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1

Streamflow, Water Quality, and Metal Loads from Chat Leachate and Mine Outflow into Tar Creek, Ottawa County, Oklahoma, 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Picher mining district is an abandoned lead and zinc mining area located in Ottawa County, northeastern Oklahoma. During the first half of the 20th century, the area was a primary producer of lead and zinc in the United States. Large accumulations of mine tailings, locally referred to as chat, produce leachate containing cadmium, iron, lead, and zinc that enter drainages within the mining area. Metals also seep to local ground water and streams from unplugged shafts, vent holes, seeps, and abandoned mine dewatering wells. Streamflow measurements were made and water-quality samples were collected and analyzed from two locations in Picher mining district from August 16 to August 29 following a rain event beginning on August 14, 2005, to determine likely concentrations and loads of metals from tailings and mine outflows in the part of Picher mining district near Tar Creek. Locations selected for sampling included a tailings pile with an adjacent mill pond, referred to as the Western location, and a segment of Tar Creek from above the confluence with Lytle Creek to below Douthat bridge, referred to as Tar Creek Study Segment. Measured streamflow was less than 0.01 cubic foot per second at the Western location, with streamflow only being measurable at that site on August 16, 2005. Measured streamflows ranged from <0.01 to 2.62 cubic feet per second at Tar Creek Study Segment. One water-quality sample was collected from runoff at the Western location. Total metals concentrations in that sample were 95.3 micrograms per liter cadmium, 182 micrograms per liter iron, 170 micrograms per liter lead, 1,760 micrograms per liter zinc. Total mean metals concentrations in 29 water-quality samples collected from Tar Creek Study Segment from August 16-29, 2005, were 21.8 micrograms per liter cadmium, 7,924 micrograms per liter iron, 7.68 micrograms per liter lead, and 14,548 micrograms per liter zinc. No metals loading values were calculated for the Western location. Metals loading to Tar Creek Study Segment were calculated based on instantaneous streamflow and metals concentrations. Total metals loading to Tar Creek from chat leachate ranged from 0.062 to 0.212 pound per day of cadmium, <0.001 to 0.814 pound per day of iron, 0.003 to 0.036 pound per day of lead, and 10.6 to 47.9 pounds per day of zinc. Metals loading to Tar Creek Study Segment from chat leachate and mine outflow was determined by subtracting values at appropriate upstream and downstream stations. Four sources of calculated metal loads are from Tar Creek and Lytle Creek entering the study segment, from chat pile leachate, and from old Lytle Creek mine outflow. Less than 1 percent of total and dissolved iron loading came from chat leachate, while about 99 percent of total iron loading came from mine outflow. Total and dissolved lead loading percentages from chat leachate were greater than total and dissolved lead loading percentages from mine outflow. About 19 percent of total zinc loading came from chat leachate, about 29 percent of total zinc loading came from mine outflow, and about 52 percent of total zinc loading came from Lytle Creek.

Cope, Caleb C.; Becker, Mark F.; Andrews, William J.; DeHay, Kelli

2008-01-01

2

STEAMBOAT CREEK FLOOD STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will present the development, analy- sis, calibration, and results of a comprehensive hydrologic and hydraulic study performed for the Steamboat Creek watershed, located in Reno, Nevada. The purpose of the study was to establish accurate Base Flood Elevations (BFEs) in support of a number of residential developments proposed along Steamboat Creek. There had been several studies performed over

Carla Muscarella; Todd Cochran

2007-01-01

3

Hydrocarbon accumulation in Pennsylvanian-age Ten Sleep Sandstone: the Trapper Creek tar sand deposit, Big Horn basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary investigations indicate a potential tar sand accumulation in the Trapper Creek deposit of more than 2.13 million tons of mineralized material with a yield of 0.92 bbl per ton of 5.2° API oil for an approximate resource of 1.96 million bbl of recoverable petroleum. Remote sensing data suggest that the accumulation is in part controlled by two major and

S. S. Barrell

1983-01-01

4

Boulder Creek Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boulder Creek runs literally in the backyard of Donnelly Elementary School and happens to be on the EPA list of impaired water bodies. Therefore, a unique opportunity for problem solving opened the door to an exciting chance for students to become scienti

Bingaman, Deirdre; Eitel, Karla B.

2010-02-01

5

Boulder Creek Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Boulder Creek runs literally in the backyard of Donnelly Elementary School and happens to be on the EPA list of impaired water bodies. Therefore, a unique opportunity for problem solving opened the door to an exciting chance for students to become scientists, while also becoming active in their community. With the help of the Idaho Department of…

Bingaman, Deirdre; Eitel, Karla Bradley

2010-01-01

6

A laboratory study of Wilmington tar zone COâ injection project  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory study of heavy oil recovery by COâ injection was undertaken in support of the Wilmington Tar Zone COâ Injection project operated by Long Beach Oil Development Company. The work included: - Phase behavior of Tar Zone reservoir oil and COâ. - Phase behavior of Tar Zone reservoir oil and the refinery gas (82% COâ - 18% Nâ) used

V. Sankur; J. L. Creek; S. S. DiJulio; A. S. Emanuel

1984-01-01

7

The tar reduction study: randomised trial of the effect of cigarette tar yield reduction on compensatory smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND--Observational and short term intervention studies have reported that smokers of low tar cigarettes inhale more deeply (that is, compensate) than those who smoke high tar cigarettes. To quantify this effect a long term randomised trial was conducted on the effects of switching to low tar cigarettes. METHODS--The trial was carried out between April 1985 and March 1988 among cigarette

C Frost; F M Fullerton; A M Stephen; R Stone; A Nicolaides-Bouman; J Densem; N J Wald; A Semmence

1995-01-01

8

Caspar Creek Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is designed to determine the effects of logging and road building practices on stream flow, sedimentation, and fish life and aquatic habitat in the second growth Redwood-Douglas-fir forest type. The study is located along the North and South Fo...

R. B. Thomas

1966-01-01

9

Hydrocarbon accumulation in Pennsylvanian-age Ten Sleep Sandstone: the Trapper Creek tar sand deposit, Big Horn basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary investigations indicate a potential tar sand accumulation in the Trapper Creek deposit of more than 2.13 million tons of mineralized material with a yield of 0.92 bbl per ton of 5.2/sup 0/ API oil for an approximate resource of 1.96 million bbl of recoverable petroleum. Remote sensing data suggest that the accumulation is in part controlled by two major and four minor lineaments which traverse the area. Stratigraphic and lithologic criteria can be used to infer a Minnelusa-type mode of occurrence. Ancillary stream sediment and outcrop geochemistry data yield locally anomalous but uneconomic concentrations of Mg, Ca, Ti, Mn, Ag, Cu, Mo, V, K, and Si, which may have significance in the identification of similar hydrocarbon accumulations along the west flank of the Bighorn Mountains.

Barrell, S.S.

1983-03-01

10

Boulder Creek: A Virtual Field Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents a field lesson that is designed to enhance classroom education about urban resource management issues. The lesson consists of web materials and a self-guided field study of Boulder Creek, located in Boulder, Colorado. By completing this field lesson, students can learn about the tremendous benefits and dangers posed by an important urban-aquatic resource (Boulder Creek). The field study of Boulder Creek has three objectives: to study human-environment interactions in Boulder, CO, to learn basic techniques of fieldwork in geography, and to understand how natural hazards affect life in Boulder, CO. Although the lesson is built around a field excursion to the Boulder Creek area, the information contained in the preview link could stand on its own as an educational tool. Additionally, the information in the preview section includes questions that students can answer without going into the field. For those who are in the Boulder area and can travel to Boulder Creek, twelve stops have been chosen to supplement the online preview material. A map and questions are available for this field excursion. The web site also provides a forum for students to discuss their opinions on human-environment interactions pertaining to the Boulder Creek area.

Hill, A.; Solem, Michael

11

Tar Creek: implementation of Superfund. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Commerce, Transportation, and Tourism of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session, June 14, 1982  

SciTech Connect

Nine state and federal witnesses testified in Tulsa, Oklahoma on the situation at the Tar Creek mining dump site and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) efforts to work with state and local officials to find a solution to the health and safety threats of the site designated as the nation's most-hazardous waste site. One issue under consideration was whether Tar Creek, which contains mining rather than chemical wastes, qualifies for Superfund money. Additional materials submitted for the record by federal and state agencies follow the testimony. (DCK)

Not Available

1982-01-01

12

OROFINO CREEK STUDY, CLEARWATER COUNTY IDAHO, 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on Orofino Creek in Clearwater County, Idaho (17060306) to determine the present condition of the stream and to assess the impact of point and nonpoint sources. The study involved approximately bi-monthly monitoring for the...

13

Murphy Creek Flood and Scour Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A large flood occurred on Murphy Creek, in Wyoming, on August 27, 2002. Using the 1987 U.S. Geological Survey regression equations, the 100-year flood for the study site was estimated by WYDOT to be 6,750 cubic feet per second (cfs), and the 500-year floo...

A. Molinas W. Bailey

2004-01-01

14

PADDY CREEK WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MISSOURI.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Paddy Creek Wilderness study area, Missouri was investigated by geologic and mineral surveys. There is no known record of mineral production, development, or prospecting in the area. Several rock units that underlie the study area are known to be the host rocks for important lead-zinc-silver-copper-nickel-cobalt deposits and magnetic iron-ore deposits of the Southeast Missouri district, about 52 mi east of the study area. Similar occurrences may exist in the Paddy Creek Wilderness study area, but the mineral-resource potential cannot be adequately evaluated without further study, specifically, deep drilling within or close to the area to test the potential for base-metal mineralization, and detailed magnetic surveys of the area to test for magnetic anomalies.

Pratt, Walden, P.; Ellis, Clarence

1984-01-01

15

PECONIC ESTUARY PROGRAM TIDAL CREEK STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

EEA evaluated ten tidal creeks throughout the Peconic Estuary representing a wide range of watershed variables. Primary focus was directed towards the collection and analysis of the macrobenthic invertebrate communities of these ten tidal creeks. Analysis of the macrobenthic comm...

16

Goldsborough Creek Smolt Trapping Study, 2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is in the process of removing the severely deteriorating Goldsborough Dam on Goldsborough Creek. The purpose of this project is to restore creek conditions to pre-dam status and to restore fish passage into the upper reach...

B. Missildine

2001-01-01

17

Cherry Creek Reservoir: Clean Lakes Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses the present and future water quality conditions of Cherry Creek Reservoir, with emphasis on eutrophication, phosphorus and chlorophyll a. Methods to control the eutrophication process are discussed and costs to control the process are...

1984-01-01

18

A study on wood gasification for low-tar gas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results of an experimental study on two-stage wood gasification and attempts to reduce the tar content of the gas. Increasing the wood-chip moisture content resulted in an increase of CO2 and H2 but a decrease of the CO concentration without significantly affecting the tar content in the producer gas. For a particular primary air flow rate, an increase

S. C Bhattacharya; Hoang-Luong Pham

1999-01-01

19

A Case Study on Overcoming the Requirements Tar Pit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software requirements are defined in many industries using informal software requirements specifications that are based on standards such as IEEE 830. Also, in teams of small to medium-sized projects there are often no experienced requirements engineers. These two factors leave product development efforts in a tar pit of ambiguities and misunderstandings that is risking product success. We investigated the adoption

Samuel Fricker; Martin Glinz; Peter Kolb

2006-01-01

20

JIM FORD CREEK STUDY, CLEARWATER COUNTY IDAHO. 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on Jim Ford Creek in Clearwater County, Idaho (17060306) to assess the impact of the City of Weippe and Timberline High School discharges, to assess nonpoint source impacts, and to determine the present water quality of the ...

21

Studies in Tar Formation and Separation in Coal Gasification Systems. Final Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Devolatilization behavior of a subbituminous and a bituminous coal in relation to tars evolution was studied in a laboratory simulated devolatilization section of an air-blown Lurgi-type gasifier. The temperature range studied was 350 exp 0 to 550 C, at p...

R. Mahalingam

1985-01-01

22

Optical, physical, and chemical properties of tar balls observed during the Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study of summer 2002 (YACS) occurred during an active fire season in the western United States and provided an opportunity to investigate many unresolved issues related to the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols. Single particle analysis was performed on field-collected aerosol samples using an array of electron microscopy techniques. Amorphous carbon spheres, or “tar balls,”

J. L. Hand; W. C. Malm; A. Laskin; D. Day; T. Lee; C. Wang; C. Carrico; J. Carrillo; J. P. Cowin; J. Collett; M. J. Iedema

2005-01-01

23

Skin cancer in patients with psoriasis treated with coal tar. A 25-year follow-up study  

SciTech Connect

For many years, crude coal tar has been used for the treatment of psoriasis. The possible carcinogenic effect of crude coal tar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Goeckerman regimen), considered individually or in combination, has been of some concern to physicians. A 25-year follow-up study was completed on 280 patients with psoriasis who were hospitalized and treated with crude coal tar and UV radiation at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn, during the years 1950 through 1954. The results of this study suggest that the incidence of skin cancer is not appreciably increased above the expected incidence for the general population when patients are treated with coal tar ointments. It seems that the Goeckerman regimen (topical crude coal tar combined with UV radiation) can be used with minimal risk for skin cancer in the treatment of psoriasis.

Pittelkow, M.R.; Perry, H.O.; Muller, S.A.; Maughan, W.Z.; O'Brien, P.C.

1981-08-01

24

Studies on component characteristic and statistical structure of tar distilled fractions using GC-MS  

SciTech Connect

The component characteristics and statistical structure of the 4th (230--270 C) and 5th (270--340 C) distilled fractions of a kind of low temperature tar from a specific coke oven heated directly and indirectly were studied using GC-MS. The studies on component characteristics showed the following. (1) The compounds in the distilled fractions can be classified as two kinds, paraffinic compounds and non-paraffinic compounds. The average molecular weight of the paraffinic compounds for 4th distilled fraction in which there is a few olefinic compounds, and 5th distilled fraction is 280.2 and 296.7, respectively. (2) The non-paraffinic compounds in the 4th distilled fraction was mainly dominated by phenols, 22.44%, and substituted naphthalene, 62.73%. The non-paraffinic compounds in the 5th distilled fraction were mainly composed of phenols, 8.69%, aromatic radical alcohol, 42.53%, and polyalkyl and alkoxy substituted aromatic, 28.67%. The details of the components in the specific tar have made a base for the utilization of the tar. In the studies on the statistical structure of the distilled fractions, a modified method for constructing average molecular models based on GC-MS data was set up. The structuring parameters, such as ring structure parameter, substituted aromatic carbon, aromaticity, etc. were calculated. And two statistical average molecular models were constructed.

Li, X.L.

1999-07-01

25

CN.M.R. STUDIES OF A FLASH PYROLYSIS TAR AND A SUPERCRITICAL GAS EXTRACT USING MODERN PULSE SEQUENCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil and the asphaltene obtained from a flash pyrolysis tar of an Australian sub-bituminous coal and the oil and asphaltene from a supercritical gas extract of an Australian bituminous coal were studied by ;c-n.m.r. apectroscopy using modern pulse sequences which distinguish between primary (CH3), secondary (CH2), tertiary )CH( and quaternary (C) carbons. The oil from the flash pyrolysis tar

John R. Kershaw; Richard I. Willing

1984-01-01

26

Criteria for coal-tar seal coats on airport pavements. Volume 2. Laboratory and field studies. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Because coal tars are resistant to gasoline and jet fuel, they have been used for many years as a protective coating on asphalt pavements for airport parking areas, ramps, taxiways and runways. Applications include both coal tar emulsions and rubberized coal tar emulsions, applied with sand to provide skid resistance and stability to the seal costs. Volume II of the report includes the results of an experimental Laboratory and field investigation conducted at the University of Nevada at Reno. The focus on the University program was to develop test procedures that would measure workability, scuff, adhesion and fuel resistance properties of coal tar emulsion seal coats. This program developed a method for designing seal coat formulations test procedures that could be used for quality assurance purposes. Volume II includes the test data generated in the study, including measurements made on field sections.

Shook, J.E.; Jenkins, S.W.; Gardiner, M.S.; Newcomb, D.E.; Epps, J.A.

1990-01-01

27

The binding mode of drugs to the TAR RNA of HIV-1 studied by electric linear dichroism.  

PubMed Central

For the first time, the interaction between a series of small molecules and the TAR RNA of HIV-1 has been investigated by electric linear dichroism (ELD). The compounds tested include the DNA intercalating drugs proflavine and ethidium bromide and an amsacrine-4-carboxamide DNA-threading intercalator as well as the AT-specific DNA minor groove binders netropsin, Hoechst 33258, berenil and DAPI. In all cases except for netropsin, negative reduced dichroism signals were measured in the drug absorption band. In agreement with previous studies, the results indicate that both classical and threading intercalation can occur with the TAR RNA. The ELD data show that the mode of binding of the drugs Hoechst 33258, berenil and DAPI to the TAR RNA is similar to their binding mode in GC-rich regions of DNA and likely involves intercalation into the A-form TAR RNA helix. The wide and shallow minor groove of the TAR RNA is apparently not accessible to DNA minor groove binding drugs such as netropsin. The ELD technique appears uniquely valuable as a means of investigating the interaction of drugs with the TAR RNA.

Bailly, C; Colson, P; Houssier, C; Hamy, F

1996-01-01

28

Refining Lurgi tar acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is disclosed a process for removing tar bases and neutral oils from the Lurgi tar acids by treating the tar acids with aqueous sodium bisulfate to change the tar bases to salts and to hydrolyze the neutral oils to hydrolysis products and distilling the tar acids to obtain refined tar acid as the distillate while the tar base salts

Greco

1984-01-01

29

A Study of the Winter Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) Flora in Fall Creek, Indiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diatom flora was studied at four stations on Fall Creek upstream from its confluence with White River at Tenth Street, Indianapolis, Indiana, over a three month period, December through February 1961-2. The entire course of the Creek studied was classified as fairly clean water. Pollution was due largely to contamination by sanitary wastes. The water had an average temperature

Robert G. Lipscomb

1964-01-01

30

Laboratory studies to characterize the efficacy of sand capping a coal tar-contaminated sediment.  

PubMed

Placement of a microbial active sand cap on a coal tar-contaminated river sediment has been suggested as a cost effective remediation strategy. This approach assumes that the flux of contaminants from the sediment is sufficiently balanced by oxygen and nutrient fluxes into the sand layer such that microbial activity will reduce contaminant concentrations within the new benthic zone and reduce the contaminant flux to the water column. The dynamics of such a system were evaluated using batch and column studies with microbial communities from tar-contaminated sediment under different aeration and nutrient inputs. In a 30-d batch degradation study on aqueous extracts of coal tar sediment, oxygen and nutrient concentrations were found to be key parameters controlling the degradation rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). For the five PAHs monitored (naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene), degradation rates were inversely proportional to molecular size. For the column studies, where three columns were packed with a 20-cm sand layer on the top of a 5 cm of sediment layer, flow was established to sand layers with (1) aerated water, (2) N(2) sparged water, or (3) HgCl(2)-sterilized N(2) sparged water. After steady-state conditions, PAH concentrations in effluents were the lowest in the aerated column, except for pyrene, whose concentration was invariant with all effluents. These laboratory scale studies support that if sufficient aeration can be achieved in the field through either active and passive means, the resulting microbially active sand layer can improve the water quality of the benthic zone and reduce the flux of many, but not all, PAHs to the water column. PMID:16337673

Hyun, Seunghun; Jafvert, Chad T; Lee, Linda S; Rao, P Suresh C

2005-12-07

31

Topical tar: Back to the future  

SciTech Connect

The use of medicinal tar for dermatologic disorders dates back to the ancient times. Although coal tar is utilized more frequently in modern dermatology, wood tars have also been widely employed. Tar is used mainly in the treatment of chronic stable plaque psoriasis, scalp psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis, either alone or in combination therapy with other medications, phototherapy, or both. Many modifications have been made to tar preparations to increase their acceptability, as some dislike its odor, messy application, and staining of clothing. One should consider a tried and true treatment with tar that has led to clearing of lesions and prolonged remission times. Occupational studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity of tar; however, epidemiologic studies do not confirm similar outcomes when used topically. This article will review the pharmacology, formulations, efficacy, and adverse effects of crude coal tar and other tars in the treatment of selected dermatologic conditions.

Paghdal, K.V.; Schwartz, R.A. [University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States)

2009-08-15

32

Aqueous extracts of cigarette tar containing the tar free radical cause DNA nicks in mammalian cells.  

PubMed Central

The ability of aqueous extracts of cigarette tar to nick DNA was investigated using viable mammalian cells. Tar extracts contain a radical with a stable electron spin resonance (ESR) signal at g = 2.0036 characteristic of a semiquinone. The association of the tar component that carries the ESR signal with DNA was demonstrated using viable rat alveolar macrophages. The formation of single-strand DNA breaks caused by cigarette tar extracts in viable rat thymocytes follows saturation kinetics, indicating a tar component associates with DNA and then nicks it. These studies support our hypothesis that tar components that contain the cigarette tar radical can enter cells, associate with, and then nick DNA.

Stone, K K; Bermudez, E; Pryor, W A

1994-01-01

33

Laboratory studies on solvent extraction of low-temperature tar oils by aqueous sodium salicylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of aqueous saturated sodium salicylate for the extraction of tar acids from a low-temperature tar fraction is discussed. Solubility and equilibrium data for the system (neutral oil-tar acids-aqueous sodium salicylate) when plotted on a ternary diagram showed 2 types of curves: an ordinary bite type and another a loop containing solid and liquid phases. The tie-line data agree

P. Raj; M. A. K. Akmal; Y. V. S. Rao; S. M. Ahmed; R. Vaidyeswaran

1970-01-01

34

Coal tar phototherapy for psoriasis reevaluated: erythemogenic versus suberythemogenic ultraviolet with a tar extract in oil and crude coal tar  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies have questioned the therapeutic value of coal tar versus ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their relative necessity in phototherapy for psoriasis. In this investigation, different aspects of tar phototherapy have been studied in single-blind bilateral paired comparison studies. The effects of 1% crude coal tar were compared with those of petrolatum in conjunction with erythemogenic and suberythemogenic doses of ultraviolet light (UVB) using a FS72 sunlamp tubed cabinet. Crude coal tar was clinically superior to petrolatum with suberythemogenic ultraviolet. With the erythemogenic UVB, petrolatum was equal in efficacy to crude coal tar. Suberythemogenic UVB was also used adjunctively to compare the effects of a 5% concentration of a tar extract in an oil base to 5% crude coal tar in petrolatum or the oil base without tar. The tar extract in oil plus suberythemogenic UVB produced significantly more rapid improvement than the oil base plus UVB. The direct bilateral comparison of equal concentrations of tar extract in oil base versus crude coal tar in petrolatum in a suberythemogenic UV photo regimen revealed no statistical differences between treatments. In a study comparing tar extract in oil and the oil base without ultraviolet radiation, the tar extract in oil side responded more rapidly.

Lowe, N.J.; Wortzman, M.S.; Breeding, J.; Koudsi, H.; Taylor, L.

1983-06-01

35

A parametric study on the factors affecting the froth floatation of Jordanian tar sand utilizing a fluidized bed floatator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different parameters affecting the behavior of froth flotation of Jordanian tar sand, obtained from the Dead Sea area, were studied. This study was performed in a modified fluidized bed floatator. The effects of the addition of a flotation agent, NaOH, temperature and flotation time on the beneficiation of bitumen in the froth were investigated. It was found that the beneficiation

Awni Al-Otoom; Mamdouh Allawzi; Adnan M. Al-Harahsheh; Mohammad Al-Harahsheh; Randa Al-Ghbari; Raeda Al-Ghazo; Husam Al-Saifi

2009-01-01

36

Subfractionation of Coal Tar Neutral Fraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was conducted to develop a fractionation scheme for a neutral coal-tar fraction which had been isolated from coal-tar pitch. Silica gel (7631869) chromatography was used to fractionate the neutral fraction of a 2kg sample of coal-tar. Class separa...

D. R. Jones H. G. Reilich H. J. O'Neill

1975-01-01

37

13C/15N-19F Intermolecular REDOR NMR Study of the Interaction of TAR RNA with Tat Peptides  

PubMed Central

The complex of the HIV TAR RNA with the viral regulatory protein Tat is of considerable interest, but the plasticity of this interaction has made it impossible so far to establish the structure of that complex. In order to explore a new approach to obtain structural information on protein-RNA complexes, we performed 13C/15N-19F REDOR NMR experiments in the solid state on TAR bound to a peptide comprising the RNA-binding section of Tat. A critical arginine in the peptide was uniformly 13C and 15N labeled and 5-fluorouridine was incorporated at the U23 position of TAR. REDOR irradiation resulted in dephasing of the 13C and 15N resonances, indicating proximity of the U23(5F)-C and U23(5F)-N spin pairs. Best fits to the REDOR data shows the U23(5F)-C distances and the U23(5F)-N distances are in good agreement with the distances obtained from solution NMR structures of partial complexes of Tat with TAR. These results demonstrate that it is possible to study protein-RNA complexes using solid-state REDOR NMR measurements, adding to a growing list of solid state techniques for studying protein-nucleic acid complexes.

Huang, Wei; Varani, Gabriele; Drobny, Gary P.

2010-01-01

38

Additional mineral resources assessment of the Battle Creek, Bruneau River, Deep Creek-Owyhee River, Jarbidge River, Juniper Creek, Little Owyhee River, North Fork Owyhee River, Owyhee River Canyon, South Fork Owyhee River, Upper Deep Creek, and Yatahoney Creek Wilderness Study Areas, Owyhee County, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1984 to 1986, studies were conducted to assess the potential for undiscovered mineral resources in wilderness study areas on the Owyhee Plateau. The results of these studies have been published in a series of U.S. Geological Survey Bulletins. Since that time, low-grade, high-tonnage epithermal hot-spring gold-silver deposits have been recognized in the region north of the wilderness study areas. The recognition that this mineral-deposit model is applicable in the region, coupled with new data that has become available to the U.S. Geological Survey, reinterpretation of existing geochemical data, and known-deposit data suggest that similar deposits may be present elsewhere on the Owyhee Plateau. This report is an additional assessment of the Battle Creek, Bruneau River, Deep Creek-Owyhee River, Jarbidge River, Juniper Creek, Little Owyhee River, North Fork Owyhee River, Owyhee River Canyon, South Fork Owyhee River (ID-016-053), Upper Deep Creek, and Yatahoney Creek Wilderness Study Areas in Idaho Wilderness Study Areas in Idaho in light of those new data.

Diggles, Michael F.; Berger, Byron R.; Vander Meulen, Dean B.; Minor, Scott A.; Ach, Jay A.; Sawlan, Michael G.

1989-01-01

39

Tar formation in corncob gasification  

SciTech Connect

Gasification of corncobs was studied to determine the amounts of tar and condensates produced. Variables studied included corncob particle size, moisture content, airflow rate, and reactor's operational mode (updraft and downdraft). The effect of temperature was also studied by running first with the unit noninsulated, and second adding insulation in the regions where pyrolysis, oxidation and gasification occurs. Results indicate that, over the range studied, tar and condensate yield increases with increasing fuel moisture, and that it does vary with air flow rate through the reactor. Updraft gasification of corncobs was found to produce about 3 to 4 times more tar than the downdraft gasification. Insulation of the reactor's pyrolysis, oxidation and reduction zones increased their operating temperature and significantly reduced the yield of tar and condensate in the gas stream. Production of tar and condensate were also found to fall off with respect to time. Ultimate analysis of the corncobs, corncob charcoal, condensate and tar was performed and constituent formulas were developed. Gas from the producer was also studied and its composition, heating value, molecular weight, density and specific heat were found. Reactor's mass and energy balance were also performed and gasifier efficiency was found to average 64%. Addition of oxygen in the reduction zone to the gasifier was found to have potential in reducing tar yield in the gas stream. Further studies, however, are needed and should be done before this result can be considered final.

da Silva, J.N.

1984-01-01

40

SF6 Tracer Release Study: A Contaminant Fate Study in Newtown Creek  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newtown Creek is a 5.5km creek that discharges into the East River, a 25km strait connecting Long Island Sound to the north and the New York Harbor to the south. Surface runoff dominates the freshwater input into the creek, for natural tributaries no longer exist. The areas directly adjacent to the creek are highly industrialized, and New York City's largest

P. J. Schmieder; D. T. Ho; S. Peter; H. J. Simpson; S. Flores; W. A. Dugan

2004-01-01

41

A proteomic study of TAR-RNA binding protein (TRBP)-associated factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The human TAR RNA-binding protein, TRBP, was first identified and cloned based on its high affinity binding to the small hairpin\\u000a trans-activation responsive (TAR) RNA of HIV-1. TRBP has more recently been found to be a constituent of the RNA-induced silencing\\u000a complex (RISC) serving as a Dicer co-factor in the processing of the ~70 nucleotide pre-microRNAs(miRNAs) to 21-25 nucleotide\\u000a mature

Ya-Hui Chi; Oliver John Semmes; Kuan-Teh Jeang

2011-01-01

42

Tar sand  

SciTech Connect

Research on tar sand is briefly discussed. The research program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes a variety of surface extraction schemes. The University of Utah has process development units (PDU) employing fluidized bed, hot, water-assisted, and fluidized-bed/heat-pipe, coupled combustor technology. Considerable process variable test data have been gathered on these systems: (1) a rotary kiln unit has been built recently; (2) solvent extraction processing is being examined; and (3) an advanced hydrogenation upgrading scheme (hydropyrolysis) has been developed. The University of Arkansas, in collaboration with Diversified Petroleum, Inc., has been working on a fatty acid, solvent extraction process. Oleic acid is the solvent/surfactant. Solvent is recovered by adjusting processing fluid concentrations to separate without expensive operations. Western Research Institute has a PDU-scale scheme called the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process, which combines solvent (hot recycle bitumen) and pyrolytic extraction. 14 refs., 19 figs.

McLendon, T.R.; Bartke, T.C.

1990-01-01

43

An Integrative Approach Towards Understanding Ecological Responses to Dam Removal: The Manatawny Creek Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dam removal has been proposed as an effective method of river restoration, but few integrative studies have examined ecological responses to the removal of dams. In 1999, we initiated an interdisciplinary study to determine ecological responses to the removal of a 2 m high dam on lower Manatawny Creek in southeastern Pennsylvania. We used an integrative monitoring program to assess

Karen L. Bushaw-Newton; David D. Hart; James E. Pizzuto; James R. Thomson; Jennifer Egan; Jeffrey T. Ashley; Thomas E. Johnson; Richard J. Horwitz; Melissa Keeley; Joy Lawrence; Don Charles; Catherine Gatenby; Daniel A. Kreeger; Tim Nightengale; Roger L. Thomas; David J. Velinsky

2002-01-01

44

Hydrodynamic, Water Quality and Ecological Study of Eprapah Creek Estuarine Zone: a Multi-Disciplinary, Cross Institutional Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of detailed multi-disciplinary field studies was conducted in a small subtropical creek : i.e., Eprapah Creek, Victoria Point Queensland. Hydrodynamic and ecological measurements were conducted simultaneously in the river mouth to assess the complexity of the estuarine zone and the interactions between hydraulic engineering, environmental issues, biology and ecology. The results provide unique and original snapshots of a

R. Brown; J. Ferris; K. Warburton

45

BIG CREEK SUB-WATERSHED STUDY: WATER AND BED SEDIMENT QUALITY RELATIONAL TO PESTICIDE AND NUTRIENT CONCENTRATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The City of Alpharetta, Georgia was awarded a 319(h) grant in 1999 for the study of water and bed sediment quality relational to pesticide and nutrient concentrations in the Big Creek sub-watershed. After changes in personnel and the work plan, monitoring began on the project in April 2004. Big Creek has a watershed area of 103 square miles and is

Rebecca Shelton

2007-01-01

46

UNDERGROUND MINE DRAINAGE CONTROL SNOWY CREEK-LAUREL RUN, WEST VIRGINIA, FEASIBILITY STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted at the Snowy Creek - Laurel Run basin near Terra Alta, West Virginia, to determine the feasibility of demonstrating mine drainage control by known abatement techniques in abandoned coal mine areas having shallow overburden. The basin contains two abandoned m...

47

A proteomic study of TAR-RNA binding protein (TRBP)-associated factors  

PubMed Central

Background The human TAR RNA-binding protein, TRBP, was first identified and cloned based on its high affinity binding to the small hairpin trans-activation responsive (TAR) RNA of HIV-1. TRBP has more recently been found to be a constituent of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) serving as a Dicer co-factor in the processing of the ~70 nucleotide pre-microRNAs(miRNAs) to 21-25 nucleotide mature miRNAs. Findings Using co-immunoprecipitation and protein-identification by mass spectrometry, we characterized intracellular proteins that complex with TRBP. These interacting proteins include those that have been described to act in protein synthesis, RNA modifications and processing, DNA transcription, and cell proliferation. Conclusions Our findings provide a proteome of factors that may cooperate with TRBP in activities such as miRNA processing and in RNA interference by the RISC complex.

2011-01-01

48

Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Field Activities Conducted on Clear and Pete King Creeks, 2002 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 2002 the Idaho Fisheries Resource Office continued working as a cooperator on the Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project on Pete King and Clear creeks. Data relating to supplementation treatment releases, juvenile sampling, juvenile PIT tagging, broodstock spawning and rearing, spawning ground surveys, and snorkel surveys were used to evaluate the project data points and augment past data. Supplementation treatments included the release of 51,329 left ventral-clipped smolts into Clear Creek (750 were PIT tagged), and 12,000 unmarked coded-wire tagged parr into Pete King Creek (998 were PIT tagged). Using juvenile collection methods, Idaho Fisheries Resource Office staff PIT tagged and released 579 naturally produced spring chinook juveniles in Clear Creek, and 54 on Pete King Creek, for minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam. For Clear Creek, minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam of hatchery produced supplementation and naturally produced PIT tagged smolts, were 36.0%, and 53.1%, respectively. For Pete King Creek, minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam, of hatchery produced supplementation smolts and naturally produced smolts PIT tagged as parr and presmolts, were 18.8%, and 8.3%, respectively. Adults collected for broodstock in 2002 represented the final adult broodstock group collected for the ISS project. Twenty-six ventral clipped, and 28 natural adult spring chinook were transported above the weir. Monitoring and evaluation of spawning success was continued on Clear and Pete King creeks. A total of 69 redds were counted and 79 carcasses were recovered on Clear Creek. Two redds were observed and no carcasses were collected on Pete King Creek.

Bretz, Justin K.; Olson, Jill M. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

2003-03-01

49

Pyridine and other coal tar constituents as inhibitors of potato polyphenol oxidase: A non-animal model for neurochemical studies  

SciTech Connect

Potato polyphenol oxidase activity was strongly and noncompetitively inhibited by the 'Perov mixture' of coal tar components and by pyridine alone, while phenol competitively inhibited the enzyme. These two inhibitors are structural components of the parkinsonogenic neurotoxin N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). By extension, dopamine and neuromelanin synthesis in the brain may be influenced by the inhibitory effects of such compounds upon the copper-dependent steps of tyrosine metabolism. The non-animal model used in this study may represent an alternative to the use of animal tissues in neurodegenerative disease research.

Henderson, H.M.; Eskin, N.A.M.; Pinsky, C.; Bose, R.; Ashique, A.M. (Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada))

1992-01-01

50

Mineral resources of the Tabeguache Creek Wilderness Study Area, Montrose County, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report on the Tabeguache Creek (C0-030-300) Wilderness Study Area in Montrose County, Colo., 3.5 miles north of Nucla. The study area comprises 7,908 acres of canyon and mesa country on the southwest flank of the Uncompahgre Plateau. The study area contains no known mineral resources. There is, however, a moderate potential for undiscovered resources of oil, gas and

R. P. Dickerson; H. N. Barton; H. R. Jr. Blank; D. C. Scott

1990-01-01

51

Data from the surface-water hydrologic investigations of the Hay Creek Study Area, Montana, and the West Branch Antelope Creek Study Area, North Dakota, October 1976 through April 1982  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data are provided for the Hay Creek study area near Wibaux, Montana, and the West Branch Antelope Creek study area near Beulah, North Dakota. The report contains data on the following: Air temperature, relative humidity, wind direction, wind run, solar radiation, precipitation, soil temperature, snowpack temperature, snowpack density and moisture content, streamflow, water quality, soil moisture, land use, and basin characteristics. Detailed descriptions of the location of the data-collection sites, instrumentation, and methods used to collect data are included. (USGS)

Emerson, Douglas G.; Norbeck, Steven W.; Boespflug, Kelvin L.

1983-01-01

52

Partitioning studies of coal-tar constitutents in a two-phase contaminated ground-water system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic compounds derived from coal-tar wastes in a contaminated aquifer in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, were identified, and their partition coefficients between the tar phase and aqueous phase were determined and compared with the corresponding n-octanol\\/water partition coefficients. Coal tar contains numerous polycyclic aromatic compounds, many of which are suspected carcinogens or mutagens. Groundwater contamination by these toxic compounds may

C. E. Rostad; W. E. Pereira; M. F. Hult

1985-01-01

53

Groundwater and Contaminant Transport Modelling at the Sydney Tar Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Muggah Creek estuary has accumulated contaminants from 100 years of iron, steel and coke manufacturing in its contributing watershed. The estuary, locally known as the Tar Ponds, contains sediments contaminated with PAHs and PCBs. A program of groundwater modelling was aimed at estimating current contaminant fluxes to the estuary and site streams, via groundwater. The conceptual model developed for

Mark King

54

Nitrogen and Carbon Isotope Studies of a Bat Guano Core From Eagle Creek Cave, Arizona, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios were studied in a stratified deposit of guano of Mexican Free-tailed bats in Eagle Creek Cave, Arizona, U.S.A. Little diagenetic change was observed over the 25-year time span of the guano deposit. High aridity and reduced circulation of air in the cave are hypothesized to have slowed the normally rapid decomposition of the excreta and

Hiroshi Mizutani; Donald A. McFarlane; Yuko Kabaya

1992-01-01

55

The effects of construction on water quality: a case study of the culverting of Abram Creek  

Microsoft Academic Search

While sediment is a leading cause of impaired water, studies have shown that construction activities incorporating best management\\u000a practices (BMPs) can be conducted without lasting detrimental effects on water quality. This paper examines the water quality\\u000a impacts of a construction project involving the culverting of a creek to allow for the construction of a runway at an airport\\u000a in Cleveland,

Darci L. Houser; Heidi Pruess

2009-01-01

56

Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Field Activities Conducted on Clear and Pete King Creeks, 2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 2001 the Idaho Fisheries Resource Office continued as a cooperator on the Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project on Pete King and Clear creeks. Data relating to supplementation treatment releases, juvenile sampling, juvenile PIT tagging, brood stock spawning and rearing, spawning ground surveys, and snorkel surveys were used to evaluate project data points and augment past data. Due to low adult spring Chinook returns to Kooskia National Fish Hatchery (KNFH) in brood year 1999 there was no smolt supplementation treatment release into Clear Creek in 2001. A 17,014 spring Chinook parr supplementation treatment (containing 1000 PIT tags) was released into Pete King Creek on July 24, 2001. On Clear Creek, there were 412 naturally produced spring Chinook parr PIT tagged and released. Using juvenile collection methods, Idaho Fisheries Resource Office staff PIT tagged and released 320 naturally produced spring Chinook pre-smolts on Clear Creek, and 16 natural pre-smolts on Pete King Creek, for minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam. There were no PIT tag detections of brood year 1999 smolts from Clear or Pete King creeks. A total of 2261 adult spring Chinook were collected at KNFH. Forty-three females were used for supplementation brood stock, and 45 supplementation (ventral fin-clip), and 45 natural (unmarked) adults were released upstream of KNFH to spawn naturally. Spatial and temporal distribution of 37 adults released above the KNFH weir was determined through the use of radio telemetry. On Clear Creek, a total of 166 redds (8.2 redds/km) were observed and data was collected from 195 carcasses. Seventeen completed redds (2.1 redds/km) were found, and data was collected data from six carcasses on Pete King Creek.

Gass, Carrie; Olson, Jim M. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

2004-11-01

57

Fume emissions from coal-tar pitch. Technical manuscript  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was intended to characterize the chemical and physical nature of coal-tar fumes emitted from spreading applications of coal tar and to determine a first estimate of the emission factor for coal-tar fumes under conditions similar to those found in the field. Three separate experiments were performed. The first resulted in the determination of a coal-tar fume particle size

D. C. Hittle; J. J. Stukel

1976-01-01

58

Steam-Reforming Characteristics of Heavy and Light Tars Derived from Cellulose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, tar formation and steam-reforming mechanisms are discussed by separating the tars into heavy, middle, and light tars. Cellulose was heated in a drop-tube furnace under an Ar or Ar/steam atmosphere. After the tars were passed through the furnace for thermal cracking and polymerization, they were trapped by filters set at different temperatures (573, 393, and 273 K), and were respectively defined as heavy, middle, and light tars. Incondensable volatiles and gaseous products were measured using gas chromatography with thermal conductivity (GC-TCD), and flame ionization (GC-FID) detectors. The middle and light tars obtained under an Ar atmosphere were first characterized using time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). The analysis showed that the middle tar did not contain any low-boiling-point light tar components, while the light tar did contain them. It was also found that complex species in the tars were separated to a certain degree by changing the trap temperature. Moreover, the formation of heavy tar was quite different from that of the light tar. With increasing temperature, the formation of heavy tar was inhibited, while that of the light tar was enhanced during pyrolysis. The steam-reforming characteristics of these tars were also different. The heavy tar was barely reformed at a low temperature of 873 K, even with a long residence time, while the middle tar was well reformed by steam. While it was difficult to describe the tar formation and steam-reforming characteristics when the tar was considered as a single condensable matter, the tar formation and steam-reforming characteristics were clarified by separating the tars. This study shows that, to prevent tar emissions, the formation of heavy tar, which barely reacts with steam, should be inhibited during pyrolysis by controlling the heating.

Watanabe, Hirotatsu; Morinaga, Yosuke; Okazaki, Ken

59

Corrosion Study of AISI 304, AISI 321 and AISI 430 Stainless Steels in a Tar Sand Digester  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work has investigated the corrosion properties of three types of stainless steels in a tar sand digester environment with the aim of establishing their relative resistances in the environment. The corrosion experiments for the stainless steels were conducted by the non-electrochemical immersion technique with corrosion rates expressed in mils per year (mpy). The spectroscopy analysis of the Nigerian tar

L. E. Umoru; A. A. Afonja; B. Ademodi

60

1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C plant application study report: tar sands oil recovery application  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a study to apply an 1170-MW(t) high-temperature gas-cooled reactor - process steam/cogeneration (HTGR-PS/C) to tar sands oil recovery and upgrading. The raw product recovered from the sands is a heavy, sour bitumen; upgrading, which involves coking and hydrodesulfurization, produces a synthetic crude (refinable by current technology) and petroleum coke. Steam and electric power are required for the recovery and upgrading process. Proposed and commercial plants would purchase electric power from local utilities and obtain from boilers fired with coal and with by-product fuels produced by the upgrading. This study shows that an HTGR-PS/C represents a more economical source of steam and electric power.

Rao, R.; McMain, Jr., A. T.

1981-05-01

61

CSO DISINFECTION PILOT STUDY: SPRING CREEK CSO STORAGE FACILITY UPGRADE  

EPA Science Inventory

This research summary presents the results of a pilot-scale disinfection study performed for the New York City Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) under a contract to Camp Dresser & McKee of Woodbury, New York. The main ob...

62

An experimental study for a combined system of tar sand, oil shale, and olive cake as a potential energy source in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordan is an example of a third world country that is non-oil producing but contains huge reserves of other energy sources such as tar sand, oil shale, and olive cake. Some limited research is available about how to utilize these energy sources in pure form. However, available research does not deal with combinations of these energy sources. This experimental study

M. M Kablan; T. M Alkhamis

1999-01-01

63

Thermodynamic studies of a series of homologous HIV-1 TAR RNA ligands reveal that loose binders are stronger Tat competitors than tight ones  

PubMed Central

RNA is a major drug target, but the design of small molecules that modulate RNA function remains a great challenge. In this context, a series of structurally homologous ‘polyamide amino acids’ (PAA) was studied as HIV-1 trans-activating response (TAR) RNA ligands. An extensive thermodynamic study revealed the occurence of an enthalpy–entropy compensation phenomenon resulting in very close TAR affinities for all PAA. However, their binding modes and their ability to compete with the Tat fragment strongly differ according to their structure. Surprisingly, PAA that form loose complexes with TAR were shown to be stronger Tat competitors than those forming tight ones, and thermal denaturation studies demonstrated that loose complexes are more stable than tight ones. This could be correlated to the fact that loose and tight ligands induce distinct RNA conformational changes as revealed by circular dichroism experiments, although nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments showed that the TAR binding site is the same in all cases. Finally, some loose PAA also display promising inhibitory activities on HIV-infected cells. Altogether, these results lead to a better understanding of RNA interaction modes that could be very useful for devising new ligands of relevant RNA targets.

Pascale, Lise; Azoulay, Stephane; Di Giorgio, Audrey; Zenacker, Laura; Gaysinski, Marc; Clayette, Pascal; Patino, Nadia

2013-01-01

64

Solid-State Deuterium NMR Studies Reveal ?s-ns Motions in the HIV-1 TAR RNA Recognition Site  

PubMed Central

Solution and solid-state NMR measurements were used together to examine motion in three sites in the HIV-1 TAR RNA. We wished to investigate the dynamics facilitating the conformational rearrangements the TAR RNA must undergo for tat binding, and in particular to characterize the full range of motional timescales accessible to this RNA. Our results demonstrate that the dynamics in TAR involving residues essential to tat binding include not only the faster motions detected by solution relaxation measurements, but also a significant component in the ?s-ns timescale.

Olsen, Greg L.; Echodu, Dorothy C.; Shajani, Zahra; Bardaro, Michael F.; Varani, Gabriele; Drobny, Gary P.

2009-01-01

65

Characterization of tars from Estonian Kukersite oil shale based on their volatility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaporation of primary tar during fossil fuel pyrolysis is one of the processes that can influence yield and composition of pyrolysis products. The objective of this paper was to illustrate the volatility of oil shale primary pyrolysis tars. The focus was on the less volatile heavy end of the tar. The primary tar for study was produced from pyrolysis of

Vahur Oja

2005-01-01

66

Particle size distribution and chemical composition of coal-tar fumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was intended to characterize the chemical and physical nature of coal-tar fumes emitted from spreading applications of coal tar. Two separate experiments were performed. The first resulted in the determination of a coal-tar fume particle size distribution. The second experiment resulted in the identification of the primary compounds found in collected tar fumes and a determination of their

DOUGLAS C. HITTLE; JAMES J. STUKEL

1976-01-01

67

Effect of cavitation on the properties of coal-tar pitch as studied by gas-liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect

The applicability of the cavitation-wave effect to coal-tar pitch processing is considered. The results of the GLC analysis of the test material before and after rotor-pulsation cavitation treatment are given. The organic matter of coal-tar pitch was found to degrade upon cavitation; as a result of this, the yields of light and medium fractions considerably increased. 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

M.I. Baikenov; T.B. Omarbekov; S.K. Amerkhanova (and others) [Buketov State University, Karaganda (Kazakhstan)

2008-02-15

68

TAR-RNA recognition by a novel cyclic aminoglycoside analogue  

PubMed Central

The formation of the Tat-protein/TAR-RNA complex is a crucial step in the regulation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-gene expression. To obtain full-length viral transcripts the Tat/TAR complex has to recruit the positive transcription elongation factor complex (P-EFTb), which interacts with TAR through its cyclin T1 (CycT1) component. Mutational studies identified the TAR hexanucleotide loop as a crucial region for contacting CycT1. Interfering with the interaction between the Tat/CycT1 complex and the TAR-RNA is an attractive strategy for the design of anti-HIV drugs. Positively charged molecules, like aminoglycosides or peptidomimetics, bind the TAR-RNA, disrupting the Tat/TAR complex. Here, we investigate the complex between the HIV-2 TAR-RNA and a neooligoaminodeoxysaccharide by NMR spectroscopy. In contrast to other aminoglycosides, this novel aminoglycoside analogue contacts simultaneously the bulge residues required for Tat binding and the A35 residue of the hexanucleotide loop. Upon complex formation, the loop region undergoes profound conformational changes. The novel binding mode, together with the easy accessibility of derivatives for the neooligoaminodeoxysaccharide, could open the way to the design of a new class of TAR-RNA binders, which simultaneously inhibit the formation of both the Tat/TAR binary complex and the Tat/TAR/CycT1 ternary complex by obstructing both the bulge and loop regions of the RNA.

Raghunathan, Devanathan; Sanchez-Pedregal, Victor M.; Junker, Jochen; Schwiegk, Claudia; Kalesse, Markus; Kirschning, Andreas; Carlomagno, Teresa

2006-01-01

69

Cigarette tar yields in relation to mortality from lung cancer in the cancer prevention study II prospective cohort, 1982-8  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the risk of lung cancer in smokers of medium tar filter cigarettes compared with smokers of low tar and very low tar filter cigarettes. Design Analysis of the association between the tar rating of the brand of cigarette smoked in 1982 and mortality from lung cancer over the next six years. Multivariate proportional hazards analyses used to

Jeffrey E Harris; Michael J Thun; Alison M Mondul; Eugenia E Calle

2004-01-01

70

Examination of eastern oil shale disposal problems - the Hope Creek field study  

SciTech Connect

A field-based study of problems associated with the disposal of processed Eastern oil shale was initiated in mid-1983 at a private research site in Montgomery County, Kentucky. The study (known as the Hope Creek Spent Oil Shale Disposal Project) is designed to provide information on the geotechnical, revegetation/reclamation, and leachate generation and composition characteristics of processed Kentucky oil shales. The study utilizes processed oil shale materials (retorted oil shale and reject raw oil shale fines) obtained from a pilot plant run of Kentucky oil shale using the travelling grate retort technology. Approximately 1000 tons of processed oil shale were returned to Kentucky for the purpose of the study. The study, composed of three components, is described. The effort to date has concentrated on site preparation and the construction and implementation of the field study research facilities. These endeavors are described and the project direction in the future years is defined.

Koppenaal, D.W.; Kruspe, R.R.; Robl, T.L.; Cisler, K.; Allen, D.L.

1985-02-01

71

Final safety assessment of Coal Tar as used in cosmetics.  

PubMed

Coal Tar is a semisolid by-product obtained in the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, which functions in cosmetic products as a cosmetic biocide and denaturant--antidandruff agent is also listed as a function, but this is considered an over-the-counter (OTC) drug use. Coal Tar is a nearly black, viscous liquid, heavier than water, with a naphthalene-like odor and a sharp burning taste, produced in cooking ovens as a by-product in the manufacture of coke. Crude Coal Tar is composed of 48% hydrocarbons, 42% carbon, and 10% water. In 2002, Coal Tar was reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in four formulations, all of which appear to be OTC drug products. Coal Tar is monographed by the FDA as Category I (safe and effective) OTC drug ingredient for use in the treatment of dandruff, seborrhoea, and psoriasis. Coal Tar is absorbed through the skin of animals and humans and is systemically distributed. In short-term studies, mice fed a diet containing Coal Tar found it unpalatable, but no adverse effects were reported other than weight loss; rats injected with Coal Tar experienced malaise in one study and decreased water intake and increased liver weights in another; rabbits injected with Coal Tar residue experienced eating avoidance, respiratory difficulty, sneezing, and weight loss. In a subchronic neurotoxicity study using mice, a mixture of phenols, cresols, and xylenols at concentrations approximately equal to those expected in Coal Tar extracts produced regionally selective effects, with a rank order of corpus striatum > cerebellum > cerebral cortex. Coal Tar applied to the backs of guinea pigs increases epidermal thickness. Painting female rabbits with tar decreases the absolute and relative weights of the ovaries and decreased the number of interstitial cells in the ovary. Four therapeutic Coal Tar preparations used in the treatment of psoriasis were mutagenic in the Ames assay. Urine and blood from patients treated with Coal Tar were genotoxic in bacterial assays. Coal Tar was genotoxic in a mammalian genotoxicity assay and induced DNA adducts in various tissue types. Chronic exposure of mice to Coal Tar significantly decreased survival and liver neoplasms were seen in a significant dose-related trend; in other studies using mice lung tumors and perianal skin cancers were found. Coal Tar was comedogenic in three small clinical studies. Folliculitis is associated with the prolonged use of some tars. Several published reports describe cases of contact sensitivity to Coal Tar. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which make up Coal Tar, are photosensitizers and cause phototoxicity by an oxygen-dependent mechanism. A retrospective study of the reproductive toxicity of Coal Tar in humans compared exposed women to controls and found little difference in spontaneous abortion and congenital disorders. Cancer epidemiology studies of patients who have received Coal Tar therapy of one form or other have failed to link treatment with an increase in the risk of cancer. Although the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel believes that Coal Tar use as an antidandruff ingredient in OTC drug preparations is adequately addressed by the FDA regulations, the Panel also believes that the appropriate concentration of use of Coal Tar in cosmetic formulations should be that level that does not have a biological effect in the user. Additional data needed to make a safety assessment include product types in which Coal Tar is used (other than as an OTC drug ingredient), use concentrations, and the maximum concentration that does not induce a biological effect in users. PMID:18830861

2008-01-01

72

Analyses and description of geochemical samples, Mill Creek Wilderness Study Area, Giles County, Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Semiquantitative emission spectrographic analyses for 64 elements on 62 stream sediment and 71 rock samples from Mill Creek Wilderness Study area, Giles County, Virginia, are reported here in detail. Locations for all samples are given in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. Brief descriptions of rock samples are also included. Rocks analysed are mostly sandstone. Samples of hematitic sandstone of the Rose Hill Formation and limonite-cemented sandstone of the Rocky Gap Sandstone contain high values of iron; these rocks are submarginal iron resources. Some of the same iron-rich samples have a little more barium, copper, cobalt, lead, silver, and/or zinc then is in average sandstone, but they do not suggest the presence of economic deposits of these metals. No other obviously anomalous values related to mineralized rock are present in the data.

Mei, Leung; Lesure, Frank Gardner

1978-01-01

73

New mechanisms studied for creek formation in tidal flats: From crabs to tidal channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanisms for the formation of creeks in tidal flats are rarely discussed in the peer-reviewed literature. Moreover, while there are general theories about how creeks form in tidal flats, there is no data to support these theories. It is generally believed that marshes inherit creeks from previous tidal flats that plants colonize, and that further modify the creeks. Recently, we have discovered new mechanisms for creek formation in three different environments of Argentina in which tidal creeks are actually originating in both fresh and salt marshes. One of the most surprising and interesting findings is that creek formation can actually be a product of the intense action of crabs (Chasmagnatus granulata). In these settings, crabs first interact with a halophytic plant (Salicornia ambigua), developing zones of high-density of crab holes, which then are utilized by groundwater and tidal action to form channels. This specific interaction forms a series of rings that, to the best of our knowledge, have not been described elsewhere in the literature.

Perillo, Gerardo M. E.; Iribarne, Oscar O.

74

Electron-spin resonance study of mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke: nature of the free radicals in gas-phase smoke and in cigarette tar.  

PubMed Central

Radicals in the gas phase of both mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke have been studied using electron-spin resonance ESR spin-trapping techniques with alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) as the spin trap. The principal radicals we trap appear to be alkoxyl radicals. Mainstream and sidestream gas-phase smoke each have about the same concentration of radicals, about 1 X 10(16) radicals per cigarette (or 5 X 10(14) per puff). These radicals are reactive, yet they appear to be remarkably long-lived: they are still spin trapped from gas-phase smoke after more than 5 min. We propose that a steady-state concentration of reactive radicals exists in gas phase cigarette smoke. We suggest that this steady state is produced by the slow oxidation of nitric oxide (present in high concentrations in smoke and relatively unreactive) to the more reactive nitrogen dioxide, followed by the reaction of nitrogen dioxide with reactive organic molecules in smoke (such as olefins and dienes). Preliminary experiments reported here support this hypothesis. Tar from both mainstream and sidestream smoke contains persistent free radicals that exhibit broad, single-line ESR spectra with g values of 2.003. The tar radical can be extracted into tert-butylbenzene and other organic solvents, and we have applied a variety of fractionation procedures to these solutions. Most of the radicals occur in the fractions that contain the phenolic tobacco leaf pigments. Treatment of alcoholic solutions of tar with base generates a new group of radicals that appear to be semiquinone radicals derived from the oxidation of the phenolic and polyphenolic species in tar.

Pryor, W A; Prier, D G; Church, D F

1983-01-01

75

Manufacture of road paving asphalt using coal tar  

SciTech Connect

Coal tar is a ready source of asphaltenes needed in asphalt production. Coal tar pitch itself, however, is unsuitable for making road-paving asphalt, since the resulting material has low ductility, high temperature sensitivity, and low resistance to wear. For this reason, in England, where replacing imported petroleum with local products was important 10 to 20 years ago, it was required that no more than 10 to 20 percent coal tar pitch be incorporated in road pavement. At higher concentrations, the pitch separates from the petroleum-derived asphalt, causing brittleness and cracking. To make a good asphalt from coal tar pitch, chemical modification or blending with additives appears necessary. In this study, the potentials are for producing road-paving asphalt from coal tar and available inexpensive petroleum fractions are explored. The objective of the study is to develop new uses of coal tar for asphalt production and to free the petroleum residue for upgrading to gasoline and diesel fuels.

Yan, T.Y.

1986-09-01

76

Subfractionation of coal tar neutral fraction. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to develop a fractionation scheme for a neutral coal-tar fraction which had been isolated from coal-tar pitch. Silica gel (7631869) chromatography was used to fractionate the neutral fraction of a 2kg sample of coal-tar. Class separation was affected by the sequential elution of the neutral fraction with solvents of increasing polarity over an activated silica gel

D. R. Jones; H. G. Reilich; H. J. ONeill

1975-01-01

77

Absorptive removal of biomass tar using water and oily materials.  

PubMed

Water is the most common choice of absorption medium selected in many gasification systems. Because of poor solubility of tar in water, hydrophobic absorbents (diesel fuel, biodiesel fuel, vegetable oil, and engine oil) were studied on their absorption efficiency of biomass tar and compared with water. The results showed that only 31.8% of gravimetric tar was removed by the water scrubber, whereas the highest removal of gravimetric tar was obtained by a vegetable oil scrubber with a removal efficiency of 60.4%. When focusing on light PAH tar removal, the absorption efficiency can be ranked in the following order; diesel fuel>vegetable oil>biodiesel fuel>engine oil>water. On the other hand, an increase in gravimetric tar was observed for diesel fuel and biodiesel fuel scrubbers because of their easy evaporation. Therefore, the vegetable oil is recommended as the best absorbent to be used in gasification systems. PMID:20801021

Phuphuakrat, Thana; Namioka, Tomoaki; Yoshikawa, Kunio

2010-07-22

78

Study of naturally occurring, radionuclide bearing deposits at Portland Creek, Newfoundland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A small uraniferous peat deposit located near Portland Creek, Newfoundland was investigated as part of the National Uranium Tailings Program (NUTP). The purpose of the investigation was to provide data on naturally occurring uranium series radionuclides a...

1985-01-01

79

Comparative Anti-Dandruff Efficacy between a Tar and a Non-Tar Shampoo  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized double-blind clinical study was conducted on two groups of 30 volunteers using either a non-tar shampoo (2% salicylic acid, 0.75% piroctone olamine and 0.5% elubiol) or a 0.5% coal tar shampoo. Subjects were diagnosed as having moderate to marked dandruff. The study consisted of a 3-week washout, followed by a 4-week treatment and a 4-week posttreatment regression phase.

Claudine Piérard-Franchimont; Gérald E. Piérard; Valérie Vroome; Gloria C. Lin; Yohini Appa

2000-01-01

80

Mobilization of Manufactured Gas Plant Tar with Alkaline Flushing Solutions  

PubMed Central

This experimental study investigates the use of alkaline and alkaline-polymer solutions for the mobilization of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars. Tar-aqueous interfacial tensions (IFTs) and contact angles were measured, and column flushing experiments were conducted. NaOH solutions (0.01–1 wt.%) were found to significantly reduce tar-aqueous IFT. Contact angles indicated a shift to strongly water-wet, then to tar-wet conditions as NaOH concentration increased. Column experiments were conducted with flushing solutions containing 0.2, 0.35, and 0.5% NaOH, both with and without xanthan gum (XG). Between 10 and 44% of the residual tar was removed by solutions containing only NaOH, while solutions containing both NaOH and XG removed 81–93% of the tar with final tar saturations as low as 0.018. The mechanism responsible for the tar removal is likely a combination of reduced IFT, a favorable viscosity ratio, and tar bank formation. Such an approach may have practical applications and would be significantly less expensive than surfactant-based methods.

Hauswirth, Scott C.; Birak, Pamela Schultz; Rylander, Seth C.; Miller, Cass T.

2011-01-01

81

Phenol Extraction Studies: Solvent Screening, Tar Acid Removal, and Organic Volatilization. Final Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes three studies to assess the feasibility of pretreating wastewater from the SRC-I Demonstration Plant with solvents to remove phenolic materials. One series of tests evaluated the extraction efficiency of three solvents (diisopropyl ...

J. R. Campbell R. G. Luthy

1984-01-01

82

Compositional studies of high-temperature coal tar by GC\\/FTIR analysis of light oil fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for determination of the composition of the light oil fractions in high-temperature coal tar by means of distillation, followed by gas chromatography on a crosslinked fused-silica, capillary column coated with optimum amount of stationary phase and identification by capillary gas chromatography\\/Fourier transform infrared spectrometry combined with GC retention indices (GC\\/FTIR-RI) is described. This method was effectively used to

M. J. Zhang; S. D. Li; B. J. Chen

1992-01-01

83

Beaver Creek Wilderness, Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

The Beaver Creek Wilderness, Kentucky, was studied in 1980 by the USGS and USBM. Coal is the most important mineral resource in the Beaver Creek Wilderness. The coal is tentatively ranked as high-volatile A bituminous, and like coal of this rank in nearby mining areas, it is primarily suitable for use as steam coal. The coal resources are estimated to total 8.31 million short tons in beds greater than 14 in. thick. Nonmetallic minerals present in the Wilderness include limestone, shale, clay, and sandstone; these commodities are abundant outside the wilderness. The information available is not adequate for the assessment of the oil and gas resource potential of the Beaver Creek Wilderness. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources.

Englund, K.J.; Hammack, R.W.

1984-01-01

84

Inference in TAR Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distribution theory is developed for least-squares estimates of the threshold in Threshold Autoregressive (TAR) models. We find that if we let the threshold effect (the difference in slopes between the two regimes) become small as the sample size increases, then the asymptotic distribution of the threshold estimator is free of nuisance parameters (up to scale). Similarly, the likelihood ratio

Bruce E. Hansen

1997-01-01

85

CALPUFF and AERMOD model validation study in the near field: Martins Creek revisited.  

PubMed

This paper describes a near-field validation study involving the steady-state, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guideline model AERMOD and the nonsteady-state puff model CALPUFF. Relative model performance is compared with field measurements collected near Martins Creek, PA-a rural, hilly area along the Pennsylvania-New Jersey border. The principal emission sources in the study were two coal-fired power plants with tall stacks and buoyant plumes. Over 1 yr of sulfur dioxide measurements were collected at eight monitors located at or above the two power plants' stack tops. Concurrent meteorological data were available at two sites. Both sites collected data 10 m above the ground. One of the sites also collected sonic detection and ranging measurements up to 420 m above ground. The ability of the two models to predict monitored sulfur dioxide concentrations was assessed in a four-part model validation. Each part of the validation applied different criteria and statistics to provide a comprehensive evaluation of model performance. Because of their importance in regulatory applications, an emphasis was placed on statistics that demonstrate the model's ability to reproduce the upper end of the concentration distribution. On the basis of the combined results of the four-part validation (i.e., weight of evidence), the performance of CALPUFF was judged to be superior to that of AERMOD. PMID:21751581

Dresser, Alan L; Huizer, Robert D

2011-06-01

86

Oyster Creek cycle 10 nodal model parameter optimization study using PSMS  

SciTech Connect

The power shape monitoring system (PSMS) is an on-line core monitoring system that uses a three-dimensional nodal code (NODE-B) to perform nodal power calculations and compute thermal margins. The PSMS contains a parameter optimization function that improves the ability of NODE-B to accurately monitor core power distributions. This functions iterates on the model normalization parameters (albedos and mixing factors) to obtain the best agreement between predicted and measured traversing in-core probe (TIP) reading on a statepoint-by-statepoint basis. Following several statepoint optimization runs, an average set of optimized normalization parameters can be determined and can be implemented into the current or subsequent cycle core model for on-line core monitoring. A statistical analysis of 19 high-power steady-state state-points throughout Oyster Creek cycle 10 operation has shown a consistently poor virgin model performance. The normalization parameters used in the cycle 10 NODE-B model were based on a cycle 8 study, which evaluated only Exxon fuel types. The introduction of General Electric (GE) fuel into cycle 10 (172 assemblies) was a significant fuel/core design change that could have altered the optimum set of normalization parameters. Based on the need to evaluate a potential change in the model normalization parameters for cycle 11 and in an attempt to account for the poor cycle 10 model performance, a parameter optimization study was performed.

Dougher, J.D.

1987-01-01

87

Study of Oil Shale, Hydrocarbon, and Tar Sand Mining. Task 3. Mine Planning and Design. Final Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers an investigation into underground mining methods for oil shale in the Piceance Creek Basin of western Colorado. In situ retorting methods are not discussed as the purpose of the project was to focus on the problems associated with conve...

R. Reeder R. Trent D. Ropchan

1984-01-01

88

TAR SANDS LEACHATE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

An inhouse research project was conducted by the EPA's Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory (IERL) at the T&E Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio, to provide information concerning the potential for release of contaminants to groundwater from in-situ and above-ground processed t...

89

Environmental stability of PAH source indices in pyrogenic tars  

SciTech Connect

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental contaminants found in soil, sediments, and airborne particulates. The majority of PAHs found in modern soils and sediments arise from myriad anthropogenic petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. Tars and tar products such as creosote produced from the industrial pyrolysis of coal or oil at former manufactured gas plants (MGPs) or in coking retorts are viscous, oily substances that contain significant concentrations of PAH, usually in excess of 30% w/w. Pyrogenic tars and tar products have unique PAH patterns (source signatures) that are a function of their industrial production. Among pyrogenic materials, certain diagnostic ratios of environmentally recalcitrant 4-, 5- and 6-ring PAHs have been identified as useful environmental markers for tracking the signature of tars and petroleum in the environment. The use of selected PAH source ratios is based on the concept that PAHs with similar properties (i.e., molecular weight, partial pressure, solubility, partition coefficients, and biotic/abiotic degradation) will weather at similar rates in the environment thereby yielding stable ratios. The stability of more than 30 high molecular weight PAH ratios is evaluated during controlled studies of tar evaporation and aerobic biodegradation. The starting materials in these experiments consisted of relatively unweathered tars derived from coal and petroleum, respectively. The PAH ratios from these laboratory studies are compared to those measured in PAH residues found in tar-contaminated soils at a former MGP that operated with a carburetted water gas process.

Uhler, A.D.; Emsbo-Mattingly, S.D. [New Fields Environmental Forensics Practice, Rockland, MA (United States)

2006-04-15

90

Pre-Dam Removal Monitoring of Goldsborough Creek, Washington: 2000 Smolt Trapping Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Trapping of salmonid (oncorhynchus spp.) smolts was conducted as part of the monitoring plan for the Goldborough Creek, Washington, dam removal and stream restoration project headed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The aim of the current year's monito...

B. R. Missildine M. T. Celedonia R. J. Peters

2001-01-01

91

IMPACT OF URBANIZATION ON THE HYDROLOGY OF THE POCONO CREEK WATERSHED: A MODEL STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Pocono Creek watershed located in Monroe County, PA, is threatened by high population growth and urbanization. Of concern specifically is the potential impact of future developments in the watershed on the reduction of base flow and the consequent risk of degradation of wild ...

92

Environmental Flow Studies of the Fort Collins Science Center, Cherry Creek, Arizona.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the request of the U.S. Forest Service, an instream flow assessment was conducted at Cherry Creek, Ariz., to investigate habitat for native and introduced fish species and to describe the beneficial use of a possible instream flow water right. The U.S....

2009-01-01

93

Watershed management for erosion and sedimentation control Case Study: Goodwin Creek, Panola County, MS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Goodwin Creek watershed is located within the loessal hills of northern Mississippi, a region of high erosion risk and elevated watershed sediment yields. This manuscript combines a regional history of land management and conservation issues from the time of European settlement to present with a...

94

Quality of water and time-of-travel in Bakers Creek near Clinton, Mississippi. [Bakers Creek  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short-term intensive quality-of-water study was conducted during a period of generally low streamflow in Bakers Creek and its tributary, Lindsey Creek, near Clinton, Mississippi. During the September 15-18, 1980 study, dissolved oxygen concentrations in Bakers Creek were less than 5 milligrams per liter. The specific conductance, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, nutrient concentrations, and bacteria densities in Bakers Creek decreased

Kalkhoff

1982-01-01

95

Machine-smoking studies of cigarette filter color to estimate tar yield by visual assessment and through the use of a colorimeter.  

PubMed

This paper explores using the intensity of the stain on the end of the filter ("filter color") as a vehicle for estimating cigarette tar yield, both by instrument reading of the filter color and by visual comparison to a template. The correlation of machine-measured tar yield to filter color measured with a colorimeter was reasonably strong and was relatively unaffected by different puff volumes or different tobacco moistures. However, the correlation of filter color to machine-measured nicotine yield was affected by the moisture content of the cigarette. Filter color, as measured by a colorimeter, was generally comparable to filter extraction of either nicotine or solanesol in its correlation to machine-smoked tar yields. It was found that the color of the tar stain changes over time. Panelists could generally correctly order the filters from machine-smoked cigarettes by tar yield using the intensity of the tar stain. However, there was considerable variation in the panelist-to-panelist tar yield estimates. The wide person-to-person variation in tar yield estimates, and other factors discussed in the text could severely limit the usefulness and practicality of this approach for visually estimating the tar yield of machine-smoked cigarettes. PMID:19879915

Morton, Michael J; Williams, David L; Hjorth, Heather B; Smith, Jennifer H

2009-10-30

96

Mineral resources of the Indian Creek, Bridger Jack Mesa, and Butler Wash Wilderness Study Areas, San Juan County, Utah  

SciTech Connect

The Indian Creek, Bridger Jack Mesa, and Butler Wash Wilderness Study Areas are located in San Juan County, southeastern Utah. These areas consist of nearly flat-lying sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age that are in places extensively faulted, forming horsts and grabens, or they are gently domed by flowage of the bedded salts of the Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation. Inferred subeconomic resources of potash and halite are present in the Paradox beneath the Indian Creek Wilderness Study Area, but their likelihood for development is low. Inferred subeconomic resources of sandstone and small amounts of sand and gravel exist within these wilderness study areas, but because of their abundance throughout the region, their distance to current markets, and their lack of unique properties, these materials have no current likelihood for development. No uranium resources were identified at the surface in these wilderness study areas. However, the potential for undiscovered resources of uranium and by-products vanadium and copper is high for the north quarter of the Bridger Jack Mesa Wilderness Study Area; the mineral resource potential for these elements is low for the Butler Wash, Indian Creek and the remainder of the Bridger Jack Mesa Wilderness Study Areas. The potential for oil and gas resources is moderate in all three wilderness study areas. The mineral resource potential for potash and halite beneath the Bridger Jack Mesa and Butler Wash Wilderness Study Areas is low. The resource potential for gold and silver is low in all three wilderness study areas and the mineral resource potential for the rare-earth element braitschite is unknown in all three wilderness study areas.

Patterson, C.G.; Toth, M.I.; Case, J.E.; Barton, H.N.; Green, G.N.; Schreiner, R.A.; Thompson, J.R.

1989-01-01

97

Water-quality study of proposed reregulation dam downstream of Wolf Creek Dam, Cumberland River, Kentucky. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the application of an unsteady, one-dimensional water-quality model to the Cumberland River below Wolf Creek Dam, Kentucky. A hydropower upgrade of Wolf Creek Dam and construction of a reregulation dam, located approximately 10 miles below Wolf Creek Dam, are under consideration. Simulations were conducted under unreregulated conditions and projected conditions following impoundment to provide information concerning the

1986-01-01

98

Archaeological politics and public interest in paleoamerican studies: lessons from Gordon Creek Woman and Kennewick Man.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the Kennewick lawsuit as it relates to the intended purposes of NAGPRA. It also reflects upon comments made by Swedlund and Anderson (1999) in a recent American Antiquity Forum, which conceptually linked two ancient skeletons, Gordon Creek Woman and Kennewick Man. Their assertions indicate the need for clarifying specific issues and events pertaining to the case. We comment on how times have changed with the passage of NAGPRA, how differently these two skeletons have been treated by the media and the scientists interested in them, and show how discussions of biological affiliation have relevance. There is still much to be learned from Kennewick Man and Gordon Creek Woman. But attempts to bring the concept of race or racial typing into the picture show misunderstanding regarding the use of morphological data in tracing population historical relationships, not to mention obfuscating the scientific issues they raise. PMID:20043374

Owsley, D W; Jantz, R L

2001-10-01

99

Evaluating coal tar-water partitioning coefficient estimation methods and solute-solvent molecular interactions in tar phase.  

PubMed

Equilibrium partitioning coefficients between an industrial coal tar sample and water (KCT/w) were determined for 41 polar and nonpolar solutes in batch systems. Together with literature values, 69 KCT/w data were analyzed using the following model approaches: Raoult's law, the single parameter linear free energy relationship (SPLFER) with octanol-water partitioning coefficients (Kow), the linear solvation energy relationships (LSERs), SPARC and COSMOtherm. Estimations by Raoult's law and the SPLFER agreed well with the experimental log KCT/w values for the investigated coal tar, with root mean square errors (RMSE) of 0.31 and 0.33, respectively. LSER resulted in as good estimations (RMSE=0.29) as the previous two. The LSER analysis revealed significant hydrogen (H)-bond acceptor properties of the studied coal tar phase. Using naphthalene as a surrogate solvent for the coal tar phase, SPARC and COSMOtherm provided fairly good predictions (RMSE of 0.63 and 0.65, respectively) of log KCT/w, without any additional empirical parameter. Further calculations using SPARC and COSMOtherm for partitioning between water and other tar-components (e.g., benzofuran, phenol and quinoline) suggested that minor components in coal tar do not significantly influence KCT/w of nonpolar solutes, and that Raoult's law and the SPLFER thus may be generally applied to these types of solutes, e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkylbenzenes, regardless of coal tar compositions. In contrast, partitioning of H-bonding solutes (e.g., phenols) can significantly vary depending on the amount of polar tar-components such as N-heterocyclic aromatic compounds. Therefore, the presented successful applications of Raoult's law and SPLFER to the studied coal tar could be a special case, and these simple approaches may not provide reasonable estimations for partitioning of H-bonding solutes from compositionally different coal tars. PMID:18649918

Endo, Satoshi; Xu, Wanjing; Goss, Kai-Uwe; Schmidt, Torsten C

2008-07-22

100

Stabilization\\/solidification of acid tars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work involve a systematic treatability study of the treatment of acid tars (AT), a waste generated during the processing of petroleum and petrochemical, by stabilization\\/solidification with Portland cement (CEM I), with the addition of high carbon fly ash (HCFA), an industrial by-product, as a novel sorbent for organic contaminants. A factorial design experiment was adopted to investigate the effects

Sunday A. Leonard; Julia A. Stegemann

2010-01-01

101

Inhibition of transcription by the TAR RNA of HIV-1 in a nuclear extract of HeLa cells.  

PubMed Central

Regulation of transcription of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) requires specific interaction of Tat protein with the trans-activation response region (TAR). Inhibition of replication of HIV-1 has previously been achieved with a TAR decoy, namely a short RNA oligonucleotide that corresponded to the sequence of the authentic TAR RNA. Since TAR RNA has the potential to interact with cellular factors, we examined the effect of TAR RNA on efficiency of transcription in nuclear of HeLa cell extracts. We performed an in vitro transcription assay in the presence of authentic TAR RNA using a template that was driven by the CMV (cytomegalovirus) early promoter in a HeLa nuclear extract and found, for the first time, that TAR RNA inhibited transcription by approximately 60-70% independently of the Tat-TAR interaction. Furthermore, we evaluated inhibition of transcription by variants of TAR RNA and found that the TAR RNA loop, bases surrounding the loop, the triple base bulge and the 'lower' stem region of TAR RNA were responsible for the inhibition of transcription. Taken together, earlier reports on proteins that bind to TAR RNA and the present results suggest that integrity of TAR RNA is important for efficient binding to cellular transcription factors. As judged from the significant inhibition observed in this study, the TAR decoy might sequester transcription factors and thus it might potentially be able to inhibit transcription of housekeeping genes that are unrelated to Tat function.

Yamamoto, R; Koseki, S; Ohkawa, J; Murakami, K; Nishikawa, S; Taira, K; Kumar, P K

1997-01-01

102

Machine-smoking studies of cigarette filter color to estimate tar yield by visual assessment and through the use of a colorimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores using the intensity of the stain on the end of the filter (“filter color”) as a vehicle for estimating cigarette tar yield, both by instrument reading of the filter color and by visual comparison to a template. The correlation of machine-measured tar yield to filter color measured with a colorimeter was reasonably strong and was relatively unaffected

Michael J. Morton; David L. Williams; Heather B. Hjorth; Jennifer H. Smith

2010-01-01

103

Correlation between structure and fluidity of coal tar pitch fractions studied by ambient ¹³C and high temperature in-situ ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unique properties of coal tar pitches have resulted in numerous applications for carbon products, such as binders for carbon artifacts. However, as the number of by-product coke ovens is diminishing, the design of superior binders from alternative materials or processes is sought by the carbon industry. Accordingly, structural characterization of coal tar pitches and their solvent fractions, using quantitative

J. M. Andresen; H. H. Schober; F. J. Jr. Rusinko

1999-01-01

104

In situ recovery of oil from Utah tar sand: a summary of tar sand research at the Laramie Energy Technology Center  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work done by the United States Department of Energy's Laramie Energy Technology Center from 1971 through 1982 to develop technology for future recovery of oil from US tar sands. Work was concentrated on major US tar sand deposits that are found in Utah. Major objectives of the program were as follows: determine the feasibility of in situ recovery methods applied to tar sand deposits; and establish a system for classifying tar sand deposits relative to those characteristics that would affect the design and operation of various in situ recovery processes. Contents of this report include: (1) characterization of Utah tar sand; (2) laboratory extraction studies relative to Utah tar sand in situ methods; (3) geological site evaluation; (4) environmental assessments and water availability; (5) reverse combustion field experiment, TS-1C; (6) a reverse combustion followed by forward combustion field experiment, TS-2C; (7) tar sand permeability enhancement studies; (8) two-well steam injection experiment; (9) in situ steam-flood experiment, TS-1S; (10) design of a tar sand field experiment for air-stream co-injection, TS-4; (11) wastewater treatment and oil analyses; (12) economic evaluation of an in situ tar sand recovery process; and (13) appendix I (extraction studies involving Utah tar sands, surface methods). 70 figs., 68 tabs.

Marchant, L.C.; Westhoff, J.D.

1985-10-01

105

Centrifuge treatment of coal tar  

SciTech Connect

New technology is required for the removal of water and heavy fractions from regular coal tar. Centrifuges offer the best option. Purification of coal tar by means of centrifuges at OAO NLMK permits the production of pitch coke or electrode pitch that complies with current standards.

L.A. Kazak; V.Z. Kaidalov; L.F. Syrova; O.S. Miroshnichenko; A.S. Minakov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15

106

Treatment of coal tar emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention relates to a process for the treatment of stable emulsions of water and quinoline insolubles in coal tar comprising thoroughly mixing the coal tar with at least one of a specific class of surface-active compositions, followed by a separation of water and quinoline insoluble components from the mixture. The invention also relates to a method of eliminating

Cukier

1983-01-01

107

A small circular TAR RNA decoy specifically inhibits Tat-activated HIV-1 transcription.  

PubMed Central

Linear TAR RNA has previously been used as a decoy to inhibit HIV-1 transcription in vitro and HIV-1 replication in vivo. A 48 nucleotide circular RNA containing the stem, bulge and loop of the HIV-1 TAR element was synthesized using the self-splicing activity of a group I permuted intron-exon and was tested for its ability to function as a TAR decoy in vitro. This small circular TAR molecule was exceptionally stable in HeLa nuclear extracts, whereas a similar linear TAR molecule was rapidly degraded. The TAR circle bound specifically to Tfr38, a peptide containing the TAR-binding region of Tat. The ability of Tat to trans-activate transcription from the HIV-1 promoter in vitro was efficiently inhibited by circular TAR RNA but not by TAR circles that contained either bulge or loop mutations. TAR circles did not inhibit transactivation exclusively by binding to Tat since this inhibition was not reversed by adding excess Tat to the transcription reaction. Together, these data suggest that TAR circles act as decoys that inhibit transactivation by binding to Tat and at least one cellular factor. These data also demonstrate the utility of small circular RNA molecules as tools for biochemical studies.

Bohjanen, P R; Colvin, R A; Puttaraju, M; Been, M D; Garcia-Blanco, M A

1996-01-01

108

Phase 1 report on the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Bear Creek Valley (BCV) is located within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation and encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes associated with past operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The BCV Remedial Investigation determined that disposal of wastes at the S-3 Site, Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG) has caused contamination of both deep and shallow groundwater. The primary contaminants include uranium, nitrate, and VOCs, although other metals such as aluminum, magnesium, and cadmium persist. The BCV feasibility study will describe several remedial options for this area, including both in situ and ex situ treatment of groundwater. This Treatability Study Phase 1 Report describes the results of preliminary screening of treatment technologies that may be applied within BCV. Four activities were undertaken in Phase 1: field characterization, laboratory screening of potential sorbents, laboratory testing of zero valent iron products, and field screening of three biological treatment systems. Each of these activities is described fully in technical memos attached in Appendices A through G.

NONE

1997-04-01

109

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1: Main text  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

NONE

1996-06-01

110

Field and Laboratory Data From an Earthquake History Study of Scarps of the Lake Creek-Boundary Creek Fault Between the Elwha River and Siebert Creek, Clallam County, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fault scarps recently discovered on Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM; also known as LiDAR) imagery show Holocene movement on the Lake Creek-Boundary Creek fault on the north flank of the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington State. Such recent movement suggests the fault is a potential source of large earthquakes. As part of the effort to assess seismic hazard in the Puget Sound region, we map scarps on ALSM imagery and show primary field and laboratory data from backhoe trenches across scarps that are being used to develop a latest Pleistocene and Holocene history of large earthquakes on the fault. Although some scarp segments 0.5-2 km long along the fault are remarkably straight and distinct on shaded ASLM imagery, most scarps displace the ground surface <1 m, and, therefore, are difficult to locate in dense brush and forest. We are confident of a surface-faulting or folding origin and a latest Pleistocene to Holocene age only for scarps between Lake Aldwell and the easternmost fork of Siebert Creek, a distance of 22 km. Stratigraphy in five trenches at four sites help determine the history of surface-deforming earthquakes since glacier recession and alluvial deposition 11-17 ka. Although the trend and plunge of indicators of fault slip were measured only in the weathered basalt exposed in one trench, upward-splaying fault patterns and inconsistent displacement of successive beds along faults in three of the five trenches suggest significant lateral as well as vertical slip during the surface-faulting or folding earthquakes that produced the scarps. Radiocarbon ages on fragments of wood charcoal from two wedges of scarp-derived colluvium in a graben-fault trench suggest two surface-faulting earthquakes between 2,000 and 700 years ago. The three youngest of nine radiocarbon ages on charcoal fragments from probable scarp-derived colluvum in a fold-scarp trench 1.2 km to the west suggest a possible earlier surface-faulting earthquake less than 5,000 years ago.

Nelson, Alan R.; Personius, Stephen F.; Buck, Jason; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Wells, Ray E.; Schermer, Elizabeth R.

2007-01-01

111

IOCC monograph series: tar sands  

SciTech Connect

This is a collection of important papers published on tar sand resources and technologies. It includes nineteen previously published significant technical reports which describe tar sand resources and related technologies. The reports are primarily descriptions of the United States resource and efforts to develop that resource; however, several reports describing Canadian tar sand activities are included because they are the only available publications dealing with the respective technology areas. The republished reports represent the following categories: World Resource Overview; US Resource Overview (Utah, California, Kentucky, Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma); Extraction Technologies (including in-situ and mining-and-plant-extraction); Field Trials and Commercialization; and Environmental Assessment. (DP)

Ball, D.; Marchant, L.C.; Goldburg, A. (eds.)

1982-01-01

112

Reduction of Ammonia and Tar in Pressurized Biomass Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The present paper intended to present the results of parametric study of the formation of ammonia and tar under pressurized gasification conditions. By the use of multivariate data analysis, the effects of operating parameters were determined and their influences could be quantified. In order to deal with cases in which high levels of ammonia and tar were produced, study of catalytic hot gas cleaning was performed, aiming to discuss the removal efficiency and test catalysts.

Wang, W.; Olofsson, G.

2002-09-19

113

Shale oil low, tar sand high in diesel emissions  

SciTech Connect

A study is reported on the performance testing of diesel fuels derived from shale oil and from tar sands. The study compared combustion characteristics, gas-phase emissions, and particulate emissions and their mutagenic activity. Shale-oil-derived diesel fuel had lower nitrogen oxide emissions than either the tar sand fuel or the control diesel fuel and also the lowest mutagenic activity. 2 figures.

Not Available

1987-03-01

114

Restoring Lower Rock Creek  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief video describes how Lower Rock Creek’s location between two National Wild and Scenic Rivers caused Kentucky environmentalists to choose the creek as a target for acid mine drainage remediation.

Ket

2011-01-11

115

Aqueous rubberized coal tar emulsion  

SciTech Connect

An aqueous rubberized coal tar emulsion composition especially suitable for coating and sealing bituminous substrates containing asphalt such as asphalt pavement and the like, the coal tar emulsion composition comprising a major portion of commercial coal tar emulsion and water admixed with a small amount of a carboxylated butadiene/styrene/acid copolymer latex having a particular particle size. The emulsion composition may additionally include a fine aggregate filler material such as sand. The coal tar emulsion composition according to the invention is of a thixotropic nature and has the ability to maintain the fine aggregate when added and mixed therein in a homogeneous-like suspension. The emulsion composition when spread on an asphalt surface exhibits a high degree of spreadability and provides a sealing coating that has a long life.

Ladish, D.J.

1985-10-01

116

TarO: a target optimisation system for structural biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

TarO (http:\\/\\/www.compbio.dundee.ac.uk\\/taro) offers a single point of reference for key bioinformatics analyses relevant to selecting proteins or domains for study by structural biology techniques. The protein sequence is analysed by 17 algorithms and compared to 8 databases. TarO gathers putative homologues, including orthologues, and then obtains predictions of properties for these sequences including crystallisation propensity, pro- tein disorder and post-translational

Ian M. Overton; C. A. Johannes Van Niekerk; Lester G. Carter; Alice Dawson; David M. A. Martin; Scott Cameron; Stephen A. Mcmahon; Malcolm F. White; William N. Hunter; James H. Naismith; Geoffrey J. Barton

2008-01-01

117

Restoring Fossil Creek  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fossil Creek had been dammed for the past 90 years, and plans were underway to restore the stream. The creek runs through Central Arizona and flows from the high plateaus to the desert, cutting through the same formations that form the Grand Canyon. This article discusses the Fossil Creek monitoring project. In this project, students and teachers…

Flaccus, Kathleen; Vlieg, Julie; Marks, Jane C.; LeRoy, Carri J.

2004-01-01

118

Restoring Fossil Creek  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fossil Creek had been dammed for the past 90 years, and plans were underway to restore the stream. The creek runs through Central Arizona and flows from the high plateaus to the desert, cutting through the same formations that form the Grand Canyon. This article discusses the Fossil Creek monitoring project. In this project, students and teachers…

Flaccus, Kathleen; Vlieg, Julie; Marks, Jane C.; LeRoy, Carri J.

2004-01-01

119

Overburden characterization and post-burn study of the Hoe Creek, Wyoming underground coal gasification site and comparison with the Hanna, Wyoming site  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1978 the third test (Hoe Creek III) in a series of underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments was completed at a site south of Gillette, Wyoming. The post-burn study of the geology of the overburden and interlayered rock of the two coal seams affected by the experiment is based on the study of fifteen cores. The primary purpose of the

F. C. Ethridge; L. K. Burns; W. G. Alexander; G. N. II Craig; A. D. Youngberg

1983-01-01

120

Modified coal-tar pitch  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coal-tar pitch material is described which is obtained by the process which consists in mixing an undistilled coaltar material with a solvent which consists of at least one of the following n-methyl-2-pyrollidone and the fraction of a coal-tar distillate which boils between 100° and 350°C. The mixing is carried out at a temperature such as to form a solvent-dissolved

S. Cukier; H. A. F. L. Kremer

1986-01-01

121

The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands  

SciTech Connect

This report represents the work done during the year of May 8, 1987 to June 9, 1988. This year was the first year of a five-year program. The overall objective of the latter is to advance the technologies for recovering bitumen from the tar sands by thermal and water assisted extraction means and upgrading of bitumen to synthetic crude, and conversion of bitumens to specialty products such as asphalt and resins to levels where realistic evaluations of technical and commercial potential can be made. Additionally, it is desired to have the data at a level which is adequate for design of pilot plants of appropriate size deemed necessary for commercial scale-up of the various processes being studied. The main areas for studies covered in this report are modelling and optimization of the hydropyrolysis process for upgrading bitumens, bitumen recovery by pyrolysis of the circle Cliffs tar sands in a fluid bed, pyrolysis of Whiterocks tar sand in a rotary kiln, modelling of the combustor in the coupled fluidized bed with interbed heat transfer using heat pipes, development of superior diluents for use in the water extraction of Utah's tar sands, and fractionation and characterization of the bitumens from Asphalt Ridge and Sunnyside tar sands. 169 refs., 60 figs., 31 tars.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1989-05-01

122

Investigation of the rank dependence of tar evolution  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study are to develop an improved understanding of the process of coal tar evolution, its relationship to the structural characteristics of the parent coal, and the dependence of the chemical and physical properties of the tar products on the conditions of devolatilization. Data from this study are expected to allow hypothesis testing and refinements of coal devolatilization models relevant to the pulverized coal combustion process. The program is divided into seven major technical areas: tar evolution rates in rapid heating conditions; molecular weight and vapor pressure characteristics of tars; chemical structure and calorific values of tars; influence of interphase mass transport phenomena; gas phase secondary reactions of primary'' tars; parent coal nitrogen evolution during devolatilization; and model hypothesis testing. A range of coal ranks, from a Texas lignite to a Pennsylvania anthracite, are employed in the investigation. In addition, a high temperature polymer, a polyimide, is utilized as an additional reference case. The polyimide serves as a truly polymeric reference material for examining the nitrogen evolution behavior of coal. The samples are subjected to elemental composition determination, infrared absorbance characteristics, calorific value, high temperature ash analysis, and maceral composition. Consideration is being given to NMR analysis as well as tetrahydrofuran (THF) solubility. Results are discussed. 4 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs.

Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M.

1990-01-01

123

Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1. Main text  

SciTech Connect

This is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

NONE

1995-09-01

124

Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3. Appendix E  

SciTech Connect

This document contains Appendix E: Toxicity Information and Uncertainty Analysis, description of methods, from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

NONE

1995-09-01

125

Paleontological overview of oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.  

SciTech Connect

In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the ''Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005,'' Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. In addition, Congress declared that both research- and commercial-scale development of oil shale and tar sands should (1) be conducted in an environmentally sound manner using management practices that will minimize potential impacts, (2) occur with an emphasis on sustainability, and (3) benefit the United States while taking into account concerns of the affected states and communities. To support this declaration of policy, Congress directed the Secretary of the Interior to undertake a series of steps, several of which are directly related to the development of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands. One of these steps was the completion of a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) to analyze the impacts of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands, with an emphasis on the most geologically prospective lands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. For oil shale, the scope of the PEIS analysis includes public lands within the Green River, Washakie, Uinta, and Piceance Creek Basins. For tar sands, the scope includes Special Tar Sand Areas (STSAs) located in Utah. This paleontological resources overview report was prepared in support of the Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and PEIS, and it is intended to be used by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) regional paleontologists and field office staff to support future projectspecific analyses. Additional information about the PEIS can be found at http://ostseis.anl.gov.

Murphey, P. C.; Daitch, D.; Environmental Science Division

2009-02-11

126

Wilson's Creek Staff Ride and Battlefield Tour.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Armies of the North and South fought the Battle of Wilson's Creek about 10 miles southwest of Springfield, Missouri, on Saturday, 10 August 1861. Like most battles, Wilson's Creek provides fertile ground for studying military art and science. It is partic...

G. E. Knapp

1993-01-01

127

Tomales High School Subshed of Keyes Creek Watershed-- A GIS Study of a Local Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tomales Environmental Learning Center students, in conjunction with the Pacific Coast Science and Learning Center, developed a map of the Tomales High School Subshed of the Keyes Creek Watershed using both GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and GIT Geographic Information Technology). The map was developed for future water quality analysis projects. To complete the task the students developed GIS knowledge using ESRI's ArcView 3.3 raster data analysis and hydrology modeling tools. With these they created flow accumulation and flow direction maps from USGS 10-meter pixel Digital elevation Model (DEM) files, and then created a watershed area map for the local sub-watershed that included the local high school. The students walked and photographed the perimeter of the watershed collecting data on a handheld GPS (Trimble GeoXT with real-time DGPS correction) and ESRI's ArcPad mapping software. The resolution and accuracy of their hand-collected data was of a higher quality and more current than that derived from the DEM files, and provided the base for their fiinal map.

McMillon, B.; Craig, K.; Cushman, T.; Greene, B.; Orsini, A.; Reynoso, E.; Whitlock, S.; Kinyon, J.

2005-12-01

128

Age of Douglas Creek Arch, Colorado and Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isopach mapping and stratigraphic studies in the Douglas Creek arch area, a north-south-trending structure that separates the Uinta basin of Utah from the Piceance Creek basin of Colorado, indicate that the arch was formed largely during the Laramide orogeny (Late Cretaceous, late Campanian through Eocene). Formation was contemporaneous with the formation of the Uinta and Piceance Creek basins, but may

R. C. Johnson; T. M. Finn

1985-01-01

129

Nutrient limitation and algal blooms in urbanizing tidal creeks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tidal creeks are commonly found in low energy systems on the East and Gulf Coasts of the United States, and are often subject to intense watershed human development. Many of these creeks are receiving urban and suburban runoff containing nutrients, among other pollutants. During the period 1993–2001, we studied three tidal creeks located in southeastern North Carolina, a rapidly urbanizing

Michael A. Mallin; Douglas C. Parsons; Virginia L. Johnson; Matthew R. McIver; Heather A. CoVan

2004-01-01

130

Family Physicians and Youth Tobacco-free Education: Outcomes of the Colorado Tar Wars Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Tar Wars is a national school-based tobacco-free education program operated by the American Academy of Family Physicians. The Tar Wars lesson uses an interactive 45-min session taught by volunteer family physicians in 4th- and 5th-grade classrooms and focuses on the short-term image- based consequences of tobacco use. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the Tar Wars pro-

Jeffrey J. Cain; W. Perry Dickinson; Douglas Fernald; Caroline Bublitz; L. Miriam Dickinson; David West

131

Product yields and kinetics from the vapor phase cracking of wood pyrolysis tars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The homogeneous vapor phase cracking of newly formed wood pyrolysis tar was studied at low molar concentrations as a function of temperature (773 - 1.073 K), at residence times of 0.9 - 2.2 s. Tar conversions ranged from about 5 to 88%. The tars were generated by low heating rate (0.2 K\\/s) pyrolysis of --2 cm deep beds of sweet

Michael L. Boroson; Jack B. Howard; W. A. Peters

1989-01-01

132

Nucleobase modified neamines, their synthesis and binding specificity for HIV TAR RNA.  

PubMed

Twenty neamine derivatives having a nucleobase, adenine, cytosine, guanine or thimine with a lysine or an argine as a linker and, also, without linker were synthesized and their binding specificity for HIV TAR RNA was studied. Any nucleobase modification on neamine enhanced their binding affinities for TAR RNA. The binding affinity of neamine derivatives having a nucleobase at the closer position to neamine does not depend on the base, but having farther position has shown base specificity for TAR binding. PMID:18029660

Watanabe, Kenatarou; Katou, Toyofusa; Ikezawa, Yasunori; Yajima, Saki; Shionoya, Hirohito; Akagi, Takashi; Hamasaki, Keita

2007-01-01

133

Utilization of heavy pyrolysis tars as raw materials for carbon black production  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.A feasibility study has been carried out for the utilization, in carbon black production, of the heavy tars obtained in existing USSR ethylene units operating on naphtha, gaseous hydrocarbons, or mixed feedstocks.2.The heavy-tar yield amounts to 3 to 5% of pyrolysis feedstock weight.3.In the majority of cases, the heavy tar now being produced will satisfy the requirements imposed on the

A. S. Andreeva; G. F. Lesokhina; T. N. Mukhina; V. M. Kurganov; L. A. Kolesnikova

1974-01-01

134

Steel Creek wildlife: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987  

SciTech Connect

Reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek below L-Lake were assessed in monthly or quarterly sampling programs. Thirty-eight species of reptiles or amphibians were collected during 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment, and in the delta and channel. Juvenile turtles and alligators, and larval amphibians were observed or collected during the study, indicating continued reproduction in Steel Creek. The reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek show no indication of any effect due to the impoundment of the lake or the operation of L-Reactor. Waterfowl and associated birds in Steel Creek below L-Lake were observed, in conjunction with other sampling programs, during winter--spring and fall--winter migrations. Nine species of waterfowl and five species of associated birds were observed in 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment and in the delta and channel.

Giffin, M.A.; Patterson, K.K.

1988-03-01

135

CHARACTERIZATION OF MERCURY CONTAMINATION AT THE EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK SITE, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE: A CASE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Historic accidental release of mercury-contaminated material associated with nuclear weapons production at East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) resulted in stream and floodplain contamination. he EFPC is designated as an Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) operable unit under the Comprehensive ...

136

Validity of Effluent and Ambient Toxicity Tests for Predicting Biological Impact, Skeleton Creek, Enid, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Skeleton Creek was studied in August, 1983 and was the fourth site study. A small creek, Boggy Creek receives discharges from both an oil refinery and a publicly owned treatment works (POTW) prior to its confluence with Skeleton Creek. A fertilizer proces...

T. J. Norberg-King D. I. Mount

1986-01-01

137

VALIDITY OF EFFLUENT AND AMBIENT TOXICITY TESTS FOR PREDICTING BIOLOGICAL IMPACT, SKELETON CREEK, ENID, OKLAHOMA  

EPA Science Inventory

Skeleton Creek was studied in August, 1983 and was the fourth site study. A small creek, Boggy Creek receives discharges from both an oil refinery and a publicly owned treatment works (POTW) prior to its confluence with Skeleton Creek. A fertilizer processing plant discharge is l...

138

Coyote Creek Geologic Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are required to make field observations, collect data and then create a detailed geologic map and report for a small area (approximately 1 sq. mile) on the edge of the Tularosa Basin in south central New Mexico. The study area is located within the Tularosa NE quadrangle, but maps from the Cat Mountain quadrangle to the East are also useful. Gently dipping carbonate and siliciclastic beds, igneous intrusions, bioherms and a normal fault are present in the study area along Coyote Creek, a few miles north of Tularosa, NM. The creek generally runs parallel to dip, allowing relatively easy access to inclined strata. Bioherm(s) are present in the lower section. Several dikes are present running both parallel and perpendicular to sedimentary bed strike. One is very non-resistant to weathering, creating unusual troughs as it passes through the carbonate bioherms. A sill is present in the upper section and a N/S trending normal fault roughly parallels strike of sedimentary beds.

Walsh, Timothy R.

139

Process for removing solids from coal tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for removing solids from coal tar for the preparation of a coal tar pitch containing liquid comprising (1) centrifuging the coal tar at a suitable viscosity to separate a large particle size solids fraction from a first liquid fraction containing pitch and small particle size solids, and (2) filtering the large particle size fraction while maintaining the solids

N. S. Boodman; E. L. Farr; N. B. Green; R. J. Osterholm

1984-01-01

140

Validity of smokers' information about present and past cigarette brands--implications for studies of the effects of falling tar yields of cigarettes on health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four hundred and twenty nine current smokers and ex-smokers who had provided details 12 years previously completed a self administered questionnaire about their present and past smoking habits, and two weeks later current smokers supplied an empty cigarette packet. The tar group and brand name of the current cigarette given on the questionnaire were compared with details on the packet,

H Peach; D Shah; R W Morris

1986-01-01

141

Atmospheric tar balls from biomass burning in Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tar balls are spherical, organic aerosol particles that result from biofuel or biomass burning. They absorb sunlight and cause warming of the atmosphere. Although distinctive when viewed with a transmission electron microscope (TEM) because of their spherical shape, much remains to be determined about details of their compositions, occurrences, and generation. Here we aim to characterize the occurrences of tar balls using individual-particle analyses with a TEM and to study their formation in young biomass-burning smoke. The samples were collected using the U.S. Forest Service Twin Otter aircraft during the MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations) campaign conducted in March 2006. We analyzed 84 TEM grid samples from ~30 biomass-burning events near Mexico City and over Yucatan. Sixty samples were from young smoke (less than an hour old), and others were from haze that mainly occurred from biomass burning. Tar balls have neither an evident nucleus nor are they normally attached to other particles. They are almost perfectly spherical on TEM grids, indicating that they were solid when collected. It appears as if tar balls consist of lower volatility organic matter than many other organic aerosol particles. On average, 9% by number of biomass-burning aerosol particles were tar balls in samples collected between a few minutes to an hour after emission. On the other hand, samples collected within a few minutes after emission included few or no tar balls. The occurrences and abundances of atmospheric tar balls are important when evaluating the effects of smoke on local and regional climate.

Adachi, K.; Buseck, P. R.

2009-12-01

142

Hydrogenation of Coal and Tar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bulletin traces the development of high-pressure coal and tar hydrogenation technology, based on an intensive review of the pertinent literature. The bulletin was written as part of the Bureau of Mines research program on synthetic liquid fuels. It c...

W. R. K. Wu H. H. Storch

1968-01-01

143

Atmospheric oxidation of flue gases from a partially sulfur dioxide-scrubbed power plant. Study II. [Widows Creek  

SciTech Connect

A series of 12 airborne plume sampling experiments was conducted in the Widows Creek Steam Plant plume. The principal purpose of these experiments was to investigate the atmospheric chemistry of the plume from the wet limestone sulfur dioxide scrubber unit. The average sulfate formation rate determined for these experiments was approximately 1.7 percent per hour (% h/sup -1/). The average nitrate formation rate measured by removal of nitrogen oxides was in excess of 30% h/sup -1/. Little, if any, chemical reactivity difference was observed between the partially scrubbed plume and the totally unscrubbed plume. The data from these measurements indicate the possibility of a strong influence from solar radiation on the atmospheric chemistry. On one day of this study, net ozone production was observed in the plume. This ozone formation in the plume was attributed to the mixing of the power plant plume with a highly polluted air mass possibly transported from a large metropolitan area, such as Chattanooga, Tennessee. The results agree basically with many other recent power plant plume studies and several recently developed mathematical plume simulation models.

Bailey, E.M.; Garber, R.W.; Meagher, J.F.; Bonanno, R.J.; Stockburger, L.

1981-11-01

144

Investigation of the rank dependence of tar evolution  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study are to develop an improved understanding of the process of coal tar evolution, its relationship to the structural characteristics of the parent coal, and the dependence of the chemical and physical properties of the tar products on the conditions of devolatilization. Data from this study are expected to allow hypothesis testing and refinements of coal devolatilization models relevant to the pulverized coal combustion process. A range of coal ranks, from a Texas lignite to a Pennsylvania anthracite, are employed in the investigation. In addition, a high temperature polymer, a polyimide, is utilized as an additional reference case. The polyimide serves as a truly polymeric reference material for examining the nitrogen evolution behavior of coal. The samples are subjected to elemental composition determination, infrared absorbance characterization, calorific value measurement, high temperature ash analysis, and maceral composition. Potential tar yields are determined by long hold time heated grid investigations of each coal at a final temperature and heating rate observed to maximize tar yields for the reference coal. Relative tar evolution kinetic behavior is determined by zero hold time heated grid investigations of each coal. 4 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M.

1990-01-01

145

Shell Creek Summers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality…

Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

2005-01-01

146

Shell Creek Summers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality provided…

Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

2005-01-01

147

Mercury contamination in East Fork Poplar Creek and Bear Creek  

SciTech Connect

A one-month study was performed to determine the concentration of mercury in sediment, fish, moss, and pasture grass in the East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) and Bear Creek drainages and to determine whether mercury is still being released from the Y-12 Plant. Total mercury concentration in a sediment core from New Hope Pond was 100 ..mu..g/g dry wt at the surface and up to 300 ..mu..g/g dry wt in subsurface sediments, relative to background concentrations of less than 0.3 ..mu..g/g dry wt. There has been an apparent decrease since 1973 in mercury concentration of sediment entering New Hope Pond. Total mercury concentration in muscle tissue of bluegill from EFPC was positively correlated with body weight, as expected. Total mercury concentration averaged 3.5 and 0.2 ..mu..g/g fresh wt for dead and live foliage in pasture grass, respectively, on the flood plain of EFPC. Results for Bear Creek indicate that this drainage is considerably less contaminated with mercury than East Fork Poplar Creek. The concentration in the sediment was 13 ..mu..g/g dry wt near the settling basins at the west end of the Y-12 Plant area, but decreased to background concentrations before the confluence of Bear Creek with EFPC. Total mercury concentration in fish, except for one rock bass, did not exceed the FDA action level. Recommendations are made (1) to limit the quantity of mercury released from the Y-12 Plant area into EFPC, (2) to consider notifying the responsible state agencies and fishermen concerning mercury concentrations found in fish in EFPC, and (3) to measure mercury concentration in hair from cattle grazing on pasture grasses along EFPC. Recommendations concerning further monitoring are also made. 15 references, 3 figures, 8 tables.

Van Winkle, W.; Counts, R.W.; Dorsey, J.G.; Elwood, J.W.; Lowe, V.W. Jr.; McElhaney, R.; Schlotzhauer, S.D.; Taylor, F.G. Jr.; Turner, R.R.

1984-02-01

148

Effect of wastewater treatment processes on the pyrolysis properties of the pyrolysis tars from sewage sludges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pyrolysis properties of five different pyrolysis tars, which the tars from 1# to 5# are obtained by pyrolyzing the sewage sludges of anaerobic digestion and indigestion from the A2/O wastewater treatment process, those from the activated sludge process and the indigested sludge from the continuous SBR process respectively, were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis at a heating rate of 10 °C/min in the nitrogen atmosphere. The results show that the pyrolysis processes of the pyrolysis tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5# all can be divided into four stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, heavy polar organic compounds decomposition, heavy organic compounds decomposition and the residual organic compounds decomposition. However, the process of 4# pyrolysis tar is only divided into three stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, decomposition of heavy polar organic compounds and the residual heavy organic compounds respectively. Both the sludge anaerobic digestion and the "anaerobic" process in wastewater treatment processes make the content of light organic compounds in tars decrease, but make that of heavy organic compounds with complex structure increase. Besides, both make the pyrolysis properties of the tars become worse. The pyrolysis reaction mechanisms of the five pyrolysis tars have been studied with Coats-Redfern equation. It shows that there are the same mechanism functions in the first stage for the five tars and in the second and third stage for the tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5#, which is different with the function in the second stage for 4# tar. The five tars are easy to volatile.

Wu, Xia; Xie, Li-Ping; Li, Xin-Yu; Dai, Xiao-Hong; Fei, Xue-Ning; Jiang, Yuan-Guang

2011-06-01

149

Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Penney, W.R.

1990-01-01

150

Catalytic decomposition of biomass tars: use of dolomite and untreated olivine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although biomass is getting increased attention as a renewable energy source, one of the remaining problems still to be solved is the reduction of the high level of tar present in the product gas from gasification of biomass. The purpose of the present work is to study the activity of olivine and dolomite for tar destruction. Some researchers investigated olivine

Lopamudra Devi; Krzysztof J. Ptasinski; Frans J. J. G. Janssen; Sander V. B. van Paasen; Patrick C. A. Bergman; Jacob H. A. Kiel

2005-01-01

151

Reduced tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure while smoking ultralow- but not low-yield cigarettes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unresolved public health issue is whether some modern cigarettes are less hazardous than other and whether patients who cannot stop smoking should be advised to switch to lower-yield cigarettes. The authors studied tar (estimated by urine mutagenicity), nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure in habitual smokers switched from their usual brand to high- (15 mg of tar), low- (5 mg

N. L. Benowitz; P. Jacob; L. Yu; R. Talcott; S. Hall; R. T. Jones

1986-01-01

152

Preliminary Evaluation of Chemical Indicators for the Analysis of Production Losses from Tar Sand Recovery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a preliminary investigation to evaluate changes in the chemical composition of thermally altered tar sand bitumen. The objective of the study was to determine if changes in the chemical composition of the tar sand bitum...

F. D. Guffey R. E. Cummings

1986-01-01

153

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 4. Information related to the feasibility study and ARARs. Appendixes G, H, I  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

NONE

1996-03-01

154

Effect of anodic oxidation of coal tar pitch-based carbon fibre on adhesion in epoxy matrix: Part 2. Comparative study of three alkaline solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anodic oxidation of coal tar pitch-based carbon fibre was performed in various alkaline solutions, such as NaOH, NaHCO3 and Na2CO3, to examine the effect of various kinds of electrolytes on the surface chemical nature of treated fibres and the adhesive strength between treated fibres and epoxy resin. Evaluation of the oxygen concentration and surface functional groups of the carbon fibre

Yoichiro Nakanishi

1996-01-01

155

ASSESSING ECOLOGICAL RISK IN WATERSHEDS: A CASE STUDY OF PROBLEM FORMULATION IN THE BIG DARBY CREEK WATERSHED, OHIO, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

The Big Darby Creek watershed, a highly valued ecosystem in central Ohio, USA, threatened by intensive agriculture and suburban encroachment, served as an example of how case specifics can be applied to refine and direct the planning and problem formulation stage of the U.S. Env...

156

Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, June-August 1982  

SciTech Connect

The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. Adult populations of Teredo bartschi existed in both Oyster Creek and Forked River in the summer of 1982, but the species was rare. There was no large settlement of this or any other teredinid species in Barnegat Bay. Teredo navalis was the most common species in the monthly panels. The fouling community reached its maximum yearly diversity in June-July. There was a thermal effluent causing a ..delta..T of 3 to 4/sup 0/C during most of the summer, and salinity in Oyster Creek and Forked River was similar to that of Barnegat Bay. The lack of a shipworm outbreak in 1982 may be related to the low ..delta..T in summer, plus the lack of a thermal effluent in the preceding winter-spring period.

Hoagland, K.E.

1982-12-01

157

Relationship Between the Composition and Interfacial Tension of Former Manufactured Gas Plant Tars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars pose significant environmental hazards and present a challenge to regulators and industry professionals. The tars, which were produced as a byproduct of the gas manufacturing process, were frequently released into the environment through improper disposal or leaks in plant infrastructure. The interfacial tension (IFT) is a primary factor controlling the mobility of tars in porous media, and is therefore important to understand for both predicting the migration of tars and designing remediation strategies. In this study, we characterized nine field-collected FMGP tars and a commercially available coal tar by means of chemical extractions (asphaltenes, resins, acids, and bases), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Additionally, the IFT and contact angle of each tar was determined for a pH range of 3-11. The IFT was found to be similar for all tars at pH 5 and 7 regardless of composition. Slight decreases in IFT at lower pH were correlated with higher concentrations of extractable bases, which consisted primarily of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic aromatic compounds. Much greater reductions of IFT were observed at high pH. These reductions were found to be associated with the presence of carbonyl or carboxyl groups in the asphaltenes. It is likely that the larger size of the asphaltene molecules (as compared to the extractable compounds) resulted in species with greater surface activity when ionized.

Hauswirth, S.; Birak, P. S.; Miller, C. T.

2011-12-01

158

Inhibition of HIV-1 replication in viral mutants with altered TAR RNA stem structures.  

PubMed

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat-mediated trans-activation requires the structural integrity of TAR RNA and the cooperative interaction of human host cell proteins. The TAR domain, minimally required for tat response, includes the Tat binding pyrimidine bulge, the TAR RNA upper stem, and the loop sequences. However, little is known about the significance of the 5'-stem structure of TAR in the regulation of viral growth. We designed viral mutations, specifically in the TAR RNA lower stem structure, and studied their effects on the kinetics of viral growth in T-lymphocyte cell lines and in activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Mutations that destabilized the lower TAR stem structure inhibited viral growth to various degrees in different CD4+ T-cells. These results suggest that the structural integrity of the lower stem structure of TAR plays an important role in viral growth, presumably by binding to specific host cell proteins that stabilize Tat-TAR interactions. PMID:8607271

Rounseville, M P; Lin, H C; Agbottah, E; Shukla, R R; Rabson, A B; Kumar, A

1996-02-15

159

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1, main text  

SciTech Connect

This document is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit (CR/PC OU), an off-site OU associated with environmental restoration activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). As a result of past, present, and potential future releases of hazardous substances into the environment, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List in December 1989 (54 FR 48184). Sites on this list must be investigated for possible remedial action, as required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9601, et seq.). This report documents the findings of the remedial investigation of this OU and the feasibility of potential remedial action alternatives. These studies are authorized by Sect. 117 of CERCLA and were conducted in accordance with the requirements of the National Contingency Plan (40 CFR Part 300). DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) have entered into a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), as authorized by Sect. 120 of CERCLA and Sects. 3008(h) and 6001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (42 U.S.C. 6901, et seq.). The purpose of this agreement is to ensure a coordinated and effective response for all environmental restoration activities occurring at the ORR. In addition to other responsibilities, the FFA parties mutually define the OU boundaries, set remediation priorities, establish remedial investigation priorities and strategies, and identify and select remedial actions. A copy of this FFA is available from the DOE Information Resource Center in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

NONE

1996-03-01

160

Pyrolysis of Arroyo Grande tar sand and tar sand/oil mixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pyrolysis experiments have been performed on Arroyo Grande tar sand and on mixtures of tar sand and SAE 50 oil. Isothermal and nonisothermal tests were performed on a Du Pont model 950 thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), and larger scale isothermal experime...

T. F. Turner B. E. Thomas L. G. Nickerson

1989-01-01

161

Chlorinated Paraffins: A Report on the Findings from Two Field Studies, Sugar Creek, Ohio, Tinkers Creek, Ohio. Volume 2. Appendix D, The Quality Assurance Project Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of two field studies conducted in 1986 by the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Toxic Substances (EPA/OTS) under the existing chemicals program to screen selected waterbodies for the presence of chlorinated paraff...

T. Murray M. Frankenberry D. H. Steele R. G. Heath

1988-01-01

162

Chlorinated Paraffins: A Report on the Findings from Two Field Studies, Sugar Creek, Ohio, Tinkers Creek, Ohio. Volume 1. Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of two field studies conducted in 1986 by the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Toxic Substances (EPA/OTS) under the existing chemicals program to screen selected waterbodies for the presence of chlorinated paraff...

T. Murray M. Frankenberry D. H. Steele R. G. Heath

1988-01-01

163

Sorption of methane and ethane high-molecular tars at supercritical temperatures in the Henry region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical and experimental study of the absorption of methane and ethane by high-molecular tars occurring in oil-gas-condensate deposits is carried out. An original approach to determining the physicochemical parameters of high-molecular tars and to constructing isotherms of absorption of the main components of natural gas by such tars was proposed. The model of the process was developed by analogy with the theory of dissolution of gases in liquids. The sorption of gases by the tar at supercritical temperatures was described within the framework of the van’t Hoff theory of dilute solutions. The proposed approach made it possible to develop a new effective thermodynamic method for calculating the solubility of the component of natural gas in tar at supercritical temperatures and pressure typical of the conditions of natural gas recovery.

Dmitrievskii, A. N.; Skibitskaya, N. A.; Vul'Fson, A. N.; Zekel, L. A.; Pribylov, A. A.

2007-05-01

164

Remediation of Former Manufactured Gas Plant Tars Using Alkaline Flushing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remediation of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars in the subsurface is particularly difficult due to the wetting behavior and high viscosities of these dense non-aqueous liquids (DNAPLs). Alkaline flooding is a technique which has proven effective in improving the recovery of crude oils, which share some characteristics with FMGP tars. For this study, we measured the effect of NaOH solutions on interfacial tension and conducted column experiments to investigate the feasibility of applying this technique to FMGP tars. The pendant drop technique was used to measure interfacial tensions for solutions ranging from 0-1% NaOH. Column experiments were conducted by contaminating sands with tars recovered from a FMGP then flushing the columns with NaOH solutions. A final, 70% v/v ethanol cosolvent flush was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a two-stage remediation approach. The mass removal of tar, as well as 26 individual PAHs, was measured, along with the aqueous phase mass flux of PAHs after each flushing stage. The interfacial tension was reduced from about 20 mN/m with pure water to a minimum of 0.05 mN/m at a concentration of 0.1% NaOH. In the column experiments, alkaline flushing resulted in a 50% reduction of the residual saturation. Aqueous phase PAH concentrations, however, were similar before and after the alkaline flushing stage. The combination of alkaline and cosolvent flushing resulted in an overall reduction of 95% of the total mass of the 16 EPA PAHs. Final aqueous phase concentrations were reduced significantly for lower molecular weight PAHs, but increased slightly for the higher molecular weight compounds, likely due to their increased mole fraction within the remaining tar. Additional work is being conducted to improve the effectiveness of the alkaline flushing through the use of surfactants and polymers.

Hauswirth, S.; Rylander, S.; Birak, P. S.; Miller, C. T.

2010-12-01

165

Mineral resources of the San Rafael Swell Wilderness Study Areas, including Muddy Creek, Crack Canyon, San Rafael Reef, Mexican Mountain, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas, Emery County, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the San Rafael Swell Wilderness Study areas, which includes the Muddy Creek, Crack Canyon, San Rafael Reef, Mexican Mountain, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas, in Emery County, south-central Utah. Within and near the Crack Canyon Wilderness Study Area are identified subeconomic uranium and vanadium resources. Within the Carmel Formation are inferred subeconomic resources of gypsum

S. Bartsch-Winkler; R. P. Dickerson; H. W. Barton; A. E. McCafferty; V. J. S. Grauch; H. Koyuncu; K. Lee; J. S. Duval; S. R. Munts; D. A. Benjamin; T. J. Close; D. A. Lipton; T. R. Neumann; S. L. Willet

1990-01-01

166

Electrofishing on Lookout Creek  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists electrofishing on the Lookout Creek near the Blue River, OR. The fish they collected were analyzed for mercury content and added to the data base that the National Fish Mercury Model is based on. ...

2010-03-17

167

Trapper Canyon Deposit, eastern Big Horn Basin, Wyoming: tar sand or heavy oil  

SciTech Connect

The Trapper Canyon Deposit (Battle Creek Deposit in US Bureau of Mines Monograph 12) is located on the western flank of the Bighorn Mountains approximately 30 mi (48 km) east of Greybull, Wyoming. The petroleum occurs in the upper eolian sequence of the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone which dips from 5/sup 0/ to 8/sup 0/ to the southwest. The deposit was initially reported by N.H. Darton in US Geological Survey Professional Paper 51 in 1906. A characterization study was made on the deposit which included mapping the deposit and surrounding area, measuring three stratigraphic sections in the Tensleep Sandstone, and sampling 13 outcrop localities. Thickness of the deposit ranged from 0 to 22.5 ft (6.8 m) in the 13 sample localities. Preliminary analyses of outcrop samples indicate API gravities and viscosities consistent with the definition of a tar sand. Oil properties are similar to those published for Phosphoria-sourced oils produced from the Tensleep Sandstone in fields to the west. Lateral pinch-out of the deposit, tight characteristics of upper and lower bounding units, and the lack of any apparent structural controls in the area, are all evidence for a stratigraphic trapping mechanism. Recoverable reserves are estimated at 1.96 million bbl over a 67-acre (27 ha) area.

Verploeg, A.J.; Debruin, R.H.

1983-08-01

168

TARS-HT1 and TARS-HT2 heat-tolerant dry bean germplasm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

TARS-HT1 (Reg no. __, PI ___) and TARS-HT2 (Reg no. __, PI ___) are heat tolerant dark red and light red, respectively, kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) developed cooperatively by the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station (TARS), the University of Puerto Rico, Cornell University, and th...

169

Process for modifying coal-tar materials  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to a process for decreasing and modifying the quinoline-insoluble content (Q.I.) of coal-tar materials; and comprises extracting the coal-tar material with a solvent, where the solvent contains at least one of n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and the wash oil fraction of coal-tar distillate. Pitches with a diminished Q.I. content, lower viscosity and lower average Q.I. particle size, may be prepared from coal-tar materials which have been so treated.

Cukier, S.; Kremer, H.A.F.L.

1985-05-14

170

7 CFR 3201.76 - Asphalt and tar removers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Asphalt and tar removers. 3201.76 ...Designated Items § 3201.76 Asphalt and tar removers. (a) Definition...Cleaning agents designed to remove asphalt or tar from equipment, roads,...

2013-01-01

171

Placing Reedy Creek Improvement District in Central Florida: A Case Study in Uneven Geographical Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is primarily about the theory of uneven geographical development. In an era when it is proclaimed that, through globalization, the world has become flat, the unevenness of economic and social development is often overlooked or suppressed. As the nexus between global and local processes, the urban space often becomes the site of conflict between those defining the hegemonic

Kristine Bezdecny

2011-01-01

172

CSO Disinfection Pilot Study: Spring Creek CSO Storage Facility Upgrade. Research Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Research Summary presents the results of a pilot-scale disinfection study performed for the New York City Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) under a contract No. 7C-R394-NTLX to Camp Dresser &...

I. Wojtenko M. K. Stinson

2003-01-01

173

Evaluation of Coal Tar Tumorigenic Potential in p53 +\\/? Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of transgenic p53 +\\/ m mice for use as a short-term assay for identifying chemical carcinogens has been primarily evaluated using single chemicals. There have been no reports on the use of this model for assessing the carcinogenic potential of complex organic mixtures containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, the ability of coal tar to induce

Renu Singh; Nehal Modi; Tim Stakhiv; Eric H. Weyand; M. A. Hanes

2003-01-01

174

Quality of water and time-of-travel in Bakers Creek near Clinton, Mississippi. [Bakers Creek  

SciTech Connect

A short-term intensive quality-of-water study was conducted during a period of generally low streamflow in Bakers Creek and its tributary, Lindsey Creek, near Clinton, Mississippi. During the September 15-18, 1980 study, dissolved oxygen concentrations in Bakers Creek were less than 5 milligrams per liter. The specific conductance, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, nutrient concentrations, and bacteria densities in Bakers Creek decreased downstream through the study reach. The mean specific conductance decreased from 670 to 306 microhms per centimeter. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demand decreased from 19 to 2.8 milligrams per liter. The mean total nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations decreased from 10 and 7.1 to 1.0 and 0.87 milligram per litter, respectively. The maximum fecal bacteria decreased from 7200 to 400 colonies per 100 milliliter. The concentrations of mercury, iron, and manganese in a sample collected at the downstream site exceeded recommended limits. Diazinon and 2,4-D were also present in the water. A bottom material sample contained DDD (2.5 micrograms per kilogram), DDE (2.7 micrograms per kilogram), and DDT (.3 micrograms per kilogram). The tributary inflow from Lindsey Creek did not improve the water quality of Bakers Creek. The dissolved oxygen concentrations were generally less than 5.0 milligrams per liter at the sampling site on Lindsey Creek. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, the mean specific conductance, and fecal coliform densities were greater in the tributary than at the downstream site on Bakers Creek. The average rate of travel through a 1.8-mile reach of Bakers Creek was 0.06 foot per second or 0.04 miles per hour. 6 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

Kalkhoff, S.J.

1982-01-01

175

A retrospective study of the chemical analysis cost for the remediation of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

A retrospective study of the remediation of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee was completed. The study was conducted by reviewing the public Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act record documents associated with the remediation of LEFPC and through discussions with the project staff involved or familiar with the project. The remediation took place in two phases. The first phase involved the excavation of about 5,560 yd{sup 3} of soil at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) locations in 1996. The second phase involved the excavation of 39,200 yd{sup 3} at another NOAA location and at the Bruner location in 1997. For the entire project (remedial investigation through cleanup), a total of 7,708 samples (1 sample for each 5.8 yd{sup 3} of soil remediated) were analyzed for mercury. The project obtained special regulatory approval to use two methods for the determination of mercury in soils that are not part of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act SW-846 methods manual. The mercury analysis cost was $678,000, which represents 9.6% of the cleanup cost. During the cleanup phase of the project, an on-site laboratory was used. The estimated cost savings that the on-site laboratory provided fall into two categories: direct reduction of costs associated with chemical analysis and sample shipment totaling approximately $38,000, which represents a 5.3% savings relative to the estimated cost of using an off-site laboratory, and savings in the amount of $890,000 (12.5% of the $7.1 M cleanup cost), associated with expediting execution of the cleanup work by providing rapid (< 3 hours) sample result turnaround time. The manner in which the analytical services were procured for the LEFPC project suggest that the development of new chemical analysis technology must address deployment, performance, regulatory, robustness, reliability, and business appropriateness factors if the technology is to be used in environmental remediation.

Klatt, L.N.

1998-06-01

176

Tar sands and supergiant oil fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen very large ''tar'' deposits are estimated to contain about 2,100 billion bbl of oil in place. This is nearly as much heavy oil as the world's total discovered recoverable oil reserves. The seven largest ''tar'' deposits of the world contain 98% of the world's heavy oil; that is, these seven heavy-oil deposits contain about as much oil in place

Demaison

1977-01-01

177

Experimental Production of Carcinoma with Cigarette Tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an earlier communication we reported the production of skin cancers in CAP1 mice painted with condensed cigarette tar obtained by the smoking of cigarettes in a machine in a manner similar to human smoking (7). Forty-four per cent of 81 mice painted S times a week with this tar developed histologically proved epidermoid can cers. This represented a higher

ERNEST L. WYNDER; EVARTS A. GRAHAM; ADELE B. CRONINGER

178

Tar pollution of Sierra Leone beaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE widespread occurrence of pelagic tar and plastic wastes in parts of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans has been described previously1. Extensive and considerable fouling of the sandy beaches of Sierra Leone by tar lumps has now been observed at Lumley, Sussex, No. 2, Toke and Mamah villages (Fig. 1) during the past 14 months (June, 1973 to July, 1974).

Wazir Okera

1974-01-01

179

Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief introduction and…

Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

2009-01-01

180

Fluidized bed retorting of tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raw tar sand is treated in a fluidized bed reactor means wherein the raw tar sands are fed into an area below the top of the bed. The bitumen is converted in the process in a reducing atmosphere including steam to produce hot coked sand and hot off-gases. Off-gases from the reactor means pass through a heat exchanger means to

P. H. II

1978-01-01

181

Simple Volatility Test for Tar Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A simple reliable test to assess the volatility of tar products, especially those of low volatility, has been developed. The mass losses produced by heating small samples of tar products in shallow, open dishes on a thermostatic hot-plate are measured aft...

1978-01-01

182

Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief introduction and…

Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

2009-01-01

183

Horizontal oil shale and tar sands retort  

Microsoft Academic Search

A horizontal retorting apparatus and method are disclosed designed to pyrolyze tar sands and oil shale, which are often found together in naturally occurring deposits. The retort is based on a horizontal retorting tube defining a horizontal retort zone having an upstream and a downstream end. Inlet means are provided for introducing the combined tar sands and oil shale into

Thomas

1982-01-01

184

Effects of human chromosome 12 on interactions between Tat and TAR of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.  

PubMed Central

Rates of transcriptions of the human immunodeficiency virus are greatly increased by the viral trans activator Tat. In vitro, Tat binds to the 5' bulge of the trans-activation response (TAR) RNA stem-loop, which is present in all viral transcripts. In human cells, the central loop in TAR and its cellular RNA-binding proteins are also critical for the function of Tat. Previously, we demonstrated that in rodent cells (CHO cells), but not in those which contain the human chromosome 12 (CHO12 cells), Tat-TAR interactions are compromised. In this study, we examined the roles of the bulge and loop in TAR in Tat trans activation in these cells. Whereas low levels of trans activation depended solely on interactions between Tat and the bulge in CHO cells, high levels of trans activation depended also on interactions between Tat and the loop in CHO12 cells. Since the TAR loop binding proteins in these two cell lines were identical and different from their human counterpart, the human chromosome 12 does not encode TAR loop binding proteins. In vivo binding competition studies with TAR decoys confirmed that the binding of Tat to TAR is more efficient in CHO12 cells. Thus, the protein(s) encoded on human chromosome 12 helps to tether Tat to TAR via its loop, which results in high levels of trans activation. Images

Alonso, A; Cujec, T P; Peterlin, B M

1994-01-01

185

An evaluation of the potential end uses of a Utah tar sand bitumen. [Tar sand distillate  

SciTech Connect

To date the commercial application of tar sand deposits in the United States has been limited to their use as paving materials for county roads, parking lots, and driveways because the material, as obtained from the quarries, does not meet federal highway specifications. The bitumen in these deposits has also been the subject of upgrading and refining studies to produce transportation fuels, but the results have not been encouraging from an economic standpoint. The conversion of tar sand bitumen to transportation fuels cannot compete with crude oil refining. The purposes of this study were two-fold. The first was to produce vacuum distillation residues and determine if their properties met ASTM asphalt specifications. The second was to determine if the distillates could serve as potential feedstocks for the production of aviation turbine fuels. The bitumen used for this study was the oil produced during an in situ steamflood project at the Northwest Asphalt Ridge (Utah) tar sand deposit. Two distillation residues were produced, one at +316/sup 0/C and one at +399/sup 0/C. However, only the lower boiling residue met ASTM specifications, in this case as an AC-30 asphalt. The original oil sample met specifications as an AC-5 asphalt. These residue samples showed some unique properties in the area of aging; however, these properties need to be investigated further to determine the implications. It was also suggested that the low aging indexes and high flow properties of the asphalts may be beneficial for pavements that require good low-temperature performance. Two distillate samples were produced, one at IBP-316/sup 0/C and one at IBP-399/sup 0/C. The chemical and physical properties of these samples were determined, and it was concluded that both samples appear to be potential feedstocks for the production of aviation turbine fuels. However, hydrogenation studies need to be conducted and the properties of the finished fuels determined to verify the prediction. 14 refs., 12 tabs.

Thomas, K.P.; Harnsberger, P.M.; Guffey, F.D.

1986-09-01

186

Remote sensor application studies report, July 1, 1968 to June 30, 1969: Remote sensing reconnaissance, Mill creek area, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Remote Sensor Application Studies program, infrared images and several kinds of photographs were obtained on reconnaissance flights over two areas in the Arbuckle Mountains near Mill Creek, Oklahoma. These data were used in a preliminary investigation (1) to determine the diagnostic reflection and emission characteristics of various rock types, and (2) io evaluate the perturbing influence of atmospheric conditions, surface coatings, rock texture, and topography on the observed reflected and emitted energy in the thermal infrared (8-14?) part of the spectrum

Rowan, L.C.; Offield, T. W.; Watson, Kenneth; Cannon, P. J.; Watson, R.D.

1970-01-01

187

Tar sand occurrences in the Bush Butte Quadrangle, Wyoming, with emphasis on the Trapper Canyon Deposit  

SciTech Connect

The Trapper Canyon Tar Sand Deposit is located in the eastern Bighorn Basin, approximately 25 miles east of Greybull, Wyoming. This project not only involved detailed geologic mapping of the Trapper Canyon Tar Sand Deposit, but also sampling and describing the tar zone as well as the bounding barren zones. Samples were analyzed for porosity, permeability, oil saturation, and characteristics of the oil. Thin sections from both the tar zone and barren zones were made and examined to determine textural characteristics and kinds of pore-filling cements. In addition, samples were analyzed using the scanning electron microscope to gain insight into the diagenesis of the reservoir rock and trapping mechanisms. The Trapper Canyon Tar Sand Deposit was investigated because it was considered potentially commercial, and the results of the study could aid in forming an economical plan of development for this deposit and similar deposits elsewhere in the State. Also, the area provided an excellent opportunity to examine surface exposures of a tar sand deposit. The final phase of the study involved mapping the Bush Butte quadrangle and looking for additional tar sand deposits in the quadrangle. The search for additional deposits was carried out based on a model developed by examination of the Trapper Canyon Deposit. 16 references, 14 figures, 3 tables.

VerPloeg, A.J.; DeBruin, R.H.

1983-01-01

188

Best management practices plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is currently under a Federal Agreement to define soil and groundwater contamination and develop remedies to protect human health and the environment. The western end of the site is known to have a former nitric acid disposal pit that has been remediated and capped. Remedial investigation data indicate this pit was a source of nitrate, uranium, technetium, and other metals contamination in groundwater. The downgradient receptor of this contamination includes Bear Creek and its tributaries. A feasibility study is under way to develop a remedy to prevent further contaminant migration to this receptor. To support the feasibility study, the treatability study is being completed to examine groundwater treatment at the S-3 site. This document serves as the top-level command medium for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study and, as such, will be the primary resource for management and implementation of field activities. Many of the details and standard operating procedures referred to herein can be found in other Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), documents. Several supporting documents specific to this project are also cited. These include the Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP), the Health and Safety Plan (HASP), and the Waste Management Plan (WMP).

NONE

1997-09-01

189

Environmental setting of Maple Creek watershed, Nebraska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Maple Creek watershed covers a 955-square-kilometer area in eastern Nebraska, which is a region dominated by agricultural land use. The Maple Creek watershed is one of seven areas currently included in a nationwide study of the sources, transport, and fate of water and chemicals in agricultural watersheds. This study, known as the topical study of 'Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport, and Fate' is part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Program is designed to describe water-quality conditions and trends based on representative surface- and ground-water resources across the Nation. The objective of the Agricultural Chemicals topical study is to investigate the sources, transport, and fate of selected agricultural chemicals in a variety of agriculturally diverse environmental settings. The Maple Creek watershed was selected for the Agricultural Chemicals topical study because its watershed represents the agricultural setting that characterizes eastern Nebraska. This report describes the environmental setting of the Maple Creek watershed in the context of how agricultural practices, including agricultural chemical applications and irrigation methods, interface with natural settings and hydrologic processes. A description of the environmental setting of a subwatershed within the drainage area of Maple Creek is included to improve the understanding of the variability of hydrologic and chemical cycles at two different scales.

Fredrick, Brian S.; Linard, Joshua I.; Carpenter, Jennifer L.

2006-01-01

190

Hydrologic analysis of Steel Creek and L Lake and the effects of flow reduction on Steel Creek habitat  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared to support a proposal to eliminate the EIS mandated spring flow requirements in Steel Creek below L Lake. The base flow in Steel Creek below L Lake was estimated using historical data. The water balance of L Lake was studied to evaluate the effects of flow reduction on the Steel Creek hydrologic system. The base flow in Steel Creek below L Lake is estimated as 0.28 cms (10 cfs). A reduction in L Lake discharge to 0.28 cms will result in a fish community similar to the one that existed before the impoundment of L Lake.

del Carmen, B.R.; Paller, M.H.

1993-12-31

191

Assessment uncertainty associated to the analysis of tar from gasification of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The uncertainty evaluation associated with the quantification of tar from gasification of sewage sludge is present. Each of the sources of uncertainty associated with the wet type sampling method and GC-MS analysis was identified to determine the critical stages of the analytical methodology in order to reduce them. The study shows that major contributions to the overall uncertainty are related to extraction steps. High expanded uncertainties were found for all compounds, due to the segregation of the tar in different samples because of the sampling method. However, the analytical method used was successfully applied for the evaluation of the tar cleaning filter in a real gasification plant. PMID:22099649

Ortiz González, Isabel; Pérez Pastor, Rosa M; Sánchez Hervás, José M

2011-09-29

192

Overburden characterization and post-burn study of the Hoe Creek, Wyoming underground coal gasification site and comparison with the Hanna, Wyoming site  

SciTech Connect

In 1978 the third test (Hoe Creek III) in a series of underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments was completed at a site south of Gillette, Wyoming. The post-burn study of the geology of the overburden and interlayered rock of the two coal seams affected by the experiment is based on the study of fifteen cores. The primary purpose of the study was to characterize the geology of the overburden and interlayered rock and to determine and evaluate the mineralogical and textural changes that were imposed by the experiment. Within the burn cavity the various sedimentary units have been brecciated and thermally altered to form several pyrometamorphic rock types of paralava rock, paralava breccia, buchite, buchite breccia and hornfels. High temperature minerals of mullite, cordierite, oligo-clase-andesine, tridymite, cristobalite, clinopyroxenes, and magnetite are common in the pyrometamorphic rocks. The habit of these minerals indicates that they crystallized from a melt. These minerals and textures suggest that the rocks were formed at temperatures between 1200/sup 0/ and 1400/sup 0/C. A comparison of geologic and geological-technological factors between the Hoe Creek III site, which experienced substantial roof collapse, and the Hanna II site, which had only moderate roof collapse, indicates that overburden thickness relative to coal seam thickness, degree of induration of overburden rock, injection-production well spacing, and ultimate cavity size are important controls of roof collapse in the structural setting of the two sites.

Ethridge, F.C.; Burns, L.K.; Alexander, W.G.; Craig, G.N. II; Youngberg, A.D.

1983-01-01

193

Ecological Land Units of Bear Creek Watershed and Their Relationship to Water Quality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During 1975 and 1976 a sedimentation study was conducted in the Bear Creek watershed, located in the southeastern corner of central Oregon's Crook County. The Bear Creek watershed was divided into eight ecological land units which were further refined int...

J. L. Mattison J. C. Buckhouse

1977-01-01

194

Bench Scale Fixation of Soils from the Tacoma Tar Pits Superfund Site. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report documents the result of a bench-scale soil fixation study conducted with materials from the Tacoma Tar Pits Superfund Site. Chemical fixation (also called stabilization/solidification) is a relatively new technique for remediating contaminated ...

G. Rupp

1989-01-01

195

Oxygen and hydrogen isotope study of minerals from metapelitic rocks, staurolite to sillimanite zones, Mica Creek, British Columbia  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen and hydrogen isotope analyses have been made of coexisting quartz, ilmenite, muscovite, and biotite from Late Precambrian metapelitic rocks, staurolite-kyanite to K-feldspar-muscovite-sillimanite zones, from Mica Creek, British Columbia. The delta/sup 18/O and delta D values of these minerals are generally uniform and do not decrease significantly with increasing metamorphic grade. This implies that there has not been significant infiltration of deep crustal fluids that has been suggested for some other high-grade metamorphic terranes. The uniformity of oxygen isotope compositions of the Mica Creek rocks may reflect isotopic uniformity in the sedimentary protolith rather than widespread exchange with an isotopically homogeneous metamorphic pore fluid. Temperature estimates based upon /sup 18/O exchange thermometry for samples below the sillimanite zone are in reasonable agreement with the results of garnet-biotite Fe-Mg exchange thermometry. In the higher grade rocks, the oxygen isotope and garnet-biotite thermometry yield results which disagree by about 100/sup 0/C. The highest temperatures recorded by oxygen isotope thermometry in the higher grade rocks, 595/sup 0/C, are at least 60/sup 0/C below the minimum temperatures required by phase equilibria. These discrepancies appear to result from pervasive equilibrium retrograde exchange of oxygen isotopes between coexisting minerals. Retrograd-oxygen isotope exchange may be a general characteristic of high grade metamorphic rocks and oxygen isotope thermometry may not usually record peak metamorphic temperatures if they significantly exceed 600/sup 0/C.

Bowman, J.R.; Ghent, E.D.

1985-01-01

196

Horizontal oil shale and tar sands retort  

SciTech Connect

A horizontal retorting apparatus and method are disclosed designed to pyrolyze tar sands and oil shale, which are often found together in naturally occurring deposits. The retort is based on a horizontal retorting tube defining a horizontal retort zone having an upstream and a downstream end. Inlet means are provided for introducing the combined tar sands and oil shale into the upstream end of the retort. A screw conveyor horizontally conveys tar sands and oil shale from the upstream end of the retort zone to the downstream end of the retort zone while simultaneously mixing the tar sands and oil shale to insure full release of product gases. A firebox defining a heating zone surrounds the horizontal retort is provided for heating the tar sands and oil shale to pyrolysis temperatures. Spent shale and tar sands residue are passed horizontally beneath the retort tube with any carbonaceous residue thereon being combusted to provide a portion of the heat necessary for pyrolysis. Hot waste solids resulting from combustion of spent shale and tar sands residue are also passed horizontally beneath the retort tube whereby residual heat is radiated upward to provide a portion of the pyrolysis heat. Hot gas inlet holes are provided in the retort tube so that a portion of the hot gases produced in the heating zone are passed into the retort zone for contacting and directly heating the tar sands and oil shale. Auxiliary heating means are provided to supplement the heat generated from spent shale and tar sands residue combustion in order to insure adequate pyrolysis of the raw materials with varying residual carbonaceous material.

Thomas, D.D.

1982-08-31

197

Water, Rivers and Creeks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Luna B. Leopold's intent in Water, Rivers and Creeks was to provide a nontechnical primer on hydrology and water resources, and he succeeded admirably. The terse style is reminiscent of the mystery writer Mickey Spillane, though the content is complex science expounded in simple terms. ``Part I, Hydrology and Morphology,'' makes up the first two thirds of the book, and

Robert D. Mac

1998-01-01

198

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 3. Risk assessment information. Appendixes E, F  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 3 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

NONE

1996-03-01

199

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3: Appendixes E and F -- Risk assessment information  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

NONE

1996-06-01

200

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 2. Biota and representative concentrations of contaminants. Appendixes A, B, C, D  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OU`s). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

NONE

1996-03-01

201

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 5. Appendixes J, K, L, M, and N-other supporting information  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 5 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

NONE

1996-06-01

202

Ethoxylation as Aid to Separate Brown Coal Low-Temperature Carbonization Tars and High-Temperature Tars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work describes the significance of brown coal tar as raw material source for chemical industry. 6% tar is yielded in low-temperature carbonization of brown coal as side product. This tar as opposed to bituminous coal tar does not occur as raw materia...

A. Vogts

1979-01-01

203

Removal of tar base from coal tar aromatics employing solid acid adsorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aromatic compounds from coal tar generally contain a small amount of tar bases, such as quinoline and isoquinoline. These nitrogen-containing compounds can poison the acid-type catalysts and downgrade the aromatic products because of stinking odor. Four solid acid catalysts, silica-alumina, HY, NH4-mordenite, and ?-alumina are used to remove tar bases by adsorption. Wash oil (WO), refined naphthalene (RN), and an

Jeffrey Chi-Sheng Wu; Hsueh-Chang Sung; Yu-Fu Lin; Shi-Long Lin

2000-01-01

204

Geology of the Lower Yellow Creek Area, Northwestern Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The lower Yellow Creek area is located in Rio Blanco and Moffat Counties of northwestern Colorado, about midway between the towns of Rangely and Meeker. The study area is in the northwestern part of the Piceance Creek basin, a very deep structural and sed...

W. J. Hail

1990-01-01

205

ROCK CREEK, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1970-1984  

EPA Science Inventory

The study was designed to determine the characteristics and amounts of industrial and municipal wastes discharged to Rock Creek, Idaho (17040212) and subsequently into the Snake River and to evaluate the effects of these wastes on the biota and water quality of Rock Creek. Indus...

206

Identification of sources of tar balls deposited along the Goa coast, India, using fingerprinting techniques.  

PubMed

Deposition of tar balls along the coast of Goa, India is a common phenomenon during the southwest monsoon. Representative tar ball samples collected from various beaches of Goa and one Bombay High (BH) crude oil sample were subjected to fingerprint analysis based on diagnostic ratios of n-alkane, biomarkers of pentacyclic tri-terpanes and compound specific stable carbon isotope (?¹³C) analysis to confirm the source. The results were compared with the published data of Middle East Crude Oil (MECO) and South East Asian Crude Oil (SEACO). The results revealed that the tar balls were from tanker-wash derived spills. The study also confirmed that the source is not the BH, but SEACO. The present study suggests that the biomarkers of alkanes and hopanes coupled with stable carbon isotope analysis act as a powerful tool for tracing the source of tar balls, particularly when the source specific biomarkers fail to distinguish the source. PMID:23522683

Suneel, V; Vethamony, P; Zakaria, M P; Naik, B G; Prasad, K V S R

2013-03-19

207

Should We Dam Nanticoke Creek?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this decision-making exercise, students investigate what would occur if a dam were built along Nanticoke Creek, a real stream just north of West Corners near the Village of Endicott, New York. They will use topographic maps to determine how much area would be flooded by the new reservoir, to study river drainages, and to consider the impacts of dams on a region. They must also consider rivers in the context of their relation to humankind. The exercise can be extended to other, more local locations having similar topography.

Childs, Philip

208

Analysis of geothermal electric-power generation at Big Creek Hot Springs, Lemhi County, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Big Creek Hot Springs was evaluated as a source of electrical power for the Blackbird Cobalt Mine, approximately 13 miles south of the hot spring. An evaluaton of the geothermal potential of Big Creek Hot Springs, a suggested exploration program and budget, an engineering feasibility study of power generation at Big Creek Hot Springs, an economic analysis of the modeled power generating system, and an appraisal of the institutional factors influencing development at Big Creek Hot Springs are included.

Struhsacker, D.W. (ed.)

1981-01-01

209

A photographic method for estimating wear of coal tar sealcoat from parking lots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal-tar-based sealcoat has been recognized as an important source of PAHs to the environment through wear and transport via stormwater runoff. Sealcoat removal rates have not been measured or even estimated in the literature due to the complex array of physical and chemical process involved. A photographic study was conducted that incorporates all sources of wear using 10 coal tar-sealed

Mateo Scoggins; Tom Ennis; Nathan Parker; Chris Herrington

2009-01-01

210

Heavy metal concentrations in sediment deposits on the Tar River floodplain following Hurricane Floyd  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between the magnitude of a flood event and the resulting environmental impacts remains unclear. This study examines\\u000a the impact of the flood of record on heavy metal deposition on the Tar River floodplain in eastern North Carolina, USA. Samples\\u000a of sediment deposited on the floodplain following Hurricane Floyd were collected from 85 sites along the lower Tar River

Patrick Pease; Scott Lecce; Paul Gares; Catherine Rigsby

2007-01-01

211

Effects of the reforming reagents and fuel species on tar reforming reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, using wood chips and polyethylene (PE) as fuels, the effects of air and\\/or steam as reagents on the tar reforming were clarified quantitatively with a simulated gasifier\\/reformer apparatus of a two-staged gasification process. The results show that when only steam or air was supplied into the reformer, the tar residual rate (defined as the ratio of the

Yin Wang; Tomoaki Namioka; Kunio Yoshikawa

2009-01-01

212

Characterization and beneficiation of bitumen-free domestic tar sands. Open file report  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines conducted a study to determine if residues from fractional distillation represent a potential source of mineral values. To develop this information, pilot-plant tar-sand residues or toluene-cleaned tar sands from 23 deposits were examined. The nature of the residues was determined by standard mineralogical methods and the chemical compositions were determined by X-ray and inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy.

Altringer, P.B.; McDonough, P.J.; Brooks, P.T.

1982-09-01

213

The kinetics of the pyrolysis of tar sands and of the combustion of coked sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetic parameters for the pyrolysis of bitumen-impregnated sandstone (tar sand) particles have been determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The tar sand deposits investigated in this study, all of which are oil-wet sands from the Uinta Basin the State of Utah, included PR Spring Rainbow I, Whiterocks, and Sunnyside. The isothermal experiments indicated that first-order kinetics fit most of the

Lin

1988-01-01

214

Chemical, geologic, and hydrologic data from the study of acidic contamination in the Miami Wash-Pinal Creek area, Arizona, water years 1984-87  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Occurrence and movement of acidic contamination in the aquifer and streams of the Pinal Creek basin near Globe, Arizona, is the focus of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey. Groundwater data from that study for water years 1984 to 1987 include location, construction information, and site plans for six groups of monitoring wells, mineralogic and particle-size analyses of drill cuttings, water level measurements, and chemical analyses of water samples from 39 wells. Surface water data for 13 sites in this study include discharge measurements and chemical analysis of water and streambed sediment samples. Monthly discharge data are presented for one site. Monthly precipitation amounts and statistics of long-term precipitation are presented for two sites. (USGS)

Eychaner, J. H.; Rehmann, M. R.; Brown, J. G.

1989-01-01

215

Sampling and analysis plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatment technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. This project directly supports Alternative 5 of the base action in the BCV Feasibility Study, and indirectly supports other alternatives through proof of concept. In that role, the ultimate goal is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium and nitrate from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. A secondary goal is the concurrent removal of technetium and several metals that impact ecological risk. This project is intended to produce hydraulic and treatment performance data required to design the treatment system to reach those goals. This project will also generate information that can be applied at other facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation. This report is the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for the field work component of Phase II of the BCV Treatability Study. Field work for this phase of the BCV Treatability Study consists of media testing. In-field continuous flow tests will be conducted over an extended time period (5 weeks) to generate data on long-term treatment effects on potential treatment media including sorbents and zero valent iron, over 28 weeks for constructed wetlands treatment, and over 24 weeks for algal mats treatment. The SAP addresses environmental sampling at the S-3 Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be taken from groundwater, effluent from test columns, effluent from an algal mat reactor, and effluent from a pilot-scale wetlands. This plan will be implemented as part of the BCV Phase II Treatability Study Best Management Practices Plan and in conjunction with the BCV Phase II Treatability Study Health and Safety Plan and the BCV Phase II Treatability Study Waste Management Plan.

NONE

1997-05-01

216

Preparation of mesocarbon microbeads from coal tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) was prepared from coal tars with various primary pyridine insoluble fraction (PI) contents from 0 to 3.7 wt?%, through heat treatment at 430–480°C for different time under autoginious pressure. The heat treated coal tars were filtered under 150°C and the residue was rinsed with pyridine. MCMB was obtained as the pyridine insoluble fraction. Both yield and diameter

Yonggen Lü; Licheng Ling; Dong Wu; Lang Liu; Bijiang Zhang; Isao Mochida

1999-01-01

217

Separation of phenols from Eucalyptus wood tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolation of phenols from Eucalyptus wood pyrolysis tar was carried out with the objective of recovering valuable pure phenols, such as phenol, cresols, guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, catechol and syringol. The approach included a primary conversion of the raw wood tar into a lighter oil. Phenolic compounds were further separated from the oil by liquid-liquid extraction using alkali and organic solvents. GC\\/MS

Carlos Amen-Chen; Hooshang Pakdel; Christian Roy

1997-01-01

218

Sampling and analysis plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatment technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. This project directly supports Alternative 5 of the base action in the BCV Feasibility Study and indirectly supports other alternatives through proof of concept. In that role, the ultimate goal is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium and nitrate from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. A secondary goal is the concurrent removal of technetium and several metals that affect ecological risk. This project is intended to produce hydraulic and treatment performance data required to design the treatment system to reach those goals. This project will also generate information that can be applied at other facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation. This report is the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for the field work component of Phase II of the BCV Treatability Study. Field work for this phase of the BCV Treatability Study consists of environmental and media testing. The SAP addresses environmental sampling at the S-3 Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be taken from groundwater, surface water, seeps, effluent from test columns, effluent from an algal mat reactor, and effluent from a pilot-scale wetland. Groundwater, surface water, and seeps will be monitored continuously for field parameters and sampled for analytical parameters during pump tests conducted periodically during the investigation. In-field continuous flow tests will be conducted over an extended time period (5 weeks) to generate data on long-term treatment effects on potential treatment effects on potential treatment media including sorbents and zero valent iron, over 28 weeks for constructed wetlands treatment, and over 24 weeks for algal mats treatment.

NONE

1997-09-01

219

Pyrolysis of sunnyside (Utah) tar sand: Characterization of volatile compound evolution  

SciTech Connect

Tar sand is defined as any sand or rock which is impregnated with heavy oil or bitumen. (This excludes coal, oil shale, and Gilsonite). In the United States alone, there are an estimated 60 billion barrels of bitumen in tar sand, some of which is recoverable. The Sunnyside deposit in Utah accounts for approximately 4.4 billion barrels of recoverable bitumen, making it an attractive deposit for recovery processing. Several commercial concerns have had financial interest in the development of recovery processing, including in-situ thermal (Shell Oil), steam flooding (Signal Oil and Gas), and solvent extraction (AMOCO). Laboratory pyrolysis of a given tar sand is useful in pyrolysis type recovery research, both in-situ and surface. Several laboratory studies have been performed on Sunnyside tar sand, to elucidate its performance - fluidized-bed and fixed-bed pyrolysis, hydropryolysis, hot water and solvent extraction. This paper summarizes the authors' initial efforts in the laboratory pyrolysis of Sunnyside tar sand, and compares the results to the pyrolysis of other domestic tar sands (Asphalt Ridge from Utah and Big Clifty from Kentucky) studied under the same conditions.

Reynolds, J.G.; Crawford, R.W.

1988-06-01

220

Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 2. Appendixes A, B, C, D  

SciTech Connect

This document contains appendices A (water characterization), B (sediment characterization), C (biota Characterization), D (applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements) from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

NONE

1995-09-01

221

Treatability study on the Bear Creek Valley characterization area at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Phase II work plan for S-3 site contaminated groundwater interception--in-field media evaluation and groundwater capture methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A treatability study is being conducted to support implementation:of early actions at the S-3 Site in the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Characterization Area (CA). The objectives of the early actions Will be (1) to reduce concentrations of uranium and nitrate i...

1996-01-01

222

Recognition of HIV-TAR RNA using neomycin-benzimidazole conjugates.  

PubMed

Synthesis of a novel class of compounds and their biophysical studies with TAR-RNA are presented. The synthesis of these compounds was achieved by conjugating neomycin, an aminoglycoside, with benzimidazoles modeled from a B-DNA minor groove binder, Hoechst 33258. The neomycin-benzimidazole conjugates have varying linkers that connect the benzimidazole and neomycin units. The linkers of varying length (5-23 atoms) in these conjugates contain one to three triazole units. The UV thermal denaturation experiments showed that the conjugates resulted in greater stabilization of the TAR-RNA than either neomycin or benzimidazole used in the synthesis of conjugates. These results were corroborated by the FID displacement and tat-TAR inhibition assays. The binding of ligands to the TAR-RNA is affected by the length and composition of the linker. Our results show that increasing the number of triazole groups and the linker length in these compounds have diminishing effect on the binding to TAR-RNA. Compounds that have shorter linker length and fewer triazole units in the linker displayed increased affinity towards the TAR RNA. PMID:24012122

Ranjan, Nihar; Kumar, Sunil; Watkins, Derrick; Wang, Deyun; Appella, Daniel H; Arya, Dev P

2013-08-14

223

Simulation of Water Quality in the Tull Creek and West Neck Creek Watersheds, Currituck Sound Basin, North Carolina and Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study of the Currituck Sound was initiated in 2005 to evaluate the water chemistry of the Sound and assess the effectiveness of management strategies. As part of this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to simulate current sediment and nutrient loadings for two distinct watersheds in the Currituck Sound basin and to determine the consequences of different water-quality management scenarios. The watersheds studied were (1) Tull Creek watershed, which has extensive row-crop cultivation and artificial drainage, and (2) West Neck Creek watershed, which drains urban areas in and around Virginia Beach, Virginia. The model simulated monthly streamflows with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients of 0.83 and 0.76 for Tull Creek and West Neck Creek, respectively. The daily sediment concentration coefficient of determination was 0.19 for Tull Creek and 0.36 for West Neck Creek. The coefficient of determination for total nitrogen was 0.26 for both watersheds and for dissolved phosphorus was 0.4 for Tull Creek and 0.03 for West Neck Creek. The model was used to estimate current (2006-2007) sediment and nutrient yields for the two watersheds. Total suspended-solids yield was 56 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. Total nitrogen export was 45 percent lower, and total phosphorus was 43 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. A management scenario with filter strips bordering the main channels was simulated for Tull Creek. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool model estimated a total suspended-solids yield reduction of 54 percent and total nitrogen and total phosphorus reductions of 21 percent and 29 percent, respectively, for the Tull Creek watershed.

Garcia, Ana Maria

2009-01-01

224

33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation... Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida,...

2009-07-01

225

33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation... Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida,...

2013-07-01

226

33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2006-07-01 2006-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation... Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida,...

2006-07-01

227

33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2007-07-01 2007-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation... Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida,...

2007-07-01

228

Design of a groundwater model to determine the feasibility of extending an artificial salmon-spawning stream: case study for Marx Creek, near Hyder, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marx Creek is a groundwater-fed, artificial salmon-spawning stream near Hyder, Alaska. The purpose of this project was to develop a groundwater flow model to predict baseflow to a proposed 450-m extension of Marx Creek. To accomplish this purpose, water levels were monitored in 20 monitor wells and discharge measurements were recorded from Marx Creek. These data were used to create a three-dimensional groundwater flow model using Visual MODFLOW. Three predictive simulations were run after the model was calibrated to groundwater levels and stream discharge measurements. The proposed extension was added to the calibrated model during the first simulation, resulting in simulated baseflow to the extension stream exceeding simulated baseflow to the existing Marx Creek by 39 %. Sections of Marx Creek were removed from the model during the second simulation, resulting in a 5 % increase in simulated baseflow to the extension stream. A 32-cm reduction in the water table was simulated during the third simulation, resulting in an 18 % decrease in simulated baseflow to the extension stream. These modeling results were used by Tongass National Forest personnel to determine that baseflow to the proposed extension would likely be sufficient to provide habitat conducive to salmon spawning. The extension stream was constructed and portions of Marx Creek were decommissioned during the summer of 2008. It was observed that there is comparable or greater discharge in the extension stream than there was in the decommissioned sections of Marx Creek, although neither discharge nor stream stage measurements have yet been collected.

Nelson, T. P.; Lachmar, T. E.

2013-09-01

229

Tributary Fluxes into Brush Creek Valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements in a tributary to Brush Creek Valley during the September and October 1984 ASCOT campaign with laser anemometers, tethersondes, a minisodar, and smoke release were used to calculate the contribution by tributaries to nocturnal drainage flow from the main valley. Four experimental nights with different mesoscale wind regimes were used in the study. It was found that a simple

R. L. Coulter; Monte Orgill; William Porch

1989-01-01

230

Bereavement Rituals in the Muscogee Creek Tribe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A qualitative, collective case study explores bereavement rituals in the Muscogee Creek tribe. Data from interviews with 27 participants, all adult members of the tribe, revealed consensus on participation in certain bereavement rituals. Common rituals included (a) conducting a wake service the night before burial; (b) never leaving the body…

Walker, Andrea C.; Balk, David E.

2007-01-01

231

Bryant Creek Watershed Atlas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bryant Creek Watershed Project created this online atlas filled with a wealth of information on every aspect of this Missouri watershed -- even for those who do not live near the site. Teachers can find interactive, fun lesson plans for kindergarten through twelfth grade dealing with many aspects of the physical environment. Students will find an abundance of games, quizzes, and interactive modules. By taking the photo tour, visitors can learn about the fascinating unique places connected to the watershed. Users can also find materials on the biologic, historic, social, and recreational aspects of the watershed.

232

Shell Creek Summers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What would motivate high school students to donate valuable summer vacation time to do science research?--the opportunity to make a difference! The Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group (SCWIG) was formed to identify and promote needed conservation practices within a local watershed, and turned to the high school science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality. Since 2002, for the past three summers, in this ongoing project, students collect water quality data and report their findings to the three involved community organizations.

Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

2005-04-01

233

Wallace Creek Field Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains model class exercises which instructors may find useful as class assignments to accompany class trips to the Wallace Creek site. These exercises are designed for college-level students who have had some background in geology and a general background of fault mechanics and earthquake geology. Particular questions in these exercises requires the students to conduct certain exercises or participate in appropriate discussions regarding geomorphology and slip rates. Five figures necessary to complete certain parts of the exercises are available for downloading.

234

Laboratory Screening of Thermal Recovery Processes for Tar Sand Triangle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four thermal processes (steam displacement, not-gas pyrolysis, reverse and forward combustion) were evaluated to select the most effective oil recovery process for the in situ development of the tar sand resource at Tar Sand Triangle, Utah. Reverse combus...

L. J. Romanowski K. P. Thomas

1985-01-01

235

Engineering and Environmental Study of DDT Contamination of Huntsville Spring Branch, Indian Creek, and Adjacent Lands and Waters, Wheeler Reservoir, Alabama. Revision.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report deals with DDTR contamination in northeast Alabama in the Tennessee River system from Mile 260 to 375 which includes Wilson, Wheeler, and Guntersville Reservoirs. The primary area of interest is the Huntsville Spring Branch - Indian Creek (HSB...

1984-01-01

236

Remote Sensor Application Studies Progress Report, July 1, 1968 to June 30, 1969. RemoteSensing Reconnaissance, Mill Creek Area, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Infrared data for the Mill Creek area in the Arbuckle Mountains of Oklahoma reveal significant stratigraphic and structural information. Relatively pure limestones and dolomites in this area can be differentiated in the nighttime infrared images, and the ...

L. C. Rowan T. W. Offield K. Watson P. J. Cannon R.D. Watson

1970-01-01

237

MARSH CREEK WATERSHED (LR05)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Marsh Creek Watershed drains 44 square miles and is surrounded by agricultural fields. It has a medium susceptibility for groundwater contamination based on WDNR groundwater susceptibility mapping. Marsh Creek watershed was selected as an Environmental Quality Improvement Program (EQIP) project. This program, funded by the U.S. Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), targets critical watersheds for implementation of agricultural best

238

Treatability study on the Bear Creek Valley characterization area at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Phase II work plan for S-3 site contaminated groundwater interception--in-field media evaluation and groundwater capture methods  

SciTech Connect

A treatability study is being conducted to support implementation:of early actions at the S-3 Site in the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Characterization Area (CA). The objectives of the early actions Will be (1) to reduce concentrations of uranium and nitrate in Bear Creek and (2) to reduce contaminants of concern in North Tributary (NT)-1 and NT-2. The BCV CA is located within the US DOE`s Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. Hazardous and radioactive materials from the Y-12 Plant operations were, disposed of at various sites within BCV. Groundwater and surface water in the BCV CA have been contaminated. The remedial investigation (RI) for the BCV CA identified that the greatest mass flux of contaminants from the various sources migrates via groundwater at the source and discharges to surface water in Bear Creek and its tributaries. In the RI, the combined discharge from the S-3 Site and the Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY) was identified as accounting for 75% of the cancer risk and more than 80% of the chemical toxicity to Potential downgradient human receptors. In addition, the S-3 Site has caused degradation of surface water quality in upper Bear Creek and two of its tributaries. The BCV CA treatability study focuses on capture and treatment of shallow groundwater before it discharges to tributary waters. The objectives Of treatment of this groundwater are (1) to reduce the concentrations of uranium and nitrate in NT-1 and Bear Creek such that the concentrations of these chemicals in surface water and groundwater are reduced to acceptable levels, (2) to reduce the concentrations of nitrate and metals, and reduce the overall concentration of total dissolved solids; and (3) to hydraulically contain the plume of contaminated, groundwater that is moving in bedrock in the Nolichucky Shale such that the rate of contaminant discharge will be reduced in the long term. The objective of Phase II is to produce conceptual designs for treatment system configurations.

NONE

1996-12-01

239

The characterisation of tar from the pyrolysis of animal bones  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report outlines results of an investigation of the composition of bone pyrolysis tar produced in Mongolia. The liquid product (tar) yield was low: ?4.9%. The elemental composition of the tar was C: 73.3%, H:10.1%, N: 11.3%, O: 5.3%. Size-exclusion chromatograms signalled the presence of generally smaller mass material than coal tars and pitches, with a range from about 2000

B Purevsuren; B Avid; T Gerelmaa; Ya Davaajav; T. J Morgan; A. A Herod; R Kandiyoti

2004-01-01

240

Cancer risk estimation for mixtures of coal tars and benzo(a)pyrene  

SciTech Connect

Two-year chronic bioassays were conducted by using B6C3F1 female mice fed several concentrations of two different mixtures of coal tars from manufactured gas waste sites or benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). The purpose of the study was to obtain estimates of cancer potency of coal tar mixtures, by using conventional regulatory methods, for use in manufactured gas waste site remediation. A secondary purpose was to investigate the validity of using the concentration of a single potent carcinogen, in this case benzo(a)pyrene, to estimate the relative risk for a coal tar mixture. The study has shown that BaP dominates the cancer risk when its concentration is greater than 6,300 ppm in the coal tar mixture. In this case the most sensitive tissue site is the forestomach. Using low-dose linear extrapolation, the lifetime cancer risk for humans is estimated to be: Risk < 1.03 x 10{sup {minus}4} (ppm coal tar in total diet) + 240 x 10{sup {minus}4} (ppm BaP in total diet), based on forestomach tumors. If the BaP concentration in the coal tar mixture is less than 6,300 ppm, the more likely case, then lung tumors provide the largest estimated upper limit of risk, Risk < 2.55 x 10{sup {minus}4} (ppm coal tar in total diet), with no contribution of BaP to lung tumors. The upper limit of the cancer potency (slope factor) for lifetime oral exposure to benzo(a)pyrene is 1.2 x 10{sup {minus}3} per {micro}g per kg body weight per day from this Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) study compared with the current value of 7.3 x 10{sup {minus}3} per {micro}g per kg body weight per day listed in the US EPA Integrated Risk Information System.

Gaylor, D.W.; Culp, S.J.; Goldstein, L.S.; Beland, F.A.

2000-02-01

241

Ship Creek bioassessment investigations  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

1995-06-01

242

Kiowa Creek Switching Station  

SciTech Connect

The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1990-03-01

243

Evaluation of the Steel Creek Ecosystem in Relation to the Proposed Restart of the L-Reactor: Interim Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This interim report of findings from studies by SREL has updated information on several key components of the Steel Creek ecosystem. We have emphasized two categories of the Steel Creek biota: Endangered Species (American alligator) and species for which ...

1983-01-01

244

3D simulation of tidal creek in Jiangsu coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional shape of tidal creek widely distributed in the tidal flat of Jiangsu coast was simulated in this paper. Water lines of tidal creek were extracted from high spatial resolution remotely sensed data and used to derive the centerlines of tidal creek by the method of Thiessen polygon. From downstream to upstream, the profile shape of centerlines presents piecewise linear increase based on the intersect points of tidal branch in one tidal basin. So on basis of known elevation of intersect points, we calculated to gain 3D shape of centerline. And last, using step by step expansion simulated the whole 3D shape of tidal creek. The error analysis showed that the 95% error was between +/- 0.3m. This study realized the 3D simulation of tidal creek. The result demonstrated that from point to line to body (2D- 3D) conversion was realized during this modeling process and 3D simulation method is effective. Due to complex natural condition and the lack of bathymetry data, terrain of tidal creek is difficult to obtain. So through this method we can only use a small number of measure points to easily obtain the 3D shape of tidal creek. It is very useful in topographic survey especially in Jiangsu coast where bathymetry is hard to carry out.

Kang, Yanyan; Ding, Xianrong

245

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000.degree. F. in a burner to remove residual char and

James D. Westhoff; Arnold E. Harak

1989-01-01

246

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus or utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000°F in a burner to remove residual char nd produce

J. D. Westhoff; A. E. Harak

1989-01-01

247

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000\\/degree\\/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce

J. D. Westhoff; A. E. Harak

1988-01-01

248

Pyrolysis of Utah tar sands: products and kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of successful in-situ thermal recovery techniques for the Utah tar sands requires a knowledge and consideration of the pyrolytic behavior of these bituminous materials. Tar sands from four major Utah deposits, Northwest Asphalt Ridge, Tar Sand Triangle, P.R. Spring, Sunnyside, and from one Canadian deposit, Athabasca, were subjected to pyrolysis, in an inert atmosphere, at temperatures ranging from

R. V. Barbour; S. M. Dorrence; T. L. Vollmer; J. D. Harris

1976-01-01

249

Tar sands. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning mining of tar sands and the recovery of bitumen and other materials from tar sands. The physical and chemical properties of tar sands are discussed, and the economics of their use are considered. Processes include alkaline extraction, water cracking, catalytic cracking, and in situ combustion. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-05-01

250

FEASIBILITY OF ELK CREEK ACID MINE DRAINAGE ABATEMENT PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted within the Elk Creek Watershed, West Virginia to determine the technical and economic feasibility of three acid mine drainage abatement techniques. Alkaline regarding and slurry trench construction were established as technically and economically viable abat...

251

Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak) in a laboratory screw type reactor and secondary thermal/catalytic tar decomposition.  

PubMed

Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak cartons) in a laboratory apparatus using a flow screw type reactor and a secondary catalytic reactor for tar cracking was studied. The pyrolysis experiments were realized at temperatures ranging from 650 °C to 850 °C aimed at maximizing of the amount of the gas product and reducing its tar content. Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields at different conditions was obtained. The presence of H2, CO, CH4, CO2 and light hydrocarbons, HCx, in the gas product was observed. The Aluminum foil was easily separated from the solid product. The rest part of char was characterized by proximate and elemental analysis and calorimetric measurements. The total organic carbon in the tar product was estimated by elemental analysis of tars. Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used for catalytic thermal tar decomposition. Three series of experiments (without catalyst in a secondary cracking reactor, with dolomite and with AFRC) at temperatures of 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 °C were carried out. Both types of catalysts have significantly affected the content of tars and other components in pyrolytic gases. The effect of catalyst on the tetrapack distribution into the product yield on the composition of gas and on the total organic carbon in the tar product is presented in this work. PMID:23428565

Haydary, J; Susa, D; Dudáš, J

2013-02-18

252

Preliminary evaluation of chemical indicators for the analysis of production losses from tar sand recovery  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a preliminary investigation to evaluate changes in the chemical composition of thermally altered tar sand bitumen. The objective of the study was to determine if changes in the chemical composition of the tar sand bitumen can be correlated to chemically related production losses or thermal history of the bitumen. Tar sand samples from the Tar Sand Triangle deposit in southeastern Utah were thermally altered under autogenous conditions at temperatures of 380/sup 0/C, 400/sup 0/C, and 420/sup 0/C for time periods ranging from 1 to 24 hours. The thermally altered tar sands was serially extracted with normal heptane, toluene, and pyridine. The normal heptane extracts from each thermal alteration experiment were analyzed by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometery (GC/MS) to determine the presence of several classes of compounds. The heptane fractions from the thermally altered tar sand represent a complex mixture that can not be evaluated using conventional combined GC/MS techniques. For this reason, the presence of the different classes of compounds was determined by profiling ions selected to represent each class of targeted compounds. The classes of compounds targeted for this analysis included normal alkanes, tricyclic diterpanes, pantacyclic triterpanes, and aromatic species having general empirical formulas ranging from C/sub n/H/sub 2n-6/ through C/sub n/H/sub 2n-40/. The results of this investigation indicate that the pentacyclic triterpanes are the only class of compounds that follow a trend with the thermal alteration conditions. The relative intensity of the pentacyclic triterpanes decreases with increasing exposure time for each temperature investigated. This class of compounds may be useful for tracing the thermal history of tar sand bitumen in a process. 12 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs.

Guffey, F.D.; Cummings, R.E.

1986-03-01

253

Waste management plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This Waste Management Plant (WMP) for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study addresses waste management requirements for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The study is intended to produce treatment performance data required to design a treatment system for contaminated groundwater. The treatability study will consist of an evaluation of various treatment media including: continuous column tests, with up to six columns being employed to evaluate the performance of different media in the treatment of groundwater; an evaluation of the denitrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of a wetland system; and the long-term denitrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of algal mats. The Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) covers the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. The Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety concerns and requirements for the proposed sampling activities. This WMP identifies the types and estimates the volumes of various wastes that may be generated during the proposed treatability studies. The approach to managing waste outlined in this WMP emphasizes: (1) management of the waste generated in a manner that is protective of human health and the environment; (2) minimization of waste generation, thereby reducing unnecessary costs and usage of limited permitted storage and disposal capacities; and (3) compliance with federal, state, and site requirements. Prior sampling at the site has detected organic, radioactive, and metals contamination in groundwater and surface water. Proposed field operations are not expected to result in worker exposures greater than applicable exposure or action limits.

NONE

1997-05-01

254

Toxic substances in surface waters and sediments--A study to assess the effects of arsenic-contaminated alluvial sediment in Whitewood Creek, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Field measurements and bioassay experiments were done to investigate the effects of arsenic and phosphorus interactions on sorption of these solutes by the benthic flora (periphyton and submerged macrophytes) in Whitewood Creek, a stream in western South Dakota. Short-term (24-hour) sorption experiments were used to determine arsenic transport characteristics for algae (first-order rate constants for solute sorption, biomass, and accumulation factors) collected in the creek along a transect beginning upstream from a mine discharge point and downgradient through a 57-kilometer reach. Temporal changes in biomass differed significantly between and within sampling sites. Arsenic concentrations in plant tissue increased with distance downstream, but temporal changes in concentrations in tissues differed considerably from site to site. Cultures of Achnanthes minutissima (Bacillariophyceae) and Stichococcus sp. (Chlorophyceae) were isolated from four sites along a longitudinal concentration gradient of dissolved arsenic within the study reach and were maintained at ambient solute concentrations. Arsenic accumulation factors and sorption-rate constants for these isolates were determined as a function of dissolved arsenate and orthophosphate. Cell surfaces of algal isolates exhibited preferential orthophosphate sorption over arsenate. Initial sorption of both arsenate and orthophosphate followed first-order mass transfer for each culturing condition. Although sorption-rate constants increased slightly with increased dissolved-arsenate concentration, algae, isolated from a site with elevated dissolved arsenic in the stream channel, had a significantly slower rate of arsenic sorption compared with the same species isolated from an uncontaminated site upstream. In diel studies, amplitudes of the pH cycles increased with measured biomass except at a site immediately downstream from water-treatment-plant discharge. Inorganic pentavalent arsenic dominated arsenic speciation at all sites?not a surprising result for the well-oxygenated water column along this reach. Concentration fluctuations in dissolved-arsenic species lagged pH fluctuations by approximately 3 hours at the most downstream site, but no discernible lag was observed at an artificially pooled area with an order of magnitude higher biomass. Furthermore, the amplitudes of diel fluctuations in arsenic species were greater at the pooled area than at the most downstream site. Lack of correspondence between changes in dissolved-orthophosphate concentrations and arsenic species may have resulted from preferential sorption of orthophosphate over arsenate by the biomass. Based on carbon-fixation estimates, the phosphorus demand from photosynthetic activity required water-column concentrations to be supplemented by another source such as phosphate regeneration within the benthic community or desorption of particle-bound phosphate.

edited by Kuwabara, James S.; Fuller, Christopher C.

2003-01-01

255

Systems for producing bitumen from tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for producing bitumen from unconsolidated tar sands in an open well includes a screen positioned in the well large enough to pass a majority of the formation sand and small enough to retain a gravel packing material, a pair of high pressure fluid lateral nozzles fracturably fastened in the bottom of the screen, a wash pipe extending down

Payton

1978-01-01

256

Conveyor belts for transporting tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for transporting tar sands in an open pit mine utilizing flexible belt conveyors between a receiving area and a discharge area consists of providing a conveyor belt having an upper surface layer of an elastomeric material which is flexible at low temperatures. It is substantially resistant to excess swelling when exposed to petroleum liquids containing up to 30

1976-01-01

257

Clarification of tar sands middlings water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for treating tar sands to cause flocculation or coagulation of the clays and other small solids particles present in middlings and tailings streams produced from the hot water process. The process involves the addition of an acid to the water to accelerate clarification of the water and reduce required sludge settling pond area. (1 claim)

Schutte

1974-01-01

258

Developments in tar sands in 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activity in tar sands projects during 1981 continued at a very significant pace. The bulk of activity was in Canada, where 38 pilot projects were active, 2 commercial plants continued operations, 1 commercial scheme was canceled, and another was put into the twilight zone. Activity in the United States was low, whereas Venezuelan efforts reflect a firm commitment toward commercial

Wennekers; J. H. N

1982-01-01

259

Pyrolysis of asphalt ridge tar sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isothermal and nonisothermal pyrolysis experiments have been conducted on Asphalt Ridge tar sand. Oil produced from the isothermal experiments has a molecular weight of approximately 250 and has a hydrogen to carbon ratio between 1.7 and 1.9. Product oil composition varies slightly with reaction time. Results of thin layer chromatographic separation of the residual bitumen show that the concentrations of

T. F. Turner; L. G. Nickerson

1986-01-01

260

NMR evidence for a base triple in the HIV-2 TAR C-G.C+ mutant-argininamide complex.  

PubMed Central

Formation of a specific complex between the HIV Tat protein and the small RNA element TAR is critical for activation of viral transcription. A model complex for this interaction composed of HIV-2 TAR and the amide derivative of arginine has been developed to study how Tat and TAR interact specifically. We have previously determined a high resolution NMR structure of the HIV-2 TAR-argininamide complex. The argininamide guanidium group hydrogen bonds to the major groove face of G26 and is stacked between U23 and A22, forming an arginine sandwich. This structure also provided evidence for formation of a U38-A27.U38 base triple, as U23 is positioned in the major groove within hydrogen bonding distance to A27. However, the expected U23 imino proton was not observed, preventing unambiguous identification of the base triple. Previous work on an isomorphic C38-G27.C23+ base triple mutant of the three base bulge HIV-1 TAR-argininamide complex demonstrated that the base triple is required for specific argininamide binding. Here we investigate the same C38-G27.C23+ base triple mutant in the context of two base bulge HIV-2 TAR. The improved NMR spectral properties of HIV-2 TAR allowed observation of the C23 amino and imino protons for the first time, providing direct evidence that a hydrogen bonding interaction is occurring. The NOEs observed correspond to those observed in the high resolution structure of the HIV-2 TAR-argininamide complex, confirming that a base triple is an important feature of the TAR-argininamide interaction.

Brodsky, A S; Erlacher, H A; Williamson, J R

1998-01-01

261

PINEY CREEK WILDERNESS, MISSOURI.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Piney Creek Wilderness in southwest Missouri was investigated by geologic, geochemical, and mineral-occurrence surveys. These is no evidence of metallic mineral deposits in the rock units exposed at the surface in the wilderness, but the entire area has a probable potential for significant zinc-lead deposits at depths of several hundred feet. A probable potential also exists for a small to moderate-sized iron ore deposit at a depth of at least 2100 ft along the northwest side of the wilderness. Evaluation of these potentials would require deep drilling, and in the case of the possible iron ore deposit, a detailed magnetic survey. No energy resource potential was identified within this area.

Pratt, Walden, P.; Ellis, Clarence

1984-01-01

262

An Evaluation of Fecal Coliform Bacteria Concentrations Up and Downstream of the Irwin Creek and Sugar Creek Wastewater Treat ment Plants in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, 1998-2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fecal coliform bacteria cause water quality problems for many urban areas across the United States. The objective of this study is to determine if the Irwin Creek and Sugar Creek wastewater treatment plants, located near Charlotte in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, contribute significantly to the fecal coliform concentrations in the creeks. Fecal coliform densities in the wastewater effluent discharged from

Porché Spence; Jasper Harris

263

Use of coal tar pitch and petroleum bitumen in the production of thermally expanded graphite (Short Communication)  

SciTech Connect

The applicability of coal tar pitch and petroleum bitumen to the production of thermally expanded graphite was studied. The dependence of the coefficient of thermal expansion and the specific surface area on the amount of added substances was examined.

T.P. Miloshenko; O.Yu. Fetisova; M.L. Shchipko; B.N. Kuznetsov [Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russia). Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology

2008-06-15

264

Investigation of coal tar mobility at a former MGP site  

SciTech Connect

The presence of coal tar in the subsurface of former manufactured gas plant sites poses an environmental hazard and a potential threat to public health. Coal tar can release various chemical compounds that are transported into the groundwater. Before any efforts can be made to remove coal tar from contaminated subsurface soils, it is recommended to characterize coal tar properties and composition and to delineate the residual saturation point between mobile and immobile coal tar. This paper presents a new innovative field device, the Res-SAT field tool, and laboratory procedures that can be used to determine the saturation-capillary pressure relationship for a soil-water coal-tar system and the critical pressure for coal tar mobility.

Moo-Young, H.K.; Mo, X.H.; Waterman, R.; Coleman, A.; Saroff, S. [California State University Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

2009-11-15

265

Thermal decomposition of acid tar in a hydrocarbon medium  

SciTech Connect

The process of thermal decomposition of acid tars formed during the purification of oils has been studied. It has been shown that, at a temperature of 120-160{degrees}C, the main gaseous product is sulphur dioxide, the amount of which increases with increasing temperature. The reaction proceeds via the formation of a non-acid intermediate product, possibly sulphone. Petroleum asphaltenes are used as the reducing agents for hexavalent sulphur. Hydrocarbons of different classes are inert under the reaction conditions studied.

Bukharkina, T.V.; Digurov, N.G.; Zharkikh, V.A. [D.I. Mendeleyev Moscow Chemico-Technological Institute (Russian Federation)] [and others

1993-12-31

266

A photographic method for estimating wear of coal tar sealcoat from parking lots.  

PubMed

Coal-tar-based sealcoat has been recognized as an important source of PAHs to the environment through wear and transport via stormwater runoff. Sealcoat removal rates have not been measured or even estimated in the literature due to the complex array of physical and chemical process involved. A photographic study was conducted that incorporates all sources of wear using 10 coal tar-sealed parking lots in Austin, Texas, with sealcoat age ranging from 0 to 5 years. Randomly located photographs from each parking lot were analyzed digitally to quantify black sealed areas vs lighter colored unsealed areas at the pixel level. The results indicate that coal tar sealcoat wears off of the driving areas of parking lots at a rate of approximately 4.7% per year, and from the parking areas of the lots at a rate of approximately 1.4% per year. The overall annual loss of sealcoat was calculated at 2.4%. This results in an annual delivery to the environment of 0.51 g of PAHs per m2 of coal tar-sealed parking lot. These values provide a more robust and much higher estimate of loading of PAHs from coal tar sealcoated parking lots when compared to other available measures. PMID:19673284

Scoggins, Mateo; Ennis, Tom; Parker, Nathan; Herrington, Chris

2009-07-01

267

A photographic method for estimating wear of coal tar sealcoat from parking lots  

SciTech Connect

Coal-tar-based sealcoat has been recognized as an important source of PAHs to the environment through wear and transport via stormwater runoff. Sealcoat removal rates have not been measured or even estimated in the literature due to the complex array of physical and chemical process involved. A photographic study was conducted that incorporates all sources of wear using 10 coal tar-sealed parking lots in Austin, Texas, with sealcoat age ranging from 0 to 5 years. Randomly located photographs from each parking lot were analyzed digitally to quantify black sealed areas versus lighter colored unsealed areas at the pixel level. The results indicate that coal tar sealcoat wears off of the driving areas of parking lots at a rate of approximately 4.7% per year, and from the parking areas of the lots at a rate of approximately 1.4% per year. The overall annual loss of sealcoat was calculated at 2.4%. This results in an annual delivery to the environment of 0.51 g of PAHs per m{sup 2} of coal tar-sealed parking lot. These values provide a more robust and much higher estimate of loading of PAHs from coal tar sealcoated parking lots when compared to other available measures. 20 refs., 6 figs.

Mateo Scoggins; Tom Ennis; Nathan Parker; Chris Herrington [Watershed Protection and Development Review Department, Austin, TX (United States). Environmental Resource Management Division

2009-07-01

268

Source diagnostic and weathering indicators of tar balls utilizing acyclic, polycyclic and S-heterocyclic components.  

PubMed

This study represents a forensic chemical analysis to define the liability for the coastal bitumens polluting the beaches of the Mediterranean city of Alexandria. Six tar balls collected from several locations along the coast of the city were analyzed for their acyclic and polycyclic hydrocarbons as well as sulfur heterocycles using GC/FID, GC/AED and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry techniques. The analysis of one Egyptian crude oil is also included as a possible source oil. The tar ball samples were at early stages of weathering. Based on the GC traces and biomarker signatures, the tar balls could be genetically different. One sample collected from the Eastern Harbor region appears to be a Bunker C type fuel produced from Egyptian crudes. The refining process has removed the low molecular weight components. On the other hand, the wide n-alkane distribution together with the absence of an unresolved complex mixture suggests that crude oils probably from tank washings, ballast discharges or accident spills from tankers could have contributed significantly to the other tar ball samples. The distribution of source specific hopane and sterane markers revealed that the tar samples probably originate from different oil fields. PMID:15051374

Hegazi, A H; Andersson, J T; Abu-Elgheit, M A; El-Gayar, M Sh

2004-05-01

269

Floodplain and wetlands assessment of the White Oak Creek Embayment  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the proposed methods for dealing with contaminants that have accumulated in White Oak Creek, White Oak Lake, and the White Oak Creek Embayment as a result of process releases and discharges from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Alternative methods of cleaning up the area which were considered in accordance with regulatory guidelines are listed, and information supporting the selected methods is provided. Also included are results of a site survey conducted at the White Oak Creek Embayment and the expected effects of the proposed control structures on the floodplain and wetlands. The appendix contains figures showing the nine cross-sections of the stream channel surveyed during studies of the White Oak Creek area.

Not Available

1991-07-01

270

Health and safety plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety (H&S) concerns and requirements for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be collected from effluent following treatment tests of extraction columns, algal mats, and mature wetlands supplied by surface water locations and existing groundwater monitoring well locations. The project Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. It is the responsibility of the project managers, field manager, and site health and safety officer (SHSO) to determine that the requirements of this HASP are sufficiently protective. If it is determined that the requirements of this HASP are not sufficiently protective, a field change order(s) (FCO) will be prepared. FCOs will include a completed job hazard analysis or similar worksheet to ensure complete hazard assessment. FCOs must be approved by the Environmental Management and Enrichment Facilities (EMEF) project manager, EMEF H&S manager, subcontractor project or field manager, and subcontractor H&S representative. As a minimum, FCOs will be prepared if additional tasks will be performed or if contaminant exposure is anticipated.

NONE

1997-05-01

271

Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, looking NW. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

272

Lead, Arsenic, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soil and House Dust in the Communities Surrounding the Sydney, Nova Scotia, Tar Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the residential communities adjacent to the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds, the area considered Canada's worst contaminated site. The tar pond remediation policy has been limited to the site and some residential properties. We compared background concentrations in 91 soil samples taken 5-20 km from the coke oven

Timothy W. Lambert

2003-01-01

273

Interactions between Human Cyclin T, Tat, and the Transactivation Response Element (TAR) are Disrupted by a Cysteine to Tyrosine Substitution Found in Mouse Cyclin T  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transcriptional transactivator Tat from HIV binds to the transactivation response element (TAR) RNA to increase rates of elongation of viral transcription. Human cyclin T supports these interactions between Tat and TAR. In this study, we report the sequence of mouse cyclin T and identify the residues from positions 1 to 281 in human cyclin T that bind to Tat

Koh Fujinaga; Ran Taube; Jorg Wimmer; Thomas P. Cujec; B. Matija Peterlin

1999-01-01

274

Molecular characterisation of birch bark tar by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry: A new way for identifying archaeological glues  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop an analytical methodology, as non-destructive as possible, suitable for the identification of natural substances from archaeological origin, we studied the potentiality of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for analysing birch bark tar, an adhesive commonly used during ancient times. First of all, birch bark tars were produced by a controlled heating of birch bark. The two kinds of samples obtained

M. Regert; V. Alexandre; N. Thomas; A. Lattuati-Derieux

2006-01-01

275

Catalyst specificities in high pressure hydroprocessing of pyrolysis and gasification tars  

SciTech Connect

Over a period of several years, the Department of Forest Science at Texas A and M University has been conducting studies in the hydroprocessing (catalytic high pressure hydrotreating or hydrodeoxygenation accompanied by hydrocracking) of pyrolytic tars produced in biomass pyrolysis and gasification. Upgrading through hydroprocessing results in good yields of volatile hydrocarbon and phenolic products. This paper compares the performance of twenty different catalysts selected for hydroprocessing of a pine pyrolysis oil, describes the use of noble metal catalysts with tars produced from nine different biomass feedstocks (oil from pine pyrolysis and the tars from pine wood chip, pine plywood trim, pecan shell, peanut shell, sugarcane bagasse, corncob, rice hull, and cottonseed hull gasification), and compares the use of several catalysts in a trickle bed reactor for kinetic studies of the hyroprocessing reaction.

Soltes, E.J.; Lin, S.C.K.; Sheu, Y.H.E.

1987-04-01

276

Technological limitations in the isolation of individual components of hard-coal tar by fractional distillation  

SciTech Connect

Hard-coal tar is the source of a valuable raw material for the chemical industry. It contains considerable amounts of naphthalene and its homologs, indole, acenaphthene, dibenzofuran and fluorene. Of the above-mentioned substances, naphthalene is isolated on the industrial scale, and the resources of the other components are scarcely utilized. The difficulties in the creation of a rational technology for isolating the individual components are determined to some degree by the inadequacy of the study of the physicochemical laws of the separation of a hard-coal tar as a polyazeotropic-polyeutectic mixture. In the reported study, the technological limitations arising in the isolation from hard-coal tar by fractional distillation of naphthalene and its homologs, biphenyl, acenaphthene, dibenzofuran and fluorene have been investigated by the method of thermodynamic-topological analysis. 5 refs.

Belousova, O.A.; Lekhova, G.B.; Kharlampovich, G.D.

1981-01-01

277

Criteria for coal tar seal coats on airport pavements. Volume 1. State of the art. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Because coal tars are resistant to gasoline and jet fuel, they have been used for many years as a protective coating on asphalt pavement used for airport parking areas, ramps, taxiways and runways. Applications include both coal tar emulsions and rubberized coal tar emulsions, generally applied with sand added to provide skid resistance and stability to the seal coats. This report describes typical coal tar emulsion seal coat formulations and construction practices, and list major distress manifestations reported by agencies contacted in the first year of the study. Also described are the results of site visits to several airports where problems have been encountered,the results of limited laboratory test conducted by outside agencies, and the basic laboratory study being conducted as part of this research effort.

Shook, J.F.; Shannon, M.C.

1987-03-01

278

Waste management plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley Treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This Waste Management Plan (WMP) for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study addresses waste management requirements for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The study is intended to produce treatment performance data required to design a treatment system for contaminated groundwater. The treatability study will consist of an evaluation of various treatment media including continuous column tests, with up to six columns being employed to evaluate the performance of different media in the treatment of groundwater; an evaluation of the dentrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of a wetland system; and the long-term dentrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of algal mats. Additionally, the treatability study involves installation of a trench and incline well to evaluate and assess hydraulic impacts of pumping groundwater. The Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) covers the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. The Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety concerns and requirements for the proposed sampling activities. This WMP identifies the types and estimates the volumes of various wastes that may be generated during the proposed treatability studies. The approach to managing waste outlined in this WMP emphasizes the following points: (1) management of the waste generated in a manner that is protective of human health and the environment; (2) minimization of waste generation, thereby reducing unnecessary costs and usage of limited permitted storage and disposal capacities; and (3) compliance with federal, state, and site requirements. Prior sampling at the site has detected organic, radioactive, and metals contamination in groundwater and surface water. Proposed field operations are not expected to result in worker exposures greater than applicable exposure or action limits.

NONE

1997-09-01

279

Channel stability of Turkey Creek, Nebraska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Channelization on Turkey Creek and its receiving stream, the South Fork Big Nemaha River, has disturbed the equilibrium of Turkey Creek and has led to channel-stability problems, such as degradation and channel widening, which pose a threat to bridges and land adjacent to the stream. As part of a multiagency study, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel stability at two bridge sites on upper and middle portions of Turkey Creek by analyzing streambed-elevation data for gradation changes, comparing recent cross-section surveys and historic accounts, identifying bank-failure blocks, and analyzing tree-ring samples. These results were compared to gradation data and trend results for a U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near the mouth of Turkey Creek from a previous study. Examination of data on streambed elevations reveals that degradation has occurred. The streambed elevation declined 0.5 m at the upper site from 1967-97. The streambed elevation declined by 3.2 m at the middle site from 1948-97 and exposed 2 m of the pilings of the Nebraska Highway 8 bridge. Channel widening could not be verified at the two sites from 1967-97, but a historic account indicates widening at the middle site to be two to three times that of the 1949 channel width. Small bank failures were evident at the upper site and a 4-m-wide bank failure occurred at the middle site in 1987 according to tree ring analyses. Examination of streambed-elevation data from a previous study at the lower site reveals a statistically significant aggrading trend from 1958-93. Further examination of these data suggests minor degradation occurred until 1975, followed by aggradation.

Rus, David, L.; Soenksen, Philip, J.

1998-01-01

280

Diffusion of heterocyclic compounds from a complex mixture of coal–tar compounds in natural clayey till  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diffusion of coal–tar compounds in natural clayey till was studied experimentally. Cores were exposed to a solution with near constant concentration of coal–tar compounds in a multi-component mixture for 5 months, the cores were subsequently sub-sampled and analyzed. Diffusion profile data strongly indicates highly non-linear sorption isotherms. For dibenzofuran, dibenzothiophene, 2-methylquinoline, carbazole, phenanthrene, and fluorene, the profiles indicated significantly

Mette M. Broholm; Kim Broholm; Erik Arvin

1999-01-01

281

Paleoflood investigations for Cherry Creek Basin, Eastern Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1950 when Cherry Creek dam, which is located in Denver. Colorado, was completed, the design flood was 5,126 m3/s. Two recent probable maximum flood (PMF) estimates for the dam range from 14,840 to 18,750 m 3/s demonstrate the uncertainty in estimating extreme flooding in eastern Colorado. PMF difference is due in part to a lack of extreme rainfall and flood data in eastern Colorado. A paleoflood study was conducted to assist dam-safety officials in assessing the risk of large floods in Cherry Creek basin. An envelope curve encompassing maximum contemporary floods (19 sites) and paleofloods (99 sites) was developed for Cherry Creek basin streams; paleoflood data reflect maximum flooding during the last few hundred to many thousands of years. Maximum paleofloods in Cherry Creek range from about 1,050 m 3/s near Franktown (in about 5,000 to at least 10,000 years), about 2,100 m3/s near Melvin (in about 1,500 to 5,000 years), and about 2,270 m3/s at Cherry Creek Reservoir (also in about 1,500 to 5,000 years). Flood-frequency relations for Cherry Creek, which incorporate paleoflood data, indicate the 10,000-year flood (10-4 annual exceedence probability) ranges from about 1,200 m3/s (near Franktown) to about 2,200 m3/s (near Melvin). PMF estimates are about six to eight times larger than paleofloods in Cherry Creek basin. Additional research in flood hydrometeorology is needed to help dam safety officials evaluate potential safety problems related to large floods in Cherry Creek basin. Copyright ASCE 2004.

Jarrett, R. D.

2004-01-01

282

Conservation of Thane Creek and Ulhas River Estuary, India.  

PubMed

There has been a steady decrease in the area occupied by wetlands in creeks and estuaries adjacent urban areas due to unprecedented urban growth in coastal cities, for example, Thane Creek and Ulhas River Estuary near Mumbai, India. Urban cities serve as centres of employment and attract a large number of migrants from other places. In case of coastal cities, due to inadequate infrastructure, wastewater and solid waste are disposed of into wetlands and estuary. Discharge of sediments and solid waste into the creeks from drains and construction activities has resulted in decreased flow depth in the coastal waters of Thane Creek and Ulhas River Estuary. Various researchers have studied individual elements of Thane Creek and Ulhas River Estuary at micro level. However, a holistic approach for restoration and conservation of the creek and estuary is required. This paper presents the details of an integrated approach incorporating different conservation measures such as sewerage and sewage treatment, urban drainage management, solid waste management, mangrove plantation and dredging. PMID:21117428

Nikam, Vinay S; Kumar, Arun; Lalla, Kamal; Gupta, Kapil

2009-07-01

283

Gain-Loss Study of Lower San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River, San Antonio, Texas, May-October 1999.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Five streamflow gain-loss measurement surveys were made along lower San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River from Mitchell Street to South Loop 410 east of Kelly Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas, during May October 1999. All of the measurements were ...

D. J. Ockerman

2002-01-01

284

Best management practices plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant site is currently under a Federal Facilities Agreement to define soil and groundwater contamination and develop remedies to protect human health and the environment. The western end of the site is known to have a former nitric acid disposal pit that has been remediated and capped. Remedial investigation data indicate this pit was a source of nitrate, uranium, technetium, and other metals contamination in groundwater. The downgradient receptor of this contamination includes Bear Creek and its tributaries. A feasibility study is underway to develop a remedy to prevent further contaminant migration to this receptor. To support the feasibility study, a treatability study is being completed to examine groundwater treatment at the S-3 site. This document serves as the top level command medium for Phase II and as such will be the primary resource for management and implementation of field activities. Many of the details and standard operating procedures referred within this document can be found in other Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems) documents. Several supporting documents specific to this project are also cited. These include the Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP), the Health and Safety Plan (HASP), and the Waste Management Plan (WMP). Section 1 describes the results of Phase I efforts. Section 2 describes the objectives of Phase II. Section 3 provides details of field testing. Section 4 addresses the HASP. Section 5 describes the SAP. Section 6 introduces the WMP. Environmental compliance issues are discussed in Section 7, and sediment and erosion control is addressed in Section 8. Information about the project team is provided in Section 9.

NONE

1997-05-01

285

Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek Watershed Monitoring Program  

SciTech Connect

Biological monitoring of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, which border the Paducah Site, has been conducted since 1987. Biological monitoring was conducted by University of Kentucky from 1987 to 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 through March 1999. In March 1998, renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permits were issued to the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Enrichment Corporation. The renewed DOE permit requires that a watershed monitoring program be developed for the Paducah Site within 90 days of the effective date of the renewed permit. This plan outlines the sampling and analysis that will be conducted for the watershed monitoring program. The objectives of the watershed monitoring are to (1) determine whether discharges from the Paducah Site and the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) associated with the Paducah Site are adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assess the ecological health of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, (3) assess the degree to which abatement actions ecologically benefit Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, (4) provide guidance for remediation, (5) provide an evaluation of changes in potential human health concerns, and (6) provide data which could be used to assess the impact of inadvertent spills or fish kill. According to the cleanup will result in these watersheds [Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks] achieving compliance with the applicable water quality criteria.

Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon; Smith, J.G.

1999-03-01

286

Radiocarbon dating of extinct fauna in the Americas recovered from tar pits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have obtained radiocarbon dates by accelerator mass spectrometry on bones of extinct large mammals from tar pits. Results on some samples of Glyptodon and Holmesina (extinct large mammals similar to armadillos) yielded ages of >25 and >21 ka, respectively. We also studied the radiocarbon ages of three different samples of bones from the extinct Cuban ground sloth, Parocnus bownii, which yielded dates ranging from 4960+/-280 to 11880+/-420 yrBP. In order to remove the tar component pretreat the samples sufficiently to obtain reliable dates, we cleaned the samples by Soxhlet extraction in benzene. Resulting samples of collagenous material were often small.

Jull, A. J. T.; Iturralde-Vinent, M.; O'Malley, J. M.; Macphee, R. D. E.; McDonald, H. G.; Martin, P. S.; Moody, J.; Rincón, A.

2004-08-01

287

Early specific free radical-related cytotoxicity of gas phase cigarette smoke and its paradoxical temporary inhibition by tar: An electron paramagnetic resonance study with the spin trap DEPMPO.  

PubMed

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping studies demonstrated aqueous tar particulate matter (TPM) and gas phase cigarette smoke (GPCS) to behave as different sources of free radicals in cigarette smoke (CS) but their cytotoxic implications have been only assessed in CS due to its relevance to the natural smoking process. Using a sensitive spin trapping detection with 5-(diethoxyphosphoryl)-5-methyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DEPMPO), this study compared the respective roles of CS- and GPCS-derived free radicals on smoke-induced cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation of filtered and unfiltered, machine-smoked experimental and reference cigarettes yielding a wide range of TPM yields. In buffer bubbled with CS the DEPMPO/superoxide spin adduct was the major detected nitroxide. Use of appropriate control experiments with nitric oxide radical (NO*) or carbonyl sulfide, and a computer analysis of spin adduct diastereoisomery showed that the hydroxyl radical (HO*) adduct of DEPMPO seen in GPCS-bubbled was rather related to metal-catalyzed nucleophilic synthesis than to direct HO* trapping. Unexpectedly a protective effect of TPM on murine 3T3 fibroblasts was observed in early (<3h) free radical-, GPCS-induced cell death, and carbon filtering decreased free radical formation, toxicity and lipid peroxidation in three cell lines (including human epithelial lung cells) challenged with GPCS. These results highlight an acute, free radical-dependent, harmful mechanism specific to the GPCS phase, possibly involving NO* chemistry, whose physical or chemical control may be of great interest with the aim of reducing the toxicity of smoke. PMID:17083924

Culcasi, Marcel; Muller, Agnès; Mercier, Anne; Clément, Jean-Louis; Payet, Olivier; Rockenbauer, Antal; Marchand, Véronique; Pietri, Sylvia

2006-10-06

288

Quantifying Hyporheic Exchange at Sagehen Creek, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying heat and water exchange at the hyporheic zone is an important basis for understanding stream ecology and biogeochemistry. Unfortunately, at many streams the nature and extent of hyporheic exchange between surface water and shallow groundwater is unknown. In this study we use both field observations and model simulations to better understand the hyporheic exchange at Sagehen Creek, an alpine stream located in the Central Sierra Nevada, California. Three transects, each containing shallow peizometers and a stream gage, were established at Sagehen Creek, each fitted with pressure and temperature loggers to continuously monitor the head and temperature of both surface streamflow and near surface groundwater during the late summer and fall of 2011. These observations are then used with a model to simulate hyporheic water and heat exchange direction and magnitude. The results of this studyallow us to quantify how the hyporheic exchange differs between snowmelt dominated high flow periods and groundwater dominated low flow periods. The 2011 water year in the Sierra Nevada was unusual in that there was higher than average snowfall, late snowfall, and late snowmelt, resulting in streams such as Sagehen Creek having a later peak discharge date than average. Therefore, trends observed this year as to how groundwater drains or contributes to streamflow may provide a basis for examining how abnormally late snowmelt influences stream water quality, nutrient dynamics, and water sourcing and availability.

Heslop, J.; Boyle, D. P.

2011-12-01

289

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 4. Appendixes G, H, and I and information related to the feasibility study and ARARs  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 4 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

NONE

1996-06-01

290

Preparation of spherical activated phenol-formaldehyde beads from bamboo tar for adsorption of toluene.  

PubMed

Bamboo tar is a waste by-product from the process of bamboo charcoal production. After distillation under reduced pressure, bamboo tar becomes a highly viscous liquid containing phenolic compounds at more than 70 wt%. Therefore, bamboo tar could be an excellent replacement for the phenolic compounds produced by the decomposition of petroleum. In this study, bamboo tar was mixed with formalin under a weak alkaline condition to form cured phenol-formaldehyde (PF) beads through suspension polymerization. In total, 35% of the obtained PF resin produced spherical beads with a particle size ranging from 9 to 16 mesh. The char yield after 500 degrees C carbonization was 60.4 wt%, according to thermogravimetric analysis. This high char yield is advantageous for the subsequent activation process. After physical activation using CO2 at 900 degrees C for 2 hr the carbide yield was up to 73.0 wt%. The specific surface area of activated PF beads was dependent on the activation time and temperature. Toluene adsorption results suggest that the activated PF beads are applicable to the adsorption and recovery of VOC gases. Monolayer adsorption may limit the VOC adsorption with activated PF beads because the adsorption isotherms were better fitted with the Langmuir model. Implications: Bamboo tar is shown to be a good replacement for the phenolic compounds from decomposition of petroleum to form activated phenol-formaldehyde (PF) beads. Toluene adsorption tests suggest that the activated PF beads have potential to adsorb and recover VOC gases. Nevertheless, due to the low specific surface area of the activated PF beads from bamboo tar, a further enhancement in both meso- and microporosity is needed in the future experiments. The experimental data provide a contribution to better understanding the possibility of resource recovery of waste agricultural by-products and their potential application in environment protection. PMID:24010379

Huang, Ying-Pin; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Liu, Szu-Chen

2013-08-01

291

Depositional environments, sequence stratigraphy, and trapping mechanisms of Fall River Formation in Donkey Creek and Coyote Creek oil fields, Powder River basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Donkey Creek and Coyote Creek fields contain combined reserves of approximately 35 million bbl of oil and are within a trend of fields on the eastern flank of the Powder River basin that totals over 100 million bbl of reserves. The principal producing formation is the Lower Cretaceous Fall River Sandstone. A study of 45 cores and 248 logs from

Paul R. Knox

1989-01-01

292

Tar Removal in a Hot Gas Desulfurization Process. Final Report, October 1984-March 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of studies from a project sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), are reported. The primary objective of these studies was to develop a catalyst which converts sulfur in coal tars to a form (such as...

E. G. Baker L. K. Mudge

1986-01-01

293

Modulation of the atopy patch test reaction by topical corticosteroids and tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Pharmacologic studies in atopic eczema (AE) are difficult to standardize. Patients with AE differ in the stage of their skin disease (acute, subacute, chronic). Objective: This study was designed to assess macroscopic and microscopic effects of pretreatment with topical glucocortico-steroids (GCSs) and tar on the atopy patch test (APT) reaction in patients with atopic eczema. Methods: Nonlesional skin of

Elisabeth G. Langeveld-Wildschut; Hannes Riedl; Theo Thepen; Ilse C. Bihari; Piet L. B. Bruijnzeel; Carla A. F. M. Bruijnzeel-Koomen

2000-01-01

294

Technical Problems in the Mining of Tar Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors which affect the selection of equipment, mine layout, and sequence of operations are discussed as they relate to the open-pit mining of tar sands. These factors include the overburden to-tar-sand ratio, geological, and hydrological conditions and general limitations of open pit methods. Overburden removal is discussed from the standpoints of overburden properties, equipment selection, and field operations. Tar sand

KFM Gold

1967-01-01

295

GC/MS characterization of condensable tars in the output stream of a stirred fixed-bed gasifier  

SciTech Connect

The output stream of the stirred fixed-bed gasifier at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center was sampled for total entrained material. A major portion of the entrained material, in addition to particles, is condensable tar that is subsequently removed from the process gas by wet scrubbing. Characterization of the entrained materials, specifically the tar, is important to establish contaminant levels and to evaluate performance of downstream cleanup units. Samples of tars were collected from the process unit in a combined ice, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen sampler and stored in a refrigerator. The tar samples were then separated into asphaltene, neutral oil, tar acid, and base fractions by solvent extraction using toluene, pentane, sulfuric acid, and potassium hydroxide extraction. Characterization of the fractions obtained from these tars include IR, UV, GC, and GC/MS analysis. The mass spectrometer analysis of the various isolates shows that many individual peaks in the gas chromatograph are in fact mixtures that can be readily identified by the mass spectrometer. It was found that many of the species identified in these fractions were members of aromatic homologous series consisting of parent, mono, di, and tri substituted compounds. Compound identification was made by comparison of the data system library and standard reference spectra. This paper will discuss the instrumental approach and limitation of the GC/MS and the results of the characterization studies of entrained hydrocarbons collected from the gasifier stream.

Lamey, S.C.; McCaskill, K.B.; Smith, R.R.

1981-12-01

296

Sequence and structure requirements for specific recognition of HIV-1 TAR and DIS RNA by the HIV-1 Vif protein.  

PubMed

The HIV-1 Vif protein plays an essential role in the regulation of the infectivity of HIV-1 virion and in vivo pathogenesis. Vif neutralizes the human DNA-editing enzyme APOBEC3 protein, an antiretroviral cellular factor from the innate immune system, allowing the virus to escape the host defence system. It was shown that Vif is packaged into viral particles through specific interactions with the viral genomic RNA. Conserved and structured sequences from the 5'-noncoding region, such as the Tat-responsive element (TAR) or the genomic RNA dimerization initiation site (DIS), are primary binding sites for Vif. In the present study we used isothermal titration calorimetry to investigate sequence and structure determinants important for Vif binding to short viral RNA corresponding to TAR and DIS stem-loops. We showed that Vif specifically binds TAR and DIS in the low nanomolar range. In addition, Vif primarily binds the TAR UCU bulge, but not the apical loop. Determinants for Vif binding to the DIS loop-loop complex are likely more complex and involve the self-complementary loop together with the upper part of the stem. These results suggest that Tat-TAR inhibitors or DIS small molecule binders might be also effective to disturb Vif-TAR and Vif-DIS binding in order to reduce Vif packaging into virions. PMID:22767258

Freisz, Séverine; Mezher, Joelle; Hafirassou, Lamine; Wolff, Philippe; Nominé, Yves; Romier, Christophe; Dumas, Philippe; Ennifar, Eric

2012-07-01

297

Bioremediation potential of coal-tar-oil-contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

The bioremediation of coal tar oil contaminated soil was investigated in 90 day laboratory simulation experiments. The effect of soil moisture, humic acid amendment, and coal tar oil concentration on the rate of disappearance of individual coal tar oil constituents (PAHs and related compounds) was determined by methylene chloride extraction and gas chromatography. Mass balance experiments determined the fate of both the individual [sup 14]C-labeled PAHs phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene, and the total coal tar oil carbon. Mineralization, volatilization, incorporation into microbial biomass, disappearance of individual coal tar oil constitutents, and the distribution of residual [sup 14]C-activity in different soil fractions were measured. The rate of disappearance of coal tar oil constituents increased with increasing soil moisture over the experimental range. Humic acid amendment initially enhanced the rate of disappearance, but decreased the extent of disappearance. The amount of contamination removed decreased at higher coal tar oil concentrations. The practical limit for biodegradation in the system tested appeared to be between 1.0 and 2.5% coal tar oil. Mineralization accounted for 40 to 50% of the applied coal tar oil. Volatilization was a minor pathway of disappearance.

Lajoie, C.A.

1991-01-01

298

33 CFR 117.573 - Stoney Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.573 Stoney Creek. The draw of the Stoney Creek (S173) bridge, mile 0.9, in Riviera shall open on...

2013-07-01

299

Mann Creek Reservoir 1992 Sedimentation Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the 1992 results of the first extensive sedimentation survey of Mann Creek Reservoir by Reclamation since construction of Mann Creek Dam. The primary objectives of the survey were to: gather data needed for developing new reservoir to...

R. L. Ferrari

1992-01-01

300

Valley Creek Restoration Plan, August 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Restoration Plan presents restoration strategies and projects that can be implemented in the Valley Creek watershed to enhance the Valley Creek fishery and restore the natural resources in the watershed, with the ultimate goal of renewed uses, such a...

2004-01-01

301

Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

1995-04-01

302

Trace metals in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens  

SciTech Connect

Fe, Ni, and V are considered trace impurities in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens. In order to understand the importance of these metals, we have examined several properties: (1) bulk metals levels, (2) distribution in separated fractions, (3) size behavior in feeds and during processing, (4) speciation as a function of size, and (5) correlations with rheological properties. Some of the results of these studies show: (1) V and Ni have roughly bimodal size distributions, (2) groupings were seen based on location, size distribution, and Ni/V ratio of the sample, (3) Fe profiles are distinctively different, having a unimodal distribution with a maximum at relatively large molecular size, (4) Fe concentrations in the tar sand bitumens suggest possible fines solubilization in some cases, (5) SARA separated fractions show possible correlations of metals with asphaltene properties suggesting secondary and tertiary structure interactions, and (6) ICP-MS examination for soluble ultra-trace metal impurities show the possibility of unexpected elements such as U, Th, Mo, and others at concentrations in the ppB to ppM range. 39 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

Reynolds, J.G.

1990-11-28

303

Thermal Remediation of Tar-Contaminated Soil and Oil-Contaminated Gravel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilot plant studies were carried out to evaluate the feasibility of remediation of coal tar- contaminated soil and oil-contaminated gravel by incineration with environmentally acceptable performance. In addition to adequate decontamination and emission control, effort was devoted to treating the special feedstocks with difficult handling properties by use of conventional combustion and feeding systems. Analysis of the results showed that

Edward J. Anthony; Jinsheng Wang; Dave Martin

304

Processing of Arroyo Grande tar sand using the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE copyright ) process  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study are to (1) evaluate the applications of the ROPE{copyright} process to a California tar sand using the screw pyrolysis reactor-process development unit (SPR-PDU) reactor, (2) produce kinetics data for the recycle product oil-spent sand interaction, and (3) produce oil for end-use evaluation. 6 refs., 1 fig., 23 tabs.

King, S.B.

1989-12-01

305

Radiocarbon dating of extinct fauna in the Americas recovered from tar pits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have obtained radiocarbon dates by accelerator mass spectrometry on bones of extinct large mammals from tar pits. Results on some samples of Glyptodon and Holmesina (extinct large mammals similar to armadillos) yielded ages of >25 and >21 ka, respectively. We also studied the radiocarbon ages of three different samples of bones from the extinct Cuban ground sloth, Parocnus bownii,

A. J. T Jull; M. Iturralde-Vinent; J. M O'Malley; R. D. E MacPhee; H. G McDonald; P. S Martin; J. Moody; A. Rincón

2004-01-01

306

An optical analysis of the organic soil over an old petroleum tar deposit  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed by an optical method (the small volume method) the composition and the vertical distribution of an organic soil which accumulated over an old petroleum tar deposit. The study site was an oil refinery now colonised by woody vegetation since the time of abandonment (1964), located at Merkwiller-Pechelbronn (Alsace, France). Comparisons were done with a nearby unpolluted control plot

Servane Gillet; Jean-Francois Ponge

2006-01-01

307

Catalyst specificities in high pressure hydroprocessing of pyrolysis and gasification tars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a period of several years, the Department of Forest Science at Texas A and M University has been conducting studies in the hydroprocessing (catalytic high pressure hydrotreating or hydrodeoxygenation accompanied by hydrocracking) of pyrolytic tars produced in biomass pyrolysis and gasification. Upgrading through hydroprocessing results in good yields of volatile hydrocarbon and phenolic products. This paper compares the performance

E. J. Soltes; S. C. K. Lin; Y. H. E. Sheu

1987-01-01

308

Catalytic tar decomposition of biomass pyrolysis gas with a combination of dolomite and silica  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the catalytic effects of dolomite and silica on biomass tar decomposition were investigated. The concentration of naphthalene is of particular interest since it is the most difficult compound to decompose when dolomite is used as catalyst. The two catalysts were tested in different combinations to see whether synergetic effects on the cracking of naphthalene could be found.

Carin Myrén; Christina Hörnell; Emilia Björnbom; Krister Sjöström

2002-01-01

309

Mesophase development in coal-tar pitch modified with various polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of 10% addition of various polymers to coal-tar pitch on its conversion into mesophase during isothermal treatment at 450°C has been studied using polarized light optical microscopy. The additives appear to modify to a different extent the kinetics of the conversion and morphology of the developed mesophase. A common effect is an acceleration of mesophase unit growth in

Jacek Machnikowski; Helena Machnikowska; Tatiana Brzozowska; Janusz Zieli?ski

2002-01-01

310

Indications of mineral zoning in a fossil hydrothermal system at the Meager Creek geothermal prospect, British Columbia, Canada, from induced polarization studies  

SciTech Connect

By measuring the induced-polarization parameters m (chargeability) and tau (time-constant) we have found evidence that the center of a presumed fossil hydrothermal system at Meager Creek, British Columbia, lies south of the main manifestation of the present-day convective hydrothermal system. What implication this finding has for development of the present-day system is unknown. However, some of the fractures formed during the development of the fossil hydrothermal system may serve as conduits for fluids of the present-day system. The analysis is limited by the lack of availability of a good subsurface distribution of core samples. Nevertheless, a surface induced-polarization survey is expected to yield information about the geometry of the fossil system. Such knowledge would have implications not only for Meager Creek but for other hydrothermal systems of Cascades volcano type. 16 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

Ward, S.H.; Zhao, J.X.; Groenwald, J.; Moore, J.N.

1985-05-01

311

Mineralogical and stable isotope studies of gold–arsenic mineralisation in the Sams Creek peralkaline porphyritic granite, South Island, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Sams Creek, a gold-bearing, peralkaline granite porphyry dyke, which has a 7 km strike length and is up to 60 m in thickness, intrudes camptonite lamprophyre dykes and lower greenschist facies metapelites and quartzites of the Late Ordovician Wangapeka formation. The lamprophyre dykes occur as thin (18Omagma values (+5 to +8‰, VSMOW) of the A-type granite suggest derivation from a primitive

Kevin Faure; Robert L. Brathwaite

2006-01-01

312

The Cane Creek clastic interval of the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation - an exciting new horizontal target part II: Horizontal drilling technology: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1991, Columbia Gas and its partners completed the first medium-radius horizontal well in Utah as a Cane Creek producer. The Kane Springs Federal No. 27-1 had an initial production of 914 BOPD. Since that time, two additional high-volume producers have been completed and a fourth well has been temporarily abandoned. Columbia's horizontal success rate to date is 75%, a

K. W. Grove; R. M. Bayne; C. C. Horgan

1993-01-01

313

Identification of subwatershed sources for chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the Ballona Creek watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Santa Monica Bay forms part of the western border of the greater Los Angeles region. The Ballona Creek watershed is highly urbanized and past studies indicate that Ballona Creek is the largest source for most pollutants to Santa Monica Bay. This study evaluates the contribution of subwatersheds to PCB and chlorinated pesticide loading during wet weather flow. Fifteen storm drains

Jane Curren; Steven Bush; Simon Ha; Michael K. Stenstrom; Sim-Lin Lau; I. H. Mel Suffet

2011-01-01

314

Smoking Habits and Tar Levels in a New American Cancer Society Prospective Study of 1 .2 Million Men and Women 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1982 the American Cancer Society (ACS) enrolled over 1.2 million American men and women in a prospective mor- tality study of cancer and other causes in relation to environmental and life-style factors . Biennial follow-up is planned through 1988 . At the time of enrollment, 23.6% of the men and 20 .0% of the women were current smokers of

Steven D. Steliman; Lawrence Garfinkel

315

Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials  

SciTech Connect

This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

Stauffer, H.C.

1981-01-01

316

Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX); Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX)

2010-01-12

317

OXYGEN AERATION AT NEWTOWN CREEK  

EPA Science Inventory

A successful initial feasibility investigation of oxygen aeration at the 0.11-cu m/sec (2.5-mgd) municipal wastewater treatment plant in Batavia, New York, prompted a larger demonstration at New York City's 13.6-cu m/sec (310-mgd) Newtown Creek Plant. A 34-mo evaluation was perfo...

318

Oxygen Aeration at Newtown Creek.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A successful initial feasibility investigation of oxygen aeration at the 0.11-cu m/sec (2.5-mgd) municipal wastewater treatment plant in Batavia, New York, prompted a larger demonstration at New York City's 13.6-cu m/sec (310-mgd) Newtown Creek Plant. A 3...

N. Nash W. B. Pressman P. J. Krasnoff

1979-01-01

319

Telogia Creek Conservation Tillage Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Best Management Practice demonstration project on crop and pasture land in the Telogia Creek Watershed was conducted by making reduced tillage equipment available to farmers, establishing on-farm demonstration plots, and holding field days to demonstrate and evaluate reduced tillage, new conservation tillage and new subsoil tillage technology. An evaluation of a Dyna Drive, a new rotary surface ground driven

B. F. Castro; B. R Durden; H. G. Grant

320

Clayton Lake, Jackfork Creek, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed Clayton damsite is located at mile 2.8 on Jackfork Creek in Pushmataha County, Oklahoma, about 6 miles northwest of Clayton. The project consists of construction of a flood control, water supply, recreation, and fish and wildlife lake located...

1971-01-01

321

48 CFR Appendix to Part 1252 - Tar Matrix  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tar Matrix Appendix to Part 1252 Federal Acquisition Regulations...CONTRACT CLAUSES Pt. 1252, App. Appendix to Part 1252âTar Matrix ER27DE05.000 ER27DE05.001 ER27DE05.002...

2011-10-01

322

48 CFR Appendix to Part 1252 - Tar Matrix  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tar Matrix Appendix to Part 1252 Federal Acquisition Regulations...CONTRACT CLAUSES Pt. 1252, App. Appendix to Part 1252âTar Matrix ER27DE05.000 ER27DE05.001 ER27DE05.002...

2012-10-01

323

Tar Barreler's Hump: An Unusual Presentation of a Posttraumatic Pseudolipoma  

PubMed Central

This is an interesting paper of a 4?cm posttraumatic pseudolipoma on the back of the neck of an adult man who has participated in “tar barrel rolling” since adolescence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a pseudolipoma to be reported in the literature in association with tar barreling.

Olubaniyi, Babajide Olusola; Sidhu, Harbir; Long, Alex; de-Sousa, Nigel; Redfern, Andrew

2012-01-01

324

FY 80 Tar Sands Program first quarterly report, January 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and development efforts in support of the Tar Sands program well completions and stimulation subactivity and new and novel concepts task have been initiated. The objectives of the well completion and stimulation efforts are to carry out research and development in areas with significant for long-range tar sand extraction development as well as provide potential interaction and support of

R. L. Fox; J. R. Wayland

1980-01-01

325

The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1990-07-01

326

The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands  

SciTech Connect

Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1990-07-01

327

Operational data on the liquid phase tar chamber at Leuna  

Microsoft Academic Search

This file is a series of operational records and diagrams of the liquid phase tar chamber at Leuna. According to Haehnel (in a brief general section) in the chamber a brown coal low temperature carbonization tar was distilled with a small amount of oil. Lighter fractions were led off and the residue was cycled to the liquid phase hydrogenation. When

2008-01-01

328

Use of solvents to enhance PAH biodegradation of coal tar-  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioremediation of coal tar-contaminated soils containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is highly challenging because of the low solubility and strong sorption properties of PAHs. Five coal tar-contaminated soils from former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites were pretreated with two solvents, acetone and ethanol to enhance the bioavailability of the PAH compounds. The biodegradation of various PAHs in the pretreated soils

Pak-Hing Lee; Say Kee Ong; Johanshir Golchin

2001-01-01

329

Manufacture of road paving asphalt using coal tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal tar is a ready source of asphaltenes needed in asphalt production. Coal tar pitch itself, however, is unsuitable for making road-paving asphalt, since the resulting material has low ductility, high temperature sensitivity, and low resistance to wear. For this reason, in England, where replacing imported petroleum with local products was important 10 to 20 years ago, it was required

Tsoung-yuan Yan

1986-01-01

330

Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Azaarenes in a Coal Tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coal tar sample taken from a well located on the site of a former coal tar distillation plant was dissolved in methylene chloride and fractionated into acids, bases, and neutrals by acid\\/base partitioning. Alumina chromatography was used to separate the base fraction into five fractions, one of which contained the azaarenes. These fractions were subjected to gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry.

Viorica Lopez-avila; Susan Kraska; Michael Flanagan

1988-01-01

331

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

1988-05-04

332

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus or utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000{degrees}F in a burner to remove residual char nd produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capital and operating costs.

Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

1989-11-14

333

Effect of the bioemulsifier emulsan on naphthalene mineralization from coal tar in aqueous systems  

SciTech Connect

Coal tar in aerobic aqueous systems was treated with purified emulsan, the anionic heteropolysaccharide bioemulsifier produced by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1; with inocula of various concentrations of stationary phase RAG-1 cells; or with cell-free broth from stationary phase RAG-1 cultures. Naphthalene mineralization by a mixed PAH-degrading population was measured by recovering {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolved during biotransformation of the [{sup 14}C]naphthalene-labeled coal tar. There was no evidence of naphthalene mineralization by RAG- 1 cells alone. The addition of emulsan, RAG-1 inocula, or cell-free broth to systems containing the PAH-degrading population did not significantly affect naphthalene mineralization in any of the systems tested. Coal tar in these experiments was present either as a free dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), or as DNAPL imbibed into microporous silica particles. Emulsification of the tar was not observed in either case. The presence or absence of microporous silica did not affect the extent or rate of naphthalene mineralization, nor did the concentration of RAG-1 inocula or the amount of broth added. The addition of cell-free broth, emulsan, or RAG-1 cells late in the experiments did not yield significantly different results compared to initial addition of these substances. Thus, emulsan and related fractions from RAG-1 cultures were ineffective in altering naphthalene mineralization in this study.

Skubal, K.L.; Luthy, R.G.

1994-09-01

334

WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, INDIAN CREEK (CANYON COUNTY), IDAHO 1976-1977  

EPA Science Inventory

The Indian Creek drainage (17050114) is located in the Boise River Basin of Southwest Idaho. This study was concerned with the portion of Indian Creek near the Nampa and Caldwell urban areas. Major land uses in the area are associated with urban development and irrigated agricu...

335

WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, GEORGETOWN CREEK, BEAR LAKE COUNTY, IDAHO, 1977  

EPA Science Inventory

Georgetown Creek (16010201) drains a small watershed in Bear Lake County. A phosphate fertilizer plant operated in Georgetown Canyon until 1964. This study was conducted to assess water quality of Georgetown Creek as a background for future monitoring. 20 parameters were sampl...

336

WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, BLOOMINGTON CREEK, BEAR LAKE COUNTY, IDAHO, 1977  

EPA Science Inventory

Bloomington Creek (16010201) drains a small watershed in Bear Lake County. A phosphate mine and mill have been proposed for the Bloomington area. This study was conducted to provide background water quality data on Bloomington Creek. 21 parameters were sampled bi-weekly for 1 ...

337

Resource appraisal and preliminary planning for surface mining of oil shale Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods used in the computerized resource mapping of the Piceance Creek Basin are discussed. Study of seven succeeding oil shale zones shows that the thickest and richest oil shale deposits in the Piceance Creek Basin occur in the central portions of the northern half of the basin. Information on resource recovery, environmental impacts, technical mining limitations, and cost was gathered

C. E. Banks; B. C. Franciscotti

1976-01-01

338

The biology of salt wells creek and its tributaries, southwestern Wyoming. Water-resources investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description of biological communities in Salt Wells Creek, a plains stream in the Green River Basin of Wyoming, is presented. The description includes population distribution patterns, community edge effects, the food pyramid, and nutrition (trophic) levels between various types of plants and animals. Both algae and stream invertebrates were studied. Salt Wells Creek is a low-nutrient concentration system in

Engelke; M. J. Jr

1978-01-01

339

Geology and coal resources of the Foidel Creek EMRIA site and surrounding area, Routt County, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Terrigenous clastic sediments of the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group (Campanian) in the southeastern part of the Yampa coal field in Routt County, northwestern Colorado, contain many beds of bituminous coal. Lower, middle, and upper coal groups are recognized. The middle coal group, in the lower coal-bearing member of the Williams Fork Formation, contains two thick, persistent coal beds in the Foidel Creek area. The Wadge coal bed, stratigraphically the higher of the two, reaches thicknesses of 3.7 meters, and is strippable beneath large areas on the south slope of Eckman Park. Coal resources of the Wadge bed in the Foidel Creek area--an area of 134 square kilometers, as defined in this study--are estimated to be 317 million metric tons. The Foidel Creek EMRIA reclamation study site--an area of 10.9 square kilometers--contains about 36.1 million metric tons of Wadge coal, as much as 28.1 million metric tons of which occur beneath overburden 61 meters or less in thickness. About 52 meters lower in the section, the Wolf Creek coal bed locally exceeds 6.1 meters in thickness. Coal resources of the Wolf Creek bed in the Foidel Creek area are estimated to be 434 million metric tons. The Foidel Creek EMRIA reclamation study site contains an estimated 49.7 million metric tons of Wolf Creek coal.

Ryer, Thomas A.

1977-01-01

340

3-D sedimentological and geophysical studies of clastic reservoir analogs: Facies architecture, reservoir properties, and flow behavior within delta front facies elements of the Cretaceous Wall Creek Member, Frontier Formation, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This project examined the internal architecture of delta front sandstones at two locations within the Turonian-age Wall Creek Member of the Frontier Formation, in Wyoming. The project involved traditional outcrop field work integrated with core-data, and 2D and 3D ground penetrating radar (GPR) imaging from behind the outcrops. The fluid-flow engineering work, handled through a collaborative grant given to PI Chris White at LSU, focused on effects on fluid flow of late-stage calcite cement nodules in 3D. In addition to the extensive field component, the work funded 2 PhD students (Gani and Lee) and resulted in publication of 10 technical papers, 17 abstracts, and 4 internal field guides. PI Bhattacharya also funded an additional 3 PhD students that worked on the Wall Creek sandstone funded separately through an industrial consortium, two of whom graduated in the fall 2006 ((Sadeque and Vakarelov). These additional funds provided significant leverage to expand the work to include a regional stratigraphic synthesis of the Wall Creek Member of the Frontier Formation, in addition to the reservoir-scale studies that DOE directly funded. Awards given to PI Bhattacharya included the prestigious AAPG Distinguished Lecture Award, which involved a tour of about 25 Universities and Geological Societies in the US and Canada in the fall of 2005 and Spring of 2006. Bhattacharya gave two talks, one entitled “Applying Deltaic and Shallow Marine Outcrop Analogs to the Subsurface”, which highlighted the DOE sponsored work and the other titled “Martian River Deltas and the Origin of Life”. The outcrop analog talk was given at about 1/2 of the venues visited.

Janok P. Bhattacharya; George A. McMechan

2007-02-16

341

HIV-1 TAR RNA subverts RNA interference in transfected cells through sequestration of TAR RNA-binding protein, TRBP.  

PubMed

TAR RNA-binding protein, TRBP, was recently discovered to be an essential partner for Dicer and a crucial component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), a critical element of the RNA interference (RNAi) of the cell apparatus. Human TRBP was originally characterized and cloned 15 years ago based on its high affinity for binding the HIV-1 encoded leader RNA, TAR. RNAi is used, in part, by cells to defend against infection by viruses. Here, we report that transfected TAR RNA can attenuate the RNAi machinery in human cells. Our data suggest that TAR RNA sequesters TRBP rendering it unavailable for downstream Dicer-RISC complexes. TAR-induced inhibition of Dicer-RISC activity in transfected cells was partially relieved by exogenous expression of TRBP. PMID:16887810

Bennasser, Yamina; Yeung, Man Lung; Jeang, Kuan-Teh

2006-08-03

342

Class I cultural resource overview for oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming.  

SciTech Connect

In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the 'Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005', Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is developing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) to evaluate alternatives for establishing commercial oil shale and tar sands leasing programs in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. This PEIS evaluates the potential impacts of alternatives identifying BLM-administered lands as available for application for commercial leasing of oil shale resources within the three states and of tar sands resources within Utah. The scope of the analysis of the PEIS also includes an assessment of the potential effects of future commercial leasing. This Class I cultural resources study is in support of the Draft Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and is an attempt to synthesize archaeological data covering the most geologically prospective lands for oil shale and tar sands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. This report is based solely on geographic information system (GIS) data held by the Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPOs). The GIS data include the information that the BLM has provided to the SHPOs. The primary purpose of the Class I cultural resources overview is to provide information on the affected environment for the PEIS. Furthermore, this report provides recommendations to support planning decisions and the management of cultural resources that could be impacted by future oil shale and tar sands resource development.

O'Rourke, D.; Kullen, D.; Gierek, L.; Wescott, K.; Greby, M.; Anast, G.; Nesta, M.; Walston, L.; Tate, R.; Azzarello, A.; Vinikour, B.; Van Lonkhuyzen, B.; Quinn, J.; Yuen, R.; Environmental Science Division

2007-11-01

343

FIDDLER CREEK POLYMER AUGMENTATION PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The Fiddler Creek field is in Weston County, Wyoming, and was discovered in 1948. Secondary waterflooding recovery was started in 1955 and terminated in the mid-1980s with a fieldwide recovery of approximately 40%. The West Fiddler Creek Unit, the focus of this project, had a lower recovery and therefore has the most remaining oil. Before the project this unit was producing approximately 85 bbl of oil per day from 20 pumping wells and 17 swab wells. The recovery process planned for this project involved adapting two independent processes, the injection of polymer as a channel blocker or as a deep-penetrating permeability modifier, and the stabilization of clays and reduction of the residual oil saturation in the near-wellbore area around the injection wells. Clay stabilization was not conducted because long-term fresh water injection had not severely reduced the injectivity. It was determined that future polymer injection would not be affected by the clay. For the project, two adjoining project patterns were selected on the basis of prior reservoir studies and current well availability and production. The primary injection well of Pattern 1 was treated with a small batch of MARCIT gel to create channel blocking. The long-term test was designed for three phases: (1) 77 days of injection of a 300-mg/l cationic polyacrylamide, (2) 15 days of injection of a 300-mg/l anionic polymer to ensure injectivity of the polymer, and (3) 369 days of injection of the 300-mg/l anionic polymer and a 30:1 mix of the crosslinker. Phases 1 and 2 were conducted as planned. Phase 3 was started in late March 1999 and terminated in May 2001. In this phase, a crosslinker was added with the anionic polymer. Total injection for Phase 3 was 709,064 bbl. To maintain the desired injection rate, the injection pressure was slowly increased from 1,400 psig to 2,100 psig. Early in the application of the polymer, it appeared that the sweep improvement program was having a positive effect on Pattern 1 with lesser effects in Pattern 2. These early observations did not continue to develop. The oil production for both patterns remained fairly constant to the rates established by the restart of waterflooding. The water production declined but stabilized in both patterns. The stabilization of the oil at prepolymer rates and water production at the lower rates can be attributed to the polymer injection, but the effect was not as great as originally predicted. The sweep improvement for the patterns appeared to be negatively impacted by extended shutdowns in the injection and production systems. Such problems as those experienced in this project can be expected when long-term polymer injection is started in old waterflood fields. To prevent these problems, new injection and production tubulars and pumps would be required at a cost prohibitive to the present, independent operators. Unless the future results from the continued waterflood show positive effects of the long-term polymer injection, it appears that the batch-type polymer treatment may have more promise than the long-term treatment and should be more cost effective.

Lyle A. Johnson, Jr.

2001-10-31

344

Geology of the lower Yellow Creek Area, Northwestern Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The lower Yellow Creek area is located in Rio Blanco and Moffat Counties of northwestern Colorado, about midway between the towns of Rangely and Meeker. The study area is in the northwestern part of the Piceance Creek basin, a very deep structural and sedimentary basin that formed during the Laramide orogeny. Potentially important resources in the area are oil shale and related minerals, oil and gas, coal, and uranium. Topics discussed in the report include: Stratigraphy (Subsurface rocks, Cretaceous rocks, Tertiary rocks, and Quaternary deposits); Structure (Midland anticline, graben at Pinyon Ridge, and Crooked Wash syncline, Folds and faults in the vicinity of the White River, Red Wash syncline and central graben zone, Yellow Creek anticlinal nose); Economic geology (Oil shale and associated minerals, Coal, Oil and gas, Uranium, Gravel).

Hail, W.J.

1990-01-01

345

Characterization of water quality and biological communities, Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2007-2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fish Creek, an approximately 25-kilometer-long tributary to Snake River, is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson. Fish Creek is an important water body because it is used for irrigation, fishing, and recreation and adds scenic value to the Jackson Hole properties it runs through. Public concern about nuisance growths of aquatic plants in Fish Creek has been increasing since the early 2000s. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District to characterize the hydrology, water quality, and biologic communities of Fish Creek during 2007–11. The hydrology of Fish Creek is strongly affected by groundwater contributions from the area known as the Snake River west bank, which lies east of Fish Creek and west of Snake River. Because of this continuous groundwater discharge to the creek, land-use activities in the west bank area can affect the groundwater quality. Evaluation of nitrate isotopes and dissolved-nitrate concentrations in groundwater during the study indicated that nitrate was entering Fish Creek from groundwater, and that the source of nitrate was commonly a septic/sewage effluent or manure source, or multiple sources, potentially including artificial nitrogen fertilizers, natural soil organic matter, and mixtures of sources. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate and orthophosphate, which are key nutrients for growth of aquatic plants, generally were low in Fish Creek and occasionally were less than reporting levels (not detected). One potential reason for the low nutrient concentrations is that nutrients were being consumed by aquatic plant life that increases during the summer growing season, as a result of the seasonal increase in temperature and larger number of daylight hours. Several aspects of Fish Creek’s hydrology contribute to higher productivity and biovolume of aquatic plants in Fish Creek than typically observed in streams of its size in Wyoming. Especially in the winter, the proportionately large, continuous gain of groundwater into Fish Creek in the perennial section keeps most of the creek free of ice. Because sunlight can still reach the streambed in Fish Creek and the water is still flowing, aquatic plants continue to photosynthesize in the winter, albeit at a lower level of productivity. Additionally, the cobble and large gravel substrate in Fish Creek provides excellent attachment points for aquatic plants, and when combined with Fish Creek’s channel stability allows rapid growth of aquatic plants once conditions allow during the spring. The aquatic plant community of Fish Creek was different than most streams in Wyoming in that it contains many different macrophytes—including macroalgae such as long streamers of Cladophora, aquatic vascular plants, and moss; most other streams in the state contain predominantly algae. From the banks of Fish Creek, the bottom of the stream sometimes appeared to be a solid green carpet. A shift was observed from higher amounts of microalgae in April/May to higher amounts macrophytes in August and October, and differences in the relative abundance of microalgae and macrophytes were statistically significant between seasons. Differences in dissolved-nitrate concentrations and in the nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratio were significantly different between seasons, as concentrations of dissolved nitrate decreased from April/May to August and October. It is likely that dissolved-nitrate concentrations in Fish Creek were lower in August and October because macrophytes were quickly utilizing the nutrient, and a negative correlation between macro-phytes and nitrate was found. Macroinvertebrates also were sampled because of their role as indicators of water quality and their documented responses to perturbation such as degradation of water quality and habitat. Statistically significant seasonal differences were noted in the macroinvertebrate community. Taxa richness and relative abundance of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera, which tend to be intolerant of water-

Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Peterson, David A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Edmiston, C. Scott; Taylor, Michelle L.; Leemon, Daniel J.

2013-01-01

346

Acute effects of smoking of cigarettes with different tar content on plasma oxidant/antioxidant status.  

PubMed

In this study, acute effects of two different types of cigarette smoking on plasma oxidant/antioxidant status were investigated. For this purpose, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and antioxidant potential (AOP) values were measured in the plasma samples before and after cigarette smoking at fasting. After the first blood sample was obtained, second and third samples were withdrawn at 1.5 h and 3 h. In the first group, subjects smoked five cigarettes with full flavor (FF), and in the second group, five cigarettes with full-flavor low tar (FFLT). Quality classification is made mainly on the basis of tar content of the products. The cigarette with 23 mg tar is defined as FF and that with 12 mg tar as FFLT. MDA level was found to be significantly increased in the 1.5-h plasma samples of both groups, but the increase was greater in the FF group. AOP values, however, were found to be lower in the 3-h plasma samples of both groups, but the decrease was greater in the FF group compared with the FFLT group. It appears that acute smoking causes oxidant stress in blood plasma once exposed to smoke, and then this effect (MDA) begins to decrease. On the other hand, AOP is lowered due to oxidant stress created by smoke. With regard to the types of cigarettes, the FF product seems to be more oxidant than the FFLT product. Our results suggest that antioxidant supplementation might be beneficial for the smokers to cope with the oxidant load derived from cigarette smoke. It is also clearly seen from these results that cigarette manufacturers should reduce tar/nicotine ratio in their products in order to lessen the toxic effects of smoking without causing increased need to smoke. PMID:10880149

Durak, I; Bingöl, N K; Avci, A; Cimen, M Y; Kaçmaz, M; Karaca, L; Oztürk, H S

2000-07-01

347

Carbazole Is a Naturally Occurring Inhibitor of Angiogenesis and Inflammation Isolated from Antipsoriatic Coal Tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal tar is one of the oldest and an effective treatment for psoriasis. Coal tar has been directly applied to the skin, or used in combination with UV light as part of the Goeckerman treatment. The use of coal tar has caused long-term remissions in psoriasis, but has fallen out of favor because the treatment requires hospitalization and coal tar

Jack L. Arbiser; Baskaran Govindarajan; Traci E. Battle; Rebecca Lynch; David A. Frank; Masuko Ushio-Fukai; Betsy N. Perry; David F. Stern; G. Tim Bowden; Anquan Liu; Eva Klein; Pawel J. Kolodziejski; N. Tony Eissa; Chowdhury F. Hossain; Dale G. Nagle

2006-01-01

348

FY 80 Tar Sands Program first quarterly report, January 1980  

SciTech Connect

Research and development efforts in support of the Tar Sands program well completions and stimulation subactivity and new and novel concepts task have been initiated. The objectives of the well completion and stimulation efforts are to carry out research and development in areas with significant for long-range tar sand extraction development as well as provide potential interaction and support of the near-term tar sand field experiments. Evaluation testing of packers and computational analysis of well bore insulation for tar sands steam recovery injection wells have been investigated this quarter. Production well completions for the tar sand steam drive experiment have been examined, and a program to measure downhole steam quality in the experiment is under development. Initial examination of the application of the DOE downhole steam generator program to tar sand reservoirs has commenced. The examination of new and novel concepts for extraction of tar sands has been initiated. An overburden replacement technique was evaluated both computationally and in a laboratory scale experiment. Analyses of both microwave heating and in situ hydrogenation are being initiated.

Fox, R.L.; Wayland, J.R.

1980-05-01

349

Physical-chemical treatment of tar-sand processing wastewater  

SciTech Connect

This final report for Phase I summarizes work done to determine the ability of several coagulants to contribute significantly in the treatment of selected tar sand wastewaters. The coagulation process must be considered as one possible step in a treatment scheme to reduce pollutants in these wastewaters and lead to a water quality acceptable for reuse or disposal. Two wastewaters were provided by the Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC). The primary emphasis in this study was focused on a representative steam flooding wastewater designated in the report as TARSAND 1S. The coagulation study in which treatment of this wastewater was the prime goal is described in full detail in the thesis entitled Chemical Coagulation of Steam Flooding Tar Sand Wastewaters. This thesis, written by Mr. Omar Akad, is included as Appendix A in this report. A representative combustion wastewater, designated as TARSAND 2C, was also provided by LETC. This wastewater was characteristically low in suspended solids and after initial screening experiments were conducted, it was concluded that coagulation was relatively ineffective in the treatment of TARSAND 2C. Hence, efforts were concentrated on the parametric evaluation of coagulation of TARSAND 1S. The objectives for the research conducted under Phase I were: (1) to compare the effectiveness of lime, alum, ferric chloride and representative synthetic organic polymers in reducing suspended solids and total organic carbon (TOC) from TARSAND 1S wastewater; (2) to determine the effects of pH, coagulant aids, and mixing conditions on the coagulation process; (3) to determine the relative volume of sludge produced from each selected coagulation process.

King, P.H.

1982-07-01

350

Otter Creek Wilderness, West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

A mineral-resource survey of the Otter Creek Wilderness conducted in 1978 resulted in the determination of demonstrated coal resources estimated to total about 24 million short tons in beds more than 28 in. thick and an additional 62 million short tons of coal in beds between 14 and 28 in. thick. There is little promise for the occurrence of mineral or other energy resources in the area.

Warlow, R.C.; Behum, P.T.

1984-01-01

351

Graham Creek Roadless Area, Texas  

SciTech Connect

A geologic and geochemical investigation of the Graham Creek Roadless Area, Texas was conducted in 1981-1982. The area has a probable mineral-resource potential for oil and gas. The roadless are contains a deposit of kaolinite clay similar to deposits being mined west of the area; the southeast part of the roadless area has a substantiated kaolinite clay resource potential. Smectite clay and sand deposits also are present in the area but these resources are relatively abundant throughout the region.

Houser, B.B.; Ryan, G.S.

1984-01-01

352

Evaluation of Operations Scenarios for Managing the Big Creek Marsh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetland management in changing climate is important for maintaining sustainable ecosystem as well as for reducing the impact of climate change on the environment as wetlands act as natural carbon sinks. The Big Creek Marsh within the Essex County is a Provincially Significant Wetland (PSW) in Ontario, Canada. The marsh is approximately 900 hectares in area and is primarily fed by streamflow from the Big Creek Watershed. The water level of this wetland has been managed by the stakeholders using a system of pumps, dykes and a controlled outlet to the Lake Erie. In order to adequately manage the Big Creek Marsh and conserve diverse aquatic plant species, Essex Region Conservation Authority (ERCA), Ontario has embarked on developing an Operations Plan to maintain desire water depths during different marsh phases, viz., Open water, Hemi and Overgrown marsh phases. The objective of the study is to evaluate the alternatives for managing water level of the Big Creek Marsh in different marsh phases. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a continuous simulation model was used to simulate streamflow entering into the marsh from the Big Creek watershed. A Water Budget (WB) model was developed for the Big Creek Marsh to facilitate in operational management of the marsh. The WB model was applied to simulate the marsh level based on operations schedules, and available weather and hydrologic data aiming to attain the target water depths for the marsh phases. This paper presents the results of simulated and target water levels, streamflow entering into the marsh, water releasing from the marsh, and water pumping into and out of the marsh under different hydrologic conditions.

Wilson, Ian; Rahman, Masihur; Wychreschuk, Jeremy; Lebedyk, Dan; Bolisetti, Tirupati

2013-04-01

353

Environmental Assessment ID230-2007-EA-3432 for Rough Creek, Roanhide and Ear Creek Allotments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The action being analyzed is a renewal of the livestock grazing permits in the Rough Creek, Roanhide and Ear Creek Allotments in accordance with the Fundamentals of Rangeland Health (43 CFR Subpart 4180). Through this environmental analysis, a final decis...

2007-01-01

354

Traveltime Characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek, Upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to present traveltime and longitudinal-dispersion characteristics for 11 stream reaches in Black Gore Creek and Gore Creek. The results of the traveltime measurements were used to estimate the traveltime of potential contamin...

J. J. Gurdak N. E. Spahr R. J. Szmajter

2002-01-01

355

Wound botulism associated with black tar heroin.  

PubMed

The incidence of wound botulism is increasing and the epidemiology of the disease is changing. The majority of new cases are associated with injection drug use, in particular, the use of Mexican black tar heroin. This case report and discussion of wound botulism illustrate the following important points: Dysphagia, dysphonia, diplopia, and descending paralysis, in association with injection drug use, should alert the treating physician to the possibility of wound botulism. In such patients, the onset of respiratory failure may be sudden and without clinically obvious signs of respiratory weakness. For the reported patient, maximum inspiratory force measurements were the only reliable indicator of respiratory muscle weakness. This is a measurement not routinely performed in the ED, but may prove essential for patients with suspected wound botulism. To minimize the effect of the botulinum toxin and to decrease length of hospital stay, antitoxin administration and surgical wound debridement should be performed early. PMID:9262701

Anderson, M W; Sharma, K; Feeney, C M

1997-08-01

356

Report on the biological monitoring program for Bear Creek at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 1989-1994  

SciTech Connect

The Bear Creek Valley watershed drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in the Bear Creek Valley resulted in the contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Ecological monitoring by the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was initiated in the Bear Creek watershed in May 1984 and continues at present. Studies conducted during the first year provided a detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek. The initial characterization was followed by a biological monitoring phase in which studies were conducted at reduced intensities.

Hinzman, R.L. [ed.] [ed.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Cada, G.F.; Peterson, M.J. [and others] [and others

1996-04-01

357

DEEP CREEK AND MUD CREEK, TWIN FALLS, IDAHO. WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1986  

EPA Science Inventory

Deep Creek and Mud Creek are located in Twin Falls County near Buhl, Idaho (17040212). From April through October, these creeks convey irrigation drainage water from the western part of the Twin Falls irrigation tract to the Snake River. During 1986, water quality surveys were ...

358

122. Credit JE. Millseat Creek above the intake of the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

122. Credit JE. Millseat Creek above the intake of the ditch leading to the Volta forebay. (JE, v. 12 1902 p. 233). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

359

1. OVERALL VIEW OF LOBOS CREEK INLET STRUCTURE (#1786), LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OVERALL VIEW OF LOBOS CREEK INLET STRUCTURE (#1786), LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Lobos Creek Inlet Structure, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

360

Topographic view of the Spring Creek Bridge and Collier State ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Topographic view of the Spring Creek Bridge and Collier State Park, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

361

General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

362

Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

363

Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

364

General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking northwest. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

365

General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking southeast. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

366

Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

367

2. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING SIMPSON CREEK BRIDGE WITH BRIDGEPORT LAMP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING SIMPSON CREEK BRIDGE WITH BRIDGEPORT LAMP AND CHIMNEY COMPANY IN BACKGROUND. - Bridgeport Lamp Chimney Company, Simpson Creek Bridge, Spanning Simpson Creek, State Route 58 vicinity, Bridgeport, Harrison County, WV

368

59. Credit FM. Flood waters on South Battle Creek next ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

59. Credit FM. Flood waters on South Battle Creek next to powerhouse. Note height of water in relation to tailraces. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

369

Perspective view showing 850 plate girder span directly over creek, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view showing 85-0 plate girder span directly over creek, looking west. - New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, Elk Creek Trestle, Spanning Elk Creek, south of Elk Park Road, Lake City, Erie County, PA

370

Detail view of 850 plate girder span directly over creek, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of 85-0 plate girder span directly over creek, looking west. - New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, Elk Creek Trestle, Spanning Elk Creek, south of Elk Park Road, Lake City, Erie County, PA

371

Coop Creek Bridge with Checkerboard Mesa in background, historic photograph, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Co-op Creek Bridge with Checkerboard Mesa in background, historic photograph, no date, Zion National Park collection - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Co-op Creek Bridge, Spanning Co-op Creek, Springdale, Washington County, UT

372

63. SURVEY OF RESERVOIR SITE ON LITTLE ROCK CREEK FOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

63. SURVEY OF RESERVOIR SITE ON LITTLE ROCK CREEK FOR PALMDALE WATER CO., J.B. LIPPINCOTT ENGINEERING OFFICES; OCTOBER, 1915. Palmdale Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

373

3. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF PICNIC AREA WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF PICNIC AREA WITH COMMUNITY KITCHEN IN BACKGROUND. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Eagle Creek Recreation Area, Historic Columbia River Highway at Eagle Creek, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

374

8. DETAIL VIEW OF DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'HARP CREEK, LUTEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. DETAIL VIEW OF DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'HARP CREEK, LUTEN BRIDGE CO., CONTRACTOR, ARKANSAS STATE HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT, 1928' - Harp Creek Bridge, Spans Harp Creek at State Highway 7, Harrison, Boone County, AR

375

The Federal Government and the Creek Indians, 1775-1813.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the immediate problems facing the United States in 1775 was that of relations with the Indian tribes of North America. Study of the transactions between the federal government and the Creek Indians from 1775 to 1813 offers many insights into the de...

F. H. Akers

1976-01-01

376

MILK CREEK, TETON COUNTY, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1986  

EPA Science Inventory

Milk Creek, Idaho (17040204) was identified in the Agricultural Pollution Abatement Plans as a second priority stream segment for the reduction of agriculture related pollutants. A water quality study was conducted from March through June 1986 as part of the agricultural plannin...

377

Okanogan Focus Watershed Salmon Creek : Annual Report 1999.  

SciTech Connect

During FY 1999 the Colville Tribes and the Okanogan Irrigation District (OID) agreed to study the feasibility of restoring and enhancing anadromous fish populations in Salmon Creek while maintaining the ability of the district to continue full water service delivery to it members.

Lyman, Hilary

1999-11-01

378

Chemistry and origin of Miocene and Eocene oils and tars in the onshore and offshore Santa Cruz Basins, California  

SciTech Connect

The Santa Cruz (La Honda) Basin is a small [open quote]slice[close quote] of the San Joaquin Basin that has been displaced c. 300 km to the northwest by the San Andreas Fault. The poorly-explored offshore area that now lies within the Monterey Bay NMS includes portions of the Outer Santa Cruz and Bodega basins. A modest amount (c. 1.3 MM bbl) of variable-quality oil has been produced from Eocene and Pliocene pay zones in the La Honda Field. Much smaller amounts of light oil ([ge]40[degrees] API) have been produced from three other fields (Oil Creek; Moody Gulch; Half Moon Bay). Large tar deposits also outcrop near the city of Santa Cruz. Proven source rocks in this basin include the Eocene Twobar Shale and three Miocene units: the Lambert Shale, Monterey Formation, and the Santa Cruz Mudstone. A high-gravity oil sample from the Oil Creek Field contains isotopically-light carbon ([delta][sup 13]C = - 28.2 per mil) and has a relatively high pristane/phytane ratio. This oil was generated at high temperature (c. 140[degrees]C) by pre-Miocene source rocks (probably the Twobar Shale). The presence of isotopically-heavy carbon in all other oil and tar samples demonstrates they were generated by Miocene source rocks. But the C[sub 7] oil-generation temperatures, sulfur content, vanadium/nickel ratios, and biomarker chemistry of these Miocene oils are significantly different than in Monterey oils from the prolific Santa Maria Basin (SMB). The sulfur content (8.0 wt%) and V-Ni chemistry of tarry petroleum recovered in the P-036-1 well (Outer Santa Cruz Basin) resembles the chemistry of very heavy (<15[degrees]API) oils generated by phosphatic Monterey shales in the SMB.

Kornacki, A.S. (Shell Offshore, Inc., New Orleans, LA (United States)); McNeil, R.I. (Shell E P Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1996-01-01

379

FY 80 Tar Sands program. Second quarterly report, April 1980  

SciTech Connect

The research and development efforts in support of the Tar Sands program reservoir access and alternate extraction activities that were initiated last quarter have been continued and expanded. The development of a short course on the utilization of specialized drilling technology to Tar Sands has been investigated. The steam quality sampler is undergoing laboratory testing. Plans for a Tar Sands enhanced permeability workshop have been initiated. A special report on possible application of sand control methods to the Tar Sands steam injection test (TS-1S) experiment has been prepared. The first stage of the analysis of rf and microwave heating has been completed. The results of a series of laboratory experiments on in-situ hydrogenation are presented.

Wayland, J.R.; Fox, R.L.

1980-09-01

380

Heats of dissolution of tar sand bitumen in various solvents  

SciTech Connect

The dissolution of tar sand bitumen from a tar sand matrix was examined using three solvents: (1) dichloromethane, a polar-polarizable solvent; (2) toluene, a nonpolar-polarizable solvent; and (3) hexane, a nonpolar-nonpolarizable solvent. The dichloromethane had the highest dissolution energy, followed by toluene, with hexane having the lowest dissolution energy. These data were combined with heat of dissolution of recovered bitumen and heat of wetting of spent sand to calculate the bonding energy between bitumen and the mineral matrix. The interfacial bonding energy between tar sand bitumen and the mineral matrix was found to be in the region of 0 to 0.09 cal/g of bitumen, which is very small. This conclusion may find application in recovery of energy or bitumen from bitumen-wet tar sand deposits. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

Ensley, E.K.; Scott, M.

1988-05-01

381

The compensating behavior of smokers: taxes, tar, and nicotine.  

PubMed

Using data from the 1979 and 1987 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we test whether smokers alter their smoking habits in the face of higher taxes. Smokers in high-tax states are more likely to smoke cigarettes higher in tar and nicotine. Although taxes reduce the number of cigarettes consumed per day among remaining smokers, total daily tar and nicotine intake is unaffected. Young smokers, aged 18-24, are much more responsive to changes in taxes than are older smokers, and their total daily tar and nicotine intake actually increases after a tax hike. We illustrate that tax-induced compensating behavior may eliminate some health benefits generated by reduced smoking participation. A more appropriate tax might be based on the tar and nicotine content of cigarettes. PMID:11794360

Evans, W N; Farrelly, M C

1998-01-01

382

Control Technologies for Particulate and Tar Emissions from Coal Converters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of a characterization of solid and tar particulate emissions in raw product gases from several types of coal gasifiers, in terms of their total quantities, chemical composition, and size distribution. Fixed-bed gasifiers produce t...

C. Chen C. Koralek L. Breitstein

1979-01-01

383

Initiation of the polymerization of alkenylaromatic monomers in the 120–200°c fraction of tars obtained by oxidative pyrolysis of gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.We have studied the initiated polymerization of the alkenylaromatic fractions boiling at 120–200°C and distilled from gas pyrolysis tar or from tar obtained by oxidative pyrolysis of gasoline; the polymerization was initiated by various initiators and binary initiator mixtures.2.It has been shown that at 80–120°C, 0.1–2% initiator concentration and reaction times of 40–70 h, the degree of conversion of the

R. G. Ismailov; S. M. Aliev; G. M. Mamedaliev; F. D. Rza'eva; V. M. Sarkisov

1965-01-01

384

What do Marlboro Lights smokers know about low-tar cigarettes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the extent to which Marlboro Lights smokers perceive lower health risks associated with using a low-tar cigarette and the extent to which they are aware of filter vents in their cigarettes. The data for this study came from a nationally representative random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1,046 adult current cigarette smokers (aged 18 years or older) conducted

K. Michael Cummings; Andrew Hyland; Maansi A. Bansal; Gary A. Giovino

2004-01-01

385

Co-pyrolysis of walnut shell and tar sand in a fixed-bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated potential synergistic activities between tar sand and walnut shell during co-pyrolysis. A series of pyrolysis studies were conducted under specific operating conditions in a fixed-bed reactor. The highest yield of bio-oil from the co-pyrolysis was 31.84wt.%, which represented an increase of 7.88wt.% compared to the bio-oil yield from the pyrolysis of walnut shell alone. The bio-oils were

Yakup Kar

2011-01-01

386

Mineralogical and stable isotope studies of gold-arsenic mineralisation in the Sams Creek peralkaline porphyritic granite, South Island, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Sams Creek, a gold-bearing, peralkaline granite porphyry dyke, which has a 7 km strike length and is up to 60 m in thickness, intrudes camptonite lamprophyre dykes and lower greenschist facies metapelites and quartzites of the Late Ordovician Wangapeka formation. The lamprophyre dykes occur as thin (< 3 m) slivers along the contacts of the granite dyke. ?18Omagma values (+5 to +8‰, VSMOW) of the A-type granite suggest derivation from a primitive source, with an insignificant mature crustal contribution. Hydrothermal gold-sulphide mineralisation is confined to the granite and adjacent lamprophyre; metapelite country rocks have only weak hydrothermal alteration. Three stages of hydrothermal alteration have been identified in the granite: Stage I alteration (high fO2) consisting of magnetite-siderite±biotite; Stage II consisting of thin quartz-pyrite veinlets; and Stage III (low fO2) consisting of sulphides, quartz and siderite veins, and pervasive silicification. The lamprophyre is altered to an ankerite-chlorite-sericite assemblage. Stage III sulphide veins are composed of arsenopyrite + pyrite ± galena ± sphalerite ± gold ± chalcopyrite ± pyrrhotite ± rutile ± graphite. Three phases of deformation have affected the area, and the mineralised veins and the granite and lamprophyre dykes have been deformed by two phases of folding, the youngest of which is Early Cretaceous. Locally preserved early-formed fluid inclusions are either carbonic, showing two- or three-phases at room temperature (liquid CO2-CH4 + liquid H2O ± CO2 vapour) or two-phase liquid-rich aqueous inclusions, some of which contain clathrates. Salinities of the aqueous inclusions are in the range of 1.4 to 7.6 wt% NaCl equiv. Final homogenisation temperatures (Th) of the carbonic inclusions indicate minimum trapping temperatures of 320 to 355°C, which are not too different from vein formation temperatures of 340-380°C estimated from quartz-albite stable isotope thermometry. ?18O values of Stage II and III vein quartz range from +12 and +17‰ and have a bimodal distribution (+14.5 and +16‰) with Stage II vein quartz accounting for the lower values. Siderite in Stage III veins have ?18O (+12 to +16‰) and ?13C values (-5‰, relative to VPDB), unlike those from Wangapeka Formation metasediments (?13Cbulk carbon values of -24 to -19‰) and underlying Arthur Marble marine carbonates (?18O = +25‰ and ?13C = 0‰). Calculated ?18Owater (+8 to +11‰, at 340°C) and ?^{13}{text{C}}_{CO2}(-5‰) values from vein quartz and siderite are consistent with a magmatic hydrothermal source, but a metamorphic hydrothermal origin cannot be excluded. ?34S values of sulphides range from +5 to +10‰ (relative to CDT) and also have a bimodal distribution (modes at +6 and +9‰, correlated with Stage II and Stage III mineralisation, respectively). The ?34S values of pyrite from the Arthur Marble marine carbonates (range from +3 to +13‰) and Wangapeka Formation (range from -4 to +9.5‰) indicate that they are potential sources of sulphur for sulphides in the Sams Creek veins. Another possible source of the sulphur is the lithospheric mantle which has positive values up to +14‰. Ages of the granite, lamprophyre, alteration/mineralisation, and deformation in the region are not well constrained, which makes it difficult to identify sources of mineralisation with respect to timing. Our mineralogical and stable isotope data does not exclude a metamorphic source, but we consider that the source of the mineralisation can best be explained by a magmatic hydrothermal source. Assuming that the hydrothermal fluids were sourced from crystallisation of the Sams Creek granite or an underlying magma chamber, then the Sams Creek gold deposit appears to be a hybrid between those described as reduced granite Au-Bi deposits and alkaline intrusive-hosted Au-Mo-Cu deposits.

Faure, Kevin; Brathwaite, Robert L.

2006-03-01

387

Gasification of biomass in a fixed bed downdraft gasifier--a realistic model including tar.  

PubMed

This study presents a model for fixed bed downdraft biomass gasifiers considering tar also as one of the gasification products. A representative tar composition along with its mole fractions, as available in the literature was used as an input parameter within the model. The study used an equilibrium approach for the applicable gasification reactions and also considered possible deviations from equilibrium to further upgrade the equilibrium model to validate a range of reported experimental results. Heat balance was applied to predict the gasification temperature and the predicted values were compared with reported results in literature. A comparative study was made with some reference models available in the literature and also with experimental results reported in the literature. Finally a predicted variation of performance of the gasifier by this validated model for different air-fuel ratio and moisture content was also discussed. PMID:22244905

Barman, Niladri Sekhar; Ghosh, Sudip; De, Sudipta

2012-01-02

388

Paleontology, paleoclimatology and paleoecology of the late middle miocene Musselshell Creek flora, Clearwater County Idaho. A preliminary study of a new fossil flora  

SciTech Connect

The Musselshell Creek flora (12.0-10.5 Ma) of northern Idaho is used to reconstruct paleoclimatic and paleoecologic parameters of the Pacific Northwest during the late Middle Miocene. Other megafossil and microfossil floral records spanning 12.0-6.4 Ma are unknown from this region. The Musselshell Creek fossil flora, previously undescribed, is preserved in lacustrine clays and sediments that accumulated in a narrow valley surrounded by rugged terrain. Dominant taxa include dicotyledons and conifers. Most of the leaves are preserved as impressions or compressions. Some fossil leaves retained their original pigmentation, cellular anatomy, and organic constituents. Other fossils include excellent remains of pollen and spores, dispersed leaf cuticle, pyritized wood, and disarticulated fish bones. A destructive statistical analysis of one block of sediment, approximately 30 cm x 45 cm (1.5 sq. ft) recovered 14 orders, 23 families, and 34 genera of spermatophyte plant fossils. These floral elements are compared with two other earlier Miocene floras which were similarly sampled. Common megafossil genera include Quercus, Zizy-phoides, Taxodium, Alnus, Castanea, Magnolia, Acer, Ex-bucklandia, Sequoia, Populus, and Betula. The rare occurrence of Ginkgo leaves is a first record of this taxon in the Idaho Miocene. Additional plant taxa, are represented by palynomorphs. Common pollen taxa are Pinus, Abies, Carya, Quercus, and Tilia. Most of the megafossil and microfossil flora assemblage is characteristic of a streambank to floodplain environment that existed in a warm to cool temperate climate similar to the modern Mid-Atlantic coast of the United States. 47 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Baghai, N.L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Jorstad, R.B. [Eastern Illinois Univ., Charleston, IL (United States)

1995-10-01

389

Noncatalytic liquefaction of tar with low-temperature hydrothermal treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water at hydrothermal and supercritical conditions is considered a promising solvent for the degradation of hazardous waste\\u000a into harmless compounds. Tar liquefaction experiments were conducted using a batch-type reactor at temperatures between 623?K\\u000a and 673?K and at pressures between 25 and 40?MPa. A reaction mechanism for tar liquefaction is proposed. Moreover, on the\\u000a basis of the experimental results, this method

Wahyudiono; Mitsuru Sasaki; Motonobu Goto

2007-01-01

390

Economic analysis of the utilization of oil from tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economics of producing and using tar-sand crude are governed to a considerable degree by the costs involved in its recovery. The principal methods used for the recovery of tar-sand crudes in the USSR are ~n 8~tu combustion and steam injection into the formation. These recovery methods have been developed to the stage of commercial testing [i, 3]. Underground and

A. M. Zeninskii; I. Kh. Yumangulova

1980-01-01

391

Thrombocytopenia and absent radii (TAR) syndrome associated with horseshoe kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TAR syndrome is an inherited disorder characterized by limb abnormalities, especially absent radii, and hypomegakaryocytic\\u000a thrombocytopenia. Previous reports have included two infants with genitourinary abnormalities. We report a newborn with bilaterally\\u000a absent radii and foreshortened ulnae, hypoplastic humeri, a left clubfoot, a ventricular septum defect, and persistent thrombocytopenia.\\u000a This constellation of abnormalities is consistent with the TAR syndrome. In

A. Bradshaw; L. F. Donnelly; J. W. Foreman

2000-01-01

392

Evaluation of a mixed aerobic culture for degrading coal tar  

SciTech Connect

Partial biodegradation of a gasification tar as sole carbon source in a dilute two-phase mixture was demonstrated by carbon dioxide evolution. Volatilization of the tar followed by biodegradation reduced the quantity of carbon dioxide evolved suggesting that the lower molecular weight hydrocarbons are preferentially degraded. While addition of a surfactant increased the partitioning of some PAHs into the aqueous phase, neither the quantity of carbon dioxide evolved nor the degradation of specific PAHs was substantially increased.

Enzminger, J.D.; Lepore, J.V.; Gleason, C.; Dreyer, C.

1986-01-01

393

Endocrine disrupting effects on creek chubs (Semotilus atromaculatus) exposed to agricultural contaminants in the Cedar Creek watershed, northeast Indiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current research that has been performed suggests that agricultural contaminants are potential endocrine disrupters. However, there has been a lack of field studies performed that assesses the endocrine disrupting impacts of synergistic mixes of agrichemicals on wild fishes. Creek chubs (Semotilus atromaculatus ) were collected from four agricultural drainage ditch sites on two occasions (May and June) of 2008. Based

Daragh J Deegan

2010-01-01

394

Characterization and treatment of tars and biomass gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

Biomass gasification and pyrolysis have the potential to make a significant impact on energy supplies in the United States and have demonstrated their commercial potential in many projects around the country. The environmental aspects of biomass gasification need to be defined to assure that the technology makes its maximum impact on energy supplies. One area that needs further development is characterization and treatment of the tar byproduct from gasifiers and pyrolyzers. This paper examines the effect of the type of gasifier/pyrolyzer and the processing conditions on the yield and properties of tars and condensates. End use limitations for tars are discussed. Wet scrubbing is the most common method of tar removal from gases. The scrub liquor will require treatment to remove organics before it can be disposed. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a catalytic tar destruction process that will treat the hot, raw gas from the gasifier and convert the tars to gas. The process increases the gas yield and cold gas efficiency of the gasification process, produces a clean gas that can be used for many applications, and produces a clean condensate that can be disposed with minimal treatment. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Elliott, D.C.; Mudge, L.K.

1988-08-01

395

Morphological controls on marsh creek network flow patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study to investigate flow characteristics and salt marsh morphology was carried out in the North Inlet/Winyah Bay Estuary, South Carolina. Acoustic Doppler current meters (ADVs) were placed at the terminus of two abutting creek networks that were separated by a topographic divide. An additional acoustic profiler was placed near the mouth of one of the creeks. Flow patterns observed during spring tide indicated an abrupt switch in current direction during flood before vanishing at slack high water. This reversal in flow direction was mirrored during the ebb phase, in which initial ebbing did not drain the creek but rather flowed further onto the marsh surface. This pattern was also seen in the profile measurements at all depths. In contrast, the current moved up both creeks on flood and out on ebb during the neap phase. The marsh surrounding the study site is located within a meander of the main tidal channel. Although the cause of the spring tide flow pattern is not completely understood, it may be related to inundation of the marsh island producing a net fluid transport down the pressure gradient formed by the propagating tidal wave. Therefore, topography exerts the dominant control on the flow over the marsh surface during neap tide, yet topography and hydrodynamics exert control during spring tide.

Styles, R.; Torres, R.

2004-12-01

396

Stratigraphy and depositional history of Coyote Creek-Miller Creek Trend, Lower Cretaceous Fall River formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Coyote Creek-Miller Creek trend produces high-gravity, low-sulfur oil from a series of Fall River fields in an area generally characterized by west-southwestward monoclinal dip. The trend includes, from south to north, the Coyote Creek South, Coyote Creek, Donkey Creek, Kummerfeld, and Miller Creek fields. The Wood and West Moorcroft fields produce oil from very similar Fall River traps located

T. A. Ryer; E. R. Gustason

1985-01-01

397

Summary of data pertaining to land use, rainfall, dryfall, stream discharge, and storm runoff collected as part of a study of the effects of urban runoff on Rapid Creek, Rapid City area, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The objectives of a 3-year study of urban runoff in the Rapid City area of South Dakota were to characterize the effects of urban runoff from rainfall on the water quality of Rapid Creek, and to evaluate the effects of the runoff on the existing cold-water fishery. In order to meet these objectives, it was necessary to obtain detailed data pertaining to land use, rainfall, dryfall, stream discharge, and storm runoff. This report describes the rationale behind the data collection program, describes the methods used to collect and analyze the data, and presents the data collected and summarized during the study. Six watersheds were investigated, ranging in size from 1 ,610 to 20,990 acres. Water quality data from 6 sites for about 30 rainstorms that occurred between June 1980 and July 1982 are presented. (USGS)

Goddard, K. E.; Lockner, T. K.; Harms, L. L.; Smith, M. H.

1989-01-01

398

33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw of the State highway bridge, mile...

2013-07-01

399

33 CFR 117.571 - Spa Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spa Creek. 117.571 Section 117.571 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.571 Spa Creek. The S181 bridge, mile 4.0, at Annapolis,...

2010-07-01

400

33 CFR 117.571 - Spa Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Spa Creek. 117.571 Section 117.571 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.571 Spa Creek. The S181 bridge, mile 4.0, at Annapolis,...

2009-07-01

401

33 CFR 117.185 - Pacheco Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacheco Creek. 117.185 Section 117.185 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.185 Pacheco Creek. The draw of the Contra Costa County...

2010-07-01

402

33 CFR 117.185 - Pacheco Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Pacheco Creek. 117.185 Section 117.185 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.185 Pacheco Creek. The draw of the Contra Costa County...

2009-07-01

403

Eagle Creek Lake, Kentucky River Basin, Kentucky.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eagle Creek Lake is a multipurpose reservoir project for flood control, recreation, and water supply. The dam will be located in Grant County, Kentucky, at mile 43.6 on Eagle Creek. The flood control pool will extend upstream into Owen County, with the up...

1973-01-01

404

The Patroon Creek Contamination Migration Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shaw performed a Site Investigation (SI) for sediment within the Unnamed Tributary of the Patroon Creek, a section of the Patroon Creek, and the Three Mile Reservoir as part of the overall contract with the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to remediate the Colonie Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Site. The Unnamed Tributary formerly flowed through

K. Dufek; A. Zafran; J. T. Moore

2006-01-01

405

Twelvemile Creek Niagara County, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

The east branch of Twelvemile Creek (69 mi2) flows through northern Niagara County to its mouth at Lake Ontario 12 miles east of the Niagara River, near the village of Wilson, New York. From fall through spring, good runs of steelhead and brown trout with the occasional Chinook and Coho salmon occur into the creek. Agriculture, especially row crop farming,

Joseph C. Makarewicz; Matthew J. Nowak

2010-01-01

406

Pine Creek Ranch; Annual Report 2002.  

SciTech Connect

This report gives information about the following four objectives: OBJECTIVE 1--Gather scientific baseline information for monitoring purposes and to assist in the development of management plans for Pine Creek Ranch; OBJECTIVE 2--Complete and implement management plans; OBJECTIVE 3--Protect, manage and enhance the assets and resources of Pine Creek Ranch; and OBJECTIVE 4--Deliverables.

Berry, Mark E.

2003-02-01

407

Process train evaluation for treatment of tar sands wastewaters. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbon, ozone and reverse osmosis were evaluated in treating two tar sand wastewaters generated by steam flooding (1S) and reverse combustion (2C) procedures. Substrates for these studies included untreated and pretreated (filtration, foam fractionation, chemical treatment with ferric chloride) 1S and 2C wastewaters. Activated carbon, at a dose of 1000 mg\\/L, reduced the TOC of 1S wastewater after treatment

Sierka

1983-01-01

408

Bench-scale fixation of soils from the Tacoma Tar Pits Superfund Site. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents the result of a bench-scale soil-fixation study conducted with materials from the Tacoma Tar Pits Superfund Site. Chemical fixation (also called stabilization\\/solidification) is a relatively new technique for remediating contaminated soils. It entails both immobilization of contaminants via sorption or chemical reaction and physical transformation of the soil into a firm, impervious 'monolith.' Fixation has been used

Rupp

1989-01-01

409

ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF PYROLYTIC OILS OF TAR FROM RUBBERWOOD (HEVEA BRASILIENSIS) PYROLYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

pyrolytic oil samples from rubberwood tar on three fungi species, viz. Gloeophyllum trabeum (brown rot), Coriolus versicolor (while rot) and Bostryodiplodia theobromea (blue stain) was studied with the agar dilution technique using malt extract agar media (MEA). With the three pyrolytic oil samples tested, the lowest concentrations causing a 50% reduction in fungal growth (ED50) were 640.77 ug-m\\/'1 for G.tabeum,

Halimahton Mansor; Rasadah Mat Ali

410

Recovery and upgrading of oil from Utah tar sands: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main areas for study in this report are bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis, a low coke-producing process pioneered at the University; bitumen recovery by pyrolysis of tar sand in a fluidized-bed retort; bitumen recovery in coupled fluidized-beds with interbed heat transfer via heat pipes; and bitumen recovery by water-assisted separation methods of bitumen from ore. The principal reactions occurring in

A. G. Oblad; J. W. Bunger; F. V. Hanson; J. D. Miller; J. D. Seader

1987-01-01

411

Contribution of the isotropic phase to the rheology of partially anisotropic coal-tar pitches  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercial impregnating coal-tar pitch was thermally treated at 430°C for 2–5 h in nitrogen. Resultant pitches, which contained mesophase ranging from 10 to 46 vol.%, were filtered to separate the isotropic phases, in order to study their contribution to the rheology of the whole pitches. The parent pitch, thermally treated pitches and the individual isotropic phases were characterized by

C. Blanco; O. Fleurot; R. Menéndez; R. Santamar??a; J. Bermejo; D. Edie

1999-01-01

412

Aquatic biology of the Redwood Creek and Mill Creek drainage basins, Redwood National Park, Humboldt and Del Norte counties, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 2-year study of the aquatic biota in the Redwood Creek and Mill Creek drainage basins of Redwood National Park indicated that the aquatic productivity is low. Densities of coliform bacteria were low except in Prairie Creek, a tributary to Redwood Creek, where a State park, county fish hatchery, grazing land, lumber mill, and scattered residential areas are potential sources of fecal coliform bacteria. Benthic invertebrate data indicated a diverse fauna which varied considerably between streams and among stream sections. Noteworthy findings include: (1) benthic invertebrates rapidly recolonized the streambed following a major storm, and (2) man-caused disruption or sedimentation of the streambed during low flow can result in drastic reductions of the benthic invertebrate community. Seven species of fish representing species typically found in northern California coastal streams were captured during the study. Nonparametric statistical tests indicate that condition factors of steelhead trout were significantly larger at sampling stations with more insolation, regardless of drainage basin land-use history. Periphyton and phytoplankton communities were diverse, variable in numbers, and dominated by diatoms. Seston concentrations were extremely variable between stations and at each station sampled. The seston is influenced seasonally by aquatic productivity at each station and amount of allochthonous material from the terrestrial ecosystem. Time-series analysis of some seston data indicated larger and sharper peak concentrations being flushed from the logged drainage basin than from the control drainage basin. (USGS)

Iwatsubo, Rick T.; Averett, R. C.

1981-01-01

413

Binding of Hoechst 33258 to the TAR RNA of HIV-1. Recognition of a pyrimidine bulge-dependent structure.  

PubMed Central

The transactivation response region (TAR) RNA is an essential component in transcriptional regulation of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) genome. We have examined the interaction between TAR RNA and the bisbenzimidazole derivative Hoechst 33258. Previous studies have shown that this drug, which is well known as an AT-selective DNA minor groove binder, can also interact with GC-rich sequences in DNA as well as with RNA, possibly by intercalation. Absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism and electric linear dichroism, as well as RNase A footprinting, were employed to compare binding of Hoechst 33258 to wild-type RNA and its analogue lacking the pyrimidine bulge. The uridine bulge, which is an important contributor to the structural stability of TAR, plays an essential role in drug binding. Deletion of the bulge destabilizes both free and drug-bound forms of TAR and markedly affects the orientation of the drug chromophore complexed with the RNA. According to the linear dichroism data, the bisbenzimidazole is oriented more or less perpendicular to the RNA helix axis. The data are compatible with a model in which the bisbenzimidazole chromophore is inserted into the existing cavity created by the pyrimidine bulge. The footprinting experiments, showing that the drug binds to a unique site opposite the unpaired uridine residues, also support this model. The binding of Hoechst 33258 to the sequence 5'-GCUCU, which delimits the cavity, reflects the greater accessibility of that region compared with other sites in the RNA molecule. The identification of a binding site for small molecules in TAR offers promising perspectives for developing drugs that would block the access of TAR RNA to proteins and therefore for the design of anti-HIV agents.

Dassonneville, L; Hamy, F; Colson, P; Houssier, C; Bailly, C

1997-01-01

414

Adventures at Dry Creek  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational module enables students (5-12) to experience ongoing research of University of California paleontologists studying about life in Montana 60-70 million years ago. It gives students the opportunity to experience the scientific process using real research questions and data. The teacher guide provides background information, standards, a lesson plan, discussion question, handouts, assessment materials, content background, and related material. During this module students will: gain an understanding of paleontological field work, stratigraphy, geologic time, and fossils; conduct a scientific investigation by collecting, categorizing, identifying and analyzing fossils; use a key to identify fossils; read and analyze data presented in a chart and graph; use fossil data to develop multiple hypotheses about life in the past; make inferences about life in the past using direct and indirect evidence; and communicate findings with others for review.

415

Effects of biodegradation upon porphyrin biomarkers in Upper Mississippian tar sands and related oils, southern Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

Organic molecules present in oils which show a structural relationship to their biological precursors are referred to as biomarkers. These compounds are becoming widely used in oil exploration for making oil-oil, oil-source rock correlations and undertaking maturation and migration studies in basin analysis. Treibs first discovered the presence of porphyrins in oils, shales, and coals over 50 years ago. Porphyrins are predominantly derived from chlorophyll precursors present in plants and bacteria. Studies of changes in porphyrin distributions with increasing maturation due to the effects of increased time of burial and temperature have been performed. However, little is known as to how their distributions change with migration, biodegradation, or water washing of oils. In the present study, 16 tar sand samples were extracted from drill core at depths ranging from 16 to 256 ft obtained from a tar sand quarry in the Ardmore basin, Carter County, Oklahoma. Surrounding oil samples and possible source rocks have also been analyzed to determine the source of the oil in the tar sands. The effects of biodegradation on the porphyrin distributions can be discerned from the effects of migration and maturation by comparing other biomarker distributions within the sands, related oils, and suspected source rocks. Biodegradation of the tar sand samples can be observed within the alkane and other biomarker distributions. The relative effects of biodegradation on biomarkers such as alkanes, steranes, and terpanes have been well documented. By using this information, it is possible to determine the extent of biodegradation or water washing necessary to alter the porphyrin distributions.

Michael, G.E.

1987-05-01

416

Process for upgrading tar sand bitumen  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for upgrading a charge of a tar sand bitumen concentrate containing metal impurities, colloidal calcium-containing clay and water. It consists of contacting the charge in a riser contacting zone in the presence of a low boiling organic solvent with hot fluidizable attrition-resistant substantially catalytically-inert microspheres, which are 20 to 150 microns in diameter and are composed of previously calcined kaolin clay. The contact takes place at high temperature and short contact time, which permits vaporization of the high hydrogen containing components of the bitumen. The period of time is less than that which induces substantial thermal cracking of the charge. At the end of the time the vaporized produce is separated from the microspheres of calcined kaolin clay, the microspheres of calcined kaolin clay now bearing a deposit of combustible solid, metal impurities and adherent particles of colloidal calcium-containing clay originally contained in the bitumen concentrate, immediately reducing the temperature of the vaporized product to minimize thermal cracking and recovering the product for further refining to produce one or more premium products.

Bartholic, D.B.; Reagan, W.J.

1989-02-14

417

Juxtaposition between activation and basic domains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat is required for optimal interactions between Tat and TAR.  

PubMed Central

trans activation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat requires that the viral trans activator Tat interact with the trans-acting responsive region (TAR) RNA. Although the N-terminal 47 amino acids represent an independent activation domain that functions via heterologous nucleic acid-binding proteins, sequences of Tat that are required for interactions between Tat and TAR in cells have not been defined. Although in vitro binding studies suggested that the nine basic amino acids from positions 48 to 57 in Tat bind efficiently to the 5' bulge in the TAR RNA stem-loop, by creating several mutants of Tat and new hybrid proteins between Tat and the coat protein of bacteriophage R17, we determined that this arginine-rich domain is not sufficient for interactions between Tat and TAR in vivo. Rather, the activation domain is also required and must be juxtaposed to the basic domain. Thus, in vitro TAR RNA binding does not translate to function in vivo, which suggests that other proteins are important for specific and productive interactions between Tat and TAR.

Luo, Y; Peterlin, B M

1993-01-01

418

Quality of water and time of travel in Goodwater and Okatoma creeks near Magee, Mississippi  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An intensive quality-of-water study was conducted during a period of generally low streamflow in Goodwater and Okatoma Creeks near Magee, Miss. During the August 12-14, 1980, study, the mean specific conductance of the water at all sites was less than 59 micromhos per centimeter; the dissolved-oxygen concentrations were greater than 5.0 milligrams per liter: pH values ranged from 6.0 to 6.8, and the mean water temperature ranged from 23.0 to 27.0 Celsius. The biochemical oxygen demand and nutrient concentrations at the downstream sampling sites were higher in Goodwater Creek than in Okatoma Creek. The maximum 5-day biochemical oxygen demand was 2.7 milligrams per liter in Goodwater Creek and 1.5 milligrams per liter in Okatoma Creek. The mean concentration of total nitrogen was 1.0 and 0.71 milligrams per liter and the mean total phosphorus concentration was 0.26 and 0.10 milligrams per liter at the downstream sites on Goodwater and Okatoma Creeks, respectively. Fecal coliform densities generally were high at all sites, exceeding 4,000 colonies per 100 milliliters in both Goodwater and Okatoma Creeks. Objectionable concentrations of total cadmium, mercury, iron, and phenol were present in a sample of water. Dieldrin, chlordane, DDD, DDE, and DDT were present in a sample of bottom material collected at the downstream site of Okatoma Creek. The peak concentration of dye injected into Goodwater Creek traveled through a 1.7-mile reach at a rate of 0.3 mile per hour. (USGS)

Kalkhoff, S. J.

1981-01-01

419

Response of Confined Aquatic Biota to Mine Depressurization Water in Beaver Creek Reservoir.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The response of selected species of aquatic biota to saline mine depressurization water after average dilution in the Beaver Creek Reservoir was investigated. Test organisms included periphyton, native fish species, and native invertebrates. Studies exami...

T. Jantzie L. R. Noton N. R. Chymko

1980-01-01

420

Selected Water Resources Data, Clarion River and Redbank Creek Basins, Northwestern Pennsylvania - Part 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents selected basic data collected during a study of the water resources of the Clarion River and Redbank Creek basins in northwestern Pennsylvania. Hydrologic information including data on aquifers, water levels, and yields is presented f...

T. F. Buckwalter C. H. Dodge G. R. Schiner

1979-01-01

421

Tributary fluxes into Brush Creek Valley  

SciTech Connect

Measurements in a tributary to Brush Creek Valley during the September and October 1984 ASCOT campaign with laser anemometers, tethersondes, a minisodar, and smoke releases were used to calculate the contribution by tributaries to nocturnal drainage flow from the main valley. Four experimental nights with different mesoscale wind regimes were used in the study. It was found that a simple picture of mass flux proportional to drainage area is not sufficient to predict the relative contributions of drainage basins. The exposure of the slopes within the tributaries to the external wind regime was found to be a significant factor in the contribution of the upper regions of the tributary; but drainage from the well-protected lower region was found to irection than when the external wind was along the drainage direction. A circulation cell that introduces mass into the tributary system both from the main canyon flow and from the side opposite the main canyon flow is proposed to explain this effect.

Coulter, R. L.; Orgill, M.; Porch, W.

1989-07-01

422

The effect of watershed scale on HEC-HMS calibrated parameters: a case study in the Clear Creek watershed in Iowa, US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we use the Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) to simulate two flood events to investigate the effect of watershed subdivision in terms of performance, the calibrated parameter values, the description of hydrologic processes, and the subsequent interpretation of water balance components. We use Stage IV hourly NEXRAD precipitation as the meteorological input for ten model configurations with variable sub-basin sizes. Model parameters are automatically optimized to fit the observed data. The strategy is implemented in Clear Creek Watershed (CCW), which is located in the upper Mississippi River basin. Results show that most of the calibrated parameter values are sensitive to the basin partition scheme and that the relative relevance of physical processes, described by the model, change depending on watershed subdivision. In particular, our results show that parameters derived from different model implementations attribute losses in the system to completely different physical phenomena without a notable effect on the model's performance. Our work adds to the body of evidence demonstrating that automatically calibrated parameters in hydrological models can lead to an incorrect prescription of the internal dynamics of runoff production and transport. Furthermore, it demonstrates that model implementation adds a new dimension to the problem of non-uniqueness in hydrological models.

Zhang, H. L.; Wang, Y. J.; Wang, Y. Q.; Li, D. X.; Wang, X. K.

2013-07-01

423

The effect of watershed scale on HEC-HMS calibrated parameters: a case study in the Clear Creek watershed in Iowa, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we use the Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) to simulate two flood events to investigate the effect of watershed subdivision in terms of performance, the calibrated parameter values, the description of hydrologic processes, and the subsequent interpretation of water balance components. We use Stage-IV hourly NEXRAD precipitation as the meteorological input for ten model configurations with variable sub-basin sizes. Model parameters are automatically optimized to fit the observed data. The strategy is implemented in Clear Creek Watershed (CCW), which is located in the upper Mississippi River basin. Results show that most of the calibrated parameter values are sensitive to the basin partition scheme and that the relative relevance of physical processes, described by the model, change depending on watershed subdivision. In particular, our results show that parameters derived from different model implementations attribute losses in the system to completely different physical phenomena without a notable effect on the model's performance. Our work adds to the body of evidence demonstrating that automatically calibrated parameters in hydrological models can lead to an incorrect prescription of the internal dynamics of runoff production and transport. Furthermore, it demonstrates that model implementation adds a new dimension to the problem of non-uniqueness in hydrological models.

Zhang, H. L.; Wang, Y. J.; Wang, Y. Q.; Li, D. X.; Wang, X. K.

2013-01-01

424

Characterization of the bacterial community structure of Sydney Tar Ponds sediment.  

PubMed

The Sydney Tar Ponds is one of the largest toxic waste sites in Canada. The bacterial diversity and abundance in the Sydney Tar Ponds sediment was examined using a 16S rRNA gene clone library and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) with four different primer sets. The clone library was grouped into 19 phylotypes that could be divided into five phyla: Proteobacteria (56.9%), Actinobacteria (35%), Acidobacteria (4.9%), Firmicutes (2.4%), and Verrucomicrobia (0.8%). Members of the phyla Actinobacteria (represented mainly by Mycobacterium spp.) and Alphaproteobacteria (represented by Acidocella spp.) comprised the majority of the clone library. This study also revealed that the phylogenetic results obtained from clone library analysis and from DGGE analysis, with all the primer sets, showed some variability. However, similar Mycobacterium spp. and Acidocella spp. were found in all the different DGGE analyses, again suggesting that these two genera are dominant in the Sydney Tar Ponds sediment. In addition, DGGE analysis indicated that primer sets targeting the V3 region produced results that were the most similar to those obtained with the clone library. PMID:21635217

Yeung, C William; Woo, Monica; Lee, Kenneth; Greer, Charles W

2011-06-01

425

Relationship of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yield of cigarettes  

SciTech Connect

The data from consecutive surveys of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study (1981-1988) were used to evaluate the relationship in cigarette smokers of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO) yields of the cigarette. There were 690 subjects who reported smoking regularly in at least one survey, over age 15. After adjustment for intensity and duration of smoking and for depth of inhalation, the risk of chronic phlegm, cough, and dyspnea were not related to the tar and nicotine yields. In 414 subjects with pulmonary function tested in at least one of the three surveys the spirometric indices used were significantly related to the daily dose of tar, nicotine, and CO (product of the cigarette yield and daily number of cigarettes smoked). The effects were more pronounced for past than for current doses. However, the differentiation of pulmonary function due to various yields of cigarettes was small in comparison to the difference in pulmonary function between smokers and nonsmokers.

Krzyzanowski, M.; Sherrill, D.L.; Paoletti, P.; Lebowitz, M.D. (National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland))

1991-02-01

426

Comparison of Bayesian and frequentist approaches in modelling risk of preterm birth near the Sydney Tar Ponds, Nova Scotia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study compares the Bayesian and frequentist (non-Bayesian) approaches in the modelling of the association between the risk of preterm birth and maternal proximity to hazardous waste and pollution from the Sydney Tar Pond site in Nova Scotia, Canada. METHODS: The data includes 1604 observed cases of preterm birth out of a total population of 17559 at risk of

Afisi S Ismaila; Angelo Canty; Lehana Thabane

2007-01-01

427

Local Willingness-to-Pay Estimates for the Remediation of the Sydney Tar Ponds in Nova Scotia  

Microsoft Academic Search

une large part des coûts de restauration du site. The Sydney Tar Ponds and Coke Ovens site in Nova Scotia, Canada, is among the most toxic hazardous waste sites in North America. This study presents hedonic estimates of the willingness-to-pay for remediation of the site using housing sales data from urban Sydney. Negative impacts are estimated with a maximum likelihood

Ida Ferrara; Stephen McComb; Paul Missios

2007-01-01

428

Sorption of heterocyclic compounds from a complex mixture of coal-tar compounds on natural clayey till  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption and desorption of heterocyclic organic compounds in a complex multisolute system to a natural clayey till was investigated. The composition of the solutes reflect a simplified composition of an aqueous phase in contact with coal tar. Sorption was studied for two ratios (s:l) of clayey till (solid) to aqueous phase (liquid). The effect of the complex mixture of

Mette M. Broholm; Kim Broholm; Erik Arvin

1999-01-01

429

Fungal Biodegradation of Tannins from Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata) and Tar Bush (Fluorensia cernua) for Gallic and Ellagic Acid Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In the present work, the production of two potent antioxidants, gallic and ellagic acids, has been studied using solid-state fermentation (SSF) of tannin-rich aqueous plant extracts impregnated in polyurethane foam. Extracts from creosote and tar bush were ino- culated with Aspergillus niger PSH spores and impregnated in the polyurethane support. The kinetics of the fermentation was monitored every 24

Janeth Ventura; Ruth Belmares; Antonio Aguilera-Carbo; Gerardo Gutiérrez-Sanchez; Raul Rodríguez-Herrera; Cristóbal Noé Aguilar

2008-01-01

430

Characterization and Source of Unknown “Tar-Like Material” and “Slag” in a Former Oil Field in Compton, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of “tar-like material” and “slag” within a ravine traversing a mobile home park and former oil field promulgated its remediation and a subsequent lawsuit brought by the park's owner against the former Dominquez Oil Field (Compton, CA) operator claiming these materials were derived from historic oil production operations. In this study, archived samples of these materials from the

Scott A. Stout

2007-01-01

431

Formation of mesophase spherules in low-Ql coal tar pitches and development of monolithic carbons therefrom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three coal tar pitches having different and low contents of primary quinoline insolubles (Ql) were subjected to a series of thermal treatments at a predetermined temperature for different periods of soaking. The development of mesophase, in terms of its size and content in the heat-treated pitches, was studied as a function of the soaking time and content of primary quinoline

G. Bhatia; R. K. Aggarwal; N. Punjabi; O. P. Bahl

1994-01-01

432

Coal-gasification environmental data summary: solid wastes and by-product tars. Final report, September 1984December 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report, one of several data summary reports on the environmental aspects and pollutants specific to coal gasification, addresses characteristics of solid wastes (ash and cyclone dust) and by-product tars and oils analyzed in nine EPA source tests and evaluation studies and limited other data. Objectives of the report were to compile and summarize solid-waste properties and identify behavioral trends.

Eklund

1986-01-01

433

3. OVERVIEW CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BIG CREEK NO. 3 COMPLEX ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. OVERVIEW CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BIG CREEK NO. 3 COMPLEX SHOWING SWITCHRACKS AND SUPPORT BUILDINGS TO PHOTO RIGHT OF POWERHOUSE, SAN JOAQUIN RIVER FLOWING IN PHOTO CENTER TO LOWER RIGHT, AND PENSTOCKS AND STANDPIPES IN BACKGROUND ABOVE POWERHOUSE. VIEW TO EAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 3 Penstock Standpipes, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

434

2. CONTEMPORARY PHOTOGRAPH OF BIG CREEK POWERHOUSE NO. 3 TAKEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. CONTEMPORARY PHOTOGRAPH OF BIG CREEK POWERHOUSE NO. 3 TAKEN FROM SAME ANGLE AS CA-167-X-1. THREE ORIGINAL PENSTOCKS PLUS FOURTH AND FIFTH PENSTOCKS (VISIBLE TO LEFT OF ORIGINAL THREE), AND THREE ORIGINAL STANDPIPES COUPLED TO FOURTH STANDPIPE SHOWN BEHIND AND ABOVE POWERHOUSE BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 3 Penstock Standpipes, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

435

81. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING NEW CREEK CHANNEL UNDER CONSTRUCTION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

81. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING NEW CREEK CHANNEL UNDER CONSTRUCTION AT P STREET BEND, FROM 1940 REPORT ON PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT OF ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY, SECTION II (ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY FILE, HISTORY DEPARTMENT ARCHIVES, NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, WASHINGTON, DC). - Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

436

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF SOUTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF SOUTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX SHOWING THE RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE AT PHOTO RIGHT (TAILRACE IN FOREGROUND), BUILDING 106 NEXT TO THE POWERHOUSE AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER, AND BUILDING 103 AT UPPER PHOTO LEFT ABOVE AND BEHIND BUILDING 106. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

437

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF NORTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF NORTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX SHOWING BUILDING 108 AT PHOTO RIGHT AND BUILDING 105 AT PHOTO CENTER BEHIND TREE. RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE IS PARTIALLY VISIBLE AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT). VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

438

Assessment of tar pollution on the United Arab emirates beaches  

SciTech Connect

In light of the inadequate information concerning stranded tar on the southwest beaches of the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, particularly following the massive oil releases during the Gulf War, the present investigation was designed to provide reference-integrated information on the nature, location, and levels of stranded tar balls on the beaches of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The recorded levels appeared to be higher than expected or previously reported. The tar distribution pattern, in addition to the degree of weathering, indicates that the massive oil release during the Gulf War did not reach the UAE shorelines. The highest reported levels of stranded tar ever recorded in the Arabian Gulf at Jabal Dhannah apparently originated from oil spills and tankers' ballast water at the main oil terminal at the Al-Ruwaiss oil refinery some 10 km to the east. The surprising, relatively high levels of stranded tar on the beaches of the Gulf of Oman were solely attributed to the heavy navigation traffic close to the shorelines. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Abu-Hilal, A.H.; Khordagui, H.K. (United Arab Emirates Univ., Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates))

1993-01-01

439

The effect of water flow on movement, burrowing, and distributions of the gastropod Ilyanassa obsoleta in a tidal creek  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-scale population densities of tidal creek eastern mudsnails, Ilyanassa obsoleta Say (studied in 1986 and in 1992 at West Meadow Creek, Stony Brook, New York) corresponded more to variation in water flow velocity than to surface sediment chlorophyll a. Higher densities were found at low flow sites. Short-term behavioral responses are likely to be responsible for density variation. Experiments using

J. S. Levinton; D. E. Martínez; M. M. McCartney; M. L. Judge

1995-01-01

440

Impact of the intensive shrimp farming on the water quality of the adjacent coastal creeks from Eastern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of shrimp aquaculture on the adjacent water bodies over a crop cycle period were evaluated by studying the water quality of inlet and outlet creeks located within Xuwei Salt Field, Lianyungang City of Jiangsu Province. The characterization of the water consisted of the evaluation of the variation of 10 parameters along the inlet and outlet creeks and during

Xie Biao; Ding Zhuhong; Wang Xiaorong

2004-01-01

441

The Ecotoxicological Recovery of Ely Creek and Tributaries (Lee County, VA) after Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ely Creek watershed (Lee County, VA) was determined in 1995 to be the most negatively affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) within the Virginia coalfield. This determination led the US Army Corps of Engineers to design and build passive wetland remediation systems at two major AMD seeps affecting Ely Creek. This study was undertaken to determine if ecological recovery

Mathew L. Simon; Donald S. Cherry; Rebecca J. Currie; Carl E. Zipper

442

The Ecotoxicological Recovery of Ely Creek and Tributaries (Lee County, Va) After Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ely Creek watershed (Lee County, VA) was determined in 1995 to be the most negatively affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) within the Virginia coalfield. This determination led the US Army Corps of Engineers to design and build passive wetland remediation systems at two major AMD seeps affecting Ely Creek. This study was undertaken to determine if ecological recovery

Matthew L. Simon; Donald S. Cherry; Rebecca J. Currie; Carl E. Zipper

2006-01-01

443

Mass transfer and biodegradation of PAH compounds from coal tar. Quarterly technical report, January--March 1993  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the role of physico-chemical mass transfer processes on the rate of biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds released from non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) coal tar present at residual saturation within a microporous medium. A simplified coupled dissolution-degradation model is developed that describes the concurrent mass transfer and biokinetic processes occurring in the system. Model results indicate that a dimensionless Damkohler number can be utilized to distinguish between systems that are mass transfer limited, and those that are limited by biological phenomena. The Damkohler number is estimated from independent laboratory experiments that measure the rates of aqueous phase dissolution and biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Experimental data for Stroudsburg coal tar imbibed within 236 {mu}m diameter silica particles yield Damkohler numbers smaller than unity, indicating, for the particular system under study, that the overall rate of biotransformation of naphthalene is not limited by the mass transfer of naphthalene from coal tar to the bulk aqueous phase. There is a need for investigation of mass transfer for larger particles and/or other PAH compounds, and study of microbial rate-limiting phenomena including toxicity, inhibition and competitive substrate utilization.

Ramaswami, A.; Ghoshal, S.; Luthy, R.G.

1994-09-01

444

Mass transfer and biodegradation of PAH compounds from coal tar. Quarterly technical report, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

This study, examines the role of physico-chemical mass transfer processes on the rate of biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds released from non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) coal tar present at residual saturation within a microporous medium. A simplified coupled dissolution-degradation model is developed that describes the concurrent mass transfer and biokinetic processes occurring in the system. Model results indicate that a dimensionless Damkohler number can be utilized to distinguish between systems that are mass transfer limited, and those that are limited by biological phenomena. The Damkohler number is estimated from independent laboratory experiments that measure the rates of aqueous phase dissolution and biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Experimental data for Stroudsburg coal tar imbibed within 236 {mu}m diameter silica particles yield Damkohler numbers smaller than unity, indicating, for the particular system under study, that the overall rate of biotransformation of naphthalene is not limited by the mass transfer of naphthalene from coal tar to the bulk aqueous phase. There is a need for investigation of mass transfer for larger particles and/or other PAH compounds, and study, of microbial rate-limiting phenomena including toxicity, inhibition and competitive substrate utilization.

Ramaswami, A.; Ghoshal, S.; Luthy, R.G.

1994-09-01

445

Panther Creek, Idaho, Habitat Rehabilitation, Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project was to achieve full chinook salmon and steelhead trout production in the Panther Creek, Idaho, basin. Plans were developed to eliminate the sources of toxic effluent entering Panther Creek. Operation of a cobalt-copper mine since the 1930's has resulted in acid, metal-bearing drainage entering the watershed from underground workings and tailings piles. The report discusses plans for eliminating and/or treating the effluent to rehabilitate the water quality of Panther Creek and allow the reestablishment of salmon and trout spawning runs. (ACR)

Reiser, Dudley W.

1986-01-01

446

Toms Creek IGCC Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The Toms Creek Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Demonstration Project was selected by DOE in September 1991 to participate in Round Four of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The project will demonstrate a simplified IGCC process consisting of an air-blown, fluidized-bed gasifier (Tampella U-Gas), a gas cooler/steam generator, and a hot gas cleanup system in combination with a gas turbine modified for use with a low-Btu content fuel and a conventional steam bottoming cycle. The demonstration plant will be located at the Toms Creek coal mine near Coeburn, Wise County, Virginia. Participants in the project are Tampella Power Corporation and Coastal Power Production Company. The plant will use 430 tons per day of locally mined bituminous coal to produce 55 MW of power from the gasification section of the project. A modern pulverized coal fired unit will be located adjacent to the Demonstration Project producing an additional 150 MW. A total 190 MW of power will be delivered to the electric grid at the completion of the project. In addition, 50,000 pounds per hour of steam will be exported to be used in the nearby coal preparation plant. Dolomite is used for in-bed gasifier sulfur capture and downs cleanup is accomplished in a fluidized-bed of regenerative zinc titanate. Particulate clean-up, before the gas turbine, will be performed by high temperature candle filters (1020{degree}F). The demonstration plant heat rate is estimated to be 8,700 Btu/kWh. The design of the project goes through mid 1995, with site construction activities commencing late in 1995 and leading to commissioning and start-up by the end of 1997. This is followed by a three year demonstration period.

Virr, M.J.

1992-11-01

447

Toms Creek IGCC Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The Toms Creek Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Demonstration Project was selected by DOE in September 1991 to participate in Round Four of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The project will demonstrate a simplified IGCC process consisting of an air-blown, fluidized-bed gasifier (Tampella U-Gas), a gas cooler/steam generator, and a hot gas cleanup system in combination with a gas turbine modified for use with a low-Btu content fuel and a conventional steam bottoming cycle. The demonstration plant will be located at the Toms Creek coal mine near Coeburn, Wise County, Virginia. Participants in the project are Tampella Power Corporation and Coastal Power Production Company. The plant will use 430 tons per day of locally mined bituminous coal to produce 55 MW of power from the gasification section of the project. A modern pulverized coal fired unit will be located adjacent to the Demonstration Project producing an additional 150 MW. A total 190 MW of power will be delivered to the electric grid at the completion of the project. In addition, 50,000 pounds per hour of steam will be exported to be used in the nearby coal preparation plant. Dolomite is used for in-bed gasifier sulfur capture and downs cleanup is accomplished in a fluidized-bed of regenerative zinc titanate. Particulate clean-up, before the gas turbine, will be performed by high temperature candle filters (1020[degree]F). The demonstration plant heat rate is estimated to be 8,700 Btu/kWh. The design of the project goes through mid 1995, with site construction activities commencing late in 1995 and leading to commissioning and start-up by the end of 1997. This is followed by a three year demonstration period.

Virr, M.J.

1992-01-01

448

Quality of water in James Creek, Monroe County, Mississippi  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A short-term quality-of-water study of James Creek near Aberdeen , Mississippi was conducted on November 14-16, 1978, during a period of low streamflow. During the study, the water in the 2.6-mile stream reach was undesireable for many uses. Wastewater inflow immediately upstream of the study area contributed to the dissolved-solids load in James Creek. The specific conductance of the water ranged from 775 to 890 micromhos at the head of the study reach and from 650 to 750 micromhos at the end of the study reach. A substantial biochemical oxygen-demand was evident in James Creek. Five-day biochemical oxygen demand values downstream of a sewage disposal pond outfall ranged from 8.3 to 11 milligrams per liter and dissolved-oxygen concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 4.5 milligrams per liter. Nitrogen and phosphorus compounds and fecal bacteria densities were highest downstream. Total ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in the water leaving the study area ranged from 0.29 to 1.4 milligrams per liter and from 0.65 to 1.7 milligrams per liter, respectively. Fecal coliform densities exceeding 50,000 colonies per 100 milliliters of sample were observed in the study area. The median fecal coliform density of the water leaving the study area was 2,800 colonies per 100 milliliters. (USGS)

Bednar, G. A.

1981-01-01

449

Recovery Plan: Tar Spinymussel ('Elliptio (Canthyria) steinstansana') Johnson and Clarke. First Revision.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This North Carolina endemic is listed as endangered. Presently there are only three known remaining populations of the Tar spinymussel--two extremely small, apparently nonreproducing, populations in the main stem of the Tar River and a third, larger popul...

J. A. Fridell

1992-01-01

450

Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal: Task 3.9 catalytic tar cracking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tar produced in the gasification of coal is deleterious to the operation of downstream equipment, including fuel cells, gas turbines, hot-gas stream cleanup filters, and pressure-swing absorption systems. Catalytic cracking of tars to smaller hydrocarbons...

R. C. Timpe

1995-01-01

451

Overexpression of TAR sequences renders cells resistant to human immunodeficiency virus replication.  

PubMed

Overexpression of TAR-containing sequences (TAR decoys) was used to render cells resistant to HIV replication. A chimeric tRNA(meti)-TAR transcription unit contained in a double copy murine retroviral vector was used to express high levels of HIV-1 TAR-containing transcripts in CEM SS cells. Replication of HIV-1 was inhibited over 99% in cells expressing chimeric tRNA-TAR transcripts, but an amphotropic murine retrovirus replicated normally in these cells. Expression of TAR sequences in CEM SS cells had no adverse effects on cell viability, indicating that essential cellular factors are not being sequestered in these cells. TAR decoy RNA-mediated HIV inhibition may also be effective against natural HIV isolates in spite of their hypervariable nature, as suggested by the fact that replication of SIVmac was also inhibited in cells expressing HIV-1 TAR decoys. PMID:2225067

Sullenger, B A; Gallardo, H F; Ungers, G E; Gilboa, E

1990-11-01

452

Tar Sand Occurrences in the Bush Butte Quadrangle, Wyoming, with Emphasis on the Trapper Canyon Deposit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Trapper Canyon Tar Sand Deposit is located in the eastern Bighorn Basin, approximately 25 miles east of Greybull, Wyoming. This project not only involved detailed geologic mapping of the Trapper Canyon Tar Sand Deposit, but also sampling and describin...

A. J. VerPloeg R. H. DeBruin

1983-01-01

453

Compensating lung cancer patients occupationally exposed to coal tar pitch volatiles.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the process of deciding on compensation claims by lung cancer patients exposed occupationally to coal tar pitch volatiles. METHODS: For each case of lung cancer the probability that it was caused (probability of causation (PC)) by coal tar pitch volatiles was expressed as an increasing function of cumulative exposure to benzo-a-pyrene-years. This was assessed from several exposure-response models fitted to data from a large epidemiological study of aluminum production workers. For some models, PC depended also on the smoking habit of the cancer patient. RESULTS: Estimation of relative risk by exposure group indicated that over 50% of lung cancers were attributable to coal tar pitch volatiles (PC > 50%) at exposures above 100 micrograms/m3-years benzo(a)pyrene. A linear relative risk model indicated that 50% PC was first achieved at 342.2 micrograms/m3-years benzo(a)pyrene, or 190.1 micrograms/m3-years benzo(a)pyrene according to the upper 95% confidence limit for risk increment. Corresponding figures for a power curve model were 210.3 and 45.9. With these five figures as compensation criteria compensation would have resulted in 31.4%, 2.7%, 19.2%, 15.7%, and 39.2% of cancers studied, compared with an estimated total proportion of cancers studied attributable to coal tar pitch volatiles of 15%-26%. If risks due to coal tar pitch volatiles and smoking multiply, PC does not depend on the amount smoked. If the two risks are additive, however, PC depends on the amount smoked according to a formula, with the figures mentioned applying to an average smoking history (24.4 pack-years). CONCLUSION: Because of its simplicity and because it falls within the range of criteria based on several more sophisticated approaches, we prefer the criterion of 100 micrograms/m3-years, based on the relative risks by exposure group. However, the compensation board of the Canadian province of Quebec, on consideration of these alternatives, has proposed as a criterion that the upper 95% confidence limit of PC for the patient be at least 50%, assuming an additive relative risk model and allowing for their smoking habit.

Armstrong, B; Theriault, G

1996-01-01

454

Coal tar phototoxicity: characteristics of the smarting reaction  

SciTech Connect

The properties and ultraviolet exposure parameters of tar smarts were examined in an effort to elucidate the mechanisms involved. It was show that irradiation with 1 minimal smarting dose (MSD) of UVA immediately following tar removal lowered the MSD for 6 h, demonstrated by subsequent challenge with UVA. Following 3 MSDs this memory effect was demonstrable for 24 h. The smarting reaction was area dependent--smaller areas of exposure require higher doses of UVA to induce smarting. Smarting followed reciprocity over a 6-fold range of irradiances (2-12.5 mW/cm2) but higher irradiances required higher doses of UVA, perhaps due to a delay in the recognition and reporting of smarting. The smarting reaction and delayed erythema due to UVA and tar were equally blocked by sunscreen.

Diette, K.M.; Gange, R.W.; Stern, R.S.; Arndt, K.A.; Parrish, J.A.

1985-04-01

455

Tar sand pyrolysis with product oil recycling: Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Eight tests were conducted using Asphalt Ridge tar sand to determine the effects of pyrolysis temperature and residence time on oil yield and product distribution and to produce samples for the evaluation of product oil characteristics. A 48-hour test was conducted to measure the operating time required to reach a steady state with respect to the composition of product gas and the elemental compositions of light product oil and heavy recycle oil. A 30-hour test was conducted using Sunnyside tar sand to obtain preliminary data. The product oil samples were analyzed to determine the distribution of hydrocarbon types and to relate this distribution to that typical of various fuel types. No major operational difficulties were experienced with the 2-inch screw pyrolysis reactor system. Experimental results obtained from the Asphalt Ridge and Sunnyside tar sands indicate that oil yields from the ROPE/copyright/ process could be greater than yields from conventional pyrolysis processes. 3 refs., 10 figs., 41 tabs.

Cha, C.Y.; Guffey, F.D.; Romanowski, L.J.

1987-09-01

456

Automated longwall mining for improved health and safety at the Foidel Creek Mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book reports on a joint research program between the U.S. Bureau of Mines and Cyprus-Yampa Valley Coal Co. that is being conducted at the Foidel Creek Mine, Oak Creek, CO. This program goal is to study the effects of state-of-the-art, high-speed, automated longwall mining on health and safety, and primarily ground stability, under various geological conditions. The Bureau installed

K. Hanna; K. Haramy; T. R. Ritzel

1991-01-01

457

Steel Creek fish, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The lake has an average width of approximately 600 m and extends along the Steel Creek valley approximately 7000 m from the dam to the headwaters. Water level is maintained at a normal pool elevation of 58 m above mean sea level by overflow into a vertical intake tower that has multilevel discharge gates. The intake tower is connected to a horizontal conduit that passes through the dam and releases water into Steel Creek. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems.

Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

1992-04-01

458

Effect of reformer conditions on catalytic reforming of biomass-gasification tars  

SciTech Connect

Parametric tests on catalytic reforming of tars produced in biomass gasification are performed using a bench-scale, fluid-bed catalytic reformer containing a commercial nickel-based catalyst. The product gas composition and yield vary with reformer temperature, space time, and steam: biomass ratio. Under certain catalytic tar reforming conditions, the gas yield increases by 70%; 97% of the tars are cracked into gases; and benzene and naphthalene, the predominant tar species, are virtually eliminated from the product gas.

Kinoshita, C.M.; Wang, Y.; Zhou, J. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1995-09-01

459

Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Tat Protein Binds Trans-Activation-Responsive Region (TAR) RNA in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

tat, the trans-activator protein for human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), has been expressed in Escherichia coli from synthetic genes. Purified tat binds specifically to HIV-1 trans-activation-responsive region (TAR) RNA in gel-retardation, filter-binding, and immunoprecipitation assays. tat does not bind detectably to antisense TAR RNA sequences, cellular mRNA sequences, variant TAR RNA sequences with altered stem-loop structures, or TAR DNA.

Colin Dingwall; Ingemar Ernberg; Michael J. Gait; Sheila M. Green; Shaun Heaphy; Jonathan Karn; Anthony D. Lowe; Mohinder Singh; Michael A. Skinner; Robert Valerio

1989-01-01

460

1-hydroxypyrene in human urine after exposure to coal tar and a coal tar derived product.  

PubMed

A method for isolating 1-hydroxypyrene from urine is described. The presence of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine was identified by fluorescence excitation and emission scanning after HPLC-separation. 1-Hydroxypyrene could be detected in the urine of rats following oral administration of as little as 0.5 microgram pyrene. The dose-dependence of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine was evident after a wide range of pyrene dosing. After therapeutical coal tar treatment of dermatological patients the enhanced excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene was highly significant. Employees of a creosote impregnating plant showed an excretion pattern of 1-hydroxypyrene which could be related to their work. 1-Hydroxypyrene in urine of non-exposed people was very low, but detectable. It is suggested that the method reported is suitable for the assessment of uptake of man to pyrene, a compound that is commonly present in work environments which are associated with pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:4077281

Jongeneelen, F J; Anzion, R B; Leijdekkers, C M; Bos, R P; Henderson, P T

1985-01-01

461

27 CFR 9.211 - Swan Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Swan Creek viticultural area are three United States Geological Survey (USGS) 1:100,000 scale topographic maps. They are titled: (1) Winston-Salem, North Carolina, 1984, photoinspected...

2013-04-01

462

33 CFR 117.555 - College Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.555 College Creek. The draws of the Naval Academy highway bridge, mile 0.3 at Annapolis, and the Maryland highway bridge, mile 0.4 at Annapolis, need not be...

2013-07-01

463

33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draw of the Peninsula Parkway Bridge, mile 2.1, between Dundalk and...

2013-07-01

464

33 CFR 117.571 - Spa Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.571 Spa Creek. The S181 bridge, mile 0.4, at Annapolis, Maryland: (a) From May 1 to October 31, Monday through Friday, except...

2013-07-01

465

33 CFR 117.577 - Weems Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.577 Weems Creek. The draw of the S437 bridge, mile 0.7 at West Annapolis, shall open on signal from...

2013-07-01

466

Reconnaissance Report on Papillion Creek Reservoirs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this reconnaissance report is to evaluate the potential problems associated with establishing recreational facilities at the proposed Papillion Creek Reservoirs near Omaha, Nebraska. Data on the limnology of existing reservoirs in eastern N...

E. O. Gangstad

1981-01-01

467

Sope Creek Drainage Area, Cobb County, Georgia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The amendment provides additional information about the proposed interceptor sewer system's environmental impact on the Sope Creek watershed in Cobb County, and elaborates on the steps that have been taken to preserve the historical and scenic aspects of ...

1973-01-01

468

Sope Creek Drainage Area, Cobb County, Georgia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Sope Creek Interceptor Sewer System is a part of Cobb County's overall program for providing regionalized wastewater collection and treatment. The primary long-term beneficial impact will be the elimination of a source of contamination upstream from A...

1973-01-01

469

Wallace Creek Interpretive Trail: A Geologic Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of guides covers the geology, seismology, hydrology, and physical geography of the San Andreas Fault in the area of Wallace Creek in San Luis Obispo County, California. Materials available here include a downloadable trail guide for Wallace Creek; an interactive guide with information on the earthquakes, the fault, and plate tectonics; a downloadable guide from the Geologic Society of America (GSA); and a downloadable self-guided automobile tour for the Carrizo Plain. There are also field exercises which instructors may find useful as class assignments to accompany class trips to the Wallace Creek site, and a link to a bulletin from the GSA that explores the research done at Wallace Creek and explains how the slip rate for the San Andreas fault was measured.

Meltzner, Aron

470

Armells Creek Prescribed Fire Demonstration Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A hazardous fuel reduction project planned for Dry Armells Creek within the Missouri Breaks National Monument, Montana was modified to test the effects of prescribed fire on various ecological processes within the dry, prairie savanna forest types common ...

C. Wood C. B. Marlow J. Walker R. Tucker V. Shea

2002-01-01

471

33 CFR 117.1057 - Skamokawa Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1057 Skamokawa Creek. The draw of the Washington State highway bridge at Skamokawa need not be opened for the passage of vessels....

2013-07-01

472

33 CFR 117.197 - Sonoma Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01...Section 117.197 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.197 Sonoma Creek....

2013-07-01