure occurred at the middle site in 1987 according to tree ring analyses. Examination of streambed-elevation data from a previous study at the lower site reveals a statistically significant aggrading trend from 1958-93. Further examination of these data suggests minor degradation occurred until 1975, followed by aggradation.

Rus, David, L.; Soenksen, Philip, J.

1998-01-01

236

Variability of Polychaete Secondary Production in Intertidal Creek Networks along a Stream-Order Gradient  

PubMed Central

Dendritic tidal creek networks are important habitats for sustaining biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in salt marsh wetlands. To evaluate the importance of creek heterogeneity in supporting benthic secondary production, we assess the spatial distribution and secondary production of a representative polychaete species (Dentinephtys glabra) in creek networks along a stream-order gradient in a Yangtze River estuarine marsh. Density, biomass, and secondary production of polychaetes were found to be highest in intermediate order creeks. In high order (3rd and 4th) creeks, the density and biomass of D. glabra were higher in creek edge sites than in creek bottom sites, whereas the reverse was true for low order (1st and 2nd) creeks. Secondary production was highest in 2nd order creeks (559.7 mg AFDM m?2 year?1) and was ca. 2 folds higher than in 1st and 4th order creeks. Top fitting AIC models indicated that the secondary production of D. glabra was mainly associated with geomorphological characters including cross-sectional area and bank slope. This suggests that hydrodynamic forces are essential factors influencing secondary production of macrobenthos in salt marshes. This study emphasizes the importance of microhabitat variability when evaluating secondary production and ecosystem functions. PMID:24817092

Chu, Tianjiang; Sheng, Qiang; Wang, Sikai; Wu, Jihua

2014-01-01

237

Elementary GLOBE Unit: Discoveries at Willow Creek  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, the GLOBE Kids, on their second visit to Willow Creek, discover why the creek looks different. They learn about making observations, measuring water temperature and speed, and looking for critters in the water. In Activity 1, 'Magnify That', students will be able to identify a magnifying lens and its purpose. They will be able to explain how the same object looks different when using the unaided eye and then using a magnifying lens. In Activity 2, 'Measure Up', students will learn how to make nonstandard and standard linear measurements. They will test their estimates and record their results. In Activity 3, 'Water Wonders', students will have an understanding of what aquatic macroinvertebrates are, what kinds of adaptations they have for their environment, and why scientists study them.

2006-01-01

238

Vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary coal tars. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 April 1994--30 June 1994  

SciTech Connect

The vapor pressure correlations that exist at present for coal tars are very crude and they are not considered reliable to even an order of magnitude when applied to tars. The present project seeks to address this important gap in the near term by direct measurement of vapor pressures of coal tar fractions, by application of well-established techniques and modifications thereof. The principal objectives of the program are to: (1) obtain data on the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of tars from a range of ranks of coal, (2) develop correlations based on a minimum set of conveniently measurable characteristics of the tars and (3) develop equipment that would allow performing such measurements in a reliable, straightforward fashion. A significant amount of time has been devoted during this quarter to preparing the temperature measurement system for measurements of vapor pressure by the Knudsen effusion method. In the meantime, work has begun on preparing the system for producing the well-defined coal tar fractions that will ultimately be the subject of this study. The liquid chromatographic systems will be appropriate for this task. Anthracene and nonadecane were used to check the operation of the effusion apparatus. Fitting of the preliminary experimental data to the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was performed using the method of least squares. From these fits, the latent heats of evaporation or sublimation ({Delta}H{sub v}) could be approximately calculated. This report discusses results from the Knudsen method and tars production, collection, and molecular weight distribution.

Suuberg, E.M.; Oja, V.; Lilly, W.D.

1994-10-01

239

A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Silver Creek, Clark and Floyd counties, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Indiana State Board of Health is developing a State water-quality management plan that includes establishing limits for wastewater effluents discharged into Indiana streams. A digital model calibrated to conditions in Silver Creek was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. Effluents from the Sellersburg and Clarksville-North wastewater-treatment facilities are the only point-source waste loads that significantly affect the water quality in the modeled segment of Silver Creek. Model simulations indicate that nitrification is the most significant factor affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentration in Silver Creek during summer and winter low flows. Natural streamflow in Silver Creek during the summer and annual 7-day, 10-year low flow is zero, so no benefit from dilution is provided. Present ammonia-nitrogen and dissolved-oxygen concentrations of effluent from the Sellersburg and Clarksville-North wastewater-treatment facilities will violate current Indiana water-quality standards for ammonia toxicity and dissolved oxygen during summer and winter low flows. The current biochemical-oxygen demand limits for the Sellersburg and Clarksville-North wastewater-treatment facilities are not sufficient to maintain an average dissolved-oxygen concentration of at least 5 milligrams per liter, the State 's water-quality standard for streams. Calculations of the stream 's assimilative capacity indicate that Silver Creek cannot assimilate additional waste loadings and meet current Indiana water-quality standards. (Kosco-USGS)

Wilber, William G.; Crawford, Charles G.; Peters, James G.

1979-01-01

240

40 CFR 61.132 - Standard: Process vessels, storage tanks, and tar-intercepting sumps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...all openings on each process vessel, tar storage tank, and tar-intercepting...duct gases from each process vessel, tar storage tank...sampling port on each process vessel, tar storage tank, and...with repair within 15 days of detection. (d) Each owner or...

2012-07-01

241

40 CFR 61.132 - Standard: Process vessels, storage tanks, and tar-intercepting sumps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...all openings on each process vessel, tar storage tank, and tar-intercepting...duct gases from each process vessel, tar storage tank...sampling port on each process vessel, tar storage tank, and...with repair within 15 days of detection. (d) Each owner or...

2013-07-01

242

40 CFR 61.132 - Standard: Process vessels, storage tanks, and tar-intercepting sumps.  

...all openings on each process vessel, tar storage tank, and tar-intercepting...duct gases from each process vessel, tar storage tank...sampling port on each process vessel, tar storage tank, and...with repair within 15 days of detection. (d) Each owner or...

2014-07-01

243

A Synoptic Study of Fecal-Indicator Bacteria in the Wind River, Bighorn River, and Goose Creek Basins, Wyoming, June-July 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A synoptic study of fecal-indicator bacteria was conducted during June and July 2000 in the Wind River, Bighorn River, and Goose Creek Basins in Wyoming as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program for the Yellowstone River Basin. Fecal-coliform concentrations ranged from 2 to 3,000 col/100 mL (colonies per 100 milliliters) for 100 samples, and Escherichia coli concentrations ranged from 1 to 2,800 col/100 mL for 97 samples. Fecal-coliform concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit for a single sample for recreational contact with water in 37.0 percent of the samples. Escherichia coli concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit for a single sample for moderate use, full-body recreational contact with water in 38.1 percent of the samples and the recommended limit for infrequent use, full-body recreational contact with water in 24.7 percent of the samples. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations varied by basin. Samples from the Bighorn River Basin had the highest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 340 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 300 col/100 mL. Samples from the Wind River Basin had the lowest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 50 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 62 col/100 mL. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations varied by land cover. Samples from sites with an urban land cover had the highest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 540 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 420 col/100 mL. Maximum concentrations for fecal coliform of 3,000 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 2,800 col/100 mL were in samples from sites with an agricultural land cover. The lowest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 130 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 67 col/100 mL were for samples from sites with a forested land cover. A strong and positive relation existed between fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (Spearman's Rho value of 0.976). The majority of the fecal coliforms were Escherichia coli during the synoptic study. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations were not correlated to streamflow, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conduc-tance, and alkalinity. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations were moderately correlated with turbidity (Spearman's Rho values of 0.662 and 0.640 for fecal coliform and Escherichia coli, respectively) and sediment (Spearman's Rho values of 0.628 and 0.636 for fecal coliform and Escherichia coli, respectively). Escherichia coli isolates analyzed by discriminant analysis of ribotype patterns for samples from the Bighorn River at Basin, Wyoming, and Bitter Creek near Garland, Wyoming, in the Bighorn River Basin were determined to be from nonhuman and human sources. Using a confidence interval of 90 percent, more of the isolates from both sites were classified as being from nonhuman than human sources; however, both samples had additional isolates that were classified as unknown sources. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Clark, Melanie L.; Gamper, Merry E.

2003-01-01

244

Hepatics of the Turkey Creek Unit of the Big Thicket National Preserve: a floristic and ecological study  

E-print Network

investigations of cryptogamic epiphytes have been reviewed and summarized in the critical work by Barkman (1958); however, his work largely considered European lichen studies. In North America early studies of bzyophyte communities dealt primarily... approach to the distribution of corticolous bryo- phytes and lichens, including the use of objective sampling methods and the continuum concept of Curtis (1959), was introduced by Culberson (1955a, 1955b) and Hale (1955). Bevis (1962) in Michigan...

Bazan, Evangelina

2012-06-07

245

Preparation of meso-carbon microbeads from coal tars  

SciTech Connect

Coal tar (CT0) with 3.7wt% primary pyridine insoluble fraction (PI) was chosen as the raw material to prepare mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB). The tar was filtered to remove PI, obtaining PI-free coal tar (CT1). CT0, CT1 and their mixtures with different proportions were carbonized under pressure for 2 hours respectively. The polymerizates were filtered, and the residues were extracted with pyridine, and thus MCMB was obtained as a pyridine insoluble fraction. Both the yield and the size of resultant MCMB increased with the decreasing of primary PI content in raw coal tars. No clear evidence was observed that the primary PI particles exhibited active sites during the formation of MCMB, while it`s certain that they restricted coalescence between mesophase spheres.

Ling, L.C.; Liu, L.; Zhang, B.J.; Wu, D. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China). Inst. of Coal Chemistry

1997-12-31

246

Modified Paving Bitumens Based on Tar and Petroleum Polymeric Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modification of tar with petroleum polymeric resins yields paving-grade bitumens with enhanced cohesion. With respect to the heat resistance and other parameters, these bitumens meet the requirements of GOST (State Standard) for BND 90\\/130 paving bitumens.

V. V. Fedorov; A. M. Syroezhko; O. Yu. Begak; V. A. Proskuryakov; G. I. Borovikov

2002-01-01

247

The contribution of low tar cigarettes to environmental tobacco smoke  

SciTech Connect

A series of low tar cigarettes (LTC) were smoked and the quantities of condensable mainstream (inhaled) and sidestream (between puffs) smoke compounds were determined and compared to those produced by a high tar, nonfilter cigarette. It was found that the LTC produced large quantities of sidestream smoke condensates, about equal to the high tar cigarette, and contained very high levels of toxic or cocarcinogenic phenols. On an equal weight basis, the LTC emitted more of these hazardous compounds into sidestream and environmental tobacco smoke. Higher smoke yields of a flavor additive and a sugar degradation product indicated addition of such compounds during the manufacture of LTC. It was concluded that, compared to a high tar cigarette, smoking LTC may be better for the smoker, but not for the nearby nonsmoker. Information should be developed to allow smokers to choose LTC that produce lower levels of hazardous compounds in their environmentally emitted sidestream smoke.

Chortyk, O.T.; Schlotzhauer, W.S. (Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA (USA))

1989-05-01

248

Distribution of six species of bitterlings in a creek in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative study on the distribution of six species of bitterling in a creek in Fukuoka Prefecture was carried out. The upper\\u000a part of the creek was fluvial, and the lower part stagnant.Acheilognathus lanceolatus, A. tabira subsp. (b) of Nakamura (1969),A. rhombeus andRhodeus atremius showed wide distribution in the creek throughout their life.A. limbatus seemed to be a fluvial species, andR.

Yoshikazu Nagata; Yoshihisa Nakata

1988-01-01

249

Influence of the presence of PAHs and coal tar on naphthalene sorption in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mobility of the most water-soluble polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene in contaminated soils from manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites or other similar sites is influenced not only by the naturally occurring soil organic matter (SOM) but also, and in many cases mostly, by the nature and concentration of coal tar xenobiotic organic matter (XOM) and other PAH molecules present in the medium under various physical states. The objective of the present study was to quantify the effects of these factors using batch experiments, in order to simulate naphthalene transport in soil-tar-water systems using column experiments. Naphthalene sorption was studied in the presence of (i) solid coal tar particles, (ii) phenanthrene supplied as pure crystals, in the aqueous solution or already sorbed onto the soil, (iii) fluoranthene as pure crystals, and (iv) an aqueous solution of organic molecules extracted from a liquid tar. All experiments were conducted under abiotic conditions using short naphthalene/sorbent contact times of 24-60 h. Although these tests do not reflect true equilibrium conditions which usually take more time to establish, they were used to segregate relatively rapid sorption phenomena ("pseudo equilibrium") from slow sorption and other aging phenomena. For longer contact times, published data have shown that experimental biases due to progressive changes in the characteristics of the soil and the solution may drastically modify the affinity of the solutes for the soil. Slow diffusion in the microporosity and in dense organic phases may also become significant over the long term, along with some irreversible aging phenomena which have not been addressed in this work. Results showed that PAHs had no effect on naphthalene sorption when present in the aqueous solution or as pure crystals, due to their low solubility in water. Adsorbed phenanthrene was found to reduce naphthalene adsorption only when present at relatively high concentrations (about 120 mg/kg) in the soil. In contrast, experiments carried out with coal tar particles revealed a significant effect. Naphthalene sorption appeared to be proportional to the amount of coal tar added to the sand or soil, and a much higher affinity of naphthalene for XOM ( Koc above 2000 cm 3/g) than SOM ( Koc around 300 cm 3/g) was observed. Naphthalene transport in the columns of sand or soil spiked with coal tar particles was simulated very satisfactorily with a dual double-domain model. Around 90% of naphthalene retention by coal tar was found to occur within the organic phase, suggesting a phase partition process which may be explained by the amorphous nature of the XOM and its extreme affinity for naphthalene. For SOM, however, which is present as porous microaggregates of clay and humic substances, with less affinity for naphthalene, only 1/3 of naphthalene retention was found to occur within the organic phase, underlining the significant role of surface adsorption in the short term behavior of naphthalene in soil. For longer contact times, the model simulations proposed in the present study should be coupled to slow sorption, aging and biodegradation models to describe long-term behavior of naphthalene in soil-tar-water systems.

Bayard, Rémy; Barna, Ligia; Mahjoub, Borhane; Gourdon, Rémy

2000-11-01

250

Average structural analysis of tar obtained from pyrolysis of wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional analytical methods such as 1H NMR, vapor pressure osmometry (VPO) and elemental analysis were used to characterize the tar obtained from pyrolysis of pine.The major fraction of tar obtained during pyrolysis of pine at different temperatures was the insoluble fraction in n-heptane which corresponds to asphaltenes; this fraction was characterized and analyzed using average structural parameters. The structural unit

Diana López; Nancy Acelas; Fanor Mondragón

2010-01-01

251

Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations  

SciTech Connect

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu (Houston, TX); Wellington, Scott Lee (Bellaire, TX)

2010-03-16

252

Atmospheric Tar Balls: Particles from Biomass and Biofuel Burning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tar balls are amorphous, carbonaceous spherules that occur in the tropospheric aerosol as a result of biomass and biofuel burning. They form a distinct group of particles with diameters typically between 30 and 500 nm and readily identifiable with electron microscopy. Their lack of a turbostratic microstructure distinguishes them from soot, and their morphology and composition (approximately 90 mol% carbon) renders them distinct from other carbonaceous particles. Tar balls are particularly abundant in slightly aged (minutes to hours old) biomass smoke, indicating that they likely form by gas-to-particle conversion within smoke plumes. The material of tar balls is initially hygroscopic; however, the particles become largely insoluble as a result of free radical polymerization of their organic molecules. Consequently, tar balls are primarily externally mixed with other particle types, and they do not appreciably increase in size during aging. When tar balls coagulate with water-bearing particles, their material may partly dissolve and no longer be recognizable as distinct particles. Tar balls may contain organic compounds that absorb sunlight. They are an important, previously unrecognized type of carbonaceous (organic) atmospheric particle.

Posfai, Mihaly; Gelencser, Andras; Simonics, Renata; Arato, Krisztina; Li, Jia; Hobbs, Peter V.; Buseck, Peter R.

2004-01-01

253

Application of UAS photogrammetry for assessment of flood driven fluvial dynamics of montane stream. Case study - Roklansky creek, Sumava Mts.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current progress in hydrology and fluvial geomorphology is largely based on new field survey and analysis techniques, employing advanced technologies for monitoring the dynamics of the runoff process, field surveying and for remote monitoring of changes in riverbeds and of fluvial dynamics. Application of these techniques allows researchers to obtain information on a significantly higher qualitative level than using traditional methods of field survey and measurement, either in terms of spatial accuracy and resolution, frequency of sampling or qualitative characteristics of acquired data. The contribution demonstrates the potential of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) for analysis of fluvial dynamics of montane stream, driven by flood in combination with other survey techniques, namely the ground LiDAR scanning, digital granulometry and automated water level monitoring. The UAS photogrammetry is employed in the study to acquire high precision DTMs, enabling reconstruction of riverbed and quantitative analysis of volumetric changes related to initial flood events. The hexacopter UAS platform has been used to acquire the data for photogrammetric analysis of complex stretch of stream with historically elevated fluvial dynamics. The photogrammetric reconstruction enabled to build accurate DTM of riverbed and floodplain before and after the initial event and to calculate the extent of volumetric changes. The potential of UAS photogrammetry for fluvio morphological study is in combination with other monitoring and survey techniques, enabling complex analysis of fluvial dynamics. The magnitude, duration and hydrological properties of initial flood event were derived from automated high frequency water level monitoring. The digital granulometry enabled to analyze the structure of sedimentary material in floodplain. The terrestrial LiDAR scanning allows construction of very detailed 3D models of selected fluvial forms, enabling deeper insight into the effects of fluvial dynamics and to verify the spatial information acquired using UAS photogrammetry. The results of above mentioned techniques are applied to build hydrodynamic model explaining threshold conditions for initiation of changes in fluvial morphology of the riverbed in relation to known and theoretical flood magnitude. The presented study proved the UAS photogrammetry to be unique source of spatial information, allowing analysis of dynamics of fluvial systems with unprecedented precision and flexibility. This technique has full potential to bring spatial information to a new qualitative level and in experimental areas with limited availability of spatial information. The preliminary results achieved in the study enabled us to discuss the synergic potential of coupling the UAS photogrammetry, sensor networks and other hydroinformatic techniques to enhance significantly our knowledge on the dynamics of fluvial systems. Key words: UAS photogrmmetry, DTM, fluvial processes, erosion, hydrodynamic modelling

Langhammer, Jakub; Mi?ijovský, Jakub; Hartvich, Filip; Kaiglová, Jana

2014-05-01

254

Physical, chemical, and toxicological characterization of untreated and treated tar sand wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the physical, chemical, and toxicological properties of untreated and treated tar sand wastewaters has been completed. One of the waters selected for this study, TS-1S wastewater, was generated during an in situ steam flood experiment conducted by the US Department of Energy. The other waters were generated during laboratory-scale extraction experiments that were designed to test high-pressure

W. F. McTernan; S. L. Hill; W. E. Blanton

1985-01-01

255

Page Museum La Brea Tar Pits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Page Museum La Brea Tar Pits is one of the worldâs most famous fossil localities, recognized for having the largest and most diverse assemblage of extinct Ice Age plants and animals in the world. Visitors can learn about Los Angeles as it was between 10,000 and 40,000 years ago, during the last Ice Age, when animals such as saber-toothed cats and mammoths roamed the Los Angeles Basin. Through windows at the Page Museum Laboratory, visitors can watch bones being cleaned and repaired. Outside the Museum, in Hancock Park, life-size replicas of several extinct mammals are featured. The online Return to the Ice Age Exploration Guide is an extensive tutorial covering La Brea Geology, Geologic Time, Asphalt Deposits, Fossil Burial and Conditions of Fossilization, as well as La Brea Flora and Fauna and Human Exploration and Excavations. PDF versions are also available for download. There is also online information about the research efforts of the Museum, as well as pictures and information about the excavation site and findings.

256

Spatial input variables applications for hydrological simulation of south Wyoming watershed: case study of Muddy Creek via MIKE SHE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the abundant online data sources, there are great advantages of hydrological simulation for the American watershed management. Not only are the conventional station-based data conveniently accessible, but also the spatial data provide the great possibility for the hydrological approaches. This case study demonstrates the possible applications and access source for the hydrological modeling, which might be used as reference. The modeling input time series or parameters origins from various sources: precipitation is from TRMM (as spatial input of hydrological model) and NOAA (station-based), evapotranspiration came from (NASA MODIS platform via ArcGIS access), temperature is delivered by NOAA database (station-based) and NASA MODIS (spatial input), the snow mask and depth also can be obtained from NOAA, NASA MODIS and NRCS, discharge data might be from USGS hydro-climate data network (HCDN). The parameters of static state are surely complete such as DEM contributed by STRM of NASA, soil related data from SSURGO and landuse related data obtained from USGS. The different institutes might focus on different aspects, temporal span, geo-locations. But supported by the various sources of data, the hydrological modeling can be setup solidly by interpolating the various data. The daily time step simulation is manually calibrated for 1 year period referred by 4 discharge gauging stations, as well as 1 year of validation period. Simulation resolution is uniformed to 200m*200m cells size according the 2600km2 of watershed domain. The case study demonstrates that the station-based and spatial data could cooperate each other and support the accurate hydrological modeling during. Based on the established model, it can be further extended for the assessment of water quality impact and sediment transportation simulation. The final goal the modeling approach is to serve the land management on hydrological response.

Liu, T.; Miller, S. N.; Chitrakar, S.

2013-12-01

257

Mineralogical and stable isotope studies of gold–arsenic mineralisation in the Sams Creek peralkaline porphyritic granite, South Island, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Sams Creek, a gold-bearing, peralkaline granite porphyry dyke, which has a 7 km strike length and is up to 60 m in thickness, intrudes camptonite lamprophyre dykes and lower greenschist facies metapelites and quartzites of the Late Ordovician Wangapeka formation. The lamprophyre dykes occur as thin (18Omagma values (+5 to +8‰, VSMOW) of the A-type granite suggest derivation from a primitive

Kevin Faure; Robert L. Brathwaite

2006-01-01

258

Ecological effects of contaminants and remedial actions in Bear Creek  

SciTech Connect

Ecological studies of the Bear Creek watershed, which drains the area surrounding several Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities, were initiated in May 1984 and are continuing at present. These studies consisted of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek, and they were followed by a presently ongoing monitoring phase that involves reduced sampling intensities. The characterization phase utilized two approaches: (1) instream sampling of benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek to identify spatial and temporal patterns in distribution and abundance and (2) laboratory bioassays on water samples from Bear Creek and selected tributaries to identify potential sources of toxicity to biota. The monitoring phase of the ecological program relates to the long-term goals of identifying and prioritizing contaminant sources and assessing the effectiveness of remedial actions. It continues activities of the characterization phase at less frequent intervals. The Bear Greek Valley is a watershed that drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in Bear Creek Valley resulted in contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Extensive remedial actions have been proposed at waste sites, and some of the have been implemented or are now underway. The proposed study plan consists of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek in the first year followed by a reduction in sampling intensity during the monitoring phase of the plan. The results of sampling conducted from May 1984 through early 1989 are presented in this report.

Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Burris, J.A. (C. E. Environmental, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States))

1992-01-01

259

Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

1995-04-01

260

33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. The area within the...

2013-07-01

261

33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. The area within the...

2012-07-01

262

33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. The area within the...

2010-07-01

263

33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. The area within the...

2011-07-01

264

A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Wildcat Creek, Howard County, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Indiana State Board of Health is developing a water-quality management plan that includes establishing limits for wastewater effluents discharged into Indiana streams. A digital model calibrated to conditions in Wildcat Creek was used to predict alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The model indicates that benthic-oxygen demand is the most significant factor affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentrations in Wildcat Creek during summer low flows. The Indiana stream dissolved-oxygen standard should not be violated if the Kokomo wastewater-treatment facility meets its current National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit restrictions (average monthly 5-day biochemical-oxygen demand of 5 milligrams per liter and maximum weekly 5-day biochemical-oxygen demand of 7.5 milligrams per liter) and benthic-oxygen demand becomes negligible. Ammonia-nitrogen toxicity may also be a water-quality limitation in Wildcat Creek. Ammonia-nitrogen waste loads for the Kokomo wastewater-treatment facility, projected by the Indiana State Board of Health, will result in stream ammonia-nitrogen concentrations that exceed the State standard (2.5 milligrams per liter during summer months and 4.0 milligrams per liter during winter months). (Kosco-USGS)

Crawford, Charles G.; Wilber, William G.; Peters, James G.

1979-01-01

265

A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Little Laughery Creek, Ripley and Franklin counties, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A digital model calibrated to conditions in Little Laughery Creek triutary and Little Laughery Creek, Ripley and Franklin Counties, Ind., was used to predict alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. Natural streamflow during the summer and annual 7-day, 10-year low flow is zero. Headwater flow upstream from the wastewater-treatment facilities consists solely of process cooling water from an industrial discharger. This flow is usually less than 0.5 cubic foot per second. Consequently, benefits from dilution are minimal. As a result, current and projected ammonia-nitrogen concentrations from the municipal discharges will result in in-stream ammonia-nitrogen concentrations that exceed the Indiana ammonia-nitrogen toxicity standards (maximum stream ammonia-nitrogen concentrations of 2.5 and 4.0 milligrams per liter during summer and winter low flows, respectively). Benthic-oxygen demand is probably the most significant factor affecting Little Laughery Creek and is probably responsible for the in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentration being less than the Indiana stream dissolved-oxygen standard (5.0 milligrams per liter) during two water-quality surveys. After municipal dischargers complete advanced waste-treatment facilities, benthic-oxygen demand should be less significant in the stream dissolved-oxygen dynamics. (USGS)

Crawford, Charles G.; Wilber, William G.; Peters, James G.

1980-01-01

266

Potential hydrologic impacts of a tar-sand industry in 11 special tar sand areas in eastern Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

About 93 percent of the Nation 's estimated 30 billion barrels of crude oil in tar sand deposits is in 11 tar-sand deposits in eastern Utah that were chosen for leasing by the Federal government. The Tar Sand Triangle area, which contains about 15 billion barrels of oil, is the largest. This area and the Sunnyside and P R Springs areas contain more than three-fourths of the Utah reserves. About 88,000 acre-feet of water per year would be required for a commercial tar-sand industry producing about 365,000 barrels per day. At this rate, most of the recoverable oil would be mined within 30 years. About 22,000 acre-feet of water per year would be required for a commercial tar-sand industry producing about 83,000 barrels per day. Impacts on local hydrology would be greatest in the Tar Sand Triangle, Sunnyside, and P R Springs areas. Impacts could be minimized with proper construction of surface facilities to decrease erosion, sediment transport, and impoundment of mining and retort water. Increases in salinity of the Colorado River at Imperial Dam, Ariz.-Calif., could be about 3 milligrams per liter, with a peak of 9 milligrams per liter, for a 365 ,000-barrel-per-day industry and less than 1 milligram per liter , with a peak of 2 milligrams per liter, for an 83 ,000-barrel-per-day industry. (USGS)

Lindskov, K.L.

1983-01-01

267

Migration and natural fate of a coal tar creosote plume. 1. Overview and plume development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A volume of sand containing coal tar creosote was emplaced below the water table at CFB Borden to investigate natural attenuation processes for complex biodegradable mixtures. Coal tar creosote is a mixture of more than 200 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds and phenolic compounds. A representative group of seven compounds was selected for detailed study: phenol, m-xylene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, 1-methylnaphthalene, dibenzofuran and carbazole. Movement of groundwater through the source led to the development of a dissolved organic plume, which was studied over a 4-year period. Qualitative plume observations and mass balance calculations indicated two key conclusions: (1) compounds from the same source can display distinctly different patterns of plume development and (2) mass transformation was a major influence on plume behaviour for all observed compounds.

King, Mark W. G.; Barker, James F.

1999-10-01

268

Meta-Analysis of Lung Cancer in Asphalt Roofing and Paving Workers with External Adjustment for Confounding by Coal Tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study's objectives were to update Partanen's and Boffetta's 1994 meta-analysis of lung cancer among roofing and paving asphalt workers and explore the role of coal tar in explaining the statistical heterogeneity among these studies. Information retrieval strategies and eligibility criteria were defined for identifying the epidemiologic studies to be included in the analysis. The relative risk ratio (RR) for

William E. Fayerweather

2007-01-01

269

Monument Creek hydraulics project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are given some general questions (file "IntroQuestions_07.pdf") related to project design during the class session before the main project is handed out. They need to use their textbook and/or other class resources to attempt to answer these questions and to prepare to discuss them the next class session. These questions concern field reconstruction of flood hydraulics, specifically. of bankfull flow. At this next class session we discuss their answers to the preliminary questions. Students are then given the main project handout (Monument_Ck_Problem_07.pdf). This gives them the general questions to be answered in the project. After reading it, students brainstorm again as a class about how to go about answering the questions. Students then divide themselves into research of three. These teams will synthesize data together and ultimately write up the project together. Each team then sends one member to join members of other teams to do one of the three main aspects of the field or computer work (1) field identification of the bankfull channel and measurement of bankfull channel geometry, (2) field determination of modern channel roughness from modern stream hydraulics (Manning's n is back-calculated from present channel geometry and flow), (3) development of a flood-frequency curve for this reach of Monument Creek from USGS discharge data. These working groups (with one member from each research team) work initially independently in the field and subsequently doing calculations in the lab, or on the computer. Once each working group has completed what it can do on its own, these groups split up and each member of each group carries the groups results back to his/her research team, and explains to the other members of the research team what he/she has done to this point and what results he/she has for the team. The team then works to synthesize he results into an overall answer to the questions posed at the beginning of the lab (confusing enough for you?). Each research team then writes up the results, sometimes (as in 2007) as a lab write up, in other years in scientific paper format. Whether the project is turned in simply as a lab write up or as a scientific paper, students are always asked to assess sources of error and how they might affect the results. Key words: Fluvial geomorphology, fluvial hydraulics, bankfull discharge, flood-frequency analysis Designed for a geomorphology course

Leonard, Eric

270

Chemistry and origin of Miocene and Eocene oils and tars in the onshore and offshore Santa Cruz Basins, California  

SciTech Connect

The Santa Cruz (La Honda) Basin is a small [open quote]slice[close quote] of the San Joaquin Basin that has been displaced c. 300 km to the northwest by the San Andreas Fault. The poorly-explored offshore area that now lies within the Monterey Bay NMS includes portions of the Outer Santa Cruz and Bodega basins. A modest amount (c. 1.3 MM bbl) of variable-quality oil has been produced from Eocene and Pliocene pay zones in the La Honda Field. Much smaller amounts of light oil ([ge]40[degrees] API) have been produced from three other fields (Oil Creek; Moody Gulch; Half Moon Bay). Large tar deposits also outcrop near the city of Santa Cruz. Proven source rocks in this basin include the Eocene Twobar Shale and three Miocene units: the Lambert Shale, Monterey Formation, and the Santa Cruz Mudstone. A high-gravity oil sample from the Oil Creek Field contains isotopically-light carbon ([delta][sup 13]C = - 28.2 per mil) and has a relatively high pristane/phytane ratio. This oil was generated at high temperature (c. 140[degrees]C) by pre-Miocene source rocks (probably the Twobar Shale). The presence of isotopically-heavy carbon in all other oil and tar samples demonstrates they were generated by Miocene source rocks. But the C[sub 7] oil-generation temperatures, sulfur content, vanadium/nickel ratios, and biomarker chemistry of these Miocene oils are significantly different than in Monterey oils from the prolific Santa Maria Basin (SMB). The sulfur content (8.0 wt%) and V-Ni chemistry of tarry petroleum recovered in the P-036-1 well (Outer Santa Cruz Basin) resembles the chemistry of very heavy (<15[degrees]API) oils generated by phosphatic Monterey shales in the SMB.

Kornacki, A.S. (Shell Offshore, Inc., New Orleans, LA (United States)); McNeil, R.I. (Shell E P Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1996-01-01

271

Chemistry and origin of Miocene and Eocene oils and tars in the onshore and offshore Santa Cruz Basins, California  

SciTech Connect

The Santa Cruz (La Honda) Basin is a small {open_quote}slice{close_quote} of the San Joaquin Basin that has been displaced c. 300 km to the northwest by the San Andreas Fault. The poorly-explored offshore area that now lies within the Monterey Bay NMS includes portions of the Outer Santa Cruz and Bodega basins. A modest amount (c. 1.3 MM bbl) of variable-quality oil has been produced from Eocene and Pliocene pay zones in the La Honda Field. Much smaller amounts of light oil ({ge}40{degrees} API) have been produced from three other fields (Oil Creek; Moody Gulch; Half Moon Bay). Large tar deposits also outcrop near the city of Santa Cruz. Proven source rocks in this basin include the Eocene Twobar Shale and three Miocene units: the Lambert Shale, Monterey Formation, and the Santa Cruz Mudstone. A high-gravity oil sample from the Oil Creek Field contains isotopically-light carbon ({delta}{sup 13}C = - 28.2 per mil) and has a relatively high pristane/phytane ratio. This oil was generated at high temperature (c. 140{degrees}C) by pre-Miocene source rocks (probably the Twobar Shale). The presence of isotopically-heavy carbon in all other oil and tar samples demonstrates they were generated by Miocene source rocks. But the C{sub 7} oil-generation temperatures, sulfur content, vanadium/nickel ratios, and biomarker chemistry of these Miocene oils are significantly different than in Monterey oils from the prolific Santa Maria Basin (SMB). The sulfur content (8.0 wt%) and V-Ni chemistry of tarry petroleum recovered in the P-036-1 well (Outer Santa Cruz Basin) resembles the chemistry of very heavy (<15{degrees}API) oils generated by phosphatic Monterey shales in the SMB.

Kornacki, A.S. [Shell Offshore, Inc., New Orleans, LA (United States); McNeil, R.I. [Shell E& P Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

272

Wolf Creek, rurality and the Australian gothic  

Microsoft Academic Search

As with Crocodile Dundee before it, the recent Australian film Wolf Creek promotes a specific and arguably urban-centric understanding of rural Australia. However, whilst the former film is couched in mythologized notions of the rural idyll, Wolf Creek is based firmly around the concept of rural horror. Wolf Creek is both a horror movie and a road movie, one which

John Scott; Dean Biron

2010-01-01

273

SALMON RESEARCH AT DEER CREEK, CALIF.  

E-print Network

temperatures at Deer Creek Station ...... 10 7. Losses in Deer Creek Irrigation Company Canal, 1914$. 11 #12. Parker, Engineering advice and aid in construction was supplied by the Uo S, Bureau of Reclamation of Vina» In common with many other streams draining the western slopes of the Sierras, Deer Creek begins

274

Silica Removal From Steamflood-Produced Water: South Texas Tar Sands Pilot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steamflood-produced waters commonly contain suspended solids, oil, hardness-causing minerals, sulfide, and silica. Removal of these contaminants would make many of these waters suitable for recycling as steamer feedwater. Reuse of steamflood-produced waters increases steamer feedwater supplies and reduces water disposal requirements. This paper describes a field pilot study of silica removal from steamflood-produced water in the south Texas tar sands

S. A. Thomas; M. E. Yost; S. R. Cathey

1987-01-01

275

Thermogravimetric analysis and pyrolysis of waste mixtures of paint and tar slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe thermogravimetric analyses and pyrolysis kinetic studies carried out on hazardous waste mixtures of tar slag,\\u000a paint slag, paper, sodium sulfate and calcium oxide. Both thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermogravimetric (DTG)\\u000a profiles were measured by a thermogravimetric analyzer at different final temperatures, particle sizes and heating rates.\\u000a Pyrolysis kinetic parameters were calculated by the Coats-Redfern method. Influences of particle

Ling Tao; Guang-Bo Zhao; Juan Qian; Yu-Kun Qin

2009-01-01

276

Post-puff respiration measures on smokers of different tar yield cigarettes  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different tar yield cigarette brands on the post-puff inhalation/exhalation depth and duration for established smokers of the brands. The study was conducted with 74 established smokers of 1–17 mg Federal Trade Commission (FTC) tar products. The subjects were participating in a five-day inpatient clinical biomarker study during which time they were allowed to smoke their own brand of cigarette whenever they wished. On two separate days, the subjects' breathing pattern was measured using respiratory inductive plethysmography while they smoked one cigarette. This enabled the measurement of the post-puff inhalation volume, exhalation volume, inhalation duration, and exhalation duration for each subject after each puff on two of their own brand of cigarettes. The subjects were grouped according to the FTC tar yield of their product: 1–3 mg; 4–6 mg; 7–13 mg; 14+ mg. The post-puff inhalation volume for the 4–6 mg group was significantly lower than both the 7–13 mg and 14+ mg groups, and the 4–6 mg group exhalation volume was significantly lower than the 14+ mg group (p < 0.05). No other differences were found at the 95% confidence level. When volumes were normalized to resting tidal volume (tidal ratio), there were no differences between the groups for any of the respiratory measures. No significant slope was found for correlations with FTC tar yield for inhalation volume (p = 0.11, mean = 833 mL, R = 0.19), inhalation tidal ratio (p = 0.93, mean = 1.73, R = ?0.01) or lung exposure time (p = 0.92, mean = 4.1 s, R = ?0.01). PMID:19225967

St. Charles, Frank K.; Krautter, George R.; Mariner, Derek C.

2009-01-01

277

Production of aromatics through current-enhanced catalytic conversion of bio-oil tar.  

PubMed

Biomass conversion into benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) can provide basic feedstocks for the petrochemical industry, which also serve as the most important aromatic platform molecules for development of high-end chemicals. Present work explored a new route for transformation of bio-oil tar into BTX through current-enhanced catalytic conversion (CECC), involving the synergistic effect between the zeolite catalyst and current to promote the deoxygenation and cracking reactions. The proposed transformation shows an excellent BTX aromatics selectivity of 92.9 C-mol% with 25.1 wt.% yield at 400 °C over usual HZSM-5 catalyst. The study of the model compounds revealed that the groups such as methoxy, hydroxyl and methyl in aromatics can be effectively removed in the CECC process. Present transformation potentially provides an important approach for production of the key petrochemicals of BTX and the overall use of bio-oil tar derived from bio-oil or biomass. PMID:23567684

Bi, Peiyan; Yuan, Yanni; Fan, Minghui; Jiang, Peiwen; Zhai, Qi; Li, Quanxin

2013-05-01

278

OXYGEN AERATION AT NEWTOWN CREEK  

EPA Science Inventory

A successful initial feasibility investigation of oxygen aeration at the 0.11-cu m/sec (2.5-mgd) municipal wastewater treatment plant in Batavia, New York, prompted a larger demonstration at New York City's 13.6-cu m/sec (310-mgd) Newtown Creek Plant. A 34-mo evaluation was perfo...

279

Steam reforming of tar model compound using Pd catalyst on alumina tube.  

PubMed

Gasification processing of biomass as a renewable energy source generates tar in the product gas. Tar leads to foul-up of the process equipment by corrosion and deposit formation. Catalytic elimination of tars is a crucial step to improve fuel gas quality from the process. In this study, a palladium catalyst on alumina (Pd/Al2O3) was used in steam reforming of benzene as a biomass gasification tar model compound. The reaction was carried out in a laboratory-scale tube reactor made of stainless steel to study the effect of reaction temperature, catalyst loading, quantity of palladium catalyst tubes, steam to carbon ratio (S/C), and residence time on catalytic performance and stability. Pd/Al2O3 showed high efficiency ofbenzene decomposition and enhanced the formation of fuel gas. Hydrogen and carbon conversions increased with reaction temperature. Although the benzene concentration increased from 2000 to 5000 mg/l, the catalytic performance at 600 degrees C and 800 degrees C was similar. 1.0 wt% Pd/Al2O3 showed excellent catalytic activity with the highest hydrogen and carbon conversions of 83% and 81%, respectively at 800 degrees C. This result is attributed to the smooth surface of the palladium, as noted from scanning electron microscopy imaging. An S/C of 2 provided the highest conversion. The addition of catalyst from four and seven tubes did not result in any great difference in terms of benzene cracking efficiency. The fourth cyclic usage of 1.0 wt% Pd/Al2O3 exhibited a higher conversion than that of 0.5 wt%. PMID:23437646

Nisamaneenate, Jurarat; Atong, Duangduen; Sricharoenchaikul, Viboon

2012-12-01

280

Molecular characterisation of birch bark tar by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: a new way for identifying archaeological glues.  

PubMed

To develop an analytical methodology, as non-destructive as possible, suitable for the identification of natural substances from archaeological origin, we studied the potentiality of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for analysing birch bark tar, an adhesive commonly used during ancient times. First of all, birch bark tars were produced by a controlled heating of birch bark. The two kinds of samples obtained using different processes of fabrication, one at liquid state, the second one at solid state, were then analysed by headspace HS-SPME-GC-MS. Different conditions of sample treatment were tested (two different fibre coatings, various times and temperatures of extraction) in order to suggest optimal conditions for the analysis of birch bark tar. Both samples were shown to be rich in volatile organic components. Two main groups of constituents, namely phenolic compounds issued from lignin or tannin known to be present in bark and sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbons, secondary metabolites largely distributed in the plant kingdom, were detected for the first time in birch bark tar. HS-SPME-GC-MS appears thus to be a very efficient method for investigating the volatiles emitted by plant tars and could be further used for the study of birch bark tar samples issued from archaeological context. PMID:16236293

Regert, M; Alexandre, V; Thomas, N; Lattuati-Derieux, A

2006-01-01

281

Microbial Diversity in Natural Asphalts of the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits?  

PubMed Central

Bacteria commonly inhabit subsurface oil reservoirs, but almost nothing is known yet about microorganisms that live in naturally occurring terrestrial oil seeps and natural asphalts that are comprised of highly recalcitrant petroleum hydrocarbons. Here we report the first survey of microbial diversity in ca. 28,000-year-old samples of natural asphalts from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, CA. Microbiological studies included analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences and DNA encoding aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases from two tar pits differing in chemical composition. Our results revealed a wide range of phylogenetic groups within the Archaea and Bacteria domains, in which individual taxonomic clusters were comprised of sets of closely related species within novel genera and families. Fluorescent staining of asphalt-soil particles using phylogenetic probes for Archaea, Bacteria, and Pseudomonas showed coexistence of mixed microbial communities at high cell densities. Genes encoding dioxygenases included three novel clusters of enzymes. The discovery of life in the tar pits provides an avenue for further studies of the evolution of enzymes and catabolic pathways for bacteria that have been exposed to complex hydrocarbons for millennia. These bacteria also should have application for industrial microbiology and bioremediation. PMID:17416692

Kim, Jong-Shik; Crowley, David E.

2007-01-01

282

Thermodynamic examination of trinucleotide bulged RNA in the context of HIV-1 TAR RNA  

PubMed Central

RNA structures contain many bulges and loops that are expected to be sites for inter- and intra-molecular interactions. Nucleotides in the bulge are expected to influence the structure and recognition of RNA. The same stability is assigned to all trinucleotide bulged RNA in the current secondary structure prediction models. In this study thermal denaturation experiments were performed on four trinucleotide bulged RNA, in the context of HIV-1 TAR RNA, to determine whether the bulge sequence affects RNA stability and its divalent ion interactions. Cytosine-rich bulged RNA were more stable than uracil-rich bulged RNA in 1 M KCl. Interactions of divalent ions were more favorable with uracil-rich bulged RNA by ?2 kcal/mol over cytosine-rich bulged RNA. The UCU-TAR RNA (wild type) is stabilized by 1.7 kcal/mol in 9.5 mM Ca2+ as compared with 1 M KCl, whereas no additional gain in stability is measured for CCC-TAR RNA. These results have implications for base substitution experiments traditionally employed to identify metal ion binding sites. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic study to quantify the effect of small sequence changes on RNA stability upon interactions with divalent ions. PMID:18952821

Carter-O'Connell, Ian; Booth, David; Eason, Bryan; Grover, Neena

2008-01-01

283

Cancer risk from incidental ingestion exposures to PAHs associated with coal-tar-sealed pavement  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent (2009-10) studies documented significantly higher concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in settled house dust in living spaces and soil adjacent to parking lots sealed with coal-tar-based products. To date, no studies have examined the potential human health effects of PAHs from these products in dust and soil. Here we present the results of an analysis of potential cancer risk associated with incidental ingestion exposures to PAHs in settings near coal-tar-sealed pavement. Exposures to benzo[a]pyrene equivalents were characterized across five scenarios. The central tendency estimate of excess cancer risk resulting from lifetime exposures to soil and dust from nondietary ingestion in these settings exceeded 1 × 10–4, as determined using deterministic and probabilistic methods. Soil was the primary driver of risk, but according to probabilistic calculations, reasonable maximum exposure to affected house dust in the first 6 years of life was sufficient to generate an estimated excess lifetime cancer risk of 6 × 10–5. Our results indicate that the presence of coal-tar-based pavement sealants is associated with significant increases in estimated excess lifetime cancer risk for nearby residents. Much of this calculated excess risk arises from exposures to PAHs in early childhood (i.e., 0–6 years of age).

Williams, E. Spencer; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

2012-01-01

284

Assessment of tar pollution on the United Arab emirates beaches  

SciTech Connect

In light of the inadequate information concerning stranded tar on the southwest beaches of the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, particularly following the massive oil releases during the Gulf War, the present investigation was designed to provide reference-integrated information on the nature, location, and levels of stranded tar balls on the beaches of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The recorded levels appeared to be higher than expected or previously reported. The tar distribution pattern, in addition to the degree of weathering, indicates that the massive oil release during the Gulf War did not reach the UAE shorelines. The highest reported levels of stranded tar ever recorded in the Arabian Gulf at Jabal Dhannah apparently originated from oil spills and tankers' ballast water at the main oil terminal at the Al-Ruwaiss oil refinery some 10 km to the east. The surprising, relatively high levels of stranded tar on the beaches of the Gulf of Oman were solely attributed to the heavy navigation traffic close to the shorelines. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Abu-Hilal, A.H.; Khordagui, H.K. (United Arab Emirates Univ., Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates))

1993-01-01

285

Biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Research progress report  

SciTech Connect

Biodegradation experiments were conducted to evaluate the mineralization of naphthalene released from coal tar entrapped in microporous silica media. Tests were performed with two coal tars recovered from former manufactured gas plant sites. Results from these tests showed that the degradation end point for naphthalene was significantly lower than the total amount of naphthalene present in coal tar. The role of physico-chemical and biological processes on the rate of biotransformation of naphthalene was evaluated. Mass transfer rates for dissolution of naphthalene from entrapped coal tar were measured in batch, flow-through systems. The rate of naphthalene mass transfer from the coal tar was found to be significantly greater than the rate of naphthalene biomineralization in batch slurry reactors. This implied that the rate acting factor for the biodegradation process was related to biokinetic phenomena rather than mass transfer processes. Further tests indicated that conditions inhibitory to bacteria limited the biodegradation of naphthalene, and in some cases the inhibition was reversible upon dilution of the reactor contents.

Ghoshal, S.; Ramaswami, A.; Luthy, R.G.

1994-02-07

286

Expression of the rDNA-encoded mitochondrial protein Tar1p is stringently controlled and responds differentially to mitochondrial respiratory demand and dysfunction  

PubMed Central

The novel yeast protein Tar1p is encoded on the anti-sense strand of the multi-copy nuclear 25S rRNA gene, localizes to mitochondria, and partially suppresses the mitochondrial RNA polymerase mutant, rpo41-R129D. However, the function of Tar1p in mitochondria and how its expression is regulated are currently unknown. Here we report that Tar1p is subject to glucose repression and is up-regulated during post-diauxic shift in glucose medium and in glycerol medium, conditions requiring elevated mitochondrial respiration. However, Tar1p expression is down-regulated in response to mitochondrial dysfunction caused by the rpo41-R129D mutation or in strains lacking respiration. Furthermore, in contrast to the previously reported beneficial effects of moderate over-expression of Tar1p in the rpo41-R129D strain, higher-level over-expression exacerbates the ROS-derived phenotypes of this mutant, including decreased respiration and life span. Finally, two-hybrid screening and in vitro-binding studies revealed a physical interaction between Tar1p and Coq5p, an enzyme involved in synthesizing the mitochondrial electron carrier and anti-oxidant, coenzyme Q. We propose that Tar1p expression is induced under respiratory conditions to maintain oxidative phosphorylation capacity, but that its levels in mitochondria are typically low and stringently controlled. Furthermore, we speculate that Tar1p is down-regulated when respiration is defective to prevent deleterious ROS-dependent consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:18622616

Bonawitz, Nicholas D.; Chatenay-Lapointe, Marc; Wearn, Christopher M.

2009-01-01

287

A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Sand Creek, Decatur County, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A digital model calibrated to conditions in Sand Creek near Greensburg, Ind., was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The only point-source waste load affecting Sand Creek in the vicinity of Greensburg is the Greensburg wastewater-treatment facility. Non-point, unrecorded waste loads seemed to be significant during three water-quality surveys done by the Indiana State Board of Health. Natural streamflow in Sand Creek during the summer and annual 7-day, 10-year low flow is zero so no benefit from dilution is provided. Effluent ammonia-nitrogen concentrations from the Greensburg wastewater-treatment facility will not meet Indiana water-quality standards during summer and winter low flows. To meet the water-quality standard the wastewater-effluent would be limited to a maximum total ammonia-nitrogen concentration of 2.5 mg/l for summer months (June through August) and 4.0 mg/l for winter months (November through March). Model simulations indicate that benthic-oxygen demand, nitrification, and the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the wastewater effluent are the most significant factors affecting the in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentration during summer low flows. The model predicts that with a benthic-oxygen demand of 1.5 grams per square meter per day at 20C the stream has no additional waste-load assimilative capacity. Present carbonaceous biochemical-oxygen demand loads from the Greensburg wastewater-treatment facility will not result in violations of the in-stream dissolved-oxygen standard (5 mg/l) during winter low flows. (Kosco-USGS)

Wilber, William G.; Crawford, Charles G.; Peters, James G.

1979-01-01

288

Analytical results for 56 rock, 46 stream-sediment and soil, and 22 panned-concentrate samples from the Welcome Creek Wilderness Study Area, Granite County, Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fifty-six rock, 46 stream-sediment, and 22 panned-concentrate samples were collected from the Welcome Creek Wilderness, Granite County, Montana, during the summers of 1979 and 1980. All samples were analyzed for 31 elements by a six-step semiquantitative emission spectrographic method (Grimes and Marranzino, 1968). All panned concentrate and other selected samples were analyzed for gold by an atomic absorption procedure (Thompson and others, 1968). All rock and stream-sediment samples were also analyzed for Ag, Bi, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, and Zn by a partial-digestion procedure (Viets and others, 1979). Sample analyses and locations are presented in this report.

Campbell, W. L.; Lee, G. K.; Antweiler, J. C.; Hopkins, R. T.

1983-01-01

289

Reconnaissance and economic geology of Copper Mountain metamorphic complex, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Copper Mountain metamorphic complex lies within a westerly trending belt of Precambrian exposures known as the Owl Creek Mountains uplift. The metamorphic complex at Copper Mountain is part of a larger complex known as the Owl Creek Mountains greenstone belt. Until more detailed mapping and petrographic studies can be completed, the Copper Mountain area is best referred to as

W. Dan Hausel

1983-01-01

290

InSAR imaging of movement along the Bull Lake Creek Slide, Wind River Mountains, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) provides a means of imaging spatially varying kinematics of slow mass movements, such as earthflows. These observations provide critical constraints for understanding earth flow mechanics when considered with topography and meteorological forcings. This study applies InSAR to analyze the Bull Lake Creek Landslide in Wyoming. The Bull Lake Creek Slide is the largest of a

B. Held; F. G. Gomez

2010-01-01

291

Sewage and industrial pollution in and around Thane Creek, Mumbai using high resolution IRS data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollution in the coastal waters of the Mumbai, India was analyzed the spectral signature with high resolution IRS?L3 data at the sewage discharge points in the Thane creek. The sewage distribution pattern was studied with reference to local tide on 21 February 2002 and 29 October 2002. The sewage plumes were identified off the discharge points in Thane Creek, Mumbai

S. K. Sasamal; K. H. Rao; U. M. Suryavansi

2007-01-01

292

Benthos in Bear Creek, Mississippi: Effects of Habitat Variation and Agricultural Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The macroinvertebrate fauna of Bear Creek, a 83 km stream which flows through six oxbow lakes, and two off-stream lakes in the same watershed was studied for two years. Bear Creek, a tributary of the Yazoo River in the Delta region of Mississippi, drains 330 km of Intensively cultivated agricultural land and carries a continuing sediment concentration during the rainy

Charles M. Cooper

1987-01-01

293

VALIDITY OF EFFLUENT AND AMBIENT TOXICITY TESTS FOR PREDICTING BIOLOGICAL IMPACT, SCIPPO CREEK, CIRCLEVILLE, OHIO  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the first site study on Scippo Creek at Circleville, Ohio, which receives only one discharge from a chemical resins plant using batch operations. Scippo Creek is a small sunfish/bass stream flowing through an agricultural area in central Ohio. Previous biolog...

294

WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, GEORGETOWN CREEK, BEAR LAKE COUNTY, IDAHO, 1977  

EPA Science Inventory

Georgetown Creek (16010201) drains a small watershed in Bear Lake County. A phosphate fertilizer plant operated in Georgetown Canyon until 1964. This study was conducted to assess water quality of Georgetown Creek as a background for future monitoring. 20 parameters were sampl...

295

WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, BLOOMINGTON CREEK, BEAR LAKE COUNTY, IDAHO, 1977  

EPA Science Inventory

Bloomington Creek (16010201) drains a small watershed in Bear Lake County. A phosphate mine and mill have been proposed for the Bloomington area. This study was conducted to provide background water quality data on Bloomington Creek. 21 parameters were sampled bi-weekly for 1 ...

296

High numbers of Vibrio vulnificus in tar balls collected from oiled areas of the north-central Gulf of Mexico following the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill.  

PubMed

The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill was the largest oil spill in USA history releasing approximately 4.9 million barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Soon after the spill started, tar balls and other forms of weathered oil appeared in large numbers on beaches in Mississippi and Alabama. In this study, we analyzed tar balls for total aerobic bacterial (TAB) counts and also for the presence of Vibrio vulnificus, a human pathogen known to be abundant in the Gulf Coast environment and capable of causing severe wound infections by contact with contaminated surfaces. Our results showed that TAB counts were significantly higher in tar balls than in sand and seawater collected at the same location. In addition, V. vulnificus numbers were 10× higher in tar balls than in sand and up to 100× higher than in seawater. Densities of V. vulnificus were higher than 10(5) colony forming units/g of tar ball in all samples analyzed. Our data suggest that tar balls can act as reservoirs for bacteria including human pathogens. PMID:22109669

Tao, Zhen; Bullard, Stephen; Arias, Covadonga

2011-12-01

297

VARS2 and TARS2 mutations in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathies.  

PubMed

By way of whole-exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous missense mutation in VARS2 in one subject with microcephaly and epilepsy associated with isolated deficiency of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complex I and compound heterozygous mutations in TARS2 in two siblings presenting with axial hypotonia and severe psychomotor delay associated with multiple MRC defects. The nucleotide variants segregated within the families, were absent in Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) databases and are predicted to be deleterious. The amount of VARS2 and TARS2 proteins and valyl-tRNA and threonyl-tRNA levels were decreased in samples of afflicted patients according to the genetic defect. Expression of the corresponding wild-type transcripts in immortalized mutant fibroblasts rescued the biochemical impairment of mitochondrial respiration and yeast modeling of the VARS2 mutation confirmed its pathogenic role. Taken together, these data demonstrate the role of the identified mutations for these mitochondriopathies. Our study reports the first mutations in the VARS2 and TARS2 genes, which encode two mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, as causes of clinically distinct, early-onset mitochondrial encephalopathies. PMID:24827421

Diodato, Daria; Melchionda, Laura; Haack, Tobias B; Dallabona, Cristina; Baruffini, Enrico; Donnini, Claudia; Granata, Tiziana; Ragona, Francesca; Balestri, Paolo; Margollicci, Maria; Lamantea, Eleonora; Nasca, Alessia; Powell, Christopher A; Minczuk, Michal; Strom, Tim M; Meitinger, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger; Lamperti, Costanza; Zeviani, Massimo; Ghezzi, Daniele

2014-08-01

298

Relationship of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yield of cigarettes  

SciTech Connect

The data from consecutive surveys of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study (1981-1988) were used to evaluate the relationship in cigarette smokers of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO) yields of the cigarette. There were 690 subjects who reported smoking regularly in at least one survey, over age 15. After adjustment for intensity and duration of smoking and for depth of inhalation, the risk of chronic phlegm, cough, and dyspnea were not related to the tar and nicotine yields. In 414 subjects with pulmonary function tested in at least one of the three surveys the spirometric indices used were significantly related to the daily dose of tar, nicotine, and CO (product of the cigarette yield and daily number of cigarettes smoked). The effects were more pronounced for past than for current doses. However, the differentiation of pulmonary function due to various yields of cigarettes was small in comparison to the difference in pulmonary function between smokers and nonsmokers.

Krzyzanowski, M.; Sherrill, D.L.; Paoletti, P.; Lebowitz, M.D. (National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland))

1991-02-01

299

Average structural analysis of tar obtained from pyrolysis of wood.  

PubMed

Conventional analytical methods such as (1)H NMR, vapor pressure osmometry (VPO) and elemental analysis were used to characterize the tar obtained from pyrolysis of pine. The major fraction of tar obtained during pyrolysis of pine at different temperatures was the insoluble fraction in n-heptane which corresponds to asphaltenes; this fraction was characterized and analyzed using average structural parameters. The structural unit of the tar is composed of one aromatic ring substituted by aliphatic chains, olefinic groups and the presence of oxygenated groups. Two of such average structures determined with this methodology corresponds to 4-formyl-2,6-dimethoxy-3-[(1E)-prop-1-en-1-yl]-5-propylbenzoic acid and 2,3,5-trimethoxy-6-[(1E)-prop-1-en-1-yl]-4-propylbenzaldehyde. PMID:19962881

López, Diana; Acelas, Nancy; Mondragón, Fanor

2010-04-01

300

Feasibility of coal tar biodegradation by land treatment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Coal tar, a by-product of coal gasification, contains monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) which have been identified as carcinogens. Billions of gallons of this waste have been disposed of at numerous gas manufacturing facilities in the United States. The treatment of tar-contaminated soil by bacterial degradation has shown great promise, since one-, two-, and three-ring PAH can be readily degraded by bacteria. Research was carried out to establish whether 4- and 5-ring PAH could also be degraded by bacteria. The data indicated that 4-ring PAH could degrade when dissolved in a hydrocarbon carrier or when applied to soil as a component of coal tar. Experiments to stimulate the bacterial degradation of benzo(a)pyrene, a 5-ring PAH, were unsuccessful.

Fogel, S.

1987-09-01

301

FIDDLER CREEK POLYMER AUGMENTATION PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The Fiddler Creek field is in Weston County, Wyoming, and was discovered in 1948. Secondary waterflooding recovery was started in 1955 and terminated in the mid-1980s with a fieldwide recovery of approximately 40%. The West Fiddler Creek Unit, the focus of this project, had a lower recovery and therefore has the most remaining oil. Before the project this unit was producing approximately 85 bbl of oil per day from 20 pumping wells and 17 swab wells. The recovery process planned for this project involved adapting two independent processes, the injection of polymer as a channel blocker or as a deep-penetrating permeability modifier, and the stabilization of clays and reduction of the residual oil saturation in the near-wellbore area around the injection wells. Clay stabilization was not conducted because long-term fresh water injection had not severely reduced the injectivity. It was determined that future polymer injection would not be affected by the clay. For the project, two adjoining project patterns were selected on the basis of prior reservoir studies and current well availability and production. The primary injection well of Pattern 1 was treated with a small batch of MARCIT gel to create channel blocking. The long-term test was designed for three phases: (1) 77 days of injection of a 300-mg/l cationic polyacrylamide, (2) 15 days of injection of a 300-mg/l anionic polymer to ensure injectivity of the polymer, and (3) 369 days of injection of the 300-mg/l anionic polymer and a 30:1 mix of the crosslinker. Phases 1 and 2 were conducted as planned. Phase 3 was started in late March 1999 and terminated in May 2001. In this phase, a crosslinker was added with the anionic polymer. Total injection for Phase 3 was 709,064 bbl. To maintain the desired injection rate, the injection pressure was slowly increased from 1,400 psig to 2,100 psig. Early in the application of the polymer, it appeared that the sweep improvement program was having a positive effect on Pattern 1 with lesser effects in Pattern 2. These early observations did not continue to develop. The oil production for both patterns remained fairly constant to the rates established by the restart of waterflooding. The water production declined but stabilized in both patterns. The stabilization of the oil at prepolymer rates and water production at the lower rates can be attributed to the polymer injection, but the effect was not as great as originally predicted. The sweep improvement for the patterns appeared to be negatively impacted by extended shutdowns in the injection and production systems. Such problems as those experienced in this project can be expected when long-term polymer injection is started in old waterflood fields. To prevent these problems, new injection and production tubulars and pumps would be required at a cost prohibitive to the present, independent operators. Unless the future results from the continued waterflood show positive effects of the long-term polymer injection, it appears that the batch-type polymer treatment may have more promise than the long-term treatment and should be more cost effective.

Lyle A. Johnson, Jr.

2001-10-31

302

Geology and coal resources of the Foidel Creek EMRIA site and surrounding area, Routt County, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Terrigenous clastic sediments of the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group (Campanian) in the southeastern part of the Yampa coal field in Routt County, northwestern Colorado, contain many beds of bituminous coal. Lower, middle, and upper coal groups are recognized. The middle coal group, in the lower coal-bearing member of the Williams Fork Formation, contains two thick, persistent coal beds in the Foidel Creek area. The Wadge coal bed, stratigraphically the higher of the two, reaches thicknesses of 3.7 meters, and is strippable beneath large areas on the south slope of Eckman Park. Coal resources of the Wadge bed in the Foidel Creek area--an area of 134 square kilometers, as defined in this study--are estimated to be 317 million metric tons. The Foidel Creek EMRIA reclamation study site--an area of 10.9 square kilometers--contains about 36.1 million metric tons of Wadge coal, as much as 28.1 million metric tons of which occur beneath overburden 61 meters or less in thickness. About 52 meters lower in the section, the Wolf Creek coal bed locally exceeds 6.1 meters in thickness. Coal resources of the Wolf Creek bed in the Foidel Creek area are estimated to be 434 million metric tons. The Foidel Creek EMRIA reclamation study site contains an estimated 49.7 million metric tons of Wolf Creek coal.

Ryer, Thomas A.

1977-01-01

303

MUTAGENICITY OF THE FRACTIONATED ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL, CIGARETTE SMOKE CONDENSATE, COKE OVEN, AND ROOFING TAR IN THE AMES ASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

Mobile and stationary sources emit particle-bound organics that have demonstrated mutagenicity. The objective of this study was to measure the mutagenicity of the fractionated organic emissions from diesel, cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), coke oven and roofing tar in the Ames a...

304

Characterization and Source of Unknown “Tar-Like Material” and “Slag” in a Former Oil Field in Compton, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of “tar-like material” and “slag” within a ravine traversing a mobile home park and former oil field promulgated its remediation and a subsequent lawsuit brought by the park's owner against the former Dominquez Oil Field (Compton, CA) operator claiming these materials were derived from historic oil production operations. In this study, archived samples of these materials from the

Scott A. Stout

2007-01-01

305

Impact of variability in coastal fog on photosynthesis and dissolved oxygen levels in shallow water habitats: Salmon Creek estuary case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal fog reduces available light levels that in turn reduce rates of photosynthesis and oxygen production. This effect can be seen in perturbations of the day-night production-respiration cycle that leads to increase and decrease in dissolved oxygen in shallow-water habitats. In well stratified coastal lagoons, a lower layer may be isolated from the atmosphere so that small changes in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) are evident in perturbations of the typical day-night cycle of oxygen concentration. This effect is observed in the summertime, mouth-closed Salmon Creek Estuary, located in Sonoma County (California). Sub-diurnal fluctuations in dissolved oxygen in Salmon Creek Estuary correlate with deviations from the clear-sky diurnal cycle in PAR. Similar effects are observed in other estuaries and the process by which fog controls photosynthesis can be expected to occur throughout coastal California, although the effect may not be easily observable in data collected from open waters where mixing and bloom dynamics are likely to dominate temporal variability in biogenic properties like dissolved oxygen.

Largier, J. L.

2013-12-01

306

A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for South Fork, Wildcat Creek, Clinton County, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Indiana State Board of Health is developing a State water-quality management plan that includes establishing limits for wastewater effluents discharged into Indiana streams. A digital model calibrated to conditions in South Fork Wildcat Creek was used to predict alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. Natural streamflow during the 7-day, 10-year low flow is zero, so no benefit from dilution is provided. The Indiana State Board of Health 's projected ammonia-nitrogen concentration for the Frankfort wastewater-treatment facility will violate the instream total ammonia-nitrogen standard of 2.5 mg/l and 4.0 mg/l during summer and winter low flows, respectively. The model indicates that nitrification and algal respiration were significant factors affecting the dissolved-oxygen dynamics of South Fork Wildcat Creek during two water-quality surveys. Stream water quality during the two water-quality surveys was degraded by the discharge of wastewater receiving only primary treatment. Benthic deposits resulting from this wastewater discharge seem to exert a considerable oxygen demand. The discharge of partially treated wastewater should be eliminated when a new wastewater-treatment facility becomes operational in mid-1979. Therefore, benthic-oxygen demand due to benthic deposits should become negligible at that time. (Kosco-USGS)

Crawford, Charles G.; Wilber, William G.; Peters, James G.

1979-01-01

307

Mass transfer and biodegradation of PAH compounds from coal tar. Quarterly technical report, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

This study, examines the role of physico-chemical mass transfer processes on the rate of biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds released from non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) coal tar present at residual saturation within a microporous medium. A simplified coupled dissolution-degradation model is developed that describes the concurrent mass transfer and biokinetic processes occurring in the system. Model results indicate that a dimensionless Damkohler number can be utilized to distinguish between systems that are mass transfer limited, and those that are limited by biological phenomena. The Damkohler number is estimated from independent laboratory experiments that measure the rates of aqueous phase dissolution and biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Experimental data for Stroudsburg coal tar imbibed within 236 {mu}m diameter silica particles yield Damkohler numbers smaller than unity, indicating, for the particular system under study, that the overall rate of biotransformation of naphthalene is not limited by the mass transfer of naphthalene from coal tar to the bulk aqueous phase. There is a need for investigation of mass transfer for larger particles and/or other PAH compounds, and study, of microbial rate-limiting phenomena including toxicity, inhibition and competitive substrate utilization.

Ramaswami, A.; Ghoshal, S.; Luthy, R.G.

1994-09-01

308

Mass transfer and biodegradation of PAH compounds from coal tar. Quarterly technical report, January--March 1993  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the role of physico-chemical mass transfer processes on the rate of biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds released from non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) coal tar present at residual saturation within a microporous medium. A simplified coupled dissolution-degradation model is developed that describes the concurrent mass transfer and biokinetic processes occurring in the system. Model results indicate that a dimensionless Damkohler number can be utilized to distinguish between systems that are mass transfer limited, and those that are limited by biological phenomena. The Damkohler number is estimated from independent laboratory experiments that measure the rates of aqueous phase dissolution and biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Experimental data for Stroudsburg coal tar imbibed within 236 {mu}m diameter silica particles yield Damkohler numbers smaller than unity, indicating, for the particular system under study, that the overall rate of biotransformation of naphthalene is not limited by the mass transfer of naphthalene from coal tar to the bulk aqueous phase. There is a need for investigation of mass transfer for larger particles and/or other PAH compounds, and study of microbial rate-limiting phenomena including toxicity, inhibition and competitive substrate utilization.

Ramaswami, A.; Ghoshal, S.; Luthy, R.G.

1994-09-01

309

Characterization of water quality and biological communities, Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2007-2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fish Creek, an approximately 25-kilometer-long tributary to Snake River, is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson. Fish Creek is an important water body because it is used for irrigation, fishing, and recreation and adds scenic value to the Jackson Hole properties it runs through. Public concern about nuisance growths of aquatic plants in Fish Creek has been increasing since the early 2000s. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District to characterize the hydrology, water quality, and biologic communities of Fish Creek during 2007–11. The hydrology of Fish Creek is strongly affected by groundwater contributions from the area known as the Snake River west bank, which lies east of Fish Creek and west of Snake River. Because of this continuous groundwater discharge to the creek, land-use activities in the west bank area can affect the groundwater quality. Evaluation of nitrate isotopes and dissolved-nitrate concentrations in groundwater during the study indicated that nitrate was entering Fish Creek from groundwater, and that the source of nitrate was commonly a septic/sewage effluent or manure source, or multiple sources, potentially including artificial nitrogen fertilizers, natural soil organic matter, and mixtures of sources. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate and orthophosphate, which are key nutrients for growth of aquatic plants, generally were low in Fish Creek and occasionally were less than reporting levels (not detected). One potential reason for the low nutrient concentrations is that nutrients were being consumed by aquatic plant life that increases during the summer growing season, as a result of the seasonal increase in temperature and larger number of daylight hours. Several aspects of Fish Creek’s hydrology contribute to higher productivity and biovolume of aquatic plants in Fish Creek than typically observed in streams of its size in Wyoming. Especially in the winter, the proportionately large, continuous gain of groundwater into Fish Creek in the perennial section keeps most of the creek free of ice. Because sunlight can still reach the streambed in Fish Creek and the water is still flowing, aquatic plants continue to photosynthesize in the winter, albeit at a lower level of productivity. Additionally, the cobble and large gravel substrate in Fish Creek provides excellent attachment points for aquatic plants, and when combined with Fish Creek’s channel stability allows rapid growth of aquatic plants once conditions allow during the spring. The aquatic plant community of Fish Creek was different than most streams in Wyoming in that it contains many different macrophytes—including macroalgae such as long streamers of Cladophora, aquatic vascular plants, and moss; most other streams in the state contain predominantly algae. From the banks of Fish Creek, the bottom of the stream sometimes appeared to be a solid green carpet. A shift was observed from higher amounts of microalgae in April/May to higher amounts macrophytes in August and October, and differences in the relative abundance of microalgae and macrophytes were statistically significant between seasons. Differences in dissolved-nitrate concentrations and in the nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratio were significantly different between seasons, as concentrations of dissolved nitrate decreased from April/May to August and October. It is likely that dissolved-nitrate concentrations in Fish Creek were lower in August and October because macrophytes were quickly utilizing the nutrient, and a negative correlation between macro-phytes and nitrate was found. Macroinvertebrates also were sampled because of their role as indicators of water quality and their documented responses to perturbation such as degradation of water quality and habitat. Statistically significant seasonal differences were noted in the macroinvertebrate community. Taxa richness and relative abundance of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera, which tend to be intolerant of water-

Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Peterson, David A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Edmiston, C. Scott; Taylor, Michelle L.; Leemon, Daniel J.

2013-01-01

310

Identification and characterization of wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study was to identify, characterize, and map the wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed. A preliminary wetland categorization system based on the Cowardin classification system (Cowardin et al. 1979) with additional site-specific topographic, vegetation, and disturbance characteristic modifiers was developed to characterize the type of wetlands that exist in the Bear Creek watershed. An additional objective was to detect possible relationships among site soils, hydrology, and the occurrence of wetlands in the watershed through a comparison of existing data with the field survey. Research needs are discussed in the context of wetland functions and values and regulatory requirements for wetland impact assessment and compensatory mitigation.

Rosensteel, B.A. [JAYCOR, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trettin, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1993-10-01

311

Ichnotaxonomic assessment of Mazon Creek area trace fossils, Illinois, USA  

E-print Network

Macroneuropteris) 49 Body Fossils 50 Discussion 52 Ichnotaxa 52 Behavior 52 Ichnofacies 53 Comparative Ichnotaxonomy 55 Summary 64 Conclusions... of this study is to determine the ichnotaxonomy of trace fossils on or in concretions and in shales from the Francis Creek Shale Member (FCSM) of the Middle Pennsylvanian Carbondale Formation in northern Illinois. This study will also identify behavioral...

LoBue, David J.

2010-08-12

312

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 2. Appendixes A, B, C, and D-Biota and representative concentrations of contaminants  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 2 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

NONE

1996-06-01

313

Temperature impact on the formation of tar from biomass pyrolysis in a free-fall reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar evolution was measured as a function of temperature during wood pyrolysis in a free-fall reactor operated at near atmospheric pressure. The yields of total tar and phenolic compounds were markedly reduced whereas aromatic compounds increased with increasing temperature between 700 and 900°C. The chemical distribution of principal tar constituents at selected time points was obtained by intermittent sampling using

Qizhuang Yu; Claes Brage; Guanxing Chen; Krister Sjöström

1997-01-01

314

29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

2012-07-01

315

29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

2013-07-01

316

29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

2010-07-01

317

29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

2011-07-01

318

29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

2014-07-01

319

Combination fluid bed dry distillation and coking process for oil\\/tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process and apparatus for direct coking of tar sands which includes contacting the tar sand with heat transfer particles resulting from combustion of coked sand effluent from the coking process, and transporting the combination up a riser\\/mixer to a coking vessel whereby separation of oil and hydrocarbon gases from the sand is initiated. The tar sand is introduced into

H. Owen; J. H. Haddad; J. C. Zahner

1985-01-01

320

Catalytic pyrolysis of coal tar and the dynamics of gases sorbed in polymers probed by NMR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyrolysis of a bituminous coal tar in a fixed bed reactor, was investigated. Potential catalysts and the effect of temperature and residence time on tar conversion was also investigated. The observed temperature dependence of tar conversion was then used to model the kinetics of these reactions by applying a lumped parameter approach. The strongest catalytic activity was displayed by

Cain

1989-01-01

321

Organic geochemical evidence for pine tar production in middle Eastern Sweden during the Roman Iron Age  

E-print Network

to identify different products of distilled wood of both Pinaceae (e.g. spruce and pine) and Betu- laceae (e; Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; Diterpenoids; Iron-Age 1. Introduction The investigation of wood tar. Biochemical markers of wood tars Triterpenoid resinous compounds originating from birch bark tar have been

322

MODELLING THE LOW-TAR BIG GASIFICATION CONCEPT Lars Andersen, Brian Elmegaard, Bjrn Qvale, Ulrik Henriksen  

E-print Network

MODELLING THE LOW-TAR BIG GASIFICATION CONCEPT Lars Andersen, Brian Elmegaard, Bjørn Qvale, Ulrik-tar, high-efficient biomass gasification concept for medium- to large-scale power plants has been designed pyrolysis and gasification units. The volatile gases from the pyrolysis (containing tar) are partially

323

Evaluation of Operations Scenarios for Managing the Big Creek Marsh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetland management in changing climate is important for maintaining sustainable ecosystem as well as for reducing the impact of climate change on the environment as wetlands act as natural carbon sinks. The Big Creek Marsh within the Essex County is a Provincially Significant Wetland (PSW) in Ontario, Canada. The marsh is approximately 900 hectares in area and is primarily fed by streamflow from the Big Creek Watershed. The water level of this wetland has been managed by the stakeholders using a system of pumps, dykes and a controlled outlet to the Lake Erie. In order to adequately manage the Big Creek Marsh and conserve diverse aquatic plant species, Essex Region Conservation Authority (ERCA), Ontario has embarked on developing an Operations Plan to maintain desire water depths during different marsh phases, viz., Open water, Hemi and Overgrown marsh phases. The objective of the study is to evaluate the alternatives for managing water level of the Big Creek Marsh in different marsh phases. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a continuous simulation model was used to simulate streamflow entering into the marsh from the Big Creek watershed. A Water Budget (WB) model was developed for the Big Creek Marsh to facilitate in operational management of the marsh. The WB model was applied to simulate the marsh level based on operations schedules, and available weather and hydrologic data aiming to attain the target water depths for the marsh phases. This paper presents the results of simulated and target water levels, streamflow entering into the marsh, water releasing from the marsh, and water pumping into and out of the marsh under different hydrologic conditions.

Wilson, Ian; Rahman, Masihur; Wychreschuk, Jeremy; Lebedyk, Dan; Bolisetti, Tirupati

2013-04-01

324

Phytotoxicity and Plant Productivity Analysis of Tar-Enriched Biochars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biochar is one of the three by-products obtained by the pyrolysis of organic material, the other two being syngas and bio-oil. The pyrolysis of biomass has generated a great amount of interest in recent years as all three by-products can be put toward beneficial uses. As part of a larger project designed to evaluate the hydrologic impact of biochar soil amendment, we generated a biochar through fast pyrolysis (less than 2 minutes) of sorghum stock at 600°C. In the initial biochar production run, the char bin was not purged with nitrogen. This inadvertent change in pyrolysis conditions produced a fast-pyrolysis biochar enriched with tars. We chose not to discard this batch, however, and instead used it to test the impact of tar-enriched biochars on plants. A suite of phytotoxicity tests were run to assess the effects of tar-rich biochar on plant germination and plant productivity. We designed the experiment to test for negative effects, using an organic carbon and nutrient-rich, greenhouse- optimized potting medium instead of soil. We used Black Seeded Simpson lettuce (Lactuca sativa) as the test organism. We found that even when tars are present within biochar, biochar amendment up to 10% by weight caused increased lettuce germination rates and increased biomass productivity. In this presentation, we will report the statistical significance of our germination and biomass data, as well as present preliminary data on how biochar amendment affects soil hydrologic properties.

Keller, M. L.; Masiello, C. A.; Dugan, B.; Rudgers, J. A.; Capareda, S. C.

2008-12-01

325

Atmospheric tar balls: Particles from biomass and biofuel burning  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Tar balls” are amorphous, carbonaceous spherules that occur in the tropospheric aerosol as a result of biomass and biofuel burning. They form a distinct group of particles with diameters typically between 30 and 500 nm and readily identifiable with electron microscopy. Their lack of a turbostratic microstructure distinguishes them from soot, and their morphology and composition (?90 mol % carbon)

Mihály Pósfai; András Gelencsér; Renáta Simonics; Krisztina Arató; Jia Li; Peter V. Hobbs; Peter R. Buseck

2004-01-01

326

Release of polyaromatic hydrocarbons from coal tar contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

A variety of process wastes generated from manufactured gas production (MGP) have contaminated soils and groundwater at production and disposal sites. Coal tar, consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons present as a nonaqueous phase liquid, makes up a large portion of MGP wastes. Of the compounds in coal tar, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the major constituents of environmental concern due to their potential mutagenic and carcinogenic hazards. Characterization of the release of PAHs from the waste-soil matrix is essential to quantifying long-term environmental impacts in soils and groundwater. Currently, conservative estimates for the release of PAHs to the groundwater are made assuming equilibrium conditions and using relationships derived from artificially contaminated soils. Preliminary work suggests that aged coal tar contaminated soils have much lower rates of desorption and a greater affinity for retaining organic contaminants. To obtain better estimates of desorption rates, the release of PAHs from a coal tar soil was investigated using a flow-interruption, miscible displacement technique. Methanol/water solutions were employed to enhance PAH concentrations above limits of detection. For each methanol/water solution employed, a series of flow interrupts of varying times was invoked. Release rates from each methanol/water solution were estimated from the increase in concentration with duration of flow interruption. Aqueous-phase release rates were then estimated by extrapolation using a log-linear cosolvency model.

Priddy, N.D.; Lee, L.S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Agronomy

1996-11-01

327

SULFUR TOLERANT CATALYSTS FOR BIOMASS TAR REMOVAL - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

In this Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project, NexTech Materials proposes a catalytic reforming approach to remove waste tar from gasified biomass on nickel-based catalysts. Biomass gasification is a potential renewable route to producing electricity, liquid fue...

328

Paleontology, paleoclimatology and paleoecology of the late middle miocene Musselshell Creek flora, Clearwater County Idaho. A preliminary study of a new fossil flora  

SciTech Connect

The Musselshell Creek flora (12.0-10.5 Ma) of northern Idaho is used to reconstruct paleoclimatic and paleoecologic parameters of the Pacific Northwest during the late Middle Miocene. Other megafossil and microfossil floral records spanning 12.0-6.4 Ma are unknown from this region. The Musselshell Creek fossil flora, previously undescribed, is preserved in lacustrine clays and sediments that accumulated in a narrow valley surrounded by rugged terrain. Dominant taxa include dicotyledons and conifers. Most of the leaves are preserved as impressions or compressions. Some fossil leaves retained their original pigmentation, cellular anatomy, and organic constituents. Other fossils include excellent remains of pollen and spores, dispersed leaf cuticle, pyritized wood, and disarticulated fish bones. A destructive statistical analysis of one block of sediment, approximately 30 cm x 45 cm (1.5 sq. ft) recovered 14 orders, 23 families, and 34 genera of spermatophyte plant fossils. These floral elements are compared with two other earlier Miocene floras which were similarly sampled. Common megafossil genera include Quercus, Zizy-phoides, Taxodium, Alnus, Castanea, Magnolia, Acer, Ex-bucklandia, Sequoia, Populus, and Betula. The rare occurrence of Ginkgo leaves is a first record of this taxon in the Idaho Miocene. Additional plant taxa, are represented by palynomorphs. Common pollen taxa are Pinus, Abies, Carya, Quercus, and Tilia. Most of the megafossil and microfossil flora assemblage is characteristic of a streambank to floodplain environment that existed in a warm to cool temperate climate similar to the modern Mid-Atlantic coast of the United States. 47 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Baghai, N.L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Jorstad, R.B. [Eastern Illinois Univ., Charleston, IL (United States)

1995-10-01

329

A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Duck Creek, Madison, Tipton, and Hamilton counties, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Indiana State Board of Health is developing a State water-quality plan that includes establishing limits for wastewater effluents discharged into Indiana streams. A digital model calibrated to conditions in Duck Creek was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The major point-source waste load affecting Duck Creek is the Elwood wastewater-treatment facility. Natural streamflow during the low flow is zero, so no benefit from dilution is provided. Natural reaeration at the low-flow condition (approximately 3 cubic feet per second), also low, is estimated to be less than 1 per day (base e at 20 Celsius). Consequently, the wasteload assimilative capacity of the stream is low. Effluent ammonia-nitrogen concentrations, projected by the Indiana State Board of Health, will result in stream ammonia-nitrogen concentrations that exceed the State ammonia-nitrogen toxicity standards (2.5 milligrams per liter from April to October and 4.0 milligrams per liter from November through March). The projected effluent ammonia-nitrogen load will also result in the present Indiana stream dissolved-oxygen standard (5.0 milligrams per liter) not being met. Benthic-oxygen demand may also affect stream water quality. During the summer low-flow, a benthic-oxygen demand of only 0.6 gram per square meter per day would utilize all the streams 's available assimilative capacity. (USGS)

Crawford, Charles G.; Wilber, William G.; Peters, James G.

1980-01-01

330

Soil chronosequence of brasstown creek, Blue Ridge mountains, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chronosequence of soils on alluvial terraces in the Appalachian highlands of the southeastern United States is identified by simple methods of quantitative soil morphology and chemical analysis. The chronosequence is from Brasstown Creek, a 5th order stream draining 65 km2 of the Blue Ridge Mountains of north Georgia. The portion of the valley studied is about 1 km wide

David S. Leigh

1996-01-01

331

MILK CREEK, TETON COUNTY, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1986  

EPA Science Inventory

Milk Creek, Idaho (17040204) was identified in the Agricultural Pollution Abatement Plans as a second priority stream segment for the reduction of agriculture related pollutants. A water quality study was conducted from March through June 1986 as part of the agricultural plannin...

332

NAME: Salt Creek Estuary Restoration LOCATION: Salt Creek Watershed, Clallam County, Washington  

E-print Network

NAME: Salt Creek Estuary Restoration LOCATION: Salt Creek Watershed, Clallam County, Washington Federal funds $0 PROJECT DESCRIPTION: The Salt Creek Estuary Reconnection project will significantly enhance tidal and fluvial hydrology to 22.5 acres of salt marsh, which will return the salt marsh to its

US Army Corps of Engineers

333

DEEP CREEK AND MUD CREEK, TWIN FALLS, IDAHO. WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1986  

EPA Science Inventory

Deep Creek and Mud Creek are located in Twin Falls County near Buhl, Idaho (17040212). From April through October, these creeks convey irrigation drainage water from the western part of the Twin Falls irrigation tract to the Snake River. During 1986, water quality surveys were ...

334

77 FR 10960 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Snake Creek, Islamorada, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...reduced. The vertical clearance of Snake Creek Bridge, across Snake Creek is 27 feet. Vessels with...pass underneath the bridge while it is in the closed position. The normal operating schedule for Snake Creek Bridge is set forth in...

2012-02-24

335

78 FR 47427 - AUC, LLC Reno Creek, In Situ  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Operate the Reno Creek ISR Project AGENCY...operate its proposed Reno Creek, In Situ Leach Uranium...Basin near Wright, Wyoming. DATES: Requests for...facility at AUC's Reno Creek site near Wright, Wyoming. Requirements for...

2013-08-05

336

1. OVERALL VIEW OF LOBOS CREEK INLET STRUCTURE (#1786), LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OVERALL VIEW OF LOBOS CREEK INLET STRUCTURE (#1786), LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Lobos Creek Inlet Structure, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

337

2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

338

33 CFR 117.793 - Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek).  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek). 117...Requirements New York § 117.793 Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek). ...requirements apply to all bridges across Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek):...

2014-07-01

339

33 CFR 117.793 - Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek). 117...Requirements New York § 117.793 Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek). ...requirements apply to all bridges across Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek):...

2013-07-01

340

33 CFR 117.793 - Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek). 117...Requirements New York § 117.793 Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek). ...requirements apply to all bridges across Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek):...

2011-07-01

341

33 CFR 117.793 - Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek). 117...Requirements New York § 117.793 Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek). ...requirements apply to all bridges across Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek):...

2010-07-01

342

128. Credit JE. Outlet of tunnel on South Battle Creek ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

128. Credit JE. Outlet of tunnel on South Battle Creek Canal immediately above Junction with Cross Country Canal. (JE, v. 25 1910 p. 118). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

343

8. DETAIL VIEW OF DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'HARP CREEK, LUTEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. DETAIL VIEW OF DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'HARP CREEK, LUTEN BRIDGE CO., CONTRACTOR, ARKANSAS STATE HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT, 1928' - Harp Creek Bridge, Spans Harp Creek at State Highway 7, Harrison, Boone County, AR

344

General perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking north - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

345

Approach view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Approach view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking north - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

346

Elevation view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Elevation view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking west - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

347

General perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking south - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

348

General perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking southwest - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

349

Approach view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Approach view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking south - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

350

Detail perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking southwest - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

351

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

352

1. Topographic view of the Rocky Creek Bridge and the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Topographic view of the Rocky Creek Bridge and the Oregon coast, view looking east - Rocky Creek Bridge, Spanning Rocky Creek on Oregon Coast Highway (U.S. Route 101), Depoe Bay, Lincoln County, OR

353

Spatial and temporal variation of whirling disease risk in Montana spring creeks and rivers.  

PubMed

Spring creeks are important spawning and rearing areas for wild trout, but the stable flows, cool temperatures, and high nutrient levels that characterize these unique habitats may also make them highly susceptible to establishment and proliferation of the whirling disease pathogen Myxobolus cerebralis. We evaluated the spatial and temporal dynamics in whirling disease risk by using sentinel rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fry in nine different spring creeks and their conjoining rivers or reservoirs in Montana over a 20-month period. Whirling disease risk was high in five of the seven pathogen-positive spring creek study sites; at these sites, prevalence levels exceeded 90% and over 50% of sentinel fry had moderate to high infection severity scores. Spring creeks generally had higher disease prevalence and severity than paired river or reservoir sites. Fine sediment levels varied widely among springs creeks with high and low whirling disease risk, and we found no significant association between fine sediment level and infection severity. The low risk measured for some spring creeks was likely attributable to the pathogen invasion being in its early stages rather than to environmental characteristics limiting the severity of infection. High whirling disease risk occurred over a wide range of temperatures at spring creek sites (4.5-13°C) and river sites (1.7-12.5°C). There was an unusual seasonal cycle of infection in spring creeks, with peak infection levels occurring from late fall to early spring and declining to near zero in late spring to early fall. The low infection risk during spring suggests that spring-spawning trout would be at a low risk of infection, even in spring creeks with otherwise high disease severity. In contrast, fry of fall-spawning trout may be much more susceptible to infection in spring creek environments. PMID:23025590

Neudecker, Ryen A; McMahon, Thomas E; Vincent, E Richard

2012-12-01

354

SHEEP CREEK SEEP CHARACTERIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The materials presented represent an assessment of site conditions related to the LaCrone property seep, located in the NW 1/4 of Section 34, Township 7E, Range 2N, near Harden City, OK. The primary objective of the study was to identify possible source(s) for the saline water, ...

355

Extraction of vanadium from athabasca tar sands fly ash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of refinery grade oil from the Alberta tar sands deposits as currently practiced by Suncor (formally Great Canadian Oil Sands Ltd.—GCOS) generates a substantial amount of petroleum coke fly ash which contains appreciable amounts of valuable metals such as vanadium, nickel and titanium. Although the recovery of vanadium from petroleum ash is a well established commercial practice, it is shown in the present work that such processes are not suitable for recovery of vanadium from the GCOS fly ash. The fact that the GCOS fly ash behaves so differently when compared to other petroleum fly ash is attributed to its high silicon and aluminum contents which tie up the metal values in a silica-alumina matrix. Results of experiments carried out in this investigation indicate that such matrices can be broken down by application of a sodium chloride/water roast of the carbon-free fly ash. Based on results from a series of preliminary studies, a detailed investigation was undertaken in order to define optimum conditions for a vanadium extraction process. The process developed involves a high temperature (875 to 950 °C) roasting of the fly ash in the presence of sodium chloride and water vapor carried out in a rotary screw kiln, followed by dilute sodium hydroxide atmosphereic leaching (98 °C) to solublize about 85 pet of the vanadium originally present in the fly ash. It was found that the salt roasting operation, besides enhancing vanadium recovery, also inhibits silicon dissolution during the subsequent leaching step. The salt roasting treatment is found to improve vanadium recovery significantly when the fly ash is fully oxidized. This is easily achieved by burning off the carbon present in the “as received” fly ash under excess air. The basic leaching used in the new process selectively dissolves vanadium from the roasted ash, leaving nickel and titanium untouched.

Gomez-Bueno, C. O.; Spink, D. R.; Rempel, G. L.

1981-06-01

356

Morphological controls on marsh creek network flow patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study to investigate flow characteristics and salt marsh morphology was carried out in the North Inlet/Winyah Bay Estuary, South Carolina. Acoustic Doppler current meters (ADVs) were placed at the terminus of two abutting creek networks that were separated by a topographic divide. An additional acoustic profiler was placed near the mouth of one of the creeks. Flow patterns observed during spring tide indicated an abrupt switch in current direction during flood before vanishing at slack high water. This reversal in flow direction was mirrored during the ebb phase, in which initial ebbing did not drain the creek but rather flowed further onto the marsh surface. This pattern was also seen in the profile measurements at all depths. In contrast, the current moved up both creeks on flood and out on ebb during the neap phase. The marsh surrounding the study site is located within a meander of the main tidal channel. Although the cause of the spring tide flow pattern is not completely understood, it may be related to inundation of the marsh island producing a net fluid transport down the pressure gradient formed by the propagating tidal wave. Therefore, topography exerts the dominant control on the flow over the marsh surface during neap tide, yet topography and hydrodynamics exert control during spring tide.

Styles, R.; Torres, R.

2004-12-01

357

Water table fluctuations near an incised stream, Walnut Creek, Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Incised channels are common features in many agricultural watersheds, but the effects of channel incision on riparian water table conditions have been poorly documented. In this study, we evaluate the water table fluctuations in the floodplain near an incised stream (Walnut Creek, Iowa) and investigate the roles that channel incision and variable recharge play in modifying the water table configuration in the floodplain. Groundwater flows from higher landscape positions towards Walnut Creek under hydraulic gradients that were steepest near the upland/floodplain contact and in the near-stream riparian zone. Annually, water table fluctuations on the floodplain were greatest in wells located 30 m from the creek, midway between the creek and upland. Water levels monitored continuously during a runoff event indicated that bank storage was confined to a narrow zone adjacent to the channel. A steady-state, one-dimensional analytical model was developed to describe the shape of the water table surface near an incised stream and evaluate how variable groundwater recharge and channel bed lowering has affected the shape of the water table surface. Results from this study have implications for managing the riparian buffers of incised streams with successful establishment dependent upon matching buffer vegetation to riparian water table conditions. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Schilling, K. E.; Zhang, Y. K.; Drobney, P.

2004-01-01

358

Water table fluctuations near an incised stream, Walnut Creek, Iowa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incised channels are common features in many agricultural watersheds, but the effects of channel incision on riparian water table conditions have been poorly documented. In this study, we evaluate the water table fluctuations in the floodplain near an incised stream (Walnut Creek, Iowa) and investigate the roles that channel incision and variable recharge play in modifying the water table configuration in the floodplain. Groundwater flows from higher landscape positions towards Walnut Creek under hydraulic gradients that were steepest near the upland/floodplain contact and in the near-stream riparian zone. Annually, water table fluctuations on the floodplain were greatest in wells located 30 m from the creek, midway between the creek and upland. Water levels monitored continuously during a runoff event indicated that bank storage was confined to a narrow zone adjacent to the channel. A steady-state, one-dimensional analytical model was developed to describe the shape of the water table surface near an incised stream and evaluate how variable groundwater recharge and channel bed lowering has affected the shape of the water table surface. Results from this study have implications for managing the riparian buffers of incised streams with successful establishment dependent upon matching buffer vegetation to riparian water table conditions.

Schilling, K. E.; Zhang, Y. K.; Drobney, P.

2004-01-01

359

Characterisation of naturally and artificially weathered pine tar coatings by visual assessment and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tarring experiments with pine tar from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) obtained from a traditionally accomplished kiln production have been carried out, in order to investigate potentials of improvement concerning tarring of the preserved Norwegian medieval stave churches. Pine tar coated test panels of pine wood were exposed to three different natural climates in Norway and on a regular basis characterised

Inger Marie Egenberg; Ann Katrin Holtekjølen; Elsa Lundanes

2003-01-01

360

Hydrographic characterization of two tidal creeks with implications for watershed land use, flushing times, and benthic production  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many coastal ecosystems are undergoing anthropogenic stress from large increases in population and urbanization. In many regions changes in freshwater and material inputs to the coastal zone are altering the biogeochemical and biological capacities of ecosystems. Despite increased watershed inputs, large tidal volumes and flushing indicative of macrotidal estuaries can modulate the fate of introduced materials masking some of the symptoms of eutrophication. The Land Use Coastal Ecosystem Study (LU-CES) examined linkages between land use and environmental properties of Malind and Okatee Creeks in South Carolina from 2001 to 2004. The objectives of this particular study were to assess the hydrography of the two macrotidal creek ecosystems, explore differences in dissolved oxygen (DO), and develop a better understanding of the variations in primary and benthic secondary production in southeastern creek ecosystems. Depth, pH, salinity, and DO were reduced and more variable in Malind Creek than in Okatee Creek, although both creeks had strong semidiurnal frequencies in salinity time signatures. While time series analyses of DO saturation in Malind Creek revealed a dominant semidiurnal pattern, Okatee Creek had a distinctly diel DO pattern. The strongly semidiurnal fluctuations in DO and reduced flushing time indicated that biological processes were not fast enough to influence DO in Malind Creek. The Okatee Creek system had a much greater storage volume, a wider marsh, and a dominant 25-h DO frequency. These attributes contributed to an estimated 8-10 times more phytoplankton-based carbon in Okatee Creek and twice the annual benthic production. As expected from their proximity to the upland, low surface area, and high organic content, both ecosystems were net heterotrophic. This fundamental understanding of tidal creek hydrography is being used to help define linkages among differential watershed land uses, flushing characteristics, and levels of biological production in coastal ecosystems of the southeastern United States. ?? 2007 Estuarine Research Federation.

Buzzelli, C.; Holland, A. F.; Sanger, D. M.; Conrads, P. C.

2007-01-01

361

Floods on Roseberry Creek, Wacker Branch, and three unnamed tributaries to Roseberry Creek in the vicinity of Scottsboro, Alabama. Flood report  

SciTech Connect

The study was requested by the city to provide information reflecting current flood conditions in order for the community to better administer its floodplain management program and to qualify for participation in the regular phase of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). This report updates and expands the coverage of a previous TVA report published in April 1967. Profiles and flooded area and floodway maps are provided for Roseberry Creek, Wacker Branch, and three previously unstudied tributaries to Roseberry Creek.

Not Available

1982-10-01

362

The temporal relationship between advertising and sales of low-tar cigarettes  

PubMed Central

Objective and hypothesis To determine whether a temporal relationship exists between the advertising and sales of low?tar cigarettes. It was hypothesised that increases in the advertising of low?tar cigarettes would precede increases in sales for these cigarettes. Methods The themes of cigarette advertisements were reviewed and coded for 20 low?tar cigarette brands advertised in 13 widely read magazines in the US between 1960 and 1996. These 20 brands represented most of the low?tar cigarette advertisements and cigarette sales from 1967 to 1996. Cigarette sales data were obtained from the 1994 Maxwell report that summarises all cigarette sales from 1925 to 1990. If the advertisement referred to the low?tar attributes of the cigarette advertised, the advertisement was coded as having a low?tar theme and was included in the analysis. Results Five different graphical presentations of the relationship between the advertising and sales of the 20 low?tar cigarette brands showed a temporal relationship between low?tar advertising and sales for these brands. This relationship was observed for brands that introduced a low?tar alternative into an existing brand family (eg, Marlboro Light) and for new exclusively low?tar brands (eg, Carlton). Despite large increases in the advertising for the exclusively low?tar brands, sales of these brands remained low relative to sales of the low?tar alternative brands. Conclusions Increases in print advertising of 20 of the most popular low?tar cigarette brands were followed by increases in sales for these cigarettes. Despite increases in the advertising of exclusively low?tar brands in the mid?1970s and early 1980s, the sales of these brands never matched the sales of the low?tar alternative brands. This suggests that it may have been easier to get smokers to switch to low?tar brands within a brand family compared with entirely new low?tar brands. Over the past 30?years, the marketing of low?tar cigarettes as a healthier alternative to higher?tar cigarettes has resulted in these brands dominating the market, and may have kept concerned smokers from quitting. PMID:17130371

Reed, Mark B; Anderson, Christy M; Burns, David M

2006-01-01

363

Adventures at Dry Creek  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational module enables students (5-12) to experience ongoing research of University of California paleontologists studying about life in Montana 60-70 million years ago. It gives students the opportunity to experience the scientific process using real research questions and data. The teacher guide provides background information, standards, a lesson plan, discussion question, handouts, assessment materials, content background, and related material. During this module students will: gain an understanding of paleontological field work, stratigraphy, geologic time, and fossils; conduct a scientific investigation by collecting, categorizing, identifying and analyzing fossils; use a key to identify fossils; read and analyze data presented in a chart and graph; use fossil data to develop multiple hypotheses about life in the past; make inferences about life in the past using direct and indirect evidence; and communicate findings with others for review.

364

33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw of the State highway bridge, mile...

2013-07-01

365

33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw of the State highway bridge, mile...

2010-07-01

366

33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw of the State highway bridge, mile...

2012-07-01

367

33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw of the State highway bridge, mile...

2011-07-01

368

NAME: Stewart's Creek LOCATION: Barnstable, Massachusetts  

E-print Network

NAME: Stewart's Creek LOCATION: Barnstable, Massachusetts ACRES/RIVER MILES: 14 acres NON-FEDERAL SPONSOR(S): Town of Barnstable, Massachusetts PROJECT PARTNERS: Massachusetts Wetlands Restoration Program and an estuarine embayment (open water and intertidal flat) at Stewart's Creek in Hyannis, Massachusetts

US Army Corps of Engineers

369

Pine Creek Ranch; Annual Report 2002.  

SciTech Connect

This report gives information about the following four objectives: OBJECTIVE 1--Gather scientific baseline information for monitoring purposes and to assist in the development of management plans for Pine Creek Ranch; OBJECTIVE 2--Complete and implement management plans; OBJECTIVE 3--Protect, manage and enhance the assets and resources of Pine Creek Ranch; and OBJECTIVE 4--Deliverables.

Berry, Mark E.

2003-02-01

370

Aquatic toxicology of Turkey Creek, Missouri, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

At low flows, ambient toxicity (measured as a reduction in Ceriodaphnia survival) was observed in two tributaries and in the main channel of Turkey Creek. Toxicity during periods of no observable stream flow was absent in Turkey Creek upstream of these sources and reduced downstream of them and a wastewater treatment plant. During stormwater runoff, ambient toxicity increased throughout Turkey

Tim D. Harrell; Joseph A. Arruda; James R. Triplett

2007-01-01

371

Lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and house dust in the communities surrounding the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds.  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the residential communities adjacent to the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds, the area considered Canada's worst contaminated site. The tar pond remediation policy has been limited to the site and some residential properties. We compared background concentrations in 91 soil samples taken 5-20 km from the coke oven site with those in soil samples from the three communities surrounding the tar ponds: Whitney Pier, Ashby, and North End. These surrounding communities were statistically different from background regarding arsenic, lead, and PAHs. Twenty percent of the background soil samples and 95% of the tar pond soil samples were above the Canadian health-risk-based soil guidelines for arsenic (12 ppm), and 5% of the background samples and 80% of the tar pond soil samples were above the Canadian guidelines for lead (140 ppm). Regarding dust lead and arsenic loading, the results provide no evidence that Whitney Pier is significantly different than Ashby and North End. Children in these communities are predicted to have a 1-15% chance of blood lead > 10 microg/dL. The results suggest that lead and arsenic found in the homes originate outside. The lead content of paint in the homes was not evaluated, but consideration of painted wood at the doorway did not confound the results of the study. The results indicate that the residential environment has been adversely affected by PAHs, lead, and arsenic and should be considered for remediation. PMID:14698928

Lambert, Timothy W; Lane, Stephanie

2004-01-01

372

Cyclic steaming of tar sands through hydraulically induced fractures  

SciTech Connect

Fracture dimensions and process mechanisms that resulted from cyclic steam stimulation above fracturing pressure in German and Canadian tar sands are analyzed with numerical modeling. Horizontal fracture radii of 100 ft (30.5 m) and vertical fracture half-lengths of 250 ft (76.2 m) with fracture surface areas of 30,000 to 70,000 sq ft (2787 to 6503 m/sup 2/) are sufficient to reproduce steam injectivity into reservoirs containing highly viscous oil and negligible amounts of movable water saturation. Mechanisms that are important during fluid loading and unloading of induced fractures include thermal expansion of tar oil, countercurrent imbibition of water and oil caused by capillary pressure effects, and fracture compressibility.

Dietrich, J.K.

1986-05-01

373

DOE small business program solicits EOR and tar sands projects  

SciTech Connect

Small Business Innovation Research, SBIR, program awards are made in three phases: 1. approximately 100 fixed-price awards in amounts up to $50,000 for a period of 6 1/2 months; 2. promising results from Phase 1 will result in cost-reimbursable awards during FY1988 in amounts up to $500,000 for a 2-year period; 3. non-Federal capital will be used for commercial application of the research. Methods for enhanced oil recovery and recovery of bitumens from tar sands are being sought only in the following areas: new processes for fluid diversion; innovative tracking of flood fronts in recovery processes; and improved recovery efficiency in heavy oil and tar sand reservoirs. Four award winners for FY1986 are listed and the methods briefly described.

Not Available

1986-12-01

374

Geology and resources of the Tar Sand Triangle, southeastern Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tar Sand Triangle is located in southeastern Utah between the Dirty Devil and Colorado Rivers and covers an area of about 200 square miles. The geology of the area consists of gently northwest dipping strata exposed in the box canyons and slopes of the canyolands morphology. Strata in the area range in age from Jurassic to Permian. The majority of tar sand saturation is found in the Permian White Rim Sandstone Member of the Cutler Formation. The White Rim Sandstone Member consists of a clean, well sorted sandstone which was deposited in a shallow marine environment. The total in place resources, are 6.3 billion barrels. Previous estimates ranged from 2.9 to 16 million barrels. More coring and analyses is necessary before a more accurate determination of resources is attempted.

Dana, G. F.; Oliver, R. L.; Elliott, J. R.

1984-05-01

375

Process and apparatus for recovery of oil from tar sands  

SciTech Connect

A crude oil product is extracted from a tar sand by first crushing the tar sand as mined and then fine grinding the crushed material in a grinding mill in the presence of a cleansing liquid, such as an aqueous solution of a caustic. The resulting slurry is passed into suitable extractor-classifier equipment, such as that shown in U.S. Pat. No. 3,814,336, in which a body of cleansing liquid is maintained. Agitation of the slurry in such maintained body of cleansing liquid substantially completes removal of the bituminous matter from the sand, and the resulting crude oil and cleansing liquid phase is discharged separately from the sand solid phase. The liquid phase is treated for the removal of residual sand particles and for the separation of residual cleansing liquid from the crude oil. The cleansing liquid so recovered is recycled and the crude oil is passed to further processing or for use as such.

Brewer, J.C.

1982-11-30

376

Cracking reactions of tar from pyrolysis of spruce wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate vapour phase cracking of tar from pyrolysis of spruce wood, experiments with small particles of spruce wood (0.5–1.0mm) were carried out both in a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) and in a coupling of the TGA with a consecutive tubular reactor. In all experiments, the TGA was heated from 105 to 1050°C at a heating rate of 5Kmin?1.

Johannes Rath; Gernot Staudinger

2001-01-01

377

Cyclic steaming of tar sands through hydraulically induced fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fracture dimensions and process mechanisms resulting from cyclic steam stimulation above fracturing pressure in German and Canadian tar sands are analyzed using numerical modeling. Fracture radii of 100 feet and half-lengths of 250 feet with fracture surface areas of 30,000 to 70,000 square feet were sufficient to reproduce steam injectivity into reservoirs containing highly viscous oil and negligible amounts of

Deitrich

1983-01-01

378

Cyclic steaming of tar sands through hydraulically induced fractures  

SciTech Connect

Fracture dimensions and process mechanisms resulting from cyclic steam stimulation above fracturing pressure in German and Canadian tar sands are analyzed using numerical modeling. Fracture radii of 100 feet and half-lengths of 250 feet with fracture surface areas of 30,000 to 70,000 square feet were sufficient to reproduce steam injectivity into reservoirs containing highly viscous oil and negligible amounts of movable water saturation.

Deitrich, J.K.

1983-03-01

379

Cyclic steaming of tar sands through hydraulically induced fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fracture dimensions and process mechanisms resulting from cyclic steam stimulation above fracturing pressure in German and Canadian tar sands are analyzed using numeric modeling. Fracture radii of 100 ft and half-lengths of 250 ft with fracture surface areas of 30,000 to 70,000 sq ft were sufficient to reproduce steam injectivity into reservoirs containing highly viscous oil and negligible amounts of

Dietrich

1983-01-01

380

Cyclic Steaming of Tar Sands Through Hydraulically Induced Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fracture dimensions and process mechanisms that resulted from cyclic steam stimulation above fracturing pressure in German and Canadian tar sands are analyzed with numerical modeling. Horizontal fracture radii of 100 ft (30.5 m) and vertical fracture half-lengths of 250 ft (76.2 m) with fracture surface areas of 30,000 to 70,000 sq ft (2787 to 6503 m²) are sufficient to reproduce

J. K. Dietrich

1986-01-01

381

Cyclic steaming of tar sands through hydraulically induced fractures  

SciTech Connect

Fracture dimensions and process mechanisms resulting from cyclic steam stimulation above fracturing pressure in German and Canadian tar sands are analyzed using numeric modeling. Fracture radii of 100 ft and half-lengths of 250 ft with fracture surface areas of 30,000 to 70,000 sq ft were sufficient to reproduce steam injectivity into reservoirs containing highly viscous oil and negligible amounts of movable water saturation.

Dietrich, J.K.

1983-01-01

382

Sedimentation of sulfuric acid in acid tars from current production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid tars obtained in treating T-750, KhF-12, and I-8A oils were investigated for purposes of recovering sulfuric acid and asphalt binders from the compositions and of determining the effects of storage time on the recovery. The consumption and sedimentation levels of sulfuric acid during storage for different periods and at different temperatures were assessed. The characteristics of an asphalt binder

T. L. Denisova; A. F. Frolov; A. N. Aminov; S. P. Novosel'tsev

1987-01-01

383

Quality of water and time of travel in Goodwater and Okatoma creeks near Magee, Mississippi  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An intensive quality-of-water study was conducted during a period of generally low streamflow in Goodwater and Okatoma Creeks near Magee, Miss. During the August 12-14, 1980, study, the mean specific conductance of the water at all sites was less than 59 micromhos per centimeter; the dissolved-oxygen concentrations were greater than 5.0 milligrams per liter: pH values ranged from 6.0 to 6.8, and the mean water temperature ranged from 23.0 to 27.0 Celsius. The biochemical oxygen demand and nutrient concentrations at the downstream sampling sites were higher in Goodwater Creek than in Okatoma Creek. The maximum 5-day biochemical oxygen demand was 2.7 milligrams per liter in Goodwater Creek and 1.5 milligrams per liter in Okatoma Creek. The mean concentration of total nitrogen was 1.0 and 0.71 milligrams per liter and the mean total phosphorus concentration was 0.26 and 0.10 milligrams per liter at the downstream sites on Goodwater and Okatoma Creeks, respectively. Fecal coliform densities generally were high at all sites, exceeding 4,000 colonies per 100 milliliters in both Goodwater and Okatoma Creeks. Objectionable concentrations of total cadmium, mercury, iron, and phenol were present in a sample of water. Dieldrin, chlordane, DDD, DDE, and DDT were present in a sample of bottom material collected at the downstream site of Okatoma Creek. The peak concentration of dye injected into Goodwater Creek traveled through a 1.7-mile reach at a rate of 0.3 mile per hour. (USGS)

Kalkhoff, S. J.

1981-01-01

384

Depth-gradient analysis of the Colony Creek Cycle (late Pennsylvanian) of north Texas  

E-print Network

-2. Location of the sections studied in the Brazos River valley. m 0 32 13 THE COLONY CREEK CYCLE A COMPOSITE OF THE COLORADO RIVER SECTIONS 28 26 HOME CREEK LIMESTONE 20 I6 l2 52 78 COLONY CREEK SHALE O co co ELI IL ca ILJ 91 O ft...). Banks were parallel to regional depositional strike. The phylloid algae grew on the EST TOHEWALL CO STEPHENS CO EAST POST- CISCO PERMIAN ROCKS 1%% N caOOO ATEO &II - " RIA CONC CIIO r P--- OELI?c flUI La?a%LONE ?UO%1ONE C3 ~ No I NOEIONE IM...

Kennedy, Noel Lynne

2012-06-07

385

77 FR 24947 - Cedar Creek Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...proposing to study the feasibility of the Cedar Creek Pumped Storage Project to be located in Briscoe, Armstrong, and...without the owners' express permission. The proposed pumped storage project would consist of: (1) A 60-...

2012-04-26

386

Effect of nutrient loading on biogeochemical processes in tropical tidal creeks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of increased nutrient loads on biogeochemical processes in macrotidal, mangrove-lined creeks was studied in tropical\\u000a Darwin Harbour, Australia. This study uses an integrative approach involving multiple benthic and pelagic processes as measures\\u000a of ecosystem function, and provides a comparison of these processes in three tidal creeks receiving different loads of treated\\u000a sewage effluent. There were significant differences in

Jodie SmithMichele; Michele A. Burford; Andrew T. Revill; Ralf R. Haese; Julia Fortune

387

Biomass waste gasification - Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of one stage (co-current) and two stage gasification of wood pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Original arrangement with grate-less reactor and upward moving bed of the pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two stage gasification leads to drastic reduction of tar content in gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One stage gasification produces gas with higher LHV at lower overall ER. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Content of ammonia in gas is lower in two stage moving bed gasification. - Abstract: A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW{sub th}. The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950 Degree-Sign C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER = 0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV = 3.15 MJ/Nm{sup 3}), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950 Degree-Sign C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the second stage presented only few mass% of the inlet biomass stream.

Sulc, Jindrich; Stojdl, Jiri; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Svoboda, Karel, E-mail: svoboda@icpf.cas.cz [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR, v.v.i., Rozvojova 135, 165 02 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Smetana, Jiri; Vacek, Jiri [D.S.K. Ltd., Ujezdecek - Dukla 264, 415 01 Teplice I (Czech Republic); Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr [Dept. of Gas, Coke and Air protection, Institute of Chemical Technol., Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

2012-04-15

388

HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 VOCsVOCs,, PAHsPAHs, soot, tar, CO, soot, tar, CO  

E-print Network

-level ozone) and ground-level ozone ·· Control ofControl of VOCsVOCs ·· Formation and control of.hut.fi/~rzevenhorzevenho//gasbookgasbook HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Definitions ofDefinitions of VOCsVOCs,, PAHsPAHs, tar, soot). methane) in Europe, 1994 (tonnes)in Europe, 1994 (tonnes) Ground-level ozone in Europe,Ground-level ozone

Zevenhoven, Ron

389

Identifying distinct thermal components of a creek  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical and heat budget methods for analyzing temperature dynamics of creeks are limited by the ability to resolve thermal processes and fine-grained thermal structures, respectively. Here we describe a hybrid method that identifies distinct thermal components in a stream's heat budget using only temperature data and an algorithm that employs mutual information to "unmix" signals in the temperature data. Spatial resolution is limited only by the number of temperature-logging sensors, which can be quite high for distributed-temperature sensors. Process resolution is at the level of thermal components, defined as distinct collections of heat flux elements sharing coordinated (nonindependent) dynamics. Inference can be used to relate thermal components to meteorological forcing and structural heterogeneity in the fluvial system and to suggest novel hypotheses for further testing with targeted heat budget studies. Applying the method to a small, arid-land creek produced two novel hypotheses: (1) lateral conduction of heat from adjacent dry land (bed, terraces) appeared to cause a substantial heating of the stream, augmented by off-channel flow paths, and (2) riparian vegetation was associated with a subtraction of heat from the stream at a rate proportionate to solar insolation, exceeding the maximum decoupling effect of shade by at least 2°C at midday, and suggesting upwelling heat flux from water to tree canopy proportional to sunlight. The method appears useful for generating new hypotheses, for selecting informative sites for detailed heat budgets, for determining the dimensionality of heat budgets in natural streams, and more broadly for associating thermal components to fluvial structure and processes.

Boughton, David A.; Hatch, Christine; Mora, Ethan

2012-09-01

390

Crab Creek Subbasin: Telford Unit -Management Plan Introduction  

E-print Network

Crab Creek Subbasin: Telford Unit - Management Plan Introduction The Telford Unit of the Crab Creek, S, E and W.) The Telford Unit is shown in Figure 1. 1 #12;Figure 1. Telford Unit of Crab Creek grazing are the dominant land uses within the Telford Unit of the Crab Creek subbasin. Crops are primarily

391

Crab Creek Subbasin: Telford Unit/Swanson Lakes Wildlife Area  

E-print Network

Crab Creek Subbasin: Telford Unit/Swanson Lakes Wildlife Area Assessment and Inventory Introduction This portion of the Crab Creek Subbasin Plan is narrowed down in scope, from Crab Creek in general within a portion of the Crab Creek Subbasin (Vander Haegen et al. 2000, WDFW 2000). Many of these species

392

2. CONTEMPORARY PHOTOGRAPH OF BIG CREEK POWERHOUSE NO. 3 TAKEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. CONTEMPORARY PHOTOGRAPH OF BIG CREEK POWERHOUSE NO. 3 TAKEN FROM SAME ANGLE AS CA-167-X-1. THREE ORIGINAL PENSTOCKS PLUS FOURTH AND FIFTH PENSTOCKS (VISIBLE TO LEFT OF ORIGINAL THREE), AND THREE ORIGINAL STANDPIPES COUPLED TO FOURTH STANDPIPE SHOWN BEHIND AND ABOVE POWERHOUSE BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 3 Penstock Standpipes, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

393

3. OVERVIEW CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BIG CREEK NO. 3 COMPLEX ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. OVERVIEW CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BIG CREEK NO. 3 COMPLEX SHOWING SWITCHRACKS AND SUPPORT BUILDINGS TO PHOTO RIGHT OF POWERHOUSE, SAN JOAQUIN RIVER FLOWING IN PHOTO CENTER TO LOWER RIGHT, AND PENSTOCKS AND STANDPIPES IN BACKGROUND ABOVE POWERHOUSE. VIEW TO EAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 3 Penstock Standpipes, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

394

Columbia River Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report \\/ Scotch Creek Wildlife Area, Berg Brothers, and Douglas County Pygmy Rabbit Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Habitat Evaluation Procedure study was conducted to determine baseline habitat units (HUs) on the Scotch Creek, Mineral Hill, Pogue Mountain, Chesaw and Tunk Valley Habitat Areas (collectively known as the Scotch Creek Wildlife Area) in Okanogan County, Sagebrush Flat and the Dormaler property in Douglas County, and the Berg Brothers ranch located in Okanogan County within the Colville Reservation.

Ashley; Paul R

1997-01-01

395

Impact of the intensive shrimp farming on the water quality of the adjacent coastal creeks from Eastern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of shrimp aquaculture on the adjacent water bodies over a crop cycle period were evaluated by studying the water quality of inlet and outlet creeks located within Xuwei Salt Field, Lianyungang City of Jiangsu Province. The characterization of the water consisted of the evaluation of the variation of 10 parameters along the inlet and outlet creeks and during

Xie Biao; Ding Zhuhong; Wang Xiaorong

2004-01-01

396

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF WESTERN COAL SURFACE MINING. PART VIII. FISH DISTRIBUTION IN TROUT CREEK, COLORADO, 1975-1976  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted on Trout Creek in northwestern Colorado during 1975-1976 to assess the effects of drainage from an adjacent surface coal mine on the distribution of fishes in the creek, and to relate their distribution to physical and chemical variables. A second objective ...

397

Spatially explicit load enrichment calculation tool and cluster analysis for identification of E. coli sources in Plum Creek Watershed, Texas  

E-print Network

, it is necessary to characterize the sources of pathogens within the watershed. The objective of this study was to develop a spatially explicit method that allocates E.coli loads in the Plum Creek watershed in East Central Texas. A section of Plum Creek...

Teague, Aarin Elizabeth

2009-06-02

398

Panther Creek, Idaho, Habitat Rehabilitation, Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project was to achieve full chinook salmon and steelhead trout production in the Panther Creek, Idaho, basin. Plans were developed to eliminate the sources of toxic effluent entering Panther Creek. Operation of a cobalt-copper mine since the 1930's has resulted in acid, metal-bearing drainage entering the watershed from underground workings and tailings piles. The report discusses plans for eliminating and/or treating the effluent to rehabilitate the water quality of Panther Creek and allow the reestablishment of salmon and trout spawning runs. (ACR)

Reiser, Dudley W.

1986-01-01

399

Flood of August 27-28, 1977, West Cache Creek and Blue Beaver Creek, southwestern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report documents a major storm which occurred August 27-28, 1977, in southwest Oklahoma near the communities of Cache and Faxon, OK. Blue Beaver Creek and West Cache Creek and their tributaries experienced extensive flooding that caused an estimated $1 million in damages. Reported rainfall amounts of 8 to 12 inches in 6 hours indicate the storm had a frequency in excess of the 100-year rainfall. Peak discharges on Blue Beaver Creek near Cache and West Cache Creek near Faxon were 13,500 cubic feet per second and 45,700 cubic feet per second respectively. The estimated flood frequency was in excess of 100 years on Blue Beaver Creek and in excess of 50 years on West Cache Creek. Unit runoff on small basins were in excess of 2000 cubic feet per second per square mile. Surveyed highwater marks were used to map the flooded area. (USGS)

Corley, Robert K.; Huntzinger, Thomas L.

1979-01-01

400

Expression of TAR RNA-binding protein in baculovirus and co-immunoprecipitation with insect cell protein kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

TAR RNA-binding protein TRBP was originally isolated by its binding affinity for radiolabeled HIV-1 leader RNA. Subsequent studies have suggested that this protein is one member of a family of double-stranded RNA-binding proteins. Recent findings indicate that TRBP might function to antagonize the translational inhibitory effect that can be mediated through cellular protein kinase, PKR. Here, we report on the

Edward D. Blair; Christopher M. Roberts; B. Wendy Snowden; Anne Gatignol; Monsef Benkirane; Kuan-Teh Jeang

1995-01-01

401

Quantitative determination of benzo[a]pyrene in tar-containing drugs by an isotope dilution method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative determination of benzoSTAa!pyrene (BP) in tar-containing ; drugs was studied by employing tritiated BP instead of ¹⁴C-BP. The ; analytical procedure was examined as follows: solvent extraction, thin-layer ; chromatography, and ultraviolet absorption spectrophotometry. The recovery of BP ; in the whole analytical procedure was examined by repeating the procedure after ; adding 4.4 or 33.0 mu g of

Y. Masuda; K. Shimamura; R. Kagawa

1973-01-01

402

Early specific free radical-related cytotoxicity of gas phase cigarette smoke and its paradoxical temporary inhibition by tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping studies demonstrated aqueous tar particulate matter (TPM) and gas phase cigarette smoke (GPCS) to behave as different sources of free radicals in cigarette smoke (CS) but their cytotoxic implications have been only assessed in CS due to its relevance to the natural smoking process. Using a sensitive spin trapping detection with 5-(diethoxyphosphoryl)-5-methyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DEPMPO), this

Marcel Culcasi; Agnès Muller; Anne Mercier; Jean-Louis Clément; Olivier Payet; Antal Rockenbauer; Véronique Marchand; Sylvia Pietri

2006-01-01

403

Assessment of Research Needs for Oil Recovery from Heavy-Oil Sources and Tar Sands (FERWG-IIIA)  

SciTech Connect

The Fossil Energy Research Working Group (FERWG), at the request of J.W. Mares (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and A.W. Trivelpiece (Director, Office of Energy Research), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on oil recovery from heavy oil sources and tar sands. These studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of research areas that affect the prospects for oil recovery from these sources. This report summarizes the findings and research recommendations of FERWG.

Penner, S.S.

1982-03-01

404

Reintroduction of Native FishReintroduction of Native Fish Species to Coal CreekSpecies to Coal Creek  

E-print Network

1 Reintroduction of Native FishReintroduction of Native Fish Species to Coal CreekSpecies to Coal Control and Reclamation ActSurface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977of 1977 Coal Creek Watershed Foundation (2000)Coal Creek Watershed Foundation (2000) BackgroundBackground Fish populations in Coal Creek

Gray, Matthew

405

Catalytic cracking of tar component from high-temperature fuel gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cracking removal of tar component in high-temperature fuel gas cleanup is one of the most crucial problems in developing cleanest advanced power technology. Five catalysts were evaluated to tar component removal from high-temperature fuel gas in a fixed-bed reactor. 1-Methylnaphthalene was chosen as a model of tar component. The Y-zeolite and NiMo catalysts were found to be the most

Binlin Dou; Jinsheng Gao; Xingzhong Sha; Seung Wook Baek

2003-01-01

406

Hydrodynamics of a small trained tidal inlet (Currumbin Creek, Australia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small tidal inlets are important features of coastal areas, in terms of provision of access from a back barrier water-body to the ocean as well as periodic circulation of fresh nutrients for the local ecology. Usually, dimensional and geometrical characteristics contribute significantly to morphological stability or instability of a particular inlet and necessitate an individual investigation of any desired location. In other words, generalized usage of previous empirical and experimental research of a different position can hardly be used for other places. In this regard, one of the powerful tools to understand the physical processes of a particular region is to collect as much field data as possible. Such a dataset is used to further analyse and explore the governing processes and can also be used for building a numerical computer model for supplementary studies. In this research, the results of a comprehensive field measurement at Currumbin Creek, Queensland, Australia are presented. This study is part of broader research to investigate the long term evolution of the Currumbin entrance and its adjacent beaches. Currently, an annual dredging campaign is needed to reduce the risk of flooding due to excess rainfall inundations and to maintain water quality. The majority of data were collected over a three month period consistent with the time of the 2012 dredging operation. However, due to the loss of some instrumentation, data collection for some of the parameters was repeated till the middle of May 2013. All collected data included: (1) nearshore waves and tide; (2) creek tidal variation; (3) creek flow discharge and velocity; (4) bathymetric survey of the creek; (5) beach profile evolution survey; and (6) sediment sampling. The measurement showed that the creek entrance is tidally dominated, with flood events having a major role in sediment transport into the creek. The nearshore stations' wave data illustrated the marginal effect of the beach curvature between updrift and downdrift stations. Thus, the historical dataset available from the updrift wave rider buoy will be selected to be used for future numerical modelling. Although changes of some beach profiles were comparatively insignificant, the dramatic changes of the profile lines nearby the inlet channel and also rapid bathymetric change of the flood shoal following the dredging completion are valuable information to better calibrate and interpret a local sediment modelling study for the next phase. Essentially, this evaluation needs to be considered for proposing any alternative maintenance activities.

Shaeri, S.; Tomlinson, R. B.; Etemad-Shahidi, A.; Strauss, D.; Hughes, L. P.

2014-04-01

407

Steel Creek fish, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The lake has an average width of approximately 600 m and extends along the Steel Creek valley approximately 7000 m from the dam to the headwaters. Water level is maintained at a normal pool elevation of 58 m above mean sea level by overflow into a vertical intake tower that has multilevel discharge gates. The intake tower is connected to a horizontal conduit that passes through the dam and releases water into Steel Creek. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems.

Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

1992-04-01

408

Hydrologic Conditions and Quality of Rainfall and Storm Runoff for Two Agricultural Areas of the Oso Creek Watershed, Nueces County, Texas, 2005-07  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, and Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Corpus Christi, studied hydrologic conditions and quality of rainfall and storm runoff of two (primarily) agricultural areas (subwatersheds) of the Oso Creek watershed in Nueces County, Texas. One area, the upper West Oso Creek subwatershed, is 5,145 acres. The other area, a subwatershed drained by an unnamed Oso Creek tributary (hereinafter, Oso Creek tributary), is 5,287 acres. Rainfall and runoff (streamflow) were continuously monitored at the outlets of the two subwatersheds during October 2005-September 2007. Fourteen rainfall samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients and major inorganic ions. Nineteen composite runoff samples (10 West Oso Creek, nine Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed for nutrients, major inorganic ions, and pesticides. Twenty-two discrete suspended-sediment samples (10 West Oso Creek, 12 Oso Creek tributary) and 13 bacteria samples (eight West Oso Creek, five Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed. These data were used to estimate, for selected constituents, rainfall deposition to and runoff loads and yields from the study subwatersheds. Quantities of fertilizers and pesticides applied in the subwatersheds were compared with quantities of nutrients and pesticides in rainfall and runoff. For the study period, total rainfall was greater than average. Most of the runoff at both subwatershed outlet sites occurred in response to a few specific storm periods. The West Oso Creek subwatershed produced more runoff during the study period than the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed, 10.83 inches compared with 7.28 inches. Runoff response was quicker and peak flows were higher in the West Oso Creek subwatershed than in the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed. Total nitrogen runoff yield for the 2-year study period averaged 2.61 pounds per acre per year from the West Oso Creek subwatershed and 0.966 pound per acre per year from the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed. Total phosphorus yields from the West Oso Creek and the Oso Creek tributary subwatersheds for the 2-year period were 0.776 and 0.498 pound per acre per year. Runoff yields of nitrogen and phosphorus were relatively small compared to inputs of nitrogen in fertilizer and rainfall deposition. Average annual runoff yield of total nitrogen (subwatersheds combined) represents about 2.4 percent of nitrogen applied as fertilizer and nitrogen entering the subwatersheds through rainfall deposition. Average annual runoff yield of total phosphorus (subwatersheds combined) represents about 4.4 percent of the phosphorus in applied fertilizer and rainfall deposition. Suspended-sediment yields from the West Oso Creek subwatershed were more than twice those from the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed. The average suspended-sediment yield from the West Oso Creek subwatershed was 582 pounds per acre per year. The average suspended-sediment yield from the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed was 257 pounds per acre per year. Twenty-two herbicides and eight insecticides were detected in runoff samples collected from the two subwatershed outlet sites. At the West Oso Creek site, 18 herbicides and four insecticides were detected, and at the Oso Creek tributary site, 17 herbicides and six insecticides. Seventeen pesticides were detected in only one sample at low concentrations (near the laboratory reporting level). Atrazine, atrazine degradation byproducts 2-chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine (CIAT) and 2-hydroxy-4-isopropylamino-6-ethylamino-s-triazine (OIET), glyphosate, and glyphosate byproduct aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) were detected in all samples. Of all pesticides detected in runoff, the highest runoff yields were for glyphosate, 0.013 pound per acre per year for the West Oso Creek subwatershed and 0.001 pound per acre per year for the Oso Creek t

Ockerman, Darwin J.

2008-01-01

409

Kidney stone and urinary bladder telangiectasia in a patient with TAR syndrome.  

PubMed

TAR syndrome is a congenital malformation syndrome characterized by bilateral absence of the radius and thrombocytopenia. The known urinary anomalies are duplex ureter, dilatation of renal pelvis, horseshoe kidney and functional problems like vesicoureteral reflux and pyelonephritis. In this report of a case with TAR syndrome, a kidney stone and bladder telangiectasia were found coincidentally during the investigation of hematuria. TAR syndrome is discussed in the light of the medical literature. To our knowledge, no case has been reported demonstrating nephrolithiasis and bladder telangiectasia in TAR patients. PMID:19102062

Akil, Ipek; Gözmen, Salih; Yilmaz, Omer; Taneli, Can

2008-01-01

410

33 CFR 117.185 - Pacheco Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.185 Pacheco Creek. The draw of the Contra Costa County highway bridge, mile 1.0, and Union Pacific Railroad bridge, mile 1.1, both near Martinez, shall open on...

2010-07-01

411

33 CFR 117.185 - Pacheco Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.185 Pacheco Creek. The draw of the Contra Costa County highway bridge, mile 1.0, and Union Pacific Railroad bridge, mile 1.1, both near Martinez, shall open on...

2011-07-01

412

Wallace Creek Interpretive Trail: A Geologic Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of guides covers the geology, seismology, hydrology, and physical geography of the San Andreas Fault in the area of Wallace Creek in San Luis Obispo County, California. Materials available here include a downloadable trail guide for Wallace Creek; an interactive guide with information on the earthquakes, the fault, and plate tectonics; a downloadable guide from the Geologic Society of America (GSA); and a downloadable self-guided automobile tour for the Carrizo Plain. There are also field exercises which instructors may find useful as class assignments to accompany class trips to the Wallace Creek site, and a link to a bulletin from the GSA that explores the research done at Wallace Creek and explains how the slip rate for the San Andreas fault was measured.

Meltzner, Aron

413

33 CFR 117.401 - Trail Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Indiana § 117.401 Trail Creek. (a) The draw of the Franklin Street bridge, mile 0.5 at Michigan City, shall be...

2013-07-01

414

33 CFR 117.401 - Trail Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Indiana § 117.401 Trail Creek. (a) The draw of the Franklin Street bridge, mile 0.5 at Michigan City, shall be...

2010-07-01

415

33 CFR 117.401 - Trail Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Indiana § 117.401 Trail Creek. (a) The draw of the Franklin Street bridge, mile 0.5 at Michigan City, shall be...

2012-07-01

416

Isoseismal Map: 1988 Tennant Creek Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This isoseismal map shows the distribution of Modified Mercalli values compiled from questionnaires distributed after the largest shock of the January 1988 Tennant Creek earthquake, which occurred in Northern Territory, Australia.

417

33 CFR 334.480 - Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island...  

...Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot...Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot...zone on Archers Creek (between the Broad River and Beaufort River), Ribbon Creek,...

2014-07-01

418

False promises: The tobacco industry, "low-tar" cigarettes, and older smokers  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the role of the tobacco industry in marketing to and sustaining tobacco addiction among older smokers and aging Baby Boomers. Methods Archival searches of electronic archives of internal tobacco company documents using a snowball sampling approach. Analysis utilizing iterative and comparative review of documents, classification by themes, and a hermeneutic interpretive approach to develop a case study. Results Based on extensive marketing research, tobacco companies aggressively targeted older smokers and sought to prevent them from quitting. Innovative marketing approaches were used. “Low tar” cigarettes were developed in response to the health concerns of older smokers, despite industry knowledge that such products had no health advantage and did not help smokers quit. Conclusion Tobacco industry activities influence the context of cessation for older smokers in several ways. Through marketing “low-tar” or “light” cigarettes to older smokers at risk at quitting, the industry contributes to the illusion that such cigarettes are safer; however, “light” cigarettes may actually make it harder for addicted smokers to quit. Through targeted mailings of coupons and incentives, the industry discourages older smokers from quitting. Through rhetoric aimed at convincing addicted smokers that they alone are responsible for their smoking, the industry contributes to self-blame, a documented barrier to cessation. Educating practitioners, older smokers and families about the tobacco industry’s influence may decrease the tendency to “blame the victim,” thereby enhancing the likelihood of tobacco addiction treatment for older adults. Comprehensive tobacco control measures must include a focus on older smokers. PMID:18691279

Cataldo, Janine K.; Malone, Ruth E.

2009-01-01

419

Parallels between playbacks and Pleistocene tar seeps suggest sociality in an extinct sabretooth cat, Smilodon.  

PubMed

Inferences concerning the lives of extinct animals are difficult to obtain from the fossil record. Here we present a novel approach to the study of extinct carnivores, using a comparison between fossil records (n=3324) found in Late Pleistocene tar seeps at Rancho La Brea in North America and counts (n=4491) from playback experiments used to estimate carnivore abundance in Africa. Playbacks and tar seep deposits represent competitive, potentially dangerous encounters where multiple predators are lured by dying herbivores. Consequently, in both records predatory mammals and birds far outnumber herbivores. In playbacks, two large social species, lions, Panthera leo, and spotted hyenas, Crocuta crocuta, actively moved towards the sounds of distressed prey and made up 84 per cent of individuals attending. Small social species (jackals) were next most common and solitary species of all sizes were rare. In the La Brea record, two species dominated, the presumably social dire wolf Canis dirus (51%), and the sabretooth cat Smilodon fatalis (33%). As in the playbacks, a smaller social canid, the coyote Canis latrans, was third most common (8%), and known solitary species were rare (<4%). The predominance of Smilodon and other striking similarities between playbacks and the fossil record support the conclusion that Smilodon was social. PMID:18957359

Carbone, Chris; Maddox, Tom; Funston, Paul J; Mills, Michael G L; Grether, Gregory F; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

2009-02-23

420

Biological oxidation of organic constituents in tar-sand combustion-process water.  

PubMed

A study was performed to characterize a sample of reverse-forward, tar-sand combustion process water, and to conduct an initial evaluation of activated sludge treatment of the process water. No pretreatment of the wastewater was considered necessary prior to biological oxidation other than addition of ca. 0.006M caustic/L influent to maintain reactor pH in the desired range of 7.0-7.5. The process water was treated successfully by biological oxidation, achieving an 88% reduction of both COD and soluble organic carbon and a 97% reduction of BOD. The disposition of about 150 organic compounds was evaluated and it was shown that a variety of carboxylic acids and aromatic compounds were removed by treatment. Quinolines and certain higher molecular weight carboxylic acids were not removed as effectively as other compounds. These preliminary results should assist in the design of future investigations with tar-sand process water for purposes of optimizing process treatment and improving sample characterization. PMID:18548645

Torpy, M F; Luthy, R G; Raphaelian, L A

1983-12-01

421

Hydrologic data in Bear Creek Basin and western Jackson County, Oregon, 1976-77  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To determine irrigation return flow impacts on Meyer Creek and Griffin Creek, Jackson County, Oreg., 12 sites were sampled prior to and during the irrigation season. Thirty-three sets of samples, consisting of irrigation inflow and outflow samples on farms, were collected to determine if the use of irrigation water was improving or degrading the water quality. One hundred fifty visits were made to tributaries and Bear Creek to collect and analyze samples to help isolate the source of water-quality problems. Three diel studies were made on six main-stem Bear Creek sites, two during and one after the irrigation season, to help identify main-stem water-quality problems. Rainfall and runoff data from five small basins and data from four of the basins were collected during storm events. The data are presented in tables and maps. (Woodard-USGS)

Wittenberg, Loren A.; McKenzie, Stuart W.

1978-01-01

422

Landowners lead successful Buck Creek restoration  

E-print Network

of the watershed, according to Dr. John Sij, retired agronomist and former project leader at the Vernon center. ?#31;is e#27;ort veri#25;ed that bacteria levels periodi- cally reach problematic levels,? he said. Landowners lead successful Buck Creek... of the watershed, according to Dr. John Sij, retired agronomist and former project leader at the Vernon center. ?#31;is e#27;ort veri#25;ed that bacteria levels periodi- cally reach problematic levels,? he said. Landowners lead successful Buck Creek...

Boutwell, Kathryn S.

2012-01-01

423

LOST COVE AND HARPER CREEK ROADLESS AREAS, NORTH CAROLINA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An investigation indicated that a part of the Lost Cove and Harper Creek Roadless Areas, North Carolina has a probable mineral-resource potential for uranium, niobium, and beryllium. The study areas lie within the Blue Ridge physiographic province and are predominantly underlain by Precambrian plutonic and metasedimentary rocks of low metamorphic grade. The uranium occurs in vein-type deposits and in supergene-enriched foliated rocks. The geologic setting precludes the presence of fossil fuel resources.

Griffitts, W. R.; Crandall, T. M.

1984-01-01

424

ADAMS GAP AND SHINBONE CREEK ROADLESS AREAS, ALABAMA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Adams Gap and Shinbone Creek Roadless Areas in Alabama were evaluated for their mineral potential. The only resource within the established boundary of the roadless area is quartzite suitable for crushed rock or refractory-grade aggregate. The quartzite contains deleterious impurities and is found in abundance outside the areas. Natural gas or petroleum may exist at depth. Detailed seismic studies and deep drilling tests are needed before a reasonable estimate of hydrocarbon potential can be made.

Klein, T. L.; Harrison, Donald, K.

1984-01-01

425

Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation  

DOEpatents

A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation through at least one production well that is located in at least two zones in the formation. The first zone has an initial permeability of at least 1 darcy. The second zone has an initial of at most 0.1 darcy. The two zones are separated by a substantially impermeable barrier.

Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

2013-02-26

426

Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations  

DOEpatents

A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

Li, Ruijian (Katy, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

2009-07-21

427

Glacial Lake Outburst Flood on Lemon Creek, Southeastern Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system of small glacial lakes on Lemon Glacier near Juneau, AK was studied to better understand its annual jokulhlaup cycle. Although jokulhlaup behaviors of many supraglacial and glacially-dammed lakes around the world have been studied, some observed relationships among the governing parameters remain mysterious. An associated two-lake system, Lakes Linda and Lynn, which are uniquely small among similar research, provide an opportunity to investigate the applicability of previously developed relationships between discharge magnitude and lake volume to a different spatial scale. The system proved to be interesting in that its behavior does not fit well with established jokulhlaup taxonomy. Additionally, this glacier discharges into Lemon Creek, an important development corridor for Juneau, AK and a productive salmon stream. Understanding how the yearly Lemon Glacier jokulhlaup event impacts this stream is essential to monitoring and meaningfully interpreting water quality data. Historical USGS Lemon Creek streamflow data and icefield observations from the Juneau Icefield Research Program (JIRP) were used to characterize the Lemon Glacier Jokulhlaup and identify changes in system since its discovery in 1962. A detailed field study was carried out from 6/15/01 to 8/2/01 to improve our understanding of the mechanics and thermodynamics of this system. Monitored during this period were lake-levels, lake-temperature profiles, air temperature, surface temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, wind speed/direction, solar radiation, and Lemon Creek streamflow and water-quality. This system has undergone substantial historical changes including the relatively recent development of Lake Lynn, which is now the larger of the two lakes. Continued enlargement of this system is increasing its contribution to peak streamflows in Lemon Creek and thus its impact on stream water quality, especially with respect to sediment loading.

Seifert, S. L.; Schwarz, T. C.; Walter, M. T.

2001-12-01

428

Surface radiological investigations at two creek receiving runoff from White Wing Scrap Yard, Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

A surface radiological investigation was conducted intermittently from August 1992 July 1993 at two creeks receiving runoff from White Wing Scrap Yard. In this report, the two creeks (both unnamed tributaries of Bear Creek) are, referred to as the east creek and the west creek based on their respective locations relative to White Wing Scrap Yard. The radiological survey of accessible areas at the east creek revealed no detectable gamma exposure rates above typical background levels (8 to 12 {mu}R/h). The very slight elevations in gamma and beta-gamma levels found along the creek were generally associated with outcroppings of shale and typical of naturally occurring radionuclides present in such material. No radiological anomalies were associated with an oily sheen observed on the water at three locations, three 55-gal metal drums in or near the creek, a small pile of metal debris near the creek, or several enclosures used in a 1969 study of animal excretion rates. Radionuclide analysis of three soil samples collected at the east creek demonstrated typical of {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, gross alpha activity, gross beta activity, and {sup 40}K.

Uziel, M.S.; Tiner, P.F.; Williams, J.K.

1994-02-01

429

PAH concentrations in lake sediment decline following ban on coal-tar-based pavement sealants in Austin, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent studies have concluded that coal-tar-based pavement sealants are a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban settings in large parts of the United States. In 2006, Austin, TX, became the first jurisdiction in the U.S. to ban the use of coal-tar sealants. We evaluated the effect of Austin’s ban by analyzing PAHs in sediment cores and bottom-sediment samples collected in 1998, 2000, 2001, 2012, and 2014 from Lady Bird Lake, the principal receiving water body for Austin urban runoff. The sum concentration of the 16 EPA Priority Pollutant PAHs (?PAH16) in dated core intervals and surficial bottom-sediment samples collected from sites in the lower lake declined about 44% from 1998–2005 to 2006–2014 (means of 7980 and 4500 ?g kg–1, respectively), and by 2012–2014, the decline was about 58% (mean of 3320 ?g kg–1). Concentrations of ?PAH16 in bottom sediment from two of three mid-lake sites decreased by about 71 and 35% from 2001 to 2014. Concentrations at a third site increased by about 14% from 2001 to 2014. The decreases since 2006 reverse a 40-year (1959–1998) upward trend. Despite declines in PAH concentrations, PAH profiles and source-receptor modeling results indicate that coal-tar sealants remain the largest PAH source to the lake, implying that PAH concentrations likely will continue to decline as stocks of previously applied sealant gradually become depleted.

Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, Barbara J.

2013-01-01

430

Use of tar pitch as a binding and reductant of BFD waste to produce reactive materials for environmental applications.  

PubMed

In this work, a new approach is presented for the modification of the hazardous steel industry waste BFD (Blast Furnace Dust) into a versatile material for application in environmental remediation processes. Tar pitch, another waste, was used to agglomerate the very fine (submicrometric) dust particles to produce a compact and robust pelletized material that under simple thermal treatment produces notably reactive reduced Fe phases. SEM, TG/DTA, Mössbauer, XRD, Raman, BET and elemental analyses indicated that the tar/BFD composite (1:1wt ratio) pellets treated at 400, 600 and 800°C lead to tar decomposition to form a carbon binding coat concomitant with the reduction of the Fe oxides to produce primarily Fe3O4 (magnetite), FeO (wüstite) and Fe(0). Preliminary reactivity studies indicated that these treated composites, especially at 800°C, are active for the reduction of Cr(VI)aq and for the elimination of textile dye via reduction and the Fenton reaction. PMID:24559933

Amorim, Camila C; Leão, Mônica M D; Dutra, Paula R; Tristão, Juliana C; Magalhães, Fabiano; Lago, Rochel M

2014-08-01

431

Role of weathered coal tar pitch in the partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in manufactured gas plant site sediments.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in manufactured gas plant (MGP) site sediments are often associated with carbonaceous particles that reduce contaminant bioavailability. Although black carbon inclusive partitioning models have been proposed to describe elevated PAH partitioning behavior, questions remain on the true loading and association of PAHs in different particle types in industrially impacted sediments. In the studied MGP sediments, the light density organic particles (coal, coke, wood, and coal tar pitch) comprised 10-20% of the total mass and 70-95% of the PAHs. The remainder of the PAHs in sediment was associated with the heavy density particles (i.e., sand, silt, and clays). Among the different particle types, coal tar pitch (quantified by a quinoline extraction method) contributed the most to the bulk sediment PAH concentration. Aqueous partition coefficients for PAHs measured using a weathered pitch sample from the field were generally an order of magnitude higher than reported for natural organic matter partitioning, and match well with theoretical predictions based on a coal tar-water partitioning model. A pitch-partitioning inclusive model is proposed that gives better estimates of the measured site-specific PAH aqueous equilibrium values than standard estimation based on natural organic matter partitioning only. Thus, for MGP impacted sediments containing weathered pitch particles, the partitioning behavior may be dominated by the sorption characteristics of pitch and not by natural organic matter or black carbon. PMID:17007126

Khalil, Muhammad F; Ghosh, Upal; Kreitinger, Joseph P

2006-09-15

432

Biological Stream Survey of Lower Esopus Creek, Catskill Mountains, New York  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spillovers and releases from the Ashokan Reservoir into the Lower Esopus Creek have been observed to increase discharge, water level, and turbidity. Concerns about these effects on drinking water quality and stream ecology have spurred debate between the New York City Department of Environmental Protection (NYC DEP) and citizens living within the Esopus Creek watershed. This study was designed to assess Lower Esopus Creek health, compare current conditions to those in 2007, and identify controlling factors in benthic macroinvertebrate (BMI) distribution. Samples were collected, twice in July, at seven sites below the reservoir, six sites along Lower Esopus Creek and one on Sawkill creek (a tributary to Esopus Creek). Data was collected under both normal flow conditions and after a storm event. BMI and water samples were collected at each site. The BMI samples were collected, stored, and evaluated according to the 2009 New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYS DEC) protocol for Biological Monitoring of Surface Waters in New York State. Physical habitat and water chemistry parameters were also measured in the field. During this sampling period, the same methods were used at seven sites in the Stony Clove Creek and its tributaries. Non-parametric tests were used for analysis due to the small sample size and non-random nature of the sampling. The results showed no significant differences in BMI populations between normal and high flow conditions, or between 2007 and 2011. BMI population, total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, current, and dissolved oxygen (DO) were not significantly correlated to distance downstream from the reservoir. BMI population was significantly correlated to TDS and DO, but was not significantly correlated to turbidity. There are no significant longitudinal trends in Lower Esopus Creek; therefore stream ecology is probably more affected by local conditions than by impoundment effects from the Ashokan Reservoir.

Johnson, E. K.; Chowdhury, S. H.; Hughes, N. J.; Halton, C. R.; Putnam, S. M.

2011-12-01

433

The importance of tidal creek ecosystems Keywords: Estuary; Tidal creek; Pollution  

E-print Network

.g. the Chesapeake Bay, the Albemarle�Pamlico Sound System, Florida Bay, to name a few). These better-known large Marine Biology and Ecology 298 (2004) 145�149 #12;estuaries such as the ICW, Laguna Madre, Chesapeake BayPreface The importance of tidal creek ecosystems Keywords: Estuary; Tidal creek; Pollution Tidal

Mallin, Michael

434

Shallow Ephemeral Stream Aquifer Dynamics related to Groundwater and Surface water Interaction in Alameda Creek, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A distinct highly porous and permeable reach exists (steam length of about 5 km) in Sunol Valley in Alameda Creek where the surface flow that enters the creek is lost as groundwater to a small stream side shallow aquifer. This study presents preliminary findings of piezometric dynamics related to rainfall and streamflow in the aquifer area. Ten piezometers were installed along the Creek in stream bank during different period since 2006 to capture the dynamics of groundwater responses at different locations. Similarly, streamflow data were collected at two locations in the reach since March 2010. A USGS streamflow gage exists since 1995 at the location in the creek where surface flow enters the valley and about 2000 feet downstream starts dissipating to groundwater. The rate at which the surface water is lost to groundwater seems to depend on storm size as well as antecedent rainfall, streamflow conditions but all piezometers responded systematically and conform to streamflow. The observed groundwater at wells show full river bed saturation in most hydrologic years but groundwater level dissipated quickly after each storm passed. Therefore, depending on rainfall pattern aquifer may fill a couple of times in a year suggesting the effect of rainfall pattern including rainfall intensities and antecedent conditions. Interestingly, aquifer emptied at the end of each hydrologic year. Because Sunol Valley hydrologic dynamics connects or disconnects Alameda Creek in this portion of the creek understanding this dynamics is important for stream environment as well as for water management.

Dhakal, A. S.

2013-12-01

435

Extent and bioavailability of trace metal contamination due to acid rock drainage in Pennask Creek, British Columbia, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pennask Creek is one of the most important rainbow trout producing streams in British Columbia (BC). Much of the Pennask Creek watershed is located within a BC Parks Protected Area, which was set aside to protect the spawning and rearing habitat of this wild rainbow trout population. Construction of Highway 97C, which bisects the Pennask Creek watershed, resulted in the exposure of a highly pyritic rock formation, which began releasing acid rock drainage and causing metals to be leached into Highway Creek, a tributary of Pennask Creek. Previous studies commissioned by the BC Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure indicate that Highway Creek yields fewer invertebrates and elevated levels of some metals in the water when compared with downstream sites in Pennask Creek. This study examines the impacts of this acid rock drainage and metal leaching by determining the extent of trace metal contamination in the water and sediments of the Pennask Creek watershed and determining the bioavailability of these trace metals. Preliminary results indicate concentrations of Al, Cu, and Zn in the water as well as levels of total As, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn in the sediments that are above the BC Water and Sediment Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Life. The highest level of trace metal contamination is found in Highway Creek, downstream of Highway 97C, with concentrations generally returning to near background levels downstream of the confluence with Pennask Creek. Levels of Cu in the water and Zn in the sediments appear to be of greatest concern in areas furthest from the highway.

Walls, L. D.; Li, L. Y.; Hall, K. J.

2010-05-01

436

pTAR-Encoded Proteins in Plasmid Partitioning  

PubMed Central

Partition cassettes, essential for the segregational stability of low-copy-number bacterial plasmids, typically encode two autoregulated proteins and an adjacent cis-acting centromere analog to which one or perhaps both proteins bind. The diminutive partition region of pTAR of Agrobacterium spp. was reported to be exceptional, encoding only a single protein, Par